Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Development and function of autospecific dual TCR+ T lymphocytes. (1/2820)

Recent studies have challenged the long held concept that each T lymphocyte expresses on its surface only a single, unique alphabetaTCR. Dual TCR+ T cells have been recognized, however, their origin and potential to escape screening for self-reactivity remain obscure. We now report the thymic generation of dual alphabetaTCR+ T cells in the H-2Db/H-Y-specific TCR transgenic (Tg) mouse. Dual TCR+ thymocytes were positively selected less efficiently than single TCR+ thymocytes, although a subset attained maturity. Importantly, when TCR Tg mice were bred onto a negatively selecting background, auto-specific cells survived central deletion and matured as CD4+ dual TCR+ cells. These cells were autoreactive when CD8 expression was restored. The existence of autospecific, dual TCR+ T cells may have implications for the maintenance of self tolerance.  (+info)

Differential effects of manipulating signaling in early T cell development in intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and thymocytes. (2/2820)

A pre-TCR-CD3 signal is required for the efficient maturation of CD4- CD8- thymocytes to the CD4+ CD8+ stage. This study addressed whether a similar signal is required for maturation of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) that may develop extrathymically. We have shown previously that IEL from mice deficient for CD3- associated zeta chains include an immature population of CD3- CD8alphaalpha+ cells expressing cytoplasmic TCR beta chains but lacking detectable surface TCRalphabeta, CD16 and B220. Here we stimulated the appearance of such IEL in epsilon+/- zeta-/- mice by expression of an activated Lck transgene or in vivo treatment with anti-CD3epsilon. Anti-CD3epsilon treatment of RAG-deficient animals also yielded CD16- B220- IEL. In contrast, expression of a TCRbeta transgene in rag-1(-/-) mice did not stimulate the appearance of CD3- CD8alphaalpha+ CD16- B220- cells. Taken together these data indicate that although anti-CD3epsilon treatment and LckF505 assist in catalyzing a CD16+ B220+ --> CD16- B220- transition, these manipulations are not equivalent to a pre-TCR signal in IEL lymphocytes.  (+info)

T cell receptor and coreceptor CD8 alphaalpha bind peptide-MHC independently and with distinct kinetics. (3/2820)

The T cell surface glycoprotein CD8 enhances T cell antigen recognition by binding to MHC class I molecules. We show that human CD8 alphaalpha binds to the MHC class I molecule HLA-A2 with an extremely low affinity (Kd approximately 0.2 mM at 37 degrees C) and with kinetics that are between 2 and 3 orders of magnitude faster than reported for T cell receptor/peptide-MHC interactions. Furthermore, CD8 alphaalpha had no detectable effect on a T cell receptor (TCR) binding to the same peptide-MHC class I complex. These binding properties provide an explanation as to why the CD8/MHC class I interaction is unable to initiate cell-cell adhesion and how it can enhance TCR recognition without interfering with its specificity.  (+info)

Oligoclonality of rat intestinal intraepithelial T lymphocytes: overlapping TCR beta-chain repertoires in the CD4 single-positive and CD4/CD8 double-positive subsets. (4/2820)

Previous studies in humans and mice have shown that gut intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) express oligoclonal TCR beta-chain repertoires. These studies have either employed unseparated IEL preparations or focused on the CD8+ subsets. Here, we have analyzed the TCR beta-chain repertoire of small intestinal IELs in PVG rats, in sorted CD4+ as well as CD8+ subpopulations, and important differences were noted. CD8alphaalpha and CD8alphabeta single-positive (SP) IELs used most Vbeta genes, but relative Vbeta usage as determined by quantitative PCR analysis differed markedly between the two subsets and among individual rats. By contrast, CD4+ IELs showed consistent skewing toward Vbeta17 and Vbeta19; these two genes accounted collectively for more than half the Vbeta repertoire in the CD4/CD8 double-positive (DP) subset and were likewise predominant in CD4 SP IELs. Complementarity-determining region 3 length displays and TCR sequencing demonstrated oligoclonal expansions in both the CD4+ and CD8+ IEL subpopulations. These studies also revealed that the CD4 SP and CD4/CD8 DP IEL subsets expressed overlapping beta-chain repertoires. In conclusion, our results show that rat TCR-alphabeta+ IELs of both the CD8+ and CD4+ subpopulations are oligoclonal. The limited Vbeta usage and overlapping TCR repertoire expressed by CD4 SP and CD4/CD8 DP cells suggest that these two IEL populations recognize restricted intestinal ligands and are developmentally and functionally related.  (+info)

Reduced generation but efficient TCR beta-chain selection of CD4+8+ double-positive thymocytes in mice with compromised CD3 complex signaling. (5/2820)

Maturation to the CD4+8+ double-positive (DP) stage of thymocyte development is restricted to cells that have passed TCRbeta selection, an important checkpoint at which immature CD4-8- double-negative (DN) cells that express TCRbeta polypeptide chains are selected for further maturation. The generation of DP thymocytes following TCRbeta selection is dependent on cellular survival, differentiation, and proliferation, and the entire process appears to be mediated by the pre-TCR/CD3 complex. In this study, we investigate the signaling requirements for TCRbeta selection using mice single deficient and double deficient for CD3zeta/eta and/or p56lck. While the numbers of DP cells are strongly reduced in the single-deficient mice, a further drastic reduction in the generation of DP thymocytes is seen in the double-deficient mice. The poor generation of DP cells in the mutant mice is primarily due to an impaired ability of CD25+ DN thymocytes to proliferate following expression of a TCRbeta-chain. Nevertheless, the residual DP cells in all mutant mice are strictly selected for expression of TCRbeta polypeptide chains. DN thymocytes of mutant mice expressed TCRbeta and CD3epsilon at the cell surface and contained mRNA for pre-Talpha, but not for clonotypic TCRalpha-chains, together suggesting that TCRbeta selection is mediated by pre-TCR signaling in all cases. The data suggest differential requirements of pre-TCR signaling for cell survival on the one hand, and for the proliferative burst associated with TCRbeta selection on the other.  (+info)

Th1 and Th2 cytokine mRNA profiles in childhood nephrotic syndrome: evidence for increased IL-13 mRNA expression in relapse. (6/2820)

Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood is thought to be associated with T lymphocyte dysfunction often triggered by viral infections, with the production of circulating factor(s) resulting in proteinuria. In view of the conflicting evidence of T cell activation and Th1 or Th2 pattern of cytokine synthesis in this disease, this study examined the mRNA expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma, IL-4, and IL-13 from CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in steroid-responsive nephrotic patients in relapse and remission. Fifty-five children with steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome were included in this study, together with 34 normal controls and 24 patient controls with viral infections. RNA was isolated from purified CD4+ or CD8+ cells from peripheral blood and subjected to reverse transcription-PCR. Cytokine mRNA expression was measured semiquantitatively, and a cytokine index was derived from densitometric readings, with cyclophilin as the housekeeping gene. Both cross-sectional and paired data showed an increased CD4+ and CD8+ IL-13 mRNA expression in patients with nephrotic relapse as compared to remission, normal, and patient controls (P < 0.008). This was also associated with increased cytoplasmic IL-13 expression in phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin-activated CD3+ cells (6.66+/-3.39%) from patients with nephrotic relapse compared to remission (2.59+/-1.35%) (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in CD4+ or CD8+ IL-2, interferon-gamma and IL-4 mRNA expression. IL-13 is an important T cell cytokine with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions on B cells and monocytes. It is conceivable that IL-13 may act on monocytes to produce vascular permeability factor(s) involved in the pathogenesis of proteinuria in patients with relapse nephrotic syndrome.  (+info)

Functional differences between memory and naive CD8 T cells. (7/2820)

To determine how murine memory and naive T cells differ, we generated large numbers of long-lived memory CD8(+) T cells and compared them to naive cells expressing the same antigen-specific receptor (T cell receptor; TCR). Although both populations expressed similar levels of TCR and CD8, on antigen stimulation in vitro memory T cells down-regulated their TCR faster and more extensively and secreted IFN-gamma and IL-2 faster than naive T cells. Memory cells were also larger, and when freshly isolated from mice they contained perforin and killed target cells without having to be restimulated. They further differed from naive cells in requiring IL-15 for proliferation and in having a greater tendency to undergo apoptosis in vitro. On antigen stimulation in vivo, however, they proliferated more rapidly than naive cells. These findings suggest that, unlike naive T cells, CD8 memory T cells are intrinsically programmed to rapidly express their effector functions in vivo without having to undergo clonal expansion and differentiation.  (+info)

Demonstration of bovine CD8+ T-cell responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus. (8/2820)

The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of cellular immunity in foot-and-mouth disease in cattle, in particular to determine whether a CD8+ T-cell response could be detected, as these cells may play a role in both immunity and virus persistence. As attempts to characterize classical cytotoxic T cells had yielded non-reproducible results, largely due to high backgrounds in control cultures, a proliferation assay was developed that was demonstrated to detect antigen-specific, MHC class I-restricted bovine CD8+ cells responding to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Proliferative CD8+ T-cell responses were detected consistently from 10 to 14 days following infection with FMDV and typically lasted 3-4 weeks. The role of CD8+ T cells in control of the disease, in particular their relevance for the establishment of persistence, may now be investigated.  (+info)

*Monoclonal antibody therapy

Tumor cells, however are highly abnormal, and many display unusual antigens. Some such tumor antigens are inappropriate for the ... CD8 cells can be suppressed by B cells regulation of TAM phenotypes. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have multiple TME ... Humanised antibodies bind antigen much more weakly than the parent murine monoclonal antibody, with reported decreases in ... Increases in antibody-antigen binding strength have been achieved by introducing mutations into the complementarity determining ...

*CD8A

The CD8 antigen, acting as a coreceptor, and the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte recognize antigen displayed by an antigen ... The CD8 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediates efficient cell-cell ... Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ... Sanders SK, Giblin PA, Kavathas P (1991). "Cell-cell adhesion mediated by CD8 and human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen G ...

*CD4

Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (May 1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ... CD1 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ... The antigen has also been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases such as vitiligo and type I diabetes mellitus. T- ...

*Lck

Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (May 1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ... It associates with the cytoplasmic tails of the CD4 and CD8 co-receptors on T helper cells and cytotoxic T cells, respectively ... When the T cell receptor is engaged by the specific antigen presented by MHC, Lck acts to phosphorylate the intracellular ... "Association of the tyrosine kinase LCK with phospholipase C-gamma 1 after stimulation of the T cell antigen receptor". The ...

*Christopher E. Rudd

1989) The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex. Proc. ... CD4, CD8 and the TcR/CD3 Complex: a novel class of protein tyrosine kinase receptor (1990) Immunology Today, 11, 400-406 ... In particular he made the seminal discovery that that CD4 and CD8 co-receptor molecules are linked to the p56 lck src family ... In terms of immunology, the CD4- and CD8-p56lck complexes are now widely accepted as the initiators of the T cell activation, ...

*Ruth Sonntag Nussenzweig

"Identification of non-CSP antigens bearing CD8 epitopes in mice immunized with irradiated sporozoites." Vaccine. 2011 Oct 6;29( ...

*Cross-presentation

This resulted in CD8 T cell responses that were induced by antigen-presenting cells of the recipient, implying that these must ... Some self-antigens (autoantigens) are cross-presented, resulting in the elimination of autoreactive CD8 T cells. This mechanism ... Kurts, C; Cannarile, M; Klebba, I; Brocker, T (2001). "Dendritic cells are sufficient to cross-present self-antigens to CD8 T ... den Haan, JM; Lehar, SM; Bevan, MJ (2000). "CD8(+) but not CD8(-) dendritic cells cross-prime cytotoxic T cells in vivo". J Exp ...

*TIGIT

"TIGIT and PD-1 impair tumor antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cells in melanoma patients". J Clin Invest. 125 (5): 2046-2058. doi:10.1172 ... T cell receptor Antigen Yu X, Harden K, Gonzalez LC, Francesco M, Chiang E, Irving B, Tom I, Ivelja S, Refino CJ, Clark H, ... TIGIT and PD-1 has been shown to be over expressed on tumor antigen-specific (TA-specific) CD8+ T cells and CD8+ tumor ...

*Interleukin 21

Li Y, Bleakley M, Yee C (2005). "IL-21 influences the frequency, phenotype, and affinity of the antigen-specific CD8 T cell ... Tumor-reactive antigen-specific CTL generated by priming in the presence of IL-21 led to a stable, 'helper-independent' ... These data and the fact that IL-21 stimulated CD8 or NK cells are able to inhibit HIV viral replication in vitro, show that ... Søndergaard H, Skak K (2009). "IL-21: roles in immunopathology and cancer therapy". Tissue Antigens. 74 (6): 467-79. doi: ...

*HIV associated cardiomyopathy

TNF-α is produced by infected macrophages and the interaction between dendritic cells presenting the antigen to CD8 (T Killer ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd5 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.107 --- antigens, cd7 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.108 --- antigens, cd8 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd5 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.107 --- antigens, cd7 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.108 --- antigens, cd8 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd5 MeSH D23.101.100.110.107 --- antigens, cd7 MeSH D23.101.100.110.108 --- antigens, cd8 MeSH D23.101.100.110.111 ... antigens, cd5 MeSH D23.101.100.894.107 --- antigens, cd7 MeSH D23.101.100.894.108 --- antigens, cd8 MeSH D23.101.100.894.113 ...

*Lloyd J. Old

Old discovered the LY-B antigen, later renamed CD8 in humans. CD8 cells, often referred to as "killer" T cells, are one of the ... defined the concept of cell-surface differentiation antigens with the discovery of TL, Lyt (CD8), and a range of other mouse ... First coined TL (for "thymus-leukemia" antigen in mice) then later as the Ly series (originally named Ly-A and Ly-B and later ... Discovery and naming of several members of the CT (cancer/testis) family of human tumor antigens, including New York-ESO-1 (NY- ...

*CD1

"Recognition of cluster of differentiation 1 antigens by human CD4-CD8-cytolytic T lymphocytes". Nature. 341 (6241): 447-50. doi ... CD1 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. This often remains true in neoplastic cells from ... They are related to the class I MHC molecules, and are involved in the presentation of lipid antigens to T cells. However their ...

*Lutzner cells

In Lutzner cells, there is a mutation in the T-cell receptor that inhibits antigens like CD8 and CD7, but stimulates the over ... It binds to a specific antigen to initiate an immune response. T-cell antibodies bind to antigens such as virus infected cells ... Once this antigen is lost, the T-cell antibodies will never be able to detect the pathogen, allowing the pathogen to increase ... When a cutaneous lymphocyte antigen is expressed in the skin, the CD4+ Lutzner cell travels to the epidermis and dermis layers ...

*Cytotoxic T cell

... depending on whether their TCR recognizes an MHC class I-presented antigen (CD8) or an MHC class II-presented antigen (CD4). It ... The affinity between CD8 and the MHC molecule keeps the TC cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... They will differentiate into either CD4+ or CD8+ depending on which MHC is associated with the antigen presented (MHC1 for CD8 ... An antigen is a molecule capable of stimulating an immune response, and is often produced by cancer cells or viruses. Antigens ...

*PD-L1

... monocytogenes antigen-specific CD8 T cells (but not CD4 T cells). This evidence suggests that PD-L1 acts as a positive ... Normally the immune system reacts to foreign antigens that are associated with exogenous or endogenous Danger signals, which ... PD-L1 binding to PD-1 also contributes to ligand-induced TCR down-modulation during antigen presentation to naive T cells, by ... "Active systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with failure of antigen-presenting cells to express programmed death ligand-1 ...

*Nventa Biopharmaceuticals Corporation

... increases antigen-specific CD8 T-cell levels, while both inducing regression of tumors and preventing tumor growth in mouse ... Poly-ICR is a TLR3 agonist that, when combined with a disease-specific antigen, can induce both cytotoxic (T cell) and antibody ... As yet unpublished pre-clinical data indicate that Poly-ICR, in combination with a tumor-associated antigen, ... and prototypes of Hsp fusion proteins with influenza antigens. In June 2008, Nventa announced the development of a proprietary ...

*RASGRP1

2010). "RasGRP1 regulates antigen-induced developmental programming by naive CD8 T cells". J. Immunol. 184 (2): 666-76. doi: ... 2007). "SKAP55 modulates T cell antigen receptor-induced activation of the Ras-Erk-AP1 pathway by binding RasGRP1". Mol. ...

*MAGEA1

2004). "Ex vivo characterization of tumor-derived melanoma antigen encoding gene-specific CD8+cells in patients with ... "Entrez Gene: MAGEA1 melanoma antigen family A, 1 (directs expression of antigen MZ2-E)". Takahashi K, Shichijo S, Noguchi M, et ... 2001). "Activation of melanoma antigen tumor antigens occurs early in lung carcinogenesis". Cancer Res. 61 (21): 7959-63. PMID ... Melanoma-associated antigen 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAGEA1 gene. This gene is a member of the MAGEA ...

*MAGEA3

2004). "Ex vivo characterization of tumor-derived melanoma antigen encoding gene-specific CD8+cells in patients with ... 2001). "Activation of melanoma antigen tumor antigens occurs early in lung carcinogenesis". Cancer Res. 61 (21): 7959-63. PMID ... Melanoma-associated antigen 3 (MAGE-A3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAGEA3 gene. This gene is a member of the ... The presence of the antigen on tumor cells has been associated with worse prognosis. In one study, high levels of MAGE-A3 in ...

*CD8

Cardiff University Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart CD8 alpha - Marker for cytotoxic T lymphocytes "CD8 alpha - ... To function, CD8 forms a dimer, consisting of a pair of CD8 chains. The most common form of CD8 is composed of a CD8-α and CD8- ... In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... Less-common homodimers of the CD8-α chain are also expressed on some cells. The molecular weight of each CD8 chain is about 34 ...

*TPBG

"CD8 T-cell recognition of human 5T4 oncofetal antigen". International Journal of Cancer. 119 (7): 1638-47. doi:10.1002/ijc. ... "Attenuated recombinant vaccinia virus expressing oncofetal antigen (tumor-associated antigen) 5T4 induces active therapy of ... 5T4 is an antigen expressed in a number of carcinomas. It is an N-glycosylated transmembrane 72 kDa glycoprotein containing ... 5T4 is often referred to as an oncofetal antigen due to its expression in foetal trophoblast (where it was first discovered) or ...

*KLRG1

"Increased expression of the NK cell receptor KLRG1 by virus-specific CD8 T cells during persistent antigen stimulation". J ... "2F1 antigen, the mouse homolog of the rat "mast cell function-associated antigen", is a lectin-like type II transmembrane ... 2005). "Expression of killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 on antigen-specific human CD8+ T lymphocytes during active, latent, ... "Possible interactions between the Fc epsilon receptor and a novel mast cell function-associated antigen". Int. Immunol. 3 (4): ...

*Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester

"Class I-restricted cross-presentation of exogenous self-antigens leads to deletion of autoreactive CD8(+) T cells". The Journal ... "An in vivo cytotoxicity threshold for influenza A virus-specific effector and memory CD8(+) T cells". Journal of Immunology. ...

*Cluster of differentiation

In the example of CD4 & CD8, these molecules are critical in antigen recognition. Others (e.g., CD135) act as cell surface ... The number of CD4 and CD8 T cells in blood is often used to monitor the progression of HIV infection. While CD molecules are ... Two commonly used CD molecules are CD4 and CD8, which are, in general, used as markers for helper and cytotoxic T cells, ... White Cell Differentiation Antigens. Oxford University Press. Knapp, W; et al. (1989). Leucocyte Typing IV. Oxford University ...

*LILRA3

however it is highly homologous to other LILR genes, and can bind human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Therefore, if secreted ... an inhibitory receptor expressed on effector and memory CD8 T cells) with their HLA ligands, thus modulating immune reactions ... Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily A member 3 (LILR-A3) also known as CD85 antigen-like family member E (CD85e), ... and dendritic cells involved in antigen processing". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 185 (10): 1743-51. doi:10.1084/jem. ...

*HLA-G

"Cell-cell adhesion mediated by CD8 and human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen G, a nonclassical major histocompatibility ... HLA-G histocompatibility antigen, class I, G, also known as human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G), is a protein that in humans is ... McIntire RH, Hunt JS (2005). "Antigen presenting cells and HLA-G--a review". Placenta. 26 Suppl A: S104-9. doi:10.1016/j. ... Moreau P, Dausset J, Carosella ED, Rouas-Freiss N (2003). "Viewpoint on the functionality of the human leukocyte antigen-G null ...
The primary objective of this study was to investigate the dependence of the final phase of intrathymic maturation on MHC class II molecules. Several reports indicated that the TCR-MHC contact must be maintained throughout several discrete stages in T cell development, but none of these has addressed the importance of this contact for terminal maturation of SP cells. As pointed out in our previous publications (9)(12), the CD8loCD4hi cells in our studies differ significantly from the cells called CD8loCD4+ (23)(24)(25): theirs correspond to the CD8intCD4hi cells, which bear levels of CD8 lower than those on double-positive (DP) thymocytes but clearly detectable by FCM. Many of these latter cells actually belong to the CD8 lineage. The CD8loCD4hi cells studied here belong to the CD4 lineage and score within the CD4 SP population by FCM: their CD8 levels are undetectable by FCM (for a full phenotypic difference between our CD8loCD4hi cells and the CD8lo CD4+ cells of the other authors, see ...
Peripheral blood lymphocytes expressing CD8 and CD57 determinants are a small (1-15%) subset in healthy humans. CD8+, CD57+ peripheral blood lymphocytes may be divided by the level of CD8 expression, into CD8+high (CD57+) T-cells and CD8+low (CD57+) natural killer (NK) cells. CD8+high (CD57+) T-cell numbers are increased in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-seropositive subjects, and there is substantial evidence that HCMV is integral in the development of this subset in health and disease. Furthermore, the CD8+high (CD57+) subset is clonally derived, expressing a limited range of T-cell receptors, and are therefore likely to have restricted antigen specificity. Functionally, CD8+low(CD57+) cells exhibit NK activity, while CD8+high(CD57+) T-cells from healthy subjects mediate contact-dependent suppression in several in vitro systems including: (i) pokeweed mitogen-induced proliferation and immunoglobulin synthesis, and (ii) generation of antiviral MHC-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. This is ...
In this communication, we have addressed the origin and phenotype of human TCR-αβ+ DN T cells. The evidence presented demonstrates that they can derive from CD8+ T cells which undergo a phenotypic transformation that involves the down-regulation of CD8 as well as the acquisition of a distinct effector phenotype characterized by the production of proinflammatory cytokines. These cells, considered important in the pathogenesis of SLE, might represent an alternative differentiation pathway, which activated CD8 cells follow.. The origin of TCR-αβ+ CD4− CD8− T cells, a component of DN T cells, has been debated. Conflicting data obtained from Vβ and Vα gene usage studies probably reflect the heterogeneity of DN T cells and differences in the composition of the analyzed cells (25, 26, 19, 27, 28). Our results demonstrate that a considerable proportion of CD8 T cells lose the expression of the CD8 coreceptor in a process regulated at the transcriptional level. These results are congruent with ...
Su, J., and J. Forman. CD8 T cells in MHC class Ia-deficient mice. AAI, Denver, CO, 2003. Su, J., R. E. Berg, S. Murry, and J. Forman. Thymus dependent MHC non class Ia selected memory phenotype CD8 T cells from naïve mice provide rapid protection against infection. AAI, San Diego, CA, 2005. xiii List of Figures 1. An elevated percentage of CD8 T cells in DKO are CD8?+CD8?-………………………….50 2. There are less CD8??CD44hi cells and similar CD8?? cells in DKO mice compared to B6 mice…………………………………………………………………………………………..52 3. A significant portion of CD8?? T cells in DKO mice is CD44hiCD122+Ly6C+ and CD62Llo……………………………………………………………………………...............53 4. Expression of NK cell markers by CD8??CD44hi cells from naïve B6 and DKO mice ………………………………………………………………………………………………..55 5. ...
Clone REA1226 recognizes the murine CD18 antigen, a 95 kDa glycoprotein also known as integrin beta-2 (ITGB2). CD18 associates non-covalently with CD11a, CD11b, and CD11c to form LFA-1, Mac-1, and gp150/95, respectively and plays an important role in leukocytes adhesion. It is expressed on all leukocytes with NK and T cells showing higher density of surface expression. The CD18 integrin complexes bind CD54 (ICAM-1), CD102 (ICAM-2), CD50 (ICAM-3), iC3b, and fibrinogen. Heterodimers of CD18 with α subunits show different expression patterns on different leucocytes. Mice leucocytes lacking CD18 or expressing dysfunctional CD18 are defective in chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and homotypic aggregation. Additional information: Clone REA1226 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Schweiz
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Clone TB03 specifically recognizes human CD57. CD57, also known as HNK-1 or Leu-7, is an antigenic oligosaccharide moiety detected on extracellular proteins of certain cell types. In blood, CD57 is found on 15-20% of mononuclear cells, including subsets of natural killer (NK) and T cells, though not on erythrocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, or platelets. Also, CD57 expression can be found on a variety of neural cell types. CD57 has been shown to be expressed on late stage effector CD8+ T cells. The frequency of CD57+ T lymphocytes is raised in a variety of diseases. CD57 expression is also increased on chronically activated CD8+ T cells in persistent viral infections, such as HIV. - Belgique
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CD25− CD45RBlow as well as CD25+ CD45RBlow CD4+ cells from infected WT mice protect RAG KO mice against colitis. Infected RAG KO mice were given either no cel
Research in the past few years has documented significant advances in our understanding of the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD154) system in diverse immune functions. This system influences many T cell mediated inflammatory immune responses and effector functions, unmasking a previously unexpected role for CD40-CD154 in cell mediated immunity. Manipulation of CD154 in animal models of infection by the use of CD154-deficient mice or anti-CD154 antibodies has shown the importance of this system in the initiation of the inflammatory response, in the activation of antigen-presenting cells and in resistance to infections ...
Dear Ralph, I appreciate your questions and I think thay are valid and worth exploring. However, I think that I must clarify my point a bit. I am not implying that the CD8 cells are the worst hit by the virus. (Forgive the sensationalism of my first posting... this was meant to call attention to my article) Of course the CD4 cells are the worst hit because they carry the CD4 antigen constantly, thus their name. What I _am_ implying is that the CD8 cells must also be effected by the virus due to their positivity for CD4 during their development. Since CTL (the cells responsible for killing virally infected cells) are CD8 cells, any effects (quantitative or qualitative) on this compartment must be important in the pathogenisis of a viral disease. McMichael et al have reported that CTL response to viral peptide epitopes in the MHC class molecule dissipate at the end stage of HIV disease. This could be explained by the slow and steady exhaustion of CD8 precursers via infection by HIV when these ...
DC-expanded CD25+ CD4+ T cells suppress proliferation better than unexpanded CD25+ CD4+ T cells. (A) CD25+ CD4+ T cells from NOD.BDC2.5 mice were expanded for 7
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... :Phenotype assessed by FACS assay following attempts at differentiation in induction medium A: Fibroblast X-axis CD45-PerCp; Y-axis CD10-FITC (CD45+CD10+31% UR quadrant and CD45-CD10+ 66% LR quadrant) 28% and 51% respectively. B: X-axis SP-C-FITC. Lung lineage specific lineages (SP-C+) ,2% (UL quadrant). C: X- axis CD45-PerCp. Hematopoietic lineage (pan-hematopoietic lineage negative). D: CD81+CD47+ (LR 67.5%) Fibroblast specific markers. E: R2 is CD45- gated SP-C+ (UR 1.34%). F: R2 is CD45- gated AQP-1+ (UR 0.67%). G: R5 is CD45- gated AQP-5+ (UR 0.67%). H: R5 is CD45- gated TTF-1+ (UR 0.31 ...
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CD4 (helper cells) 43% (30-61) Absolute CD4 + cells 527 (490-1740) CD8 (supressor T cells) 28% (12-42) Absolute CD8+ cells 340 (180-1170)...
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CD84 (Cluster of Differentiation 84) is a human protein encoded by the CD84 gene.. Members of the CD2 (see MIM 186990) subgroup of the Ig superfamily, such as CD84, have similar patterns of conserved disulfide bonds and function in adhesion interactions between T lymphocytes and accessory cells. ...
The normal CD4 count range is 500-1500 and the normal CD4 percentage is 35-50%. The lower the CD4 percent and count, the worse off the immune system...
1BQH: Structural basis of CD8 coreceptor function revealed by crystallographic analysis of a murine CD8alphaalpha ectodomain fragment in complex with H-2Kb.
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1. I am concerned about the trend in CD4% decline. If it truly is approaching 20%, then regardless of the absolute number, you are losing CD4 cells. Despite your viral load being detectable and low,...
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2B4 belongs to the CD2 family of molecules and is expressed on all NK, gammadelta, and memory CD8(+) (alphabeta) T cells. The murine NK receptor 2B4 exhibits both inhibitory and activating functions, whereas human 2B4 has been reported to be an activ
CD4 cells protect the body from infection by circulating in the blood to identify bacteria and viruses then produce antibodies to destroy them. CD4 cells also trigger the body to respond to infection...
SCD1小鼠单克隆抗体[CD.E10](ab19862)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被13篇文献引用并得到6个独立的用户反馈。
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CD8 T 세포는 바이러스나 박테리아와 같은 병원체 및 종양, 이식된 장기 등에서 발현되는 외부 항원을 인지하고 이 외부항원을 발현하는 세포를 제거하는 기능을 갖는 세포독성 T 세포이다. 외부항원들에 대한 CD8 T 세포 기억의 형성은 차 후 이 항원들에 재노출되었을 때 강하고 빠른 면역 반응을 일으켜, 감염 병원체나 종양을 퇴치하는데 기여하기 때문에 면역력 향상에 중요한 요인이다. 감염 병원체 항원에 대한 백신을 접종하는 이유는 바로 이와 같은 T 세포 기억을 형성하기 위함이다. 반대로, 특정 항원에 대한 CD8 T 세포의 관용 (tolerance)이 형성하게 되면 그 항원들이 제거되지 않고 받아들여지게 되는데, 이식거부 반응이나 자가면역질환이 억제되기 위해서는 이식 항원이나 자가 항원에 대한 관용의 형성이 중요하다 ...
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Are people with HIV getting their blood taken for CD4 testing more often than they need? Paul Sax, M.D., makes the case for less frequent measurements -- ...
Im a bit unsettled today because my cycle was supposed to start and it didnt. And I am super-regular. AF arrives every 28 days like clockwork. The FET schedule is built upon today being Day One, not Day Twenty-nine. (Actually, to make matters worse, I miscounted and the FET schedule is built upon yesterday being CD One.) Now Im going to be at least two days behind on the path to an April 22 transfer . . . Or ...
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Page 3 - Hello everyone So I took the AANP in March 2011 after taking the Fitz course, and failed (personally I didnt think I was ready), but I thought I would try. Then I purchased the Barkley Assoc CD
هدف: پلاکت‏ها قطعات سلولی بدون هسته و مشتق از مگاکاریوسیت‏ها هستند که علاوه بر ایفای نقش در هموستاز و ایمنی ذاتی به واسطه داشتن شاخص‏های مهم نظیر CD40L (یک شاخص مولکولی مهم در تحریک سلول‏های ایمنی) می‏توانند در ایمنی اکتسابی نیز نقش داشته باشند؛ از جمله تأثیر آن‏ها بر لنفوسیت‏های B و فعال‏سازی آن‏ها مشخص شده است. اکنون در پاسخ به این سؤال که آیا میکروذرات مشتق از غشای پلاکت نیز می‏تواند این تأثیر‏گذاری را داشته باشد، تأثیر آن‏ها بر فعال‏سازی لنفوسیت‏های B بررسی شد. مواد و روش‏ها: در ابتدا پلاکت کنسانتره از پایگاه انتقال خون منطقه‌ای و آموزشی استان
The hyaluronan (HA)-binding function (lectin function) of the leukocyte homing receptor, CD44, is tightly regulated. Herein we address possible mechanisms that regulate CD44 isoform-specific HA binding. Binding studies with melanoma transfectants expressing CD44H, CD44E, or with soluble immunoglobulin fusions of CD44H and CD44E (CD44H-Rg, CD44E-Rg) showed that although both CD44 isoforms can bind HA, CD44H binds HA more efficiently than CD44E. Using CD44-Rg fusion proteins we show that the variably spliced exons in CD44E, V8-V10, specifically reduce the lectin function of CD44, while replacement of V8-V10 by an ICAM-1 immunoglobulin domain restores binding to a level comparable to that of CD44H. Conversely, CD44 bound HA very weakly when exons V8-V10 were replaced with a CD34 mucin domain, which is heavily modified by O-linked glycans. Production of CD44E-Rg or incubation of CD44E-expressing transfectants in the presence of an O-linked glycosylation inhibitor restored HA binding to CD44H-Rg and ...
The CD4+/CD8+ ratio measures the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood of healthy adults and mice is about 2:1, and an altered ratio can indicate diseases relating to immunodeficiency or autoimmunity. An inverted CD4+/CD8+ ratio (namely, less than 1/1) indicates an impaired immune system. A reduced CD4+/CD8+ ratio is associated with reduced resistance to infection. Patients with tuberculosis show a reduced CD4+/CD8+ ratio. A declining CD4+/CD8+ ratio is associated with ageing, and is an indicator of immunosenescence. A study of elderly humans showed the highest expansion of cytotoxic T cells among those with cytomegalovirus. In obese adipose tissue, pro-inflammatory CD8+ cells increase and recruit macrophages, predominating over anti-inflammatory CD4+ cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells (lowering the CD4+/CD8+ ratio) through a number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis of abortively infected CD4 T cells, apoptosis of ...
CD177 presents antigens in allo- and autoimmune diseases on the neutrophil surface. Individuals can be either CD177-deficient or harbor distinct CD177neg and CD177pos neutrophil subsets. We studied mechanisms controlling subset-restricted CD177 expression in bimodal individuals. CD177pos, but not CD177neg neutrophils, produced CD177 protein and mRNA. Haplotype analysis indicated a unique monoallelic CD177 expression pattern, where the offspring stably transcribed either the maternal or paternal allele. Hematopoietic stem cells expressed both CD177 alleles and silenced one copy during neutrophil differentiation. ChIP and reporter assays in HeLa cells with monoallelic CD177 expression showed that methylation reduced reporter activity, whereas demethylation caused biallelic CD177 expression. HeLa cell transfection with c-Jun and c-Fos increased CD177 mRNA. Importantly, CD177pos human neutrophils, but not CD177neg neutrophils, showed a euchromatic CD177 promoter, unmethylated CpGs, and c-Jun and ...
CD177 presents antigens in allo- and autoimmune diseases on the neutrophil surface. Individuals can be either CD177-deficient or harbor distinct CD177neg and CD177pos neutrophil subsets. We studied mechanisms controlling subset-restricted CD177 expression in bimodal individuals. CD177pos, but not CD177neg neutrophils, produced CD177 protein and mRNA. Haplotype analysis indicated a unique monoallelic CD177 expression pattern, where the offspring stably transcribed either the maternal or paternal allele. Hematopoietic stem cells expressed both CD177 alleles and silenced one copy during neutrophil differentiation. ChIP and reporter assays in HeLa cells with monoallelic CD177 expression showed that methylation reduced reporter activity, whereas demethylation caused biallelic CD177 expression. HeLa cell transfection with c-Jun and c-Fos increased CD177 mRNA. Importantly, CD177pos human neutrophils, but not CD177neg neutrophils, showed a euchromatic CD177 promoter, unmethylated CpGs, and c-Jun and ...
Purified CD3-4- thymocytes were obtained by depletion of CD3+ and CD4+ cells from fresh thymocyte suspensions. 5-15% of these cells were found to express CD16 antigen, while other natural killer (NK) cell markers were virtually absent. Double fluorescence analysis revealed that 20-40% of thymic CD16+ cells coexpressed CD1, while approximately half were cyCD3+. When cultured in the presence of peripheral blood lymphocytes and H9 leukemia cell line as a source of irradiated feeder cells and interleukin 2 (IL-2), CD3-4- thymocytes underwent extensive proliferation. In addition, after 1-2 wk of culture, 30-50% of these cells were found to express CD16 surface antigen. Cloning under limiting dilution conditions of either CD3-4- or CD3-4-16- thymocytes in the presence of irradiated H9 cells resulted in large proportions (approximately 50%) of CD16+ clones. On the basis of the expression of surface CD16 and/or cyCD3 antigen, clones could be grouped in the following subsets: CD16+ cyCD3+; CD16+ cyCD3-; ...
T cell (TC) activation requires the coordinated signaling of the T cell receptor (TCR) and coreceptor molecules, allowing TCs to respond to lower degrees of TCR occupancy. Coreceptor molecules set the threshold for TC activation by controlling different regulatory signaling loops. The Cbl family members prevent undesired activation of T cells by regulating TCR signals. In this report, we show that TC prestimulation by the CD43 coreceptor molecule before TCR engagement inhibits TCR-dependent c-Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation, c-Cbl interaction with the adapter molecule Crk-L and promotes Cbl-b degradation in a PKCθ-dependent manner. Consequently, the prolonged tyrosine phosphorylation and delayed degradation of ZAP-70 and of the ζ chain lead to enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and robust TC response. These data indicates that CD43-mediated signals lower the threshold for TC activation by restricting the c-Cbl and Cbl-b inhibitory effects on TCR signaling. In addition to the strength
T cell (TC) activation requires the coordinated signaling of the T cell receptor (TCR) and coreceptor molecules, allowing TCs to respond to lower degrees of TCR occupancy. Coreceptor molecules set the threshold for TC activation by controlling different regulatory signaling loops. The Cbl family members prevent undesired activation of T cells by regulating TCR signals. In this report, we show that TC prestimulation by the CD43 coreceptor molecule before TCR engagement inhibits TCR-dependent c-Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation, c-Cbl interaction with the adapter molecule Crk-L and promotes Cbl-b degradation in a PKCθ-dependent manner. Consequently, the prolonged tyrosine phosphorylation and delayed degradation of ZAP-70 and of the ζ chain lead to enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and robust TC response. These data indicates that CD43-mediated signals lower the threshold for TC activation by restricting the c-Cbl and Cbl-b inhibitory effects on TCR signaling. In addition to the ...
Adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells inhibits HSV-1-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Purified CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25− T cells (2 × 106/mouse) were adoptively transferred into WT B6 mice 24 h before HSV infection, and the immune response was measured on days 7 and 28 p.i. (A) On days 7 and 28 p.i., spleen cells were incubated with gB498-505, and CD8/IFN-γ production was measured by intracellular staining. The number shown in each plot is the mean percentage of IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells obtained from four mice per group. (B) The resulting decrease in IFN-γ-secreting CD8+ T cells in B6 mice after adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells were also measured by a standard ELISPOT assay. On days 7 and 28 post HSV infection, spleen cells were analyzed for the number of IFN-γ-secreting CD8+ T cells in response to SSIEFARL peptide. The error bars represent the mean ± SD of four different mice in the same group. *P , 0.05 compared with HSV-infected B6 mice receiving no adoptive transfer. Without ...
CD8+ CTLs are essential for effective immune defense against intracellular microbes and neoplasia. CTLs recognize short peptide fragments presented in association with MHC class I (MHCI) molecules on the surface of infected or dysregulated cells. Ag recognition involves the binding of both TCR and CD8 coreceptor to a single ligand (peptide MHCI [pMHCI]). The TCR/pMHCI interaction confers Ag specificity, whereas the pMHCI/CD8 interaction mediates enhanced sensitivity to Ag. Striking biophysical differences exist between the TCR/pMHCI and pMHCI/CD8 interactions; indeed, the pMHCI/CD8 interaction can be ,100-fold weaker than the cognate TCR/pMHCI interaction. In this study, we show that increasing the strength of the pMHCI/CD8 interaction by ∼15-fold results in nonspecific, cognate Ag-independent pMHCI tetramer binding at the cell surface. Furthermore, pMHCI molecules with superenhanced affinity for CD8 activate CTLs in the absence of a specific TCR/pMHCI interaction to elicit a full range of ...
Results Cultured cells started to express CD14 on the day 12 and more than 90% of the cells expressed CD14 on the day 21 in the monocyte differentiation induction course. According to the expression levels of CD14, the cell population was divided into three groups: CD14 (−), CD14 (+) and CD14 (++). CD15 (+) cells were observed in CD14 (−) and CD14 (+) population but not in CD14 (++) population. The CD15+ cells in CD14 (+) transiently appeared in RA-iPS derived cells at 11.9±2.8% (mean ± SE) on day15. However these cell proportion in NOF was1.7±2.0%. Meanwhile, CD15+ cells in CD14 (−) proportion decreased during monocyte differentiation in RA-iPS cells, but remained in NOF-iPS cells (representative data, RA 31.5, 20.6, 15.6%, NOF 47.3, 46.1, 47.3%, on day15, 18 and 21).. ...
We explored targeted delivery of CD40 ligand to the cancer cell-surface as a therapeutic option for treatment of malignancies. To this end, we generated EpCAM- and CD20-targeted fusion proteins, anti-EpCAM:CD40L and anti-CD20:CD40L, respectively, and analyzed functional immune parameters. Based on our findings, CD40L remains biologically active in scFv fusion proteins, with an activity profile similar to soluble CD40L. However, binding of CD40L fusion proteins to target antigens on the cancer cell surface promotes oligomerization and augmented activation of CD40 on neighboring immature DC. As a result, maturation of iDC occurred at approximately 20 fold lower concentrations as in the case of stimulation with "unbound" CD40L. In addition, we describe how targeted delivery of CD40L to CD20+ leukemic B cells can induce simultaneous B cell death and paracrine maturation of iDC. Importantly, B cell lines did not undergo additional proliferation as a result of treatment with anti-CD20:CD40L. These ...
CD4+/CD8+/CD3+ cells are 1-4% range of the lymphocyte population from our HIV+ patients. Most of the cells are brightCD4+/dimCD8+ but all combinations of bright and dim are possible. We include these dual positive cells in both the CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+ counts. What do other labs do with these cells and why? -----Original Message----- From: Kenneth Ault [mailto:aultk at mmc.org] Sent: Wednesday, October 31, 2001 7:32 PM To: cyto-inbox Subject: Re: cd4 cd8 coexpression A phenomenon frequently forgotten is coincidence. If two cells enter the observation volume at the same time they will be seen as one event with the properties of both cells. This is a very common problem in my world (platelets) and should be considered as a possible explanation for any kind of unexpected dual expression of markers. It would be interesting to know if the frequency of CD4/CD8 doubles changes as the particle flow rate changes (i.e change the sample pressure or dilute the specimen.) Ken Ault ...
ClearLLab Control Cells Normal and ClearLLab Control Cells Abnormal are stabilized preparations of assayed, lysable whole blood intended as process controls for the verification of the ClearLLab 10C Panels on the Navios and Navios EX flow cytometers. Parameters assayed include: Kappa, Lambda, CD5, CD200, CD38, CD20, CD19, CD45, TCRγδ, CD4, CD2, CD56, CD3, CD7, CD8, CD16, CD10, CD13, CD64, CD14, HLA-DR, CD11b, CD15, CD33, CD34, CD117, and CD123 They provide positive cell controls that are processed in the same manner as a whole blood sample. This allows verification of reagent performance and the methods used for staining targeted cells, lysing erythrocytes, and analyzing samples with flow cytometry.
We next determined the function of the CD4+CD25+ T cells. For these experiments we used the CD4+CD25- and CD4+CD25+ peripheral blood T cells whose FoxP3 expression levels were shown in Figure 1 (a and b). These T cell subsets were assessed for their ability to respond to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, and for the ability of the CD25+ cells to suppress the in vitro activation of the CD25- cells. When cultured in the presence of feeder cells along with soluble anti-CD3 and anti-CD28, the CD4+CD25- cells responded with robust proliferation, whereas the CD4+CD25+ cells did not (Figure 1c). When the two populations were cocultured, the level of proliferation, as measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation, was dramatically reduced (Figure 1c). The level of suppression seen was correlated with the ratio of CD4+CD25-:CD4+CD25+ cells in the culture, with more CD25+ cells resulting in more suppression of CD25- cell proliferation. These results are not due to exhaustion of the resources within the culture ...
Mice hemizygous for the X-linked mutation, scurfy (sf), exhibit a fatal lymphoreticular disease that is mediated by T lymphocytes. To evaluate the respective roles of CD4 or CD8 single positive T cells in scurfy disease, neonates were treated with mAbs directed against the CD4 or CD8 molecules. Whereas mice treated with an anti-CD8 Ab developed lesions and succumbed to disease at the same time (17 days) as their untreated scurfy littermates, mice treated with an anti-CD4 Ab lived up to 11 wk before developing scurfy disease. To insure a more complete elimination of the T cell subsets, the scurfy mutation was bred onto beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m)-deficient (CD8-less) and CD4-deficient transgenic mouse lines. Whereas there was little moderation of disease in beta 2m-deficient scurfy mice, CD4-deficient scurfy mice had markedly decreased scurfy lesions and a prolonged life span, similar to that of anti-CD4-treated sf/Y mice. Additionally, scurfy disease was transplanted into H-2-compatible nude ...
CD200 (OX2) is a broadly distributed cell surface glycoprotein that interacts with a structurally related receptor (CD200R) expressed on rodent myeloid cells and is involved in regulation of macrophage function. We report the first characterization of human CD200R (hCD200R) and define its binding characteristics to hCD200. We also report the identification of a closely related gene to hCD200R, designated hCD200RLa, and four mouse CD200R-related genes (termed mCD200RLa-d). CD200, CD200R, and CD200R-related genes were closely linked in humans and mice, suggesting that these genes arose by gene duplication. The distributions of the receptor genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR, and protein expression was confirmed by a set of novel mAbs. The distribution of mouse and human CD200R was similar, with strongest labeling of macrophages and neutrophils, but also other leukocytes, including monocytes, mast cells, and T lymphocytes. Two mCD200 receptor-like family members, designated mCD200RLa and
As with any breakthrough, new questions arise and new experiments become feasible.....One problem, however, is that CD32a is a marker for only 50% of the reservoir, whereas the eradication of latent HIV would require a much greater reduction in the number of latently infected cells in the body. Moreover, targeting CD32a would also make the antigen-presenting cells that normally express CD32a vulnerable to destruction, which might well cause unwanted or harmful side effects.....Second, the authors studied CD4 lymphocytes from the blood, but these circulating cells account for 2%, at most, of the CD4 T cells in the body2. It remains to be seen whether CD32a is as good a marker for latently infected cells in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, gut and other tissues. Perhaps more markers could be identified from the 103 differentially expressed genes found in the researchers screen - analysis of these proteins in combination with CD32a might increase the total proportion of identifiable latent ...
MDSCs are myelomonocytic cells with immunosuppressive activity induced by tumor growth. These cells have been thoroughly characterized in the mouse and are distinguished in granulocytic and monocytic MDSCs, according to the presence of specific markers: monocytic MDSCs are CD11b+ve/Ly6G-ve/Ly6Chigh, whereas granulocytic MDSCs are CD11b+ve/Ly6G+ve/Ly6Clow. There are no uniform markers for human MDSCs, although it has been observed that lineage-negative (Lin−) myeloid cells bearing Cd11b, CD33, and various combinations of CD66b, CD14, CD15, and HLA-DRlow markers have immunosuppressive activity (22). Pharmacologically induced differentiation or depletion of these cells has been shown to improve the immune response in patients with cancer (23, 24). Thus, it is likely that therapeutic interventions aimed at the inactivation of MDSCs could benefit patients by reactivating the antitumor immune response. Neuroblastoma is a pediatric cancer with a dismal outcome in its high-risk, metastatic form. The ...
CD to MP3 Maker is an extremely easy to use cd ripper and MP3 to WAV decoder and WAV to MP3 encoder for Windows 9X/NT/Me/2000/XP/Vista/7 . Rip CD to MP3,OGG,WMA,WAV,AAC,APE,FLAC,TTA,SPX,AC-3,MP2,WV(wavepack) and MPC(musepack) CD to MP3 Maker is an extremely easy to use cd ripper and audio converter for Windows OS. It may rip CD to MP3,OGG,WMA,WAV,AAC,APE,FLAC,TTA,SPX,AC-3,MP2,WV(wavepack) and MPC(musepack) .And convert audio formats MP3, WAV, WMA, OGG, AAC ...
In this study, the method to achieve the precise CD MTT (critical dimension mean to target) correction in manufacturing attenuated PSM (phase-shift mask) is investigated. There has been a growing demand for more precise Mask CD MTT control in recent years. The CD correction method has been developed and applied to meet the tighter CD MTT specification [1]. However, the efficiency of the CD correction is greatly affected by the repeatability of the CD measurement. The factors, which can have an influence on the CD measurement, are the fluctuations of the pattern profile and the electron current of the SEM. The conventional CD MTT correction method is basically to correct MoSi CD MTT by applying the additional dry etch for MoSi based on Cr CD value. Therefore, the repeatability of the Cr CD MTT is the crucial point for the accuracy of the final CD MTT correction. Although the Cr CD MTT is the crucial factor for the successful CD MTT correction, it has the fluctuation due to the Cr pattern profile. ...
Paraf, A; Taylor, D W.; Mage, M; and Mathieson, B J., "Analysis of membrane proteins from lyt 2+ positive thymocytes. Abstr." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2005 ...
Mouse anti Rat CD11a antibody, clone WT.1 reacts with rat CD11a, a glycoprotein of 160-170 kDa, associated with CD18. CD11a is one of the
CD4 and CD8 are the cells most commonly infected by the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. A high CD4 or CD8 ratio would indicate that the disease is progressing slowly or that the infection is...
The human group 1 CD1 molecules CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c have been shown to present both endogenous and mycobacterial-derived lipid antigens to various subsets of T...
The test evaluates and monitors T-lymphocyte helper cells (CD4) and inducer T-cells. T-lymphocyte helper cells (such as CD4 cells) play a critical role in orchestrating the response to infections. After activation of the immune response, T-lymphocyte suppressor cells (such as CD8) deactivate the immune cells fighting t
Complete information for CD109 gene (Protein Coding), CD109 Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for CD80 gene (Protein Coding), CD80 Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Given two numbers not prime to one another, to find their greatest common measure. Let AB, CD be the two given numbers not prime to one another. Thus it is required to find the greatest common measure of AB, CD. If now CD measures AB-and it also measures itself-CD is a common measure of CD, AB. And it is manifest that it is also the greatest; for no greater number than CD will measure CD. But, if CD does not measure AB, then, the less of the numbers AB, CD being continually subtracted from the greater, some number will be left which will measure the one before it. For an unit will not be left; otherwise AB, CD will be prime to one another [VII. 1], which is contrary to the hypothesis. Therefore some number will be left which will measure the one before it. Now let CD, measuring BE, leave EA less than itself, let EA, measuring DF, leave FC less than itself, and let CF measure AE. Since then, CF measures AE, and AE measures DF, therefore CF will also measure DF. But it also measures itself; ...
Creative Biolabs provides Anti-TRBC1 (Jovi-1) h((IgG1)-CD28-CD3ζ) CAR, pCDCAR1 product for Biopharmaceutical research,preclinical and clinical trials.
Creative Biolabs provides Anti-EGFRvIII (131) h(CD28-CD3ζ) CAR, pCDCAR1 product for Biopharmaceutical research,preclinical and clinical trials.
CD19+/CD5+ question. Read through discussions about this topic and call Braverman IVF & Reproductive Immunology for additional answers!
I am having problems with my FIRESTORM 36x cd rom, it will not read CDs anymore. I upgraded to win98 about 2 weeks ago, since then the performence of my CD ROM has degraded to the point that it will not even read the route dir. It worked fine under win95 osr2, is this coinsidence or is it a win98 problem. Also does anyone know who makes the FIRESTORM 36x CD ROM.
View mouse Cd79b Chr11:106311341-106314762 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
IAXO-101 (CD14/TLR4 Antagonist) (synthetic), high purity and active compound. Synthetic. CD14/TLR4 antagonist. Used for Inflammation, Innate Immunity and Adjuvant Research.
IAXO-103 (CD14/TLR4 Antagonist) (synthetic), high purity and active compound. Synthetic. CD14/TLR4 antagonist. Used for Inflammation, Innate Immunity and Adjuvant Research.
What does the Bible say about headcoverings? This message is an intensive Biblical study of I Cor. 11 relating to hair and headcoverings. Running time: 59 minutes on CD. Headcoverings? Audio CD by Dr. S.M. Davis
I am having problems with my FIRESTORM 36x cd rom, it will not read CDs anymore. I upgraded to win98 about 2 weeks ago, since then the performence of my CD ROM has degraded to the point that it will not even read the route dir. It worked fine under win95 osr2, is this coinsidence or is it a win98 problem ...
:confused: Hi, Ive started cd again for the 3rd time and i really hate it, got thru day 2 and i want food:sigh: that is my problem with cd, i cant...
In comparison to murine dendritic cells (DCs), less is known about the function of human DCs in tissues. Here, we analyzed, by using lung tissues from humans and humanized mice, the role of human CD1c(+) and CD141(+) DCs in determining the type of CD8(+) T cell immunity generated to live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine. We found that both lung DC subsets acquired influenza antigens in vivo and expanded specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, lung-tissue-resident CD1c(+) DCs, but not CD141(+) DCs, were able to drive CD103 expression on CD8(+) T cells and promoted CD8(+) T cell accumulation in lung epithelia in vitro and in vivo. CD1c(+) DCs induction of CD103 expression was dependent on membrane-bound cytokine TGF-β1. Thus, CD1c(+) and CD141(+) DCs generate CD8(+) T cells with different properties, and CD1c(+) DCs specialize in the regulation of mucosal CD8(+) T cells. Immunity 2013 Apr 18; 38(4):818-30.
Objective: To investigate the expressions of Foxp3 and CD25 on CD4+T cells from patients with new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and assess their clinical significance.. Methods: Ten active (SLEDAI≥10) and eleven inactive (SLEDAI≤5) new-onset SLE patients as well as eleven healthy volunteers were enrolled. The expressions of CD25, Foxp3 and CD127 on CD4+ T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Proliferation assays were performed on isolated CD4+CD25+ and/or CD4+CD25- T cells.. Results: There was no significant difference in number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T cells in subjects with either active or inactive SLE compared to normal controls (P,0.05). Moreover, suppressive capacity of CD4+CD25+T cells in new-onset lupus patients was not impaired as measured by the capacity to inhibit proliferation of CD4+CD25- T cells. Interestingly, CD4+CD25-Foxp3+T cells in new-onset lupus (2.97-10.94%) were significantly more frequent than in normal controls (1.01-3.62%) (P,0.01), and positively correlated ...
Immune balances are important for many diseases including ulcerative colitis (UC). This study aimed to explore the role of the balance between CD8+CD28+ and CD8+CD28− T lymphocytes for the immunological pathogenesis of UC. Sixteen patients with UC, 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 15 healthy volunteers were enrolled. The frequencies of CD8+CD28+ and CD8+CD28− T lymphocytes in peripheral blood and colon tissue were tested using flow cytometry and immunofluorescent, respectively. The cytokines of the two lymphocytes were detected by protein chips and ELISA. The expression of the signal transducers, the JAK3 and STAT6, as well the transcription factors, the NFATc2 and GATA3, was all detected by both western blot and immunohistochemistry. For UC patients, the frequencies of CD8+CD28+ T lymphocytes, together with the ratios of CD8+CD28+/CD8+CD28− T lymphocytes in blood and colon tissue, were significantly lower than those in both IBS patients and healthy volunteers. But the
CD248 (endosialin) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is dynamically expressed on pericytes and fibroblasts during tissue development, tumour neovascularization and inflammation. Its role in tissue remodelling is associated with increased stromal cell proliferation and migration. We show that CD248 is also uniquely expressed by human, but not mouse (C57BL/6), CD8(+) naive T cells. CD248 is found only on CD8(+) CCR7(+) CD11a(low) naive T cells and on CD8 single-positive T cells in the thymus. Transfection of the CD248 negative T-cell line MOLT-4 with CD248 cDNA surprisingly reduced cell proliferation. Knock-down of CD248 on naive CD8 T cells increased cell proliferation. These data demonstrate opposing functions for CD248 on haematopoietic (CD8(+)) versus stromal cells and suggests that CD248 helps to maintain naive CD8(+) human T cells in a quiescent state.
Purchase quality tested T cell receptor Alpha + Beta antibodies at Immuquest. Quality T cell receptor Alpha + Beta antibodies are available online from technical experts in production
Regulation of the immune response is important to avoid chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Anergic/suppressive CD4+CD25+ T cells have been shown to be major contributors to this regulation. We have previously shown that the suppressive CD4+CD25+ T cells can suppress mitogenic and antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell responses in humans (EJI 2001, 31:1122; Immunology 2001, 104:6). In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), besides CD4+ T cells also monocytes play an important role in the disease process. Therefore we investigated whether the suppressive CD4+CD25+ T cells could affect monocyte activation as well as T-cell activation. CD4+ T cells and monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors via MACS isolation techniques. CD4+ T cells were separated into CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- T cells. T cells and monocytes were cocultured for two days without or with anti-CD3 mAb, after which proliferation, cytokine production and phenotypic markers were investigated. Coculture of ...
The CD4 or CD8 co-receptors and the T cell receptor (TCR) are though to interact with the same antigen-presenting major histocompatibility complex molecule in a stable ternary complex. Therefore, the TCR and its co-receptor need to come into close proximity on the surface of the T cell. We have previously shown that the interaction of the p56lck SH2 domain with zeta-associated, tyrosine phosphorylated ZAP-70 and Syk kinases leads to an enhanced association of CD4 with TCR/CD3/zeta complex after CD3 stimulation of Jurkat cells. In this report, we analyzed whether a similar mechanism can mediate recruitment of the CD8 alpha alpha and CD8 alpha beta isoforms to the TCR. We demonstrate in vivo in association of CD8 alpha alpha/p56lck with the tyrosine kinase ZAP-70 after CD3 stimulation of Jurkat cells. A phosphopeptide competing in vitro for the binding of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins to the SH2 domain of p56lck specifically impedes the association of ZAP-70 with CD8 alpha alpha/p56lck without
The C-type lectin CD161 is expressed by a large proportion of human T lymphocytes of all lineages, including a population known as mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. To understand whether different T cell subsets expressing CD161 have similar properties, we examined these populations in parallel using mass cytometry and mRNA microarray approaches. The analysis identified a conserved CD161++/MAIT cell transcriptional signature enriched in CD161+CD8+ T cells, which can be extended to CD161+ CD4+ and CD161+TCR gamma delta+ T cells. Furthermore, this led to the identification of a shared innate-like, TCR-independent response to interleukin (IL)-12 plus IL-18 by different CD161-expressing T cell populations. This response was independent of regulation by CD161, which acted as a costimulatory molecule in the context of T cell receptor stimulation. Expression of CD161 hence identifies a transcriptional and functional phenotype, shared across human T lymphocytes and independent of both T cell ...

DSpace at EWHA: Repertoires of T cell receptors specific for a single minor histocompatibility antigen during primary and...DSpace at EWHA: Repertoires of T cell receptors specific for a single minor histocompatibility antigen during primary and...

Repertoires of T cell receptors specific for a single minor histocompatibility antigen during primary and recall CD8 T cell ... Repertoires of T cell receptors specific for a single minor histocompatibility antigen during primary and recall CD8 T cell ...
more infohttp://dspace.ewha.ac.kr/handle/2015.oak/215708

CD8 antigen, alpha polypeptide ELISA Kits | Biocompare.comCD8 antigen, alpha polypeptide ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com

Compare CD8 antigen, alpha polypeptide ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations ... CD8 antigen, alpha polypeptide ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based ... Your search returned 46 CD8 antigen, alpha polypeptide ELISA ELISA Kit across 3 suppliers. ... mTORC1 activity very critical for the generation of effector CD8 T cells. Our lab studies the ... read more ...
more infohttps://www.biocompare.com/pfu/110627/soids/2-603690/ELISA_Kit/ELISA_CD8_antigen_alpha_polypeptide

Increased infiltration and tolerised antigen-specific CD8 | Sigma-AldrichIncreased infiltration and tolerised antigen-specific CD8 | Sigma-Aldrich

Increased infiltration and tolerised antigen-specific CD8. [M Bahador, A Gras Navarro, M A Rahman, M Dominguez-Valentin, S ... Here, we investigated the presence of pp65 (UL83) and immediate early 1 (IE-1) HCMV antigens in a cohort of Norwegian GBM ... Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) antigens in glioblastoma (GBM) present opportunities for personalised immunotherapy. However, ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/28919997

The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex | PNASThe CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex | PNAS

As in the case of the CD4 antigen, the CD8 antigen appears to serve as a receptor for nonpolymorphic regions of products of the ... CD8 Raft Localization Is Induced by Its Assembly into CD8{alpha}beta Heterodimers, Not CD8{alpha}{alpha} Homodimers ... Mechanisms of Macrophage Stimulation Through CD8: Macrophage CD8{alpha} and CD8{beta} Induce Nitric Oxide Production and ... The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex. E K Barber, J D ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/86/9/3277?ijkey=cd56f19b14b5ffd7b06a0115cef0051f775932af&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Estimating the Precursor Frequency of Naive Antigen-specific CD8 T Cells | JEMEstimating the Precursor Frequency of Naive Antigen-specific CD8 T Cells | JEM

Estimating the Precursor Frequency of Naive Antigen-specific CD8 T Cells. Joseph N. Blattman, Rustom Antia, David J.D. Sourdive ... Counting antigen-specific CD8 T cells: a reevaluation of bystander activation during viral infection. Immunity. 8:177-187. ... Estimating the Precursor Frequency of Naive Antigen-specific CD8 T Cells. Joseph N. Blattman, Rustom Antia, David J.D. Sourdive ... Thus, in immune mice there is a ∼5,000-fold net increase in the number of antigen-specific cells contained in the memory CD8 T ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/195/5/657

Counting antigen-specific CD8 T cells: a reevaluation of bystander activation during viral infection.  - PubMed - NCBICounting antigen-specific CD8 T cells: a reevaluation of bystander activation during viral infection. - PubMed - NCBI

Counting antigen-specific CD8 T cells: a reevaluation of bystander activation during viral infection.. Murali-Krishna K1, ... Therefore, much of the CD8 T cell expansion seen during viral infection represents antigen-specific cells and warrants a ... antigen-specific CD8 T cell numbers dropped to 10(6) per spleen and were maintained at this level for the life of the mouse. ... this issue we used tetramers of MHC class I molecules containing viral peptides to directly visualize antigen-specific CD8 T ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9491999?dopt=Abstract

CTLA-4 blockade increases antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in prevaccinated patients with melanoma: three cases.  - PubMed - NCBICTLA-4 blockade increases antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in prevaccinated patients with melanoma: three cases. - PubMed - NCBI

CTLA-4 blockade increases antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in prevaccinated patients with melanoma: three cases.. Yuan J1, ... Following vaccination, patients generated weak to no CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cell response specific to the vaccine antigen but ... Ipilimumab induced NY-ESO-1 antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell response in Patient IMF-11 ... CD8+IFN- γ+, CD8+IFN-γ+MIP-1β+, CD4+IFN- γ+, and CD4+IFN-γ+MIP-1β+ T-cells increased after CTLA-4 blockade in Patient IMF-11. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21465316

Antitumor activity from antigen-specific CD8 T cells generated in vivo from genetically engineered human hematopoietic stem...Antitumor activity from antigen-specific CD8 T cells generated in vivo from genetically engineered human hematopoietic stem...

Antitumor activity from antigen-specific CD8 T cells generated in vivo from genetically engineered human hematopoietic stem ... Antitumor activity from antigen-specific CD8 T cells generated in vivo from genetically engineered human hematopoietic stem ... Antitumor activity from antigen-specific CD8 T cells generated in vivo from genetically engineered human hematopoietic stem ... Antitumor activity from antigen-specific CD8 T cells generated in vivo from genetically engineered human hematopoietic stem ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/108/51/E1408

Detecting Clonally Expanded, Stem Cell-Like Melanoma-Antigen Specific CD8 Memory Cells - Pharmaceutical Business reviewDetecting Clonally Expanded, Stem Cell-Like Melanoma-Antigen Specific CD8 Memory Cells - Pharmaceutical Business review

... melanoma-associated antigen A3 (MAGE-A3), melanocyte antigen/melanoma antigen recognised by T-cells 1 (Melan-A/ MART-1), ... Detecting Clonally Expanded, Stem Cell-Like Melanoma-Antigen Specific CD8 Memory Cells. ... Tyr triggered interferon gamma (IFN-γ) secreting CD8 + T-cells in 25% of HD within 24h of antigen stimulation ex vivo. MAGE A3 ... At this time point, these CD8 + T-cells did not yet produce GzB (granzyme B). However, they engaged in GzB production after 72 ...
more infohttps://www.pharmaceutical-business-review.com/suppliers/contract-immune-monitoring-and-research/whitepapers/detecting-clonally-expanded-stem-cell-like-melanoma-antigen-specific-cd8-memory-cells/

MIMG Seminar: The Role of Antigen-Specific CD8 T cells in Immunopathogenesis | UT Health San AntonioMIMG Seminar: The Role of Antigen-Specific CD8 T cells in Immunopathogenesis | UT Health San Antonio

The Role of Antigen-Specific CD8 T cells in Immunopathogenesis 2019-11-07 00:00:00 , Biomedical Sciences UT Health San Antonio ... MIMG Seminar: The Role of Antigen-Specific CD8 T cells in Immunopathogenesis Time & Date. Thursday, November 7, 2019 ... MIMG Seminar: The Role of Antigen-Specific CD8 T cells in Immunopathogenesis ...
more infohttps://www.uthscsa.edu/academics/biomedical-sciences/event/mimg-seminar-role-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cells

Upregulation of Tim-3 and PD-1 Expression is Associated with Tumor Antigen-Specific CD8\(^+\) T Cell Dysfunction in Melanoma...Upregulation of Tim-3 and PD-1 Expression is Associated with Tumor Antigen-Specific CD8\(^+\) T Cell Dysfunction in Melanoma...

We also observed that PD-1 regulates NY-ESO-1-specific CD8\(^+\) T cell expansion upon chronic antigen stimulation. In the ... Upregulation of Tim-3 and PD-1 Expression is Associated with Tumor Antigen-Specific CD8\(^+\) T Cell Dysfunction in Melanoma ... Upregulation of Tim-3 and PD-1 expression is associated with tumor antigen-specific CD8\(^+\) T cell dysfunction in melanoma ... we have previously shown that the cancer-germline antigen NY-ESO-1 stimulates spontaneous NY-ESO-1-specific CD8\(^+\) T cells ...
more infohttps://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/5361375

Antitumor activity from antigen-specific CD8 T cells generated in vivo from genetically engineered human hematopoietic stem...Antitumor activity from antigen-specific CD8 T cells generated in vivo from genetically engineered human hematopoietic stem...

Antitumor activity from antigen-specific CD8 T cells generated in vivo from genetically engineered human hematopoietic stem ... Antitumor activity from antigen-specific CD8 T cells generated in vivo from genetically engineered human hematopoietic stem ... Following tumor challenge, these transgenic CD8^+ T cells, in the absence of additional manipulation, limited and cleared human ... resulting in the generation of a sizeable melanoma-specific naïve CD8^+ T-cell population. ...
more infohttps://authors.library.caltech.edu/28796/

Microbial antigen mimics activate diabetogenic CD8 T cells in NOD mice | JEMMicrobial antigen mimics activate diabetogenic CD8 T cells in NOD mice | JEM

Microbial antigen mimics activate diabetogenic CD8 T cells in NOD mice. Ningwen Tai, Jian Peng, Fuqiang Liu, Elke Gulden, ... Microbial antigen mimics activate diabetogenic CD8 T cells in NOD mice. Ningwen Tai, Jian Peng, Fuqiang Liu, View ORCID Profile ... CD8+ T cells from both WT NY8.3 NOD and MyD88−/−NY8.3NOD mice responded strongly to the antigen presented by purified NOD ... CD8+ T cells are more activated in MyD88−/−NY8.3 mice. We next examined the phenotype and function of NY8.3 CD8+ T cells. MyD88 ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/early/2016/09/07/jem.20160526

Modular Three-component Delivery System Facilitates HLA Class I Antigen Presentation and CD8(+) T-cell Activation Against...Modular Three-component Delivery System Facilitates HLA Class I Antigen Presentation and CD8(+) T-cell Activation Against...

HomeOur WorkPublicationsModular Three-component Delivery System Facilitates HLA Class I Antigen Presentation and CD8(+) T-cell ... Modular Three-component Delivery System Facilitates HLA Class I Antigen Presentation and CD8(+) T-cell Activation Against ... Here we present a nanoparticle delivery system that facilitates presentation of an immunogenic measles antigen specifically in ... Activation is dependent on the targeting peptide, previous antigen exposure, and utilizes a novel autophagy-mediated mechanism ...
more infohttps://www.sri.com/work/publications/modular-three-component-delivery-system-facilitates-hla-class-i-antigen-0

Profile of Tumor Antigen-Specific CD8 T Cells in Patients With Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma | ScholarBank...Profile of Tumor Antigen-Specific CD8 T Cells in Patients With Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma | ScholarBank...

Profile of Tumor Antigen-Specific CD8 T Cells in Patients With Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma. ... Profile of Tumor Antigen-Specific CD8 T Cells in Patients With Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma. ...
more infohttp://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/26739

Pathways of Antigen Presentation to CD8 T Cells In Vivo
     - Penn StatePathways of Antigen Presentation to CD8 T Cells In Vivo - Penn State

Pathways of Antigen Presentation to CD8 T Cells In Vivo. *Norbury, Christopher (PI) ... ln Aim 1 we will determine the effects of targeting viral antigen for expression in specific tissues on the pathways of antigen ... In addition, by using a natural example of antigen shuttled into different antigen presentation pathways in vivo we will ... To examine this issue we will use recombinant viruses to express multiple protein antigens and will analyze antigen ...
more infohttps://pennstate.pure.elsevier.com/en/projects/pathways-of-antigen-presentation-to-cd8-t-cells-in-vivo

CiNii 論文 - 
 		
 		
 			
 		 	
 		 		
 		 			Mechanisms of tolerance induced by transforming growth factor-β-treated antigen...CiNii 論文 - Mechanisms of tolerance induced by transforming growth factor-β-treated antigen...

I. Superantigen-activated CD8 cells induce unidirectional Fas-mediated apoptosis of antigen-activated CD4 cells NOBLE A. ... Mechanisms of tolerance induced by transforming growth factor-β-treated antigen-presenting cells : CD8 regulatory T cells ... CD1d on antigen-transporting APC and splenic marginal zone B cells promotes NKT cell-dependent tolerance SONODA K.-H. ... IL-4 secreting CD4^+ T cells are crucial to the development of CD8^+ T-cell responses against malaria liver stages CARVALHO L. ...
more infohttps://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10013085395

Neutral polymer micelle carriers with pH-responsive, endosome-releasing activity modulate antigen trafficking to enhance CD8(+)...Neutral polymer micelle carriers with pH-responsive, endosome-releasing activity modulate antigen trafficking to enhance CD8(+)...

Here, a neutral, pH-responsive polymer micelle carrier that alters intracellular antigen trafficking was shown to enhance CD8 ... Neutral polymer micelle carriers with pH-responsive, endosome-releasing activity modulate antigen trafficking to enhance CD8 ... Subcutaneous immunization of mice with ovalbumin-polymer conjugates significantly enhanced antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell ... Additionally, pH-responsive carrier facilitated antigen delivery to antigen presenting cells in the draining lymph nodes. As ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/24698946

Direct Visualization of Antigen-specific CD8+T Cells during the Primary Immune Response to Epstein-Barr Virus In Vivo  -...Direct Visualization of Antigen-specific CD8+T Cells during the Primary Immune Response to Epstein-Barr Virus In Vivo -...

After recovery from AIM, the frequency of antigen-specific T cells fell in most donors studied, although populations of antigen ... We show that massive expansion of activated, antigen-specific T cells occurs during the primary response to this virus. In one ... The magnitude of the antigen-specific component versus the bystander component of a primary T cell response remains ... The majority of the antigen-specific cells had an activated/memory phenotype, with expression of human histocompatibility ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Direct-Visualization-of-Antigen-specific-CD8%2BT-the-Callan-Tan/94370700bfcc4d9e139f78abbd3a6658dba60889

Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo | ScienceInduction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo | Science

Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo ... Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo ... Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo ... Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/250/4988/1720?ijkey=3e9085cbff5e0e142a628f4f6c824fe9b6a4df25&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

CiNii 論文 - 
 		
 		
 			
 		 	
 		 		
 		 			Antigen-specific activation thresholds of CD8^+ T cells are independent of IFN-I...CiNii 論文 - Antigen-specific activation thresholds of CD8^+ T cells are independent of IFN-I...

Antigen-specific activation thresholds of CD8^+ T cells are independent of IFN-I-mediated partial lymphocyte activation * * ... Antigen-driven effector CD8 T cell function regulated by T-bet SULLIVAN BM ... STAT1 signaling in CD8 T cells is required for their clonal expansion and memory formation following viral infection in vivo ... Type I interferons act directly on CD8 T cells to allow clonal expansion and memory formation in response to viral infection ...
more infohttps://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10030913797

Trypanosoma cruzi Subverts Host Cell Sialylation and May Compromise Antigen-specific CD8(+) T Cell ResponsesTrypanosoma cruzi Subverts Host Cell Sialylation and May Compromise Antigen-specific CD8(+) T Cell Responses

... Autor Freire-de- ... Trypanosoma cruzi Subverts Host Cell Sialylation and May Compromise Antigen-specific CD8(+) T Cell Responses. Entrar ... the cytotoxic activity of antigen-experienced CD8(+) T cells against the immunodominant trans-sialidase synthetic peptide ... thereby dampening antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell response that might favor its own persistence in the mammalian host. Binding ...
more infohttp://repositorio.unifesp.br/handle/11600/32482

Inserm - Comprehensive analysis of the frequency of recognition of melanoma-associated antigen (MAA) by CD8 melanoma...Inserm - Comprehensive analysis of the frequency of recognition of melanoma-associated antigen (MAA) by CD8 melanoma...

Twenty-three (39%) TIL lines reacted to at least one mel-anoma antigen. Melanosomal proteins were recognized by 19 TIL ... This study, which is to our knowledge the most comprehensive analysis of TIL specificity to tumor antigens, has several ... except for Melan-A/MART-1 antigen. This analysis also led to the detection of 21 new HLA-peptide complexes recognized by ... Ten TIL populations reacted against 10 tumor-specific antigens, in association with 8 different HLA molecules. HLA-A*0201 and B ...
more infohttps://www.hal.inserm.fr/inserm-02482156

Distinct Pathways of Antigen Uptake and Intracellular Routing in CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation | ScienceDistinct Pathways of Antigen Uptake and Intracellular Routing in CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation | Science

The mechanisms that allow antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to selectively present extracellular antigen to CD8+ effector T cells ... Distinct Pathways of Antigen Uptake and Intracellular Routing in CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation ... Distinct Pathways of Antigen Uptake and Intracellular Routing in CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation ... Distinct Pathways of Antigen Uptake and Intracellular Routing in CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/316/5824/612

Quantification of antigen presentation to Cd8 T cells during virus infection
     - Monash UniversityQuantification of antigen presentation to Cd8 T cells during virus infection - Monash University

Quantification of antigen presentation to Cd8 T cells during virus infection. *Purcell, Anthony (Primary Chief Investigator ( ... Structural and functional correlates of enhanced antiviral immunity generated by heteroclitic CD8 T cell epitopes. Research ... Simultaneous quantification of viral antigen expression kinetics using data-independent (DIA) mass spectrometry. Research ...
more infohttps://research.monash.edu/en/projects/quantification-of-antigen-presentation-to-cd8-t-cells-during-viru
  • The delivery system consists of a stealth liposome displaying a cancer-specific targeting peptide, named H1299.3, on its exterior surface and encapsulating H250, an immunogenic human leukocyte antigen class 1 restricted peptide. (sri.com)
  • Activation is dependent on the targeting peptide, previous antigen exposure, and utilizes a novel autophagy-mediated mechanism to facilitate presentation. (sri.com)
  • Unexpectedly, the recognition by TIL of different MAA was frequently restricted by a single HLA in individual tumors, and there was no evidence for the existence of dominant MAA epitopes between tumors, except for Melan-A/MART-1 antigen. (inserm.fr)
  • In acute infection, the two viruses elicited a CD8 T cell response to 26 peptide epitopes that was virtually identical in total size, kinetics, and immunodominance hierarchy. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mechanistic studies in a murine dendritic cell line (DC 2.4) demonstrated micelle-mediated enhancements in intracellular antigen retention and cytosolic antigen accumulation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the present work, we induced CD8 + T cell cytotoxicity by targeting of Ag to XCR1, a chemokine receptor exclusively expressed on murine and human cross-presenting DC. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this report, tetramers with mutated CD8 binding site selectively stain higher avidity human and murine CTL capable of recognizing physiological levels of Ag. (ox.ac.uk)
  • High avidity antigen-specific CTL identified by CD8-independent tetramer staining. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It was also found that O3 exposure dramatically enhanced the proliferation of CD4-CD8- thymocytes stimulated by recombinant mouse interleukin-7 (rmIL-7), which is usually observed during the mammal aging process. (cdc.gov)
  • Conjugation of ovalbumin to the micelles significantly enhanced antigen cross-presentation in vitro relative to free ovalbumin, an unconjugated physical mixture of ovalbumin and polymer, and a non-pH-responsive micelle-ovalbumin control. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Taken together, these results demonstrate, for the first time, that T. cruzi subverts sialylation to attenuate CD8(+) T cell interactions with peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I complexes. (unifesp.br)
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD8 binding significantly enhances the avidity as well as the stability of interactions between CTL and cognate tetramers. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These findings imply that antigen does not require intracellular diversion to access the cross-presentation pathway, because it can enter the pathway already during endocytosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) antigens in glioblastoma (GBM) present opportunities for personalised immunotherapy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this study, we reveal that the human CD8 antigen is also associated with the T-cell-specific protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck). (pnas.org)
  • Alternatively spliced mRNA encodes a secreted form of human CD8 alpha. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two-dimensional nonequilibrium pH-gradient gel electrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated the similarity of p56lck to the protein-tyrosine kinase associated with the CD4 antigen. (pnas.org)
  • Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily A member 3 (LILR-A3) also known as CD85 antigen-like family member E (CD85e), immunoglobulin-like transcript 6 (ILT-6), and leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor 4 (LIR-4) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LILRA3 gene located within the eukocyte receptor complex on chromosome 19q13.4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of the parasite's native trans-sialidase activity during infection strongly decreased CD8(+) T cell sialylation, reverting it to the glycosylation status expected in the absence of parasite manipulation increasing mouse survival. (unifesp.br)
  • Last, we demonstrate directly that members of the CD3 complex, including the gamma, delta, and epsilon chains, as well as a putative zeta subunit, can be phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by the CD4/CD8.p56lck complex. (pnas.org)