Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Development and function of autospecific dual TCR+ T lymphocytes. (1/2820)

Recent studies have challenged the long held concept that each T lymphocyte expresses on its surface only a single, unique alphabetaTCR. Dual TCR+ T cells have been recognized, however, their origin and potential to escape screening for self-reactivity remain obscure. We now report the thymic generation of dual alphabetaTCR+ T cells in the H-2Db/H-Y-specific TCR transgenic (Tg) mouse. Dual TCR+ thymocytes were positively selected less efficiently than single TCR+ thymocytes, although a subset attained maturity. Importantly, when TCR Tg mice were bred onto a negatively selecting background, auto-specific cells survived central deletion and matured as CD4+ dual TCR+ cells. These cells were autoreactive when CD8 expression was restored. The existence of autospecific, dual TCR+ T cells may have implications for the maintenance of self tolerance.  (+info)

Differential effects of manipulating signaling in early T cell development in intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and thymocytes. (2/2820)

A pre-TCR-CD3 signal is required for the efficient maturation of CD4- CD8- thymocytes to the CD4+ CD8+ stage. This study addressed whether a similar signal is required for maturation of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) that may develop extrathymically. We have shown previously that IEL from mice deficient for CD3- associated zeta chains include an immature population of CD3- CD8alphaalpha+ cells expressing cytoplasmic TCR beta chains but lacking detectable surface TCRalphabeta, CD16 and B220. Here we stimulated the appearance of such IEL in epsilon+/- zeta-/- mice by expression of an activated Lck transgene or in vivo treatment with anti-CD3epsilon. Anti-CD3epsilon treatment of RAG-deficient animals also yielded CD16- B220- IEL. In contrast, expression of a TCRbeta transgene in rag-1(-/-) mice did not stimulate the appearance of CD3- CD8alphaalpha+ CD16- B220- cells. Taken together these data indicate that although anti-CD3epsilon treatment and LckF505 assist in catalyzing a CD16+ B220+ --> CD16- B220- transition, these manipulations are not equivalent to a pre-TCR signal in IEL lymphocytes.  (+info)

T cell receptor and coreceptor CD8 alphaalpha bind peptide-MHC independently and with distinct kinetics. (3/2820)

The T cell surface glycoprotein CD8 enhances T cell antigen recognition by binding to MHC class I molecules. We show that human CD8 alphaalpha binds to the MHC class I molecule HLA-A2 with an extremely low affinity (Kd approximately 0.2 mM at 37 degrees C) and with kinetics that are between 2 and 3 orders of magnitude faster than reported for T cell receptor/peptide-MHC interactions. Furthermore, CD8 alphaalpha had no detectable effect on a T cell receptor (TCR) binding to the same peptide-MHC class I complex. These binding properties provide an explanation as to why the CD8/MHC class I interaction is unable to initiate cell-cell adhesion and how it can enhance TCR recognition without interfering with its specificity.  (+info)

Oligoclonality of rat intestinal intraepithelial T lymphocytes: overlapping TCR beta-chain repertoires in the CD4 single-positive and CD4/CD8 double-positive subsets. (4/2820)

Previous studies in humans and mice have shown that gut intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) express oligoclonal TCR beta-chain repertoires. These studies have either employed unseparated IEL preparations or focused on the CD8+ subsets. Here, we have analyzed the TCR beta-chain repertoire of small intestinal IELs in PVG rats, in sorted CD4+ as well as CD8+ subpopulations, and important differences were noted. CD8alphaalpha and CD8alphabeta single-positive (SP) IELs used most Vbeta genes, but relative Vbeta usage as determined by quantitative PCR analysis differed markedly between the two subsets and among individual rats. By contrast, CD4+ IELs showed consistent skewing toward Vbeta17 and Vbeta19; these two genes accounted collectively for more than half the Vbeta repertoire in the CD4/CD8 double-positive (DP) subset and were likewise predominant in CD4 SP IELs. Complementarity-determining region 3 length displays and TCR sequencing demonstrated oligoclonal expansions in both the CD4+ and CD8+ IEL subpopulations. These studies also revealed that the CD4 SP and CD4/CD8 DP IEL subsets expressed overlapping beta-chain repertoires. In conclusion, our results show that rat TCR-alphabeta+ IELs of both the CD8+ and CD4+ subpopulations are oligoclonal. The limited Vbeta usage and overlapping TCR repertoire expressed by CD4 SP and CD4/CD8 DP cells suggest that these two IEL populations recognize restricted intestinal ligands and are developmentally and functionally related.  (+info)

Reduced generation but efficient TCR beta-chain selection of CD4+8+ double-positive thymocytes in mice with compromised CD3 complex signaling. (5/2820)

Maturation to the CD4+8+ double-positive (DP) stage of thymocyte development is restricted to cells that have passed TCRbeta selection, an important checkpoint at which immature CD4-8- double-negative (DN) cells that express TCRbeta polypeptide chains are selected for further maturation. The generation of DP thymocytes following TCRbeta selection is dependent on cellular survival, differentiation, and proliferation, and the entire process appears to be mediated by the pre-TCR/CD3 complex. In this study, we investigate the signaling requirements for TCRbeta selection using mice single deficient and double deficient for CD3zeta/eta and/or p56lck. While the numbers of DP cells are strongly reduced in the single-deficient mice, a further drastic reduction in the generation of DP thymocytes is seen in the double-deficient mice. The poor generation of DP cells in the mutant mice is primarily due to an impaired ability of CD25+ DN thymocytes to proliferate following expression of a TCRbeta-chain. Nevertheless, the residual DP cells in all mutant mice are strictly selected for expression of TCRbeta polypeptide chains. DN thymocytes of mutant mice expressed TCRbeta and CD3epsilon at the cell surface and contained mRNA for pre-Talpha, but not for clonotypic TCRalpha-chains, together suggesting that TCRbeta selection is mediated by pre-TCR signaling in all cases. The data suggest differential requirements of pre-TCR signaling for cell survival on the one hand, and for the proliferative burst associated with TCRbeta selection on the other.  (+info)

Th1 and Th2 cytokine mRNA profiles in childhood nephrotic syndrome: evidence for increased IL-13 mRNA expression in relapse. (6/2820)

Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood is thought to be associated with T lymphocyte dysfunction often triggered by viral infections, with the production of circulating factor(s) resulting in proteinuria. In view of the conflicting evidence of T cell activation and Th1 or Th2 pattern of cytokine synthesis in this disease, this study examined the mRNA expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma, IL-4, and IL-13 from CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in steroid-responsive nephrotic patients in relapse and remission. Fifty-five children with steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome were included in this study, together with 34 normal controls and 24 patient controls with viral infections. RNA was isolated from purified CD4+ or CD8+ cells from peripheral blood and subjected to reverse transcription-PCR. Cytokine mRNA expression was measured semiquantitatively, and a cytokine index was derived from densitometric readings, with cyclophilin as the housekeeping gene. Both cross-sectional and paired data showed an increased CD4+ and CD8+ IL-13 mRNA expression in patients with nephrotic relapse as compared to remission, normal, and patient controls (P < 0.008). This was also associated with increased cytoplasmic IL-13 expression in phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin-activated CD3+ cells (6.66+/-3.39%) from patients with nephrotic relapse compared to remission (2.59+/-1.35%) (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in CD4+ or CD8+ IL-2, interferon-gamma and IL-4 mRNA expression. IL-13 is an important T cell cytokine with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions on B cells and monocytes. It is conceivable that IL-13 may act on monocytes to produce vascular permeability factor(s) involved in the pathogenesis of proteinuria in patients with relapse nephrotic syndrome.  (+info)

Functional differences between memory and naive CD8 T cells. (7/2820)

To determine how murine memory and naive T cells differ, we generated large numbers of long-lived memory CD8(+) T cells and compared them to naive cells expressing the same antigen-specific receptor (T cell receptor; TCR). Although both populations expressed similar levels of TCR and CD8, on antigen stimulation in vitro memory T cells down-regulated their TCR faster and more extensively and secreted IFN-gamma and IL-2 faster than naive T cells. Memory cells were also larger, and when freshly isolated from mice they contained perforin and killed target cells without having to be restimulated. They further differed from naive cells in requiring IL-15 for proliferation and in having a greater tendency to undergo apoptosis in vitro. On antigen stimulation in vivo, however, they proliferated more rapidly than naive cells. These findings suggest that, unlike naive T cells, CD8 memory T cells are intrinsically programmed to rapidly express their effector functions in vivo without having to undergo clonal expansion and differentiation.  (+info)

Demonstration of bovine CD8+ T-cell responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus. (8/2820)

The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of cellular immunity in foot-and-mouth disease in cattle, in particular to determine whether a CD8+ T-cell response could be detected, as these cells may play a role in both immunity and virus persistence. As attempts to characterize classical cytotoxic T cells had yielded non-reproducible results, largely due to high backgrounds in control cultures, a proliferation assay was developed that was demonstrated to detect antigen-specific, MHC class I-restricted bovine CD8+ cells responding to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Proliferative CD8+ T-cell responses were detected consistently from 10 to 14 days following infection with FMDV and typically lasted 3-4 weeks. The role of CD8+ T cells in control of the disease, in particular their relevance for the establishment of persistence, may now be investigated.  (+info)

CD1c-dependent self-reactive T cells are abundant in the blood of healthy neonates and adults (17, 18), but the endogenous lipid antigens that are presented by CD1c to these T cells have remained unknown. Guided by the new CD1c-SL structure presented here, we now find that CD1c can bind CE and ASG, and that both these ligand classes enable the binding of self-reactive T-cell receptors to CD1c. Two previous CD1c structures, CD1c-PM and CD1c-MPM, had revealed how CD1c binds and presents methylated monoalkyl chain ligands such as mycobacterial mycoketides (7, 12). In both CD1c-PM and CD1c-MPM a single mycoketide molecule was bound to the A′ channel, in analogy to the arrangement seen for the stearic acid in CD1c-SL. Together CD1c-SL, CD1c-PM, and CD1c-MPM thus illustrate a certain promiscuity of the A′ channel, which is the most conserved region of the CD1 groove for ligand binding.. CD1c-PM and CD1c-MPM complexes are exclusively recognized by mycoketide-specific human T cells, but not by CD1c ...
Peripheral blood lymphocytes expressing CD8 and CD57 determinants are a small (1-15%) subset in healthy humans. CD8+, CD57+ peripheral blood lymphocytes may be divided by the level of CD8 expression, into CD8+high (CD57+) T-cells and CD8+low (CD57+) natural killer (NK) cells. CD8+high (CD57+) T-cell numbers are increased in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-seropositive subjects, and there is substantial evidence that HCMV is integral in the development of this subset in health and disease. Furthermore, the CD8+high (CD57+) subset is clonally derived, expressing a limited range of T-cell receptors, and are therefore likely to have restricted antigen specificity. Functionally, CD8+low(CD57+) cells exhibit NK activity, while CD8+high(CD57+) T-cells from healthy subjects mediate contact-dependent suppression in several in vitro systems including: (i) pokeweed mitogen-induced proliferation and immunoglobulin synthesis, and (ii) generation of antiviral MHC-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. This is ...
In this communication, we have addressed the origin and phenotype of human TCR-αβ+ DN T cells. The evidence presented demonstrates that they can derive from CD8+ T cells which undergo a phenotypic transformation that involves the down-regulation of CD8 as well as the acquisition of a distinct effector phenotype characterized by the production of proinflammatory cytokines. These cells, considered important in the pathogenesis of SLE, might represent an alternative differentiation pathway, which activated CD8 cells follow.. The origin of TCR-αβ+ CD4− CD8− T cells, a component of DN T cells, has been debated. Conflicting data obtained from Vβ and Vα gene usage studies probably reflect the heterogeneity of DN T cells and differences in the composition of the analyzed cells (25, 26, 19, 27, 28). Our results demonstrate that a considerable proportion of CD8 T cells lose the expression of the CD8 coreceptor in a process regulated at the transcriptional level. These results are congruent with ...
Expressed immune markers combinations for CD4+/CD8+ T cells included CD40-L, IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-13, as follows: M15=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(+)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); M16=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(+)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(-); M17=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(+); M18=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(-); M19=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); M20=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(-); M21=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(+); M22=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(-); M23=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); M24=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(-); M25=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(+); M26=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(-); M27=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); ...
Su, J., and J. Forman. CD8 T cells in MHC class Ia-deficient mice. AAI, Denver, CO, 2003. Su, J., R. E. Berg, S. Murry, and J. Forman. Thymus dependent MHC non class Ia selected memory phenotype CD8 T cells from naïve mice provide rapid protection against infection. AAI, San Diego, CA, 2005. xiii List of Figures 1. An elevated percentage of CD8 T cells in DKO are CD8?+CD8?-………………………….50 2. There are less CD8??CD44hi cells and similar CD8?? cells in DKO mice compared to B6 mice…………………………………………………………………………………………..52 3. A significant portion of CD8?? T cells in DKO mice is CD44hiCD122+Ly6C+ and CD62Llo……………………………………………………………………………...............53 4. Expression of NK cell markers by CD8??CD44hi cells from naïve B6 and DKO mice ………………………………………………………………………………………………..55 5. ...
Clone REA1226 recognizes the murine CD18 antigen, a 95 kDa glycoprotein also known as integrin beta-2 (ITGB2). CD18 associates non-covalently with CD11a, CD11b, and CD11c to form LFA-1, Mac-1, and gp150/95, respectively and plays an important role in leukocytes adhesion. It is expressed on all leukocytes with NK and T cells showing higher density of surface expression. The CD18 integrin complexes bind CD54 (ICAM-1), CD102 (ICAM-2), CD50 (ICAM-3), iC3b, and fibrinogen. Heterodimers of CD18 with α subunits show different expression patterns on different leucocytes. Mice leucocytes lacking CD18 or expressing dysfunctional CD18 are defective in chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and homotypic aggregation. Additional information: Clone REA1226 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Schweiz
Human mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) CD8 + and Tc17 cells are important tissue-homing cell populations, characterized by high expression of CD161 ( ++) and type-17 differentiation, but their origins and relationships remain poorly defined. By transcriptional and functional analyses, we demonstrate that a pool of polyclonal, precommitted type-17CD161 ++CD8αβ + T cells exist in cord blood, from which a prominent MAIT cell(TCR Vα7.2 +) population emerges postnatally. During this expansion, CD8αα T cells appear exclusively within aCD161 ++CD8 +/MAIT subset, sharing cytokine production, chemokine-receptor expression, TCR-usage, and transcriptional profiles with their CD161 ++CD8αβ + counterparts. Our data demonstrate the origin and differentiation pathway of MAIT-cells from a naive type-17 precommitted CD161 ++CD8 +T-cell pool and the distinct phenotype and function of CD8αα cells in man. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparable impact of mutational and selective influences in shaping the expressed repertoire of peripheral IgM+/CD5- and IgM+/CD5+ B cells. AU - Dörner, Thomas. AU - Brezinschek, Hans Peter. AU - Foster, Sandra J.. AU - Brezinschek, Ruth I.. AU - Farner, Nancy L.. AU - Lipsky, Peter E.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - Somatic hypermutation and subsequent selection play a significant role in shaping the peripheral B cell repertoire. This repertoire is composed of CD5+ (5%) and CD5- B cells (95%) which are known to traffic through different lymphoid compartments. Previous studies have shown that V(H) gene usage by CD5+ and CD5- B cells is similar, although mutations are more frequent in the latter. However, the effect of mutation and subsequent selection on the expressed V(H) repertoire of CD5+ and CD5- B cells has not been delineated in detail. This study, therefore, analyzed the mutational pattern of individual IgM+/CD5+ and IgM+/CD5- B cells. In both populations, mutations can ...
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cd200 rpe mouse anti rat cd200 rpe | order cd200 rpe mouse anti rat cd200 rpe | How to use: cd200 rpe mouse anti rat cd200 rpe | support help for cd200 rpe mouse anti
Clone TB03 specifically recognizes human CD57. CD57, also known as HNK-1 or Leu-7, is an antigenic oligosaccharide moiety detected on extracellular proteins of certain cell types. In blood, CD57 is found on 15-20% of mononuclear cells, including subsets of natural killer (NK) and T cells, though not on erythrocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, or platelets. Also, CD57 expression can be found on a variety of neural cell types. CD57 has been shown to be expressed on late stage effector CD8+ T cells. The frequency of CD57+ T lymphocytes is raised in a variety of diseases. CD57 expression is also increased on chronically activated CD8+ T cells in persistent viral infections, such as HIV. - Belgique
APC anti-human Lineage Cocktail (CD3, CD14, CD19, CD20, CD56) - This anti-Human Lineage Cocktail is optimized for the detection of human lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils.
CD25− CD45RBlow as well as CD25+ CD45RBlow CD4+ cells from infected WT mice protect RAG KO mice against colitis. Infected RAG KO mice were given either no cel
Research in the past few years has documented significant advances in our understanding of the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD154) system in diverse immune functions. This system influences many T cell mediated inflammatory immune responses and effector functions, unmasking a previously unexpected role for CD40-CD154 in cell mediated immunity. Manipulation of CD154 in animal models of infection by the use of CD154-deficient mice or anti-CD154 antibodies has shown the importance of this system in the initiation of the inflammatory response, in the activation of antigen-presenting cells and in resistance to infections ...
Resumo: CD80 e CD86, também denominados B7.1 e B7.2, são genes proximamente ligados no cromossomo 3 que codificam glicoproteinas da superfamília das imunoglobulinas, expressas na superfície das células apresentadoras de antígeno. Essas moléculas participam na ativação e inibição das células T através da ligação aos receptores CD28 e CTLA-4. Nesse estudo foram analizados polimorfismos dos genes CD80 e CD86 com o objetivo de investigar a diversidade genética, microevolução e relevância funcional. Foram genotipados 1.124 indivíduos, incluindo brasileiros de ancestralidade predominantemente européia, mista africana e européia e japonesa, 5 populações ameríndias e africanos. As regiões promotoras de CD80 e CD86 foram sequenciadas e utilizadas em ensaios de gene repórter com luciferase em células HEK293T. As proteínas foram quantificadas por citometria de fluxo em monócitos, estimulados com quatro ligantes de TLR, de indivíduos com diferentes genótipos. Sítios de ...
Dear Ralph, I appreciate your questions and I think thay are valid and worth exploring. However, I think that I must clarify my point a bit. I am not implying that the CD8 cells are the worst hit by the virus. (Forgive the sensationalism of my first posting... this was meant to call attention to my article) Of course the CD4 cells are the worst hit because they carry the CD4 antigen constantly, thus their name. What I _am_ implying is that the CD8 cells must also be effected by the virus due to their positivity for CD4 during their development. Since CTL (the cells responsible for killing virally infected cells) are CD8 cells, any effects (quantitative or qualitative) on this compartment must be important in the pathogenisis of a viral disease. McMichael et al have reported that CTL response to viral peptide epitopes in the MHC class molecule dissipate at the end stage of HIV disease. This could be explained by the slow and steady exhaustion of CD8 precursers via infection by HIV when these ...
DC-expanded CD25+ CD4+ T cells suppress proliferation better than unexpanded CD25+ CD4+ T cells. (A) CD25+ CD4+ T cells from NOD.BDC2.5 mice were expanded for 7
CD4 receptor - MedHelps CD4 receptor Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for CD4 receptor. Find CD4 receptor information, treatments for CD4 receptor and CD4 receptor symptoms.
Figure 9 :Phenotype assessed by FACS assay following attempts at differentiation in induction medium A: Fibroblast X-axis CD45-PerCp; Y-axis CD10-FITC (CD45+CD10+31% UR quadrant and CD45-CD10+ 66% LR quadrant) 28% and 51% respectively. B: X-axis SP-C-FITC. Lung lineage specific lineages (SP-C+) ,2% (UL quadrant). C: X- axis CD45-PerCp. Hematopoietic lineage (pan-hematopoietic lineage negative). D: CD81+CD47+ (LR 67.5%) Fibroblast specific markers. E: R2 is CD45- gated SP-C+ (UR 1.34%). F: R2 is CD45- gated AQP-1+ (UR 0.67%). G: R5 is CD45- gated AQP-5+ (UR 0.67%). H: R5 is CD45- gated TTF-1+ (UR 0.31 ...
CD282 (TLR2), PE, clone: TL2.1, eBioscience™ 100 Tests; PE CD282 (TLR2), PE, clone: TL2.1, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD251 to CD400
CD135 (Flt3), clone: A2F10, eBioscience™ 100μg; Unconjugated CD135 (Flt3), clone: A2F10, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD101 to CD150
CD284 (TLR4), PE, clone: HTA125, eBioscience™ 25 Tests; PE CD284 (TLR4), PE, clone: HTA125, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD251 to CD400
CD66b, PE, clone: G10F5, eBioscience™ 100 Tests; PE CD66b, PE, clone: G10F5, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD51 to CD100
The hyaluronan (HA)-binding function (lectin function) of the leukocyte homing receptor, CD44, is tightly regulated. Herein we address possible mechanisms that regulate CD44 isoform-specific HA binding. Binding studies with melanoma transfectants expressing CD44H, CD44E, or with soluble immunoglobulin fusions of CD44H and CD44E (CD44H-Rg, CD44E-Rg) showed that although both CD44 isoforms can bind HA, CD44H binds HA more efficiently than CD44E. Using CD44-Rg fusion proteins we show that the variably spliced exons in CD44E, V8-V10, specifically reduce the lectin function of CD44, while replacement of V8-V10 by an ICAM-1 immunoglobulin domain restores binding to a level comparable to that of CD44H. Conversely, CD44 bound HA very weakly when exons V8-V10 were replaced with a CD34 mucin domain, which is heavily modified by O-linked glycans. Production of CD44E-Rg or incubation of CD44E-expressing transfectants in the presence of an O-linked glycosylation inhibitor restored HA binding to CD44H-Rg and ...
The CD4+/CD8+ ratio measures the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood of healthy adults and mice is about 2:1, and an altered ratio can indicate diseases relating to immunodeficiency or autoimmunity. An inverted CD4+/CD8+ ratio (namely, less than 1/1) indicates an impaired immune system. A reduced CD4+/CD8+ ratio is associated with reduced resistance to infection. Patients with tuberculosis show a reduced CD4+/CD8+ ratio. A declining CD4+/CD8+ ratio is associated with ageing, and is an indicator of immunosenescence. A study of elderly humans showed the highest expansion of cytotoxic T cells among those with cytomegalovirus. In obese adipose tissue, pro-inflammatory CD8+ cells increase and recruit macrophages, predominating over anti-inflammatory CD4+ cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells (lowering the CD4+/CD8+ ratio) through a number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis of abortively infected CD4 T cells, apoptosis of ...
Purified CD3-4- thymocytes were obtained by depletion of CD3+ and CD4+ cells from fresh thymocyte suspensions. 5-15% of these cells were found to express CD16 antigen, while other natural killer (NK) cell markers were virtually absent. Double fluorescence analysis revealed that 20-40% of thymic CD16+ cells coexpressed CD1, while approximately half were cyCD3+. When cultured in the presence of peripheral blood lymphocytes and H9 leukemia cell line as a source of irradiated feeder cells and interleukin 2 (IL-2), CD3-4- thymocytes underwent extensive proliferation. In addition, after 1-2 wk of culture, 30-50% of these cells were found to express CD16 surface antigen. Cloning under limiting dilution conditions of either CD3-4- or CD3-4-16- thymocytes in the presence of irradiated H9 cells resulted in large proportions (approximately 50%) of CD16+ clones. On the basis of the expression of surface CD16 and/or cyCD3 antigen, clones could be grouped in the following subsets: CD16+ cyCD3+; CD16+ cyCD3-; ...
T cell (TC) activation requires the coordinated signaling of the T cell receptor (TCR) and coreceptor molecules, allowing TCs to respond to lower degrees of TCR occupancy. Coreceptor molecules set the threshold for TC activation by controlling different regulatory signaling loops. The Cbl family members prevent undesired activation of T cells by regulating TCR signals. In this report, we show that TC prestimulation by the CD43 coreceptor molecule before TCR engagement inhibits TCR-dependent c-Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation, c-Cbl interaction with the adapter molecule Crk-L and promotes Cbl-b degradation in a PKCθ-dependent manner. Consequently, the prolonged tyrosine phosphorylation and delayed degradation of ZAP-70 and of the ζ chain lead to enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and robust TC response. These data indicates that CD43-mediated signals lower the threshold for TC activation by restricting the c-Cbl and Cbl-b inhibitory effects on TCR signaling. In addition to the strength
Like most mammalian species, humans express several structurally distinct CD1 antigen-presenting molecules. The conservation of large CD1 gene families among most mammals suggests that each type of CD1 protein has distinct functions that confer selective advantage. Cellular studies of CD1 proteins increasingly explain how each CD1 protein differs from the others. CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, and CD1d have distinct antigen groove structures, patterns of expression in tissues, intracellular trafficking, and trigger T cells expressing diverse TCRs (Kasmar et al., 2009). CD1d (group 2) diverges most clearly from CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c (group 1) with regard to protein sequence. Also, group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins show differing transcriptional responses to pathogens, suggesting that they function at different stages of the immune response (Roura-Mir et al., 2005b). Collectively, these cellular studies suggest that group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins likely have differing roles in immune responses.. The majority ...
Adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells inhibits HSV-1-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Purified CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25− T cells (2 × 106/mouse) were adoptively transferred into WT B6 mice 24 h before HSV infection, and the immune response was measured on days 7 and 28 p.i. (A) On days 7 and 28 p.i., spleen cells were incubated with gB498-505, and CD8/IFN-γ production was measured by intracellular staining. The number shown in each plot is the mean percentage of IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells obtained from four mice per group. (B) The resulting decrease in IFN-γ-secreting CD8+ T cells in B6 mice after adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells were also measured by a standard ELISPOT assay. On days 7 and 28 post HSV infection, spleen cells were analyzed for the number of IFN-γ-secreting CD8+ T cells in response to SSIEFARL peptide. The error bars represent the mean ± SD of four different mice in the same group. *P , 0.05 compared with HSV-infected B6 mice receiving no adoptive transfer. Without ...
CD8+ CTLs are essential for effective immune defense against intracellular microbes and neoplasia. CTLs recognize short peptide fragments presented in association with MHC class I (MHCI) molecules on the surface of infected or dysregulated cells. Ag recognition involves the binding of both TCR and CD8 coreceptor to a single ligand (peptide MHCI [pMHCI]). The TCR/pMHCI interaction confers Ag specificity, whereas the pMHCI/CD8 interaction mediates enhanced sensitivity to Ag. Striking biophysical differences exist between the TCR/pMHCI and pMHCI/CD8 interactions; indeed, the pMHCI/CD8 interaction can be ,100-fold weaker than the cognate TCR/pMHCI interaction. In this study, we show that increasing the strength of the pMHCI/CD8 interaction by ∼15-fold results in nonspecific, cognate Ag-independent pMHCI tetramer binding at the cell surface. Furthermore, pMHCI molecules with superenhanced affinity for CD8 activate CTLs in the absence of a specific TCR/pMHCI interaction to elicit a full range of ...
Results Cultured cells started to express CD14 on the day 12 and more than 90% of the cells expressed CD14 on the day 21 in the monocyte differentiation induction course. According to the expression levels of CD14, the cell population was divided into three groups: CD14 (−), CD14 (+) and CD14 (++). CD15 (+) cells were observed in CD14 (−) and CD14 (+) population but not in CD14 (++) population. The CD15+ cells in CD14 (+) transiently appeared in RA-iPS derived cells at 11.9±2.8% (mean ± SE) on day15. However these cell proportion in NOF was1.7±2.0%. Meanwhile, CD15+ cells in CD14 (−) proportion decreased during monocyte differentiation in RA-iPS cells, but remained in NOF-iPS cells (representative data, RA 31.5, 20.6, 15.6%, NOF 47.3, 46.1, 47.3%, on day15, 18 and 21).. ...
We next tested the prediction that the inhibitory activity of LLC CD4+CD25+ TILs should be greater than that of peripheral LN CD4+CD25+ cells. As shown in Fig. 3⇑B, there was no difference in the suppressive potency of Tregs over various ratios of T effector (Teff) to Treg cells from peripheral LNs of tumor-bearing and control mice. In contrast, TIL CD4+CD25+ cells retrieved from LLC tumors exhibited far more potent suppressive activity than LN CD4+CD25+ cells from tumor-free mice (Fig. 3⇑C). Thus, the suppressive effects of peripheral LN Tregs and TIL Tregs correlated well with their levels of TNFR2 expression. As shown in Fig. 3⇑, B and C, the potent inhibitory effect exerted by CD4+CD25+ TILs was not Ag specific because both targeted responder cells and APCs were from tumor-free mice. The phenotype of TIL CD4+CD25+ cells, which were 75∼100% TNFR2+, resembled that of normal mouse LN TNFR2+ Tregs and were indicative of an activated/memory subset (data not shown).. Although other factors ...
CD4+/CD8+/CD3+ cells are 1-4% range of the lymphocyte population from our HIV+ patients. Most of the cells are brightCD4+/dimCD8+ but all combinations of bright and dim are possible. We include these dual positive cells in both the CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+ counts. What do other labs do with these cells and why? -----Original Message----- From: Kenneth Ault [mailto:aultk at] Sent: Wednesday, October 31, 2001 7:32 PM To: cyto-inbox Subject: Re: cd4 cd8 coexpression A phenomenon frequently forgotten is coincidence. If two cells enter the observation volume at the same time they will be seen as one event with the properties of both cells. This is a very common problem in my world (platelets) and should be considered as a possible explanation for any kind of unexpected dual expression of markers. It would be interesting to know if the frequency of CD4/CD8 doubles changes as the particle flow rate changes (i.e change the sample pressure or dilute the specimen.) Ken Ault ...
ClearLLab Control Cells Normal and ClearLLab Control Cells Abnormal are stabilized preparations of assayed, lysable whole blood intended as process controls for the verification of the ClearLLab 10C Panels on the Navios and Navios EX flow cytometers. Parameters assayed include: Kappa, Lambda, CD5, CD200, CD38, CD20, CD19, CD45, TCRγδ, CD4, CD2, CD56, CD3, CD7, CD8, CD16, CD10, CD13, CD64, CD14, HLA-DR, CD11b, CD15, CD33, CD34, CD117, and CD123 They provide positive cell controls that are processed in the same manner as a whole blood sample. This allows verification of reagent performance and the methods used for staining targeted cells, lysing erythrocytes, and analyzing samples with flow cytometry.
We next determined the function of the CD4+CD25+ T cells. For these experiments we used the CD4+CD25- and CD4+CD25+ peripheral blood T cells whose FoxP3 expression levels were shown in Figure 1 (a and b). These T cell subsets were assessed for their ability to respond to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, and for the ability of the CD25+ cells to suppress the in vitro activation of the CD25- cells. When cultured in the presence of feeder cells along with soluble anti-CD3 and anti-CD28, the CD4+CD25- cells responded with robust proliferation, whereas the CD4+CD25+ cells did not (Figure 1c). When the two populations were cocultured, the level of proliferation, as measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation, was dramatically reduced (Figure 1c). The level of suppression seen was correlated with the ratio of CD4+CD25-:CD4+CD25+ cells in the culture, with more CD25+ cells resulting in more suppression of CD25- cell proliferation. These results are not due to exhaustion of the resources within the culture ...
CD200 (OX2) is a broadly distributed cell surface glycoprotein that interacts with a structurally related receptor (CD200R) expressed on rodent myeloid cells and is involved in regulation of macrophage function. We report the first characterization of human CD200R (hCD200R) and define its binding characteristics to hCD200. We also report the identification of a closely related gene to hCD200R, designated hCD200RLa, and four mouse CD200R-related genes (termed mCD200RLa-d). CD200, CD200R, and CD200R-related genes were closely linked in humans and mice, suggesting that these genes arose by gene duplication. The distributions of the receptor genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR, and protein expression was confirmed by a set of novel mAbs. The distribution of mouse and human CD200R was similar, with strongest labeling of macrophages and neutrophils, but also other leukocytes, including monocytes, mast cells, and T lymphocytes. Two mCD200 receptor-like family members, designated mCD200RLa and
As with any breakthrough, new questions arise and new experiments become feasible.....One problem, however, is that CD32a is a marker for only 50% of the reservoir, whereas the eradication of latent HIV would require a much greater reduction in the number of latently infected cells in the body. Moreover, targeting CD32a would also make the antigen-presenting cells that normally express CD32a vulnerable to destruction, which might well cause unwanted or harmful side effects.....Second, the authors studied CD4 lymphocytes from the blood, but these circulating cells account for 2%, at most, of the CD4 T cells in the body2. It remains to be seen whether CD32a is as good a marker for latently infected cells in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, gut and other tissues. Perhaps more markers could be identified from the 103 differentially expressed genes found in the researchers screen - analysis of these proteins in combination with CD32a might increase the total proportion of identifiable latent ...
MDSCs are myelomonocytic cells with immunosuppressive activity induced by tumor growth. These cells have been thoroughly characterized in the mouse and are distinguished in granulocytic and monocytic MDSCs, according to the presence of specific markers: monocytic MDSCs are CD11b+ve/Ly6G-ve/Ly6Chigh, whereas granulocytic MDSCs are CD11b+ve/Ly6G+ve/Ly6Clow. There are no uniform markers for human MDSCs, although it has been observed that lineage-negative (Lin−) myeloid cells bearing Cd11b, CD33, and various combinations of CD66b, CD14, CD15, and HLA-DRlow markers have immunosuppressive activity (22). Pharmacologically induced differentiation or depletion of these cells has been shown to improve the immune response in patients with cancer (23, 24). Thus, it is likely that therapeutic interventions aimed at the inactivation of MDSCs could benefit patients by reactivating the antitumor immune response. Neuroblastoma is a pediatric cancer with a dismal outcome in its high-risk, metastatic form. The ...
CD to MP3 Maker is an extremely easy to use cd ripper and MP3 to WAV decoder and WAV to MP3 encoder for Windows 9X/NT/Me/2000/XP/Vista/7 . Rip CD to MP3,OGG,WMA,WAV,AAC,APE,FLAC,TTA,SPX,AC-3,MP2,WV(wavepack) and MPC(musepack) CD to MP3 Maker is an extremely easy to use cd ripper and audio converter for Windows OS. It may rip CD to MP3,OGG,WMA,WAV,AAC,APE,FLAC,TTA,SPX,AC-3,MP2,WV(wavepack) and MPC(musepack) .And convert audio formats MP3, WAV, WMA, OGG, AAC ...
In this study, the method to achieve the precise CD MTT (critical dimension mean to target) correction in manufacturing attenuated PSM (phase-shift mask) is investigated. There has been a growing demand for more precise Mask CD MTT control in recent years. The CD correction method has been developed and applied to meet the tighter CD MTT specification [1]. However, the efficiency of the CD correction is greatly affected by the repeatability of the CD measurement. The factors, which can have an influence on the CD measurement, are the fluctuations of the pattern profile and the electron current of the SEM. The conventional CD MTT correction method is basically to correct MoSi CD MTT by applying the additional dry etch for MoSi based on Cr CD value. Therefore, the repeatability of the Cr CD MTT is the crucial point for the accuracy of the final CD MTT correction. Although the Cr CD MTT is the crucial factor for the successful CD MTT correction, it has the fluctuation due to the Cr pattern profile. ...
Paraf, A; Taylor, D W.; Mage, M; and Mathieson, B J., Analysis of membrane proteins from lyt 2+ positive thymocytes. Abstr. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2005 ...
CD25 is the alpha chain of the IL-2 receptor. It is a type I transmembrane protein present on activated T cells, activated B cells, some thymocytes, myeloid precursors, and oligodendrocytes that associates with CD122 to form a heterodimer that can act as a high-affinity receptor for IL-2. Studies have shown that a large proportion of resting memory T cells constitutively express CD25. CD25 is expressed in most B-cell neoplasms, some acute nonlymphocytic leukemias, neuroblastomas, and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Its soluble form, called sIL-2R may be elevated in these diseases and is occasionally used to track disease progression. CD25 is also utilized in cases of ...
Mouse anti Rat CD11a antibody, clone WT.1 reacts with rat CD11a, a glycoprotein of 160-170 kDa, associated with CD18. CD11a is one of the
CD4 and CD8 are the cells most commonly infected by the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. A high CD4 or CD8 ratio would indicate that the disease is progressing slowly or that the infection is...
CD4+ T细胞的激活需要T细胞上的TCR和共受体(CD28或ICOS),抗原呈递细胞上的MHCII和共激活分子两对分子的分别,同时结合。仅其中一对的结合,无法产生有效的T细胞激活。理想的CD8+ T细胞激活则依赖于CD4+ T细胞的信号转导[28]。CD4+细胞可以在初级CD8 T细胞的初次免疫应答中给予帮助,并且在急性感染的后期维持CD8+ 记忆T细胞的活性。所以,CD4+ T的激活对于CD8+ T细胞的活动是有利的[29][30][31]。 相比于MHC分子上的抗原,抗原呈递细胞的共激活分子一般是由病原体的副产物、热休克蛋白或者坏死的细胞碎片诱导表达的。共刺激机制被认为可以避免自体免疫的发生,因为即使T细胞错误地结合了自体抗原,也可能因为没有受到合适的共刺激而无法正常活化。一旦T细胞被正确地活化,它的细胞表面蛋白表达就会发生巨大的改变,活化T细胞的标志蛋白包括CD69,CD71,CD25 ...
IHC Markers. Cytokeratins, Epithelial. AE1/AE3, CK5/6, CK7, CK8, 35BH11, CK8/18, CK19, CK20, CAM 5.2, HMW 34BE12, BER EP4, CEA, CDX2, D2-40, GCDFP 15, HEP-Par-1, , Galectin 3, Inhibin, RCC, thyroglobulin, TTF-1, , PLAP. CD Markers. CD1a, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7, CD8, CD10, CD15, CD20, CD23, CD30, CD31, CD33, CD34, CD42b, CD43, CD45, CD45 RO, CD56, CD57, CD61, CD68, CD79a, CD99, CD103, CD117, CD138, CD163. Proliferation & prognostics markers. HER2/neu, MLH1/MSH2/MSH6/PMS2, P53, cathepsin D, KI67, WT1, AKT. Other IHC/CISH markers available and custom on request- see menu list. Flow Cytometry Markers. Lymphoid markers. CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7, CD8, CD10, CD19, CD20, CD23, CD38, CD45, CD56, CD57, sIgkappa, sIglambda, and FMC7. Lymphocyte profile and absolute counts. CD4, CD8, CD3, CD45, CD19, CD56. Myeloid Markers. CD11b, CD13, CD14, CD16, CD33, CD34, CD45, CD117, and HLADR. NK cell markers. CD16, CD56, CD57. Plasma cell markers. CD38, CD45, CD56, CD138, cIg kappa, cIg lambda. Specialty ...
Studies of the most immature T cell progenitors in the human thymus have been hampered by the lack of markers and assays that define these cells. In this report we used a novel human fetal thymic organ culture system to determine the potential of T cell precursors isolated from human postnatal thymus, to differentiate into CD3+ thymocytes, and to investigate early stages of human T cell development. It was found that thymocytes that lack the markers CD3, CD4, and CD8 (triple negative [TN]) can differentiate in an allogeneic organotypic thymic culture. The capacity of TN thymocytes to differentiate was exclusively confined to the CD34+ population. CD34- TN thymocytes failed to differentiate in this system. In contrast, cloned lines of CD3- thymocytes could only be established from CD34- TN thymocytes. Five subsets of CD3- thymocytes were found with the following phenotype: CD1-TN, CD1+TN, CD1+CD4+CD8-, CD1+CD4+CD8 alpha+ beta-, and CD1+CD4+CD8 alpha beta+. These subpopulations expressed ...
In comparison to murine dendritic cells (DCs), less is known about the function of human DCs in tissues. Here, we analyzed, by using lung tissues from humans and humanized mice, the role of human CD1c(+) and CD141(+) DCs in determining the type of CD8(+) T cell immunity generated to live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine. We found that both lung DC subsets acquired influenza antigens in vivo and expanded specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, lung-tissue-resident CD1c(+) DCs, but not CD141(+) DCs, were able to drive CD103 expression on CD8(+) T cells and promoted CD8(+) T cell accumulation in lung epithelia in vitro and in vivo. CD1c(+) DCs induction of CD103 expression was dependent on membrane-bound cytokine TGF-β1. Thus, CD1c(+) and CD141(+) DCs generate CD8(+) T cells with different properties, and CD1c(+) DCs specialize in the regulation of mucosal CD8(+) T cells. Immunity 2013 Apr 18; 38(4):818-30.
|span style=font-family:Times,serif;font-size:9pt;>The SK1 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD8 alpha (CD8α). CD8α is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. CD8α is expressed by the majority of thymocytes, by subpopulations of αβ T cells and γδ T cells and by some NK cells. Cell surface CD8α is expressed either as a disulfide-linked homodimer (CD8αα) or as a heterodimer (CD8αβ) when disulfide-bonded to a CD8 beta chain (CD8β). CD8-positive αβ T cells coexpress both CD8αα homodimers and CD8αβ heterodimers whereas som|/span>|span style=font-family:Times,serif;color:#000000;font-size:9pt;>e γδ T cells and NK cells express CD8αα homodimers. CD8 plays important roles in T cell activation and selection. The extracellular IgSF domain of CD8α binds to a non-polymorphic determinant on HLA class I molecules (α3 domain) and enables CD8 to function as a co-receptor with MHC class I-restricted TCR during T cell recognition of
The CD2 receptor on T lymphocytes is essential for T cell adhesion and stimulation by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Blockade of CD2 function is immunosuppressive in both model systems and humans, indicating the importance of CD2 for the cellular immune response. Although the affinity of the molecular interaction between CD2 and its counter-receptor, CD58, is relatively low when measured in solution, this interaction mediates tight adhesion within the 2D cell-cell interface. To understand the mechanisms responsible for regulating the avidity of the CD2-CD58 interaction, we measured the number, affinity, and lateral mobility of CD2 molecules on resting and activated T cells. Cell activation caused a 1.5-fold increase in the number of CD2 sites on the cell surface, and the 2D affinity of CD2 for CD58 increased by 2.5-fold. The combination of T cell activation and CD2 ligation to CD58 decreased the laterally mobile fraction of the ligated CD2. Together, these changes would substantially enhance CD2
Human CD1d molecules present an unknown ligand, mimicked by the synthetic glycosphingolipid α-galactosylceramide (αGC), to a highly conserved NKT cell subset expressing an invariant TCR Vα24-JαQ paired with Vβ11 chain (Vα24+Vβ11+ invariant NK T cell (NKTinv)). The developmental pathway of Vα24+Vβ11+NKTinv is still unclear, but recent studies in mice were consistent with a TCR instructive, rather than a stochastic, model of differentiation. Using CD1d-αGC-tetramers, we demonstrate that in humans, TCR variable domains other than Vα24 and Vβ11 can mediate specific recognition of CD1d-αGC. In contrast to Vα24+Vβ11+NKTinv Vα24-/CD1d-αGC-specific T cells express either CD8αβ or CD4 molecules, but they are never CD4 CD8 double negative. We show that CD8αβ+Vα24-/CD1d-αGC-specific T cells exhibit CD8-dependent specific cytotoxicity and have lower affinity TCRs than Vα24+/CD1d-αGC-specific T cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that, contrary to the currently held view,
DTA-1 mAb abrogates suppression mediated by CD4+ CD25+ T cells. (A) CD4+ CD25- or CD4+ CD25+ T cells (gated as a or b, respectively) were purified by cell-sorter from BALB/c spleen cells. (B) CD4+ CD25+ T cells (open square and closed square) or CD4+ CD25- T cells (open circle and closed circle) purified from 2-month-old BALB/c mice, or these two populations mixed in equal amounts (open triangle and closed triangle), were stimulated for 3 days along with MMC-treated spleen cells as APC in the absence or presence of graded amounts of DTA-1 mAb. Incorporation of [3H] thymidine by proliferating lymphocytes during the last 6 hr of the culture was measured. (C) Spleen cell suspensions prepared from 2-month-old BALB/c mouse were stained with anti-CD4, anti-CD25 and DTA-1. Expression of GITR (DTA-1) on CD4+ CD25+ T cells or CD4+ CD25- T cells is shown in the histogram. The dotted lines represent control staining with an irrelevant Ab.. ...
Figure 3. Expression of CD25 on LSCs is dependent on STAT5 activity. A, CD25 expression on CD34+/CD38─ LSCs was analyzed by flow cytometry after incubation in control medium, pimozide (10 or 50 μmol/L), or DMSO at 37°C for 24 hours. Results show CD25 expression (median fluorescence intensity) on CD34+/CD38─ LSCs as a percentage of control and represent the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. Asterisk (*): P , 0.05 compared with untreated cells (control). B, CD25 expression on CD34+/CD38─ LSCs after incubation in control medium, BEZ235, or RAD001 (each 1 μmol/L) at 37°C for 24 hours. Results show CD25 expression on CD34+/CD38─ LSCs as a percentage of control and represent the mean ± SD from five independent experiments. C, expression of pSTAT5 (top) and CD25 (bottom) in KU812 cells after incubation in control medium or TKIs (imatinib, nilotinib, ponatinib, each 0.01-1 μmol/L) at 37°C for 4 hours (pSTAT5) or 24 hours (CD25). Results are expressed as staining index (SI; ...
|span style=font-family:Times,serif;font-size:9pt;>The L293 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD28 which is also known as Tp44 or T44. The CD28 antigen is a 44 kDa homodimeric type I transmembrane glycoprotein which is present on most mature T cells, thymocytes, and plasma cells. CD28 is a cell-adhesion molecule (CAM) that functions as a receptor for CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) antigens, which are present on activated B lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells. Interaction of the CD28 antigen with CD80 or CD86 antigens, or both, co-stimulates CD2 and CD3 antigen/T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-dependent T-cell-mediated proliferation and cytotoxicity. The L293 antibody has been demonstrated to bind to the same molecule as clone CD28.2, another CD28-specific antibody.|/span>
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) stimulates both activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to proliferate. IL-2 signals through an identical receptor complex and promotes the same dose-dependent phosphorylation of the canonical transcription factor STAT5 in both cell types. Despite this, CD8+ T cells enter the S phase earlier and proliferate to a greater extent than do CD4+ T cells in response to IL-2. We identified distinct IL-2 signaling dynamics in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In IL-2-stimulated CD8+ T cells, STAT5 phosphorylation increased rapidly and was sustained for 6 hours. In contrast, CD4+ T cells had a biphasic response, with maxima at 15 min and 2 to 4 hours after stimulation. Both cell types required vesicular trafficking, but only CD4+ T cells required new protein synthesis to maintain high phosphorylation of STAT5. Two subunits of the IL-2 receptor, IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγ, were twice as abundant in CD8+ T cells than in CD4+ T cells. Reduction of IL-2Rβ abundance by 50% was sufficient to convert CD8+ T cells to ...
ARABIDOPSIS BIOLOGICAL RESOURCE CENTER AT OHIO STATE DNA STOCK LIST MEYEROWITZ LAB RFLP PHAGE These clones have been tested against all three crosses among Columbia, Landsberg erecta and Niederzenz. The map positions are taken from Chang et al. (1988) PNAS v. 85 p.6859. Updated and more detailed information will be included in the catalog and database. Stocks are listed by map location. CalTech Stock # Number Chrom. # Map Position ---------------------------------------------------------- CD1-10 488 1 11.3 CD1-9 322 1 14.2 CD1-8 241 1 19.9 CD1-7 333 1 23.2 CD1-6 219 1 26.5 CD1-5 235 1 36.4 CD1-4 215 1 51.6 CD1-3 310 1 51.6 CD1-2 271 1 56.5 CD1-1 201 1 58.8 CD1-19 402 1 60.8 CD1-18 254 1 60.8 CD1-17 335 1 65.1 CD1-16 253 1 68.9 CD1-15 299 1 68.9 CD1-14 281a 1 84.8 CD1-13 213 1 87.9 CD1-12 280 1 99.0 CD1-11 305 1 107.1 CD1-29 421 1 109. CD1-28 315 1 113. CD1-27 252 1 123.4 CD1-26 453 1 125.5 CD1-25 532 1 134.7 CD1-24 237 1 136.3 CD1-36 132 1 144.4 CD1-22 336 2 0 CD1-21 429 2 0.02 CD1-20 551 2 16.3 ...
Asthma affects approximately 300 million people worldwide and is the most common chronic lung disease, which usually is associated with bronchial inflammation. Most research has focused upon the role of CD4+ T cells and relatively few studies have addressed the phenotypic and functional roles of CD8+ T cell types and subtypes.Human NK-like CD8+ T cells may involve cells that have been described as CD8+CD28-, CD8+CD28-CD57+, CD8+CD27-, or CD8+ effector-memory (TEM) cells, among other. However, most of the data which is available regarding these various cell types were obtained in murine models, did not thoroughly characterize these cells with phenotypically or functionally or did not involve asthma-related settings.Nevertheless, one may conceptualize three principal roles for human NK-like CD8+ T cells in asthma: disease-promoting, regulatory and/or tissue repair. Although evidence for some of these roles is scarce, it is possible to extrapolate some data from overlapping or related CD8+ T cell
CD3 complex is crucial in transducing antigen-recognition signals into the cytoplasm of T cells and in regulating the cell surface expression of the TCR complex. T cell activation through the antigen receptor (TCR) involves the cytoplasmic tails of the CD3 subunits CD3 gamma, CD3 delta, CD3 epsilon and CD3 zeta (CD247). These CD3 subunits are structurally related members of the immunoglobulins super family encoded by closely linked genes on human chromosome 11. The CD3 components have long cytoplasmic tails that associate with cytoplasmic signal transduction molecules. This association is mediated at least in part by a double tyrosine-based motif present in a single copy in the CD3 subunits. CD3 may play a role in TCR-induced growth arrest, cell survival and proliferation ...
CD3 complex is crucial in transducing antigen-recognition signals into the cytoplasm of T cells and in regulating the cell surface expression of the TCR complex. T cell activation through the antigen receptor (TCR) involves the cytoplasmic tails of the CD3 subunits CD3 gamma, CD3 delta, CD3 epsilon and CD3 zeta (CD247). These CD3 subunits are structurally related members of the immunoglobulins super family encoded by closely linked genes on human chromosome 11. The CD3 components have long cytoplasmic tails that associate with cytoplasmic signal transduction molecules. This association is mediated at least in part by a double tyrosine-based motif present in a single copy in the CD3 subunits. CD3 may play a role in TCR-induced growth arrest, cell survival and proliferation ...
APC anti-human Lineage Cocktail (CD3, CD14, CD16, CD19, CD20, CD56) - This anti-Human Lineage Cocktail is optimized for the detection of human peripheral blood T cells, B cells, NK cells, monocytes, and neutrophils.
Here we show that elevated CD14++CD16− monocytes predict cardiovascular events. Elevated CD14++CD16− monocytes predicted CVD risk independently of gender, age, current smoking, HDL cholesterol, and presence of diabetes and hypertension. CD14++CD16− monocytes did not, however, associate with the extent of atherosclerosis at baseline. In contrast, the percentages of monocytes expressing CD16 were negatively associated to carotid IMT at baseline. This seems contradictory but might indicate that different monocyte subsets have different biological functions. CD14++CD16− monocytes might cause inflammation that weakens the fibrous cap covering plaques and thus be associated with increased risk of clinical events, whereas CD16-expressing monocytes might play a greater role in determining the size of the plaque, perhaps even having a protective, or reparative, rather than plaque-promoting function. The chemokine receptors CCR2, CX3CR1, and CCR5 were not differentially expressed between cases and ...
A CD4+ count is a blood test to determine how well the immune system is working in people who have been diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). CD4+ cells are a type of white blood cell. White blood cells are important in fighting infections. CD4+ cells are also called T-lymphocytes, T-cells, or T-helper cells.. HIV infects CD4+ cells. The number of CD4+ cells helps determine whether other infections (opportunistic infections) may occur. The pattern of CD4+ counts over time is more important than any single CD4+ value because the values can change from day to day. The CD4+ pattern over time shows the effect of the virus on the immune system. In people infected with HIV who are not getting treated, CD4+ counts generally decrease as HIV progresses. A low CD4+ count usually indicates a weakened immune system and a higher chance of getting opportunistic infections.. ...
As depicted in Fig. 3A, a clear upregulated pattern of expression of CD40, CD80 and CD86, but not CD40L, can be seen on the surface of CD11c+PDCA-1+. cells obtained from the LN. In contrast, we detect only the upregulation of CD40 on CD11c+PDCA-1+ splenocytes at day 10 after infection (Fig. 3B). In addition, we also stained LN and spleen cells for CD11c expression in conjuction with CD8α in addition to the activation markers CD40, CD40L, and CD86 at different times after infection. A limited pattern of upregulation of expression of Lumacaftor cell line CD86 can be seen on the surface of CD11c+CD8α+ cells collected from the LN or spleen on days 3-7 following infection (Fig. 4A and B). Similar analyses were also conducted for CD11C+CD8a− cells collected. from the spleen and LN, but we did not detect an upregulation of expression of the activation markers CD40, CD40L, CD80, or CD86 at any time point from 3 to 30 days in the spleen or LN (data not shown). To determine whether indeed ...
In advanced age, decreased CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses to novel pathogens and cancer is paralleled by a decline in the number and function of naïve CTL precursors (CTLp). Although the age-related fall in CD8+ T-cell numbers is well established, neither the underlying mechanisms nor the extent of variation for different epitope specificities have been defined. Furthermore, naïve CD8+ T cells expressing high levels of CD44 accumulate with age, but it is unknown whether this accumulation reflects their preferential survival or an age-dependent driver of CD8+ T-cell proliferation. Here, we track the number and phenotype of four influenza A virus (IAV)-specific CTLp populations in naïve C57BL/6 (B6) mice during aging, and compare T-cell receptor (TCR) clonal diversity for the CD44hi and CD44lo subsets of one such population. We show differential onset of decline for several IAV-specific CD8+ T-cell populations with advanced age that parallel age-associated changes in the B6 ...
A method for updating detecting and loading CD volume indexes from a multiple-CD set to a cumulative volume table contained in a computer memory. The method employs an volume index file on each intermediate CD of the set along with a dual index file feature on the last CD of the set. The second index file on the last CD is a cumulative file of all the index files contained on all the CDs of the set. The cumulative index file on the last CD is compared to the cumulative volume table to generate a list of missing volumes which have not already been loaded into computer memory. The method permits determining whether a given CD is a single CD or a CD that is one of a multiple-CD set by detecting the presence of a second volume index file on the CD.
Ama : CD4+CD8+ ift pozitif T h creleri ( PT) ayr bir T h cre alt pop lasyonu olarak iki temel fenotip ile s n fland r lmaktad r: CD4y ksek CD8d k ve CD4d k CD8y ksek. Son y llarda, PT lerin enfeksiyonlar, t m rler ve otoimm n hastal klar n patogenezi ile ili kisi tan mlanm t r. Sa l kl bireyler aras nda referans de erleri bilinmemektedir. Bu nedenle, bu al man n amac , Kolombiya Bogota daki bir kan bankas ndaki sa l kl vericilerden al nan periferik kandaki PT ler i in bir referans de eri sa lamak ve bir y zey belirteci kullanarak aktivasyon durumunu belirlemektir ...
cd80 mouse anti human cd80 azide free | order cd80 mouse anti human cd80 azide free | How to use: cd80 mouse anti human cd80 azide free | support help for cd80 mouse
Adoptive cell transfer of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes has shown clinical efficacy in the treatment of melanoma and is now also being explored in other tumor types. Generation of sufficient numbers of effector T cells requires extensive ex vivo expansion, often at the cost of T cell differentiation and potency. For the past 20 years, IL-2 has been the key cytokine applied in the expansion of TIL for ACT. However, the use of IL-2 has also led to collateral expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and progressive T cell differentiation, factors known to limit in vivo persistence and activity of transferred TIL. The use of alternative T cell growth factors is therefore warranted. Here, we have compared the effects of IL-2, -15 and −21 cytokines on the expansion and activation of TIL from single-cell suspensions of non-small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer and melanoma. We applied the K562-based artificial APC (aAPC) platform for the direct and rapid expansion of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes isolated
Once you have created a playlist and have added the MP3 files in iTunes, you can easily create an audio CD, MP3 CD, or a Data CD. First, set preferences in iTunes from the iTunes menu, select burn and choose Audio CD, MP3 CD, or Data CD. For this assignment, choose Audio CD. Click the Burn button in the iTunes main window, insert a CD-R, and click the Burn button again. Enjoy!. Your audio CD should have:. ...
Human CellExp IL-2 R beta /CD122, human recombinant protein, IL2RB, RP5-1170K4.6, CD122, P70-75 validated in (PBV11014r-10), Abgent
Two negatives used together in a sentence constitute a double negative. The use of a double negative to express a positive is acceptable, although it yields a weaker affirmative than the simpler positive and may be confusing: Our results are not inconsistent with the prior hypothesis. More direct incentives have produced substantial changes in behavior in the past, although not without adverse consequences. Rheumatologic symptoms were not uncommon in both groups. However, it is not grammatically acceptable to use a double negative to emphasize the negative. In the following example, the double negative conveys the opposite of what is intended.The
Two negatives used together in a sentence constitute a double negative. The use of a double negative to express a positive is acceptable, although it yields a weaker affirmative than the simpler positive and may be confusing: Our results are not inconsistent with the prior hypothesis. More direct incentives have produced substantial changes in behavior in the past, although not without adverse consequences. Rheumatologic symptoms were not uncommon in both groups. However, it is not grammatically acceptable to use a double negative to emphasize the negative. In the following example, the double negative conveys the opposite of what is intended.The
ALPS panel uses antibodies against CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45, alpha beta TCR, CD25, CD27, HLA-DR, CD19, CD5, CD27, and B220 to create a panel that quantifies double negative T cells, CD27+ B cells, and CD25 and HLA-DR expression on T cells to rank the likelihood of ALPS. Test Code: ALPS Panel by Flow. ...
La CD154, anche chiamata CD40 ligando o semplicemente CD40L, è una proteina espressa soprattutto nei linfociti T attivati e facente parte della superfamiglia del TNF[1]. Si lega al CD40 presente sulle antigen-presenting cell (APC) agendo come co-attivatore[1]. In particolare, il legame CD40/CD40L attiva i linfociti B stimolandoli a formare i centri germinativi, porta le cellule dendritiche ad aumentare la produzione di molecole stimolatorie e citochine (licensing delle cellule dendritiche), e aumenta lattività microbicida dei macrofagi. ...
By studying activated DC, it was found that CD82 appeared to have an opposing function to CD37. Whereas CD37 expression was down-regulated following activation of DC, CD82 was up-regulated and restrained DC migration to lymph nodes. DC that were deficient in either CD37 or CD82 were unable to become fully functional and DC that were deficient in CD82 were able to spread much further than CD37 deficient DC. Thus, unactivated DC were observed to have high CD37 expression and low CD82 expression leading to a highly mobile cell that is able to travel easily around the body. Activated DC (DC that have sensed an infection) have low CD37 expression and high CD82 expression which limits mobility of the DC but is able to efficiently signal to immune cells that an infection is present ...
"CD8 T-cell recognition of human 5T4 oncofetal antigen". International Journal of Cancer. 119 (7): 1638-47. doi:10.1002/ijc. ... "Attenuated recombinant vaccinia virus expressing oncofetal antigen (tumor-associated antigen) 5T4 induces active therapy of ... 5T4 is an antigen expressed in a number of carcinomas. It is an N-glycosylated transmembrane 72 kDa glycoprotein containing ... 5T4 is often referred to as an oncofetal antigen due to its expression in foetal trophoblast (where it was first discovered) or ...
The CD4 and CD8 T cell surface antigens are associated with the internal membrane tyrosine-protein kinase p56lck.. „Cell". 55 ( ... The structure of the CD4 and CD8 genes.. „Annu Rev Immunol". 5, s. 561-84, 1987. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.iy.05.040187.003021. PMID ... Constitutively active Lck kinase in T cells drives antigen receptor signal transduction.. „Immunity". 32 (6), s. 766-77, Jun ... Nomenclature for clusters of differentiation (CD) of antigens defined on human leukocyte populations. IUIS-WHO Nomenclature ...
Macrophages and T lymphocytes demonstrated a marked expression of HLA-DR antigen. A delayed type hypersensitivity reaction of ... in xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis). Many T lymphocytes were identified by these authors positive to CD4 and CD8. ...
"Identification of non-CSP antigens bearing CD8 epitopes in mice immunized with irradiated sporozoites." Vaccine. 2011 Oct 6;29( ...
"Recognition of cluster of differentiation 1 antigens by human CD4-CD8-cytolytic T lymphocytes". Nature. 341 (6241): 447-50. ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. This often remains true in neoplastic cells from ... They are related to the class I MHC molecules, and are involved in the presentation of lipid antigens to T cells. However their ...
CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD8 are known as CD8+ T cells. These cells bind antigens presented on ... CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. *γδ T cells: bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses; ... Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing the dilation of ... Dendritic cells (Although these will often migrate to local lymph nodes upon ingesting antigens) ...
White, Jason T.; Cross, Eric W.; Kedl, Ross M. (June 2017). "Antigen-inexperienced memory CD8+T cells: where they come from and ... When a recognized antigen binds to the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) located in the cell membrane of Th0 cells, these cells are ... Recognition by a naive T cell clone of its cognate antigen results in the initiation of an immune response. In turn, this ... von Essen MR, Kongsbak M, Schjerling P, Olgaard K, Odum N, Geisler C (April 2010). "Vitamin D controls T cell antigen receptor ...
2010). "RasGRP1 regulates antigen-induced developmental programming by naive CD8 T cells". J. Immunol. 184 (2): 666-76. doi: ... 2007). "SKAP55 modulates T cell antigen receptor-induced activation of the Ras-Erk-AP1 pathway by binding RasGRP1". Mol. ...
There is usually a ratio of 0.1 to 0.5 for CD4/CD8. The macrophages present are mainly Mac387-, followed by CD68 and HAM56+. ... Majority of the antigen-presenting cells were Hofbauer cells (macrophages) were of foetal origin. Perivillous monocyte- ... Foetal macrophages in VUE proliferate and are activated as a result of the up-regulation of MHC class 2 antigen expression. ... The trafficking of maternal lymphocytes responding to an antigen in the chronic deciduitis could activate and enter via the ...
In the example of CD4 & CD8, these molecules are critical in antigen recognition. Others (e.g., CD135) act as cell surface ... The number of CD4 and CD8 T cells in blood is often used to monitor the progression of HIV infection. While CD molecules are ... Two commonly used CD molecules are CD4 and CD8, which are, in general, used as markers for helper and cytotoxic T cells, ... White Cell Differentiation Antigens. Oxford University Press. Knapp, W; et al. (1989). Leucocyte Typing IV. Oxford University ...
Priming of naïve T cells requires dendritic cell antigen presentation. Priming of naive CD8 T cells generates cytotoxic T cells ... Priming of antigen-specific naive lymphocytes occurs when antigen is presented to them in immunogenic form (capable of inducing ... Priming is the first contact that antigen-specific T helper cell precursors have with an antigen. It is essential to the T ... This activation of naive T cell is controlled by a variety of signals: recognition of antigen in the form of a peptide: MHC ...
"Class I-restricted cross-presentation of exogenous self-antigens leads to deletion of autoreactive CD8(+) T cells". The Journal ... "An in vivo cytotoxicity threshold for influenza A virus-specific effector and memory CD8(+) T cells". Journal of Immunology. ...
"Psoriatic arthritis joint fluids are characterized by CD8 and CD4 T cell clonal expansions appear antigen driven". Journal of ...
"TIGIT and PD-1 impair tumor antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cells in melanoma patients". J Clin Invest. 125 (5): 2046-2058. doi:10.1172 ... TIGIT and PD-1 has been shown to be over expressed on tumor antigen-specific (TA-specific) CD8+ T cells and CD8+ tumor ... T cell receptor Antigen GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000181847 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
... + and CD8+cells work together to cross-present antigen and communicate CD8+ activation. Cross presentation of XCR1+ CD8+ ... Kroczek RA, Henn V (2012). "The Role of XCR1 and its Ligand XCL1 in Antigen Cross-Presentation by Murine and Human Dendritic ... XCR1+ DCs specialize in cross-presentations of orally applied antigens. The integrin SIRPα is also a differentiating factor for ... which will make a population far more similar than the expression of CD4 or CD8. XCR1+ cells are dependent on the growth factor ...
Old discovered the LY-B antigen, later renamed CD8 in humans. CD8 cells, often referred to as "killer" T cells, are one of the ... defined the concept of cell-surface differentiation antigens with the discovery of TL, Lyt (CD8), and a range of other mouse ... First coined TL (for "thymus-leukemia" antigen in mice) then later as the Ly series (originally named Ly-A and Ly-B and later ... Discovery and naming of several members of the CT (cancer/testis) family of human tumor antigens, including New York-ESO-1 (NY- ...
"CD8α+ dendritic cell trans presentation of IL-15 to naive CD8+ T cells produces antigen-inexperienced T cells in the periphery ... These are cells that have a memory phenotype but have not been exposed to a foreign antigen. They are classified as memory ... Haluszczak C, Akue AD, Hamilton SE, Johnson LD, Pujanauski L, Teodorovic L, Jameson SC, Kedl RM (February 2009). "The antigen- ... Akue AD, Lee JY, Jameson SC (March 2012). "Derivation and maintenance of virtual memory CD8 T cells". Journal of Immunology. ...
... antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD160 gene. CD160 is a 27 kDa glycoprotein which was initially ... Its expression is tightly associated with peripheral blood NK cells and CD8 T lymphocytes with cytolytic effector activity. The ... CD160+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD160 genome location and CD160 gene ...
The CD8 antigen, acting as a coreceptor, and the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte recognize antigen displayed by an antigen- ... The CD8 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediates efficient cell-cell ... Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ... Sanders SK, Giblin PA, Kavathas P (1991). "Cell-cell adhesion mediated by CD8 and human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen G ...
CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD8 are known as CD8+ T cells. These cells bind antigens presented on ... Play media Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing the ... Histiocytes Dendritic cells (Although these will often migrate to local lymph nodes upon ingesting antigens) Mast cells ... class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. Helper T cells make cytokines and perform other functions that help coordinate ...
Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (May 1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ... The antigen has also been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases such as vitiligo and type I diabetes mellitus. T- ...
Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (May 1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ... It associates with the cytoplasmic tails of the CD4 and CD8 co-receptors on T helper cells and cytotoxic T cells, respectively ... When the T cell receptor is engaged by the specific antigen presented by MHC, Lck acts to phosphorylate the intracellular ... "Association of the tyrosine kinase LCK with phospholipase C-gamma 1 after stimulation of the T cell antigen receptor". The ...
Mdk is also a tumor antigen able to induce CD8 and CD4 T cell responses (Kerzerho et al. 2010 Journal of Immunology). Midkine ... "The Angiogenic Growth Factor and Biomarker Midkine is a Tumor-Shared Antigen". The Journal of Immunology. 185 (1): 418-423. doi ...
"Increased expression of the NK cell receptor KLRG1 by virus-specific CD8 T cells during persistent antigen stimulation". ... Hanke T, Corral L, Vance RE, Raulet DH (December 1998). "2F1 antigen, the mouse homolog of the rat "mast cell function- ... associated antigen", is a lectin-like type II transmembrane receptor expressed by natural killer cells". European Journal of ... "Expression of killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 on antigen-specific human CD8+ T lymphocytes during active, latent, and ...
"Striking similarities between antigen receptor J pieces and sequence in the second chain of the murine CD8 antigen". Nature. ...
November 2008). "Rapid identification and sorting of viable virus-reactive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells based on antigen-triggered ... Cooper D, Bansal-Pakala P, Croft M (February 2002). "4-1BB (CD137) controls the clonal expansion and survival of CD8 T cells in ... Although it is thought to function mainly in co-stimulating those cell types to support their activation by antigen presenting ...
1989) The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex. Proc. ... CD4, CD8 and the TcR/CD3 Complex: a novel class of protein tyrosine kinase receptor (1990) Immunology Today, 11, 400-406 ... In terms of immunology, the CD4- and CD8-p56lck complexes are now widely accepted as the initiators of the T cell activation, ... In particular, he made the seminal discovery that that CD4 and CD8 co-receptor molecules are linked to the p56lck src family ...
Li Y, Bleakley M, Yee C (August 2005). "IL-21 influences the frequency, phenotype, and affinity of the antigen-specific CD8 T ... Tumor-reactive antigen-specific CTL generated by priming in the presence of IL-21 led to a stable, 'helper-independent' ... These data and the fact that IL-21 stimulated CD8 or NK cells are able to inhibit HIV viral replication in vitro, show that ... Søndergaard H, Skak K (December 2009). "IL-21: roles in immunopathology and cancer therapy". Tissue Antigens. 74 (6): 467-79. ...
Crystal structure of human CD8 molecule Only a fragment of extracellular portion of human CD8α is shown. Co-receptor CD8 bind ... T-cell sensitivity to antigen could be increased via avidity-based mechanism. The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen- ... Each recombined TCR possess unique antigen specificity, determined by the structure of the antigen-binding site formed by the α ... many TCRs recognize the same antigen peptide and many antigen peptides are recognized by the same TCR.[2] ...
Fassnacht M, Lee J, Milazzo C, Boczkowski D, Su Z, Nair S, Gilboa E (August 2005). "Induction of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell ... responses to the human stromal antigen, fibroblast activation protein: implication for cancer immunotherapy". Clinical Cancer ...
Surface antigens[edit]. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... αβ (Cytotoxic CD8+. *Helper CD4+ / TFH / Th3 / Th17 / Regulatory) ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ...
一个T细胞的命运就在阳性选择的过程中被决定。在双阳性(CD4+/CD8+)T细胞中,能够与MHC-II分子结合得较好的将成为CD4+细胞,而和MHC-I分子有更高亲和力的将成为CD8+细胞。将成为CD4+细胞的细胞将会逐渐下调自己的CD8,最终成为单阳性 ... MR1
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ... "Longitudinal studies of clonally expanded CD8 T cells reveal a repertoire shrinkage predicting mortality and an increased ... The age-associated impairment of dendritic Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) has profound implications as this translates into a ... Hakim, F.T.; R.E. Gress (2007). "Immunosenescence: deficits in adaptive immunity in elderly". Tissue Antigens. 70 (3): 179-189 ...
This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... deficiency CD3γ deficiency CD8 deficiency ZAP-70 deficiency Ca++ channel deficiency MHC class I deficiency MHC class II ... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... It is a positive regulator of apoptosis, and also has been shown to limit the proliferative potential of autoreactive CD8 ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
If activated cytotoxic CD8+ T cells recognize them, the T cells secrete various toxins that cause the lysis or apoptosis of the ... Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens[edit]. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... Tumor antigens[edit]. Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the ...
... jer na površini ispoljavaju CD8 glikoprotein. Ove ćelije prepoznaju svoje ciljeve putem vezanja za antigen koji je asociran sa ... Tokom sekrecije IL-10, adenozina i ostalih molekula koje se luče putem regulacijskih T ćelija, CD8+ ćelije mogu preći u ... Memorijske T ćelije su podskup antigen - specifičnih T ćelijs koje traju dugoročno nakon savladavanja infekcije.[1] One se brzo ... MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. 2009 ...
Human CD Antigen Chart. *CD8 alpha - Marker for cytotoxic T lymphocytes [1] ... CD8. CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) adalah glikoprotein transmembran yang berfungsi sebagai ko-reseptor untuk reseptor sel ... Seperti reseptor sel T, CD8 mengikat pada molekul major histocompatibility complex (MHC), tetapi CD8 spesifik pada MHC kelas I. ... "CD8 alpha - Marker for cytotoxic T lymphocytes". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2015-09-21.. ...
CD8 + செல்நச்சிய டி உயிரணுக்கள்: தீ நுண்மத் தொற்றுக்குட்பட்ட உயிரணுக்களையும், கட்டி உயிரணுக்களையும் அழிக்கும்.. *γδ டி ... பிறபொருளெதிரியாக்கி - முன்வைக்கும் உயிரணுவாக (antigen-presenting cell = APC) இதன் முக்கியமான தொழில் டி நிணநீர்க்கலங்களை ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
CD8+ memory T cell number is controlled by a balance between IL-15 and IL-2. When IL-15 binds its receptor, JAK kinase, STAT3, ... Survival signals that maintain memory T cells in the absence of antigen are provided by IL-15. This cytokine is also implicated ... "Co-adjuvant effects of retinoic acid and IL-15 induce inflammatory immunity to dietary antigens". Nature. 471 (7337): 220-4. ... "A Novel Fusion of ALT-803 (Interleukin (IL)-15 Superagonist) with an Antibody Demonstrates Antigen-specific Antitumor ...
Human Antibodies Against Cell Surface Tumor Antigens Selected From Repertoires Displayed on T Cell Chimeric Antigen Receptors" ... CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7, CD8 - + TdT + + CytogeneticsEdit. Cytogenetic analysis has shown different proportions and frequencies ... TdT is a protein expressed early in the development of pre-T and pre-B cells, whereas CALLA is an antigen found in 80% of ALL ... Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been developed as a promising immunotherapy for ALL. This technology uses a single chain ...
It occurs when the lymphocyte is activated by an antigen (from antigen-presenting cells) and increased in volume by nucleus and ... αβ (Cytotoxic CD8+. *Helper CD4+ / TFH / Th3 / Th17 / Regulatory) ... "A lymphocyte that has become larger after being stimulated by an antigen. Lymphoblasts look like immature lymphocytes, and were ... with each sharing the originally unique antigen specificity. Finally the dividing cells differentiate into effector cells, ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
The protein also carries the Jr(a) antigen, which defines the Junior blood group system.[9] ...
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
Endogenous antigens are typically displayed on MHC class I molecules, and activate CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. With the exception ... Exogenous antigensEdit. Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells or "helper" CD4+ cells. ... Antigen presentationEdit. Main article: Antigen presentation. Acquired immunity relies on the capacity of immune cells to ... Endogenous antigensEdit. Endogenous antigens are produced by intracellular bacteria and viruses replicating within a host cell ...
"Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
Isolation and characterization of human antigen-specific TCR alpha beta+ CD4(-)CD8- double-negative regulatory T cells. „Blood ... limfocyty T CD8+CD25+Foxp3+[26] - subpopulacja analogiczna do poprzednio wymienionej, jednak występująca wśród limfocytów T CD8 ... limfocyty CD8+CD28−[27] - utożsamiane z wcześniejszymi limfocytami Ts, również nie posiadają ekspresji czynnika Foxp3. ... Występują wśród limfocytów T charakteryzujących się ekspresją cząsteczek CD4[3] lub CD8[4], mogą także nie wykazywać obecności ...
Antigens of phagocytosed graft cells can also be presented by the host's class I MHC molecules to CD8+ T cells.[1][29] ... Indirect xenorecognition involves the presentation of antigens from the xenograft by recipient antigen presenting cells to CD4+ ... In direct xenorecognition, antigen presenting cells from the xenograft present peptides to recipient CD4+ T cells via ... These antigens (foreign objects) are often treated with powerful immunosuppressive drugs that could, in turn, make the patient ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
... of LAG-3 by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is coincident with the suppression of latent membrane antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... LAG3 also helps maintain CD8+ T cells in a tolerogenic state[9] and, working with PD-1, helps maintain CD8 exhaustion during ...
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
Autoreactive thymic B cells are efficient antigen-presenting cells of cognate self-antigens for T cell negative selection., 110 ... CD3 (diferentseerumise marker 3); CD4, CD8, CD30, CD120 (TNFR), CD150, CD152, CD279. ... Ana C. Anderson ja Vijay K. Kuchroo, Expression of Self-antigen in the Thymus A Little Goes a Long Way, 1. detsember 2003 // ... Christian Koble ja Bruno Kyewski, The thymic medulla: a unique microenvironment for intercellular self-antigen transfer, J. Exp ...
Increased infiltration and tolerised antigen-specific CD8. [M Bahador, A Gras Navarro, M A Rahman, M Dominguez-Valentin, S ... Here, we investigated the presence of pp65 (UL83) and immediate early 1 (IE-1) HCMV antigens in a cohort of Norwegian GBM ... Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) antigens in glioblastoma (GBM) present opportunities for personalised immunotherapy. However, ...
Compare CD8 antigen, alpha polypeptide ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations ... CD8 antigen, alpha polypeptide ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based ... Your search returned 46 CD8 antigen, alpha polypeptide ELISA ELISA Kit across 3 suppliers. ... mTORC1 activity very critical for the generation of effector CD8 T cells. Our lab studies the ... read more ...
... in addition to antigen, coculture of purified CD8+ T cells, accessory cells, interleukin 2 (IL2) and anti-CD3-Sepharose. The ... Human CD8 T lymphocyte clones (TLC) were generated from the pleural effusion of patients with tuberculosis using a protocol ... Specificity of proliferative response of human CD8 clones to mycobacterial antigens Eur J Immunol. 1988 Dec;18(12):1881-7. doi ... Human CD8 T lymphocyte clones (TLC) were generated from the pleural effusion of patients with tuberculosis using a protocol ...
Counting antigen-specific CD8 T cells: a reevaluation of bystander activation during viral infection.. Murali-Krishna K1, ... Therefore, much of the CD8 T cell expansion seen during viral infection represents antigen-specific cells and warrants a ... antigen-specific CD8 T cell numbers dropped to 10(6) per spleen and were maintained at this level for the life of the mouse. ... this issue we used tetramers of MHC class I molecules containing viral peptides to directly visualize antigen-specific CD8 T ...
Cross-presentation of MHC class I antigens by Vps34-deficient DCs. (A) Splenic CD8α+ and CD8α− DCs (104 cells) were cultured ... In addition to presenting endogenous antigens on MHC class I molecules, CD8α+ DCs can present exogenous antigens to MHC class I ... in specialized antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as a DC subset expressing CD8α and CD103, extracellular antigens can be ... CD8α microbeads (Miltenyi Biotec) were used to sort CD8α+ DCs, and the remaining cells were used as CD8α− DCs. BMDCs were ...
CTLA-4 blockade increases antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in prevaccinated patients with melanoma: three cases.. Yuan J1, ... Following vaccination, patients generated weak to no CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cell response specific to the vaccine antigen but ... Ipilimumab induced NY-ESO-1 antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell response in Patient IMF-11 ... CD8+IFN- γ+, CD8+IFN-γ+MIP-1β+, CD4+IFN- γ+, and CD4+IFN-γ+MIP-1β+ T-cells increased after CTLA-4 blockade in Patient IMF-11. ...
... and confirmed B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) as a key myeloma-associated antigen. The aim of this study is to target the BCMA ... we have identified various antigens on CD138+ tumor cells from newly diagnosed MM patients (n = 616) ... Lenalidomide polarizes Th1-specific anti-tumor immune response and expands XBP1 antigen-specific central memory CD3+CD8+ T ... Sensitive and viable identification of antigen-specific CD8 + T cells by a flow cytometric assay for degranulation. J Immunol ...
Ozone exposure impairs antigen-specific immunity but activates IL-7-induced proliferation of CD4(-)CD8(-) thymocytes in balb/c ... It was also found that O3 exposure dramatically enhanced the proliferation of CD4-CD8- thymocytes stimulated by recombinant ... cell activity and the proliferation potential of spleen T cells to a specific antigen stimulus. Immunological function assays ...
Microbial antigen mimics activate diabetogenic CD8 T cells in NOD mice. Ningwen Tai, Jian Peng, Fuqiang Liu, Elke Gulden, ... Microbial antigen mimics activate diabetogenic CD8 T cells in NOD mice. Ningwen Tai, Jian Peng, Fuqiang Liu, View ORCID Profile ... CD8+ T cells from both WT NY8.3 NOD and MyD88−/−NY8.3NOD mice responded strongly to the antigen presented by purified NOD ... CD8+ T cells are more activated in MyD88−/−NY8.3 mice. We next examined the phenotype and function of NY8.3 CD8+ T cells. MyD88 ...
Estimating the Precursor Frequency of Naive Antigen-specific CD8 T Cells. Joseph N. Blattman, Rustom Antia, David J.D. Sourdive ... Counting antigen-specific CD8 T cells: a reevaluation of bystander activation during viral infection. Immunity. 8:177-187. ... Estimating the Precursor Frequency of Naive Antigen-specific CD8 T Cells. Joseph N. Blattman, Rustom Antia, David J.D. Sourdive ... Thus, in immune mice there is a ∼5,000-fold net increase in the number of antigen-specific cells contained in the memory CD8 T ...
As in the case of the CD4 antigen, the CD8 antigen appears to serve as a receptor for nonpolymorphic regions of products of the ... CD8 Raft Localization Is Induced by Its Assembly into CD8{alpha}beta Heterodimers, Not CD8{alpha}{alpha} Homodimers ... Mechanisms of Macrophage Stimulation Through CD8: Macrophage CD8{alpha} and CD8{beta} Induce Nitric Oxide Production and ... The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex. E K Barber, J D ...
The mechanisms that allow antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to selectively present extracellular antigen to CD8+ effector T cells ... Distinct Pathways of Antigen Uptake and Intracellular Routing in CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation ... Distinct Pathways of Antigen Uptake and Intracellular Routing in CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation ... Distinct Pathways of Antigen Uptake and Intracellular Routing in CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation ...
Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo ... Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo ... Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo ... Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo ...
Induction of anergy in CD8 T cells by B cell presentation of antigen.. P Höllsberg, V Batra, A Dressel and D A Hafler ... Induction of anergy in CD8 T cells by B cell presentation of antigen. ... Moreover, while stimulation of CD8 T cells with PHA and B cells induced anergy, CD8 T cell stimulation with PHA and mononuclear ... Induction of anergy in CD8 T cells by B cell presentation of antigen. ...
HomeOur WorkPublicationsModular Three-component Delivery System Facilitates HLA Class I Antigen Presentation and CD8(+) T-cell ... Modular Three-component Delivery System Facilitates HLA Class I Antigen Presentation and CD8(+) T-cell Activation Against ... Here we present a nanoparticle delivery system that facilitates presentation of an immunogenic measles antigen specifically in ... Activation is dependent on the targeting peptide, previous antigen exposure, and utilizes a novel autophagy-mediated mechanism ...
Antigen load and viral sequence diversification determine the functional profile of HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cells. ... Antigen load and viral sequence diversification determine the functional profile of HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cells ... Antigen load and viral sequence diversification determine the functional profile of HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cells. PLoS ...
Development of CD4-CD8- alpha beta TCR+NK1.1+ T lymphocytes: thymic selection by self antigen.. R J Schulz, A Parkes, E ... Development of CD4-CD8- alpha beta TCR+NK1.1+ T lymphocytes: thymic selection by self antigen. ... Development of CD4-CD8- alpha beta TCR+NK1.1+ T lymphocytes: thymic selection by self antigen. ... Development of CD4-CD8- alpha beta TCR+NK1.1+ T lymphocytes: thymic selection by self antigen. ...
... melanoma-associated antigen A3 (MAGE-A3), melanocyte antigen/melanoma antigen recognised by T-cells 1 (Melan-A/ MART-1), ... Detecting Clonally Expanded, Stem Cell-Like Melanoma-Antigen Specific CD8 Memory Cells. ... Tyr triggered interferon gamma (IFN-γ) secreting CD8 + T-cells in 25% of HD within 24h of antigen stimulation ex vivo. MAGE A3 ... At this time point, these CD8 + T-cells did not yet produce GzB (granzyme B). However, they engaged in GzB production after 72 ...
Antigen-specific activation thresholds of CD8^+ T cells are independent of IFN-I-mediated partial lymphocyte activation * * ... Antigen-driven effector CD8 T cell function regulated by T-bet SULLIVAN BM ... STAT1 signaling in CD8 T cells is required for their clonal expansion and memory formation following viral infection in vivo ... Type I interferons act directly on CD8 T cells to allow clonal expansion and memory formation in response to viral infection ...
CD8(+), and B-cell responses in vitro. This triple-immunogenic peptide represents an attractive vaccine candidate for the ... Background: Antigen-derived HLA class I-restricted peptides can generate specific CD8(+) T-cell responses in vivo and are ... A peptide epitope derived from the cancer testis antigen HOM-MEL-40/SSX2 capable of inducing CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cell as well as B- ... The SSX2 gene encodes the cancer testis antigen (CTA) HOM-MEL-40/SSX2, which is frequently expressed in a wide spectrum of ...
Here, a neutral, pH-responsive polymer micelle carrier that alters intracellular antigen trafficking was shown to enhance CD8 ... Neutral polymer micelle carriers with pH-responsive, endosome-releasing activity modulate antigen trafficking to enhance CD8 ... Subcutaneous immunization of mice with ovalbumin-polymer conjugates significantly enhanced antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell ... Additionally, pH-responsive carrier facilitated antigen delivery to antigen presenting cells in the draining lymph nodes. As ...
The Role of Antigen-Specific CD8 T cells in Immunopathogenesis 2019-11-07 00:00:00 , Biomedical Sciences UT Health San Antonio ... MIMG Seminar: The Role of Antigen-Specific CD8 T cells in Immunopathogenesis Time & Date. Thursday, November 7, 2019 ... MIMG Seminar: The Role of Antigen-Specific CD8 T cells in Immunopathogenesis ...
I. Superantigen-activated CD8 cells induce unidirectional Fas-mediated apoptosis of antigen-activated CD4 cells NOBLE A. ... Mechanisms of tolerance induced by transforming growth factor-β-treated antigen-presenting cells : CD8 regulatory T cells ... CD1d on antigen-transporting APC and splenic marginal zone B cells promotes NKT cell-dependent tolerance SONODA K.-H. ... IL-4 secreting CD4^+ T cells are crucial to the development of CD8^+ T-cell responses against malaria liver stages CARVALHO L. ...
You are here: Home , Events , Previous events at the CNB , Determinants of intrahepatic effector CD8 T c... ...
We also observed that PD-1 regulates NY-ESO-1-specific CD8\(^+\) T cell expansion upon chronic antigen stimulation. In the ... Upregulation of Tim-3 and PD-1 Expression is Associated with Tumor Antigen-Specific CD8\(^+\) T Cell Dysfunction in Melanoma ... Upregulation of Tim-3 and PD-1 expression is associated with tumor antigen-specific CD8\(^+\) T cell dysfunction in melanoma ... we have previously shown that the cancer-germline antigen NY-ESO-1 stimulates spontaneous NY-ESO-1-specific CD8\(^+\) T cells ...
HLA-A2 class I tetramers were used for the detection of antigen-specific CD8 T-cells. Using a novel Hierarchical Stochastic ... Single-cell analysis of pre-proinsulin, insulin-DRIP and cytomegalovirus-specific CD8 T-cells showed that the detected ... These findings emphasize the challenge to define the obscure nature of auto-reactive CD8 T-cells. ... reactive CD8 T-cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of T1D patients. A panel of 33 monoclonal antibodies was ...
Antitumor activity from antigen-specific CD8 T cells generated in vivo from genetically engineered human hematopoietic stem ... Antitumor activity from antigen-specific CD8 T cells generated in vivo from genetically engineered human hematopoietic stem ... Following tumor challenge, these transgenic CD8^+ T cells, in the absence of additional manipulation, limited and cleared human ... resulting in the generation of a sizeable melanoma-specific naïve CD8^+ T-cell population. ...
Targeting CLEC9A delivers antigen to human CD141+ DC for CD4+ and CD8+T cell recognition. Kirsteen M. Tullett,1,2,3,4 Ingrid M ... Cross-priming CD8+ T cells by targeting antigens to human dendritic cells through DCIR. Blood. 2010;116(10):1685-1697.. View ... Superior antigen cross-presentation and XCR1 expression define human CD11c+CD141+ cells as homologues of mouse CD8+ dendritic ... Antigen delivery via two molecules on the CD8- dendritic cell subset induces humoral immunity in the absence of conventional " ...
Finally, we show that MAGE-A3 antigen, frequently expressed by MCC tumors, was recognized by CD8 TILs from a virus-negative MCC ... Virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses dominated MCC-specific immune responses, and we identified two new HLA-peptide complexes ... In this study, we measured T-cell responses against viral (n = 3) and tumor antigens (n = 47) from TILs derived from 21 MCC ... The identification of MCC-specific epitopes recognized by CD8 T cells is crucial to expand the arsenal of immunotherapeutic ...
CD8 Receptor-Targeted Lentiviral Vectors - an Approach for the in vivo Generation of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells ... CD8 Receptor-Targeted Lentiviral Vectors - an Approach for the in vivo Generation of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells.. ... CD8 Receptor-Targeted Lentiviral Vectors - an Approach for the in vivo Generation of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells. ... In vitro generation of CAR T cells upon transduction of PBMC with CD8-LV transferring a CD19 specific chimeric antigen receptor ...
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) of the immune system are critical for displaying foreign antigens to T lymphocytes, a process called "antigen presentation. (
  • The class III PI3K Vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34) plays a role in both canonical and noncanonical autophagy, key processes that control the presentation of antigens by dendritic cells (DCs) to naive T lymphocytes. (
  • Dendritic cells (DC) purified from B10.A mice were inoculated into the anterior chamber of the eye at the time of T cell transfer to assess local antigen presentation. (
  • Murine dendritic cells transfected with human GP100 elicit both antigen-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell responses and are more effective than DNA vaccines at generating anti-tumor immunity. (
  • Neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) regulates cross-presentation of IgG immune complexes by CD8-CD11b+ dendritic cells. (
  • The CD8 co-receptor is predominantly expressed on the surface of cytotoxic T cells , but can also be found on natural killer cells , cortical thymocytes , and dendritic cells . (
  • Circulatory antigen processing by mucosal dendritic cells controls CD8(+) T cell activation. (
  • Here we demonstrate that dendritic cells (DCs) of the lamina propria can sample and process both circulatory and luminal antigens. (
  • This prolonged survival was associated with increase in number of Tc1 and Tc2 CD8 T cells with memory precursor phenotype, CD27 + IL-7R hi T-bet lo , and decrease in number of PD-1 + dendritic cells (DC) in regressing tumors and enhanced antigen reactivity of tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells. (
  • wherein said first cells are antigen presenting cells selected from the group consisting of macrophages, B-cells and dendritic cells, and said second cells are selected from the group consisting of tumor cells and virally infected cells. (
  • We have tested a synthetic peptide for the MUC1 antigen and generated dendritic cells (DCs) that were pulsed with the specific peptide. (
  • We found that CD8(+) T cells remain ignorant in the steady state, whereas transient proliferation of self-reactive CD8(+) T cells is induced by forced maturation or licensing of dendritic cells, increases in the antigenic threshold, and targeted release of alveolar self-antigen by epithelial injury. (
  • The therapeutic effect is conferred by revamping endogenous antitumor immune responses, exemplified by restoring natural killer (NK) cell homeostasis and function, enhancing susceptibility of MIC + -tumor cells to NK cell killing, reviving and sustaining antigen-specific CD8 T-cell responses, augmenting CD4 T cells to Th1 responses, priming dendritic cells for antigen presentation, and remodeling tumor microenvironment to be more immune reactive. (
  • We and others have proposed that the initial β-cell insult that triggers the shedding of β-cell autoantigens and their loading onto dendritic cells and the activation of autoreactive CD4 + T-cells in spontaneous autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice is effected by CD8 + cytotoxic T-cells ( 19 - 22 ). (
  • KOPS.CD8- dendritic cells and macrophages cross-present poly(D,L-lactate-co-glycolate) acid microsphere-encapsulated antigen in vivo. (
  • Further, up-regulation of self-antigen expression in dendritic cells using an inducible system promoted programmed death-1 expression, but not clonal expansion of preexisting memory cells. (
  • To address this issue we used tetramers of MHC class I molecules containing viral peptides to directly visualize antigen-specific CD8 T cells during acute LCMV infection of mice. (
  • Recent technical advances including the use of MHC class I tetramers complexed with defined viral peptide epitopes and measurement of the production of cytokines in response to stimulation with synthetic peptides have allowed CD8 T cell responses to be quantitated with great accuracy. (
  • Antigen-derived HLA class I-restricted peptides can generate specific CD8(+) T-cell responses in vivo and are therefore often used as vaccines for patients with cancer. (
  • The peptides presented can be generated from protein antigens via a number of pathways in vivo. (
  • Peptides can be produced from antigens expressed within a virus-infected APC, when presentation is termed direct-priming. (
  • Recent human tumor immunology research has identified several genes coding immunogenic peptides recognized by CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in melanoma tumors. (
  • The search for these antigenic peptides may lead to the identification of immunogenic peptide antigens that would be suitable for clinical use in commonly occurring epithelial cancers. (
  • We observed that using anti-PD-1 antibody and a multipeptide vaccine (consisting of immunogenic peptides derived from breast cancer antigens, neu, legumain, and β-catenin) as a combination therapy regimen for the treatment of breast cancer-bearing mice prolonged the vaccine-induced progression-free survival period. (
  • TAP-deficient cells lack peptide transport, which results in a reduced supply of peptides for binding to MHC class I antigens. (
  • CD8 + CTLs specifically recognize peptides derived from endogenous proteins presented by class I HLA molecules on the surface of malignant cells. (
  • In this study we set out to determine whether cytotoxic CD8 + T-cell responses specific for peptides derived from CD19 and CD20 antigens occur in healthy individuals and patients with B-cell malignancies. (
  • Delivery of antigens to DCs can be employed by several systems including viral vectors, defined peptides and undefined peptides, RNA from tumor cells, whole tumor lysates and fusion with tumor cells. (
  • In these individuals, GVHD can be started by donor Capital t cells that understand a subset of sponsor peptides, known as small histocompatibility antigens (miHAs), which are extracted from the phrase of polymorphic genetics that differ in sponsor from donor. (
  • Recipient W cells should be capable of showing self antigen acquired by pinocytosis (14) or by endogenous presentation of peptides derived from intracellular proteins (15-18) as well as antigen taken up via the W cell receptor. (
  • Antigen peptides represent specific epitopes for stimulation of T cells in T cell assays such as ELISPOT. (
  • MHC Multimers for reproducible detection, enumeration and isolation of antigen-specific T cells with disease specific peptides. (
  • In order to examine the mechanisms by which clonal deletion of autoreactive T cells occurs, a peptide antigen was used to induce deletion of antigen-reactive thymocytes in vivo. (
  • These results provide direct evidence for the in vivo role of apoptosis in the development of antigen-induced tolerance. (
  • Tyr triggered interferon gamma (IFN-γ) secreting CD8 + T-cells in 25% of HD within 24h of antigen stimulation ex vivo. (
  • Tim-3-Tim-3L block- ade enhanced cytokine production by NY-ESO-1-specific CD8\(^+\) T cells upon short ex vivo stimulation with cognate peptide, thus enhancing their functional capacity. (
  • Following tumor challenge, these transgenic CD8^+ T cells, in the absence of additional manipulation, limited and cleared human melanoma tumors in vivo. (
  • This thesis investigates the in vivo generation of CAR T cells in small animal models using a CD8-targeted lentiviral vector (CD8-LV). (
  • In this thesis, selective in vivo reporter gene delivery into CD8+ lymphocytes was demonstrated upon systemic administration of CD8-LV into mice engrafted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). (
  • CD8-LV(CAR) administration into mice resulted in the in vivo generation of CAR T cells with remarkably high frequencies of CAR positive cells. (
  • Higher frequencies of transgene-positive and CD8-positive cells compared to reporter gene transfer indicated selective CAR T cell expansion in vivo. (
  • This thesis highlights the potential of CD8-LV to genetically engineer CD8 T cells in vivo. (
  • In conclusion, CD8-LV represents a promising tool for the in vivo CAR T cell generation with the potential to transform personalized CAR T cell therapy into a broad applicable treatment option. (
  • Activation of naive CD8 T cells in vivo requires the recognition of cognate peptide-MHC complexes on APCs. (
  • Our underlying hypothesis is that alteration in protein expression can, and does, direct in vivo antigen presentation into direct or cross-priming pathways. (
  • To examine this issue we will use recombinant viruses to express multiple protein antigens and will analyze antigen presentation to naive and effector CD8+ T cells both in vitro and in vivo. (
  • ln Aim 1 we will determine the effects of targeting viral antigen for expression in specific tissues on the pathways of antigen presentation used in vivo. (
  • In addition, by using a natural example of antigen shuttled into different antigen presentation pathways in vivo we will compare the efficiency of CD8+ T cell priming via direct or cross-priming to the amount of antigen made in vivo. (
  • Delineation of the mechanisms governing the use of different antigen presentation pathways in vivo will provide a basis for the rational design of vaccines and immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at induction of protective CD8+ T cells. (
  • Antigen-specific, MHC-restricted CTLs were generated when DC/gps were used to prime T cells both in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Antibody-mediated T-cell subset depletion experiments demonstrate that induction of CTLs in vivo is dependent on both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. (
  • Furthermore, development of a protocol for rapid identification of high avidity human and murine T cells using tetramers with impaired CD8 binding provides an opportunity not only to monitor expansion of high avidity T cell responses ex vivo, but also to sort high avidity CTL clones for adoptive T cell transfer therapy. (
  • These results show that OTI cells responding to alumOVA in vivo fail to mimic the Th2 response of OTII cells responding to this same antigen, but acquire Th1-related features. (
  • This contrasts with failure of the OTI cells responding to alumOVA in vivo , to mimic the Th2 response of OTII cells responding to this antigen. (
  • Direct quantitation of rapid elimination of viral antigen-positive lymphocytes by antiviral CD8(+) T cells in vivo. (
  • Lysis of infected cells by CD8(+) T cells is an important mechanism for the control of virus infections, but remains difficult to quantify in vivo. (
  • Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells derived from defined CD8(+) and CD4(+) subsets confer superior antitumor reactivity in vivo. (
  • Combining the most potent CD4(+) and CD8(+) CAR-expressing subsets resulted in synergistic antitumor effects in vivo. (
  • First, using IFN-γ ELISPOT and synthetic peptide arrays as a source of antigen, we measured ex vivo frequencies of CD8 + T cells recognizing known immunodominant CD4 + T cell antigens in persons with latent tuberculosis infection. (
  • Furthermore, individuals from whom the T cell clone was isolated harbored high ex vivo frequency CD8 + T cell responses specific for the epitope, and in individuals tested, the epitope represented the single immunodominant response within the CD8 antigen. (
  • Absent B-cell MHC class I, or B-cell receptor restriction to an irrelevant specificity, blunted the expansion of self-reactive CD8 + T cells, suggesting B-cell antigen capture and presentation are critical in vivo events for CD8 activation. (
  • Although most of the tumor cells are MHC class I + and class II − , because of their lack of costimulatory molecules, they may not be suitable for the direct activation of CD8 + T cells in vivo . (
  • the cytotoxic activity of antigen-experienced CD8(+) T cells against the immunodominant trans-sialidase synthetic peptide IYNVGQVSI was decreased following active trans-sialidase-mediated resialylation in vitro and in vivo. (
  • The pro-Ag group countered that to have functional CD8 memory cells, as defined by in vivo protection, Ag must be present. (
  • In addition, the precise mechanisms involved in the recognition and elimination of parasitized hepatocytes in vivo by CD8 + T cells still remain obscure. (
  • The results presented in this work strongly suggest that in vivo cross-priming of PLGA MS-encapsulated Ag is performed by CD8(-) DCs and MΦs. (
  • Many of the studies of CD8 T cell responses in cattle have relied on analyses of ex vivo T cell populations following a primary in vitro antigenic stimulation. (
  • Here, we evaluated the in vivo effects of IM156 on antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cells during their effector and memory differentiation after acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. (
  • Unexpectedly, our results showed that in vivo treatment of IM156 exacerbated the memory differentiation of virus-specific CD8⁺ T cells, resulting in an increase in short-lived effector cells but decrease in memory precursor effector cells. (
  • Anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibodies, such as ipilimumab, have generated measurable immune responses to Melan-A, NY-ESO-1, and gp100 antigens in metastatic melanoma. (
  • thus the immune system can mount exquisitely specific responses to a vast repertoire of possible antigens. (
  • Most remarkably, SSX2/p101-111 simultaneously induced specific CD8, CD4, and antibody responses in vitro. (
  • p101-111 is the first CTA-derived peptide which induces CD4(+), CD8(+), and B-cell responses in vitro. (
  • Neutral polymer micelle carriers with pH-responsive, endosome-releasing activity modulate antigen trafficking to enhance CD8(+) T cell responses. (
  • Synthetic subunit vaccines need to induce CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses for effective vaccination against intracellular pathogens. (
  • Most subunit vaccines primarily generate humoral immune responses, with a weaker than desired CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell response. (
  • Here, a neutral, pH-responsive polymer micelle carrier that alters intracellular antigen trafficking was shown to enhance CD8(+) T cell responses with a correlated increase in cytosolic delivery and a decrease in exocytosis. (
  • Subcutaneous immunization of mice with ovalbumin-polymer conjugates significantly enhanced antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses (0.4% IFN-γ(+) of CD8(+)) compared to immunization with soluble protein, ovalbumin and polymer mixture, and the control micelle without endosome-releasing activity. (
  • Suppression of immune responses by CD8 cells. (
  • The paradoxical coexistence of spontaneous tumor antigen-specific immune responses with progressive disease in cancer patients furthers the need to dissect the molecular pathways involved in tumor-induced T cell dysfunction. (
  • Until now, most efforts focused on the identification of virus-specific epitopes, whereas immune responses directed against shared cellular tumor-specific antigens have not been evidenced. (
  • In this study, we measured T-cell responses against viral (n = 3) and tumor antigens (n = 47) from TILs derived from 21 MCC tumors. (
  • Virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses dominated MCC-specific immune responses, and we identified two new HLA-peptide complexes derived from the LT antigen, located in a region encompassing 3 previously identified epitopes. (
  • HLA-A*0201 and B*3501-restricted responses were the most frequent with, respectively, 17 and 7 responses directed against 5 distinct antigens. (
  • Here, we demonstrate the presence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II-restricted CD8(+) T cell responses with antiviral properties in a small subset of HIV-infected individuals. (
  • These data indicate that class II-restricted CD8(+) T cell responses can exist in a chronic human viral infection, and may contribute to immune control. (
  • In this report, we have used liposome-mediated gene transfer to examine the ability of plasmid DNA encoding the human melanoma-associated antigen gp100 to elicit CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell responses. (
  • Kaczanowska S, Joseph AM, Guo J, Tsai AK, Lasola JJ, Younger K, Zhang Y, Gonzales CV, Davila E. A Synthetic CD8a:MyD88 Coreceptor Enhances CD8+ T-cell Responses to Weakly Immunogenic and Lowly Expressed Tumor Antigens. (
  • Tissue-resident memory CD8⁺ T (Trm) cells mediate potent local innate and adaptive immune responses and play a central role against solid tumors. (
  • Tumor rejection mediated by Trm cells triggers the spread of cytotoxic CD8⁺ T cell responses against tumor-derived neo- and self-antigens via dermal DCs. (
  • This work unveils the ability of Trm cells to amplify the breath of cytotoxic CD8⁺ T cell responses through DCs, thereby strengthening anti-tumor immunity. (
  • Some studies have reported a poor ability of alum-protein vaccines to induce cytotoxic CD8 T cell-responses (6, 7), while we and others have shown that antigen-specific adoptively transferred transgenic CD8 T cells (8) and endogenous CD8 T cells proliferate (9) as well as develop cytotoxicity (10) in response to this form of antigen. (
  • We conclude that lamina propria CX3CR1(+) DCs facilitate the surveillance of circulatory antigens and act as a conduit for the processing of self- and intestinally absorbed antigens, leading to the induction of CD8(+) T cells, that partake in the control of T cell activation during mucosal immune responses. (
  • Immune regulatory networks, soluble inhibitory factors, and regulatory cells that prevail throughout the body and in the tumor microenvironment (TME) mediate tolerance to self-antigens and inhibit vaccine-induced effector responses ( 1 ). (
  • In healthy individuals, CD8 + T-cell responses were detected in one to CD19 74-82 , in three to CD20 127-135 , and three to CD20 188-196 . (
  • Thus, although inflammation modulates cognate responses, CD8 cognate responses also initiate local inflammatory reactions. (
  • However, while studying CD8 T cell responses at day 4 after priming we found that these cells had other properties. (
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are the only source of human lymphoid cells routinely available for immunomonitoring of T-cell responses to microbial and tumor-associated antigens. (
  • ie, preculturing PBMCs for 2 days at a high cell density before initiation of antigenic stimulation), we show that CD8 T-cell responses to viral and tumor-associated antigens are greatly underestimated in blood, and sometimes even remain undetected, if conventional, unprocessed PBMC cultures are used. (
  • The latter finding is particularly striking with regard to the appearance of Wilms tumor 1 protein-specific CD8 T-cell responses in leukemia patients after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. (
  • Polyfunctional type-1, -2, and -17 CD8⁺ T cell responses to apoptotic self-antigens correlate with the chronic evolution of hepatitis C virus infection. (
  • Caspase-dependent cleavage of antigens associated with apoptotic cells plays a prominent role in the generation of CD8⁺ T cell responses in various infectious diseases. (
  • We found that the emergence of a large population of autoreactive CD8⁺ T effector cells specific for apoptotic T cell-associated self-epitopes exceeds the antiviral responses in patients with acute hepatitis C virus infection. (
  • Further analysis of PLGA MS-positive lymphatic cells revealed that mainly CD8(-) DCs and MΦs contained MS. Moreover, immune responses in BATF3 knockout mice lacking CD8(+) DCs were normal. (
  • The aim of the current study was to determine whether such transformed cell lines could be used as antigen presenting cells to analyse the antigenic specificity of bovine CD8 T cell responses to viral infections. (
  • Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1), which is known to induce CD8 T cell responses, was used as a model. (
  • Given the ease with which T. annulata -transformed cell lines can be established and maintained in vitro and their susceptibility to infection with poxvirus vectors, these cell lines offer a convenient and efficient in vitro system to analyse the fine specificity of virus-specific CD8 T cell responses in cattle. (
  • BHV-1 is an important cause of respiratory disease in cattle [ 7 ] and, as with other related alpha herpesviruses, CD8 T cell responses are considered to have a key role in controlling persistent infection. (
  • Thus, IM156 treatment impaired the function of virus-specific memory CD8⁺ T cells, indicating that excessive AMPK activation weakens memory T cell differentiation, thereby suppressing recall immune responses. (
  • Based on tetramer binding and two sensitive assays measuring interferon-gamma production at the single-cell level, we found that 50%-70% of the activated CD8 T cells were LCMV specific [2 x 10(7) virus-specific cells/spleen]. (
  • Gene expression data from the experimental groups was imported into this network to visualize the impact of each gc cytokine on the functional polarization of recently-activated CD8 + T cells. (
  • Among the gc cytokines, IL-2 induced the greatest increase in the expression of co-stimulatory receptors in recently-activated CD8 + T cells. (
  • Thus, a thorough understanding of how γc cytokines modulate and potentiate TNFR signaling in activated CD8 + T cells is important for the development of better combinatorial cancer immunotherapies. (
  • Recently, it has been shown that specific effector CD8 + T cells, after recognition of parasitized hepatocytes, recruit specific and non-specific activated CD8 + T cells to the site of infection, resulting in the formation of cellular clusters around and in the further elimination of intracellular parasites. (
  • Recent studies suggest that the initial signals provided by APCs are sufficient to program the proliferation of naive CD8 T cells and their differentiation into effector cells. (
  • Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. (
  • To define the specific influence of gc cytokines on the co-stimulatory capacity of CD8 + T cells and identify combinations with synergistic potential, we investigated the direct impact of gc cytokines on the differentiation and transcriptional profile of recently antigen-primed CD8 + T cells. (
  • CD8 ( cluster of differentiation 8) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as a co-receptor for the T-cell receptor (TCR). (
  • B cells engage self-reactive CD8 + T cells in the pancreatic lymph node, driving their proliferative expansion and differentiation into granzyme B + interferon-γ + lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 + effector cells. (
  • Surprisingly, antigen cross-presentation by resident CX3CR1(+) DCs induced differentiation of precursor cells into CD8(+) T cells that expressed interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-13, and IL-9 and could migrate into adjacent compartments. (
  • Surprisingly, these animals displayed a defect in the homeostatic maintenance of splenic CD8α + DCs and in the capacity of these cells to cross-present cell corpse-associated antigens to MHC class I-restricted T cells, a property that was associated with defective expression of the T-cell Ig mucin (TIM)-4 receptor. (
  • In this study, using islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)-reactive CD8 T cell receptor NY8.3 transgenic nonobese diabetic mice, we demonstrated that MyD88 strongly modulates CD8 + T cell-mediated T1D development via the gut microbiota. (
  • Adoptive transfer of naive antigen-specific T cell receptor transgenic cells into syngeneic nontransgenic recipients, followed by stimulation with specific antigen, results in activation and expansion of both donor and endogenous antigen-specific cells in a dose-dependent manner. (
  • As in the case of the CD4 antigen, the CD8 antigen appears to serve as a receptor for nonpolymorphic regions of products of the major histocompatibility complex and has been implicated in the regulation of T-cell growth. (
  • Transduced hHSC expressing an HLA-A*0201-restricted melanoma-specific T-cell receptor were introduced into humanized mice, resulting in the generation of a sizeable melanoma-specific naïve CD8^+ T-cell population. (
  • Genetically engineered T cells that express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) have been shown to mediate impressive anti tumoral efficacy in patients suffering from B cell malignancies. (
  • In vitro generation of CAR T cells upon transduction of PBMC with CD8-LV transferring a CD19 specific chimeric antigen receptor was shown, and functionality of these generated CAR T cells was demonstrated. (
  • In these individuals, T cell receptor β (TCRβ) analysis revealed that class II-restricted CD8(+) T cells underwent clonal expansion and mediated killing of HIV-infected cells. (
  • Here, we used high-definition cell isolation from umbilical cord blood samples to establish the baseline frequency, phenotype and T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire of CD8⁺ T-cell precursor populations specific for a range of viral and self-derived Ags. (
  • To understand how T-cell tumor reactivity relates to 2D and 3D binding parameters and to directly compare them, we performed kinetic analyses of a panel of human T-cell receptors (TCRs) interacting with a melanoma self-antigen peptide (gp100 209 - 217 ) bound to peptide-major histocompatibility complex in the absence and presence of co-receptor CD8. (
  • Quantitative contribution of CD4 and CD8 to T cell antigen receptor serial triggering. (
  • CD4 and CD8 are thought to function as coreceptors by binding to the cognate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules recognized by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and initiating the signal transduction cascade. (
  • Along with the TCR, the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. (
  • [5] This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen-specific activation. (
  • [4] In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. (
  • The cytoplasmic tails of the CD8 co-receptor interact with Lck (lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase). (
  • Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex which initiates a cascade of phosphorylation eventually leading to activation of transcription factors like NFAT, NF-κB, and AP-1 which affect the expression of certain genes. (
  • Adoptive T-cell therapy with gene-modified T-cells expressing a tumor-reactive T-cell receptor (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is a rapidly growing field of translational medicine and has shown success in the treatment of B-cell malignancies and solid tumors. (
  • These stable interactions would lead to T cell activation and the subsequent down-regulation of the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor S1P 1 at the T cell surface, preventing antigen-specific T cells to egress the lymphoid organ ( 6 ). (
  • For example, if unprimed mice with a transgenic T-cell receptor against a lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) peptide are infected with LCMV in the brain or in the hind footpad, they die, despite the presence of large numbers of Ag-specific CD8 cells. (
  • The extracellular IgSF domain of CD8 α binds to a non-polymorphic determinant on HLA class I molecules (α3 domain) and enables CD8 to function as a co-receptor with MHC class I-restricted TCR during T cell recognition of antigen. (
  • The dramatic increase in antigen sensitivity of "restored" CD8 T cells is associated with phosphorylation of proximal T-cell receptor signaling components, and with the upregulation of genes involved in aerobic glycolysis, thereby increasing T-cell functionality. (
  • Although the nature of the CD8 + T-cell subpopulation that contributes to the initiation of autoimmune diabetes remains to be determined, several lines of evidence suggest that this subpopulation is dominated by clonotypes expressing Vα17-Jα42 T-cell receptor α (TCR-α) chains. (
  • This evolution is related to the selection of autoreactive CD8⁺ T cells with higher T cell receptor avidity, whereas those with lower avidity undergo prompt contraction in patients who clear infection. (
  • Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily A member 3 (LILR-A3) also known as CD85 antigen-like family member E (CD85e), immunoglobulin-like transcript 6 (ILT-6), and leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor 4 (LIR-4) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LILRA3 gene located within the leukocyte receptor complex on chromosome 19q13.4. (
  • however, it is highly homologous to other LILR genes, and can bind human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Therefore, if secreted, the LILRA3 might impair interactions of membrane-bound LILRs (such as LILRB1, an inhibitory receptor expressed on effector and memory CD8 T cells) with their HLA ligands, thus modulating immune reactions and influencing susceptibility to disease. (
  • Understanding the mechanisms involved in the propagation of CD8 T-cell memory is critical to numerous areas of research, including virus-host interactions, vaccine development, autoimmune diseases, and cancer immunology. (
  • The constraint of fitting a diverse repertoire of antigen specificities in a limited total population of lymphocytes results in the frequency of naive cells specific for any given antigen (defined as the precursor frequency) being below the limit of detection by direct measurement. (
  • Development of CD4-CD8- alpha beta TCR+NK1.1+ T lymphocytes: thymic selection by self antigen. (
  • Here, we study the elimination kinetics of viral antigen-positive lymphocytes by antiviral CD8(+) T cells using flow cytometry and mathematical analysis. (
  • Unexpectedly, the elimination kinetics of antigen-positive lymphocytes was not significantly impaired in mice deficient in either perforin-, CD95 ligand- or TNF-mediated cytotoxicity. (
  • For viruses with a particular tropism for lymphocytes, such as Epstein-Barr virus or HIV, our results illustrate how effectively CD8(+) T cell-mediated elimination of target cells can potentially contribute to virus control and immunosuppression. (
  • There is good evidence that CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) subsequently kill β-cells, resulting in type 1 diabetes (T1D). (
  • Upon activation, cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes are desialylated exposing beta-galactose residues in a physiological change that enhances their effector activity and that can be monitored on the basis of increased binding of the lectin peanut agglutinin. (
  • As few as 56 CD8 + inflammatory effector cells in a lymph node can mobilize 10 7 cells in 24 h, including lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and several accessory cell types involved in inflammatory reactions. (
  • These techniques, however, rely on labeling strategies that are non-antigen specific and do not allow specific tracking of the recruitment of autoreactive lymphocytes. (
  • AMENDED: 09/28/90 The CD8 lymphocytes are grown in vitro for 21 days before infusion. (
  • Many T lymphocytes were identified by these authors positive to CD4 and CD8. (
  • Macrophages and T lymphocytes demonstrated a marked expression of HLA-DR antigen. (
  • The identification of MCC-specific epitopes recognized by CD8 T cells is crucial to expand the arsenal of immunotherapeutic treatments. (
  • Unexpectedly, the recognition by TIL of different MAA was frequently restricted by a single HLA in individual tumors, and there was no evidence for the existence of dominant MAA epitopes between tumors, except for Melan-A/MART-1 antigen. (
  • This study, which is to our knowledge the most comprehensive analysis of TIL specificity to tumor antigens, has several implications for the design of immunotherapeutic strategies based on immunization against selected tumor epitopes. (
  • Furthermore, DC/gp immunization elicits an antigen-specific CD4(+) T-cell response, suggesting that DC/gps present MHC class II epitopes to CD4(+) T cells. (
  • Ikeda, H. / Human CD8 and CD4 T cell epitopes of epithelial cancer antigens . (
  • Binding of the monoclonal antibody S7, which recognizes sialic acid-containing epitopes on the 115-kDa isoform of CD43, was augmented on CD8(+) T cells from ST3Gal-I-deficient infected mice, indicating that CD43 is one sialic acid acceptor for trans-sialidase activity on the CD8(+) T cell surface. (
  • A comparison of purified CD8(+) and CD8(-) DCs indicated that both DC subtypes are able to present OVA-derived epitopes on MHC class I and II in vitro. (
  • Studies of three TLC using antigen-presenting cells of known genetic haplotype indicated that stimulation with both the Y3125 and the 71-kDa antigens were restricted by determinants encoded by HLA-B8. (
  • However, Ag stimulation failed to induce IL-2 mRNA transcription and IL-2 secretion, although immediate early tyrosine phosphorylation was normal and anti-CD3 cross-linking induced identical levels of CD40L expression in anergized and non-anergized CD8 T cells. (
  • Moreover, while stimulation of CD8 T cells with PHA and B cells induced anergy, CD8 T cell stimulation with PHA and mononuclear cells failed to do so. (
  • At this time point, these CD8 + T-cells did not yet produce GzB (granzyme B). However, they engaged in GzB production after 72 h of antigen stimulation. (
  • We also observed that PD-1 regulates NY-ESO-1-specific CD8\(^+\) T cell expansion upon chronic antigen stimulation. (
  • In addition, Tim-3-Tim-3L blockade enhanced cytokine production and proliferation of NY-ESO-1- specific CD8\(^+\) T cells upon prolonged antigen stimulation and acted in synergy with PD-1- PD-L1 blockade. (
  • CD8 T cells specific for E. coli beta-galactosidase (b-gal) were made from B10.A mice inoculated with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing b-gal followed by b-gal peptide stimulation of cultured splenocytes. (
  • Human MSCs (hMSCs) can alter multiple aspects of murine T cell activation induced by stimulation with specific antigen, including: reduced proliferation, inhibited or stimulated cell surface marker expression (CD25, CD69, CD44 and CD62L), inhibited mRNA expression of transcription factors (T-bet and GATA-3) and decreased cytokine expression (interferon-gamma, interleukin-10). (
  • Previous studies have shown that the timing of IL-2 treatment relative to immunization plays a key role in defining the CD8 + T cell response, and the findings from this study indicate that administration of exogenous IL-2 shortly after the initial antigen-priming event has concluded may augment the receptivity of these cells to subsequent TNFR co-stimulation. (
  • We offer a large variety of positive and negative control peptide pools for antigen specific T cell stimulation as well as kit to produce TCR-engineered reference samples for performance control. (
  • Conjugation of ovalbumin to the micelles significantly enhanced antigen cross-presentation in vitro relative to free ovalbumin, an unconjugated physical mixture of ovalbumin and polymer, and a non-pH-responsive micelle-ovalbumin control. (
  • They selectively expanded upon antigen stimulus and specifically killed CD19+ target tumor cells in vitro. (
  • The mechanisms that allow antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to selectively present extracellular antigen to CD8 + effector T cells (cross-presentation) or to CD4 + T helper cells are not fully resolved. (
  • When immune cells process foreign antigen via the endosomes, effector T cells are stimulated, whereas antigen processed by lysosomes activates helper T cells. (
  • Whereas transfer of Ova-specific CD8 T cells (OT-I cells) to control chimeras resulted in their rapid tolerization, OT-I cells transferred to CD11c-cre.Irf8fl/fl chimeras spontaneously developed into cytotoxic effector T cells (CTL), causing epithelial destruction and intestinal inflammation. (
  • We analyzed CD19 CAR-expressing effector T-cells derived from different subsets (CD4(+)/CD8(+) naïve, central memory, effector memory). (
  • Ozone exposure impairs antigen-specific immunity but activates IL-7-induced proliferation of CD4(-)CD8(-) thymocytes in balb/c mice. (
  • 1,000-fold increase in precursor frequency of D b GP33-specific CD8 T cells from 2 × 10 2 naive cells in uninfected mice to 5 × 10 5 memory cells in immunized mice. (
  • Intraperitoneal administration of the peptide antigen to transgenic mice results in a rapid deletion of the immature CD4+ CD8+ TCRlo thymocytes. (
  • IFABP-tOva mice, expressing the model-antigen Ovalbumin (Ova) in IECs, were used as recipients to set up chimeras using either CD11c-cre.Irf8fl/fl bone marrow, which cannot generate IRF8-DCs, or cre-negative Irf8fl/fl control bone marrow. (
  • b-gal-specific CD8 T cells damaged the PC in the hi-arr-b-gal mice. (
  • In GFAP-b-gal mice, antigen-specific T cells attacked the retinal astrocytes, optic nerve, and tissues of the anterior segment that expressed b-gal. (
  • We observed a large influx of immune cells into the brain during ECM, however only depletion of CD8 T cells completely prevented breakdown of CNS vasculature and rescued mice from death. (
  • CD8(+) T cell recognition of virus-infected cells is characteristically restricted by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, although rare examples of MHC class II restriction have been reported in Cd4-deficient mice and a macaque SIV vaccine trial using a recombinant cytomegalovirus vector. (
  • CD8 + T-cell clones isolated from pancreatic infiltrates of NOD mice, a spontaneous diabetes model ( 1 ), recognize defined islet autoantigens including insulin ( 2 ), the islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP) ( 3 ), glutamic acid decarboxylase proteins ( 4 ), and dystrophia myotonica kinase ( 5 ). (
  • In mixed tumor/lymphocyte culture, TAP1 expression by tumor cells significantly increased the IFN-γ production of antigen-specific spleen cells from immunized, but not from naive, mice. (
  • Herein, we investigated the impact of sialylation mediated by trans-sialidase, a specific and unique Trypanosoma transglycosylase for sialic acid, on CD8(+) T cell response of mice infected with T. cruzi. (
  • In contrast, we here show that even in sterile immunizations or in MyD88-deficient mice, CD8 T cells produce a burst of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. (
  • 173 (2):355-64 Delayed onset of graft-versus-host disease in immunodeficent human leucocyte antigen-DQ8 transgenic, murine major histocompatibility complex class II-deficient mice repopulated by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (
  • Experimentally, both groups gave an initial intraperitoneal immunization with virus, isolated and then transferred memory CD8 cells into naive recipient mice. (
  • This protective cellular response is associated with a high number of specific CD8 + T cells circulating in the peripheral blood of protected mice, ranging from ∼5 to 60% of total circulating CD8 + T cells ( Van Braeckel-Budimir and Harty, 2014 ). (
  • Schulz and colleagues examined the role of recipient and donor B cells in GVHD mediated by a mix of CD4 and CD8 cells by depleting B cells in neonatal mice with anti-antibodies (6). (
  • To gain information about immunoreactivity and self-tolerance to this antigen, we established a model using the murine tyrosinase-derived homologue of this peptide F MDGTMSQV, together with transgenic mice expressing the HLA-A*0201 recombinant molecule AAD. (
  • However, previous work in mice and humans had indicated that CD4 T cells transiently lose antigen sensitivity when cellular contacts are lost (eg, by entering the circulation). (
  • Here we describe an antigen-specific magnetic label to selectively target a prevalent population of diabetogenic CD8 + T-cells that contribute to the progression of insulitis to overt diabetes in NOD mice. (
  • These clonotypes are K d -restricted, recognize the same peptide ligands (NOD-relevant V7 peptide [NRP-V7] and some of its mimics [ 23 , 24 ]), are present at a very high frequency in the peripheral blood of young NOD mice ( 25 ), and constitute a large fraction of the CD8 + cells that can be propagated from the earliest insulitic lesions of NOD mice ( 22 ). (
  • However, whereas the avidity of memory cells in normal mice increased dramatically with repeated immunizations, avidity maturation was limited for self-specific CD8 T cells. (
  • Modular Three-component Delivery System Facilitates HLA Class I Antigen Presentation and CD8(+) T-cell Activation Against Tumors. (
  • CD8 + T cells infiltrated both TAP1 + - and TAP1 − -challenge tumors and were required for tumor rejection. (
  • We adoptively transferred limiting numbers of naive antigen-specific TCR transgenic (TCR-Tg) CD8 cells (specific for the D b GP33 epitope) into nontransgenic syngeneic recipients and then measured the fraction of the epitope-specific response contributed by donor and endogenous cells after LCMV infection. (
  • In this quantitative-competitive system, adoptive transfer of increasing numbers of specific transgenic cells resulted in a greater fraction of the antigen-specific response arising from donor cells. (
  • Our approach has been to compare the polarization of transgenic naïve ovalbumin-specific CD4 (OTII) and CD8 (OTI) T cells. (
  • CTL used four-colour ImmunoSpot® assays, in conjunction with peptide pools that cover the sequence of tyrosinase (Tyr), melanoma-associated antigen A3 (MAGE-A3), melanocyte antigen/melanoma antigen recognised by T-cells 1 (Melan-A/ MART-1), glycoprotein 100 (gp100) and New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1) to characterise the melanoma antigen (MA)-specific CD8 + cell repertoire in PBMC of 40 healthy human donors (HD). (
  • Tumor escape may be related to antigen loss or lack of MHC expression necessary for immune activity. (
  • Importantly, the heteroclitic BCMA 72-80 specific CTL demonstrated poly-functional Th1-specific immune activities [IFN-γ/IL-2/TNF-α production, proliferation, cytotoxicity] against MM, which were correlated with expansion of Tetramer + and memory CD8 + CTL. (
  • As the immune system must accommodate this diversity within a relatively limited total population size there must be compromise between the repertoire of different antigens the immune system can effectively recognize and the number of precursors with any given specificity. (
  • However, neither method is sufficiently sensitive to measure the low frequency of naive antigen-specific T cells before expansion during the generation of an immune response ( 1 - 4 ). (
  • Treatment with this system facilitates activation of a secondary immune response against cancer cells, bypassing the need to identify tumor-associated antigens or educate the immune system through a primary immune response. (
  • Thus, limited antigen presentation is a significant contributor to retinal immune privilege. (
  • In this study, we have used tetrameric major histocompatibility complex-peptide complexes to directly visualize antigen-specific cluster of differentration (CD)8+ T cells during the primary immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in humans. (
  • Indeed, during the first 2-4 days of an immune response all antigen-specific-cells dispersed throughout the body are retained in the restricted site where the antigen is first presented (a phenomenon named lymphocyte trapping). (
  • It is hoped that IL-2 will stimulate the patient's immune system against the AIDS virus along with the activated CD8(+) cells. (
  • Autologous T. annulata -transformed cells infected with BHV-1 were then used successfully to generate specific CD8 T cell lines and clones from memory T cell populations of BHV-1-immune animals. (
  • Immune tolerance to self-antigens is a complex process that utilizes multiple mechanisms working in concert to maintain homeostasis and prevent autoimmunity. (
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Immunodominant tuberculosis CD8 antigens preferentially restricted by HLA-B'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (
  • HBV-specific CD8 cells show altered MHC/peptide binding in the presence of high levels of circulating viral antigen. (
  • Avidity maturation of memory CD8 T cells is limited by self-antigen ex" by Michael J. Turner, Evan Robert Jellison et al. (
  • and Lefrancois, Leo, "Avidity maturation of memory CD8 T cells is limited by self-antigen expression" (2008). (
  • We have estimated this precursor frequency by titrating a known quantity of antigen-specific cells into naive recipients. (
  • Using this method we have estimated the precursor frequency of naive CD8 T cells specific for the H-2D b -restricted GP33-41 epitope of LCMV to be 1 in 2 × 10 5 . (
  • Thus, in an uninfected mouse containing ∼2-4 × 10 7 naive CD8 T cells we estimate there to be 100-200 epitope-specific cells. (
  • In this paper we describe a novel approach for quantitating the precursor frequency of naive antigen-specific CD8 T cells in a polyclonal population. (
  • In this study, we sought to determine whether an initial encounter with tolerogenic APCs was sufficient to program deletion of naive CD8 T cells. (
  • Surprisingly, we find that regardless of whether naive CD8 T cells were stimulated by activated or quiescent APCs, transfer of the activated T cells into an Ag-free host was sufficient to ensure survival. (
  • Naive CD8+ T cells differentiate into effector cells only after recognition of peptide-MHC Class I complexes on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC). (
  • Basic parameters of the naive antigen (Ag)-specific T-cell repertoire in humans remain poorly defined. (
  • CD8a+ dendritic cell trans presentation of IL-15 to naive CD8+ T cells produces antigen-inexperienced T cells in the periphery with memory phenotype and function. (
  • Mature DCs were used to activate naive T cells to differentiate into antigen-specific CTLs. (
  • Mature DCs are potent in priming naive CD8 T cells and in expanding memory CD8 T cells. (
  • The specificity of TLC reactive with the Y3111 clone was confirmed using the 71-kDa antigen purified from the same lysogen. (
  • We found that DCs from these animals have a partially activated phenotype, spontaneously produce cytokines, and exhibit enhanced activity of the classic MHC class I and class II antigen-presentation pathways. (
  • We demonstrated that APCs use distinct endocytosis mechanisms to simultaneously introduce soluble antigen into separate intracellular compartments, which were dedicated to presentation to CD8 + or CD4 + T cells. (
  • These findings imply that antigen does not require intracellular diversion to access the cross-presentation pathway, because it can enter the pathway already during endocytosis. (
  • Induction of anergy in CD8 T cells by B cell presentation of antigen. (
  • Here we present a nanoparticle delivery system that facilitates presentation of an immunogenic measles antigen specifically in cancer cells. (
  • Activation is dependent on the targeting peptide, previous antigen exposure, and utilizes a novel autophagy-mediated mechanism to facilitate presentation. (
  • In Aim 2 we will examine differential antigen presentation as a mechanism for the reduced immunogenicity of virus genes expressed late in the virus life cycle. (
  • The purpose of this study is to assess and compare the local presentation of MHC class I-restricted antigen expressed in photoreceptor cells (PC) and/or astrocytes. (
  • As evidenced by the brain being the preferred site of immunopathology, despite much lower b-gal levels, and the enhancement of retinal PC pathology with the addition of exogenous DC, our results show that MHC class-I antigen presentation is significantly limited in the retina compared to the brain. (
  • We also found increased expression of antigen presentation and adhesion molecules on brain endothelial cells during ECM, which was associated with the observed CD8 T cell behavior. (
  • The absence of antigen presentation by endothelial cells reduced Pb-specific CD8+ T cell arrest and prevented ECM. (
  • The lack of transporter-for-antigen-presentation (TAP)-1 expression by tumor cells prevents the processing and presentation of MHC class I-restricted tumor antigens. (
  • The priming phase includes the processing and presentation of tumor-associated antigens by antigen-presenting cells, the activation and proliferation of antigen-specific T cells. (
  • The cancer immunity cycle has seven steps, starting with release of cancer cell antigen and following with cancer antigen presentation. (
  • Direct presentation of antigen, provided by lymph node stromal cells, caused the activation and deletion of CD8 T cells. (
  • In the present study, data showed that O3 exposure could impair both the natural killer (NK) cell activity and the proliferation potential of spleen T cells to a specific antigen stimulus. (
  • It was also found that O3 exposure dramatically enhanced the proliferation of CD4-CD8- thymocytes stimulated by recombinant mouse interleukin-7 (rmIL-7), which is usually observed during the mammal aging process. (
  • Moreover, CD19+ cells were identified as antigen stimulus triggering antigen-specific CAR T cell proliferation. (
  • Whereas effector CD8⁺ T cells preferentially use glycolysis for their rapid proliferation, memory CD8⁺ T cells utilize oxidative phosphorylation for their homeostatic maintenance. (
  • Along the process of epithelial self-renewal, antigens derived from apoptotic intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are taken up by antigen presenting cells (APCs), transported to gut-draining lymph nodes and crosspresented to CD8 T cells. (
  • Murine clonal CD4 and CD8 T cells were stimulated with cognate peptide antigen and antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the absence or presence of human MSCs, different aspects of T cell activation were monitored and analyzed using flow cytometery, real time RT-PCR and cytokine measurement. (
  • Naïve CD8 + T cells were activated with peptide-pulsed APCs. (
  • Recent studies suggested that this local retention was due to the formation of stable interactions between antigen-specific T cells and the antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (
  • However, these events only explain why antigen-specific-cells remain in contact with the APCs presenting the antigen. (
  • In these circumstances, some circulating antigen-specific-cells may fail to contact these rare APCs, unless their transit time through the draining lymph node (DLNs) is considerably modified. (
  • Receiver antigen presenting cells (APCs) are required for CD8-mediated GVHD and have an important and nonredundant role in CD4-mediated GVHD in mouse MHC-matched allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT). (
  • We possess previously demonstrated that undamaged recipient-type antigen offering cells (APCs) are definitely needed for GVHD in an MK-8033 MHC-matched, multiple miHA-mismatched murine model of GVHD caused just by donor Compact disc8+ Capital t cells (1). (
  • Counting antigen-specific CD8 T cells: a reevaluation of bystander activation during viral infection. (
  • These results demonstrate the potential of pH-responsive polymeric micelles for use in vaccine applications that rely on CD8(+) T cell activation. (
  • Disappearance of activation-induced cluster formation and decreased apoptosis of CD8 T cells were also observed. (
  • Here we show that antigen-specific activation of skin Trm cells leads to maturation and migration to draining lymph nodes of cross-presenting dermal DCs. (
  • We were intrigued by the observation that in some studies, B-cell depletion postinsulitis was protective, but also that B-cell depletion coincided with decreased CD8 + T cell activation ( 17 , 22 ). (
  • These observations suggested that targeting B cells prevented a late pathogenic event, such as CD8 + T cell-mediated β-cell destruction, and raised the possibility of a direct link between B cells and activation of self-reactive CD8 + T cells ( 23 ). (
  • This background led us to investigate whether there was a requirement for B cells in the activation, expansion, and effector development of pathogenic CD8 + T cells and the subsequent transition to overt diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) model of spontaneous diabetes. (
  • CD8 plays important roles in T cell activation and selection. (
  • We conclude that inadvertent activation of CD8(+) T cells in the lung is prevented in the absence of 'danger signals,' whereas tissue damage after infection or noninfectious inflammation creates an environment that allows the priming of previously ignorant T cells. (
  • Efficient activation of specific CD8 T cells requires, in addition to antigenic recognition, interaction with co-stimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 on the antigen presenting cells (APC) [ 10 ]. (
  • In patients with advanced melanoma, we have previously shown that the cancer-germline antigen NY-ESO-1 stimulates spontaneous NY-ESO-1-specific CD8\(^+\) T cells that up-regulate PD-1 expression. (
  • In the present study, we show that a fraction of PD-1\(^+\) NY-ESO-1-specific CD8\(^+\) T cells in patients with advanced melanoma up-regulates Tim-3 expression and that Tim-3\(^+\)PD-1\(^+\) NY-ESO-1-specific CD8\(^+\) T cells are more dysfunctional than Tim-3\(^-\)PD-1\(^+\) and Tim-3\(^-\)PD-1\(^-\) NY-ESO-1-specific CD8\(^+\) T cells, producing less IFN-γ, TNF, and IL-2. (
  • Thereby, reporter gene expression exclusively within the CD8+ cells proved the highly selective targeting of CD8-LV. (
  • It was also observed that blockade of PD-1 on tumor DCs enhanced IL-7R expression on CD8 T cells. (
  • 5T4 is often referred to as an oncofetal antigen due to its expression in foetal trophoblast (where it was first discovered) or trophoblast glycoprotein (TPBG). (
  • T8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions. (
  • For autoimmune conditions like type 1 diabetes to progress, self-reactive CD8 + T cells would need to interact with peptide-antigen cross-presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted fashion. (
  • So far, only a few parasite antigens are known to induce CD8 + T cell-dependent protection, but none of them can reach the levels of protection afforded by live attenuated parasites. (
  • Given the relatively low frequencies of virus-specific CD8 T cells in circulating memory T cell populations (typically ranging from 1/500 to 1/20 000 in human peripheral blood) [ 8 , 9 ], such assays have limited sensitivity. (
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) antigens in glioblastoma (GBM) present opportunities for personalised immunotherapy. (
  • To expand the breadth and extent of current multiple myeloma (MM)-specific immunotherapy, we have identified various antigens on CD138 + tumor cells from newly diagnosed MM patients ( n = 616) and confirmed B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) as a key myeloma-associated antigen. (
  • Thus, our data support the general notion that 2D parameters of TCR-peptide-major histocompatibility complex-CD8 interactions determine T-cell responsiveness and suggest a potential 2D-based strategy to screen TCRs for tumor immunotherapy. (
  • conversely, CD8 + T-cell depletion ( 10 ), inhibition of CD8 + T-cell maturation ( 11 ), disabling CD8-effector pathways ( 12 ), or deleting surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I from β-cells ( 13 , 14 ) prevents clinical diabetes. (
  • Human CD8 T lymphocyte clones (TLC) were generated from the pleural effusion of patients with tuberculosis using a protocol that required, in addition to antigen, coculture of purified CD8+ T cells, accessory cells, interleukin 2 (IL2) and anti-CD3-Sepharose. (
  • In this study, we reveal that the human CD8 antigen is also associated with the T-cell-specific protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck). (
  • CD8-LV has been generated before by pseudotyping lentiviral vectors with modified Nipah virus glycoproteins displaying an anti-human CD8-targeting domain. (
  • The LEGENDplex™ Human CD8/NK Panel is a multiplex bead-based assay, using fluorescence-encoded beads suitable for use on various flow cytometers. (
  • PBMCs were prepared to isolate CD8 + Memory T cells using the MojoSort™ Human CD8 Memory T Cell Isolation Kit. (
  • CD8 Memory T cells are depleted by incubating the sample with the Human CD8 Memory T cell isolation biotin antibody cocktail followed by incubation with magnetic Streptavidin Nanobeads. (
  • The untouched human CD8 Memory T cells are collected by decanting the liquid in a clean tube. (
  • CD8 + T cells are essential for host defense to intracellular bacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), Salmonella species, and Listeria monocytogenes, yet the repertoire and dominance pattern of human CD8 antigens for these pathogens remains poorly characterized. (
  • Panel B: further characterization of the Week 34 gp100-specific tetramer-reactive CD8 + T-cells reveals that most of these are CCR7 − CD45RA − , consistent with an effector phenotype. (
  • Anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody-mediated depletion alters the phenotype and behavior of surviving CD8+ T cells. (
  • When antigen-responsive TLC were screened with extracts from the recombinant mycobacterial library they were found to respond to either the Y3125 (100-kDa) or the Y3111 (71-kDa) lambda gt11 clones. (
  • The capacity of the cells to generate antigen-specific CD8 T cell lines was initially validated using a recombinant canarypox virus expressing a defined immunodominant T. parva antigen (Tp1). (
  • CD8α is expressed by the majority of thymocytes, by subpopulations of αβ T cells and γδ T cells and by some NK cells. (
  • Fifty-nine tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) cultures established from melanoma-invaded lymph nodes were screened for recognition of 28 melanoma-associated antigens (MAA) in association with 31 HLA molecules. (
  • Ten TIL populations reacted against 10 tumor-specific antigens, in association with 8 different HLA molecules. (
  • However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbes could trigger or protect from diabetes are not fully understood, especially the interaction of commensal bacteria with pathogenic CD8 T cells. (
  • Mechanistic studies in a murine dendritic cell line (DC 2.4) demonstrated micelle-mediated enhancements in intracellular antigen retention and cytosolic antigen accumulation. (
  • In this report, tetramers with mutated CD8 binding site selectively stain higher avidity human and murine CTL capable of recognizing physiological levels of Ag. (
  • Here we demonstrate induction of anergy in a CD8 T cell clone by its cognate Ag in the presence of B7-1 and B7-2 costimulation. (
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD8 binding significantly enhances the avidity as well as the stability of interactions between CTL and cognate tetramers. (
  • We developed a system that revealed a population of self-specific CD8 T cells within the endogenous T cell repertoire. (
  • Antiviral CD8(+) T Cells Restricted by Human Leukocyte Antigen Class II Exist during Natural HIV Infection and Exhibit Clonal Expansion. (
  • This demonstrates that IRF8-DCs are crucial for the rapid tolerization of CD8 T cells reactive towards epithelial-derived antigen in steady state, but are not essential for the induction of CTLs in an inflammatory setting such as found in infection. (
  • 187 (4):2006-14 TCR-independent killing of B cell malignancies by anti-third-party CTLs: the critical role of MHC-CD8 engagement. (
  • Following viral clearance, antigen-specific CD8 T cell numbers dropped to 10(6) per spleen and were maintained at this level for the life of the mouse. (
  • Therefore, much of the CD8 T cell expansion seen during viral infection represents antigen-specific cells and warrants a revision of our current thinking on the size of the antiviral response. (
  • CTLA-4 blockade increases antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in prevaccinated patients with melanoma: three cases. (
  • Following vaccination, patients generated weak to no CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cell response specific to the vaccine antigen but demonstrated increases in effector-memory (CCR7(lo)CD45RA(lo)) tetramer(+)CD8(+) T cells. (
  • After ipilimumab induction, patients experienced a robust, although sometimes transient, antigen-specific response for gp100 (IMF-32 and IMF-24) or NY-ESO-1 (IMF-11) and produced polyfunctional intracellular cytokines. (
  • Vaccination induced a measurable antigen-specific T-cell response that increased following CTLA-4 blockade, potentially "boosting" the vaccine-primed response. (
  • Panel A: representative dot plots reveal a significant increase in gp100-specific but not tyrosinase-specific tetramer-reactive CD8 + T-cells with ipilimumab therapy. (
  • Approximately 5% of these activated GP33-specific effector CD8 T cells survive to generate a memory pool consisting of ∼5 × 10 5 cells. (
  • 10 7 antigen-specific CD8 T cells by 8 d after infection ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • This expansion is followed by a death phase, during which there is approximately a 10-fold reduction in the number of LCMV-specific CD8 T cells from days 8 to 30, and thereafter the stable maintenance of an antigen-specific memory population. (
  • The delivery system consists of a stealth liposome displaying a cancer-specific targeting peptide, named H1299.3, on its exterior surface and encapsulating H250, an immunogenic human leukocyte antigen class 1 restricted peptide. (
  • Interestingly, Pb-specific CD8 T cells were primarily observed crawling along or arresting on the lumen of cerebral blood vessels during the development of ECM. (
  • Because cerebral endothelial cells can acquire parasite antigen, we hypothesized that the interactions between CD8+ T cells and endothelial cells were antigen-specific. (
  • High avidity antigen-specific CTL identified by CD8-independent tetramer staining. (
  • Gene networks responsible for specific CD8 + T cell functions were constructed through literature-meta review and publicly available annotation databases. (
  • The magnitude of the antigen-specific component versus the bystander component of a primary T cell response remains controversial. (
  • Like the TCR, CD8 binds to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule, but is specific for the MHC class I protein. (
  • We conclude that Mtb-specific CD8 + T cells are found in high frequency in infected individuals and are restricted predominantly by HLA-B alleles, and that synthetic peptide arrays can be used to define epitope specificities without prior bias as to MHC binding affinity. (
  • Our data demonstrate that T. cruzi uses its trans-sialidase enzyme to resialylate the CD8(+) T cell surface, thereby dampening antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell response that might favor its own persistence in the mammalian host. (
  • These cells were HLA-A*0201 specific and lytic for peptide-loaded antigen-presenting cells but not to malignant or unpulsed B cells. (
  • While testing their CTL activity (by co-injecting them with antigen-loaded and non-loaded targets directly into the spleen), these effectors did not kill loaded targets, but rather induced the local retention of both antigen-loaded and non-loaded targets ( 2 ), mimicking the events described in non-specific phase of lymphocyte trapping ( 3 - 5 ). (
  • To determine the contribution of antigen-specific CD8 and CD4 T cells to the breakdown of the EGC network, we studied specific autoimmune targeting of an ectopic antigen expressed by EGCs. (
  • This mechanism of T-cell tolerance did not affect CD4 T cells, which produced antigen-specific lethal autoimmunity. (
  • Superparamagnetic nanoparticles coated with multiple copies of a high-avidity peptide/major histocompatibility complex ligand of these T-cells (NRP-V7/K d ) are endocytosed by CD8 + T-cells in an antigen-specific manner. (
  • Type 1 diabetes is an organ-specific autoimmune disease that results from destruction of pancreatic β-cells by autoreactive CD4 + and CD8 + T-cells. (
  • This study suggests that metabolic reprogramming of antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cells by regulating the AMPK pathway should be carefully performed and managed to improve the efficacy of T cell vaccine. (
  • In contrast to previous studies, which reported recognition of the glycoproteins gB and gD, the CD8 T cell lines generated in this study did not recognise these glycoproteins. (
  • Thus, we provide evidence of molecular mimicry between microbial antigens and an islet autoantigen and a novel mechanism by which the diabetogenicity of CD8 + T cells can be regulated by innate immunity and the gut microbiota. (
  • However, there is a substantial gap in our knowledge of how islet autoimmunity mediated by CD8 + T cells is shaped by innate immunity and the gut microbiota. (
  • Cytotoxic CD8 T cells are important mediators of host defense, and their role in protective immunity has recently been highlighted by concerns of possible widespread pandemic viral infections. (
  • CD8 + T cells seem to play an essential role in this protective immunity, since their depletion consistently abolishes sterilizing protection in several experimental models. (
  • CD8 + T cells are important mediators of immunity to many viral infections [ 1 ]. (
  • Taken together, these results demonstrate, for the first time, that T. cruzi subverts sialylation to attenuate CD8(+) T cell interactions with peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I complexes. (
  • The human tyrosinase-derived peptide Y MDGTMSQV is presented on the surface of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201 + melanomas and has been suggested to be a tumor antigen despite the fact that tyrosinase is also expressed in melanocytes. (
  • CD8α is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (
  • CD8(+) cells are suppressor/killer lymphocyte cells that act to limit replication of viruses. (