Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Antigen-stimulated dissociation of BCR mIg from Ig-alpha/Ig-beta: implications for receptor desensitization. (1/221)

B cell antigen receptor (BCR) ligation leads to receptor desensitization wherein BCR remain competent to bind antigen and yet fail to transduce signals. Desensitized BCR exhibit a defect at the most proximal level of signal transduction, consistent with failed transmission of signals through the receptor complex. We report that antigen stimulation leads to dissociation or destabilization of the BCR reflected by inability to coimmunoprecipitate Ig-alpha/Ig-beta with mIg. This destabilization is temporally correlated with desensitization and occurs in BCR containing mIgM and mIgD. Induction of BCR destabilization requires tyrosine kinase activation but is not induced by phosphatase inhibitors. BCR destabilization occurs at the cell surface and "dissociated" Ig-alpha/Ig-beta complexes remain responsive to anti-Ig-beta stimulation, suggesting that mIg-transducer uncoupling may mediate receptor desensitization.  (+info)

An alternatively spliced form of CD79b gene may account for altered B-cell receptor expression in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (2/221)

Several functional anomalies of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells may be explained by abnormalities of the B-cell receptor (BCR), a multimeric complex formed by the sIg homodimer and the noncovalently bound heterodimer Igalpha/Igbeta (CD79a/CD79b). Because the expression of the extracellular Ig-like domain of CD79b has been reported to be absent in the cells of most CLL cases, we have investigated the molecular mechanisms that may account for this defect. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 50 patients and two cell lines (MEC1, MEC2) obtained from the PBL of one of them were studied. MEC1, MEC2, and 75% of CLL cases did not express detectable levels of the extracellular Ig-like domain of CD79b, which was nevertheless present in greater than 80% CD19(+) cells from normal donors. In healthy subjects the expression of CD79b was equally distributed in CD5(+) and CD5(-) B-cell subsets. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of CD79b RNA from all patients and from MEC1 and MEC2 cell lines consistently yielded two fragments of different size (709 bp and 397 bp). The 709-bp band corresponds to CD79b entire transcript; the 397-bp band corresponds to an alternatively spliced form lacking exon 3 that encodes the extracellular Ig-like domain. Both fragments were also visible in normal PBL. The expression of the 397-bp fragment was increased in normal activated B cells, while no difference was seen between CD5(+) and CD5(-) B cells. To obtain a more accurate estimate of the relative proportions of the two spliced forms, a radioactive PCR was performed in 13 normal and 22 B-CLL samples and the results analyzed using a digital imager. The mean value of the CD79b to the CD79b internally deleted ratio was 0.64 +/- 0.20 SD in normal donors and 0.44 +/- 0.27 SD in B-CLL (P =.01). Direct sequencing of 397-bp RT-PCR products and of genomic DNA corresponding to exon 3 from MEC1, MEC2, their parental cells, and five fresh B-CLL samples did not show any causal mutation. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of exon 3 performed in 18 additional B-CLL cases showed a single abnormal shift corresponding to a TGT --> TGC polymorphic change at amino acid 122. We propose a role for the alternative splicing of CD79b gene in causing the reduced expression of BCR on the surface of B-CLL cells. As normal B cells also present this variant, the mechanism of CD79b posttranscriptional regulation might reflect the activation stage of the normal B cell from which B-CLL derives.  (+info)

Quantitative analysis of CD79b, CD5 and CD19 in mature B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. (3/221)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Distinction between B-cell chronic leukemias can be difficult due to overlap in cell morphology and immunologic features. We investigated, by quantitative flow cytometry, the expression of CD79b, CD5 and CD19 in cells from a variety of B-cell disorders to see whether this analysis adds further information useful to the diagnosis and characterization of these diseases. DESIGN AND METHODS: Peripheral blood cells from 6 normal individuals were used as reference controls. The diseases of the 63 patients investigated comprised: 29 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), six of them with atypical morphology, 6 B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL), 12 splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes (SLVL) and 16 mantle-cell (Mc) lymphoma in leukemic phase. The study was carried out by triple immunostaining with directly conjugated monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) against CD79b, CD5 and CD19 and quantitative estimation of the antigens per cell assessed with standard microbeads (Quantum Simply Cellular). RESULTS: Compared to normal B-cells, the number of CD19 molecules was significantly lower in cells from all of the B-cell disorders except PLL. The intensity of CD5 in leukemic B-cells was significantly higher in CLL cells, including atypical cases, and Mc lymphoma than in normal B-cells, whilst PLL and SLVL had values similar to those of normal B-lymphocytes. CD79b was expressed at lower levels in all types of leukemic cells compared to normal B-lymphocytes but differences were statistically significant in CLL, Mc lymphoma and SLVL. The number of CD79b molecules per cell was significantly lower in typical CLL than in the remaining B-cell diseases whilst the comparison of CD5 and CD19 intensity between CLL and non-CLL samples failed to show any statistically significant difference. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Distinct antigen density patterns for the various conditions emerged from this analysis: Typical CLL was characterized by moderate CD5 and weak or negative CD79b expression. Mc lymphoma showed an homogeneous pattern, characterized by similar expression of CD5 than CLL but significantly stronger expression of CD79b whilst PLL and SLVL had weak CD5 and moderate CD79b expression. Atypical CLL had an intermediate pattern of CD79b antigen expression ranging from weak to moderate with bright CD5. Unlike CD5 and CD79b, CD19 did not discriminate the various B-cell disorders but only between normal and leukemic cells.  (+info)

Ig alpha and Ig beta are required for efficient trafficking to late endosomes and to enhance antigen presentation. (4/221)

The B cell Ag receptor (BCR) is a multimeric complex, containing Ig alpha and Ig beta, capable of internalizing and delivering specific Ags to specialized late endosomes, where they are processed into peptides for loading onto MHC class II molecules. By this mechanism, the presentation of receptor-selected epitopes to T cells is enhanced by several orders of magnitude. Previously, it has been reported that, under some circumstances, either Ig alpha or Ig beta can facilitate the presentation of Ags. However, we now demonstrate that if these Ags are at low concentrations and temporally restricted, both Ig alpha and Ig beta are required. When compared with the BCR, chimeric complexes containing either chain alone were internalized but failed to access the MHC class II-enriched compartment (MIIC) or induce the aggregation and fusion of its constituent vesicles. Furthermore, Ig alpha/Ig beta complexes in which the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif tyrosines of Ig alpha were mutated were also incapable of accessing the MIIC or of facilitating the presentation of Ag. These data indicate that both Ig alpha and Ig beta contribute signaling, and possibly other functions, to the BCR that are necessary and sufficient to reconstitute the trafficking and Ag-processing enhancing capacities of the intact receptor complex.  (+info)

Modifications of Igalpha and Igbeta expression as a function of B lineage differentiation. (5/221)

Transcription of the mb1 and B29 genes is initiated when lymphoid progenitors enter the B cell differentiation pathway, and their transmembrane Igalpha and Igbeta products constitute essential signaling components of pre-B and B cell antigen receptors. We analyzed Igalpha/Igbeta biosynthesis, heterogeneity, and molecular interactions as a function of human B lineage differentiation in cell lines representative of the pro-B, pre-B, and B cell stages. All B lineage representatives produced a 36-kDa Igbeta form and three principal Igalpha forms, transient 33/40-kDa species and a mature 44-kDa glycoprotein. Deglycosylation revealed a major Igalpha core protein of 25 kDa and a minor 21-kDa Igalpha protein, apparently the product of an alternatively spliced mRNA. In pro-B cells, the Igalpha and Igbeta molecules existed primarily in separate unassembled pools, exhibited an immature glycosylation pattern, did not associate with surrogate light chain proteins, and were retained intracellularly. Their unanticipated association with the Lyn protein-tyrosine kinase nevertheless suggests functional potential for the Igalpha/Igbeta molecules in pro-B cells. Greater heterogeneity of the Igalpha and Igbeta molecules in pre-B and B cell lines was attributable to increased glycosylation complexity. Finally, the Igalpha/Igbeta heterodimers associated with fully assembled IgM molecules as a terminal event in B cell receptor assembly.  (+info)

Mutations in Igalpha (CD79a) result in a complete block in B-cell development. (6/221)

Mutations in Btk, mu heavy chain, or the surrogate light chain account for 85-90% of patients with early onset hypogammaglobulinemia and absent B cells. The nature of the defect in the remaining patients is unknown. We screened 25 such patients for mutations in genes encoding components of the pre-B-cell receptor (pre-BCR) complex. A 2-year-old girl was found to have a homozygous splice defect in Igalpha, a transmembrane protein that forms part of the Igalpha/Igbeta signal-transduction module of the pre-BCR. Studies in mice suggest that the Igbeta component of the pre-BCR influences V-DJ rearrangement before cell-surface expression of mu heavy chain. To determine whether Igalpha plays a similar role, we compared B-cell development in an Igalpha-deficient patient with that seen in a mu heavy chain-deficient patient. By immunofluorescence, both patients had a complete block in B-cell development at the pro-B to pre-B transition; both patients also had an equivalent number and diversity of rearranged V-DJ sequences. These results indicate that mutations in Igalpha can be a cause of agammaglobulinemia. Furthermore, they suggest that Igalpha does not play a critical role in B-cell development until it is expressed, along with mu heavy chain, as part of the pre-BCR.  (+info)

Analysis of the B-cell receptor B29 (CD79b) gene in familial chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (7/221)

The B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) comprises membrane Igs (mIgs) and a heterodimer of Igalpha (CD79a) and Igbeta (CD79b) transmembrane proteins, encoded by the mb-1 and B29 genes, respectively. These accessory proteins are required for surface expression of mIg and BCR signaling. B cells from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) frequently express low to undetectable surface Ig, as well as CD79b protein. Recent work described genetic aberrations affecting B29 expression and/or function in B-CLL. Because the prevalence of CLL is increased among first degree relatives, we analyzed the B29 gene in 10 families including 2 affected members each. A few silent or replacement mutations were observed at the genomic level, which never lead to truncated CD79b protein. Both members of the same family did not harbor the same mutations. However, a single silent base change in the B29 extracellular domain, corresponding to a polymorphism, was detected on 1 allele of most patients. These results indicate that the few mutations observed in the B29 gene in these patients do not induce structural abnormalities of the CD79b protein and thus do not account for its low surface expression in B-CLL. Furthermore, genetic factors were not implicated, because identical mutations were not observed among 2 members of the same family.  (+info)

A negative regulatory role for Ig-alpha during B cell development. (8/221)

The development of B cells requires the expression of an antigen receptor at distinct points during maturation. The Ig-alpha/beta heterodimer signals for these receptors, and mice harboring a truncation of the Ig-alpha intracellular domain (mb-1(delta(c)/delta(c)) have severely reduced peripheral B cell numbers. Here we report that immature mb-1(delta(c)/delta(c) B cells are activated despite lacking a critical Ig-alpha-positive signaling motif. As a consequence of abnormal activation, transitional immature IgMhighIgDlow B cells are largely absent in mb-1delta(c)/delta(c) mutants, accounting for the paucity of mature B cells. Thus, Ig-alpha cytoplasmic tail truncation yields an antigen receptor complex on immature B cells that signals constitutively. These data illustrate a role for Ig-alpha in negatively regulating antigen receptor signaling during B cell development.  (+info)

*CD79

... Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... and generates a signal following recognition of antigen by the BCR. CD79 is composed of two distinct chains called CD79A and ... CD79 (Cluster of Differentiation 79) is a transmembrane protein that forms a complex with the B-cell receptor (BCR) ... Both CD79 chains contain an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in their intracellular tails that they use to ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.377.715.647.100 - alpha-macroglobulins MeSH ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301 - antitoxins MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH ... antigens, polyomavirus transforming MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.420 - papillomavirus e7 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.750 - ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)

... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.950.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.124.790.106.050 -- alpha 1-antichymotrypsin ... antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.124.790.720.100 -- alpha-macroglobulins MeSH D12.776.124.790.720.100.500 -- pregnancy-associated ... antigens, cd46 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250 -- complement c1 inactivator proteins MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250.500 -- ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301 -- antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.138 -- antivenins MeSH ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd58 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.159 --- antigens, cd59 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.179 --- antigens, cd79 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd58 MeSH D23.101.100.110.159 --- antigens, cd59 MeSH D23.101.100.110.179 --- antigens, cd79 MeSH D23.101.100.110.180 ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 -- receptors, antigen, ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 -- antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 -- antigens, cd40 ... antigens, cd11a MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.150 -- antigens, cd11b MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.200 -- antigens, cd11c ...

*B-cell receptor

IKK/NF-κB Transcription Factor Pathway: CD79 and other proteins, microsignalosomes, go to activate PLC-γ after antigen ... When a B cell is activated by its first encounter with an antigen that binds to its receptor (its "cognate antigen"), the cell ... Corcos D (1990). "Oncogenic potential of the B-cell antigen receptor and its relevance to heavy chain diseases and other B-cell ... B-Cell Antigen Receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...

*Outline of immunology

CD79) Ig-α (CD79A) Ig-β (CD79B) T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co- ... Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... B cells Antigen receptor - B cell receptor (BCR) Subunits- Immunoglobulin heavy chain / Immunoglobulin light chain Co-receptors ... CD18 Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Integrin alphaXbeta2 (CR4) - Heterodimer: CD11c / CD18 Very late ...

*T-cell receptor

... and Ag-Ig-CD79 interaction for B cells. The generation of TCR diversity is similar to that for antibodies and B cell antigen ... The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen-experienced T cells than in naive T cells. Naive T cells pass through the process ... many TCRs recognize the same antigen peptide and many antigen peptides are recognized by the same TCR. The TCR is composed of ... Each recombined TCR possess unique antigen specificity, determined by the structure of the antigen-binding site formed by the α ...
The CD79a molecule (MB-1, Igα) is part of the MB-1/B29 (CD79a/CD79b) disulfide-linked heterodimer which is non-covalently associated with membrane immunoglobulins (Igs) to build the B Cell antigen Receptor (BCR) complex.
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Required in cooperation with CD79B for initiation of the signal transduction cascade activated by binding of antigen to the B-cell antigen receptor complex (BCR) which leads to internalization of the complex, trafficking to late endosomes and antigen presentation. Also required for BCR surface expression and for efficient differentiation of pro- and pre-B-cells. Stimulates SYK autophosphorylation and activation. Binds to BLNK, bringing BLNK into proximity with SYK and allowing SYK to phosphorylate BLNK. Also interacts with and increases activity of some Src-family tyrosine kinases. Represses BCR signaling during development of immature B-cells.
The B-cell Antigen receptor constitutes a disulphide linked heterodimer, consisting of CD79a (mb1) and CD79b / B29 polypeptides which are
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Clone REA1168 regognizes the cytoplamic domain of CD79a, which is also known as MB-1 and Igα. Along with CD79b (Igβ), CD79a is associated with surface Ig (sIg) to form the B cell antigen receptor complex. CD79a is a 47 kDa glycoprotein and comprises a single extracellular immunoglobulin domain, a transmembrane domain, and a signaling intracellular domain with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). CD79a/CD79b heterodimer facilitates differentiation of pre-B cells from pro-B cells, surface expression of sIg, signal transduction following antigen recognition, and enodocytosis of recognised antigens. Surface expression of CD79a dimishes in plasma cells, where it is mainly found as an intracellular molecule. CD79 is considered a B cell-specific marker and is often used to identify the B cell lineage of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Recent reports however suggest expression of CD79a in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Individuals lacking CD79a have low/absent circulating pre-B cells and
Researchers think that for cancer to develop, damaged cells have to undergo certain transitions that cause them to spread, or metastasize. Junior Tristan Bepler, a biology and computer science major, is testing this hypothesis, ...
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Figure. Platelet-dependent hemostasis after vascular injury and at sites of inflammation. Schematic representation of important molecular mechanisms regulating platelet-dependent hemostasis. At sites of vascular injury, platelet activation and adhesion is strongly dependent on soluble agonists and their respective G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed on the platelet surface. Engagement of GPCRs leads to the rapid activation of phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2) and phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K), events that are critical for the activation of the small GTPase Rap1, affinity regulation in platelet integrins, and platelet aggregate formation. The contribution of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-coupled receptors to platelet activation at sites of vascular injury is weak when compared with GPCRs. In contrast, hemostasis at sites of inflammation depends primarily on platelet ITAM signaling and is independent of major platelet adhesion receptors. These findings suggest a ...
Ligation of membrane immunoglobulin M (mIgM) induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the WEHI 231 B-lymphoma cell collection. show that resistance to apoptosis can arise as a result of mutations affecting discrete stages of the mIgM signalling pathway. The mutant lines reported here show defects that have not yet been recognized in previous studies and are likely to be useful tools in dissecting the signalling of cell death in W lymphocytes. Introduction Signals SKF 89976A HCl generated through membrane immunoglobulin on the surface of W lymphocytes can lead either to B-cell activation and proliferation or, alternatively, to programmed cell death or apoptosis, the greatest fate of the W cell depending on factors such as its developmental stage.1 Cross-linking of membrane immunoglobulin M (mIgM) generates a cascade of intracellular signals; in the beginning, quick tyrosine phosphorylation of non-receptor tyrosine kinases including SKF 89976A HCl syk, btk and users of the src-family, lyn, fyn, ...
CD79b molecule, immunoglobulin-associated beta, also known as CD79B (Cluster of Differentiation 79B), is a human gene. It is associated with agammaglobulinemia-6. The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen-specific component, surface immunoglobulin (Ig). Surface Ig non-covalently associates with two other proteins, Ig-alpha and Ig-beta, which are necessary for expression and function of the B-cell antigen receptor. This gene encodes the Ig-beta protein of the B-cell antigen component. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000007312 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000040592 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: CD79B CD79b molecule, immunoglobulin-associated beta". Reth M (1992). "Antigen receptors on B lymphocytes". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 10: 97-121. ...
Autophagy is a major pathway for degradation of cytoplasmic components, and is induced by some apoptotic stimuli mostly in cancer cells under the condition in which apoptosis is blocked. Ligation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) induces apoptosis and plays a crucial role in self-tolerance. However, whether BCR ligation induces autophagy is not clear. Here, we demonstrate that autophagosomes are extensively formed in normal mouse B cells as well as the WEHI-231 B cell line upon induction of BCR ligation-induced apoptosis regardless of whether apoptosis is blocked by overexpression of Bcl-2. In contrast, autophagosomes were not formed during apoptosis of spleen B cells cultured with medium alone or in BCR-ligated BAL17 cells which do not undergo apoptosis. Moreover, autophagy is not induced when apoptotic BCR signaling is abrogated by CD40 signaling. These results indicate that autophagy is induced specifically by apoptotic BCR signaling even in unmanipulated normal B cells.
B cells are an important component of adaptive immunity. They produce and secrete millions of different antibody molecules, each of which recognizes a different (foreign) antigen. The B cell receptor (BCR) is an integral membrane protein complex that is composed of two immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chains, two Ig light chains and two heterodimers of Ig-alpha and Ig-beta. After BCR ligation by antigen, three main protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) -the SRC-family kinase LYN, SYK and the TEC-family kinase BTK- are activated. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phospholipase C-gamma 2 (PLC-gamma 2) are important downstream effectors of BCR signalling. This signalling ultimately results in the expression of immediate early genes that further activate the expression of other genes involved in B cell proliferation, differentiation and Ig production as well as other processes ...
My Sweet Bunnies : A true, personal story from the experience, I Miss My Pet Rabbit. I got my two rabbits in 2003. I picked Calvin out of the crowd because when I picked him up he PEED on me. haha I took that as a sign that he needed TLC and to come home with me. As I got to know him...
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At the pet store, we selected a white baby bunny with gray spots on his hindquarters and long ears that moved in all different directions. The pet store said that rabbits live healthier, happier, longer lives in the home instead of the backyard, so we cleared space in the office. [...] my biggest surprise has been discovering Ruffles intelligent, fun-loving, naughty, energetic, curious and social personality. In four years, he hasnt uttered a single sound except for the day our neighbors dog ran circles around his cage. Each morning, when I release Ruffles from his cage, he joyfully races in circles around my legs, leaping into the air between hops.
Transcript So a lot of people call us and ask if they can just leave their rabbit at home over the weekend, they say You know, Im going on a weekend trip
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B cells are an important component of adaptive immunity. They produce and secrete millions of different antibody molecules, each of which recognizes a different (foreign) antigen. The B cell receptor (BCR) is an integral membrane protein complex that is composed of two immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chains, two Ig light chains and two heterodimers of Ig-alpha and Ig-beta. After BCR ligation by antigen, three main protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) -the SRC-family kinase LYN, SYK and the TEC-family kinase BTK- are activated. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phospholipase C-gamma 2 (PLC-gamma 2) are important downstream effectors of BCR signalling. This signalling ultimately results in the expression of immediate early genes that further activate the expression of other genes involved in B cell proliferation, differentiation and Ig production as well as other processes ...
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a subpopulation of dendritic cells that secrete large amounts of interferons (IFNs) in response to stimuli that activate the Toll-like receptors TLR9 or TLR7. The C-type lectin blood dendritic cell antigen 2 (BDCA2) is uniquely expressed by pDCs, and antibodies that bind BDCA2 inhibit IFN production in response to TLR signaling. Cao et al. found that the abundance of BDCA2 at the cell surface was increased, and signaling was reconstituted in Jurkat cells or a mouse T cell hybridoma cell line when the cells were also transfected to express the γ subunit of the Fcε receptor (FcεR1γ) but not when BDCA2 was coexpressed with the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) adaptor DAP12 or the related protein DAP10. Analysis of the mRNA and protein abundance of signaling proteins associated with either B cell receptor (BCR) or T cell receptor (TCR) signaling revealed that the signaling cascade of isolated human pDCs most resembled that downstream ...
Police say the 5-year-old child appeared withdrawn and scared when officers arrived. To make him feel better, officers decided they would get the boy a new rabbit. They worked with the Humane Society of the Pikes Peak Region to find a pet rabbit, which the boy named Pookie.. Police say the mothers boyfriend was arrested on suspicion of felony cruelty to animals and multiple misdemeanors. He is being held in jail without bond.. ...
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Pet rabbits can be messy, and although most rabbits can be trained to use a litter box, sometimes accidents happen. When your pet rabbits have accidents on their bedding or in their cages, the mess must be cleaned up right away to prevent odors. Vinegar is not only inexpensive, but it is also a natural deodorizer and disinfectant.. ...
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B cell Ag receptor (BCR) signaling changes dramatically during B cell development, resulting in activation in mature B cells and apoptosis, receptor editing, or anergy in immature B cells. BCR signaling in mature B cells was shown to be initiated by the translocation of the BCR into cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains that include the Src family kinase Lyn and exclude the phosphatase CD45. Subsequently the BCR is rapidly internalized into the cell. Here we show that the BCR in the immature B cell line, WEHI-231, does not translocate into lipid rafts following cross-linking nor is the BCR rapidly internalized. The immature BCR initiates signaling from outside lipid rafts as evidenced by the immediate induction of an array of phosphoproteins and subsequent apoptosis. The failure of the BCR in immature B cells to enter lipid rafts may contribute to the dramatic difference in the outcome of signaling in mature and immature B cells.
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human EAST protein: an EGF receptor- & Eps15-associated protein; has src homology 3 & tyrosine-based activation motif domains; MW 52 kDa; amino acid sequence in first source
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Cluster of differentiation CD79A also known as B-cell antigen receptor complex-associated protein alpha chain and MB-1 membrane glycoprotein, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD79A gene. The CD79a protein together with the related CD79b protein, forms a dimer associated with membrane-bound immunoglobulin in B-cells, thus forming the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR). This occurs in a similar manner to the association of CD3 with the T-cell receptor, and enables the cell to respond to the presence of antigens on its surface. It is associated with agammaglobulinemia-3. The mouse CD79A gene, then called mb-1, was cloned in the late 1980s, followed by the discovery of human CD79A in the early 1990s. It is a short gene, 4.3 kb in length, with 5 exons encoding for 2 splice variants resulting in 2 isoforms. CD79A is conserved and abundant among ray-finned fish (actinopterygii) but not in the evolutionarily more ancient chondrichthyes such as shark. The occurrence of CD79A thus coincides with ...
Saunders J, Wisidagama DR, Morford T, Malone CS. Maximal Expression of the Evolutionarily Conserved Slit2 Gene Promoter Requires Sp1.Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2016 Aug;36(6):955-64. doi: 10.1007/s10571-015-0281-8. Epub 2015 Oct 11. PMID:26456684. Xie Y, Zhang J, Lin Y, Gaeta X, Meng X, Wisidagama DR, Cinkornpumin J, Koehler CM, Malone CS, Teitell MA, Lowry WE. Defining the role of oxygen tension in human neural progenitor fate. Stem Cell Reports. 2014 Nov 11;3(5):743-57. doi: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2014.09.021. Epub 2014 Oct 30. PMID:25418722. Jin Zhang, Esther Nuebel, *Dona R.R. Wisidagama, Kiyoko Setoguchi, Jason S. Hong, Christine M. Van Horn, *Sarah S. Imam, Laurent Vergnes, Cindy S. Malone, Carla M. Koehler, and Michael A. Teitell. (2012) Measuring energy metabolism in human pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells. Nature Protocols 10;7(6):1068-85. Sims, R., Vandergon, V.M., and Malone C.S. (2012) The mouse B cell-specific mb-1 gene encodes an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif ...
This raised the question as to whether SpA might act as a superantigen, triggering activation of the BCR signaling pathway in a substantial proportion of MCL patients.. Therefore, we explored the interaction of SpA with lymphoma BCR-derived immunoglobulins harboring the SpA binding motif. Since SpA has a high affinity to the Fc domain of human IgG, representative MCL Igs were expressed as Fab fragments. Six different MCL- (with and without SpA binding motif), two CLL- and one FL-derived Fab fragments were produced and tested for SpA reactivity using an ELISA with coated SpA. In fact, all Fab fragments exhibiting the SpA binding motif bound to SpA in this assay, whereas Fab fragments without SpA binding motif were non-reactive (Figure 1B).. Having established that SpA binds to a substantial proportion of MCL-derived immunoglobulins in vitro, we next investigated whether this interaction is sufficient to activate the BCR signaling pathway in human B-cells expressing SpA-reactive MCL BCR. We ...
To investigate whether the tail of Igα is also methylated upon B cell activation, we reconstituted Igα KO cells with both IgαWT or IgαK198 mutant and L chain. A FACS analysis verified that transfectants producing either IgαWT or the IgαK198 mutant express similar amounts of BCR on the surface (Fig. S2, top).. The transfected B cells were cultured for 3 h with L-[methyl-3H]methionine in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. The cells were then either left unstimulated or stimulated for different times (2.5-30 min) with NIP-BSA (Fig. 2 E). The Igα proteins in the total cellular lysate of these cells were immunopurified with anti-flag antibodies and analyzed for methyl-3H incorporation by autoradiography (Fig. 2 E, top). Radioactive methyl groups were predominantly incorporated into IgαWT and to a much lesser extent into the IgαK198 mutant. The weak radioactivity of the IgαK198 mutant may be caused by an incomplete inhibition of protein synthesis that resulted in some ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
One of the first things you should remember is that you should never, ever bathe your bunny rabbit! While you can use a clean, damp cloth soaked in lukewarm water to wipe your rabbit (their skin and hair) you should never place a rabbit in a bath. They are not comfortable having baths, so do not try to submerge them in a bathtub or sink.. Its okay to have a very shallow, open "pan" with barely enough water to cover the feet (never past the bottom of the tail) to help get your rabbits feet and/or bottom clean. And if you feel like you need some soap, make sure it is mild, hypoallergenic, gentle soap and even then only use the tiniest amount on your lukewarm, damp cloth and make sure to "rinse" every bit of it off. It is also imperative that your rabbit be dried thoroughly.. Beware that rabbits tend to be so uncomfortable with the idea of a bath in water that their fear can cause serious harm (as in shock and death).. Try a Dry Bath ...
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Noemie Rosenthal - M.Sc., Biotechnology 2010-2012 The effects of aging on the B cell antigen receptor repertoire during B cell development in the bone marrow (Supervised in collaboration w/Dr Iris Barshack, Sheba Medical Center ...
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Signal transduction by T and B cell antigen receptors and certain receptors for Ig Fc regions involves a conserved sequence motif, termed an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). It is also found in the cytoplasmic domain of apoptosis receptor. Phosphorylation of the two ITAM tyrosines is a critical event in signal transduction. All (p)2ITAMs, but not their nonphosphorylated counterparts, induced extensive protein tyrosine phosphorylation in permeabilized cells. After binding of the ligand, via SH2 domain (see ,PDOC50001,), phosphorylation of the two conserved tyrosines of ITAM creates binding sites for downstream signaling molecules and thus enables the initiation of signalling events. This phosphorylation was found to reflect activation of the src family kinase Lyn and Syk. Different ITAMs may preferentially activate distinct signaling pathways as a consequence of distinct SH2 effector binding preference [1,2]. Furthermore, in viruses, ITAMs may play key roles in viral ...
Steps should be taken to introduce a safe and effective myxomatosis vaccination program to protect the health of pet rabbits while not impacting unfavourably upon the control of the wild population.
Jump to ... AQA Homepage White blood cells and the immune system Antigens Phagocytosis T lymphocytes Antibodies B lymphocytes Antigen variability Vaccines and immunity HIV and AIDS Monoclonal antibodies White blood cells and the immune system Antigens Phagocytosis T lymphocytes Antibodies B lymphocytes Antigen va
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When Easter is around the corner, a lot of parents decide to buy their youngsters a pet rabbit. Even even though rabbits make a excellent domestic pet, it is...
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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CD79 - WikipediaCD79 - Wikipedia

CD79 Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... and generates a signal following recognition of antigen by the BCR. CD79 is composed of two distinct chains called CD79A and ... CD79 (Cluster of Differentiation 79) is a transmembrane protein that forms a complex with the B-cell receptor (BCR) ... Both CD79 chains contain an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in their intracellular tails that they use to ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD79

adult hodgkins disease lymphocyte predominant 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineadult hodgkin's disease lymphocyte predominant 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD15; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / Antigens, CD79; 0 / CD79A protein, ... Antigens, CD15 / analysis. Antigens, CD30 / analysis. Antigens, CD45 / analysis. Antigens, CD79 / analysis. Child. Child, ... Antigens, CD15 / analysis. Antigens, CD20 / analysis. Antigens, CD30 / analysis. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD15; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antigens, CD30 ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=adult+hodgkin

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Lymphocyte antigen CD79 Current Synonym true false 2659888011 Cytoplasmic CD79 antigen Current Synonym true false ... Lymphocyte antigen CD79 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD79 (substance). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=103135002

PublicationsPublications

Antigens, CD79. 1 Aspergillosis. 1 Brain Neoplasms. 1 Drug Therapy, Combination. 1 ... and chimeric antigen receptor T-cells (CART) have shown promising results. Here, we postulate that GPC3 is a potential target ...
more infohttps://publications.ncats.nih.gov/sitemap?facet=Author/Chen,%20Lu

Steady-State BCR Diffusion within the Plasma Membrane I | Open-iSteady-State BCR Diffusion within the Plasma Membrane I | Open-i

Antigens, CD79/genetics/immunology/metabolism*. *B-Lymphocytes/drug effects/immunology/metabolism*/pathology ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2984614_gr1&req=4

List of MeSH codes (D12.776) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D12.776) - Wikipedia

... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.377.715.647.100 - alpha-macroglobulins MeSH ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301 - antitoxins MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH ... antigens, polyomavirus transforming MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.420 - papillomavirus e7 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.750 - ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D12.776)

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Lymphocyte negative for surface membrane immunoglobulin and positive for CD79 antigen Current Synonym true false ... Lymphocyte negative for surface membrane immunoglobulin and positive for CD79 antigen (cell). ... Lymphocyte negative for surface membrane immunoglobulin and positive for CD79 antigen (cell). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=117513006

Diagnosis of Superficial Gastric Lesions Together with Six Gastric Lymphoma Cases via Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy...Diagnosis of Superficial Gastric Lesions Together with Six Gastric Lymphoma Cases via Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy...

DLBCL is characterized by expression of B-cell-associated antigens (CD19, CD20, and CD79), with high-Ki-67 proliferation index ... IHC analysis confirmed that tumors express pan-B antigens (CD20, CD79), but lack CD5 expression (Table 4 and Figure 2). DLBCL ... P. Uherova, C. W. Ross, B. Schnitzer, T. P. Singleton, and W. G. Finn, "The clinical significance of CD10 antigen expression in ... Typically, tumors express pan-B antigens (CD19, CD20, CD22, and CD79a), but they lack CD5, CD10, CD23, and BCL-1 expression. In ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2018/5073182/

IgA ELISA KitsIgA ELISA Kits

... inhibition by S-Mepazine in CD79 antigen mutant activated B cell-subtype (ABC (zeige ABCB6 ELISA Kits)) of diffuse large B cell ... IgA Antigen-Profil Beschreibung des Gens The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen- ... The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen-specific component, surface immunoglobulin ... B-cell antigen receptor complex-associated protein alpha chain , CD79A antigen (immunoglobulin-associated alpha) , MB-1 ...
more infohttp://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/IgA+ELISA+Kit/

CD79a Molecule, Immunoglobulin-Associated alpha (CD79A) AntikörperCD79a Molecule, Immunoglobulin-Associated alpha (CD79A) Antikörper

CD79-alpha protein , CD79A antigen (immunoglobulin-associated alpha) , B-cell antigen receptor complex-associated protein alpha ... CD79a Molecule, Immunoglobulin-Associated alpha (CD79A) Antigen-Profil Protein Überblick The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a ... The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen-specific component, surface immunoglobulin ... anti-CD74 Antigen (Invariant Polypeptide of Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class II Antigen-Associated) Antikörper ...
more infohttp://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/CD79a+Molecule%2C+ImmunoglobulinAssociated+alpha+

Co-expression of CD79a (JCB117) and CD3 by lymphoblastic lymphoma. - Radcliffe Department of MedicineCo-expression of CD79a (JCB117) and CD3 by lymphoblastic lymphoma. - Radcliffe Department of Medicine

Antigens, CD, Antigens, Neoplasm, Biomarkers, Tumor, Blotting, Western, Burkitt Lymphoma, CD3 Complex, CD79 Antigens, Diagnosis ...
more infohttps://www.rdm.ox.ac.uk/publications/486709

Failure of B-cell differentiation in mice lacking the transcription factor EBF.  - PubMed - NCBIFailure of B-cell differentiation in mice lacking the transcription factor EBF. - PubMed - NCBI

CD79 Antigens. *Cell Differentiation/physiology. *DNA Primers. *DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics. *DNA-Binding Proteins/physiology ... Early B-cell factor (EBF) is a cell type-specific transcription factor that is expressed at all antigen-independent stages of B ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7542362?dopt=Abstract

Leukocyte common antigen | definition of leukocyte common antigen by Medical dictionaryLeukocyte common antigen | definition of leukocyte common antigen by Medical dictionary

What is leukocyte common antigen? Meaning of leukocyte common antigen medical term. What does leukocyte common antigen mean? ... Looking for online definition of leukocyte common antigen in the Medical Dictionary? leukocyte common antigen explanation free ... such as leukocyte common antigen, CD20, and CD79.. Primary Plasmacytoma of the Breast ... T-cell-associated antigens (CD3 and CD45RO) as well as leukocyte common antigen (CD45) were also absent.. Plasmablastic ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Leukocyte+Common+Antigen

Immunology Resources | Cell Signaling TechnologyImmunology Resources | Cell Signaling Technology

While membrane Ig binds antigen, the CD79 heterodimer transduces signals through its cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine- based ... Thus, the lymphocyte antigen receptors use similar models of membrane-bound antigen receptors linked to signal-transducing ...
more infohttps://en.cellsignal.de/contents/science-cst-pathways/immunology-and-inflammation/science-pathways-immunology

Current Perspectives in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapies for OsteoarthritisCurrent Perspectives in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapies for Osteoarthritis

... while lacking the expression of the haematopoietic antigens CD11b, CD14, CD34, CD45, CD79, CD19, and HLA-DR [28]. In order to ... Nonmatched human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allogenic BMSCs from young donors (18-30 years old) where used in the study, making it ... They display the surface antigens CD73, CD90, and CD105, ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2014/194318/

mutations of mortality: Understanding cell signalingmutations of mortality: Understanding cell signaling

When the BCR transmembrane immunoglobulin molecule is engaged by antigen the CD79 a and b proteins of the BCR, the Protein ... Activation of CD79 alerts two tyrosine kinases, Lyn and Syk, which are capable of sending messages onward through the cell. Lyn ... It is in fact an antibody molecule, designed to recognize the antigen that the B-cell is programmed to react with. But it does ... In plain English, in a B-cell, the immunoglobulin molecule on the surface binds to the antigen it was designed for - eg an anti ...
more infohttp://mutated-unmuated.blogspot.com/2011/07/understanding-cell-signaling.html

Isotype Control of B Cell Signaling | Science SignalingIsotype Control of B Cell Signaling | Science Signaling

The B cell receptor (BCR) consists of an antigen-binding membrane immunoglobulin (mIg) associated with the CD79α and CD79β ... Naïve B cells express the IgM and IgD isotypes, which have very short cytoplasmic tails and therefore depend on CD79α and CD79β ... Moreover, stimulation through BCRs containing an IgG cytoplasmic tail causes increased numbers of antigen-specific clones to ...
more infohttp://stke.sciencemag.org/content/2003/184/pe21

Frontiers | Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Transplant Tolerance | ImmunologyFrontiers | Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Transplant Tolerance | Immunology

CD79α or CD19, and HLA-DR surface antigens (4). Although MSC can be obtained from several adult and fetal tissues (including ... other antigen presenting cells can act the same way). (5) Direct and indirect antigen presentation provide the survival stimuli ... Mesenchymal stromal cells cross-present soluble exogenous antigens as part of their antigen-presenting cell properties. Blood. ... Antigen-presenting property of mesenchymal stem cells occurs during a narrow window at low levels of interferon-gamma. Blood. ( ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01287/full

IJMS  | Free Full-Text | Can Youthful Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Whartons Jelly Bring a Breath of Fresh Air for COPD? | HTMLIJMS | Free Full-Text | Can Youthful Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Wharton's Jelly Bring a Breath of Fresh Air for COPD? | HTML

CD79, CD19, and class II human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR); and (3) an ability to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes ... 12], have also shown that cigarette-smoke-driven agents (including antigens, lung tissue breakdown products, and/or ... Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells inhibit the response of naive and memory antigen-specific T cells to their cognate peptide. ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/18/11/2449/htm

Anti-HHV-6 Early Antigen Antibody | Mouse anti-Human Herpesvirus 6  | LSBioAnti-HHV-6 Early Antigen Antibody | Mouse anti-Human Herpesvirus 6 | LSBio

HHV-6 Early Antigen antibody LS-C546745 is an HRP-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to human herpesvirus 6 HHV-6 Early ... IHC‑plus™ CD79A / CD79 Alpha Antibody (clone HM57) LS‑B4504 Species: Human, Mouse, Rat, Bovine, Guinea pig, Opossum, Rabbit, ... HHV-6 Early Antigen antibody LS-C546745 is an HRP-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to human herpesvirus 6 HHV-6 Early ... Specific for a 37kD early antigen of HHV-6, Strain A. Does not recognize Strain B. ...
more infohttps://www.lsbio.com/antibodies/hhv-6-early-antigen-antibody-hrp-elisa-ip-wb-western-ls-c546745/560307

Details and Download Full Text PDF: Lymphomatoid papulosis misdiagnosed as pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta: Two...Details and Download Full Text PDF: Lymphomatoid papulosis misdiagnosed as pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta: Two...

CD79, cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA), and TIA-1. Read More ... Expression of cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen and TIA-1 by lymphocytes in pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta ... none of lymphoid cells of pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta demonstrated this antigen. Read More ...
more infohttps://www.pubfacts.com/detail/25371758/Lymphomatoid-papulosis-misdiagnosed-as-pityriasis-lichenoides-et-varioliformis-acuta-Two-case-reports-and-a-literature-review

Anti-Melanoma Antigen Family F, 1 (MAGEF1) Antibody | Rabbit  | LSBioAnti-Melanoma Antigen Family F, 1 (MAGEF1) Antibody | Rabbit | LSBio

... antibody LS-C780218 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Melanoma Antigen Family F, 1 (MAGEF1). Validated for ... IHC‑plus™ CD79A / CD79 Alpha Antibody (clone HM57) LS‑B4504 Species: Human, Mouse, Rat, Bovine, Guinea pig, Opossum, Rabbit, ... Melanoma Antigen Family F, 1 (MAGEF1) antibody LS-C780218 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Melanoma ...
more infohttps://www.lsbio.com/antibodies/melanoma-antigen-family-f-1-magef1-antibody-elisa-wb-western-ls-c780218/806733

Download An Economic And Social History Of The Netherlands 1800 1920 Demographic Economic And Social TransitionDownload An Economic And Social History Of The Netherlands 1800 1920 Demographic Economic And Social Transition

IG+CD79) or conclude retained by polymers. IG are Changes in their download an economic and social history of the netherlands ... more than 450 million measures Here and attributed in all rhetorical convicted psychological accounts from reviews to antigens ...
more infohttp://prigsbee.com/Hawaii/freebooks/download-an-economic-and-social-history-of-the-netherlands%2C-1800-1920%3A-demographic%2C-economic-and-social-transition.htm

Phenotype and genotype of interfollicular large B cells, a subpopulation of lymphocytes often with dendritic morphology | Blood...Phenotype and genotype of interfollicular large B cells, a subpopulation of lymphocytes often with dendritic morphology | Blood...

CD79, Fc receptor-γIIB [FcRγIIB]). The antigen-binding repertoire of the surface immunoglobulin is already unique for each ... Antigen selection. In each sequence, somatic mutations were analyzed for compatibility with antigen selection by 2 methods. ... Antigen selection. Two different methods were used to determine whether the VH mutation patterns in the interfollicular large B ... T-cell antigens: new and previously defined clusters. In: McMichael AJ et al, eds. Leucocyte Typing III, White Cell ...
more infohttp://www.bloodjournal.org/content/102/8/2868?ijkey=b4b08f1aad787b33f23b701d459a177b90435d7f&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha&sso-checked=true
  • Both CD79 chains contain an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in their intracellular tails that they use to propagate a signal in a B cell, in a similar manner to CD3-generated signal tranduction observed during T cell receptor activation on T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDR3 is the main CDR responsible for recognizing processed antigen , although CDR1 of the alpha chain has also been shown to interact with the N-terminal part of the antigenic peptide, whereas CDR1 of the β-chain interacts with the C-terminal part of the peptide. (wikipedia.org)