Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

CD28-independent costimulation of T cells by OX40 ligand and CD70 on activated B cells. (1/159)

OX40 and its ligand (OX40L) have been implicated in T cell-dependent humoral immune responses. To further characterize the role of OX40/OX40L in T-B cell interaction, we newly generated an anti-mouse OX40L mAb (RM134L) that can inhibit the costimulatory activity of OX40L transfectants for anti-CD3-stimulated T cell proliferation. Flow cytometric analyses using RM134L and an anti-mouse OX40 mAb indicated that OX40 was inducible on splenic T cells by stimulation with immobilized anti-CD3 mAb in a CD28-independent manner, while OX40L was not expressed on resting or activated T cells. OX40L was inducible on splenic B cells by stimulation with anti-IgM Ab plus anti-CD40 mAb, but not by either alone. These activated B cells exhibited a potent costimulatory activity for anti-CD3-stimulated T cell proliferation and IL-2 production. Anti-CD80 and anti-CD86 mAbs partially inhibited the costimulatory activity, and further inhibition was obtained by their combination with RM134L and/or anti-CD70 mAb. We also found the anti-IgM Ab- plus anti-CD40 mAb-stimulated B cells exhibited a potent costimulatory activity for proliferation of and IL-2 production by anti-CD3-stimulated CD28- T cells from CD28-deficient mice, which was substantially inhibited by RM134L and/or anti-CD70 mAb. These results indicated that OX40L and CD70 expressed on surface Ig- and CD40-stimulated B cells can provide CD28-independent costimulatory signals to T cells.  (+info)

Constitutive expression and role of the TNF family ligands in apoptotic killing of tumor cells by human NK cells. (2/159)

Natural killer cells mediate spontaneously secretory/necrotic killing against rare leukemia cell lines and a nonsecretory/apoptotic killing against a large variety of tumor cell lines. The molecules involved in nonsecretory/apoptotic killing are largely undefined. In the present study, freshly isolated, nonactivated, human NK cells were shown to express TNF, lymphotoxin (LT)-alpha, LT-beta, Fas ligand (L), CD27L, CD30L, OX40L, 4-1BBL, and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), but not CD40L or nerve growth factor. Complementary receptors were demonstrated to be expressed on the cell surface of solid tumor cell lines susceptible to apoptotic killing mediated by NK cells. Individually applied, antagonists of TNF, LT-alpha1beta2, or FasL fully inhibited NK cell-mediated apoptotic killing of tumor cells. On the other hand, recombinant TNF, LT-alpha1beta2, or FasL applied individually or as pairs were not cytotoxic. In contrast, a mixture of the three ligands mediated significant apoptosis in tumor cells. These findings demonstrate that human NK cells constitutively express several of the TNF family ligands and induce apoptosis in tumor cells by simultaneous engagement of at least three of these cytotoxic molecules.  (+info)

Critical contribution of OX40 ligand to T helper cell type 2 differentiation in experimental leishmaniasis. (3/159)

Infection of inbred mouse strains with Leishmania major is a well characterized model for analysis of T helper (Th)1 and Th2 cell development in vivo. In this study, to address the role of costimulatory molecules CD27, CD30, 4-1BB, and OX40, which belong to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, in the development of Th1 and Th2 cells in vivo, we administered monoclonal antibody (mAb) against their ligands, CD70, CD30 ligand (L), 4-1BBL, and OX40L, to mice infected with L. major. Whereas anti-CD70, anti-CD30L, and anti-4-1BBL mAb exhibited no effect in either susceptible BALB/c or resistant C57BL/6 mice, the administration of anti-OX40L mAb abrogated progressive disease in BALB/c mice. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that OX40 was expressed on CD4(+) T cells and OX40L was expressed on CD11c(+) dendritic cells in the popliteal lymph nodes of L. major-infected BALB/c mice. In vitro stimulation of these CD4(+) T cells showed that anti-OX40L mAb treatment resulted in substantially reduced production of Th2 cytokines. Moreover, this change in cytokine levels was associated with reduced levels of anti-L. major immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and serum IgE. These results indicate that anti-OX40L mAb abrogated progressive leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice by suppressing the development of Th2 responses, substantiating a critical role of OX40-OX40L interaction in Th2 development in vivo.  (+info)

CD27-mediated activation of murine NK cells. (4/159)

CD27, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, has been implicated in T cell activation, T cell development, and T cell-dependent Ab production by B cells. In the present study we examined the expression and function of CD27 on murine NK cells. Murine NK cells constitutively expressed CD27 on their surface. Stimulation with immobilized anti-CD27 mAb or murine CD27 ligand (CD70) transfectans solely could induce proliferation and IFN-gamma production of freshly isolated NK cells and enhanced the proliferation and IFN-gamma production of anti-NK1.1-sutimulated NK cells. Although NK cell cytotoxicity was not triggered by anti-CD27 mAb or against CD70 transfectants, prestimulation via CD27 enhanced the cytotoxic activity of NK cells in an IFN-gamma-dependent manner. These results suggest that CD27-mediated activation may be involved in the NK cell-mediated innate immunity against virus-infected or transformed cells expressing CD70.  (+info)

CD134L engagement enhances human B cell Ig production: CD154/CD40, CD70/CD27, and CD134/CD134L interactions coordinately regulate T cell-dependent B cell responses. (5/159)

CD134 is a member of the TNFR family expressed on activated T cells, whose ligand, CD134L, is found preferentially on activated B cells. We have previously reported that the CD70/CD27 interaction may be more important in the induction of plasma cell differentiation after the expansion phase induced by the CD154/CD40 interaction has occurred. When CD134-transfected cells were added to PBMCs stimulated with pokeweed mitogen, IgG production was enhanced in a dose-dependent fashion. Addition of CD134-transfected cells to B cells stimulated with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I strain/IL-2 resulted in little if any enhancement of B cell IgG production and proliferation. We found that while CD134-transfected cells induced no IgG production by themselves, it greatly enhanced IgG production in the presence of CD40 stimulation or T cell cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-10. The addition of CD134-transfected cells showed only a slight increase in the number of plasma cells compared with that in the culture without them, indicating that an increased Ig production rate per cell is responsible for the observed enhancing effect of CD134L engagement rather than increase in plasma cell generation. These results strongly suggest different and sequential roles of the TNF/TNFR family molecules in human T cell-dependent B cell responses through cell-cell contacts and the cytokine network.  (+info)

Apoptosis in coxsackievirus B3-caused diseases: interaction between the capsid protein VP2 and the proapoptotic protein siva. (6/159)

Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a common factor in human myocarditis. Apoptotic events are present in CVB3-induced disease, but it is unclear how CVB3 is involved in apoptosis and which viral proteins may induce the apoptotic pathway. In this report we demonstrate that the human and murine proapoptotic protein Siva specifically interact with the CVB3 capsid protein VP2. Furthermore, the transcription of Siva is strongly induced in tissue of CVB3-infected mice and is present in the same area which is positively stained for apoptosis, CD27, and CD70. It has been proposed that Siva is involved in the CD27/CD70-transduced apoptosis. Therefore, we suggest a molecular mechanism through which apoptotic events contributes to CVB3-caused pathogenesis.  (+info)

The expression of CD70 and CD80 by gene-modified tumor cells induces an antitumor response depending on the MHC status. (7/159)

The expression of costimulatory molecules such as CD70 or CD80 by gene-modified tumor cells has been shown to enhance the antitumor immune response based mainly on T lymphocytes. However, most human tumors show defects of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression, preventing them from being recognized by MHC-restricted T cells. To investigate if coexpression of CD70 and CD80 costimulatory molecules induces comparable antitumor responses in low and high MHC-expressing tumor cells, we used two low immunogenic murine tumor models, the B16.F10 melanoma and the TS/A mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines expressing, respectively, low and high levels of MHC class I molecules. Transfection of both CD70 and CD80 genes resulted in an increased capacity of gene-modified tumor cells to costimulate in vitro the proliferation and cytokine production of optimally activated lymphoid cells. Coexpression of CD70 and CD80 by the two tumor cell lines, TS/A and B16.F10, resulted in both cases in partial regression of subcutaneous tumors. Immunochemical analysis and studies in nude mice showed that, even in the B16.F10 model, T cells had a significant role in the antitumor response induced by combining CD70 and CD80. However, rejection of the CD70/CD80-transfected tumor cells appeared more effective in the MHC class I high TS/A model, leading to a protection against parental tumor cells. B16.F10 and TS/A transfectants were then tested with fibroblasts genetically modified to secrete interleukin-12 (IL-12) as a therapeutic vaccine in mice bearing parental tumors. In the two models tested, the injections of irradiated IL-12 and CD70/CD80 gene-modified cells generated an antitumor response to established tumors leading to the slowing down of the tumor growth rate. Although the mechanisms remain to be defined, these findings suggest that the combination of several immuno-modulatory molecules could provide additional strategies for cancer immuno-gene therapy, even for MHC expression-deficient tumors.  (+info)

Enhancement of adenovirus vector entry into CD70-positive B-cell Lines by using a bispecific CD70-adenovirus fiber antibody. (8/159)

Although many recombinant adenovirus vectors (rAd) have been developed, especially by using group C adenoviruses, to transfer and express genes, such rAd do not readily infect B-cell lines due to the lack of the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor. Bispecific antibodies have been used in different cell systems to facilitate entry of rAd into otherwise nonpermissive cells. Bispecific antibody is synthesized by covalently linking two monoclonal antibodies with distinct specificities. It has been shown that lymphoproliferative tumors commonly express the cell surface protein CD70, while this receptor is normally expressed on only a small subset of highly activated B cells and T cells. We therefore investigated whether a bispecific antibody with specificities for the adenovirus fiber protein and CD70 can facilitate rAd entry and subsequent expression of rAd-encoded genes in CD70-positive B cells. We found high CD70 expression on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), as well as some, but not all, Burkitt lymphoma (BL) lines. We show here that rAd encoding green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP) infects EBV-transformed LCLs and a CD70-positive BL line 10- to 20-fold more efficiently in the presence of the CD70-fiber bispecific antibody. In contrast, the bispecific antibody does not enhance Ad-GFP infection in CD70-deficient BL cells. Using the CD70-fiber bispecific antibody, we increased the ability of rAd vectors encoding the EBV immediate-early proteins BZLF1 and BRLF1 to induce the lytic form of EBV infection in LCLs. These results indicate that the CD70-fiber bispecific antibody can enhance rAd infection of CD70-positive B cells and suggest the use of this vector to explore EBV-positive LCLs.  (+info)

*Vorsetuzumab

Chemical names are: Immunoglobulin G1, anti-(CD antigen CD70) (human-mouse monoclonal h1F6 heavy chain), disulfide with human- ... mouse monoclonal h1F6 light chain, dimer Immunoglobulin G1, anti-(human CD70 antigen (CD27 ligand, Tumor necrosis Vorsetuzumab ...

*CD70

Seattle Genetics Third Quarter 2013 Financial Report CD70 Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... CD70 (Cluster of Differentiation 70) is a ligand for CD27. The CD70 protein is expressed on highly activated lymphocytes (like ... that anti-CD70 antibodies might be a possible treatment for CD70 positive lymphomas as normal lymphocytes have low CD70 ... Cluster of differentiation Israel BF, Gulley M, Elmore S, Ferrini S, Feng WH, Kenney SC (2005). "Anti-CD70 antibodies: a ...

*Immune checkpoint

Coquet JM, Middendorp S, van der Horst G, Kind J, Veraar EA, Xiao Y, Jacobs H, Borst J (January 24, 2013). "The CD27 and CD70 ... CD27 - This molecule supports antigen-specific expansion of naïve T cells and is vital for the generation of T cell memory. ... Borst J, Hendriks J, Xiao Y (June 1, 2005). "CD27 and CD70 in T cell and B cell activation". Curr Opin Immunol. 17 (3): 275-81 ... The ligand for GITR is mainly expressed on antigen presenting cells. Antibodies to GITR have been shown to promote an anti- ...

*Tumor necrosis factor superfamily

T cell antigen gp39 (CD40L), a cytokine that seems to be important in B-cell development and activation. CD27L, a cytokine that ... Human proteins containing this domain include: CD40LG (TNFSF5); CD70 (TNFSF7); EDA; FASLG (TNFSF6); LTA (TNFSF1); LTB (TNFSF3 ...

*Germinal center B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

CD70. In normal lymphoid tissues CD27 and its ligand CD70 have a restricted expression pattern, but a 1999 study found CD70 on ... B-cells that have not encountered an antigen are called naive B cells. When naïve B-cells encounter an antigen, one of the ... that bind to a specific antigen. Once activated by an antigen, B-cells proliferate and further differentiate into plasma cells ... Follicular dendritic cells and T cells help to select the B-cells that have a high affinity to the antigen for further ...

*B-1 cell

... making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen presenting cells. Notably, most B1 cells do not develop into memory B ... In January 2011, human B1 cells were found to have marker profile of CD20+CD27+CD43+CD70- and could either be CD5+ or CD5-, ... Hence, there appears to be a role for self or foreign antigen in shaping the repertoire of the B-1 B cell compartment. B1 B ... These studies indicate preexisting subset differences in B cell receptor (BCR) specificity and antigen-driven B cell fate that ...

*CD27

... Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD27 genome location and CD27 gene ... Lens SM, de Jong R, Hintzen RQ, Koopman G, van Lier RA, van Oers RH (Jun 1995). "CD27-CD70 interaction: unravelling its ... It binds to ligand CD70, and plays a key role in regulating B-cell activation and immunoglobulin synthesis. This receptor ...

*SIVA1

... pathway induced by the CD27 antigen, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TFNR) superfamily. The CD27 antigen ... Held-Feindt J, Mentlein R (2002). "CD70/CD27 ligand, a member of the TNF family, is expressed in human brain tumors". Int. J. ...
Exposure of APL as well as non-APL samples to any concentration of As2O3 did not affect the expression of beta2 integrins (CD11a and CD11b), CD45 isoforms (RA, RB and R0), CD44/H-CAM, CD33 and the CEA-related antigen family members CD66ade and CD66b, thus ...
Given the genetic diversity of B-cell lymphomas and differential antigen expression patterns across lymphoma subtypes, it is unlikely that a single small molecule or antibody-based therapeutic will effectively treat all categories of NHL. Therefore, the use of therapeutic antibody combinations targeting different tumor antigens is expected to produce a more robust antitumor response. Simultaneously targeting CD20 and the TNFR family member CD40 may be productive, because both are expressed on the majority of B-cell lymphomas and mediate differential signaling events through their cytoplasmic domains. We evaluated the potential of improving rituximab-based therapies in NHL by targeting CD40 with dacetuzumab. In vivo analysis of the dacetuzumab-rituximab combination in the Ramos NHL xenograft model showed the capacity of dacetuzumab to augment rituximab activity. Potential mechanisms of action behind the ability of dacetuzumab to enhance rituximab activity in vivo include improved recruitment of ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein and is similar in sequence to its family member CD53 antigen. It is known to complex with integrins and other transmembrane 4 superfamily proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
I just wanted to jump back on these forums, because finally Ill be pursuing treatment (again!) and I need some advice and reassurance. I wrote my history so
Given the genetic diversity of B-cell lymphomas and differential antigen expression patterns across lymphoma subtypes, it is unlikely that a single small molecule or antibody-based therapeutic will effectively treat all categories of NHL. Therefore, the use of therapeutic antibody combinations targeting different tumor antigens is expected to produce a more robust antitumor response. Simultaneously targeting CD20 and the TNFR family member CD40 may be productive, because both are expressed on the majority of B-cell lymphomas and mediate differential signaling events through their cytoplasmic domains. We evaluated the potential of improving rituximab-based therapies in NHL by targeting CD40 with dacetuzumab. In vivo analysis of the dacetuzumab-rituximab combination in the Ramos NHL xenograft model showed the capacity of dacetuzumab to augment rituximab activity. Potential mechanisms of action behind the ability of dacetuzumab to enhance rituximab activity in vivo include improved recruitment of ...
The report reviews the competitive landscape and pipeline of antibody-drug conjugates and analyzes R&D stage, targets and drug payloads of ADCs as well as company portfolios.
Amino-PEG2-C2-acid is a cleavable 3 unit PEG ADC linker used in the synthesis of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.

Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD70 Expressed by Renal Cell Carcinoma Is a Potential Therapeutic Target for Anti-CD70 Antibody...Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD70 Expressed by Renal Cell Carcinoma Is a Potential Therapeutic Target for Anti-CD70 Antibody...

Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD70 Expressed by Renal Cell Carcinoma Is a Potential Therapeutic Target for Anti-CD70 Antibody- ... Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD70 Expressed by Renal Cell Carcinoma Is a Potential Therapeutic Target for Anti-CD70 Antibody- ... Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD70 Expressed by Renal Cell Carcinoma Is a Potential Therapeutic Target for Anti-CD70 Antibody- ... Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD70 Expressed by Renal Cell Carcinoma Is a Potential Therapeutic Target for Anti-CD70 Antibody- ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/66/4/2328

Antigens, CD70 | Profiles RNSAntigens, CD70 | Profiles RNS

CD70" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, CD70" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... "Antigens, CD70" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD70" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Antigens, CD70". ...
more infohttps://profiles.rush.edu/display/2314

CD27 | Cancer Genetics WebCD27 | Cancer Genetics Web

CD70-dependent release of soluble CD27 in cocultures may explain the high CD27 levels observed in sera of patients with CD70- ... Persistence of EBV antigen-specific CD8 T cell clonotypes during homeostatic immune reconstitution in cancer patients.. PLoS ... We found an association between CD70 expression on CD4 + T cells and HTLV-1 infection; increased CD70 expression was observed ... The mechanisms of CD70s upregulation and its role in ccRCC are unknown.. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: CD70 expression was ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/CD27.htm

Ultrastructural morphology of lymphocytes of the Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).Ultrastructural morphology of lymphocytes of the Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

Antigens, Cd70. A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ... When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen. ... Removal, via CELL DEATH, of immature lymphocytes that interact with antigens during maturation. For T-lymphocytes this occurs ... ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2616739/Ultrastructural-morphology-of-lymphocytes-of-the-Arabian-oryx-Oryx-leucoryx.html

CD70 / TNFSF7 (NM 001252) ORF cDNA clone | Expression-readyCD70 / TNFSF7 (NM 001252) ORF cDNA clone | Expression-ready

CD70 (TNFSF7) cloned gene : ORF from ATG to Stop, in pUNO1 expression plasmid selectable in E.coli and mammalian cells. Fully ... CD70 molecule.. Surface antigen CD70.. CD27 ligand.. Tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 7. ... Human CD70 (pUNO1-hCD70). Genbank : NM_001252.4. ORF size : 582 bp. Subclone : AgeI - NheI ... Mouse CD70 (pUNO1-mCD70). Genbank : NM_011617.2. ORF size : 588bp. Subclone : AgeI - NheI ...
more infohttps://www.invivogen.com/puno-cd70

Effect of food intake on 92 oncological biomarkers by the Proseek Oncology II panel | Springer for Research & DevelopmentEffect of food intake on 92 oncological biomarkers by the Proseek Oncology II panel | Springer for Research & Development

CD70 antigen (7%,16%), R-spondin-3 (10%,13%), Folate receptor gamma (8%,13%), Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion ... CD48 antigen (7%,14%), Secretory carrier-associated membrane protein 3 (8%,15%), T-lymphocyte surface antigen Ly-9 (6%,14%), ... Cancer antigen-125) [29]. Their results, for the most part, coincided with ours: food intake showed no effect on biomarker ... CD160 antigen (8%,17%), Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4 (8%,15%), MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs13104-019-4237-9

Homo sapiens ATCC ® 95673™Homo sapiens ATCC ® 95673™

CD70 TypeStrain=False Application: produces protein CD70 antigen (CD27 ligand) ... Gene symbol: CD70. Other gene symbols: CD70.1; CD27LG; CD27L. Gene name: CD70 antigen (CD27 ligand). Contains complete coding ... The cloning of CD70 and its identification as the ligand for CD27. J. Immunol. 152: 1756-1761, 1994. PubMed: 8120384 ... Gene product: CD70 antigen (CD27 ligand) [CD70]. Target Gene: CD70 antigen (CD27 ligand) ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Molecular_Biology/Clones/95673.aspx

Progress of Molecular Targeted Therapies for Advanced Renal Cell CarcinomaProgress of Molecular Targeted Therapies for Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

"Lymphocyte activation antigen CD70 expressed by renal cell carcinoma is a potential therapeutic target for anti-CD70 antibody- ... and a pro-drug activated by mAb-antigen interaction. Lymphocyte activation antigen CD70 that is expressed on RCC cells is one ... The interaction between anti-CD70 mAb and CD70 on tumor cell surfaces led to prodrug release and activation. MDX-1203 is an mAb ... A different approach consists in the use of radio-labeled mAb against antigens expressed on RCC cells surface. The G250 antigen ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/419176/

Restoring Host Antitumoral Immunity: How Coregulatory Molecules Are Changing the Approach to the Management of Renal Cell...Restoring Host Antitumoral Immunity: How Coregulatory Molecules Are Changing the Approach to the Management of Renal Cell...

Lymphocyte activation antigen CD70 expressed by renal cell carcinoma is a potential therapeutic target for antiQQQCD70 ... Expression of the PD-1 antigen on the surface of stimulated mouse T and B lymphocytes. Int Immunol. May 1996;8(5):765-772. ... Identification of CD70 as a diagnostic biomarker for clear cell renal cell carcinoma by gene expression profiling, realQQQtime ... CD8+ T cell immunity against a tumor/self-antigen is augmented by CD4+ T helper cells and hindered by naturally occurring T ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-59745-332-5_21

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Lymphocyte antigen CD70 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD70 (substance). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=35092000

Potent cytotoxicity of an auristatin-containing antibody-drug conjugate targeting melanoma cells expressing melanotransferrin...Potent cytotoxicity of an auristatin-containing antibody-drug conjugate targeting melanoma cells expressing melanotransferrin...

Lymphocyte activation antigen CD70 expressed by renal cell carcinoma is a potential therapeutic target for anti-CD70 antibody- ... which likely reflects loss of p97 expression because antigen-positive and antigen-negative subpopulations were observed (Table ... Melanoma-associated antigen p97 continues to be expressed after prolonged exposure of cells to specific antibody. Int J Cancer ... The p97 antigen is expressed in some neonatal tissues, such as liver and melanocytes, and in adult normal tissues, including ...
more infohttp://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/5/6/1474.long

Mechanisms of Resistance to Antibody-Drug Conjugates | Molecular Cancer TherapeuticsMechanisms of Resistance to Antibody-Drug Conjugates | Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

In addition to antigen CD70, the lysosomal solute carrier family protein SLC46A3 was the only other highly significant hit ... Antigen downregulation or drug transporter protein overexpression. ADCs are highly dependent upon antigen expression to exert ... Neither altered antigen levels nor MDR1 protein were observed in these tumors, and the resistance was not maintained when cells ... Decreased antigen expression and increased drug transporter protein expression upon chronic ADC exposure are not unique to HER2 ...
more infohttp://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/15/12/2825?utm_source=jan4spot&utm_medium=carousel&utm_campaign=0408

Applications filed at Jul 26 2018 | POLYMERS AND USES THEREOF | Patents.comApplications filed at Jul 26 2018 | POLYMERS AND USES THEREOF | Patents.com

ANTI-CD70 CHIMERIC ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. The invention provides a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) having antigenic specificity for ... Anti-GITR Antigen-Binding Proteins and Methods of Use Thereof. Provided herein are antigen-binding proteins (ABPs) that ... CD70, the CAR comprising: an antigen binding-transmembrane domain... 2018/0208670. METHODS FOR ENHANCING ANTI-TUMOR ANTIBODY ... The present disclosure provides a human antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof or an antibody construct comprising a ...
more infohttp://www.patents.com/ap-20180726-p100.html

Hanada K[au] - PubMed - NCBIHanada K[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Preclinical Evaluation of Chimeric Antigen Receptors Targeting CD70-Expressing Cancers.. Wang QJ, Yu Z, Hanada KI, Patel K, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?access_num=Hanada+K&link_type=AUTHORSEARCH&cmd=search&term=Hanada+K%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Recombinant Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M12 Septation ring formation regulator EzrA(ezrA) ,partial - CusabioRecombinant Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M12 Septation ring formation regulator EzrA(ezrA) ,partial - Cusabio

Recombinant Human CD70 antigen(CD70),partial. Express system: Yeast. Species: Homo sapiens (Human) ... CD Antigen. FC Receptor. Immune Checkpoint. Colony Stimulating Factors. Growth Factors. Tumor Necrosis Factors. Interferons. ...
more infohttps://www.cusabio.com/Recombinant-Protein/Recombinant-Streptococcus-pyogenes-serotype-M12-Septation-ring-formation-regulator-EzrAezrA-partial-710713.html

PublicationsPublications

Expression of the immune regulation antigen CD70 in osteosarcoma. Cancer Cell Int. 2015 Mar 18;15:31 ...
more infohttps://www.kuijjerlab.org/publications/

Increased IFN-γ production and cytotoxic activity in C | Open-iIncreased IFN-γ production and cytotoxic activity in C | Open-i

Phenotypic analysis of splenic CD8+ T cells of wild-type and CD70 Tg mice collected 12 d aft ... Increased IFN-γ production and cytotoxic activity in CD70 Tg mice. ... 7.2 ± 1.2% in CD70 Tg mice; n = 5, P , 0.05). This may in large part be explained by the increased size of the antigen-specific ... 7.2 ± 1.2% in CD70 Tg mice; n = 5, P , 0.05). This may in large part be explained by the increased size of the antigen-specific ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2211777_20031111f5&req=4

Recombinant Francisella philomiragia subsp. philomiragia Phenylalanine--tRNA ligase alpha subunit(pheS) - CusabioRecombinant Francisella philomiragia subsp. philomiragia Phenylalanine--tRNA ligase alpha subunit(pheS) - Cusabio

Recombinant Human CD70 antigen(CD70),partial. Express system: Yeast. Species: Homo sapiens (Human) ... CD Antigen. FC Receptor. Immune Checkpoint. Colony Stimulating Factors. Growth Factors. Tumor Necrosis Factors. Interferons. ...
more infohttps://www.cusabio.com/Recombinant-Protein/Recombinant-Francisella-philomiragia-subsp-philomiragia-Phenylalanine-tRNA-ligase-alpha-subunitpheS-653271.html

Lupus erythematosusLupus erythematosus

CD70 antigen. Tbio. Non-IDG. Tyrosine-protein kinase Lyn. Tclin. Kinase. Name. Description. ... B-cell antigen receptor complex-associated protein alpha chain. Tbio. Non-IDG. ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/diseases/DOID:8857

Cd70 (NM 011617) Mouse ORF cDNA clones - NovoProCd70 (NM 011617) Mouse ORF cDNA clones - NovoPro

CD27 ligand; CD27-L; Ki-24 antigen; tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 7; tumor necrosis factor ligand ...
more infohttps://www.novoprolabs.com/p/cd27-ligand-cdna-orf-clone-716699.html

CD27 Ligand Protein - ACROBiosystemsCD27 Ligand Protein - ACROBiosystems

Name:CD70 antigen Target Synonym:CD27-L;Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 7;CD70;CD27L;CD27LG;TNFSF7;CD27 ligand ... CD70,CD27LG,TNFSF7,TNFSF7G,CD27L. CD27 Ligand Molecule Background. Cluster of Differentiation 70 (CD70) is also known as CD27 ... B-Cell Maturation Antigen TIGIT - TIGIT Signaling Axis CD47 - Leukocyte Surface Antigen CD47 LAG3 - Lymphocyte-activation gene ... and is a surface antigen found on activated T-and B-lymphocytes and mature dendritic cells. Binding of CD70 to its receptor ...
more infohttps://www.acrobiosystems.com/L-114-CD27%20Ligand.html

Effect of food intake on 92 oncological biomarkers by the Proseek Oncology II panel | BMC Research Notes | Full TextEffect of food intake on 92 oncological biomarkers by the Proseek Oncology II panel | BMC Research Notes | Full Text

CD70 antigen (7%,16%), R-spondin-3 (10%,13%), Folate receptor gamma (8%,13%), Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion ... CD48 antigen (7%,14%), Secretory carrier-associated membrane protein 3 (8%,15%), T-lymphocyte surface antigen Ly-9 (6%,14%), ... Cancer antigen-125) [29]. Their results, for the most part, coincided with ours: food intake showed no effect on biomarker ... CD160 antigen (8%,17%), Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4 (8%,15%), MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence ...
more infohttps://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13104-019-4237-9

Vorsetuzumab - WikipediaVorsetuzumab - Wikipedia

Chemical names are: Immunoglobulin G1, anti-(CD antigen CD70) (human-mouse monoclonal h1F6 heavy chain), disulfide with human- ... mouse monoclonal h1F6 light chain, dimer Immunoglobulin G1, anti-(human CD70 antigen (CD27 ligand, Tumor necrosis Vorsetuzumab ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vorsetuzumab

Search Technologies | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTCSearch Technologies | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

Novel Immunotherapy for Cancer Treatment: Chimeric Antigen Receptors Targeting CD70 Antigen. The National Cancer Institutes ... Surgery Branch seeks partners interested in licensing or co-developing chimeric antigen receptors targeting CD70 antigen for ... Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CARs) for Treating Lymphoma and Other Cancers. The National Cancer Institute seeks licensees for a ... New Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) Format for Developing Improved Adoptive Cell Therapies Researchers at the National Cancer ...
more infohttps://techtransfer.cancer.gov/availabletechnologies/all?f%5B0%5D=field_product_type%3A1&f%5B1%5D=field_development_stage%3A9&abstract_sort=search_api_aggregation_2%20ASC
  • Anti-CD70 antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) consisting of auristatin phenylalanine phenylenediamine (AFP) or monomethyl auristatin phenylalanine (MMAF), two novel derivatives of the anti-tubulin agent auristatin, mediated potent antigen-dependent cytotoxicity in CD70-expressing RCC cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cytotoxic activity of these anti-CD70 ADCs was associated with their internalization and subcellular trafficking through the endosomal-lysosomal pathway, disruption of cellular microtubule network, and G 2 -M phase cell cycle arrest. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The efficiency of drug delivery using anti-CD70 as vehicle was illustrated by the much enhanced cytotoxicity of antibody-conjugated MMAF compared with free MMAF. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our findings provide evidence that CD70 is an attractive target for antibody-based therapeutics against metastatic RCC and suggest that anti-CD70 ADCs can provide a new treatment approach for advanced RCC patients who currently have no chemotherapeutic options. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Surgery Branch was responsible for the development of interleukin-2 (IL-2), the first effective immunotherapy in humans, the development of cell transfer immunotherapies for melanoma and other solid cancers, the first insertion of foreign genes into humans and the first development of effective human cancer immunotherapies based on the genetic engineering of autologous lymphocytes with genes encoding anti-tumor T cell receptors or chimeric antigen receptors. (cancer.gov)
  • His laboratory efforts have concentrated on the development of novel antigen receptors for T-cells with optimized specificity and efficacy in treating cancers. (cancer.gov)
  • In vivo priming of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells results in their expansion and differentiation into effector T cells followed by contraction into a memory T cell population that can be maintained for life. (nih.gov)
  • CD70 on mouse B cell has been shown to inhibit terminal differentiation of activated B cells into plasma cells and enhances commitment to memory B cell responses. (acrobiosystems.com)
  • Ablation of "tolerance" and induction of diabetes by virus infection in viral antigen transgenic mice. (springer.com)
  • Antigens, CD70" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (rush.edu)
  • This antigen belongs to the transferrin family of iron-binding proteins and shows 37% to 39% sequence homology with human serum transferrin, lactoferrin, and ovotransferrin ( 11 , 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, it is unclear to what extent CD8+ T cell instruction in vivo is modulated by costimulatory signals.Concomitantly, the quality of antigen-specific T cells improved as evidenced by increased interferon (IFN)-gamma production and a greater cytotoxic potential on a per cell basis.Thus, CD70 costimulation enhances both the expansion and per cell activity of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, CD70 costimulation enhances both the expansion and per cell activity of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Tumor rejection induced by CD70-mediated quantitative and qualitative effects on effector CD8+ T cell formation. (nih.gov)
  • Concomitantly, the quality of antigen-specific T cells improved as evidenced by increased interferon (IFN)-gamma production and a greater cytotoxic potential on a per cell basis. (nih.gov)
  • Target cells (EL4 cells) were fluorescently labeled, pulsed with NP366-374 peptide or unpulsed, and subsequently cocultured with effector cells (NP366-374-specific CD8+ T cells) at different effector to target cell ratios in which effector populations from wild-type and CD70 Tg mice were equalized based on the percentage of NP-specific cells. (nih.gov)
  • To assess whether CD27 stimulation contributes to the competence of antigen-specific T cells, we analyzed the acquisition of effector cell properties of NP366-374-specific T cells directly ex vivo. (nih.gov)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD70" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, CD70" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (rush.edu)
  • Importantly, CD70 expression was found to be maintained at the metastatic sites of RCC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several molecules have been discovered out of which CD antigens have been found to play an important role in cancer progression and proliferation. (marketreport.jp)
  • CD antigen cancer market is expected to witness introduction of several products which will help the pharmaceutical companies to generate significant revenues. (marketreport.jp)
  • ARGX-110 is a CD70-specific antibody that is currently under investigation for the treatment of hematological malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased IFN-γ production and cytotoxic activity in CD70 Tg mice. (nih.gov)
  • With time more CD antigens are expected to be discovered and they would help in the increased market size. (marketreport.jp)
  • Investigators are trying to assign different functions to CD antigens by doing extensive research and development. (marketreport.jp)