Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Altered trafficking of lysosomal proteins in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome due to mutations in the beta 3A subunit of the AP-3 adaptor. (1/236)Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a genetic disorder characterized by defective lysosome-related organelles. Here, we report the identification of two HPS patients with mutations in the beta 3A subunit of the heterotetrameric AP-3 complex. The patients' fibroblasts exhibit drastically reduced levels of AP-3 due to enhanced degradation of mutant beta 3A. The AP-3 deficiency results in increased surface expression of the lysosomal membrane proteins CD63, lamp-1, and lamp-2, but not of nonlysosomal proteins. These differential effects are consistent with the preferential interaction of the AP-3 mu 3A subunit with tyrosine-based signals involved in lysosomal targeting. Our results suggest that AP-3 functions in protein sorting to lysosomes and provide an example of a human disease in which altered trafficking of integral membrane proteins is due to mutations in a component of the sorting machinery. (+info)
PETA-3/CD151, a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, is localised to the plasma membrane and endocytic system of endothelial cells, associates with multiple integrins and modulates cell function. (2/236)The Transmembrane 4 Superfamily member, PETA-3/CD151, is ubiquitously expressed by endothelial cells in vivo. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells PETA-3 is present on the plasma membrane and predominantly localises to regions of cell-cell contact. Additionally, this protein is abundant within an intracellular compartment which accounts for up to 66% of the total PETA-3 expressed. Intracellular PETA-3 showed colocalisation with transferrin receptor and CD63 suggesting an endosomal/lysosomal localisation which was supported by immuno-electronmicroscopy studies. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments investigating possible interactions of PETA-3 with other molecules demonstrated associations with several integrin chains including beta1, beta3, beta4, (alpha)2, (alpha)3, (alpha)5, (alpha)6 and provide the first report of Transmembrane 4 Superfamily association with the (alpha)6beta4 integrin. Using 2-colour confocal microscopy, we demonstrated similar localisation of PETA-3 and integrin chains within cytoplasmic vesicles and endothelial cell junctions. In order to assess the functional implications of PETA-3/integrin associations, the effect of anti-PETA-3 antibodies on endothelial function was examined. Anti-PETA-3 mAb inhibited endothelial cell migration and modulated in vitro angiogenesis, but had no detectable effect on neutrophil transendothelial migration. The broad range of integrin associations and the presence of PETA-3 with integrins both on the plasma membrane and within intracellular vesicles, suggests a primary role for PETA-3 in regulating integrin trafficking and/or function. (+info)
Role of autocrine stimulation on the effects of cyclic AMP on protein and lipid phosphorylation in collagen-activated and thrombin-activated platelets. (3/236)We compared several responses in thrombin-stimulated and collagen (type I)-stimulated platelets with and without forskolin and inhibitors of autocrine stimulation (IAS: an ADP-removing system of creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase, Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptide to prevent fibrinogen/fibronectin binding to GPIIb/IIIa, SQ 29.548 as a thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, cyproheptadine as a serotonin receptor antagonist, BN 52021 as a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist). The pattern of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, the phosphorylation of lipids in the polyphosphoinositide cycle and phosphorylation of pleckstrin (P47) were studied as markers for signal-transducing responses, exposure of CD62 (P-selectin) and CD63 (Glycoprotein 53), as well as secretion of ADP + ATP and beta-N-acetyl-glycosaminidase were studied as final activation responses. Clear differences between thrombin-stimulated and collagen-stimulated platelets were observed. First, practically all protein-tyrosine phosphorylation induced by thrombin was inhibited by IAS, while a partial inhibition was observed for collagen; the phosphorylation due to collagen alone was apparently stimulated by elevation of cAMP. Secondly, the other responses to thrombin were inhibited by increased levels of cAMP, independent of autocrine stimulation. In contrast, only the autocrine part of the collagen-induced responses was inhibited by elevation of cAMP. Thus, the inhibition by elevated cAMP seen in collagen-stimulated platelets seems to be due to removal of the G-protein-mediated activation from secreted autocrine stimulators either by IAS or forskolin. The remaining activity is a pure collagen effect which is not affected by elevated levels of cAMP. (+info)
Detection of allergen-induced basophil activation by expression of CD63 antigen using a tricolour flow cytometric method. (4/236)In the field of allergy diagnosis, most in vitro functional tests are focused on basophils. Nevertheless, the very small number of circulating basophils limits these experiments and their clinical benefit remains controversial. As flow cytometry is a valuable tool for identifying cell populations, even at low concentrations, we developed a tricolour flow cytometric method for the study of allergen-induced basophil activation. Identification of cells was based both on CD45 expression and on the presence of IgE on the cell surface, since basophils express high-affinity receptors for IgE (Fc epsilon RI). Cell activation upon allergen challenge was assessed by the expression of CD63 antigen on the plasma membrane. Basophil isolation and activation (with the chemotactic peptide formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine) were validated in 32 non-allergic patients. In 12 allergic patients, basophil stimulation by a relevant allergen was in most cases positive (10/12). Furthermore a concentration-dependent hook effect was observed. Of the allergic and non-allergic patients, none showed non-specific activation with an irrelevant allergen (specificity 100%). Overall, our preliminary results, even in a small population, suggest that this is a reliable and valuable method for the diagnosis of allergies complementing specific allergen IgE and skin test results. Obviously, additional clinical studies are needed to validate these first results. (+info)
Rapid down-regulation of CD63 transcription by progesterone in human endometrial stromal cells. (5/236)Differentiation of endometrial stromal cells (decidualization) plays a crucial role in embryo implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. While progesterone is a key factor in regulating endometrial cell decidualization, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of gene transcription in human endometrial stromal cells (ESC) by progesterone, oestrogen or vehicle using the polymerase chain reaction-based differential display methodology. A transcript which is down-regulated by progesterone, but not by vehicle and oestrogen, was identified from a differential display band and the progesterone sensitivity of its expression was verified in Northern blot analysis. The level of the gene expression in progesterone-treated ESC was approximately 60% of that in the vehicle- and oestrogen-treated ESC. This cDNA was revealed to be human CD63 antigen, a recently identified member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily. The inhibitory effect of progesterone is observed within 30 min after hormone treatment. In human endometrium, CD63 mRNA levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) during the secretory phase compared with levels during the proliferative phase. This down-regulation of CD63 in vivo elevated levels of progesterone in the secretory phase. These results suggest that CD63 transcription is down-regulated by progesterone in human endometrium. (+info)
Monocyte activation in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. (6/236)OBJECTIVE: Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is an inflammatory disorder characterised by granulomatous inflammation, vasculitis, and necrotising vasculitis and is strongly associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). Activated monocytes/macrophages are present in renal biopsy specimens and participate in granuloma formation by synthesising and secreting a variety of chemoattractants, growth factors, and cytokines. In view of these findings, in vivo monocyte activation was evaluated in patients with WG and the findings related to parameters of clinical disease activity. METHODS: Monocyte activation was analysed by measuring plasma concentrations of soluble products of monocyte activation, that is neopterin and interleukin 6 (IL6), by ELISA, and by quantitating the surface expression of activation markers on circulating monocytes by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients with active WG were included in this study. Ten of these patients were also analysed at the time of remission. Twelve patients with sepsis served as positive controls, and 10 healthy volunteers as negative controls for monocyte activation. Patients with active disease had increased monocyte activation compared with healthy controls as shown by increased concentrations of neopterin (p < 0.0001) and increased surface expression of CD11b (p < 0.05) and CD64 (p < 0.05). In those patients with increased concentrations of IL6 during active disease plasma concentrations of IL6 decreased during follow up when patients went into remission (p < 0.0001). In addition, neopterin (r = 0.37, r = 0.44), IL6 (r = 0.37, r = 0.60) and CD63 expression (r = 0.39, r = 0.45) correlated significantly with disease activity as measured by the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score and C reactive protein values, respectively. Compared with patients with sepsis, all markers of monocyte activation in patients with vasculitis were lower. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that disease activity in WG correlates with the extent of activation of monocytes, compatible with their role in the pathophysiology of this disease. (+info)
Y receptor-mediated induction of CD63 transcripts, a tetraspanin determined to be necessary for differentiation of the intestinal epithelial cell line, hBRIE 380i cells. (7/236)Peptide YY (PYY) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are peptides that coordinate intestinal activities in response to luminal and neuronal signals. In this study, using the rat hybrid small intestinal epithelial cell line, hBRIE 380i cells, we demonstrated that PYY- and NPY-induced rearrangement of actin filaments may be in part through a Y1alpha and/or a nonneuronal Y2 receptor, which were cloned from both the intestinal mucosa and the hBRIE 380i cells. A number of PYY/NPY-responsive genes were also identified by subtractive hybridization of the hBRIE 380i cells in the presence or absence of a 6-h treatment with PYY. Several of these genes coded for proteins associated with the cell cytoskeleton or extracellular matrix. One of these proteins was the transmembrane-4 superfamily protein CD63, previously shown to associate with beta(1)-integrin and implicated in cell adhesion. CD63 immunoreactivity, using antibody to the extracellular domain, was highest in the differentiated cell clusters of the hBRIE 380i cells. The hBRIE 380i cells transfected with antisense CD63 cDNA lost these differentiated clusters. These studies suggest a new role for NPY and PYY in modulating differentiation through cytoskeletal associated proteins. (+info)
CD63 associates with CD11/CD18 in large detergent-resistant complexes after translocation to the cell surface in human neutrophils. (8/236)CD63 antibody binding to the neutrophil surface triggers a transient activation signal that regulates the adhesive activity and surface expression of CD11/CD18. Gel permeation chromatography demonstrated that all of the cell surface CD11/CD18 associated with CD63 eluted in the void volume, indicating that they were present in large detergent-resistant complexes. In contrast, the majority of the total cellular CD63, CD11 and CD18, which are largely intracellular, was not present in complexes. The data suggest that intracellular CD11, CD18 and CD63 are not in detergent-resistant complexes, but enter such complexes following translocation to the cell surface. (+info)
Mapping of tetraspanin-enriched microdomains that can function as gateways for HIV-1 | JCB
Two lines of evidence in our current study suggest that surface TEMs can serve as exit gateways for HIV-1. First, most cell surface punctae where either Gag or Env clusters in both HeLa cell and in Jurkat T lymphocytes are also occupied by one of the tetraspanins (Figs. 6-8⇑⇑ and 10). Second, cellular TSG101 and VPS28, the components of the cellular budding machinery responsible for viral egress (Morita and Sundquist, 2004), when recruited to the plasma membrane in cells producing HIV-1, accumulate at CD63-containing TEMs (Fig. 8). Furthermore, we find that distortion of TEM distribution in virus-producing cells by an anti-CD9 antibody (K41) correlates with inhibition of HIV-1 release (unpublished data).. In a study where we used the FlAsH technique for successive dual-color labeling (Gaietta et al., 2002) of Gag in various virus-secreting cell types, we observed localization of newly synthesized Gag at distinct areas on the plasma membrane (Rudner et al., 2005). We also documented that ...
The clinical utility of basophil activation testing in diagnosis and monitoring of allergic disease
RESUMEN. The basophil activation test (BAT) has become a pervasive test for allergic response through the development of flow cytometry, discovery of activation markers such as CD63 and unique markers identifying basophil granulocytes.. Basophil activation test measures basophil response to allergen cross-linking IgE on between 150 and 2000 basophil granulocytes in ,0.1 ml fresh blood. Dichotomous activation is assessed as the fraction of reacting basophils.. In addition to clinical history, skin prick test, and specific IgE determination, BAT can be a part of the diagnostic evaluation of patients with food-, insect venom-, and drug allergy and chronic urticaria. It may be helpful in determining the clinically relevant allergen.. Basophil sensitivity may be used to monitor patients on allergen immunotherapy, anti-IgE treatment or in the natural resolution of allergy. Basophil activation test may use fewer resources and be more reproducible than challenge testing. As it is less stressful for the ...
Shreffler:SCIT Basophil Activation - OpenWetWare
Basophil activation in unfractionated samples such as whole blood can be measured by changes in the expression of cell surface markers or even intracellular events (e.g. phosphorylation, oxidative burst, calcium flux) by flow cytometry. Separate markers (e.g. as CD123+ HLA-DR-) are used to specifically identify basophils in addition to those used for assessment of activation. A feature of this protocol is to stimulate the basophils both in the presence and absence of autologous plasma. This protocol is specifically for a mouse allergen SCIT study conducted at JHU. ...
Targeting the Tetraspanins with Monoclonal Antibodies in Oncology: Focus on Tspan8/Co-029
Tetraspanins are exposed at the surface of cellular membranes, which allows for the fixation of cognate antibodies. Developing specific antibodies in conjunction with genetic data would largely contribute to deciphering their biological behavior. In this short review, we summarize the main functions …
basophil activation during immune response QuickView - Correlation Engine
Evaluation of CCR3 as a basophil activation marker - Fingerprint - Northwestern Scholars
FFAS03 results for vfdb.0000010
Ying Zhang, Ines Thiele, Dana Weekes, Zhanwen Li, Lukasz Jaroszewski, Krzysztof Ginalski, Ashley Deacon, John Wooley, Scott Lesley, Ian Wilson, Bernhard Palsson, Andrei Osterman, Adam Godzik. Three-Dimensional Structural View of the Central Metabolic Network of Thermotoga maritima. Science. 2009 Sep 18;325(5947):1544-9.. Alexey M. Eroshkin, Andrew LeBlanc, Dana Weekes, Kai Post, Zhanwen Li, Akhil Rajput, Sal T. Butera, Dennis R. Burton, Adam Godzik. bNAber: database of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies. Nucl. Acids Res. 2013; published on November 7, 2013.. Ye Y, Godzik A. FATCAT: a web server for flexible structure comparison and structure similarity searching. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004 Jul 1;32(Web Server issue):W582-5 ...
Lysis with Saponin improves detection of the response through CD203c and CD63 in the basophil activation test after...
The basophil activation test (BAT), in which translocation of markers to the surface of blood basophils is measured in response to allergen by flow cytometry, is a rapid assay that is gaining popularity. Two markers are currently being evaluated for the BAT; CD63 and the lineage-specific CD203c. In a recent report, detection of CD203c after lysis with Saponin was shown to be superior to detection of CD63 after lysis with formic acid. We wanted to compare a) lysis with formic acid and lysis with Saponin, b) the response through CD203c and CD63, and c) the definition 10% activated cells above background with the probability binning metric T(χ) | 4, on sets of data generated with blood basophils stimulated with varying concentrations of anti-FcεRI antibody. Blood from volunteers was incubated with serial logarithmic dilutions of anti-FcεRI and subsequently with antibodies to CD203c PE and CD63 FITC. Sets of samples set up in parallel were lysed with either Saponin based Whole Blood Lysing reagent or
A Case of Anaphylaxis in Which a Basophil Activation Test Was Used to Identify the Suspected Agent | Anesthesia Progress |...
This is a case report of anaphylaxis in which the basophil activation test (BAT) was used to identify the etiological agent. Although skin tests are considered the most effective methods for identifying anaphylactic triggers, the test itself presents a risk of inducing anaphylaxis. The BAT is advantageous because of its inherent lack of risk, high sensitivity and specificity to identify the suspected anaphylactic agents, and diagnostic accuracy comparable to conventional skin testing. Therefore, in the future, the BAT is likely to become the preferred test for the detection of allergens over conventional skin tests. ...
A Case of Anaphylaxis in Which a Basophil Activation Test Was Used to Identify the Suspected Agent | Anesthesia Progress |...
This is a case report of anaphylaxis in which the basophil activation test (BAT) was used to identify the etiological agent. Although skin tests are considered the most effective methods for identifying anaphylactic triggers, the test itself presents a risk of inducing anaphylaxis. The BAT is advantageous because of its inherent lack of risk, high sensitivity and specificity to identify the suspected anaphylactic agents, and diagnostic accuracy comparable to conventional skin testing. Therefore, in the future, the BAT is likely to become the preferred test for the detection of allergens over conventional skin tests. ...
Evaluation of immediate allergic reactions to dipyrone using dipyrone metabolites in basophil activation test | Clinical and...
Immediate selective hypersensitivity reactions to pyrazolones are thought to be mediated by specific-IgE antibodies. The diagnosis of selective reactions to pyrazolones is mainly based on the clinical history, skin testing and/or drug provocation test (DPT). Skin testing has low sensitivity and has potential risk of eliciting an anaphylactic response as well as DPT. Therefore the use of in vitro tests could be a safe and straightforward approach, although till now no well-validated test is available. Basophil activation test (BAT) has been proposed as a new in vitro diagnostic tool for different drug reactions although its sensibility is not optimal. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential usefulness of dipyrone metabolites to improve BAT sensitivity. ...
Inclusion of clavulanic acid determinants in the basophil activation test improves the evaluation of immediate reactions to...
The clavulanic acid (CLV) is nowadays frequently included in the treatment with Amoxicillin (AX). This component of the antibiotic therapy initially thought to have a low immunogenic capacity; however immediate allergic reactions to CLV have been reported in a 30% of patients allergic to AX-CLV. Basophil activation test (BAT) has shown promising results demonstrating specific recognition of CLV determinants. The aim of this study was to assess the value of BAT in the evaluation of immediate allergic reactions to CLV. ...
Anaphylaxis to xylitol diagnosed by skin prick test and basophil activation test<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anaphylaxis to xylitol diagnosed by skin prick test and basophil activation test. AU - Okamoto, Kaoru. AU - Kagami, Michiko. AU - Kawai, Manabu. AU - Mori, Yuji. AU - Yamawaki, Kazuo. AU - Nakajima, Yoichi. AU - Kondo, Yasuto. AU - Tsuge, Ikuya. PY - 2019/1. Y1 - 2019/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85058961080&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85058961080&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.alit.2018.08.001. DO - 10.1016/j.alit.2018.08.001. M3 - Letter. C2 - 30190098. AN - SCOPUS:85058961080. VL - 68. SP - 130. EP - 131. JO - Allergology International. JF - Allergology International. SN - 1323-8930. IS - 1. ER - ...
Basophil degranulation test | Article about basophil degranulation test by The Free Dictionary
E-mail a Wiley Online Library Link
B. Eberlein Basophil activation test in the diagnosis of insect venom allergies Clinical & Experimental Allergy 39. Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2009 , DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2009.03375.x. Complete the form below and we will send an e-mail message containing a link to the selected article on your behalf. Required = Required Field. ...
Cd81 - CD81 antigen - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cd81 gene & protein
Structural component of specialized membrane microdomains known as tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TERMs), which act as platforms for receptor clustering and signaling. Essential for trafficking and compartmentalization of CD19 receptor on the cell surface of activated B cells (PubMed:23499492). Upon initial encounter with a microbial pathogen, enables the assembly of CD19-CR2 and B cell receptor complexes at signaling TERMs, lowering the threshold dose of antigen required to trigger B cell clonal expansion and humoral immune response (By similarity). In T cells, associates with CD4 or CD8 coreceptors and defines the maturation state of antigen-induced synapses with B cells (By similarity). Facilitates localization of CD3 in these immune synapses, required for costimulation and sustained activation of T cells, preferentially triggering T helper type 2 immune response (PubMed:11046035). Can act both as positive and negative regulator of homotypic or heterotypic cell-cell fusion processes. In myoblasts
Application of basophil activation test in diagnosing aspirin hypersensitivity | Gawinowska | Advances in Respiratory Medicine
In the face of increasing prevalence of hypersensitivity reactions, introduction of effective, reliable and safe methods plays a crucial role in their diagnosing. Among the currently available laboratory (in vitro) methods is basophil activation test (BAT). It is a flow- cytometry based assay that allows to identificate in the blood sample basophils and additionally to asses the degree of cell activation after exposure to an antigen. The most common superficial identification markers are CD63 and CD203c, which increase in number after activation. Basophil actvation test can be applied to confirm diagnosis of allergy to Hymenoptera venoms, food, pollens and hypersensitivity to drugs. The aim of present paper is to present theoretical methods of this test as well as its pros and cons. We focus also on presentation of clinical case where BAT seemed to be a necessary addition to a routine diagnostic pathway. We present a case of identification of the culprit drug which caused an anaphylactic ...
Regulation of C-type lectin-like receptors dectin-1 and CLEC-2 by tetraspanins - eTheses Repository
Tetraspanins are a superfamily of glycoproteins that function as organisers of membranes by clustering with each other to form tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, into which certain other receptors and signalling proteins are recruited and regulated. Tetraspanin microdomains have been implicated in a range of biological processes including cell signalling, adhesion, intracellular trafficking, cell-cell fusion and viral entry. The tetraspanin CD37 was recently shown to negatively regulate the C-type lectin-like receptor dectin-1, which is essential for innate immune responses to fungal pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to firstly develop a cell line model system to investigate the mechanism by which tetraspanins inhibit dectin-1, and to secondly extend this work to the dectin-1-related CLEC-2, which is essential for platelet thrombus formation and stability. Using a nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) transcriptional reporter assay in the Jurkat T-cell line, transient over-expression ...
Basophil sensitivity through CD63 or CD203c is a functional measure for specific immunotherapy | Clinical and Molecular Allergy...
Subcutaneous Immunotherapy (SCIT) modifies the allergic response and relieves allergic symptoms. SCIT is the only and a very effective treatment for insect venom allergy. We hypothesized that basophil sensitivity, measured through the basophil activation test, would decrease during SCIT up dosing. Expression of CD203c was compared to CD63 as marker for basophil activation, using a Bland Altman plot and ROC curves. Patients (n = 18) starting subcutaneous SCIT for wasp allergy with an up dosing scheme of 7 to 11 weeks were enrolled. Heparinised blood samples were drawn at weeks 1-4, 7 and at the first maintenance visit. Basophils were stimulated at 7 log dilutions of V. vespula allergen for 15 min, and were stained with CD203c and CD63. Basophils were identified as CD203c+ leukocytes, and the proportion of CD63+ and CD203c+ cells were plotted against allergen concentration. A sigmoid curve was fitted to the points, and the allergen concentration at which half of the maximal activation was achieved, LC50,
Research Areas - Shoshana Levy, Ph.D., Stanford Division of Oncology - Faculty Research Laboratories - Stanford University...
Abstract Our research is aimed at understanding the mechanism of action of tetraspanins. This is a multi-gene family, which has shown remarkable conservation over evolution and whose members are expressed in mammals, insects and nematodes. Tetraspanins are also widely expressed in most cell types, forming molecular associations with different proteins in the different cell types. The tetraspanin CD81 was originally identified in our laboratory as a receptor that controls cell growth. To better define the role of CD81 we created CD81-deficient mice. These mice have impairments in their immune, nervous and reproductive systems. CD81 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of two major human diseases: hepatitis C virus (HCV) and malaria. CD81 is the putative receptor for HCV, CD81 is also required for infection by malaria. Plasmodium sporozoites mature in the liver to merozoites, the stage that infects red blood cells, this maturation step is CD81-dependent.. Recent Studies CD81 is a widely ...
Clinical Trial: Mechanisms Of Anaphylaxis - Healthcare / Medical - Shine.com
U.S., June 15 -- ClinicalTrials.gov registry received information related to the study (NCT03182491) titled Mechanisms of Anaphylaxis on June 7. Brief Summary: The purpose of this study is to explore different mechanisms for anaphylaxis and find novel biomarkers for this hypersensitivity syndrome. The study participants are patients with anaphylaxis, patients with mild allergic reactions, and patients with febrile transfusion reactions. We will also include a group of healthy controls. Study Start Date: Study Type: Observational [Patient Registry] Condition: Anaphylaxis Allergy Transfusion Reaction Febrile Transfusion Reaction Intervention: Diagnostic Test: Biomarkers (platelet activating factor [PAF], anaphylatoxins) and basophil activation test (BAT) Analysis of biomarkers and basophil activation test Recruitment Status: Recruiting Sponsor: Haukeland University Hospital Information provided by (Responsible Party): Haukeland University Hospital Published by HT Digital Content Services with ...
A new panel of epitope mapped monoclonal antibodies recognising the prototypical tetraspanin CD81. - Nuffield Department of...
Background: Tetraspanins are small transmembrane proteins, found in all higher eukaryotes, that compartmentalize cellular membranes through interactions with partner proteins. CD81 is a prototypical tetraspanin and contributes to numerous physiological and pathological processes, including acting as a critical entry receptor for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Antibody engagement of tetraspanins can induce a variety of effects, including actin cytoskeletal rearrangements, activation of MAPK-ERK signaling and cell migration. However, the epitope specificity of most anti-tetraspanin antibodies is not known, limiting mechanistic interpretation of these studies. Methods: We generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for CD81 second extracellular domain (EC2) and performed detailed epitope mapping with a panel of CD81 mutants. All mAbs were screened for their ability to inhibit HCV infection and E2-CD81 association. Nanoscale distribution of cell surface CD81 was investigated by scanning electron
CD151 � a membrane protein via X-ray crystallography
Tetraspanins are family of small membrane proteins and they are involved in multitude of biological process. Structurally theyare characterized by having four transmembrane domains, short inner and outer loops, one large extra cellular loop containsCCG motif and N and C terminal. Iconic features of these proteins are formation of Tetraspanin Enriched Micro domains(TEMs) by interacting among themselves and with other transmembrane and cytosolic proteins. These domains provide asignaling platform for many important cellular functions such as immune response induction, fertilization, viral infection,maintenance of skin integrity and malignant process. Tetraspanin CD151 is frequently over expressed on cancer cells and isfunctionally linked to cancer metastasis. CD151 forms direct and stable and interaction with integrin molecules and regulatesthe cellular functions. Increasing evidence emerging from in vitro, in vivo and clinical analyses associates that CD151partnership with integrins ?6?1 and ...
Internetquellen-Führer: Suche - Virtuelle Fachbibliothek Biologie (vifabio)
Tetraspanins are membranes proteins involved in every aspect of cell-cell interaction, including adhesion, fusion, differentiation and extracellular vesicle production. As the principal components of a type of membrane microdomain, they have therapeutic and diagnostic potential in a wide range of diseases and new imaging techniques are beginning to reveal the fine detail of these microdomains and their biophysical properties. In this Focussed Meeting, the roles of tetraspanins in cancer, development, infection and immunity will be highlighted. In addition, the role of tetraspanins in the formation and function of extracellular vesicles will be explored and an optional half-day workshop will be held, providing hands-on experience of vesicle purification and characterisation. ... [Information of the supplier] ...
Pronephric cilia in ocrl-/- zebrafish.A. Confocal image | Open-i
Seminars | Mizuguchi Laboratory | Page 2
China Raw Hormone Steroid Trestolone Acetate for Anti-Inflammatory - China Trestolone Acetate, 6157-87-5
CD203c antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Great Britain
Clone FR3-16A11 recognizes CD203c, a glycosylated type II transmembrane molecule that belongs to the family of ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/ phosphodiesterase (E-NPP3) enzymes. Among hematopoietic cells, expression of CD203c is restricted to basophils as well as to mast cells and their precursors, and has been described as specific for this lineage. Protein and/or mRNA expression of CD203c has also been found in solid tissues such as uterus or prostate. Basophils and mast cells are key producers of mediators that drive the onset of inflammatory responses, e.g., in allergy. Allergen challenge leads to a rapid up-regulation of activation markers such as CD203c or CD63. Due to its restricted expression pattern, CD203c is discussed as a specific marker to monitor the allergen-induced activation of basophils, e.g., in flow cytometric basophil activation tests of the peripheral blood. - Great Britain
Studies on cell-on-chip technology and basophil regulation for improved allergy diagnostics | KTH
Allergic diseases affect approximately 30% of adults and has an impact on both the individuals quality of life as well as an economic impact on society. Two effector cells involved in allergic disease are mast cells and basophils, where basophils are more readily available in blood and therefore of great interest when studying allergy. Basophils can be recruited into the tissue during inflammation originating from for example allergic reactions or parasite infections. Allergy diagnostics starts with evaluation of the patients medical history followed by in vivo and/or in vitro testing. All diagnostic tests have different advantages and disadvantages are chosen depending on the patient and the circumstances. In vivo tests include the gold standard of allergy diagnostics, which is the challenge tests, but also the commonly used skin prick test (SPT). Allergy diagnostics can also be done in vitro using allergen-specific IgE antibody assays and the basophil activation test (BAT). BAT is useful to ...
Purpose of review Mechanisms involved in the development of type 2 immunity are poorly defined. In addition progenitors that differentiate into mature basophils have recently been recognized. Summary The current review revisits basophils with the goal of providing insights into understanding unappreciated functions of basophils studies of human basophils have provided insights into understanding basophil […]. ...
Exosome As A Delivery System- Exosomal Signal Delivery Toward Differentiation Change | 9653
The inner loop of tetraspanins CD82 and CD81 mediates interactions with human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 Gag protein
The tetraspanin superfamily proteins play important roles in organizing membrane protein complexes, modulating integrin function, and controlling T cell adhesion. Tetraspanins such as CD82 contain two extracellular loops with its N terminus, C terminus, and inner loop exposed to the cytoplasm. The m …
CD203c antibodies - Analyte-specific reagents (ASRs) - Clinical flow cytometry - Cell manufacturing platform - Products -...
Clone FR3-16A11 recognizes CD203c, a glycosylated type II transmembrane molecule that belongs to the family of ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/ phosphodiesterase (E-NPP3) enzymes. Among hematopoietic cells, expression of CD203c is restricted to basophils as well as to mast cells and their precursors, and has been described as specific for this lineage. Protein and/or mRNA expression of CD203c has also been found in solid tissues such as uterus or prostate. Basophils and mast cells are key producers of mediators that drive the onset of inflammatory responses, e.g., in allergy. Allergen challenge leads to a rapid up-regulation of activation markers such as CD203c or CD63. Due to its restricted expression pattern, CD203c is discussed as a specific marker to monitor the allergen-induced activation of basophils, e.g., in flow cytometric basophil activation tests of the peripheral blood. - Lëtzebuerg
Plasma exchange to remove HIT antibodies: dissociation between enzyme-immunoassay and platelet activation test reactivities
Update on the evaluation of hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams - Blanca - 2009 - Allergy - Wiley Online Library
Hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams (BLs) are classified as immediate or nonimmediate. The former usually appear within 1 h of drug-intake and are mediated by specific IgE-antibodies. Nonimmediate reactions are those occurring more than 1 h after drug-intake, and they can be T-cell mediated. The diagnostic evaluation of allergic reactions to BLs has changed over the last 5 years, for several reasons. Major and minor determinants are no longer commercially available for skin testing in many countries. In immediate allergic reactions, the sensitivity of skin testing and immunoassays is decreasing and new in vitro methods, such as the basophil activation test, are gaining importance for diagnosis. For nonimmediate reactions, skin testing appears to be less sensitive than previous results, although more studies need to be carried out in this direction. Nevertheless, the drug provocation test is still necessary for diagnosis. ...
Regulatory T cells induce activation rather than suppression of human basophils | Science Immunology
Basophils are a rare granulocyte population that has been associated with allergic and inflammatory responses. It is essential to understand the regulatory mechanisms by which basophils are kept in check, considering the impact of dysregulated basophil function on immune responses under different pathological conditions. Among immunoregulatory cells, CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are the key players that maintain immune tolerance. The mechanisms by which Tregs regulate and suppress diverse immune cell subsets have been studied extensively, but the impact of Tregs on basophil functions is not well understood. We report that human basophils are refractory to Treg-mediated suppression and found that Tregs stimulate resting basophils to induce the expression of activation markers including CD69, CD203c, and CD13 and the release of basophil cytokines including IL-13, IL-8, and IL-4. Mechanistically, Tregs could induce human basophil activation via IL-3 and STAT5 activation, whereas ...
Inhibition of CD203c membrane up-regulation in human basophils by high dilutions of histamine: a controlled replication study |...
Abstract 14712: Exosomal Transfer of Hsf1 Prevents Apoptosis in Ischemic Myocytes by Chromatin Remodeling of Mir-34a |...
Viruses | Free Full-Text | Evidence Showing that Tetraspanins Inhibit HIV-1-Induced Cell-Cell Fusion at a Post-Hemifusion Stage
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission takes place primarily through cell-cell contacts known as virological synapses. Formation of these transient adhesions between infected and uninfected cells can lead to transmission of viral particles followed by separation of the cells. Alternatively, the cells can fuse, thus forming a syncytium. Tetraspanins, small scaffolding proteins that are enriched in HIV-1 virions and actively recruited to viral assembly sites, have been found to negatively regulate HIV-1 Env-induced cell-cell fusion. How these transmembrane proteins inhibit membrane fusion, however, is currently not known. As a first step towards elucidating the mechanism of fusion repression by tetraspanins, e.g., CD9 and CD63, we sought to identify the stage of the fusion process during which they operate. Using a chemical epistasis approach, four fusion inhibitors were employed in tandem with CD9 overexpression. Cells overexpressing CD9 were found to be sensitized to inhibitors
The tetraspanin D6.1A and its molecular partners on rat carcinoma cells | Biochemical Journal
Tetraspanins function as molecular organizers of multi-protein complexes by assembling primary complexes of a relatively low mass into extensive networks involved in cellular signalling. In this paper, we summarize our studies performed on the tetraspanin D6.1A/CO-029/TM4SF3 expressed by rat carcinoma cells. Primary complexes of D6.1A are almost indistinguishable from complexes isolated with anti-CD9 antibody. Indeed, both tetraspanins directly associate with each other and with a third tetraspanin, CD81. Moreover, FPRP (prostaglandin F2α receptor-regulatory protein)/EWI-F/CD9P-1), an Ig superfamily member that has been described to interact with CD9 and CD81, is also a prominent element in D6.1A complexes. Primary complexes isolated with D6.1A-specific antibody are clearly different from complexes containing the tetraspanin CD151. CD151 is found to interact only with D6.1A if milder conditions, i.e. lysis with LubrolWX instead of Brij96, are applied to disrupt cellular membranes. CD151 ...
Supplementary MaterialsData Sheet 1 - Small-molecule XIAP inhibitors derepress downstream effector caspases
Supplementary MaterialsData_Sheet_1. by looking at with healthy individuals, higher levels of serum exosomal miR-92b-3p, let-7g-5p, miR-146b-5p, and miR-9-5p were found to be significantly associated with early-stage GC ( 0.05). Diagnostic power of the combined panels of the exosomal miRNAs or the combination of exosomal BAY 80-6946 supplier miRNAs and CEA outperformed that of single exosomal miRNA marker for establishing a diagnosis of early-stage GC. The combined diagnosis of exosomal miR-92b-3p + let-7g-5p + miR-146b-5p + miR-9-5p with CEA had the most powerful efficiency with an AUC up to 0.786. In addition, serum levels of exosomal miR-92b-3p were significantly associated with poor cohesiveness (= 0.0021), let-7g-5p and miR-146b-5p were significantly correlated with nerve infiltration (= 0.0234 and = 0.0126, respectively), and miR146b-5p was statistically correlated with tumor invasion depth in early-stage GC (= 0.0089). In conclusion, serum exosomal miR-92b-3p, -146b-5p, -9-5p, and ...
Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Thomas Schneider
Thomas Schneider is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Basophil Activation Test for Investigation of IgE-Mediated Mechanisms in Drug Hypersensitivity, Quasi-light Storage for Optical Data Packets, Studying Soft-matter and Biological Systems over a Wide Length-scale from Nanometer and Micrometer Sizes at the Small-angle Neutron Diffractometer KWS-2
Wickham Laboratories announces new in vitro pyrogenicity testing method - EPM Magazine
human CD231 antigen Summary Report | CureHunter
The Power of Exosomes | ANOVA IRM Germany
In macrophages, HIV-1 assembles into an intracellular plasma membrane domain containing the tetraspanins CD81, CD9, and CD53
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Expressions and inhibitory functions of CD300a receptors on purified human basophils - Institutional Repository University of...
The inhibitory myeloid immunoglobulin receptor CD300a (IRp60) has been shown to downregulate mast cell and eosinophil activities, thereby serving as a potential target for inhibiting allergic effector cell input in allergy. Our aims were to study the expression and functional properties of this receptor in purified human basophils, cells that crucially contribute to Th2-type immunity and allergy. Basophils homogeneously expressed CD300a as well as the inhibitory receptor CD200R on their cell surface, and these expressions increased after anti-IgE stimulation. IgE-mediated basophil degranulation was also significantly inhibited by crosslinking of either CD200R or CD300a (by 90% and 50%, respectively). Inhibitory SHIP-1 phosphorylations were also induced by CD200R and CD300a, although they were not noticeably increased by IgE-dependent activation. We conclude that both CD200R and CD300a play a role in reducing IgE-mediated basophil function and may crucially govern the known differential ...
A new therapy for breast cancer is being designed using wasp venom
Exosomes and Exosomal miRNA in Respiratory Diseases | Exosome RNA
Exosomes are nanosized vesicles released from every cell in the body including those in the respiratory tract and lungs. They are found in most body fluids and contain a number of different biomolecules including proteins, lipids, and both mRNA and noncoding RNAs. Since they can release their contents, particularly
Basophil | Definition of Basophil by Merriam-Webster
The CD63 marker is an FITC labeled antigen which can bind to an CD63 protein and is used to sort the cells via FACS( ... the expression of the CD63 antigen on the cell surface (plasma membrane) allows identification of the allergen responsible for ... After degranulation a CD63 marker (labeld antibodies) is added to the test tube. Several minutes at room temperature gives the ... It can be used for different allergies (e.g. bee venom, drugs, contrast media). Degranulated cell expose CD63 molecules on ...
1992). "C33 antigen recognized by monoclonal antibodies inhibitory to human T cell leukemia virus type 1-induced syncytium ... CD82 (gene) has been shown to interact with CD19, CD63 and CD234 Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 1991). "A new superfamily of lymphoid and melanoma cell proteins with extensive homology to Schistosoma mansoni antigen Sm23". ... 1996). "Transmembrane-4 superfamily proteins CD81 (TAPA-1), CD82, CD63, and CD53 specifically associated with integrin alpha 4 ...
... antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD63 gene. CD63 is mainly associated with membranes of intracellular ... 1991). "CD63 antigen. A novel lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, cloned by a screening procedure for intracellular antigens in ... In cell biology, CD63 is often used as a marker for multivessicular bodies, which are enriched with CD63. CD63 has been shown ... CD63 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD63 genome location and CD63 ...
... antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGA4 Info with links in the Cell ... CD63, and CD53 specifically associated with integrin alpha 4 beta 1 (CD49d/CD29)". J. Immunol. 157 (5): 2039-47. PMID 8757325. ... Takada Y, Strominger JL, Hemler ME (1987). "The very late antigen family of heterodimers is part of a superfamily of molecules ... antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor)". Hadari YR, Arbel-Goren R, Levy Y, Amsterdam A, Alon R, Zakut R, Zick Y ( ...
"The primary structure of the human leukocyte antigen CD37, a species homologue of the rat MRC OX-44 antigen". The Journal of ... CD53 and CD63". FEBS Letters. 288 (1-2): 1-4. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(91)80988-F. PMID 1879540. Berditchevski F (December 2001 ... Leukocyte antigen CD37 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD37 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of ... Angelisová P, Hilgert I, Horejsí V (1994). "Association of four antigens of the tetraspans family (CD37, CD53, TAPA-1, and R2/ ...
... antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD9 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... Radford KJ, Thorne RF, Hersey P (May 1996). "CD63 associates with transmembrane 4 superfamily members, CD9 and CD81, and with ... Boucheix C, Benoit P, Frachet P, Billard M, Worthington RE, Gagnon J, Uzan G (1991). "Molecular cloning of the CD9 antigen. A ... Radford KJ, Thorne RF, Hersey P (1996). "CD63 associates with transmembrane 4 superfamily members, CD9 and CD81, and with beta ...
Radford KJ, Thorne RF, Hersey P (May 1996). "CD63 associates with transmembrane 4 superfamily members, CD9 and CD81, and with ... 1994). "Mouse homologue of C33 antigen (CD82), a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily: complementary DNA, genomic ... Radford KJ, Thorne RF, Hersey P (1996). "CD63 associates with transmembrane 4 superfamily members, CD9 and CD81, and with beta ... The tetraspanin family includes CD9, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD81 (this protein), CD82 and CD151. CD81 interacts directly with ...
1990). "The human leucocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein structurally similar to the CD37 and MRC OX-44 antigens". ... 1998). "Expression of tetra-spans transmembrane family (CD9, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD81 and CD82) in normal and neoplastic human ... Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... A pan-leukocyte antigen related to membrane transport proteins". J. Immunol. 145 (12): 4322-5. PMID 2258620. Dianzani U, ...
Recently, Heneberg proposed that basophils may be defined as the cellular population positive for CD13, CD44, CD54, CD63, CD69 ... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ... When activated, some additional surface markers are known to be upregulated (CD13, CD107a, CD164), or surface-exposed (CD63, ...
Raph blood group system in the BGMUT blood group antigen gene mutation database Human CD151 genome location and CD151 gene ... CD63, and alpha5beta1 integrin". J. Histochem. Cytochem. 45 (4): 515-25. doi:10.1177/002215549704500404. PMID 9111230. Suzuki Y ... identifies a novel platelet surface antigen". Br. J. Haematol. 79 (2): 263-70. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.1991.tb04531.x. PMID ... "Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding a novel platelet-endothelial cell tetra-span antigen, PETA-3". Blood. 86 (4): 1348-55. PMID ...
Subrahmanyam G, Rudd CE, Schneider H (2003). "Association of T cell antigen CD7 with type II phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase, a ... Israels SJ, McMillan-Ward EM (2005). "CD63 modulates spreading and tyrosine phosphorylation of platelets on immobilized ... Israels SJ, McMillan-Ward EM (2005). "CD63 modulates spreading and tyrosine phosphorylation of platelets on immobilized ...
... Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human ITGB1 genome location and ITGB1 gene ... Radford KJ, Thorne RF, Hersey P (May 1996). "CD63 associates with transmembrane 4 superfamily members, CD9 and CD81, and with ... CD29 is an integrin unit associated with very late antigen receptors. It is known to conjoin with alpha-3 subunit to create ... "Entrez Gene: ITGB1 integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12)". Hynes RO (Apr ...
Alain de Weck
ATP1B3 - Википедия
CD97 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom. ... 2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
Меланотрансферрин - Википедия
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... CD63. *CD64 (A, B, C). *CD66 (a, b, c, d, e, f) ... Richardson D. R. The role of the membrane-bound tumour antigen ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ...
CD74 - Википедия
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... CD63. *CD64 (A, B, C). *CD66 (a, b, c, d, e, f) ... antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen- ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
CD117 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... 1991). „Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID ... 2003). „Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". Int. J. Hematol. 75 ...
... has been shown to interact with: APS, BCR, CD63, CD81, CD9, CRK, CRKL, DOK1, FES, GRB10, Grb2, KITLG, LNK, LYN, MATK, ... Ashman LK, Cambareri AC, To LB, Levinsky RJ, Juttner CA (1991). "Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product ... "Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". Int. J. Hematol. 75 (4): 357 ...
... is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Leucocyte typing: human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11. CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ... "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms cooperate to mediate colon carcinoma cell adhesion to E- and L-selectin in ...
CLEC12A - Википедия
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
CXCR5 - Википедия
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 6
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom. ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
Integrin beta 3
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
CD36 - Википедия
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... CD63. *CD64 (A, B, C). *CD66 (a, b, c, d, e, f) ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ...
Recently, Heneberg proposed that basophils may be defined as the cellular population positive for CD13, CD44, CD54, CD63, ... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ... When activated, some additional surface markers are known to be upregulated (CD13, CD107a, CD164), or surface-exposed (CD63, ...
CD117 - Wikipédia
Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow. », Blood, vol. 78, no 1, 1991. , ... CD63 (en),. *CD81 (en),. *CD9 (en),. *CRK (gene) (en),, ... Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells. », Int. J. Hematol., vol. 75 ...
ICAM-1 - Википедия
Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... Hamann J, Wishaupt JO, van Lier RA, Smeets TJ, Breedveld FC, Tak PP (Apr 1999). "Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and ... Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004325.x. PMID 11380941.. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
CD63 antigen isoform X1 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI
CD63 antigen isoform X1 [Homo sapiens] CD63 antigen isoform X1 [Homo sapiens]. gi,1370463253,ref,XP_024305051.1, ... Altered expression of CD63 and exosomes in scleroderma dermal fibroblasts. [J Dermatol Sci. 2016] Altered expression of CD63 ... The CD63 gene is conserved in chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, dog, cow, mouse, rat, zebrafish, fruit fly, mosquito, C.elegans, and ...
Cd63 - CD63 antigen - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cd63 gene & protein
sp,P41731,CD63_MOUSE CD63 antigen OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Cd63 PE=1 SV=2 ... "CD63 is an essential cofactor to leukocyte recruitment by endothelial P-selectin.". Doyle E.L., Ridger V., Ferraro F., Turmaine ... "CD63 is an essential cofactor to leukocyte recruitment by endothelial P-selectin.". Doyle E.L., Ridger V., Ferraro F., Turmaine ... "The tetraspanin CD63 is required for efficient IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation and anaphylaxis.". Kraft S., Jouvin M.H., ...
CD63 - CD63 antigen - Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit) - CD63 gene & protein
Antigens, CD63 | Profiles RNS
CD63" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, CD63" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... "Antigens, CD63" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD63" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Antigens, CD63". ...
Alexa Fluor 700 anti-human CD63 Antibody anti-CD63 - H5C6
... and melanoma-associated antigen (ME491). CD63 is a member of the tetraspan transmembrane superfamily (TM4SF) protein expressed ... p,CD63 is a 53 kD type III lysosomal glycoprotein also known as LIMP, LAMP-3, gp55, ... CD63 is a 53 kD type III lysosomal glycoprotein also known as LIMP, LAMP-3, gp55, and melanoma-associated antigen (ME491). CD63 ... CD63 may be involved in platelet activation and is thought to function as a transmembrane adaptor protein. CD63 has been shown ...
CD63 Mouse anti-Human, Brilliant Violet 510, Clone: H5C6, BD Optibuild | Fisher Scientific
... products and learn more about CD63 Mouse anti-Human, Brilliant Violet 510, Clone: H5C6, BD Optibuild 50µg; Brilliant Violet ... This molecule is also referred to in the literature as LIMP, gp55, melanoma-associated antigen ME491, Pltgp40, LAMP-3 and is a ... The H5C6 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD63. CD63 is a 53 kDa, type III lysosomal glycoprotein, expressed on ... CD63 plays roles in mediating cellular adhesion and motility. The antibody was conjugated to BD Horizon BV510 which is part of ...
CD63 Mouse anti-Human, PerCP-Cy5.5, Clone: H5C6, BD 50 Tests; PerCP-Cy5.5:Life | Fisher Scientific
... products and learn more about CD63 Mouse anti-Human, PerCP-Cy5.5, Clone: H5C6, BD 50 Tests; PerCP-Cy5.5:Life 50 Tests; PerCP- ... This molecule is also referred to in the literature as LIMP, gp55, melanoma-associated antigen ME491, Pltgp40, LAMP-3 and is a ... The H5C6 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD63. CD63 is a 53 kDa, type III lysosomal glycoprotein, expressed on ...
CD63 - Wikipedia
CD63 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD63 gene. CD63 is mainly associated with membranes of intracellular ... 1991). "CD63 antigen. A novel lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, cloned by a screening procedure for intracellular antigens in ... In cell biology, CD63 is often used as a marker for multivessicular bodies, which are enriched with CD63. CD63 has been shown ... CD63 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD63 genome location and CD63 ...
CD63 Antibody (LAMP3/968) [Janelia Fluor® 549] (NBP2-47936JF549): Novus Biologicals
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD63 Antibody (LAMP3/968) [Janelia Fluor® 549]. Late Endosomes Marker. Validated: Flow, IHC, IHC-P, ICC/ ... Alternate Names for CD63 Antibody (LAMP3/968) [Janelia Fluor® 549]. *CD63 antigen (melanoma 1 antigen) ... Blogs on CD63. Check out the latest blog posts on CD63.. Tools for Isolation, Quantification and Analysis of Exosomes. Exosomes ... CD63: is it pro-metastatic or anti-metastatic?. CD63 is a type II membrane protein belonging to tetraspanin superfamily and it ...
CD63 Antibody (MX-49.129.5) [DyLight 488] (NBP2-34689G): Novus Biologicals
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD63 Antibody (MX-49.129.5) [DyLight 488]. Late Endosomes Marker. Validated: WB, ELISA, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC ... Alternate Names for CD63 Antibody (MX-49.129.5) [DyLight 488]. *CD63 antigen (melanoma 1 antigen) ... Blogs on CD63. Check out the latest blog posts on CD63.. Tools for Isolation, Quantification and Analysis of Exosomes. Exosomes ... Reviews for CD63 Antibody (NBP2-34689G) (0) There are no reviews for CD63 Antibody (NBP2-34689G). By submitting a review you ...
The effect of a leukodepletion model on the activation stage of platelets | SpringerLink
CD63 : Wikis (The Full Wiki)
CD63 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD63 gene. ... "CD63 antigen. A novel lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, cloned by a screening procedure for intracellular antigens in eukaryotic ... CD51 · CD52 · CD53 · CD54 · CD55 · CD56 · CD57 · CD58 · CD59 · CD61 · CD62 (E, L, P) · CD63 · CD64 (A, B, C) · CD66 (a, b, c, d ... Hotta H, Miyamoto H, Hara I, et al. (1992). "Genomic structure of the ME491/CD63 antigen gene and functional analysis of the 5 ...
Anti-CD63 antibody (ab118307) | Abcam
Rabbit polyclonal CD63 antibody. Validated in WB, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Cited in 8 publication(s). Immunogen ... This antigen is associated with early stages of melanoma tumor progression. May play a role in growth regulation. ... Anti-CD63 antibody (ab118307) at 1 µg/ml + OVCAR-3 cell lysate at 10 µg. Predicted band size: 26 kDa. Gel concentration:12% ... CD63 antigen (melanoma 1 antigen) antibody. *CD63 antigen antibody. *CD63 antigen melanoma 1 antigen antibody ...
anti-CD63 Antikörper (DyLight 755) | Produkt Nr. ABIN4261694
Jetzt diesen anti-CD63 Antikörper bestellen. , Produkt ABIN4261694 ... Maus Monoklonal CD63 Antikörper für ELISA, FACS, ICC, IF, WB. ... Antigen CD63 Molecule (CD63) Synonyme für dieses Antigen ... anti-CD63 Antikörper (CD63 Molecule) (DyLight 755) CD63 Antikörper (CD63 Molecule) (DyLight 755). Details for Product anti-CD63 ... Produktdetails anti-CD63 Antikörper Handhabung Anwendungsinformationen Antigendetails zurück nach oben Produktdetails anti-CD63 ...
CD63 antibodies, rat - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Danmark
... a multi-pass membrane protein which is also known as mast cell antigen AD1 or melanoma antigen ME491. CD63 is located on the ... CD63 functions as cell surface receptor for TIMP1 and plays a role in the activation of cellular signaling cascades. It ... CD63 belongs to the tetraspanin transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) of proteins, which are characterized by four membrane ... Nishikata, H. et al. (1992) The rat mast cell antigen AD1 (homologue to human CD63 or melanoma antigen ME491) is expressed in ...
JCI - Chaperone protein HSC70 regulates intercellular transfer of Y chromosome antigen DBY
Our double-immunogold staining for the exosome surface protein CD63 with either of the transgenes revealed that CD63 and the ... A role for intercellular antigen transfer in the recognition of EBV-transformed B cell lines by EBV nuclear antigen-specific ... One drawback of our model with retrovirally transduced antigen is the induced overexpression of the target antigen. High ... Therefore, it remains controversial whether intercellular antigen transfer is a sole consequence of cell death-mediated antigen ...
Category:Allergy and immunology Subgroup - Citizendium
Validação do Teste de ativação de basófilos no diagnóstico de reações de hipersensibilidade...
Antigens CD63. Basophil degranulation test/methods. Basophils. Drug hypersensitivity/blood. Drug hypersensitivity/diagnosis. ... Antígenos CD63. Antiinflamatórios não esteróides. Basófilos. Curva ROC. Hipersensibilidade a drogas/diagnóstico. ... BAT consisted of incubating whole blood with NSAIDs, then triple-labeled with monoclonal antibodies (CD45, anti-IgE, CD63) for ... anti-IgE e CD63) para posterior leitura por citometria de fluxo. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com as histórias ...
CD63 antibodies, mouse - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec
Interaction of CD63 with other membrane proteins or adaptors regulates cell activities such as adhesion, migration, and ... CD63 is expressed on monocytes, macrophages, endothelium, fibroblasts, osteoclasts, smooth muscle cells, and activated ... Clone REA563 recogizes the mouse CD63 antigen. It belongs to the tetraspanin transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) of proteins, ... Clone REA563 recogizes the mouse CD63 antigen. It belongs to the tetraspanin transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) of proteins, ...
GO Gene List
Cd63. CD63 antigen. NM_001042580. NM_007653. Gene Info. Cdh13. Cadherin 13. NM_019707. Gene Info. ... CD300A antigen. NM_170758. Gene Info. Cd36. CD36 antigen. NM_001159558. NM_007643. NM_001159555. NM_001159557. NM_001159556. ... CD47 antigen (Rh-related antigen, integrin-associated signal transducer). NM_010581. Gene Info. ...
cd63, CD63 molecule - Creative Biogene
CD63 antigen; tspan-30; granulophysin; tetraspanin-30; melanoma-associated antigen MLA1; CD63 antigen (melanoma 1 antigen); ... CD63; CD63 molecule; MLA1; ME491; LAMP-3; OMA81H; TSPAN30; ... melanoma-associated antigen ME491; ocular melanoma-associated ... antigen; lysosomal-associated membrane protein 3; lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 3; cd163; zgc:65825; zgc:77709; wu: ...
KEGG BRITE: Exosome - Homo sapiens (human)
MHC class I antigen K06751 MHC1; MHC class I antigen K06751 MHC1; MHC class I antigen K06460 CD9; CD9 antigen K06497 CD63; CD63 ... K06751 MHC1; MHC class I antigen K06751 MHC1; MHC class I antigen K06751 MHC1; MHC class I antigen K06751 MHC1; ... 967 CD63; CD63 molecule 975 CD81; CD81 molecule 3688 ITGB1; integrin subunit beta 1 4240 MFGE8; milk fat globule EGF and factor ... antigen K06508 CD81; CD81 antigen K05719 ITGB1; integrin beta 1 K17253 MFGE8; lactadherin K06490 ICAM1; intercellular adhesion ...
KEGG BRITE: CD Molecules - Homo sapiens (human)
... platelet K06497 CD63; CD63 antigen K06498 FCGR1A; high affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor I K06499 CEACAM; ... CD79A antigen K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen K05412 CD80; CD80 antigen K06508 CD81; CD81 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K06510 ... CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06721 CLEC10A; C-type lectin ... CD96 antigen K08446 ADGRE5; CD97 antigen K06519 SLC3A2; solute carrier family 3, member 2 K06520 CD99; CD99 antigen K06521 ...
CD63 (Melanoma Marker) - Product: Leica Biosystems
Antigen Background CD63 antigen is a member of the TM4 superfamily with its structure consisting of four transmembrane regions ... CD63 antigen associates non-covalently with CD9, CD81 and the integrins VLA-3, VLA-4 and VLA-6. It is reported that CD63 ... CD63-U. 1ml NCL-CD63 US IVD. Lyophilised Concentrated Monoclonal Antibody. F, P. MSDS. ... CD63-S. 0.1ml NCL-CD63. Lyophilised Concentrated Monoclonal Antibody. F, P. Info. MSDS. ...
Macrophage‑derived exosomes attenuate the susceptibility of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells to chemotherapeutic drugs...
CD9, CD9 antigen; CD63, CD63 antigen; Exo, exosomal; MFI, mean fluorescence intensity; PHM, primary human macrophages; Rab5B, ... CD9, CD63 and Rab5B, which are used as exosomal markers, were expressed on the THP-1- and PHM-derived exosomes (Fig. 1A). ... ab92726; Abcam), CD63 (1:1,000; cat. no. sc-5275; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.), Ras-related protein Rab-5B (Rab5B; 1:1,000; ...
XStamp™-CD40L Lentivector for Targeting Exosomes to Antigen-presenting cells | System Biosciences
Anti-CD63 Antibody with Goat Anti-Rabbit HRP Secondary Antibody. Shop Now ... Putting exosomes to work: Target exosomes to antigen-presenting cells. Use exosomes to deliver protein, RNA, DNA, or small ... Target exosomes to antigen-presenting cells with the pre-built XStamp-CD40L Lentivector Construct. ... Home , Products , Exosome Research , Exosome Engineering , XStamp™-CD40L Lentivector for Targeting Exosomes to Antigen- ...
Biomarkers - Olink
CD63 is a component of Weibel-Palade bodies of human endothelial cells | Blood Journal
The immunopurified 2C6 antigen was recognized by an anti-CD63 reference antibody, 2.28, by Western blotting. Also, the ... CD63 is a component of Weibel-Palade bodies of human endothelial cells. Blood, 82(4), 1184-1191. Accessed February 17, 2018. ... CD63 is a component of Weibel-Palade bodies of human endothelial cells. UM Vischer and DD Wagner ... of the 2C6 antigen in endothelial cells showed a nascent molecular mass and a glycosylation pattern identical to that of CD63. ...
Anti-CD63 Antibody | Rabbit anti-Human Polyclonal Cy3 WB | LSBio
CD63 antibody LS-C700468 is a Cy3-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to CD63 (aa103-203) from human. It is reactive with ... CD63 , CD63 molecule , LAMP-3 , ME491 , Granulophysin , MLA1 , Tetraspanin-30 , Tspan-30 , CD63 antigen , OMA81H , TSPAN30 ... CD63 antibody LS-C700468 is a Cy3-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to CD63 (aa103-203) from human. It is reactive with ... Polyclonal Rabbit anti‑Human CD63 Antibody (Cy3, aa103‑203, WB) LS‑C700468 ...
CD63-GFP traffics from secretory to endocytic compartme | Open-i
A-G) An 8-h pulse (at 28.5°C) of CD63-GFP expression was chased at 18°C for 0-60 h in ... CD63-GFP traffics from secretory to endocytic compartments in SCs. ( ... fig3: CD63-GFP traffics from secretory to endocytic compartments in SCs. (A-G) An 8-h pulse (at 28.5°C) of CD63-GFP expression ... fig3: CD63-GFP traffics from secretory to endocytic compartments in SCs. (A-G) An 8-h pulse (at 28.5°C) of CD63-GFP expression ...
ME491MoleculeCD81AntibodiesAntibodyGranulophysinProteinCloneIntracellularMarkerProteinsCD82GeneVesiclesCD203cReceptorExosomesCD37GlycoproteinIntegrinsBasophilsPlasma membraneGranulocytesDegranulationMoleculesExpressed on activated plateletsDifferentiationExtracellularTumor cellsCellBiomarkersEarly stages of melanomaTransmembrane 4 superfamilyLysosomesRecombinantExpressionMolecularEndothelialSurface
- CD63 is a 53 kD type III lysosomal glycoprotein also known as LIMP, LAMP-3, gp55, and melanoma-associated antigen (ME491). (biolegend.com)
- This molecule is also referred to in the literature as LIMP, gp55, melanoma-associated antigen ME491, Pltgp40, LAMP-3 and is a member of the tetraspan transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF). (fishersci.com)
- Transcriptional enhancement of the human gene encoding for a melanoma-associated antigen (ME491) in association with malignant transformation. (thefullwiki.org)
- Clone REA444 recognizes the rat CD63 antigen, a multi-pass membrane protein which is also known as mast cell antigen AD1 or melanoma antigen ME491. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- CD63 has been found to be identical to the ME491 antigen expressed by melanoma cells. (mybeckman.pl)
- CD63 is identical to the melanoma-associated antigen which is ME491 and to the platelet antigen PTLGP40. (fishersci.co.uk)
- Use exosomes to deliver protein, RNA, DNA, or small molecule cargo to antigen-presenting cells with XStamp-CD40L. (systembio.com)
- We constructed a bispecific antibody that is composed of a rapidly internalizing antibody binding to a tumor-associated antigen, ephrin receptor A2 (EphA2), and a noninternalizing antibody binding to a highly expressed tumor-associated antigen, activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM). (aacrjournals.org)
- We developed a bispecific antibody targeting ephrin receptor A2 (EphA2), a rapidly internalizing antigen, and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), a non- or slowly internalizing antigen, and found that the bispecific becomes internalized when the ratio of EphA2 to ALCAM is greater than approximately 1:5. (aacrjournals.org)
- Today, the HLDA Workshop meeting has been held 10 times and has over 371 CD antigens molecule have been identified. (sinobiological.com)
- CD63 also serves as a T-cell costimulation molecule. (fishersci.co.uk)
- CD63 has been shown to associate with CD9, CD81, VLA-3, and VLA-6. (biolegend.com)
- CD63 associates with transmembrane 4 superfamily members, CD9 and CD81, and with beta 1 integrins in human melanoma. (thefullwiki.org)
- CD63 antigen associates non-covalently with CD9, CD81 and the integrins VLA-3, VLA-4 and VLA-6. (leicabiosystems.com)
- Here, we reveal the presence of tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs) containing the tetraspanins CD9, CD63, CD81, and CD82 at the plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
- Some members of the tetraspanin family, such as CD63 , CD81, and CD9, are enriched in exosomes and have been recognized as exosome markers . (thefreedictionary.com)
- CD63, as other tetraspanins (CD9, CD81, CD82), has recently been reported as forming complexes with VLA-3 and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, with VLA-6, CD11/CD18 and tyrosine kinase. (mybeckman.pl)
- The vesicles derived from mammalian cells contain a family of integral membrane proteins that cross four times the lipid bilayer and are called tetraspanins [ 11 ], including the surface markers of lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells such as CD37, CD9, CD53, CD63, CD81, and CD82. (hindawi.com)
- Exosomes are 50-90 nm diameter vesicles containing antigen presenting molecules (MHC class I, class II, CD1, hsp70-90) tetraspan molecules (CD9, CD63, CD81), adhesion molecules (CD11b, CD54) and CD86 costimulatory molecules [ 17 - 19 ] i.e the necessary machinery required for generating potent immune responses. (biomedcentral.com)
- Immunofluorescence staining with 2C6 showed the lysosomes, and also elongated structures identified as Weibel-Palade bodies by their shape, distribution, and positive staining with anti-vWF antibodies, CD63 was also found by Western blotting of subcellular fractions highly enriched in Weibel-Palade bodies. (bloodjournal.org)
- As the emitted fluorescence intensity is proportional to the binding sites of each single cell, the intensity will increase according to the number of FITC- conjugated antibodies bound to CD63 expressing cells. (wikipedia.org)
- After degranulation a CD63 marker (labeld antibodies) is added to the test tube. (wikipedia.org)
- The CD63 antibodies inhibit adhesion of neutrophils to activated endothelium. (mybeckman.pl)
- Recently, we described a panel of monoclonal antibodies with superior selectivity for mesenchymal stem cells, including the monoclonal antibodies W8B2 against human mesenchymal stem cell antigen-1 (MSCA-1) and 39D5 against a CD56 epitope, which is not expressed on natural killer cells. (haematologica.org)
- Design and Methods Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells from healthy donors were analyzed and isolated by flow cytometry using a large panel of antibodies against surface antigens including CD271, MSCA-1, and CD56. (haematologica.org)
- When the EphA2-to-ALCAM ratio is greater than a threshold level (1:5), the amount of the bispecific taken into the tumor cell exceeds what is achieved by either the monoclonal internalizing antibody or a mixture of the two antibodies, showing a bispecific-dependent amplification effect where a small amount of the internalizing antigen EphA2 induces internalization of a larger amount of the noninternalizing antigen ALCAM. (aacrjournals.org)
- Interrupting macrophage presentation of donor antigens may be a solution to prevent generation of these destructive antibodies and the ensuing chronic rejection. (sciencemag.org)
- De novo donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) to mismatched donor human leukocyte antigen after human lung transplantation predispose lung grafts to chronic rejection. (sciencemag.org)
- CD antigens for cluster of differentiation, which indicates a defined subset of cellular surface receptors (epitopes) that identify cell type and stage of differentiation, and which are recognized by antibodies. (sinobiological.com)
- A modification using precooled absolute methanol has been shown to give better results for certain cell cycle antigens such as Ki-67 and PCNA when using FITC-conjugated antibodies. (thermofisher.com)
- The H5C6 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD63. (fishersci.com)
- There are currently no images for CD63 Antibody (NBP2-47936JF549). (novusbio.com)
- One antibody, 2C6, was found to be specific for CD63, a membrane glycoprotein previously described in the lysosomes of platelets and other cell types. (bloodjournal.org)
- The immunopurified 2C6 antigen was recognized by an anti-CD63 reference antibody, 2.28, by Western blotting. (bloodjournal.org)
- CD63 antibody LS-C700468 is a Cy3-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to CD63 (aa103-203) from human. (lsbio.com)
- The antibody MEM-259 reacts with an extracellular/luminal epitope of CD63 (LAMP-3), a 40-60 kDa tetraspan glycoprotein expressed by granulocytes, platelets, T cells, monocytes/macrophages and endothelial cells. (exbio.cz)
- CLBGran/12 was used as a CD63 reference monoclonal antibody during HLDA 6. (mybeckman.pl)
- In another example, a bispecific composed of a moderately internalizing antibody arm (anti-HER2) and an internalization-inducing antibody arm (anti-CD63, anti-PRLR, or anti-APLP2) was constructed and used to improve ADC uptake ( 5-7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
- Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against native CD63. (abnova.com)
- Additionally, in an allogeneic cell transfer protocol, antigen presentation by AMs was Zbtb7a-dependent where AMs deficient in Zbtb7a failed to induce antibody and T cell responses. (sciencemag.org)
- See 9 reference sequence protein isoforms for the CD63 gene. (nih.gov)
- CD63 is a member of the tetraspan transmembrane superfamily (TM4SF) protein expressed on activated platelets, monocytes/macrophages, endothelium, fibroblasts, osteoclasts, and smooth muscle cells. (biolegend.com)
- CD63 may be involved in platelet activation and is thought to function as a transmembrane adaptor protein. (biolegend.com)
- CD63 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD63 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- This MAb recognizes protein of 26kDa-60kDa, which is identified as CD63. (novusbio.com)
- The CD63 marker is an FITC labeled antigen which can bind to an CD63 protein and is used to sort the cells via FACS(Fluorescence activated cell sorting/sorter). (wikipedia.org)
- EVs derived from antigen presenting cells (APCs) that are loaded with either peptide or whole protein antigens are reported to induce anti-tumor immunity in animal models but show only modest improvements in cancer patients ( 2 , 7 - 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The protein encoded by CD63 is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. (antibodies-online.cn)
- The Muted protein is important for the steady-state level of CD63 . (antibodies-online.cn)
- CD63 (LAMP-3, lysosome-associated membrane protein-3), a glycoprotein of tetraspanin family, is present in late endosomes, lysosomes and secretory vesicles of various cell types. (fishersci.co.uk)
- Silencing of HRS , STAM1 or TSG101 reduced the secretion of EV-associated CD63 and MHC II but each gene altered differently the size and/or protein composition of secreted EVs, as quantified by immuno-electron microscopy. (biologists.org)
- CD63, known as LAMP-3, is a lysosomal membrane protein that belongs to the tetraspanin family. (ptgcn.com)
- CD63 is mainly associated with membranes of intracellular vesicles, although cell surface expression may be induced. (wikipedia.org)
- CD63 may play a role in phagocytic and intracellular lysosome-phagosome fusion events. (novusbio.com)
- A novel lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, cloned by a screening procedure for intracellular antigens in eukaryotic cells. (thefullwiki.org)
- cGMP-phosphodiesterase 6 can be activated by another cancer-retina antigen, transducin, through Wnt5a-Frizzled-2 cascade, which leads to a lowering of cGMP and an increase in intracellular calcium mobilization. (cusabio.com)
- The FIX & PERM Cell Permeabilization Kit consists of matched Fixation Reagent (Medium A) and Permeabilization Reagent (Medium B) for simultaneous analysis of intracellular and cell-surface antigens in the same cell population (Figure 1) . (thermofisher.com)
- Use of FIX & PERM Cell Permeabilization Kit for simultaneous surface antigen and intracellular antigen staining. (thermofisher.com)
- This standard procedure for intracellular staining with FIX & PERM fixation & permeabilization reagents gives optimal results for most antigens. (thermofisher.com)
- In macrophages, HIV-1 has been shown to bud into intracellular structures that contain the late endosome marker CD63. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- On uninfected macrophages, these proteins are seen at the cell surface and in intracellular vacuole-like structures with a complex content of vesicles and interconnected membranes that lack endosome markers, including CD63. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- CD63 is a good marker for flow cytometric quantification of in vitro activated basophils for diagnosis of IgE-mediated allergy. (wikipedia.org)
- In cell biology, CD63 is often used as a marker for multivessicular bodies, which are enriched with CD63. (wikipedia.org)
- Analysis of membrane expression of the CD63 human basophil activation marker. (nih.gov)
- As flow cytometry is a valuable tool for analyzing large numbers of cells and for identifying cell populations, even at low concentrations, the percentage of basophiles activated after in vitro stimulation by allergens and expressing the CD63 marker can be determined. (wikipedia.org)
- Several minutes at room temperature gives the marker time to bind to the CD63 proteins on the cell membrane of the basophil. (wikipedia.org)
- Western blotting was used to assess the exosome biomarkers CD63 and flotillin as well as the negative control marker calreticulin (Figure 1B). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Studies have shown that CD63 may be a marker for granule release. (mybeckman.pl)
- The CD203c antigen is one of the most important marker of basophil's activation. (termedia.pl)
- Degranulation marker expression for azurophilic (CD63, +210%) and specific granules (CD66b, +370%) also significantly increased, whereas L-selectin (CD62L, -70%) decreased. (nih.gov)
- Hence, CD63 has become a widely used basophil activation marker. (fishersci.co.uk)
- CD63 is expressed on activated platelets, thus it may function as a blood platelet activation marker. (ptgcn.com)
- CD63 belongs to the tetraspanin transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) of proteins, which are characterized by four membrane spanning domains. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- Interaction of CD63 with other membrane proteins or adaptors regulates cell activities such as adhesion, migration, and degranulation. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- Our results indicate that CD63 colocalizes with vWF and P- selectin in the Weibel-Palade bodies of endothelial cells, and together with these adhesion proteins it could be rapidly expressed on the cell surface in areas of vascular injury and inflammation. (bloodjournal.org)
- The role of DCs in antigens presentation of heated milk proteins will be addressed. (wur.nl)
- Because of various exosome features, CD63, one of the representative exosome surface proteins, is thought to be related to intercellular communication. (mbl.co.jp)
- See the genomic reference sequence for the CD63 gene (NG_008347.1). (nih.gov)
- See reference mRNA sequence for the CD63 gene (XM_024449283.1). (nih.gov)
- It is reported that CD63 antigen may play a role as a tumor suppressor gene, as its expression in human melanoma cells reduces tumor spread and metastasis. (leicabiosystems.com)
- We report here the use of gene expression profiling to identify BAX-δ as a novel candidate tumor antigen in ALL. (aacrjournals.org)
- Analysis of the cellular molecules present in the fractions containing virus or exclusively cellular material demonstrated that virus and cellular vesicles share several cellular antigens, with the exception of CD43 and CD63, found mainly at the virus surface, and HLA-DQ, which was found only in the cellular vesicles. (nih.gov)
- Microvesicles are small vesicles expressing specific antigens from their cells of origin. (biomedcentral.com)
- Such differences could be attributed to a greater heterogeneity in size, and higher MHC II and lower CD63 levels in vesicles recovered from DCs as compared with HeLa-CIITA. (biologists.org)
- It is reported that CD63 is abundant in tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs) and a certain type of cellular compartment, such as late endosomes and lysosomes, while the tetraspanin-rich small lipid bilayers are secreted into extracellular fluid as a certain type of extracellular vesicles, called exosome. (mbl.co.jp)
- Comments regarding 'Marked improvement of the basophil activation test by detecting CD203c instead of CD63' by Boumiza et al. (nih.gov)
- BAT for wheat was performed using two flow cytometric procedures based, respectively, on the expression of CD63 (Becton Dickinson-BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) and CD203c (Beckman Coulter, Fullerton, CA) on the cell surface of basophils activated in vitro by exposure to wheat in double dilution. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In addition, changes in the expression of basophil surface's molecules are observed: some antigens appear de novo (CD63, CD107a), and other increase their expression (CD13, CD203c). (termedia.pl)
- The production of IL-35, TNF-α, TGF-ß, IL-10, CD63, CD203c and some other cytokines will be tested by ELISA, Cytometric Bead Array and Flow Cytometry. (wur.nl)
- CD63 functions as cell surface receptor for TIMP1 and plays a role in the activation of cellular signaling cascades. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- iiii) TIMP-1, through receptor ( CD63 ) binding, has a role in multiple biological processes, including inflammation and immune regulation. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Altered expression of CD63 and exosomes in scleroderma dermal fibroblasts. (nih.gov)
- Target exosomes to antigen-presenting cells with the pre-built XStamp-CD40L Lentivector Construct. (systembio.com)
- Exosomes made from cells transfected or transduced with the XStamp-CD40L Lentivector will now be targeted to cells expressing CD40, primarily antigen-presenting cells. (systembio.com)
- Here we show that inactivating the vacuolar ATPase in HeLa cells causes a dramatic increase in the production of exosomes, which display endocytosed tracers, cholesterol, and CD63. (bris.ac.uk)
- CD63 is a 53 kDa, type III lysosomal glycoprotein, expressed on activated platelets, monocytes and macrophages. (fishersci.com)
- The tetraspanin CD63 is a lysosomal membrane glycoprotein that translocates to the plasma membrane after platelet activation. (novusbio.com)
- The CD63 antigen, also known as lysosomal membrane associated glycoprotein 3 (LAMP3), is a member of the tetraspanin (TM4SF) family. (mybeckman.pl)
- CD63 is expressed on activated platelets, and is a lysosomal membrane glycoprotein that is translocated to plasma membrane after platelet activation. (fishersci.co.uk)
- Interactions with CD63 may therefore affect the trafficking and function of β2 integrins. (wikipedia.org)
- Specific association of CD63 with the VLA-3 and VLA-6 integrins. (thefullwiki.org)
- CD63 appears to be involved with cell adhesion and associates with VLA-3 and VLA-6 integrins. (biomol.com)
- CD63 interacts with integrins and affects phagocytosis and cell migration, it is also involved in H/K-ATPase trafficking regulation of ROMK1 channels. (fishersci.co.uk)
- CD63 is located on the basophilic granule membranes in resting basophils, mast cells, and platelets, and is also located on the plasma membranes of these cells. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- Although inhalation or ingestion of allergens activates mucosal mast cells, i.v. or s.c. antigen entry activates circulating basophils and connective tissue mast cells. (rupress.org)
- Anaphylactic degranulation results in the fusion of the main histamine-containing granules with the plasma membrane, releasing the entire contents of granules to the extracellular space and exposing CD63 on the surface of basophils . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Degranulated cell expose CD63 molecules on their outer cell membrane, hence the granules, which contain CD63 molecules on their inner surface, merged with the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
- The CD antigens are protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells. (sinobiological.com)
- CD63 antigen is a member of the TM4 superfamily with its structure consisting of four transmembrane regions, short cytoplasmic N and C-termini and two extracellular regions. (leicabiosystems.com)
- Mantegazza AR, Barrio MM, Moutel S, Bover L, Weck M, Brossart P, Teillaud JL, Mordoh J: CD63 tetraspanin slows down cell migration and translocates to the endosomal-lysosomal-MIICs route after extracellular stimuli in human immature dendritic cells. (exbio.cz)
- Moreover, primary B-ALL cells were recognized by BAX-δ-specific CTL, indicating that this antigen is naturally processed and presented by tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- TIMP1 (显示 TIMP1 ELISA试剂盒 ) signaling via CD63 leads to activation of hepatic stellate cells, which create an environment in the liver that increases its susceptibility to pancreatic tumor cells. (antibodies-online.cn)
- Cell surface exposition of CD63 is usually activation-dependent. (exbio.cz)
- The identification of new tumor-associated antigens (TAA) is critical for the development of effective immunotherapeutic strategies, particularly in diseases like B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), where few target epitopes are known. (aacrjournals.org)
- Several studies have shown that T-cell responses specific for distinct tumor antigens can be primed or expanded in the cancer-bearing host ( 1 - 4 ), suggesting that the immune response against tumors can be manipulated in humans for therapeutic benefit. (aacrjournals.org)
- Ideally, these antigens should be preferentially or uniquely expressed by malignant cells, play essential roles on tumor cell survival or proliferation, or be broadly expressed on tumors, and their reactive T-cell repertoire should be spared from negative selection or functional inactivation ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- This set of genes would fulfill an essential requirement of tumor antigens (i.e., their overexpression in cancer cells compared with normal tissues) and serve as a pool of target antigens from which to identify those capable of eliciting a tumor-specific T-cell response. (aacrjournals.org)
- Tissue section of human prostate containing adenocarcinoma that has been immunostained for the cell-surface antigen CD63. (cellimagelibrary.org)
- This image is part of a large collection of immunohistochemistry images of cell-surface antigens generated by the SCGAP Urologic Epithelial Stem Cells (UESC) Project. (cellimagelibrary.org)
- They have been implicated in various functions in both health and disease, including intercellular communication, antigen presentation, prion transmission, and tumour cell metastasis. (bris.ac.uk)
- Thus, the internalizing property of a cell surface antigen can be manipulated in either direction by a neighboring antigen, and this phenomenon can be exploited for therapeutic targeting. (aacrjournals.org)
- The key question is whether the internalization propensity of a given cell surface antigen can be impacted by its neighboring surface antigens, and if so what are the parameters that govern the conversion of a noninternalizing antigen to an internalizing antigen, and vice versa. (aacrjournals.org)
- Annexin V - positive microvesicles, leukocyte (CD45-positive), platelet (CD61-positive), activated platelet (CD62P-, CD63-positive), endothelium-derived (CD62E-positive) and tissue-factor (CD142-positive) microvesicles were identified in the peripheral blood of patients with soft tissue sarcoma ( n = 39) and healthy controls ( n = 17) using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). (biomedcentral.com)
- As a siganl, CD antigens usually initiated, altering the behavior of the cell. (sinobiological.com)
- Non peptide antigen presentation to T-cell receptors on NKT cells. (sinobiological.com)
- Data show that CD63 is a crucial player in the regulation of the tumor cell-intrinsic metastatic potential by affecting cell plasticity. (antibodies-online.cn)
- performed a pionnering clinical trial demonstrating the rapid generation of T cell immunity against recall antigens and Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin in normal volunteers [ 4 ] and Schüler-Thurner et al. (biomedcentral.com)
- Recently, the characterization and understanding of their biological role have become a main research area due to their potential role in vaccination, as biomarkers antigens, early diagnostic tools, and therapeutic applications. (hindawi.com)
- Therefore, EVs are potential biomarkers and antigens for vaccination, with potential uses for early diagnostic, and therapeutic applications in several diseases. (hindawi.com)
- CD63 deficiency is associated with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome and is strongly expressed during the early stages of melanoma progression. (novusbio.com)
- 1988). "Molecular cloning and characterization of an antigen associated with early stages of melanoma tumor progression. (thefullwiki.org)
- This antigen is associated with early stages of melanoma tumor progression. (abcam.com)
- The CD63 tetraspanin is highly expressed in the early stages of melanoma and decreases in advanced lesions, suggesting it as a possible suppressor of tumor progression. (ptgcn.com)
- BCG sequesters in immature phagosomes of antigen presenting cells (APCs), which do not fuse with lysosomes, leading to decreased antigen processing and reduced Th1 responses. (jove.com)
- The findings identify palmitoylation-dependent association with the tetraspanin CD63 as the mechanism by which Syt VII (显示 SYT7 ELISA试剂盒 ) is targeted to lysosomes. (antibodies-online.cn)
- A recent investigation showed that expression of CD63 positively correlates with the invasiveness of ovarian cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- The clinical potential of these antigens is hampered by their limited expression in ALL patients or by their restricted presentation by nonprevalent HLA alleles. (aacrjournals.org)
- We found that the overall internalization property of the bispecific is profoundly impacted by the relative surface expression level (antigen density ratio) of EphA2 versus ALCAM. (aacrjournals.org)
- Key to our design is the guide-to-effector ratio and the threshold of guide antigen expression. (aacrjournals.org)
- Expression of DSA-induced Zbtb7a was restricted to alveolar macrophages (AMs), and selective disruption of Zbtb7a in AMs resulted in less bronchiolar occlusion, low immune responses to lung-restricted self-antigens, and high protection from chronic rejection in mice. (sciencemag.org)
- Expression of CD63 can be used for predicting the prognosis in earlier stages of carcinomas. (fishersci.co.uk)
- CD63 antigen is widely distributed on the surface and interior of both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells such as most sweat glands, islets of Langerhans, pituitary, pancreas, peribronchial glands, Paneth cells and prostate glands. (leicabiosystems.com)
- CD63 was first described in granules of resting platelets and on the surface membrane on activated platelets. (mybeckman.pl)
- CD63 antigen, present in azurophilic granules of non-stimulated neutrophils, is strongly expressed on the surface of neutrophils after activation. (mybeckman.pl)