Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Resistance of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria cells to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-binding toxin aerolysin. (1/479)

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a clonal stem cell disorder caused by a somatic mutation of the PIGA gene. The product of this gene is required for the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors; therefore, the phenotypic hallmark of PNH cells is an absence or marked deficiency of all GPI-anchored proteins. Aerolysin is a toxin secreted by the bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila and is capable of killing target cells by forming channels in their membranes after binding to GPI-anchored receptors. We found that PNH blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and granulocytes), but not blood cells from normals or other hematologic disorders, are resistant to the cytotoxic effects of aerolysin. The percentage of lysis of PNH cells after aerolysin exposure paralleled the percentage of CD59(+) cells in the samples measured by flow cytometry. The kinetics of red blood cell lysis correlated with the type of PNH erythrocytes. PNH type III cells were completely resistant to aerolysin, whereas PNH type II cells displayed intermediate sensitivity. Importantly, the use of aerolysin allowed us to detect PNH populations that could not be detected by standard flow cytometry. Resistance of PNH cells to aerolysin allows for a simple, inexpensive assay for PNH that is sensitive and specific. Aerolysin should also be useful in studying PNH biology.  (+info)

Identification of the individual residues that determine human CD59 species selective activity. (2/479)

Formation of the cytolytic membrane attack complex of complement on host cells is inhibited by the membrane-bound glycoprotein, CD59. The inhibitory activity of CD59 is species restricted, and human CD59 is not effective against rat complement. Previous functional analysis of chimeric human/rat CD59 proteins indicated that the residues responsible for the species selective function of human CD59 map to a region contained between positions 40 and 66 in the primary structure. By comparative analysis of rat and human CD59 models and by mutational analysis of candidate residues, we now identify the individual residues within the 40-66 region that confer species selective function on human CD59. All nonconserved residues within the 40-66 sequence were substituted from human to rat residues in a series of chimeric human/rat CD59 mutant proteins. Functional analysis revealed that the individual human to rat residue substitutions F47A, T51L, R55E, and K65Q each produced a mutant human CD59 protein with enhanced rat complement inhibitory activity with the single F47A substitution having the most significant effect. Interestingly, the side chains of the residues at positions 47, 51, and 55 are all located on the short single helix (residues 47-55) of CD59 and form an exposed continuous strip parallel to the helix axis. A single human CD59 mutant protein containing rat residue substitutions at all three helix residues produced a protein with species selective activity comparable to that of rat CD59. We further found that synthetic peptides spanning the human CD59 helix sequence were able to inhibit the binding of human CD59 to human C8, but had little effect on the binding of rat CD59 to rat C8.  (+info)

Complement activation and expression of membrane regulators in the middle ear mucosa in otitis media with effusion. (3/479)

The aetiopathogenesis of chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) in children is not yet fully understood. OME is characterized by metaplasia of the epithelium and accumulation of sticky, glue-like effusion in the middle ear containing different mediators of inflammation, including activation fragments of the complement system. Here we examined whether the fluid phase complement activation is reflected in the middle ear mucosa and how the mucosa is protected against the cytolytic activity of complement. Mucosal biopsies from 18 middle ears of children with a history of chronic OME were taken. The biopsies were analysed by immunofluorescence microscopy after staining for complement fragments iC3b/C3c, C3d and C9, and regulators membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46), decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55) and protectin (CD59). There was a strong staining for iC3b/C3c, and a weaker one for C3d and C9 on the surface of the middle ear epithelial cells of OME patients but not in controls without OME. MCP was expressed on the hyperplastic three to four outer cell layers of the epithelium, while CD59 was expressed throughout the middle ear mucosa. The results suggest a strong ongoing complement activation and consequent inflammation in the middle ear cavity. Unrestricted complement damage of the epithelial lining is prevented by the strong expression of MCP and CD59.  (+info)

Induction of decay-accelerating factor by cytokines or the membrane-attack complex protects vascular endothelial cells against complement deposition. (4/479)

Vascular endothelium is continuously exposed to complement-mediated challenge, and this is enhanced during inflammation. Although the complement-regulatory proteins decay-accelerating factor (DAF), CD59, and membrane cofactor protein (MCP) protect endothelial cells (ECs) against complement-mediated injury, the control of their expression and relative contributions to vascular protection is unclear. We explored the hypothesis that mechanisms exist which induce upregulation of complement-regulatory proteins on ECs to maintain vascular function in inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and interferon gamma (IFNgamma) each increased DAF expression but not CD59 or MCP expression, and a combination of these cytokines was more potent than either alone. Cytokine-induced expression depended on increased DAF mRNA and de novo protein synthesis and was maximal by 72 hours. In addition, assembly of the membrane-attack complex (MAC) on ECs induced a 3-fold increase in DAF expression, and this was enhanced by cytokines. DAF upregulation was not inhibited by protein kinase C (PKC) antagonists. The increase in DAF was functionally relevant since it reduced complement 3 (C3) deposition by 40%, and this was inhibited by an anti-DAF monoclonal antibody. These observations indicate that upregulation of DAF expression by cytokines or MAC may represent an important feedback mechanism to maintain the integrity of the microvasculature during subacute and chronic inflammatory processes involving complement activation.  (+info)

Synovial PMN show a coordinated up-regulation of CD66 molecules. (5/479)

Changes in the expression of various activation-dependent surface markers have been reported for polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) isolated from synovial fluid of patients with inflammatory joint diseases. We extend these findings to the expression of CD66 molecules and several other surface markers. Three members of the CD66 family, namely CD66a, CD66b, and CD66c, showed an up to fourfold up-regulation on synovial fluid PMN compared with peripheral blood PMN (PBG) of the same patients; CD59 was increased twofold, the expression of CD16 did not change, whereas CD62L was reduced by more than 50% on synovial fluid PMN. It is interesting that CD66a, CD66b, and CD66c showed a coordinated expression on PBG of patients and controls and a coordinated up-regulation on synovial neutrophils. In contrast, after in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood PMN with phorbol myristate acetate, CD66c was much less up-regulated compared with CD66a and CD66b. All samples of synovial fluid PMN exhibited an additional increase in the expression of CD66a, CD66b, and CD66c when stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate in vitro. Prostaglandins are known to inhibit various responses of neutrophils to inflammatory stimuli. We could show that prostaglandins inhibit N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced up-regulation of CD66 on peripheral blood PMN in a concentration-dependent manner.  (+info)

Biochemical background of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. (6/479)

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired disorder characterized by paroxysms of intravascular hemolysis. A considerable part of erythrocytes in patient blood is susceptible to autologous complement activation because of the deficiency of CD59, which is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein and inhibits the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC) of complement. The deficiency of CD59 is derived from the inability of GPI-anchor synthesis. Although more than 10 proteins are involved in the GPI-anchor synthesis, the mutation of only one protein, PIG-A, causes the defect in about 200 patients with PNH who have been analyzed. The reason why only PIG-A causes the deficiency of GPI anchor is due to the location of its gene on X chromosome. The clonal stem cell mutated with PIG-A gene in the bone marrow loses the capability of the synthesis of GPI-anchor. The mutation of PIG-A gene alone, however, seems to be insufficient to account for the survival of the PIG-A-deficient cells in the bone marrow. Thus, a fraction of the mutant stem cells probably gain a survival advantage by some additional changes, either additional mutations or changes in immunological circumstances. The release of the surviving cells into blood stream results in a clinical syndrome with PNH.  (+info)

Development of adenovirus vectors encoding rat complement regulators for use in therapy in rodent models of inflammatory diseases. (7/479)

C activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory human diseases and disease models. A therapy based on C inhibition might therefore be of benefit to reduce inflammation and ameliorate disease. C inhibition in vivo can be accomplished by the delivery of soluble recombinant C regulators either systemically or directly to a target site, but effects are transitory. We have developed a strategy for the efficient delivery of the membrane-bound rat C inhibitors, CD59, Crry, and decay-accelerating factor (DAF), using replication-deficient adenovirus vectors with the intention of treating rat models of disease in which C is implicated. The adenovirus recombinants(RAd), RAdCD59, RAdCrry, and RAdDAF, respectively, have been tested for expression and function of the transgene in vitro. Infection of human fetal foreskin fibroblasts resulted in high levels of expression of each of the rat inhibitors. The constructs were also tested for inhibition of rat C-mediated cell lysis and C3b deposition. In a cell lysis assay, each inhibited to varying degrees of efficiency in the order RAdCD59 = RAdDAF > RAdCrry. In a C3b deposition assay, RAdDAF caused a greater reduction in C3b deposition than RAdCrry and RAdCD59 was ineffective. These agents, individually or in combination, provide the tools for testing the effects of prolonged inhibition of C at a target site on the progress of experimental models of disease.  (+info)

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced depletion of G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha proteins from detergent-insensitive membrane domains. (8/479)

The role of detergent-insensitive membrane domains (DIMs) in desensitisation of the G protein-coupled receptor-mediated hormone response was studied in clone E2M11 of HEK293 cells which stably express high levels of both thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors and G(11)alpha G protein. DIMs were prepared by flotation in equilibrium sucrose density gradients and characterised by a panel of membrane markers representing peripheral, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-bound as well as integral membrane proteins (caveolin, CD29, CD55, CD59, CD147, the alpha subunit of Na, K-ATPase) and enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase, adenylyl cyclase). Caveolin-containing DIMs represented only a small fraction of the overall pool of G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha-rich domains. Prolonged stimulation of E2M11 cells with TRH resulted in dramatic depletion of G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha from all DIMs, which was paralleled by a concomitant G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha increase in the high-density gradient fractions containing the bulk-phase membrane constituents soluble in 1% Triton X-100. Distribution of membrane markers was unchanged under these conditions. Membrane domains thus represent a substantial structural determinant of the G protein pool relevant to desensitisation of hormone action.  (+info)

Definition of homologous restriction factor in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is homologous restriction factor? Meaning of homologous restriction factor as a legal term. What does homologous restriction factor mean in law?
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects mainly diarthrodial joints and periarticular structures, and can acquire a systemic character. Rheumatoid arthritis affects approximately 1% of the world population, being two to three times more common in women.1. The etiology of RA has not been completely clarified. However, environmental and genetic factors have contributed to the development of the disease. In the early stages of RA, proliferation and edema of the synovial layer cells occur, with infiltration of B and T cells, macrophages, and granulocytes. The synovium thickens, and the joint becomes swollen and painful. With progression, synovial proliferation leads to the formation of pannus, a tissue that invades the articular cartilage and bone. Joint destruction is irreversible. Osteoclasts reabsorb bone, and there is release of proteolytic enzymes, such as metal-loproteinases, aggrecanases, and cathepsins, responsible for the destruction of ...
Results Brain pathological injury was the most serious at 24 h after reperfusion, The complement regulatory protein CD46 expression decreased gradually after local cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion injury, the lowest at 24 h after reperfusion, and returned to normal at 96 h after reperfusion.complement regulatory protein CD46 expression was negative correlated with brain pathological injury.. ...
Inherited deficiencies of several complement components strongly predispose to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) while deficiencies of complement inhibitors are found in kidney diseases such as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). The exons of complement inhibitor genes CD46 and CFH (factor H) were fully sequenced using the Sanger method in SLE patients with nephritis originating from two cohorts from southern and mid Sweden (n = 196). All identified mutations and polymorphisms were then analyzed in SLE patients without nephritis (n = 326) and in healthy controls (n = 523). We found nonsynonymous, heterozygous mutations in CFH in 6.1% patients with nephritis, in comparison with 4.0% and 5.4% in patients without nephritis and controls, respectively. No associations of SLE or nephritis with common variants in CFH (V62I/Y402H/E936D) were found. Furthermore, we found two nonsynonymous heterozygous mutations in CD46 in SLE patients but not in controls. The A353V polymorphism, known to affect function
Background/Purpose: The influence of complement-mediated innate immune responses on cartilage and bone homeostasis in the ageing joint have not been studied. Inappropriate complement-mediated cell damage is prevented by membrane regulators such as CD59. Synovial tissue expression of CD59 is altered during inflammatory arthritis; elevated CD59 levels may be necessary to protect joint tissues. Roles of CD59 in maintaining tissue equilibrium and structural architecture within the synovial joint have not been described previously. Since CD59a is the primary regulator of membrane attack complex assembly in mice; we used CD59a-gene-deleted mice (CD59a-/-) as tools to unravel the function of CD59a in modulating age-related joint degeneration. Methods: Hind limbs were collected from C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and CD59a-/- mice at 8-, 20- and 50- weeks of age (6 to 10 mice/group). The Mankin score was used to classify the histopathological severity of osteoarthritic (OA) lesions. Three dimensional ...
wistar complement wistar rat complement serum | order wistar complement wistar rat complement serum | How to use: wistar complement wistar rat complement serum | su
wistar complement wistar rat complement serum | order wistar complement wistar rat complement serum | How to use: wistar complement wistar rat complement serum | su
Simpson, R. J., Florida-James, G., Whyte, G. P., Middleton, N., Shave, R., George, K. & Guy, K. (2007). The effects of marathon running on expression of the complement regulatory proteins CD55 (DAF) and CD59 (MACIF) on red blood cells. European journal of applied physiology. 99, 201-204. doi:10.1007/s00421-006-0326-2. ISSN 1439-6327. ...
Simpson, R. J., Florida-James, G., Whyte, G. P., Middleton, N., Shave, R., George, K. & Guy, K. (2007). The effects of marathon running on expression of the complement regulatory proteins CD55 (DAF) and CD59 (MACIF) on red blood cells. European journal of applied physiology. 99, 201-204. doi:10.1007/s00421-006-0326-2. ISSN 1439-6327. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro investigation of pig cells for resistance to human antibody-mediated rejection. AU - Hara, Hidetaka. AU - Long, Cassandra. AU - Lin, Yih Jyh. AU - Tai, Hao Chih. AU - Ezzelarab, Mohamed. AU - Ayares, David. AU - Cooper, David K.C.. PY - 2008/12. Y1 - 2008/12. N2 - Although human complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) of α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO) pig cells is significantly weaker than that of wild-type (WT) cells, successful xenotransplantation will require pigs with multiple genetic modifications. Sera from healthy humans were tested by (i) flow cytometry for binding of IgM/IgG, and (ii) CDC assay against peripheral blood mononuclear cells and porcine aortic endothelial cells from five types of pig - WT, GTKO, GTKO transgenic for H-transferase (GTKO/HT), WT transgenic for human complement regulatory protein CD46 (CD46) and GTKO/CD46. There was significantly higher mean IgM/IgG binding to WT and CD46 cells than to GTKO, GTKO/HT, and GTKO/CD46, but ...
One of the major obstacles to optimizing the efficacy of therapeutic antibodies is low and heterogeneous antigen expression that (a) allows cells to evade the effective treatment, (b) induces the selection of low antigen cell, and (c) makes some antigenic targets resistant to antibody therapeutics. For example, the most successful anticancer antibody, rituximab, shows an inferior clinical response rate for lymphoma subtypes that have a relatively lower expression of CD20, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma, compared with highly responsive follicular lymphoma with higher CD20 expression, although it should be noted that other factors such as the differential expression of complement-inhibitory proteins (CD46, CD55, CD59) among these clinical subtypes might also affect the rituximab responsiveness (3). It has been shown that antigen expression is a critical factor of the efficacy of the anti-HER2 IgG1 trastuzumab (1, 2, 4, 33), for which treatment is restricted to ...
CRP seems to be not only a biomarker for atherosclerosis but also a mediator of plaque formation.3 By binding to enzymatically degraded low-density lipoprotein, CRP is able to activate the classical pathway of complement,13 serving as a potential link between complement activation and atherosclerosis.9,10 To protect against complement-mediated cell lysis, nucleated cells express complement inhibitor proteins on their surface. By upregulating the expression of these proteins in endothelial cells, CRP may serve to protect ECs from complement-mediated injury.. The ability of CRP to bind to nucleated cells and cause complement activation without cytolysis14 has been largely attributed to its ability to recruit the inhibitory plasma protein factor H.15 However, our results indicate that CRP may play a more active, protective role by stimulating the expression of DAF, CD46, and CD59 in endothelial cells. The kinetics of DAF expression were analyzed in greater detail because DAF seems to be the most ...
The complement system is a crucial mediator of inflammation and cell lysis after cerebral ischemia. However, there is little information about the exact contribution of the membrane attack complex (MAC) and its inhibitor-protein CD59. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in young male and female CD59a knockout and wild-type mice. Two models of MCAO were applied: 60 min MCAO and 48 h reperfusion, as well as 30 min MCAO and 72 h reperfusion. CD59a knockout animals were compared to wild-type animals in terms of infarct size, edema, neurological deficit, and cell death. CD59a-deficiency in male mice caused significantly increased infarct volumes and brain swelling when compared to wild-type mice at 72 h after 30 min-occlusion time, whereas no significant difference was observed after 1 h-MCAO. Moreover, CD59a-deficient mice had impaired neurological function when compared to wild-type mice after 30 min MCAO. We conclude that CD59a protects against ischemic
CD59 / Complement Regulatory Protein / Protectin Antibody - Without BSA and Azide, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone SPM616 ] validated in IHC, IF, FC (AH12772-100), Abgent
Scientists have discovered when a cancer-killing virus is injected in the bloodstream it hitches a ride on blood cells and evades attack from the immune sy
|strong|Mouse anti Human CD59 antibody, clone MEM-43|/strong| recognizes CD59, a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored membrane protein also known as membrane attack complex inhibition factor. …
The group of cells in the body that are affected by the genetic defect that causes PNH. These cells all come from the same parent cell in the bone marrow. Since the genetic defect lies in the parent cell, all cells which come from the parent cell, (including red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets) are affected. The size of a PNH clone depends on the number of cells affected by PNH. A PNH clone is tested on a regular basis in order to identify whether a PNH clone has increased, decreased or is stable. ...
CD59, 50 µg. CD59 (also known as HRF20, protectin) is a 20 kDa glycoprotein attached to the plasma membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor.
Mohamed Kharfan-Dabaja, MD, discusses the future of PNH treatment, the various symptoms that can present in PNH, and the challenges that still remain for further improving outcomes.
Studies confirm the prognostic value of ENoG testing performed between 3 and 14 days after onset of complete facial paralysis. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessing donor chimerism using flow cytometry in paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria after stem cell transplantation--a case report.. AU - Raja Sabudin, Raja Zahratul Azma. AU - Hussin, Noor Hamidah. AU - Chooi Fun, Leong. AU - Ainoon, O.. AU - Cheong, S. K.. PY - 2006/12. Y1 - 2006/12. N2 - Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired haemopoietic stem cell disorder arising from somatic mutation of the X-linked PIG-A gene which leads to deficiency of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GP1) membrane anchor proteins such as CD 59 (MIRL: membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis) and CD 55 (DAF: decay accelerating factor). Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) is a curative mode of treatment in symptomatic PNH patients. Assessment of donor chimerism for PBSCT can be performed by various methods including short tandem repeat loci (STR) and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). Flow cytometry, which is much cheaper and faster, also can be used to ...
Treatment for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria in Richards Town, Bangalore, find doctors near you. Book Appointment Online, View Fees, Reviews Doctors for Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Treatment in Richards Town, Bangalore | Practo
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Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria at PatientsLikeMe. 9 patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria experience fatigue, depressed mood, pain, anxious mood, and insomnia.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular organization of C9 within the membrane attack complex of complement. Induction of circular C9 polymerization by the C5b-8 assembly. AU - Podack, E. R.. AU - Tschoop, J.. AU - Muller-Eberhard, H. J.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - Evidence has been presented suggesting that during assembly of the membrane attack complex (MAC) of complement, the C5b-8 complex induces polymerization of C9. The C9 polymer was detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis of MAC isolated from complement-lysed erythrocytes. It resembled the previously described polymerized C9 (poly C9) produced from isolated monomeric C9 by prolonged incubation at 37° C in that it was resistant to dissociation by SDS and reducing agents and had an apparent molecular weight of ~1.1 million. The presence of poly C9 in the MAC was further supported by the expression of identical neoantigens by the MAC and poly C9 and by the high C9 content of the MAC relative to its other constituents. Isolated C8 in ...
NEW HAVEN, Conn.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ:ALXN) today announced the initiation of two Phase 3 trials of ALXN1210, a highly innovative, longer-acting anti-C5 antibody that inhibits terminal complement. The first trial is a Phase 3 open-label, multinational, active-controlled study of ALXN1210 compared to eculizumab (Soliris®) in complement inhibitor treatment-naïve patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH).
The diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is established by flow cytometric analysis of CD55 and CD59 on leukocytes and erythrocytes.
Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) is a unique disorder in which a substantial proportion of the patients red cells have an abnormal susceptibility to activated complement. This results from the presence of a clone that originates from a haematopoietic stem cell bearing an acquired somatic mutation in the X-linked gene ...
Learn about paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. What are the symptoms, the causes and how to treat this condition? What can we do to cope...
Feldman L. Triiodothyronine (T3) toxicosis and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: report of case. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1981;80(7):491. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.1981.80.7.491.. Download citation file:. ...
Protectin D1 also known as neuroprotectin D1 (when it acts in the nervous system) and abbreviated most commonly as PD1 or NPD1 is a member of the class of specialized proresolving mediators. Like other members of this class of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites, it possesses strong anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective activity. PD1 is an aliphatic acyclic alkene 22 carbons in length with two hydroxyl groups at the 10 and 17 carbon positions and one carboxylic acid group at the one carbon position. Specifically, PD1 is an endogenous stereoselective lipid mediator classified as an autocoid protectin. Autacoids are enzymatically derived chemical mediators with distinct biological activities and molecular structures. Protectins are signaling molecules that are produced enzymatically from unsaturated fatty acids. Their molecular structure is characterized by the presence of a conjugated system of double bonds. PD1, like other protectins, is produced by the oxygenation of the ω-3 ...
The major limitation of organ transplantation is the shortage of available organs. Xenotransplantation is considered to be an effective way to resolve the problem. Immune rejection is a major hurdle for the successful survival of pig xenografts in primate recipients. Cytokines play important roles in inflammation and many diseases including allotransplantation, however, their roles in xenotransplantation have been less well investigated. We assessed the role of several cytokines in xenotransplantation using an in vitro model of human antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAECs) and porcine iliac endothelial cells (PIECs) were selected as target cells. The complement regulators (CD46, CD55 and CD59) and junction protein genes were assessed by real-time PCR, flow cytometry, or western-blotting assay. Flow cytometry assay was also used to evaluate C3 and C5b-9 deposition, as well as the extent of human IgM and IgG binding to PIECs. Gene silencing was
Severely anemic patients with PNH on treatment with Soliris™ can become transfusion-free with improved hemoglobin when switched to APL-2 monotherapy. Treatment-naïve patients with PNH show clinically meaningful improvements for all hematological parameters when treated with APL-2. CRESTWOOD, Ky. and WALTHAM, Mass., June 26, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq:APLS), a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of novel therapeutic compounds to treat disease through the inhibition of the complement system, will provide clinical updates today on its two ongoing Phase Ib PNH studies during an R&D Day in New York between 2.00 pm and 5.00 pm.. Apellis is developing APL-2 for the treatment of PNH, a rare, acquired, potentially life-threatening disease characterized by complement-mediated thrombosis and hemolytic anemia. The Company believes that by targeting C3, APL-2 can improve hematological parameters in patients with PNH on treatment with C5 ...
陣發性夜間血紅素尿症(paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, PNH)是一種罕見的造血幹細胞疾病,因後天基因突變而造成[1]。一般來說,正常紅血球的細胞膜上有幾種保護性蛋白質,例如:蛋白衰變加速因子(decay accelerating factor, CD55)以及溶解細胞膜抑制物(membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis, CD59),使紅血球不會因補體(免疫系統的一部分)的攻擊而破裂[1]。然而,PNH患者因為在X染色體上的phosphatidylinositol glycan A (PIG-A)基因發生突變,造成某些醣脂質,例如glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPI)無法形成,而使紅血球上的保護性蛋白質無法藉著GPI結合在紅血球的細胞膜上[1]。紅血球沒有這些蛋白質的保護就容易因人體內補體系統的攻擊而破裂,引起持續、慢性的血管內溶血性疾病,這也是造成疾病症狀及後續嚴重併發症的原因[2-4 ...
Xenozoonosis, also known as zoonosis or xenosis, is the transmission of infectious agents between species via xenograft. Animal to human infection is normally rare, but has occurred in the past. An example of such is the avian influenza, when an influenza A virus was passed from birds to humans.[33] Xenotransplantation may increase the chance of disease transmission for 3 reasons: (1) implantation breaches the physical barrier that normally helps to prevent disease transmission, (2) the recipient of the transplant will be severely immunosuppressed, and (3) human complement regulators (CD46, CD55, and CD59) expressed in transgenic pigs have been shown to serve as virus receptors, and may also help to protect viruses from attack by the complement system.[34] Examples of viruses carried by pigs include porcine herpesvirus, rotavirus, parvovirus, and circovirus. Porcine herpesviruses and rotaviruses can be eliminated from the donor pool by screening, however others (such as parvovirus and ...
Speaking with your healthcare team about your condition and finding out what you can about the disease can be empowering and can help you understand how best to move forward. OneSource is a complimentary, personalized patient support program offered by Alexion, and tailored to the specific needs of people living with aHUS, gMG, HPP, LAL-D, NMOSD and PNH. Were here to help you learn, and were here to help you understand the options available to you.. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of On the origin of multiple mutant clones in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Definition of Epidemic haemoglobinuria with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
MI Update - Volume 12, Issue 4 is centered on immunology of the liver. Including articles of vein tolerance and development of regulator CD4 T-cells, IL-27R, and T-cell Immunity
Hemoglobinurie - definitie | SfatulMedicului.ro - Prezenta a hemoglobinei in urina. hemoglobinuria este un semn de hemoliza (distrugerea globulelor rosii) importanta in interiorul vaselor sangvine. ...
A novel cell surface antigen has been identified on a wide range of lymphoid cells and erythrocytes. A mAb YTH 53.1 (CD59) against this antigen enhanced the lysis of human red cells and lymphocytes by homologous complement. Studies of reactive lysis using different species of C56, and of whole serum used as a source of C7-9, indicated that the inhibitory activity of the CD59 antigen is directed towards the homologous membrane attack complex. CD59 antigen was purified from human urine and erythrocyte stroma by affinity chromatography using the mAb YTH 53.1 immobilized on Sepharose, and, following transient expression of a human T cell cDNA library in COS cells, the corresponding cDNA also identified using the antibody. It was found that the CD59 antigen is a small protein (approximately 20 kD as judged by SDS-PAGE, 11.5 kD predicted from the isolated cDNA) sometimes associated with larger components (45 and 80 kD) in urine. The sequence of CD59 antigen is unlike that of other complement ...
This volume reviews the fundamental understanding of this potentially life-threatening disease and the advances in treatment that have been achieved with the use of the monoclonal antibody eculizumab. Although the PIGA gene has been known for many years, the mechanism of clonal dominance in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is still largely unknown. This book, Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria, discusses the direction of continuing research in this area, as well as the potential for the development of management guidelines. It serves as a valuable source of information for both basic scientists and physicians, especially immunologists targeting GPI-anchored proteins and complements, and hematologists specializing in bone marrow failure. ...
The cause of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is an acquired somatic mutation of the PIG-A-gene in either one or several pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells of the bone marrow [8, 9]. Not all stem cells of the bone marrow are affected, hence a so-called mosaic situation exists. Additional pathophysiological mechanisms may include an autoimmunity-mediated depletion of GPI+-, i.e. healthy stem cells leading to secondary accumulation of GPI-deficient PNH stem cells, and the existence of an intrinsic growth advantage by the GPI deficient stem cells [10]. The predominant consequence of GPI deficiency on peripheral blood cells is the absence of so-called complement-inactivating proteins, especially from the surface of erythrocytes. In this regard, particular mention must be made of CD55, the so-called decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and/or CD59, the membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis (MIRL) [11]. Once complement is activated the red blood cells become vulnerable to terminal ...
SUMMARY In contrast to all other intrinsic abnormalities of the erythrocyte, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired, not an inherited, disorder. PNH arises as a consequence of somatic mutation, involving one or more hematopoietic stem cells, of PIGA, a gene located on the X chromosome that is required for synthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety that anchors some proteins to the cell surface. Consequently, all GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) that are normally expressed are deficient on the mutant hematopoietic stem cells and their progeny. The complement-mediated intravascular hemolytic anemia and the resulting hemoglobinuria that are the clinical hallmarks of PNH are a consequence of deficiency of the GPI-anchored complement regulatory proteins, CD55 and CD59. Although PNH is a neoplastic (clonal) disease, it is not a malignant disease in that there is no exaggerated proliferation of neoplastic cells and replacement of marrow or spread to other tissues, and ...
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a clonal bone marrow disorder, resulting from an acquired, somatic X-linked mutation of the PIG-A gene in an hematopoietic stem cell. Absence of PIG-A function in a cell prevents synthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety, which anchors many different types of proteins to the cell membrane. Intravascular red cell destruction, the hallmark of the disorder, is caused by susceptibility of the abnormal erythrocyte to complement-mediated lysis; this sensitivity is due to lack of CD59, a potent inhibitor of the late components of complement and reactive lysis. In vitro studies from this laboratory have demonstrated transfer of GPI-linked proteins, CD55 and CD59, from normal to deficient cells and transfer is associated with resistance to hemolysis. Patients with PNH frequently require transfusion as their standard care. In addition, patients with all blood groups requiring transfusion will often receive compatible group O blood. Group O ...
Blood 1998 Dec 1;92(11):4439-45 Abstract quote Hemolytic anemia is a major feature of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). Intravascular red blood cell (RBC) destruction is caused by increased sensitivity of the abnormal erythrocyte to complement-mediated lysis, due to the GPI absence of a membrane-bound glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked protein, which functions as an inhibitor of reactive lysis (CD59). Both in vivo and in vitro models have suggested the feasibility of cell-to-cell transfer of GPI proteins, and patients with hemolysis could potentially benefit from transfer of CD59 to their deficient erythrocytes. We studied the ability of RBC components prepared from outdated packed RBC collections, as well as high-density lipoprotein (HDL) preparations, rich in CD55 and CD59, to promote protein transfer, as assessed by flow cytometry, immunoblotting, and susceptibility to complement-mediated lysis. By flow cytometry, CD55 and CD59 were present on RBC-derived microvesicles that ...
The kidney is particularly susceptible to complement-mediated injury in a number of clinical settings, and congenital deficiency or defects in the complement-regulatory proteins MCP and factor H are strongly associated with the development of renal disease. In the current study, we demonstrated that Crry (the murine homolog of MCP in the kidney) is the only membrane-bound regulator of complement expressed by murine TECs. Crry is expressed on the cell membrane, and its expression is concentrated in the basolateral portion of the cell. Polarized TECs regulate complement more efficiently on the basolateral surface of the cells than on the apical surface, in part because of Crry expression at this site. As with renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) (21), chemical hypoxia of the TECs causes a reduction in surface Crry levels, and the distribution within the cell is also altered.. Spontaneous complement activation on the surface of TECs is also controlled by endogenous factor H. When rH 19-20 was added to ...
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired hematopoietic stem-cell disorder related to the somatic mutation in PIG-A gene (X-chromosome). This genetic alteration results in partial or total deficiency of all proteins normally linked to the cell membrane by glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol (GPI). Flow cytometry provides an efficient diagnostic test in which the lack of GPI-anchored proteins is studied on the major blood cell populations ...
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired hematopoietic stem-cell disorder related to the somatic mutation in PIG-A gene (X-chromosome). This genetic alteration results in partial or total deficiency of all proteins normally linked to the cell membrane by glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol (GPI). Flow cytometry provides an efficient diagnostic test in which the lack of GPI-anchored proteins is studied on the major blood cell populations ...
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired, life-threatening disease of the blood. The disease is characterized by destruction of red blood cells (hemolytic anemia), blood clots (thrombosis), and impaired bone marrow function (not making enough of the three blood components). PNH affects 1-1.5 persons per million of the population and is primarily a disease of younger adults. The median age of diagnosis is 35-40 years of age, with occasional cases diagnosed in childhood or adolescence. PNH is closely related to aplastic anemia. In fact, up to 30% of newly diagnosed cases of PNH evolve from aplastic anemia. Similarly, the risk of developing PNH after treatment for aplastic anemia with immunosuppressive therapy (anti-thymocyte globulin and cyclosporine) is approximately 20-30%. The median survival after diagnosis is 10 years; however, some patients can survive for decades with only minor symptoms.. PNH occurs when mutations of a gene called PIG-A occur in a bone marrow stem cell. ...
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) In this condition, the bone marrow--the soft spongy tissue that act as the blood manufacturing system for the entire body--produces defective red blood cells. The bodys natural defense system then destroys these defective red blood cells in a process is known as hemolysis.
The term nocturnal refers to the belief that hemolysis is triggered by acidosis during sleep. However, this observation was later disproved. In individuals with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, hemolysis has been shown to occur throughout the day, but the urine concentrated overnight produces the dramatic change in color.[1] It is most noticeable in the morning, upon passing urine that has accumulated in the bladder during the night.[2] ...
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria - Epidemiology Insights to 2025 is a market research report available at US $2950 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The membrane attack complex of complement. T2 - Relation of C7 to the metastable membrane binding site of the intermediate complex C5b-7. AU - Preissner, K. T.. AU - Podack, E. R.. AU - Muller-Eberhard, H. J.. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - Isolated C7 (m.w. 120,000) in 1% deoxycholate (DOC) forms dimers with an apparent m.w. of 230,000 and a DOC-binding capacity of 82 mol per mol of dimer. Dimerization of C7 also occurs in the presence of DOC-phospholipid mixed micelles and eventuates in the insertion of C7 dimers into the lipid bilayer upon the removal of the detergent, C5b-7 complex formation in the fluid phase or on lipid vesicles likewise involves polymerization, C5b-7 sedimented with 17-40S, which suggests a dimeric to hexameric composition. In avidin-biotin binding experiments in which two differentially labeled forms of C5b,6 (biotinyl 125I-C5b,6, and 131I-C5b,6) were used in equimolar amounts to assemble C5b-7, more than 50% of the biotinyl 125I-C5b,6-containing ...
Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) is a 70,000 Mr protein that has been isolated from the membrane of red cells. The function of DAF is to inhibit the assembly of amplifying enzymes of the complement cascade on the cell surface, thereby protecting them from damage by autologous complement. We raised monoclonal antibodies to DAF and used them to study its distribution in cells from the peripheral blood of normal individuals and of patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), a disease characterized by the unusual susceptibility of red cells to the hemolytic activity of complement. The results of immunoradiometric assays and of fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis showed that DAF was present not only on red cells but was widely distributed on the surface membrane of platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, and B and T lymphocytes. By Western blotting, we observed small but consistent differences in the Mr of DAF from the membranes of various cell types. Quantitative studies showed that ...
GPI-Anchored Proteins. The majority of eukaryotic cell membrane proteins have hydrophobic amino acids stretches that consists of a transmembrane polypeptide chain, which embeds the proteins into phospholipids double layer of the membrane [18]. GPI anchored proteins are membrane bound proteins. Several proteins are linked to the outer cell membrane leaflet by GPI anchor. This structure involves three key elements: a core containing a phosphatidylinositol (PI) moiety, one glucosamine and three mannose molecules and one ethanolamine phosphate unit [19]. A peptide bond links the C-terminus of the protein polypeptide to the last moiety. The GPI-anchor is created in the endoplasmic reticulum and attached to the polypeptide post-translational by a transaminase enzyme [20-21]. Molecular Genetic Background. Until date, all PNH patients have had genetic mutations in an X-linked gene known as PIG-A [22, 23,9]. The PIG-A gene product is initially required in the assembly of GPI anchors [24]. Consequently, a ...
NEW HAVEN, Conn.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: ALXN) announced today that the pivotal Phase 3 study of ALXN1210, the Companys investigational long-acting C5 complement inhibitor, demonstrated non-inferiority to Soliris® (eculizumab) in complement inhibitor treatment-naïve patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) based on the co-primary endpoints of transfusion avoidance and normalization of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, a direct marker of complement-mediated hemolysis in PNH.
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Patients of any age, including minors, with a diagnosis of PNH or a detected PNH clone, including patients previously treated with Soliris and withdrawn from treatment. Patients who are minors must have parent/legal guardian consent and must be willing and able to give assent, if applicable as determined by the Ethics Committees/Institutional Review Boards. Upon attaining adulthood, these patients must be re-consented ...
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I believe that a story is the shortest distance between two people. While this is my story, it is not just mine, and I did not do any of this alone. In April 1983, my husband Joe and I were 25 years old and attending to the required pre-marital blood work. Next thing we knew, we were sitting in a doctors office because my blood counts were abnormally low. They told us there was something wrong, but they didnt know what it was. ...
Your help makes it possible to meet patients needs, hold impactful conferences, develop fresh education programs and fund research for the cures, along with improved treatments until cures are discovered. ...
Results At baseline, vWF, sVCAM-1, the EMP count, and F1+2 and D-dimer levels were significantly elevated in the patients, including those with no history of clinical thrombosis. Treatment with eculizumab was associated with significant decreases in plasma markers of coagulation activation (F1+2, p=0.012, and D-dimers, p=0.01), and reactional fibrinolysis (P-AP, p=0.0002). Eculizumab treatment also significantly reduced plasma markers of endothelial cell activation (t-PA, p=0.0005, sVCAM-1, p,0.0001, and vWF, p=0.0047) and total (p=0.0008) and free (p=0.0013) TFPI plasma levels. ...
Isolated C7 (m.w. 120,000) in 1% deoxycholate (DOC) forms dimers with an apparent m.w. of 230,000 and a DOC-binding capacity of 82 mol per mol of dimer. Dimerization of C7 also occurs in the presence of DOC-phospholipid mixed micelles and eventuates in the insertion of C7 dimers into the lipid bilayer upon the removal of the detergent. C5b-7 complex formation in the fluid phase or on lipid vesicles likewise involves polymerization. C5b-7 sedimented with 17-40S, which suggests a dimeric to hexameric composition. In avidin-biotin binding experiments in which two differentially labeled forms of C5b,6 (biotinyl 125I-C5b,6, and 131I-C5b,6) were used in equimolar amounts to assemble C5b-7, more than 50% of the biotinyl 125I-C5b,6-containing complexes also contained 131I label; again suggesting that C5b-7 consisted of oligomers rather than monomers. The conformation of C7 in C5b-7 and in dimeric C7 appeared similar by the following criteria. On formation of C5b-7 from C5b,6 and C7, a 20% increase in ...
infections; (ii) specific antibodies detected by conventional serology (CS) with epimastigote extracts, fixed trypomastigotes or other parasite antigens may circulate years after parasite elimination; (iii) functional antibodies are evidenced by complement-mediated lysis of freshly isolated trypomastigotes, a test which is 100% specific, highly sensitive, and the first to revert after T. cruzi elimination and (iv) the parasite target for the lytic antibodies is a glycoprotein of high molecular weight (gp160) anchored at the parasite surface. The complement regulatory protein has been cloned, sequenced and produced as a recombinant protein by other groups and is useful for identifying functional anti-T. cruzi antibodies in ELISA tests, thus dispensing with the need for live trypomastigotes to manage treated patients. If used instead of CS to define cures for Chagas patients, ELISA will avoid unnecessary delays in finding anti-T. cruzi drugs. Other highly sensitive techniques for parasite DNA ...
Die genetische Anfälligkeit für Meningokokken-Infektionen liegt vor allem in Störungen des Komplementsystems begründet, vor allem der terminale membrane attack complex (MAC), der von C8 und C9 gebildet wird, aber auch Teile des Komplementsystems, die die Bildung des MAC steuern, können betroffen sein (C3, C5, C6, C7).. ...
Mouse anti Rat CD11a antibody, clone WT.1 reacts with rat CD11a, a glycoprotein of 160-170 kDa, associated with CD18. CD11a is one of the
Quantity100 testsVolume2ImmunogenThymocytes and T lymphocytesBackground InformationCD59 (Protectin) is a small (18-20 kDa) GPI-anchored ubiquitousl...
An immune-based approach to allow antibodies in the plasma of HIV-1-infected individuals to regain their activity of antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis (2010 ...
HEMOLISIS MICROANGIOPATICA PDF - Hemoglobinuria paroxística nocturna ,, Hemólisis intravascular microangiopática 31 l Hiperglicemia, verglucemia Hiperinsulinismo. se distingue por el
1992). "The antigen-specific induction of normal human lymphocytes in vitro is down-regulated by a conserved HIV p24 epitope ... 1992). "Overlapping but nonidentical binding sites on CD2 for CD58 and a second ligand CD59.". Science 256 (5065): 1805-7. PMID ... 1986). "The sheep erythrocyte receptor and both alpha and beta chains of the human T-lymphocyte antigen receptor bind the ... "Molecular cloning of the human T-lymphocyte surface CD2 (T11) antigen.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 (22): 8718-22. PMC ...
This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... CD59) deficiency Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria Immunodeficiency associated with ficolin 3 deficiency These are a few ... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ...
Antigens of phagocytosed graft cells can also be presented by the host's class I MHC molecules to CD8+ T cells.[1][29] ... Expression of human complement regulators (CD55, CD46, and CD59) to inhibit the complement cascade.[27] ... Indirect xenorecognition involves the presentation of antigens from the xenograft by recipient antigen presenting cells to CD4+ ... In direct xenorecognition, antigen presenting cells from the xenograft present peptides to recipient CD4+ T cells via ...
C3b binds to antigen-associated Ig and to the microbe surface. Ability of C3b to bind to antigen-associated Ig would work ... One example is CD59, also known as protectin, which inhibits C9 polymerisation during the formation of the membrane attack ... which has formed a complex with antigens. C4b and C3b are also able to bind to antigen-associated IgG or IgM, to its Fc portion ... This occurs when C1q binds to IgM or IgG complexed with antigens. A single pentameric IgM can initiate the pathway, while ...
Tissue Antigens (англ.)русск. : journal. - 2007. - Vol. 68, no. 6. - P. 509-517. - DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00726.x. - PMID ...
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... 2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... 1991). „Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID ... 2003). „Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". Int. J. Hematol. 75 ...
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11.[5] CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ... "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms cooperate to mediate colon carcinoma cell adhesion to E- and L-selectin in ...
... is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Leucocyte typing: human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... 1996). "CD88 antibodies specifically bind to C5aR on dermal CD117+ and CD14+ cells and react with a desmosomal antigen in human ...
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
... uveitis antigens induce CXCR3- and CXCR5-expressing lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells to migrate (англ.) // Blood (англ ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... Hamann J, Wishaupt JO, van Lier RA, Smeets TJ, Breedveld FC, Tak PP (Apr 1999). "Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and ... Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004325.x. PMID 11380941.. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of ...
"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)".. *^ May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; ... CD61+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
"Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26". Science. 261 (5120): 466-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
"Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
This change in shape allows the binding of plasma protein Factor B, which allows Factor D to cleave Factor B into Ba and Bb. Bb remains bound to C3(H2O) to form C3(H2O)Bb. This complex is also known as a fluid-phase C3-convertase. This convertase, the alternative pathway C3-convertase, although only produced in small amounts, can cleave multiple C3 proteins into C3a and C3b. The complex is believed to be unstable until it binds properdin, a serum protein. The addition of properdin forms the complex C3bBbP, a stable compound which can bind an additional C3b to form alternative pathway C5-convertase. The C5-convertase of the alternative pathway consists of (C3b)2BbP (sometimes referred to as C3b2Bb). After the creation of C5 convertase (either as (C3b)2BbP or C4b2a3b from the classical pathway), the complement system follows the same path regardless of the means of activation (alternative, classical, or lectin). C5-convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and C5b. C5b binds sequentially to C6, C7, C8 and ...
CD64+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet degranulation. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling ...
antigen binding. • virus receptor activity. • protein binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • identical protein ...
T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell. • T cell antigen ... CD51 · CD52 · CD53 · CD54 · CD55 · CD56 · CD57 · CD58 · CD59 · CD61 · CD62 (E, L, P) · CD63 · CD64 (A, B, C) · CD66 (a, b, c, d ...
Williams et al.46 have assessed the role of CD59 in the protection of the articular tissue in a murine model of antigen-induced ... To confirm whether disease exacerbation was due to absence of CD59 in the joint, these authors have reconstituted the CD59 ... These authors have shown that mice with CD59 deficiency had a higher deposition of MAC and articular damage compared to CD59+ ... CD59 blocks not only the insertion of C9 into MAC but inhibits ion channel formation by homologous C5b-8 as well as C5b-9. J ...
CONCLUSIONS: 5I2 antigen and rat CD59 are expressed in high levels and distributed similarly in the rat eye and lacrimal gland ... D S Bardenstein, C Cheyer, N Okada, B P Morgan, M E Medof; Cell surface regulators of complement, 5I2 antigen, and CD59, in the ... The retina showed labeling at multiple levels, with that of rat CD59 being more intense than that of 5I2 antigen. The lacrimal ... Corneal endothelial cells showed intense labeling for rat CD59 but not for 5I2 antigen. The iris and ciliary body showed ...
Animals, Animals, Genetically Modified, Antigens, CD, CD59 Antigens, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11, Complement Membrane Attack ...
IPR018363 CD59_antigen_CS. IPR027101 CD59_glyco. IPR016054 LY6_UPA_recep-like. ... IPR018363 CD59_antigen_CS. IPR027101 CD59_glyco. IPR016054 LY6_UPA_recep-like. ... sp,P13987,CD59_HUMAN CD59 glycoprotein OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=CD59 PE=1 SV=1 ... "Colocalization of the human CD59 gene to 11p13 with the MIC11 cell surface antigen.". Bickmore W.A., Longbottom D., Oghene K., ...
CD59) gene expression of Hela cells and antitumoral mechanism of PC was investigated in this study. PC was purified by ... 0/Antigens, CD59; 0/Antigens, CD95; 0/Antineoplastic Agents; 0/FAS protein, human; 0/RNA, Messenger; 0/Receptors, Tumor ... Antigens, CD59 / genetics, metabolism*, pharmacology. Antigens, CD95. Antineoplastic Agents / isolation & purification, ... The CD59 cDNA was inserted into the eukaryotic expression plasmid pALTER-MAX, and the recombinant vector pALTER-MAX-CD59 was ...
Buy our Recombinant Human CD59 protein. Ab168079 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated ... CD59 antigen p18-20 (antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 16.3A5, EJ16, EJ30, EL32 and G344) ... Defects in CD59 are the cause of CD59 deficiency (CD59D) [MIM:612300]. ... The GPI-anchor of soluble urinary CD59 has no inositol-associated phospholipid, but is composed of seven different GPI-anchor ...
Mouse monoclonal CD59 antibody [MEM-43]. Validated in WB, IP, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Cited in 21 ... CD59 antigen p18 20 antibody. *CD59 antigen p18-20 (antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 16.3A5, EJ16, EJ30, EL32 and ... CD59 antigen (human). MEM-43 identified CD59 as the new cluster on 4th HLDA Workshop. MEM-43 reacts with well defined epitope ( ... Anti-CD59 antibody [MEM-43], prediluted (FITC) (ab18237) *Anti-CD59 antibody [MEM-43], prediluted (Alexa Fluor® 647) (ab187769 ...
CD55 Antigens / metabolism * CD59 Antigens / metabolism * Case-Control Studies * Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ... In the presence of CRP, RBC(Mal) showed reduced complement-regulatory proteins (CR1 or CD35, CD55 and CD59) with decreased ...
CD59 blockade enhances antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in humans: a new target for cancer immunotherapy? The Journal of ... CD59 blockade enhances antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in humans: a new target for cancer immunotherapy? ... In this study, we explored the role of CD59 on human CD4+ T cells. Our data demonstrate that CD59 is up-regulated on activated ... CD59, a broadly expressed GPI-anchored molecule, regulates formation of the membrane attack complex of the complement cascade. ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD59 Antibody (MEM-43). Validated: Flow, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, IP, B/N, CyTOF-ready. Tested Reactivity: ... CD59 antigen p18-20 (antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 16.3A5, EJ16 ... Blogs on CD59. There are no specific blogs for CD59, but you can read our latest blog posts. ... Bioinformatics Tool for CD59 Antibody (NB500-330). Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to CD59 Antibody (NB500-330). ...
... find the top performing anti-Human CD59 antibody for Immunoprecipitation (IP). ... CD59 antigen), is present and functionally active on glomerular epithelial cells. in Clinical and experimental immunology 1991 ... Product Details anti-CD59 Antibody Target Details CD59 Handling References for anti-CD59 antibody (ABIN1999739) Images back to ... Product Details anti-CD59 Antibody Target Details CD59 Application Details Handling References for anti-CD59 antibody ( ...
Cytoprotective effect of CD59 antigen on xenotransplantation immunity. Transplant. Proc. 24, 485, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Cowan, P.J., Witort, E., Barlow, H., Pearse, M.J., dApice, A.J.F. Expression of CD59 in transgenic mice using the human ICAM-2 ... Meri, S. Protectin (CD59). Complement lysis inhibitor and prototype domain in a new protein superfamily. The Immunologist. 2, ... Zhao, J., Rollins, S.A., Maher, S.E., Bothwell, A.L., Sims, P.J. Amplified gene expression in CD59-transfected Chinese hamster ...
IPR018363, CD59_antigen_CS. IPR016054, LY6_UPA_recep-like. Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF00021, UPAR_LY6, 1 hit. ... sp,P35461,LY6G_MOUSE Lymphocyte antigen 6G OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Ly6g PE=2 SV=2 ... Lymphocyte antigen 6GAdd BLAST. 79. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm%5Fprocessing%5Fsection"> ...
Proteintech Anti-CD59 Polyclonal, Catalog # 10742-1-AP. Tested in Western Blot (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF), ... Protein Aliases: 1F5 antigen; 20 kDa homologous restriction factor; CD59; CD59 antigen p18-20 (antigen identified by monoclonal ... human leukocyte antigen MIC11; Ly-6-like protein; lymphocytic antigen CD59/MEM43; MAC-inhibitory protein; MAC-IP; MACIF; MEM43 ... Cite CD59 Polyclonal Antibody. The following antibody was used in this experiment: CD59 Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher ...
Lymphocyte Antigen 6 Family Member D, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... The human E48 antigen, highly homologous to the murine Ly-6 antigen ThB, is a GPI-anchored molecule apparently involved in ... lymphocyte antigen complex,member D,homolog with the murine LY-6 family members of small cysteine-rich proteins,expressed in ... LY6D (Lymphocyte Antigen 6 Family Member D) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with LY6D include Inferior Myocardial ...
In addition, CD59 influences the outcome of a T cell response to a given antigen. Longhi et. al. has proven through research ... The active site of CD59 is show in this structure of CD59 in yellow. CD59 is attached to its GPI anchor (in green) and a N- ... Structure of the CD59-encoding gene: further evidence of a relationship to murine lymphocyte antigen Ly-6 protein. Proceedings ... Where CD59 is located in the human body. CD59 can be found throughout the body as a regulator of cell lysis through the ...
0 (Actins); 0 (CD46 protein, human); 0 (CD55 Antigens); 0 (CD59 Antigens); 0 (Complement Membrane Attack Complex); 0 ( ... Ant genos CD59/gen tica. C lulas Progenitoras Endoteliais/metabolismo. Integrina alfaVbeta3/gen tica. Mecanotransdu o Celular. ... Ant genos CD59/metabolismo. Complexo de Ataque Membrana do Sistema Complemento/efeitos dos f rmacos. Citocalasina D/ ... Our results indicates that shear stress is an important mediator in EPC expression of CD59 regulated by the ECM-F-actin pathway ...
The Junior blood group system (or JR) is a human blood group defined by the presence or absence of the Jr(a) antigen, a high- ... CD59, and Augustine blood group systems" (PDF). Immunohematology. 34 (3): 85-90. PMID 30295501. Daniels G (2013). "Chapter 27: ... They named the causative antigen "JR" after Rose Jacobs, one of the five patients - the common name "Junior" is in fact a ... Moghaddam M, Naghi AA (September 2018). "Clinical significance of antibodies to antigens in the Raph, John Milton Hagen, I, ...
CD59 and Ly6E sequence comparison. Mature protein sequences are shown with the conserved cysteine residues marked (:). The ... Mouse Ly6E antigen (18) is a structural but not functional analogue of CD59 (see Fig. 1). In the approach reported here, ... Mentions: CD59 belongs to the Ly6 superfamily of proteins which includes functional CD59 analogues from other species, snake ... Mentions: CD59 belongs to the Ly6 superfamily of proteins which includes functional CD59 analogues from other species, snake ...
CD59, also known as protectin, was observed in vascular endothelia throughout the body, in extravascular tissues, and was also ... Furthermore, CD59 is expressed in the epidermis and in the syncytiotrophoblast of placenta. Additional information: Clone ... Clone REA496 recognizes the human CD59 antigen, a 20 kDa LY-6 like protein, which regulates the action of the complement ... Philbrick, W. M. et al. (1990) The CD59 antigen is a structural homologue of murine Ly-6 antigens but lacks interferon ...
CD58 antigen K04008 CD59; CD59 antigen K06493 ITGB3; integrin beta 3 K06494 SELE; selectin, endothelial cell K06495 SELL; ... CD79A antigen K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen K05412 CD80; CD80 antigen K06508 CD81; CD81 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K06510 ... CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06721 CLEC10A; C-type lectin ... 966 CD59; CD59 molecule (CD59 blood group) 3690 ITGB3; integrin subunit beta 3 6401 SELE; selectin E 6402 SELL; selectin L 6403 ...
CD55; CD59 (protectin) Histocompatibility Antigen. HLA ABC. HLA DR. Stem Cell markers. CD34; ABCG2. ... POSITIVE surface Antigen. NEGATIVE surface Antigen. Adhesion molecules. CD9 ; CD29 (β1-integrin);. CD49d (α4-integrin); CD54 ( ...
CD59 molecule) for ELISA, FACS, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, IP, WB. Anti-CD59 mAb (GTX74620) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab- ... IHC (Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) : This product requires antigen retrieval using heat treatment prior to ... CD59 molecule. Background. This gene encodes a cell surface glycoprotein that regulates complement-mediated cell lysis, and it ... FACS analysis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes using GTX74620 CD59 antibody [MEM-43] (Azide free).. Top ...
CD59 antigen, complement component factor h); and 3) task performance in aged rats only (corticotropin releasing hormone, ... interleukin 4, interferon regulatory factor 1, inhibin alpha, and interleukin 6). Also, CD4 antigen, IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA ...
Shop a large selection of Primary Antibodies CD51 to CD100 products and learn more about CD59 Mouse anti-Human, FITC, Clone: ... CD59, CD59 molecule complement regulatory protein, 1F5, EJ16, EJ30, EL32, G344, MIN1, MIN2, MIN3, MIRL, HRF20, MACIF, MEM43, ... CD59 is the key regulator that preserves the autologous cells from terminal effector mechanism of the complement cascade. CD59 ... CD59 is a potent inhibitor of the complement membrane attack complex, whereby it binds complement C8 and/or C9 during the ...
ProSpecs CD Antigens include: CD4, CD40, CD10, CD11B, CD14, CD146, CD147, CD1A, CD2, CD21, CD23, CD25, CD29, CD31, CD34, CD38 ...
Rat CD59 / CD59A / MAC / IP derived in Human Cells. The whole cell lysate is provided in 1X Sample Buffer.Browse all ... CD59. Synonyms:. CD59; CD59 molecule, complement regulatory protein; CD59 glycoprotein; protectin; CD59 antigen; Cb59b molecule ... Recombinant Rat CD59 cell lysate. Download Datasheet See All CD59 Products. Bring this labeled protein directly to your bench! ... CD59-1365RCL. Product Overview:. Rat CD59 / CD59A / MAC / IP derived in Human Cells. The whole cell lysate is provided in 1X ...
CD59 Antibody [p282] Catalog Number: 49-206 Clonality: Monoclonal Tested Applications: Flow, IHC ...
CD58 antigen K04008 CD59; CD59 antigen K06493 ITGB3; integrin beta 3 K06494 SELE; selectin, endothelial cell K06495 SELL; ... CD79A antigen K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen K05412 CD80; CD80 antigen K06508 CD81; CD81 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K06510 ... CD33 antigen K06474 CD34; CD34 antigen K06259 CD36; CD36 antigen K06475 CD37; CD37 antigen K01242 CD38; ADP-ribosyl cyclase 1 [ ... CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06721 CLEC10A; C-type lectin ...
K06256 CD44; CD44 antigen K04008 CD59; CD59 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K06514 THY1; Thy-1 cell surface antigen K06480 ... 100009459 CD59; CD59 molecule 100343949 CD82; CD82 molecule 100339279 THY1; Thy-1 cell surface antigen 100342711 ITGA1; ...
Compare CD59 molecule ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and ... The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based tool for detecting and quantifying antigens ... Your search returned 124 CD59 molecule ELISA ELISA Kit across 12 suppliers. ...