Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 modulates beta-chemokines and directly costimulates T cells in vivo. (1/194)The potential roles of adhesion molecules in the expansion of T cell-mediated immune responses in the periphery were examined using DNA immunogen constructs as model antigens. We coimmunized cDNA expression cassettes encoding the adhesion molecules intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), lymphocyte function associated-3 (LFA-3), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) along with DNA immunogens, and we analyzed the resulting antigen-specific immune responses. We observed that antigen-specific T-cell responses can be enhanced by the coexpression of DNA immunogen and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and LFA-3. Coexpression of ICAM-1 or LFA-3 molecules along with DNA immunogens resulted in a significant enhancement of T-helper cell proliferative responses. In addition, coimmunization with pCICAM-1 (and more moderately with pCLFA-3) resulted in a dramatic enhancement of CD8-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. Although VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 are similar in size, VCAM-1 coimmunization did not have any measurable effect on cell-mediated responses. These results suggest that ICAM-1 and LFA-3 provide direct T-cell costimulation. These observations are further supported by the finding that coinjection with ICAM-1 dramatically enhanced the level of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and beta-chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, and regulated on activation normal T-cell expression and secreted (RANTES) produced by stimulated T cells. Through comparative studies, we observed that ICAM-1/LFA-1 T-cell costimulatory pathways are independent of CD86/CD28 pathways and that they may synergistically expand T-cell responses in vivo. (+info)
Crystal structure of the CD2-binding domain of CD58 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3) at 1.8-A resolution. (2/194)The binding of the cell surface molecule CD58 (formerly lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3) to its ligand, CD2, significantly increases the sensitivity of antigen recognition by T cells. This was the first heterophilic cell adhesion interaction to be discovered and is now an important paradigm for analyzing the structural basis of cell-cell recognition. The crystal structure of a CD2-binding chimeric form of CD58, solved to 1.8-A resolution, reveals that the ligand binding domain of CD58 has the expected Ig superfamily V-set topology and shares several of the hitherto unique structural features of CD2, consistent with previous speculation that the genes encoding these molecules arose via duplication of a common precursor. Nevertheless, evidence for considerable divergence of CD2 and CD58 is also implicit in the structures. Mutations that disrupt CD2 binding map to the highly acidic surface of the AGFCC'C" beta-sheet of CD58, which, unexpectedly, lacks marked shape complementarity to the equivalent, rather more basic CD58-binding face of human CD2. The specificity of the very weak interactions of proteins mediating cell-cell recognition may often derive largely from electrostatic complementarity, with shape matching at the protein-protein interface being less exact than for interactions that combine specificity with high affinity, such as those involving antibodies. (+info)
Functional glycan-free adhesion domain of human cell surface receptor CD58: design, production and NMR studies. (3/194)A general strategy is presented here for producing glycan-free forms of glycoproteins without loss of function by employing apolar-to-polar mutations of surface residues in functionally irrelevant epitopes. The success of this structure-based approach was demonstrated through the expression in Escherichia coli of a soluble 11 kDa adhesion domain extracted from the heavily glycosylated 55 kDa human CD58 ectodomain. The solution structure was subsequently determined and binding to its counter-receptor CD2 studied by NMR. This mutant adhesion domain is functional as determined by several experimental methods, and the size of its binding site has been probed by chemical shift perturbations in NMR titration experiments. The new structural information supports a 'hand-shake' model of CD2-CD58 interaction involving the GFCC'C" faces of both CD2 and CD58 adhesion domains. The region responsible for binding specificity is most likely localized on the C, C' and C" strands and the C-C' and C'-C" loops on CD58. (+info)
Structure of a heterophilic adhesion complex between the human CD2 and CD58 (LFA-3) counterreceptors. (4/194)Interaction between CD2 and its counterreceptor, CD58 (LFA-3), on opposing cells optimizes immune recognition, facilitating contacts between helper T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells as well as between cytolytic effectors and target cells. Here, we report the crystal structure of the heterophilic adhesion complex between the amino-terminal domains of human CD2 and CD58. A strikingly asymmetric, orthogonal, face-to-face interaction involving the major beta sheets of the respective immunoglobulin-like domains with poor shape complementarity is revealed. In the virtual absence of hydrophobic forces, interdigitating charged amino acid side chains form hydrogen bonds and salt links at the interface (approximately 1200 A2), imparting a high degree of specificity albeit with low affinity (K(D) of approximately microM). These features explain CD2-CD58 dynamic binding, offering insights into interactions of related immunoglobulin superfamily receptors. (+info)
Human endothelial cells augment early CD40 ligand expression in activated CD4+ T cells through LFA-3-mediated stabilization of mRNA. (5/194)Human endothelial cells (EC) augment CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression on PHA-activated CD4+ T cells at early times (e.g., 4-6 h). Fixed EC, devoid of mRNA, are comparable to living EC in their capacity to augment early CD40L expression on CD4+ T cells. Fixed EC increase T cell mRNA expression of both IL-2 and CD40L compared with PHA alone at 6 h. EC are unable to increase the rate of transcription of CD40L compared with PHA alone as measured with a promoter-reporter gene, although they do increase transcription of an IL-2 promoter-reporter gene. Fixed EC prolong the half-life of CD40L mRNA >2-fold. Inclusion of anti-human LFA-3 (CD58) mAb or pretreatment of EC with an LFA-3 antisense oligonucleotide blocks EC-induced increases in CD40L expression, whereas mAb to ICAM-1 or pretreatment with ICAM-1 antisense oligonucleotide does not. Moreover, mAb to LFA-3 reverses the capacity of EC to prolong the half-life of CD40L mRNA, whereas mAb to ICAM-1, even in combination with mAb to ICAM-2, does not. We conclude that EC use LFA-3 to increase early CD40L protein expression on newly activated CD4+ T cells by stabilizing CD40L mRNA. (+info)
A triad of costimulatory molecules synergize to amplify T-cell activation. (6/194)The activation of a T cell has been shown to require two signals via molecules present on professional antigen-presenting cells: signal 1, via a peptide/MHC complex; and signal 2, via a costimulatory molecule. Here, the role of three costimulatory molecules in the activation of T cells was examined. Poxvirus (vaccinia and avipox) vectors were used because of their ability to efficiently express multiple genes. Murine cells provided with signal 1 and infected with either recombinant vaccinia or avipox vectors containing a TRIad of COstimulatory Molecules (B7-1/ICAM-1/LFA-3, designated TRICOM) induced the activation of T cells to a far greater extent than cells infected with any one or two costimulatory molecules. Despite this T-cell "hyperstimulation" using TRICOM vectors, no evidence of apoptosis above that seen using the B7-1 vector was observed. Results using the TRICOM vectors were most dramatic under conditions of either low levels of first signal or low stimulator cell:T-cell ratios. Experiments using a four-gene construct also showed that TRICOM recombinants can enhance antigen-specific T-cell responses in vivo. These studies thus demonstrate for the first time the ability of vectors to introduce three costimulatory molecules into cells, thereby activating both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell populations to levels greater than those achieved with the use of only one or two costimulatory molecules. This new threshold of T-cell activation has broad implications in vaccine design and development. (+info)
A space-time structure determination of human CD2 reveals the CD58-binding mode. (7/194)We describe a procedure for a space-time description of protein structures. The method is capable of determining populations of conformational substates, and amplitudes and directions of internal protein motions. This is achieved by fitting static and dynamic NMR data. The approach is based on the jumping-among-minima concept. First, a wide conformational space compatible with structural NMR data is sampled to find a large set of substates. Subsequently, intrasubstate motions are sampled by using molecular dynamics calculations with force field energy terms. Next, the populations of substates are fitted to NMR relaxation data. By diagonalizing a second moment matrix, directions and amplitudes of motions are identified. The method was applied to the adhesion domain of human CD2. We found that very few substates can account for most of the experimental data. Furthermore, only two types of collective motions have high amplitudes. They represent transitions between a concave (closed) and flat (open) binding face and resemble the change upon counter-receptor (CD58) binding. (+info)
Characterization of activated lymphocyte-tumor cell adhesion. (8/194)This study demonstrates the variable expression of ICAM-1 and leukocyte function antigen-3 (LFA-3) on four tumor cell lines (COLO526, K562, Daudi, and HT-29). In addition, phorbol ester (PMA) activation of lymphocytes modulated LFA-1 from a uniform to a clustered surface distribution; whereas after treatment with high levels of Mg2+ ions, the unique epitope for high-affinity LFA-1 was identified using clone Mab24. Using a flow cytometric adhesion assay it was demonstrated that PMA-activated lymphocytes formed conjugates with COLO526 and Daudi, and that these conjugates were inhibited by anti-CD2 with varying inhibition by LFA-1 clones MHM24 and 25.3.1. When lymphocytes were induced to express the high-affinity form of LFA-1, conjugates were identified with COLO526, K562, and Daudi and these conjugates were sensitive to the presence of both CD2 and LFA-1 antibodies. Further studies using confocal microscopy confirmed significant adhesion between peripheral blood lymphocytes pretreated with either PMA or high levels of Mg2+ and the adherent cell line COLO526. In conclusion, this unique study has demonstrated for the first time the important role of the active form of LFA-1 on the lymphocyte cell surface for conjugate formation with an ICAM-1-expressing tumor cell; also, two pathways of cell signaling were identified for conjugate formation to occur. (+info)
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Studies on the role of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) in T cell activation. - Semantic Scholar
The effect of polyclonal (anti alpha and beta chain) and monoclonal (anti alpha-chain) antibodies against lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) on T cell activation was studied. When added at the beginning of activation but not after 24 h or later the antibodies as well as the F(ab)2 or Fab fragments of polyclonal antibodies inhibited concanavalin A (Con A)-induced proliferation, interleukin 2 (IL-2) production, and the expression of receptors for IL-2 and transferrin. The inhibitory effect reached a maximum at the same time as optimal proliferation (72 h). Inhibition of proliferation lasted for 5 days or longer, although IL-2 production was only inhibited during the first 48 h of culture. Receptors for IL-2 and transferrin were re-expressed to the original level after 3 days of activation. Addition of external IL-2 at the beginning of the anti-LFA-1 containing culture prevented the inhibition of IL-2 receptor expression, while inhibition of transferrin receptor expression was unaffected,
CD2 Polyclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated | EpiGentek
The Rudd lab publishes a paper in Immunity
transplant organs such as kidneys. They respond by recognising foreign antigens or peptides in the lymph nodes or sites of infection in the body. This leads to the proliferation of T cells and the expansion of reactive cells. The ability to respond depends on the movement of T-cells and length of time that T-cells spend attached to antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) that present the foreign antigen. Ligation of the antigen-receptor (also called the T-cell receptor or TCR) sends intracellular signals (termed the inside-out pathway) that slow T-cell motility allowing them to make stable contacts with DCs. Although essential for T cell function, the identity of the T cell receptor inside-out pathway for lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) adhesion has proved elusive.. As published this month in Immunity, the Rudd lab reports the identification of a novel inside-out pathway that is mediated by N-terminal SKAP1 (SKAP-55) domain binding to the C-terminal ...
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The lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 I domain is a transient binding module for intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)...
The I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 contains an intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and ICAM-3 binding site, but the relationship of this site to regulated adhesion is unknown. To study the adhesive properties of the LFA-1 I domain, we stably expressed a GPI-anchored form of this I domain (I-GPI) on the surface of baby hamster kidney cells. I-GPI cells bound soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) with a low avidity and affinity. Flow cell experiments demonstrated a specific rolling interaction of I-GPI cells on bilayers containing purified full length ICAM-1 or ICAM-3. The LFA-1 activating antibody MEM-83, or its Fab fragment, decreased the rolling velocity of I-GPI cells on ICAM-1-containing membranes. In contrast, the interaction of I-GPI cells with ICAM-3 was blocked by MEM-83. Rolling of I-GPI cells was dependent on the presence of Mg2+. Mn2+ only partially substituted for Mg2+, giving rise to a small fraction of rolling cells and increased rolling velocity. This suggests that the
Lifitegrast - Shire - AdisInsight
Leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and CD44 are signalling molecules for cytoskeleton-dependent morphological...
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LFA3抗体[MEM-63] (FITC)| Abcam中国
Purified lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 binds to CD2 and mediates T lymphocyte adhesion. - Nuffield Department of...
CD2 is a T lymphocyte glycoprotein that functions in adhesion of T lymphocytes and also as a putative receptor for activation signals. Functional data suggest that LFA-3, a widely distributed cell surface glycoprotein, may be the biological ligand of CD2. We have purified LFA-3 from human erythrocytes and characterized the purified protein functionally. LFA-3 bound specifically to CD2+ cells, and this binding was inhibited by CD2 mAb. Conversely, purified LFA-3 inhibited binding of CD2 mAb to cells, and the concentration required for this effect suggests that LFA-3 half-saturated CD2 at 1-5 nM LFA-3. Purified LFA-3 inhibited rosetting of human and sheep erythrocytes with CD2+ T lymphoma cells and T lymphocytes, and mediated aggregation of a CD2+ T lymphoma cell line. Purified LFA-3 reconstituted into planar membranes mediated efficient CD2-dependent adhesion of T lymphoblasts. These data demonstrate that LFA-3 is a ligand for CD2 and that LFA-3 can mediate T lymphocyte adhesion.
CD2 - T-cell surface antigen CD2 precursor - Equus caballus (Horse) - CD2 gene & protein
Most recent papers in the journal Archives of Animal Nutrition | Read by QxMD
This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary spermine supplementation on the inflammatory response and immune function of the thymus and spleen in piglets. Eighty suckling piglets were randomly assigned to receive adequate nutrients supplemented with spermine (0.4 mmol/kg body weight) or restricted nutrient intake supplemented with normal saline for 7 h or 3, 6 and 9 days in pairs. Regardless of treatment time, spermine supplementation decreased (p , 0.05, compared with the controls) the following: (1) tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, 2 and 6, and interferon (IFN)-γ levels in serum; (2) gene expression of cluster of differentiation 8 and integrin beta-2 in the thymus and spleen and the lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 in the thymus; (3) mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL 1β, 2, 6, and 12, IFN-γ and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the thymus and spleen, as well as IL-8 in the spleen; and (4) eukaryotic IF4E-binding protein 1, Janus kinase 2, signal transducer ...
Healthcare - SARcode Bioscience, Inc.
CD11a : Wikis (The Full Wiki)
Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is a human gene which functions in the immune system. It is involved in cellular adhesion and costimulatory signaling. It is the target of the drug efalizumab.. ITGAL encodes the integrin alpha L chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a central role in leukocyte intercellular adhesion through interactions with its ligands, ICAMs 1-3 (intercellular adhesion molecules 1 through 3), and also functions in lymphocyte costimulatory signaling.. CD11a is one of the two components, along with CD18, which form lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.. Efalizumab acts as an immunosuppressant by binding to ...
Characterization of a radiolabeled small molecule targeting leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 expression in lymphoma and...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of a radiolabeled small molecule targeting leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 expression in lymphoma and leukemia. AU - Poria, Rahul B.. AU - Norenberg, Jeffrey P.. AU - Anderson, Tamara L.. AU - Erion, Jack. AU - Wagner, Carston R.. AU - Arterburn, Jeffrey B.. AU - Larson, Richard S.. PY - 2006/11/20. Y1 - 2006/11/20. N2 - Objective: Leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) is constitutively expressed on leukocytes, including overexpression on lymphomas and leukemias. We have developed a derivative of BIRT 377, an allosteric inhibitor of LFA-1, which may be chemically tagged without affecting binding. In this study, we modified this derivative, (R)-1-(4-aminobutyl)-5-(4-bromobenzyl) -3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (butylamino-NorBIRT), and demonstrated its potential as a noninvasive imaging agent. Methods: Specific binding of fluorescein-labeled butylamino-NorBIRT to both human and murine cells was demonstrated using ...
Discovery of novel p-arylthio cinnamides as antagonists of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1/intracellular adhesion...
Lifitegrast | CAS 1025967-78-5 | AbMole BioScience | Lifitegrast Price
Gentaur Molecular :Accu \ CD11a, LFA 1, alpha, Ly 15, Clone 121 7, Rat Mab anti Mouse, FITC \ ACL8916F
Gentaur Molecular :Accu \ CD11a, LFA 1, alpha, Ly 15, Clone 121 7, Rat Mab anti Mouse, FITC \ ACL8916F-3
CD11a - Wikipedia
Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is a human gene which functions in the immune system. It is involved in cellular adhesion and costimulatory signaling. It is the target of the drug efalizumab. ITGAL encodes the integrin alpha L chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a central role in leukocyte intercellular adhesion through interactions with its ligands, ICAMs 1-3 (intercellular adhesion molecules 1 through 3), and also functions in lymphocyte costimulatory signaling. CD11a is one of the two components, along with CD18, which form lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1. Efalizumab acts as an immunosuppressant by binding to CD11a but was ...
Estradiol (E2) plays a key role in breast cancer progression. Most breast cancer recurrences express the estrogen receptor (ER), but nearly 50% of patients are resistant to anti-estrogen therapy. Novel therapeutic targets of ER positive breast cancers are needed. Protumoral neutrophils expressing the lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) integrin may mediate cancer metastasis and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) is the major chemoattractant for neutrophils. The role of E2 in neutrophil-ER+ breast cancer cell interactions is unknown. We studied this in vivo using murine breast cancers in immunocompetent mice and human breast cancers in nude mice. Cell dissemination was evaluated in a zebrafish model, and microdialysis of breast cancer patients was performed. In vitro studies were done with mammosphere cultures of breast cancer cells and human neutrophils. We found that E2 increased the number of LFA-1+ neutrophils recruited to the invasive edge of mouse tumors, increased TGFβ1 ...
Targeted Degradation of Proteins by PROTACs - Current Protocols
Differential effects of polyphenols and alcohol of red wine on the expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines...
Background: Few clinical studies have focused on the alcoholindependent cardiovascular effects of the phenolic compounds of red wine (RW). Objective: We aimed to evaluate the effects of ethanol and phenolic compounds of RW on the expression of inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerosis in subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Design: Sixty-seven high-risk, male volunteers were included in a randomized, crossover consumption trial. After a washout period, all subjects received RW (30 g alcohol/d), the equivalent amount of dealcoholized red wine (DRW), or gin (30 g alcohol/d) for 4 wk. Before and after each intervention period, 7 cellular and 18 serum inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated. Results: Alcohol increased IL-10 and decreased macrophage-derived chemokine concentrations, whereas the phenolic compounds of RW decreased serum concentrations of intercellular adhesion molecule- 1, E-selectin, and IL-6 and inhibited the expression of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 ...
Force-induced formation and propagation of adhesion nanodomains in living fungal cells. | DIAL.pr - BOREAL
Understanding how cell adhesion proteins form adhesion domains is a key challenge in cell biology. Here, we use single-molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM) to demonstrate the force-induced formation and propagation of adhesion nanodomains in living fungal cells, focusing on the covalently anchored cell-wall protein Als5p from Candida albicans. We show that pulling on single adhesins with AFM tips terminated with specific antibodies triggers the formation of adhesion domains of 100-500 nm and that the force-induced nanodomains propagate over the entire cell surface. Control experiments (with cells lacking Als5p, single-site mutation in the protein, bare tips, and tips modified with irrelevant antibodies) demonstrate that Als5p nanodomains result from protein redistribution triggered by force-induced conformational changes in the initially probed proteins, rather than from nonspecific cell-wall perturbations. Als5p remodeling is independent of cellular metabolic activity because heat-killed ...
MIN - what is Acromona used for, general information, pharmacology, Acromona for patients, Acromona interactions, Acromona...
Other Brand Names containing Metronidazole: Acromona; Anagiardil; Apo-Metronidazole; Arilin; Atrivyl; Bayer 5360; Bexon; Clont; Cont; Danizol; Deflamon; Deflamon-Wirkstoff; Efloran; Elyzol; Entizol; Eumin; Flagemona; Flagesol; Flagil; Flagyl; Flagyl ER; Flagyl I.V.; Flegyl; Fossyol; Giatricol; Gineflavir; Klion; Klont; Meronidal; Metric 21; Metro Cream; Metro I.V.; Metro I.V. In Plastic Container; Metrocream; Metrogel; Metrogel-Vaginal; Metrolag; Metrolotion; Metrolyl; Metromidol; Metronidaz; Metrotop; Mexibol; Monagyl; Monasin; Nalox; Neo-Tric; Nida; Nidagel; Noritate; Novonidazol; Orvagil; Protostat; Rathimed; Sanatrichom; Satric; Takimetol; Trichazol; Trichex; Tricho Cordes; Tricho-Gynaedron; Trichocide; Trichomol; Trichopal; Trichopol; Tricocet; Tricom; Tricowas B; Trikacide; Trikamon; Trikojol; Trikozol; Trimeks; Trivazol; Vagilen; Vagimid; Vertisal; Wagitran; Zadstat ...
International Journal of Cancer Immunology & Immunotherapy, An Open Access Journal | Graphy Publications
International Journal of Cancer Immunology & Immunotherapy (IJCII) is an international peer reviewed journal devoted towards cancer immuology & immunotherapy. All the articles published under IJCII, include high quality papers, which cover all the major field autoimmune disorders & therapy. IJCII keeps updating day-to-day research & development to the scientific niche around the world. The journal publishes original articles, commentary, editorials, letters to the editor, review articles and case report describing original research in the fields of cancer immunology.
The cell and molecular basis of leukocyte common antigen (CD45)- triggered, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1-...
Lifitegrast - Wikipedia
Lifitegrast (trade name Xiidra) is an FDA approved drug indicated for the treatment of signs and symptoms of dry eye, a syndrome called keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Lifitegrast reduces inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory cell binding. Common side effects in clinical trials were eye irritation, discomfort, blurred vision, and dysgeusia (a distortion of the sense of taste). Lifitegrast is supplied as an eye drop that can be applied two times a day. Lifitegrast inhibits an integrin, lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1), from binding to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). This mechanism down-regulates inflammation mediated by T lymphocytes. Lifitegrast was initially designed and developed by SARcode Bioscience which was acquired by Shire in 2013, who submitted a new drug application to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in March 2015. The FDA granted Shire a priority review a month later, and requested additional clinical data, which were supplied in January 2016. The ...
The l-selectin counter-receptor in porcine lymph nodes | Biochemical Society Transactions
DISCONTINUED: LFA 447 NanoFlash® - Xenon Flash Apparatus from NETZSCH-Gerätebau GmbH | SelectScience
It interacts with other adhesion molecules, such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 (LFA-3/CD58) in humans, or CD48 in ... CD2 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... The great majority of T cell lymphomas and leukaemias also express CD2, making it possible to use the presence of the antigen ... Hahn WC, Menu E, Bothwell AL, Sims PJ, Bierer BE (1992). "Overlapping but nonidentical binding sites on CD2 for CD58 and a ...
List of MeSH codes (D23)
... antigens, cd56 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.157 --- antigens, cd57 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.158 --- antigens, cd58 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd56 MeSH D18.104.22.168.157 --- antigens, cd57 MeSH D22.214.171.124.158 --- antigens, cd58 MeSH D126.96.36.199.159 ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...
Alan M. Krensky
Krensky AM, Robbins E, Springer TA, and Burakoff SJ: LFA-1, LFA-2, and LFA-3 antigens are involved in CTL-target conjugation. J ... CD58). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1982; 79: 7489-7493. "NIH Director Selects Dr. Alan M. Krensky as NIH Deputy Director for the ... Krensky AM, Weiss A, Crabtree G, Davis M, Parham P: Mechanisms of disease: T lymphocyte - antigen interactions in transplant ... Sanchez-Madrid F, Krensky AM, Ware CF, Robbins E, Strominger JL, Burakoff SJ, Springer TA: Three distinct antigens associated ...
... , or lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3), is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on Antigen Presenting Cells ( ... CD58 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Polymorphisms in the CD58 gene are associated with increased risk for multiple sclerosis. Barbosa JA, Mentzer SJ, Kamarck ME, ... This adhesion occurs as part of the transitory initial encounters between T cells and Antigen Presenting Cells before T cell ...
Outline of immunology
Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... CD2 family CD2 CD58 Signaling lymphocytic activation molecules (SLAMs) SLAMF1 (CD150) SLAMF2 (CD48) SLAMF3 (CD229, LY9) SLAMF4 ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... B cells Antigen receptor - B cell receptor (BCR) Subunits- Immunoglobulin heavy chain / Immunoglobulin light chain Co-receptors ...
CD2, a enciclopedia libre
1992). "The antigen-specific induction of normal human lymphocytes in vitro is down-regulated by a conserved HIV p24 epitope ... 1992). "Overlapping but nonidentical binding sites on CD2 for CD58 and a second ligand CD59.". Science 256 (5065): 1805-7. PMID ... Interacciona con outras moléculas de adhesión celular, como o antíxeno-3 asociado a función de linfocitos (LFA-3/CD58) en ... 1986). "The sheep erythrocyte receptor and both alpha and beta chains of the human T-lymphocyte antigen receptor bind the ...
1990). "The CD59 antigen is a structural homologue of murine Ly-6 antigens but lacks interferon inducibility". Eur. J. Immunol ... 1992). "Overlapping but nonidentical binding sites on CD2 for CD58 and a second ligand CD59". Science. 256 (5065): 1805-1807. ... CD59 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD59 genome location and CD59 gene ... 1990). "Isolation and expression of the full-length cDNA encoding CD59 antigen of human lymphocytes". DNA Cell Biol. 9 (3): 213 ...
ATP1B3 - Википедия
CD97 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom. ... 2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
Меланотрансферрин - Википедия
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
CD74 - Википедия
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
CD117 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... 1991). „Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID ... 2003). „Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". Int. J. Hematol. 75 ...
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11. CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ... "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms cooperate to mediate colon carcinoma cell adhesion to E- and L-selectin in ...
... is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Leucocyte typing: human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
CLEC12A - Википедия
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
CXCR5 - Википедия
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... Hamann J, Wishaupt JO, van Lier RA, Smeets TJ, Breedveld FC, Tak PP (Apr 1999). "Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and ... Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004325.x. PMID 11380941.. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
Integrin beta 3
Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 6
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom. ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
CD36 - Википедия
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet degranulation. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling ...
CD58/LFA-3 Mouse anti-Human, Alexa Fluor 750, Clone: MM0176-8G24, Novus | Fisher Scientific
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about CD58/LFA-3 Mouse anti-Human, Alexa Fluor 750, Clone: MM0176-8G24, Novus ... Ag3, CD58 antigen, CD58 antigen, (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3), CD58 molecule, FLJ23181, FLJ43722, LFA-3, LFA3ag3 ... CD58/LFA-3 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects CD58/LFA-3 in Human samples. It is validated for Western Blot,Flow ... CD58/LFA-3 Mouse anti-Human, Alexa Fluor 750, Clone: MM0176-8G24, Novus Biologicals ...
Recombinant Human CD58 protein (denatured) (ab187438) | Abcam
Recombinant Human CD58 protein (denatured) is an Escherichia coli Protein fragment 29 to 215 aa range, , 90% purity and ... CD58 antigen. *CD58 antigen (lymphocyte function associated antigen 3)1. *CD58 antigen, (lymphocyte function associated antigen ... This interaction is important in mediating thymocyte interactions with thymic epithelial cells, antigen-independent and - ... dependent interactions of T-lymphocytes with target cells and antigen-presenting cells and the T-lymphocyte rosetting with ...
Immunopathogenesis of psoriasis - Sabat - 2007 - Experimental Dermatology - Wiley Online Library
... the interactions between lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3; CD58) (DC) and CD2 (T cells). ... Sensitization phase - antigen processing and presentation. The initial step of every specific immune reaction to an antigen (Ag ... Cutaneous lymphocyte antigen is a specialized form of PSGL-1 expressed on skin-homing T cells. Nature 1997: 389: 978-981. * ... Cutting edge: CD1a+ antigen-presenting cells in human dermis respond rapidly to CCR7 ligands. J Immunol 2006: 176: 5730-5734. * ...
Crystal structure of the CD2-binding domain of CD58 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3) at 1.8-A resolution. - Oxford...
... formerly lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3) to its ligand, CD2, significantly increases the sensitivity of antigen ... The crystal structure of a CD2-binding chimeric form of CD58, solved to 1.8-A resolution, reveals that the ligand binding ... Mutations that disrupt CD2 binding map to the highly acidic surface of the AGFCCC beta-sheet of CD58, which, unexpectedly, ... Nevertheless, evidence for considerable divergence of CD2 and CD58 is also implicit in the structures. ...
CD2 - T-cell surface antigen CD2 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - CD2 gene & protein
CD2 interacts with lymphocyte function-associated antigen CD58 (LFA-3) and CD48/BCM1 to mediate adhesion between T-cells and ... CD2 interacts with lymphocyte function-associated antigen CD58 (LFA-3) and CD48/BCM1 to mediate adhesion between T-cells and ... T-cell surface antigen CD2Add BLAST. 327. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical ... "Molecular cloning of the CD2 antigen, the T-cell erythrocyte receptor, by a rapid immunoselection procedure.". Seed B., Aruffo ...
KEGG BRITE: CD Molecules - Homo sapiens (human)
... neural cell adhesion molecule K06492 CD58; CD58 antigen K04008 CD59; CD59 antigen K06493 ITGB3; integrin beta 3 K06494 SELE; ... CD79A antigen K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen K05412 CD80; CD80 antigen K06508 CD81; CD81 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K06510 ... CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06721 CLEC10A; C-type lectin ... CD96 antigen K08446 ADGRE5; CD97 antigen K06519 SLC3A2; solute carrier family 3, member 2 K06520 CD99; CD99 antigen K06521 ...
Fluidigm | Consumables | Anti-Human CD58 (TS2/9)-176Yb-100 Tests
... also known as lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3), is the receptor for the ligand CD2. It mediates cellular ... CD58 is also known as lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3). CD58 is the receptor for the ligand CD2, it mediates ... The CD58/CD2 interaction has been reported to play a role in regulating the antigen-independent adhesion pathway and cytotoxic ... Anti-Human CD58 (TS2/9)-176Yb-100 Tests. The TS2/9 monoclonal antibody binds specifically to CD58, a 45-70 kDa cell surface ...
CD58 - Wikipedia
CD58, or lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3), is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on Antigen Presenting Cells ( ... CD58 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Polymorphisms in the CD58 gene are associated with increased risk for multiple sclerosis. Barbosa JA, Mentzer SJ, Kamarck ME, ... This adhesion occurs as part of the transitory initial encounters between T cells and Antigen Presenting Cells before T cell ...
A Genomics Approach to the Detection of Positive Selection in Cattle: | Genetics
Interaction between CD2 and its counter-receptor CD58 (CD48 in rodents) in antigen-presenting cells quantitatively enhances T- ... and could be experimentally tested for involvement in CD58/CD48 binding. Antigen recognition by T cells is one of the essential ... Sites shown in blue are involved in CD58 and/or CD48 binding. Sites involved in CD58/CD48 binding and subject to positive ... Brossay, A., F. Hube, T. Moreau, P. Bardos and H. Watier, 2003 Porcine CD58: cDNA cloning and molecular dissection of the ...
KEGG BRITE: CD Molecules - Ursus arctos horribilis
... neural cell adhesion molecule K06492 CD58; CD58 antigen K04008 CD59; CD59 antigen K06493 ITGB3; integrin beta 3 K06494 SELE; ... CD79A antigen K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen K05412 CD80; CD80 antigen K06508 CD81; CD81 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K06510 ... CD33 antigen K06474 CD34; CD34 antigen K06259 CD36; CD36 antigen K06475 CD37; CD37 antigen K01242 CD38; ADP-ribosyl cyclase 1 [ ... CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06721 CLEC10A; C-type lectin ...
CD2 Antibody (BH1) [DyLight 650] (NBP2-34561C): Novus Biologicals
CD2/CD58 binding can enhance antigen-specific T cell activation. CD2 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed on ... CD58 is a heavily glycosylated protein with a broad tissue distribution in hematopoietic and other cells, including endothelium ... CD2 interacts through its amino-terminal domain with the extracellular domain of CD58 (also designated CD2 ligand) to mediate ... Interaction between CD2 and its counter receptor LFA3 (CD58) on opposing cells optimizes immune system recognition, thereby ...
... leukocyte function-associated antigen-1/β2-integrin) complex; and CD58 (leukocyte function-associated antigen-3), which ... In this assay, antigen is added to PBMCs that must take up and present the antigen to T cells. Although the simplest antigen to ... Among the many tumor antigens described, the model antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), is of particular interest because ... Induction of protective host immunity to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) a self-antigen in CEA transgenic mice, by immunizing ...
Recombinant Human CD58, Fc-tagged therapeutic protein CD58-P058H - Creative BioMart
... dimeric fusion protein that consists of the extracellular CD2-binding portion of the human leukocyte function antigen-3 (LFA-3 ... CD58. Synonyms:. CD58; CD58 molecule; CD58 antigen, (lymphocyte function associated antigen 3) , LFA3; lymphocyte function- ... associated antigen 3; surface glycoprotein LFA-3; CD58 antigen, (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3); ag3; LFA3; LFA-3; ... Recombinant Human CD58, Fc-tagged therapeutic protein. Download Datasheet See All CD58 Products. Bring this labeled protein ...
Generation of xenogeneic antibodies - ABGENIX, INC.
CD58), TGF-β, various snake venum antigens, and Rh factor. 8. A method for producing a modified non-human animal, said animal ... 0066] Antigens associated with tumors include lymphoma antigens such as CD19, CD20 and CD22; antigens associated with non-small ... 0072] Transplantation antigens, such as T cell and other immune cell antigens such as CD4, CD7, CD8 (α and β), CD28, CTLA-4, T ... 0258] transplantation antigens, such as T cell and other immune cell antigens such as CD4, CD7, CD8 (α and β), CD28, CTLA-4, T ...
One hypothesis is that effective antigen binding depends on the conformation of the antigen binding site on the DQ dimer. It ... Another adhesion receptor pair is formed between CD58 (LFA-3) on the APC and CD2 on the T-cell. For the process of T-cell ... unknown islet antigens, or control antigens on a NODscid background using retroviral-mediated stem cell gene transfer and 2A ... T-cell antigen receptor.. The TCR for MHC-restricted CD4+ helper and CD8+ cytolytic lymphocytes is a membrane-anchored ...
Mouse Monoclonal anti-CD2 (HuLy-m1) | Biotium
CD2/CD58 binding can enhance antigen-specific T cell activation. CD2 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed on ... Activation of human T lymphocytes via the CD2 antigen results in tyrosine phosphorylation of T cell antigen receptor zeta- ... T-cell surface antigen CD2; T-cell surface antigen T11/Leu-5; T11 ... CD58 is a heavily glycosylated protein with a broad tissue ... CD2 interacts through its amino-terminal domain with the extracellular domain of CD58 (also designated CD2 ligand) to mediate ...
CD2 Products: R&D Systems
US20030003098A1 - Inhibiting rejection of a graft - Google Patents
... chimeras having enzymatically inactive polypeptides bonded to polypeptides which bind to co-stimulatory proteins of antigen- ... The methods involve treating the graft with a molecule which binds to a co-stimulatory protein of antigen-presenting cells. ... 108010084313 CD58 Antigens Proteins 0 Claims Description 7 * 108010087819 Fc Receptors Proteins 0 Claims Description 15 ... 102000016266 T-Cell Antigen Receptors Human genes 0 Description 5 * 108010092262 T-Cell Antigen Receptors Proteins 0 ...
CiteSeerX - Citation Query Dendritic cells use macropinocytosis and the mannose receptor to concentrate macromolecules in the...
Antigen uptake and presentation of native protein antigen was reduced. In contrast, presentation of immunogenic peptides and ... Both precursor subsets mature at day 12-14 into DC with typical morphology and phenotype (CDS0, CD83, CD86, CD58, high HLA ... Efficient targeting of protein antigen to the dendritic cell receptor DEC-205 in the steady state leads to antigen presentation ... DCs have a number of receptors for adsorptive uptake of antigens. Some are shared with other cells, such as Fc� receptors (20- ...
Fluidigm | Consumables | Anti-Human CD2 (TS1/8)-151Eu-100 Tests
Switch to Europe/Worldwide website
T8 antigen, T1 antigen, a monocyte antigen, and a pan-leucocyte antigen. Folia Biol (Praha). 1986;32(1):12-25. (original ... CD58 dependence and requirement for glycosylation. J Immunol. 1994 Sep 15;153(6):2444-56.. 4. Baalasubramanian S, Harris CL, ... MAC-inhibitory protein, Protectin, MEM43 antigen, MIC11, MIN1, MIN2, MIN3, MSK21, MACIF, MAC-IP, MIRL, HRF20, HRF-20, Membrane ... BP: The complement-inhibiting protein, protectin (CD59 antigen), is present and functionally active on glomerular epithelial ...
CD2 Antibody, Super Bright 645 (64-0029-42)
The interaction betwee CD2 and CD58 stabilizes adhesion between T cells and antigen presenting or target cells. Relatively low ... making easier contact between CD2 and CD58. Subsequently, T cell activation causes fixation of CD58-CD2 at sites of cell-cell ... CD2 is a ligand for CD58 in the human and is involved in adhesion and activation of T cells. RPA-2.10 blocks mixed lymphocyte ... CD2 (LFA-2) is a monomeric surface antigen (MW range 45-58 kDa) of the human T-lymphocyte lineage that is expressed on all ...
RCSB PDB - 1QA9: Structure of a Heterophilic Adhesion Complex Between the Human CD2 and CD58(LFA-3) Counter-Receptors
... facilitating contacts between helper T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells as well as between cytolytic effectors and ... HUMAN CD58 PROTEIN. B, D. 95. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CD58, LFA3. ... Structure of a Heterophilic Adhesion Complex Between the Human CD2 and CD58(LFA-3) Counter-Receptors. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1QA9/pdb ... Design and NMR Studies of a Functional Glycan-Free Adhesion Domain of the Human Cell Surface Receptor CD58. Sun, Z.-Y.J.,& ...
Autoimmune T-Cell Reactivity to Myelin Proteolipids and Glycolipids in Multiple Sclerosis
Subsequent studies identified CD2 and CD58 as being involved in the E-rosette phenomenon . Interestingly, CD58 has ... In addition, the antigen concentration used to stimulate the T cells in vitro has been shown to play a role in the outcome of ... P. L. de Jager, C. Baecher-Allan, L. M. Maier et al., "The role of the CD58 locus in multiple sclerosis," Proceedings of the ... 158] found that two T-cell lines (one CD4+ and the other CD8+), derived in the presence of IL2, but absence of antigen, from ...
From Bench to Bedside: Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer
... lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3; CD58), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1; CD54) (both are cell ... Tumour Associated Antigens and Their Role in the Immune Response. The existence of several tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) ... Such escape mechanisms include defects in antigen presentation (e.g., downregulation of HLA class I antigens and beta-2 ... prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), mucin-1 (MUC-1), and NY-ESO-1 . Although in a steady state these self antigens do not ...
Rosetting T cells in Hodgkin lymphoma are activated by immunological synapse components HLA class II and CD58 - Research...
... and human leukocyte antigen class II (HLA-II). We established a novel rosetting model by co-culturing HLA-II matched PBMCs with ... Intriguingly, the level of CD58 expression correlated with the extent of rosette formation and CD58-knockout or CD2 blockade ... Rosetting T cells in Hodgkin lymphoma are activated by immunological synapse components HLA class II and CD58. Veldman, J., ... Rosetting T cells in Hodgkin lymphoma are activated by immunological synapse components HLA class II and CD58 Final authors ...
Alefacept in Patients With Severe Scalp Alopecia Areata - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
... lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 CD58). Induction of a molecular signaling cascade with resultant T-cell activation and ... Activation of T-cells is initiated by interaction of the T-cell receptor with the antigen/major histocompatibility complex on ... Co-stimulatory interactions occur secondarily, including binding of the T-cell CD2 receptor to the antigen-presenting cell ... The cellular infiltrate primarily consists of activated T-lymphocytes and antigen-presenting Langerhans cells. T-lymphocytes ...
Alefacept in Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Aplastic Anemia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
LigandAntibodiesCD48CellsCD59LymphocytesLFA3MoleculeAdhesionMoleculesCD54CD86AntibodyLeukocyteReceptorsProteinLigandsGlycoproteinInteractionCluster of differentiatAssociation of CD58 polymorphismsLymphocyte-associated antigenCD80RecognitionImmunological synapseSpecificityCellHumansTumor antigensPolymorphismsHuman antigenSurfaceExpressionTransmembrane
- The binding of the cell surface molecule CD58 (formerly lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3) to its ligand, CD2, significantly increases the sensitivity of antigen recognition by T cells. (ox.ac.uk)
- The crystal structure of a CD2-binding chimeric form of CD58, solved to 1.8-A resolution, reveals that the ligand binding domain of CD58 has the expected Ig superfamily V-set topology and shares several of the hitherto unique structural features of CD2, consistent with previous speculation that the genes encoding these molecules arose via duplication of a common precursor. (ox.ac.uk)
- CD58 is the receptor for the ligand CD2, it mediates cellular adhesion and participates in signal transduction when it binds to CD2. (fluidigm.com)
- CD2 interacts through its amino-terminal domain with the extracellular domain of CD58 (also designated CD2 ligand) to mediate cell adhesion. (novusbio.com)
- The principal ligand for human CD2 is leukocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3, also known as CD58). (fluidigm.com)
- CD2 is a ligand for CD58 in the human and is involved in adhesion and activation of T cells. (thermofisher.com)
- Co-stimulatory interactions occur secondarily, including binding of the T-cell CD2 receptor to the antigen-presenting cell ligand LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 CD58). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- It was formerly described as the sheep red blood cell receptor, causing T-cell rosetting, and has been identified as the ligand for CD58 (LFA-3). (beckman.com)
- Pubmed ID: 11731799 To initiate an immune response, key receptor-ligand pairs must cluster in "immune synapses" at the T cell-antigen-presenting cell (APC) interface. (jove.com)
- The major ligand for CD2 is CD58 (also known as LFA-3). (biolegend.com)
- The interaction of CD58 and its ligand (CD2) promotes the differentiation of regulatory T cells and suppresses the immune response. (cdc.gov)
- CD58 (LFA-3) is an immunoglobulin family adhession molecule expressed by both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells (often on antigen presenting cells) and serving as ligand of CD2. (sysmex-flowcytometry.com)
- In this study, we investigated another ligand-receptor interaction (CD58-CD2) that facilities T cell activation using a model system consisting of Jurkat T cells interacting with a planar lipid bilayer that mimics an APC. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
- However, binding studies on CD48-, CD58-, or CD59-transfected CHO cells with spCD2 under low stringency wash conditions revealed that human CD48 is a low affinity ligand of human CD2 compared with CD58 (Kd approximately 10(-4) vs. approximately 10(-6) M, respectively). (rupress.org)
- The clonal selection theory postulates that a foreign antigen entering the body binds to one unique antibody selected from an unlimited repertoire of antibodies formed early in the organism's life. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Adaptive immunity establishes long-term immunological memory responses that trigger clonal expansion of T lymphocytes, which in turn cross-talk to B-cells to produce antigen-specific antibodies. (diabetesjournals.org)
- I. Antibodies against beta-2-microglobulin, immunoglobulin kappa light chains, HLA-DR-like antigens, T8 antigen, T1 antigen, a monocyte antigen, and a pan-leucocyte antigen. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Fully human antibodies against a specific antigen can be prepared by administering the antigen to a transgenic animal which has been modified to produce such antibodies in response to antigenic challenge, but whose endogenous loci have been disabled. (freepatentsonline.com)
- CD antigens for cluster of differentiation, which indicates a defined subset of cellular surface receptors (epitopes) that identify cell type and stage of differentiation, and which are recognized by antibodies. (sinobiological.com)
- CD2 interacts with lymphocyte function-associated antigen CD58 (LFA-3) and CD48/BCM1 to mediate adhesion between T-cells and other cell types. (uniprot.org)
- It interacts with other adhesion molecules, such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 (LFA-3/CD58) in humans, or CD48 in rodents, which are expressed on the surfaces of other cells. (wikipedia.org)
- This study analysed the usefulness of a flow cytometric panel with CD58, CD59 on reticulocytes and erythrocytes, CD24/CD66b and CD16, FLAER on granulocytes and CD14, and CD48 on monocytes. (springer.com)
- Interacciona con outras moléculas de adhesión celular, como o antíxeno-3 asociado a función de linfocitos (LFA-3/ CD58 ) en humanos, ou CD48 en roedores, que se expresan nas superficies doutras células. (wikipedia.org)
- Using quantitative immunofluorescence and standard stringency wash conditions, we observed that the binding of spCD2 to human B lymphoblastoid JY cells and red blood cells is virtually inhibited by anti-CD58 TS2/9 monoclonal antibody, even though these cells express levels of CD48 and CD59 comparable to CD58. (rupress.org)
- Importantly, in cell-cell adhesion assays between CD2+ Jurkat T cells and CD48- or CD59-transfected CHO cells, there was no conjugate formation, whereas binding of Jurkat T cells to CD58-transfected CHO cells was readily detected. (rupress.org)
- Given the importance of the CD2-CD48 interaction in the murine system and CD2-CD58 interaction in humans, it would appear that there has been a divergence of functional CD2 ligands during the evolution of humans and mice. (rupress.org)
- This interaction is important in mediating thymocyte interactions with thymic epithelial cells, antigen-independent and -dependent interactions of T-lymphocytes with target cells and antigen-presenting cells and the T-lymphocyte rosetting with erythrocytes. (abcam.com)
- CD58, or lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3), is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on Antigen Presenting Cells (APC), particularly macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
- It binds to CD2 (LFA-2) on T cells and is important in strengthening the adhesion between the T cells and Professional Antigen Presenting Cells. (wikipedia.org)
- This adhesion occurs as part of the transitory initial encounters between T cells and Antigen Presenting Cells before T cell activation, when T cells are roaming the lymph nodes looking at the surface of APCs for peptide:MHC complexes the T-cell receptors are reactive to. (wikipedia.org)
- CD58 is a heavily glycosylated protein with a broad tissue distribution in hematopoietic and other cells, including endothelium. (novusbio.com)
- Interaction between CD2 and its counter receptor LFA3 (CD58) on opposing cells optimizes immune system recognition, thereby facilitating communication between helper T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells, as well as between cytolytic effectors and target cells. (novusbio.com)
- In this phase I study, we administered one or two cycles of four triweekly s.c./intradermal injections of ex vivo generated dendritic cells modified with a recombinant fowlpox vector encoding carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and a triad of costimulatory molecules [rF-CEA(6D)-TRICOM]. (aacrjournals.org)
- A common goal of cancer vaccines in development is the activation of high levels of antigen-specific T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Because of the crucial role of dendritic cells in adaptive immunity and their potent activity in animal tumor models, numerous pilot studies have evaluated immunotherapy with dendritic cells loaded with antigen in the form of peptide, protein, DNA, mRNA, tumor lysates, tumor fusions, and viral vectors ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- To overcome these limitations, we have been studying strategies for genetic modification of dendritic cells with viral vectors encoding full length tumor antigens and costimulatory molecules. (aacrjournals.org)
- The adaptive immune system is an antigen-specific system that generates immunological memory and T-cell and antibody responses specific to pathogens or infected cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The adaptive immune system is an antigen-specific structure that discriminates non-self molecules through the recognition of peptide antigens using receptor interactions between T-cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (diabetesjournals.org)
- CD2 is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the Ig superfamily and is expressed on T, NK, B and some antigen presenting cells. (rndsystems.com)
- Human CD2 binds human CD58 on antigen-presenting cells to induce co-stimulating signals in T cells. (rndsystems.com)
- CDla + precursors give rise to cells characterized by the expression of Birbeck granules, the Lag antigen and E-cadherin, three markers specifically expressed on Langerhans cells in the epidermis. (psu.edu)
- In contrast, the CD14 + progenitors mature into CDla + DC lacking Birbeck granules, E-cadherin, and Lag antigen but expressing CD2, CD9, CD68, and the coagulation factor XIlla described in dermal dendritic cells. (psu.edu)
- BP: The complement-inhibiting protein, protectin (CD59 antigen), is present and functionally active on glomerular epithelial cells. (acris-antibodies.com)
- CD2 (LFA-2) is a monomeric surface antigen (MW range 45-58 kDa) of the human T-lymphocyte lineage that is expressed on all peripheral blood T cells. (thermofisher.com)
- The interaction betwee CD2 and CD58 stabilizes adhesion between T cells and antigen presenting or target cells. (thermofisher.com)
- The cellular infiltrate primarily consists of activated T-lymphocytes and antigen-presenting Langerhans cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Activation of T-cells is initiated by interaction of the T-cell receptor with the antigen/major histocompatibility complex on the antigen-presenting cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Binding of the immunoglobulin portion of the fusion protein to the FCy receptor on antigen-presenting cells potentiates apoptosis of CD-2 T-cells to thereby reduce the population of activated T-cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- It prevents co-stimulatory signals between antigen presenting cells and memory T cells by competitive inhibition of CD2 in T cells, induces selective apoptosis of CD4+ and CD8+ memory effector T cells by interaction between the Fc portion of IgG1 and the FcyIII in NK cells, and possibly direct ligation of CD2 molecules on T cells that subsequently result in the alteration in T cell agonist signaling. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Interaction between CD2 and its counterreceptor, CD58 (LFA-3), on opposing cells optimizes immune recognition, facilitating contacts between helper T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells as well as between cytolytic effectors and target cells. (rcsb.org)
- In conclusion, T cell rosetting in HL is established by formation of the IS and activation of rosetting T cells critically depends on both TCR-HLA-II and CD2-CD58 interaction. (rug.nl)
- Based on this observation, they proposed the concept that NK cells provide immune surveillance for "missing self," e.g., they eliminate cells that have lost class I MHC antigens. (pnas.org)
- Third, the DCs can be genetically modified to deliver given tumor antigens in high efficiency and to express activating molecules in driving simultaneous production of antigen-specific T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. (pnas.org)
- Fourth, introducing two allogeneic DRB1 molecules into the DCs improves generation of tumor antigen-specific T cells. (pnas.org)
- In an autologous setting, the HLA-A2 + ihv-DCs that present hTERT antigen prime autologous T cells to generate hTERT-specific CTLs, inducing cytolysis of hTERT-expressing target cells in an HLA-A2-restricted manner. (pnas.org)
- Among professional antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) hold unique abilities to prime naïve T lymphocytes in mediating antigen-specific, adaptive immune response ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- Endothelial cells (EC) express all the major sets of antigens (Ag) that elicit host immune response, and therefore represent a preferential target in organ rejection. (frontiersin.org)
- As endothelial cells (EC) express a number of antigens (Ag) that are visible by the immune system of a genetically disparate individual, donor endothelium is invariably recognized by the host immune system, and therefore, it is the first and preferential target of the allo-immune response that follows organ transplantation without an adequate immunosuppression ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Moreover EC, besides being target of antibody-mediated response, can directly interact with allogenic T-cells by displaying not only the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens but also adequate co-stimulatory molecules and adhesion proteins on their surface ( 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
- DSEK cells expressed EBV nuclear antigens EBNA-1 and EBNA-2 and latent membrane protein LMP-1. (asm.org)
- DSEK cells expressed CD44, CD58, and HLA-DR antigens and spontaneously produced interleukin-10 basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor beta1. (asm.org)
- CD58 activate the costimulation pathways of T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, maximizing the cytolysis of target cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and NK cells. (beckman.com.au)
- This antigen is widely expressed on leucocytes, erythrocytes and endothelial cells. (beckman.com.au)
- There is reduced expression of CD58 on haemopoietic cells in individuals with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- The structurally related T cell surface molecules CD28 and CTLA-4 interact with cell surface ligands CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) on antigen-presenting cells (APC) and modulate T cell antigen recognition. (rupress.org)
- The potent antigen-presenting cells responsible for activation of native T cells and modulation of T cell activity through RANK/RANKL pathway and other cytokines associated with osteoclastogenesis determine critically situated at the osteoimmune interface. (intechopen.com)
- This study was designed to define the clinical potential of the DNA hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-AZA-CdR) in human RCC, through its control of the expression of "therapeutic targets" of the cancer testis antigen (CTA) family, and of the tumor-associated antigen RAGE-1, in RCC cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- CD2 which is also known as E-rosette receptor, T11 and lymphocytefunction antigen-2 (LFA-2) is expressed on T cells, thymocytes, and subset of natural killer cells. (prospecbio.com)
- The CD antigens are protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells. (sinobiological.com)
- Non peptide antigen presentation to T-cell receptors on NKT cells. (sinobiological.com)
- The proportion of CD58 + cells in monocytes was significantly lower in healthy individuals with each of these risk genotypes of AITDs and lower in GD and HD patients than that in healthy controls. (cdc.gov)
- In conclusion, CD58 SNPs are involved in AITD susceptibility through the reduction in CD58 expression, which probably suppresses regulatory T cells. (cdc.gov)
- Veltroni M, De Zen L, Sanzari MC, Maglia O, Dworzak MN, Ratei R, Biondi A, Basso G, Gaipa G: I‑BFM‑ALL‑FCM‑MRD‑Study Group: Expression of CD58 in normal, regenerating and leukemic bone marrow B cells: implications for the detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphocytic leukemia. (sysmex-flowcytometry.com)
- Dendritic cells (DCs) can take up an array of different antigens, including microorganisms which they can process and present more effectively than any other antigen presenting cell. (biomedcentral.com)
- CD2 functions as a costimulatory molecule on T and natural killer (NK) cells and is a receptor for other adhesion molecules, such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 (LFA-3/CD58). (miltenyibiotec.com)
- CD58 mediates adhesion between killer and target cells, antigen presenting cells and T cells. (mybeckman.se)
- Freshly isolated human NK cells were uniformly LFA-3 (CD58) + and expressed two to three-fold higher surface levels of LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) than resting T lymphocytes. (elsevier.com)
- After in vitro incubation with IL-2, human NK cells demonstrated four- to sixfold increases in surface levels of CD11a/CD18, CD2, CD54, CD58, and the NK cell-associated Ag NKH-1 (CD56). (elsevier.com)
- Antigen presentation on immune cell surface, formation of an immunological synapse (IS), and specific identification of complex by T cells including two activating signals are necessary steps that lead to T cell activation. (elsevier.com)
- Human endocrine thyroid epithelial cells (TEC) from autoimmune thyroiditis which express HLA Class II antigens have been shown to present autoantigens to T cells for a TEC-specific immune response. (cf.ac.uk)
- Dendritic cells, the professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) involved in T cell priming, express CD40, a molecule which triggering plays a key role in B cell growth and differentiation as well as monocyte activation. (rupress.org)
- Among the markers in our panel, CD58 and CD59 on reticulocytes, CD24/66b, and eventually FLAER on granulocytes as well as CD14 on monocytes were most effective for flow cytometric diagnosis of GPI deficiency. (springer.com)
- The complement inhibitor CD59 and the lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 (LFA-3, CD58) genes possess functional binding sites for the p53 tumor suppressor protein. (uni-goettingen.de)
- We visualized the accumulation of a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule, I-E(k), at a T cell-B cell interface and found it was dependent on both antigen recognition and costimulation. (jove.com)
- Such rapid binding kinetics have also been reported for the T cell adhesion molecule CD2 and may be necessary to accommodate dynamic T cell-APC contacts and to facilitate scanning of APC for antigen. (rupress.org)
- Today, the HLDA Workshop meeting has been held 10 times and has over 371 CD antigens molecule have been identified. (sinobiological.com)
- Sheng L, Li J, Qi BT, Ji YQ, Meng ZJ, Xie M: Investigation on correlation between expression of CD58 molecule and severity of hepatitis B. World·J·Gastroenterol. (sysmex-flowcytometry.com)
- Human lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (hLFA3) has been identified as an important T cell accessory molecule. (bvsalud.org)
- Since the initiation of a specific immune response also involves antigen-receptor independent interactions between accessory molecules, such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 (LFA-3) with CD2, it was of interest to determine whether TEC can express the adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and LFA-3) which augment the efficiency of antigen presentation. (cf.ac.uk)
- The CD58/CD2 interaction has been reported to play a role in regulating the antigen-independent adhesion pathway and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity. (fluidigm.com)
- Purified lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 binds to CD2 and mediates T lymphocyte adhesion. (biotium.com)
- Relatively low affinity of CD2 to CD58 (as measured in solution) is compensated within the two-dimensional cell-cell interface to provide tight adhesion. (thermofisher.com)
- Here, we report the crystal structure of the heterophilic adhesion complex between the amino-terminal domains of human CD2 and CD58. (rcsb.org)
- The CD4,CD45RO, or memory T-cell, subset was numerically normal but expressed increased levels of adhesion markers (CD29, CD54, and CD58). (nih.gov)
- LFA-3 (CD58) mediates T-lymphocyte adhesion in chronic inflammatory infiltrates. (uni-goettingen.de)
- Expression of MHC class II (HLA-A-DR and -DQ), costimulatory/adhesion molecules (CD11a/18, CD50, CD54, CD58 and CD86) and cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-10) was therefore investigated by immunohistochemistry in normal squamous epithelium (n = 12), low-grade (n = 23) and high-grade (n = 18) squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix. (nih.gov)
- To determine the safety and immunologic and clinical efficacy of a dendritic cell vaccine modified to hyperexpress costimulatory molecules and tumor antigen. (aacrjournals.org)
- Although no murine MIC molecules have been found, the mouse orthologs of ULBP are likely to be the retinoic acid early inducible-1 gene products (RAE-1) and the related H60 minor histocompatibility antigen ( 22 , 23 ). (pnas.org)
- TCR signaling is initiated by antigen (Ag) binding and results in activation of tyrosine kinases of the Src, Syk, and Tec families and assembly of scaffolds of adaptor molecules. (bloodjournal.org)
- There are approximately 5,000 CD58 molecules on each erythrocyte. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- We show that the binding of CD58 to CD2, in the absence of TCR activation, also induces signaling through the actin-dependent coalescence of signaling molecules (including TCR-zeta chain, Lck, and LAT) into microdomains. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
- In particular, CD40 triggering induced maintenance of high levels of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens and upregulation of accessory molecules such as CD58, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2). (rupress.org)
- CD58/LFA-3 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects CD58/LFA-3 in Human samples. (fishersci.com)
- The TS2/9 monoclonal antibody binds specifically to CD58, a 45-70 kDa cell surface glycoprotein in the immunoglobulin superfamily. (fluidigm.com)
- This antibody was used as a CD58 reference mAb during HLDA 6. (beckman.com.au)
- Mouse anti Human CD58 antibody, clone BRIC5 recognizes human Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3, also known as CD58 or LFA-3. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- Mouse anti Human CD58 antibody, clone BRIC5 was produced in response to erythrocytes. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- Immunosuppressive dimeric fusion protein that consists of the extracellular CD2-binding portion of the human leukocyte function antigen-3 (LFA-3) linked to the Fc (hinge, CH2 and CH3 domains) portion of human IgG1. (creativebiomart.net)
- However, it is unknown whether this synapse is fully assembled and leads to T cell activation by enabling interaction between the T cell receptor (TCR) and human leukocyte antigen class II (HLA-II). (rug.nl)
- The CD antigens / Cluster of differentiation nomenclature was established in the 1st International Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA), which was held in Paris in 1982. (sinobiological.com)
- Of 16 SNPs that passed quality control filters, four, each corresponding to a different non-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene, were associated with disease susceptibility: KIAA0350 (rs6498169) P=0.001, IL2RA (rs2104286) P=0.033, RPL5 (rs6604026) P=0.041 and CD58 (rs12044852) P=0.042. (edu.au)
- After local surgery or radiation, cancer control is monitored by Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), a prostate epithelial-specific protein detected from secretions into the blood stream. (hindawi.com)
- To search for possible ligands of CD2 distinct from CD58 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3), we have produced a soluble pentameric CD2-immunoglobulin (Ig) fusion protein (spCD2) linking the 182-amino acid human CD2 extracellular segment with CH2-CH3-CH4 domains of human IgM heavy chain, thus enhancing the micromolar affinity of the CD2 monomer through multimeric interaction. (rupress.org)
- The CD2 antigen (LFA-2) is a monomeric 50 kDa glycoprotein. (beckman.com)
- CD58 is a glycoprotein of 65-70 kDa, either transmembrane or glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored. (beckman.com.au)
- CD58 is a 250 amino acid single pass type I transmembrane glycoprotein, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, with a predicted molecular mass of 28.1 kDa and an apparent molecular mass of ~55-70 kDa. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- Clone REA972 recognizes the human CD2 antigen, a 50 kDa single-chain transmembrane glycoprotein also known as LFA-2 or receptor for sheep erythrocytes. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- Extension of our findings to primary HL tissue by immunohistochemistry and proximity ligation assays showed interaction of CD2 with CD58 and TCR-associated CD4 with HLA-II. (rug.nl)
- The interaction between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell (APC) can trigger a signaling response that leads to T cell activation. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
- Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) exhibited the highest degrees of connectivity in the PPI networks for up‑ and down‑regulated DEGs, respectively. (spandidos-publications.com)
- In a previous genome-wide association study, cluster of differentiation 58 (CD58) region was found to be susceptible for the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Caucasian, and the association between CD58 variants and MS was replicated in Americans. (cdc.gov)
- Pubmed ID: 11859198 The area of contact between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell (APC) is known as the immunological synapse. (jove.com)
- Michael Dustin, PhD, the Muriel G. and George W. Singer Professor of Molecular Immunology, NYU School of Medicine, for the first dynamic description of the "immunological synapse" between an antigen-presenting cell and a lymphocyte. (bio-medicine.org)
- CD2/CD58 binding can enhance antigen-specific T cell activation. (novusbio.com)
- Moreover, T cell activation induces increased CD2 expression and its lateral mobility, making easier contact between CD2 and CD58. (thermofisher.com)
- Intriguingly, the level of CD58 expression correlated with the extent of rosette formation and CD58-knockout or CD2 blockade reduced both rosette formation and T cell activation. (rug.nl)
- Dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer immunotherapy has achieved modest clinical benefits, but several technical hurdles in DC preparation, activation, and cancer/testis antigen (CTA) delivery limit its broad applications. (pnas.org)
- It has also been called T-cell surface antigen T11/Leu-5, LFA-2, LFA-3 receptor, erythrocyte receptor and rosette receptor. (wikipedia.org)
- The great majority of T cell lymphomas and leukaemias also express CD2, making it possible to use the presence of the antigen to distinguish these conditions from B cell neoplasms. (wikipedia.org)
- CD57 is the most commonly expressed cell antigen and CD56 is the least commonly expressed cell antigen. (scielo.br)
- A total or partial lack of other T-cell antigens, such as CD2, CD5 and CD7, can be observed (3-4). (scielo.br)
- As a siganl, CD antigens usually initiated, altering the behavior of the cell. (sinobiological.com)
- Molecular cloning of the CD2 antigen, the T-cell erythrocyte receptor, by a rapid immunoselection procedure. (wikipedia.org)
- Intended Use Human CD58 ELISA Kit allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of CD58 , concentrations in serum, Plasma , tissue homogenates and Cell culture supernates and Other biological fluids. (biobool.com)
- Polymorphisms in the CD58 gene are associated with increased risk for multiple sclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
- CD58 polymorphisms associated with the risk of neuromyelitis optica in a Korean population. (cdc.gov)
- Logistic regression analysis was conducted to find a possible association between CD58 polymorphisms and NMO. (cdc.gov)
- Polymorphisms identified in CD58 . (cdc.gov)
- To clarify the association of CD58 expression with the pathogenesis and prognosis of AITDs, we genotyped polymorphisms in the CD58 gene including rs12044852A/C (SNP1), rs2300747A/G (SNP2), rs1335532C/T (SNP3), rs1016140G/T (SNP4), rs1414275C/T (SNP5) and rs11588376C/T (SNP6). (cdc.gov)
- Mutations that disrupt CD2 binding map to the highly acidic surface of the AGFCC'C" beta-sheet of CD58, which, unexpectedly, lacks marked shape complementarity to the equivalent, rather more basic CD58-binding face of human CD2. (ox.ac.uk)
- 2. Stefanova I, Hilgert I, Kristofova H, Brown R, Low MG, Horejsi V.: Characterization of a broadly expressed human leucocyte surface antigen MEM-43 anchored in membrane through phosphatidylinositol. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Based on previous studies, we suspect that the A allele of rs2300747 may decrease CD58 RNA expression, thus increasing NMO risk. (cdc.gov)
- To measure the expression of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 (CD58) in childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and to explore the feasibility of CD58 as an indicator for minimal residual disease (MRD) detection in childhood B-ALL. (bvsalud.org)
- The expression features of CD58 in bone marrow samples from the two groups (at diagnosis, on day 15 of induction chemotherapy) were analyzed by four-color flow cytometry (FCM). (bvsalud.org)