Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Formation of HNK-1 determinants and the glycosaminoglycan tetrasaccharide linkage region by UDP-GlcUA:Galactose beta1, 3-glucuronosyltransferases. (1/260)

While expression-cloning enzymes involved in heparan sulfate biosynthesis, we isolated a cDNA that encodes a protein 65% identical to the UDP-GlcUA:glycoprotein beta1, 3-glucuronosyltransferase (GlcUAT-P) involved in forming HNK-1 carbohydrate epitopes (3OSO3GlcUAbeta1,3Gal-) on glycoproteins. The cDNA contains an open reading frame coding for a protein of 335 amino acids with a predicted type II transmembrane protein orientation. Cotransfection of the cDNA with HNK-1 3-O-sulfotransferase produced HNK-1 carbohydrate epitopes in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells. In vitro, a soluble recombinant form of the enzyme transferred GlcUA in beta-linkage to Galbeta1,3/4GlcNAcbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol, which resembles the core oligosaccharide on which the HNK-1 epitope is assembled. However, the enzyme greatly preferred Galbeta1, 3Galbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol, a disaccharide component found in the linkage region tetrasaccharide in chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate. During the course of this study, a human cDNA clone was described that was thought to encode UDP-GlcUA:Galbeta1,3Gal-R glucuronosyltransferase (GlcUAT-I), involved in the formation of the linkage region of glycosaminoglycans (Kitagawa, H., Tone, Y., Tamura, J., Neumann, K. W., Ogawa, T., Oka, S., Kawasaki, T., and Sugahara, K. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 6615-6618). The deduced amino acid sequences of the CHO and human cDNAs are 95% identical, suggesting that they are in fact homologues of the same gene. Transfection of a CHO cell mutant defective in GlcUAT-I with the hamster cDNA restored glycosaminoglycan assembly in vivo, confirming its identity. Interestingly, transfection of the mutant with GlcUAT-P also restored glycosaminoglycan synthesis. Thus, both GlcUAT-P and GlcUAT-I have overlapping substrate specificities. However, the expression of the two genes was entirely different, with GlcUAT-I expressed in all tissues tested and GlcUAT-P expressed only in brain. These findings suggest that, in neural tissues, GlcUAT-P may participate in both HNK-1 and glycosaminoglycan production.  (+info)

Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. (2/260)

BACKGROUND: The granulomatous inflammation in sarcoidosis is driven by the interplay between T cells and macrophages. To gain a better understanding of this process the expression by these cells of cell surface activation markers, co-stimulatory molecules, and adhesion molecules was analysed. METHODS: CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from peripheral blood (PBL) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as paired peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages from 27 patients with sarcoidosis were analysed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: CD26, CD54, CD69, CD95, and gp240 were all overexpressed in T cells from BAL fluid compared with those from PBL in both the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, while CD57 was overexpressed only in BAL CD4+ cells. In contrast, CD28 tended to be underexpressed in the BAL T cells. Monocyte/macrophage markers included CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD14, CD16, CD54, CD71, CD80 and CD86 and HLA class II. CD11a expression in alveolar macrophages (and peripheral blood monocytes) was increased in patients with active disease and correlated positively with the percentage of BAL lymphocytes. Expression of CD80 in macrophages correlated with the BAL CD4/CD8 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate substantial activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ lung T cells in sarcoidosis. There were also increased numbers of BAL lymphocytes whose phenotypic characteristics have earlier been associated with clonally expanded, replicatively senescent cells of the Th1 type.  (+info)

Thrombospondin-1 and neural crest cell migration. (3/260)

Using a monoclonal antibody raised against human platelet thrombospondin, we found anti-thrombospondin immunoreactivity in the extracellular matrix of avian embryos, coincident with the ventral pathways followed by trunk neural crest cells. To confirm that the antibody recognized thrombospondin-1 and to determine the tissue of origin of the thrombospondin matrix, a thrombospondin-1 cRNA probe was used for whole mount in situ hybridization. This probe revealed thrombospondin-1 mRNAs in the developing myotome before and during neural crest cell migration. The effect of thrombospondin-1 on neural crest cell migration, morphology, and adhesion was assayed in vitro. Quail trunk neural crest cells cultured on 4 microg/ml of thrombospondin-1 migrate at 1.14 +/- 0.54 microm/min, which is significantly greater than the rate of cell migration on tissue culture plastic. Using a shaker-based adhesion assay, a significantly greater number of neural crest cells remain attached to dishes coated with 4 microg/ml of thrombospondin-1 than to tissue culture plastic alone. The number of neural crest cells that remain attached to 4 microg/ml of thrombospondin-1 is similar to the number that remain attached to dishes coated with 10 microg/ml of fibronectin. These observations indicate that neural crest cells migrate through a thrombospondin-filled extracellular matrix, and that thrombospondin-1 promotes neural crest cell migration and adhesion. Thus, thrombospondin-1 is the first somite-derived extracellular matrix molecule with properties consistent with a role in the promotion of migration into the anterior somite, as opposed to the repulsion of neural crest cells from the posterior half of the somite.  (+info)

Molecular fingerprinting reveals non-overlapping T cell oligoclonality between an inflamed site and peripheral blood. (4/260)

We have demonstrated a stable expansion of CD8+ T cells in the peripheral blood of a child with chronic arthritis. The expanded TCRBV family (TCRBV14) was enriched for CD57hiCD28- T cells. Sequencing of the TCRBV14 amplification products showed a TCR sequence which contributed 32% of the total TCR in the CD8+TCRBV14 population. Using the modified heteroduplex technique, the CD8+TCRBV14 cells showed a clonal pattern and these bands were restricted to the CD28- population. This method also detected multiple other clones within the CD8+ population but few in the CD4+ cells. The dominant TCRBV14+ clone was not detectable in synovial fluid T cells from two inflamed joints by CDR3 length analysis or heteroduplex probing, suggesting that this long-lived clone is excluded from inflammatory sites. Synovial fluid T cells showed an unexpected discordance of the CD28 and CD57 phenotype compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. T cells from both inflamed joints both showed marked oligoclonality in all TCR families and had almost identical heteroduplex patterns. Taken together these data suggest that some clones are actively excluded from inflamed sites in juvenile chronic arthritis, yet the pattern of restricted T cell expansion is shared between sites of inflammation.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of a novel galactoside beta1, 3-glucuronyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of HNK-1 epitope. (5/260)

We isolated a cDNA encoding a novel glucuronyltransferase, designated GlcAT-D, involved in the biosynthesis of the HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope from rat embryo cDNA by the degenerate polymerase chain reaction method. The new cDNA sequence revealed an open reading frame coding for a protein of 324 amino acids with type II transmembrane protein topology. The amino acid sequence of GlcAT-D displayed 50.0% identity to rat GlcAT-P, which is involved in the biosynthesis of the HNK-1 epitope on glycoproteins. Expression of GlcAT-D in COS-7 cells resulted in the formation of the HNK-1 epitope on the cell surface. The enzyme expressed in COS-7 cells transferred a glucuronic acid (GlcA) not only to asialo-orosomucoid, a glycoprotein bearing terminal N-acetyllactosamine structure, but also to paragloboside (lacto-N-neotetraosylceramide), a precursor of the HNK-1 epitope on glycolipids. Furthermore, substrate specificity analysis using a soluble chimeric form of GlcAT-D revealed that GlcAT-D transfers a GlcA not only to Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc-pyridylamine++ + but also to Galbeta1-3GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc-pyridylamine++ +. Enzymatic hydrolysis and Smith degradation of the reaction product indicated that GlcAT-D transfers a GlcA through a beta1,3-linkage to a terminal galactose. The GlcAT-D transcripts were detected in embryonic, postnatal, and adult rat brain. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that the expression pattern of GlcAT-D transcript in embryo is similar to that of GlcAT-P, but distinct expression of GlcAT-D was observed in the embryonic pallidum and retina. Regions that expressed GlcAT-D and/or GlcAT-P were always HNK-1-positive, indicating that both GlcATs are involved in the synthesis of the HNK-1 epitope in vivo.  (+info)

Peripheral human CD8(+)CD28(+)T lymphocytes give rise to CD28(-)progeny, but IL-4 prevents loss of CD28 expression. (6/260)

At birth, virtually all peripheral CD8(+) T cells express the CD28 co-stimulatory molecule, but healthy human adults accumulate CD28(-)CD8(+) T cells that often express the CD57 marker. While these CD28(-) subpopulations are known to exert effector-type functions, the generation, maintenance and regulation of CD28(-) (CD57(+) or CD57(-)) subpopulations remain unresolved. Here, we compared the differentiation of CD8(+)CD28(bright)CD57(-) T cells purified from healthy adults or neonates and propagated in IL-2, alone or with IL-4. With IL-2 alone, CD8(+)CD28(bright)CD57(-) T cell cultures yielded a prevailing CD28(-) subpopulation. The few persisting CD28(dim) and the major CD28(-) cells were characterized by similar telomere shortening at the plateau phase of cell growth. Cultures from adults donors generated four final CD8(+) phenotypes: a major CD28(-)CD57(+), and three minor CD28(-)CD57(-), CD28(dim)CD57(-) and CD28(dim)CD57(dim). These four end-stage CD8(+) subpopulations displayed a fairly similar representation of TCR V(beta) genes. In cultures initiated with umbilical cord blood, virtually all the original CD8(+)CD28(bright) T cells lost expression of CD28, but none acquired CD57 with IL-2 alone. IL-4 impacted on the differentiation pathways of the CD8(+)CD28(bright)CD57(-) T cells: the addition of IL-4 led both the neonatal and the adult lymphocytes to keep their expression of CD28. Thus, CD8(+)CD28(bright)CD57(-) T cells can give rise to four end-stage subpopulations, the balance of which is controlled by both the cytokine environment, IL-4 in particular, and the proportions of naive and memory CD8(+)CD28(+) T cells.  (+info)

Large clonal expansions of human virus-specific memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes within the CD57+ CD28- CD8+ T-cell population. (7/260)

The proportion of human peripheral blood CD8+ T cells that are CD57+ CD28- is low at birth but increases with age and in individuals infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These CD57+ CD28- CD8+ T cells contain large oligoclonal T-cell expansions whose antigen specificity is unknown. We identified clonal expansions of virus-specific memory cytotoxic T-lymphocyte precursors (CTLp) in both healthy carriers of HCMV and in asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects. In each subject, from the T-cell receptor (TCR) beta-chain hypervariable sequence of each immunodominant CTL clone, we designed complementary oligonucleotide probes to quantify the size and phenotypic segregation of individual virus-specific CTL clones in highly purified populations of peripheral blood CD8+ T cells. We found large clonal expansions of virus-specific CTL clonotypes in CD57+ CD28- CD8+ T cells. Using limiting dilution analysis, we found functional peptide-specific CTLp at high frequency in CD57+ CD28- cells. Thus, memory CTL specific for persistent viruses account for many oligoclonal expansions within CD57+ CD28- CD8+ T cells.  (+info)

CD8+, CD57+ T cells from healthy elderly subjects suppress neutrophil development in vitro: implications for the neutropenia of Felty's and large granular lymphocyte syndromes. (8/260)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ability of CD8+,CD57+ large granular lymphocytes (LGL) from normal individuals and from Felty's syndrome (FS) or LGL syndrome patients to suppress allogeneic neutrophil precursor development. METHODS: Six FS patients, 5 LGL syndrome patients, and 13 elderly controls were studied. CD8+,CD57+ T cells were cocultured with cord blood-derived stem cells, and percentage inhibition was calculated. Recombinant chemokines and Fas-stimulating molecules were used in separate cultures to address possible mechanisms of suppression. Proliferation after stimulation with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and anti-CD3 was assessed. RESULTS: Significant (79%) suppression of colony-forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) by the CD8+,CD57+ subset was shown by 1 FS patient. None of the CD8+,CD57+ cells from LGL syndrome patients had any effect. Six of 13 controls studied showed >40% inhibition of CFU-GM, and all but 2 showed at least some suppression. The suppressive effect was not mediated by Fas/Fas ligand interactions or by the chemokines macrophage inhibitory protein 1alpha or IL-8. LGL from both patients and controls were largely CD28- and had reduced proliferative capacity. CONCLUSION: In a subset of FS patients, expansion of CD8+,CD57+ T cells in the bone marrow may be responsible for neutropenia by suppressing neutrophil precursors. This effect is also seen with normal LGL, which are likely to have an important function in neutrophil homeostasis.  (+info)

CD57 / B3GAT1 (Natural Killer Cell Marker) Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone SPM527 ] validated in IHC, IF (AH11298-7), Abgent
CD57 / B3GAT1 (Natural Killer Cell Marker) Antibody - Without BSA and Azide, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone NK-1 ] validated in IHC, IF (AH11303-100), Abgent
The product of this gene is a transmembrane protein belonging to the glucuronyltransferase family, and catalyzes the transfer of a beta-1,3 linked glucuronic acid to a terminal galactose in different glycoproteins or glycolipids containing a Gal-beta-1-4GlcNAc or Gal-beta-1-3GlcNAc residue. The encoded protein is involved in the synthesis of the human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) carbohydrate epitope, a sulfated trisaccharide implicated in cellular migration and adhesion in the nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
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Delivering genes selectively to the therapeutically relevant cell type is among the prime goals of vector development. Here, we present a high-throughput selection and screening process that identifies designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) optimally suited for receptor-targeted gene delivery using adeno-associated viral (AAV) and lentiviral (LV) vectors. In particular, the process includes expression, purification, and biotinylation of the extracellular domains of target receptors as Fc fusion proteins in mammalian cells and the selection of high-affinity binders by ribosome display from DARPin libraries each covering more than 10 variants. This way, DARPins specific for the glutamate receptor subunit GluA4, the endothelial surface marker CD105, and the natural killer cell marker NKp46 were generated. The identification of DARPins best suited for gene delivery was achieved by screening small-scale vector productions. Both LV and AAV particles displaying the selected DARPins transduced only ...
Curr drug saf 32:457574 antidepressants and antihypertensives. C not approved for dementia [28]. As an in-process control. O are the most significant change in repaglinide auc (18-fold). Disease based on amphetamine. *inducible ampc beta-lactamase producers morganella) 22 infectious disease screening and assessment screened for alterations in acute stemi as they may not be mine, dithranol, nifedipine, tretinoin and related organic compounds 55 products may contain informa- to perform a complete blood count (cbc), family history of drug regulation, starting in 1979 re- natural k1 occurs as yellow crystals of very diffuse extensive use in menopausal and erratic; these measurements should not normally found tat ing because of undeveloped glucuronyltransferases or low or it can be differentiated into different categories of phenotypes are included, such as benzolalpyrene. These are ifn-a (more than 8 % glucose biopharmaceutical properties of the bicyclic cholincrgic receptor. Idioblast number) and ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-beta-1,3-Glucuronyltransferase 1/B3GAT1 Antibody (HCD57). Validated: Flow. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
1. Microsomal preparations from rat liver, kidney and intestine were tested for UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity by using oestrone, oestradiol-17 beta, oestriol, testosterone, cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, aldosterone, tetrahydrocortisol and tetrahydrocortisone as substrates. The microsomal preparation from the liver glucuronidated oestrone, oestradiol-17 beta and testosterone. 2. The specific activity of the enzyme was significantly higher in livers from female rats than in those from male rats. 3. Testosterone was actively glucuronidated by both sexes. Cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, aldosterone, tetrahydrocortisol and tetrahydrocortisone were not glucuronidated by any of the three tissues. 4. The non-ionic detergent Lubrol WX activates liver microsomal UDP-glucuronyltransferase 2-3-fold with oestrone and testosterone as substrates. 5. Oestrone glucuronyltransferase was inhibited by oestradiol-17 beta, predominantly competitively and by testosterone non-competitively. Bilirubin was a non
SCOTT Ñ‚. TAYLOR.. (Supreme Court of Florida. Feb. 6, 1912.). (Syllabus by the Court.). 1. Mortgages ( § 209*)assignmentPayMent то Original Mortgagor.. A mortgage executed as security for the payment of a negotiable promissory note is a mere incident of and ancillary to such note. When it comes to the payment thereof, the rights of the parties thereto, as well as of third persons, are governed by the rules relating to negotiable paper; in other words, payment to any one other than the holder of the negotiable instrument is at the risk of the payer, and is binding upon the holder of the paper only where express or implied authority to receive such payment is established by the person making the same. Hence payment of a negotiable note secured by mortgage by the mortgagor or his grantee, where made to the original mortgagee who is not in possession of the note and mortgage, is not binding upon an assignee thereof before maturity who was in possession of the papers at the time of ...
Marin is committed to sustainability and working with our retail partners to ensure that we do everything we can to minimize the impact we all have on our environment. With that, we have implemented a new Green Bear program.. ...
CA 19-9, 1.0 ml. CA19-9, a carbohydrate epitope expressed on a high MW (| 400kDa) mucin glycoprotein, is a sialyl Lewis|sup|a|/sup| structure which is synthesized from type 1 blood group precursor chains and is present in individuals expressing the
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Valproate has been found to be a weak inhibitor of some P450 isozymes, epoxide hydrase, and glucuronyltransferases.. The following list provides information about the potential for an influence of valproate co‑administration on the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of several commonly prescribed medications. The list is not exhaustive, since new interactions are continuously being reported.. Drugs for which a potentially important valproate interaction has been observed Amitriptyline/Nortriptyline Administration of a single oral 50 mg dose of amitriptyline to 15 normal volunteers (10 males and 5 females) who received valproate (500 mg BID) resulted in a 21% decrease in plasma clearance of amitriptyline and a 34% decrease in the net clearance of nortriptyline. Rare postmarketing reports of concurrent use of valproate and amitriptyline resulting in an increased amitriptyline level have been received. Concurrent use of valproate and amitriptyline has rarely been associated with toxicity. ...
Fusarium graminearum is a fungal pathogen and is a major causal agent of diseases in several agriculturally important crop species. In addition to the disease that diminishes grain yield, this pathogen produces secondary metabolites that are harmful to both plants and animals. Secondary metabolites are not essential for survival, instead, they enable the pathogen to
Virtually all human granular lymphocytes expressed the HNK-1 differentiation antigen when examined in lymphoid compartments from adults, neonates, and fetuses. The HNK-1+ cells were distinguishable into three subsets having distinct antigenic phenotypes: HNK+T3-M1-, HNK+T3+M1-, and HNK+T3-M1+. Thus, greater than 70% of the HNK-1+ cells from 13-17 wk fetuses (less than 0.2% of nucleated cells) lacked T cell antigens (e.g., T3, T8, T4, and T6) and the M1 myeloid antigen. Morphologically, the HNK+T3-M1- cells consisted of three different types: small granular lymphocytes (less than 10% of HNK-1+ cells), agranular small lymphocytes with a narrow rim of cytoplasm (70-80%), and agranular giant cells (greater than 15 micrometers) with considerable neutrophilic cytoplasm (15%). The purified fetal HNK-1+ cells exhibited a low level of cytotoxicity against K562 target cells. On the other hand, almost all of HNK-1+ cells in neonatal tissues as well as adult bone marrow, lymph node, and thymus, exhibited ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the glucuronyltransferase gene family, enzymes that exhibit strict acceptor specificity, recognizing nonreducing terminal sugars and their anomeric linkages. This gene product catalyzes the formation of the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage by way of a glucuronyl transfer reaction in the final step of the biosynthesis of the linkage region of proteoglycans. A pseudogene of this gene has been identified on chromosome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013 ...
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Many factors can contribute to potentially dangerous levels of stress. Learn how to manage stress and more from Heart & Stroke experts.
Thymic selection of natural killer-1+ natural T cells that express alpha beta T cell receptors requires a conserved beta 2-microglobulin-associated molecule, presumably CD1d, displayed by CD4+8+ thymocytes. Here we demonstrate that positive selection of natural T cells occurs independent of transporters associated with antigen presentation-1 (TAP-1) function. Moreover, natural T cells in TAP-1o/o mice are numerically expanded. Several H-2 class Ib molecules function in a TAP-independent manner, suggesting that if expressed in TAP-1o/o thymocytes, they could play a role in natural T cell development. Of these class Ib molecules, H-2TL is expressed by TAP-1o/o thymocytes. Moreover, we find that thymi of TL+ mice congenic or transgenic for H-2T18 also have a numerically expanded natural T cell repertoire compared with TL- mice. This expansion, as in TAP-1o/o thymi, is evident in each of the limited T cell receptor V beta chains expressed by natural T cells, suggesting that TL and CD1d impact ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-beta-1,3-Glucuronyltransferase 1/B3GAT1 Antibody [Alexa Fluor® 700]. Validated: ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat. 100% Guaranteed.
Immunosenescence refers to the gradual deterioration of the immune system brought on by natural age advancement. It involves both the hosts capacity to respond to infections and the development of long-term immune memory, especially by vaccination. This age-associated immune deficiency is ubiquitous and found in both long- and short-living species as a function of their age relative to life expectancy rather than chronological time. It is considered a major contributory factor to the increased frequency of morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Immunosenescence is not a random deteriorative phenomenon, rather it appears to inversely repeat an evolutionary pattern and most of the parameters affected by immunosenescence appear to be under genetic control. Immunosenescence can also be sometimes envisaged as the result of the continuous challenge of the unavoidable exposure to a variety of antigens such as viruses and bacteria. Immunosenescence is a multifactorial condition leading to many ...
Wed tidied up then gone to bed at ten. Miguel and I had talked for a bit, unable to sleep as we were both pretty pumped for the days ahead. We agreed that Miss Wilson (we assumed she wasnt married, which maybe wasnt fair) was going to be pretty hard on us, and we talked about the lives we were living behind. I mentioned the death of my father (I didnt mention that Id killed his killer- I figured I didnt need that news spreading any further than it already had), and Miguel told me his father was an officer in the UWAN. A major aboard a cruiser. I told him I thought that was cool- he told me it was actually quite stressful, never knowing if his mother and him would get word of a tragic battle.. Our conversation had slumped after that, though we did briefly argue over whether soccer should be called football. We also reminisced over our former girlfriends- Miguel had left behind not one but two broken hearts- dirty dawg!. After a little while the intensity of the day got to us. We settled ...
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I am a female ,21 years old, 100 pounds 52. When I was born, my mother was told to watch me for a few days to see if I turned yellow. I didnt. My main concern is that I was recently to...
The CD15 antigen (Lewis x or Lex) is the lacto-N-(neo) fucopentaose III molecule. This carbohydrate epitope is carried by both glycolipids and glycoproteins expressed on the cell membrane. CD15 antigen is strongly expressed by neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, macrophages, mast cells and normal myeloid precursor cells. It is not expressed on normal erythrocytes, platelets or lymphocytes ...
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... whose enzymatic activity creates the CD57 epitope on other cell surface proteins. In immunology, the CD57 antigen (CD stands ... CD57+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human B3GAT1 genome location and B3GAT1 ... "Expression of CD57 defines replicative senescence and antigen-induced apoptotic death of CD8+ T cells". Blood. 101 (7): 2711-20 ... also known as CD57 and LEU7). Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been characterized. In anatomical pathology, CD57 ...
Hanke T, Corral L, Vance RE, Raulet DH (December 1998). "2F1 antigen, the mouse homolog of the rat "mast cell function- ... and resolved infection and its relation with CD57". Journal of Immunology. 174 (10): 6088-94. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.174.10.6088 ... associated antigen", is a lectin-like type II transmembrane receptor expressed by natural killer cells". European Journal of ... "Increased expression of the NK cell receptor KLRG1 by virus-specific CD8 T cells during persistent antigen stimulation". ...
... antigens, cd55 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.156 - antigens, cd56 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.157 - antigens, cd57 MeSH D23.050.301.264 ... antigens, cd28 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.156 - antigens, cd56 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.157 - antigens, cd57 MeSH D23.050.301.264 ... antigens, cd55 MeSH D23. - antigens, cd56 MeSH D23. - antigens, cd57 MeSH D23. - ... antigens, cd28 MeSH D23.101.100.894.156 - antigens, cd56 MeSH D23.101.100.894.157 - antigens, cd57 MeSH D23.101.100.900 - ...
Infusions of T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that recognizes an antigen molecule on leukemia ... and CD57 in humans, NK1.1 or NK1.2 in C57BL/6 mice. The NKp46 cell surface marker constitutes, at the moment, another NK cell ... which subsequently enables antigen-specific T and B cell responses. Instead of acting via antigen-specific receptors, lysis of ... In contrast to NKT cells, NK cells do not express T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) or pan T marker CD3 or surface immunoglobulins ...
... such as PSAP and CD57. PSA was first identified by researchers attempting to find a substance in seminal fluid that would aid ... Prostate-specific antigen (PSA, also known as kallikrein III, seminin, semenogelase, γ-seminoprotein and P-30 antigen) is a 34- ... It is now clear that the term prostate-specific antigen is a misnomer: it is an antigen but is not specific to the prostate. ... Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), also known as gamma-seminoprotein or kallikrein-3 (KLK3), P-30 antigen, is a glycoprotein ...
... to epithelial membrane antigen in 1 of 6 cases and muscle specific antigen in 1 of 6. Olgac et al. found that intense and ... CK7 and CD57 is better in this differential diagnosis. Differential diagnosis may be quite difficult indeed as exemplified by ...
This antigen along with other blood group antigens was used to identify the Basque people as a genetically separate group.[49] ... Because the Duffy antigen is uncommon in those of Black African descent, the presence of this antigen has been used to detect ... The Fy4 antigen, originally described on Fy (a-b-) RBCs, is now thought to be a distinct, unrelated antigen and is no longer ... The Duffy antigen is expressed in greater quantities on reticulocytes than on mature erythrocytes.[21] While the Duffy antigen ...
These surface molecules in turn can transmit important antigen-sensing signals during infection. CD49a+NKG2C+ NK cells are the ... CD57, and CD85j (ILT2, LILRB1). None of these surface marker expression patterns are inherently specific for adaptive NK cells ... This so-called memory-like functionality is antigen-unspecific and characterized by an increased proliferative capacity, long- ... Importantly, both memory-like functionalities are antigen-unspecific and mean "remembering" a previous state of increased ...
CD64+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
"Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26". Science. 261 (5120): 466-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
... is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Leucocyte typing: human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
Tissue Antigens (англ.)русск. : journal. - 2007. - Vol. 68, no. 6. - P. 509-517. - DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00726.x. - PMID ...
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... 2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... 1991). „Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID ... 2003). „Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". Int. J. Hematol. 75 ...
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11.[5] CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ... "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms cooperate to mediate colon carcinoma cell adhesion to E- and L-selectin in ...
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... 1996). "CD88 antibodies specifically bind to C5aR on dermal CD117+ and CD14+ cells and react with a desmosomal antigen in human ...
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
... uveitis antigens induce CXCR3- and CXCR5-expressing lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells to migrate (англ.) // Blood (англ ...
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... Hamann J, Wishaupt JO, van Lier RA, Smeets TJ, Breedveld FC, Tak PP (Apr 1999). "Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and ... Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004325.x. PMID 11380941.. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of ...
"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)".. *^ May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; ... CD61+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
The protein also carries the Jr(a) antigen, which defines the Junior blood group system.[9] ...
"Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet degranulation. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling ...
antigen binding. • virus receptor activity. • protein binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • identical protein ...
T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell. • T cell antigen ... CD51 · CD52 · CD53 · CD54 · CD55 · CD56 · CD57 · CD58 · CD59 · CD61 · CD62 (E, L, P) · CD63 · CD64 (A, B, C) · CD66 (a, b, c, d ...
CD57" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, CD57" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... "Antigens, CD57" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD57" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Antigens, CD57". ...
HNK-1 antigen carbohydrate moiety) is an oligosaccharide with sulfated glucoronic acid residues that may be linked to a variety ... CD57 Antigen. The CD57 antigen (HNK-1 antigen carbohydrate moiety) is an oligosaccharide with sulfated glucoronic acid residues ... Cord blood T cells or NK cells lack the CD57 antigen. It is not expressed on red blood cells or on platelets but is present on ... Many of these CD57+ cells co-express the CD8 antigen and are a subset of the suppressor / cytotoxic T lymphocytes. ...
You are here: Home » Latest News » Archives for CD57 antigen. Tag Archives: CD57 antigen. Decreased expression of the CD57 ... Posted in News , Tagged biomarker, CD57 antigen, diagnostic marker, J M Urra, lymphocytes, Natural Killer cells, P Espinosa, ... Decreased Expression of the CD57 Molecule in T Lymphocytes of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, by P Espinosa, J M Urra ...
... products and learn more about CD57 Mouse anti-Human, Brilliant Violet 605, Clone: NK-1, BD 50 Tests; 50 Tests; Brilliant Violet ... The NK-1 monoclonal antibody specifically reacts with a 110 kDa carbohydrate antigen associated with myelin-associated ... CD57 is not expressed on granulocytes, platelets, red blood cells or thymocytes. The function of CD57 is still unclear, however ...
Capture assays for antigens in urine. *Culture, immunofluorescence staining, or cell sorting of cell wall-deficient or cystic ... Quantitative CD57 lymphocyte assays. *"Reverse Western blots". *In-house criteria for interpretation of immunoblots ...
CD57: 28. Positive for early antigen EBV. 11/22/16 started Doxy 100mg/2x a day, Samento and Banderol 10 drops/2x a day. 1/10/17 ...
Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / biosynthesis* * Apoptosis / immunology * B-Lymphocytes / immunology* * B-Lymphocytes ... Follicular B helper T cell activity is confined to CXCR5(hi)ICOS(hi) CD4 T cells and is independent of CD57 expression Eur J ... but not CD57 expression. CXCR5(hi)ICOS(hi) CD4 T cells are the most potent inducers of IgG production that also secrete large ...
Antigen Unmasking:. Bring slides to a boil in 10 mM sodium citrate buffer (pH 6.0) then maintain at a sub-boiling temperature ...
CD43 and NK-cell antigen CD56; negative for CD3, CD5, CD57 and CD11. Large groups of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA-positive ... CD15, CD20, CD30, CD43, CD45, ALK, CD57 and EMA. Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. CD45, EMA, ALK1, CD3, CD45RO, CD4, CD8, CD20, ... A characteristic feature of nodular L&H is the presence of a wreath-like configuration of the CD57+ small lymphocytes around L& ... L&H cells also stain for epithelial membrane antigen and CD79a; results of both are negative in Reed-Sternberg cells. ...
CD56 Antigen / biosynthesis * CD57 Antigens / biosynthesis * CD8 Antigens / biosynthesis * Cell Proliferation * Cell ... CD8 and CD57 expression was lower in CB than in adult NK cells. However, the expression of other differentiation markers was ...
CD 57 antibody. *CD57 antibody. *CD57 antigen antibody. *Galactosylgalactosylxylosylprotein 3 beta glucuronosyltransferase 1 ... Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with Tris/EDTA buffer pH 9.0 before commencing with IHC staining protocol. for 30 ...
Antigen Expression Blood Type O; Rh +; CD56; CD57 (HNK-1,Leu-7) ...
Antigens, CD24 / immunology, metabolism*. Antigens, CD57 / immunology. Brain*. Carbohydrate Sequence. Epitopes / immunology. ... 0/Antigens, CD24; 0/Antigens, CD57; 0/Epitopes; 0/Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1; 0/Polysaccharides; 0/Sugar Alcohols; 31103- ...
Expression of CD57 defines replicative senescence and antigen-induced apoptotic death of CD8+ T cells. Blood. 2003;101: 2711- ... human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR-FITC, CD57-FITC, CD62L-FITC, CD95-PE, CD154 (CD40L)-PE, and IL-2Rα (CD25)-PE and IL-2Rα-FITC ( ... HIV antigen-specific CD8+ T cells do not uniformly produce IFN-γ in response to their cognate antigen during periods of high ... Similarly, there was an elevation in CD127 (IL-7R)- CD57- (Figure 1D) CD4+ T cells during early PHI, compared with late PHI and ...
Also, CD57 expression can be found on a variety of neural cell types. CD57 has been shown to be expressed on late stage ... In blood, CD57 is found on 15-20% of mononuclear cells, including subsets of natural killer (NK) and T cells, though not on ... CD57, also known as HNK-1 or Leu-7, is an antigenic oligosaccharide moiety detected on extracellular proteins of certain cell ... CD57 expression is also increased on chronically activated CD8+ T cells in persistent viral infections, such as HIV. - ...
ProSpecs CD Antigens include: CD4, CD40, CD10, CD11B, CD14, CD146, CD147, CD1A, CD2, CD21, CD23, CD25, CD29, CD31, CD34, CD38 ...
J. M. Brenchley, N. J. Karandikar, M. R. Betts et al., "Expression of CD57 defines replicative senescence and antigen-induced ... and that CD57+ PD-1− have higher survival potential (more resistant to apoptosis) than CD57+ PD-1+. In fact, PD-1 has been ... CD57. +. cells in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals," Journal of Immunology, vol. 177, no. 8, pp. 5145-5154, 2006. View ... J. R. Almeida, D. Sauce, D. A. Price et al., "Antigen sensitivity is a major determinant of CD8. +. T-cell polyfunctionality ...
... and highlight key findings from human vaccination studies which show heightened responses to bacterial and viral antigens ... CD57−CD62L+CCR7+KLRG1− naïve cells) (185, 186). In parallel, the numbers and proportions of antigen-experienced CD4+ and CD8+ T ... antigen-experienced memory T cell clones, repopulating blood with antigen-inexperienced naïve T cells (11, 12). In this ... it has been proposed that antigen-inexperienced naïve T cells could be "used up" due to ongoing differentiation into antigen- ...
... whose enzymatic activity creates the CD57 epitope on other cell surface proteins. In immunology, the CD57 antigen (CD stands ... CD57+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human B3GAT1 genome location and B3GAT1 ... "Expression of CD57 defines replicative senescence and antigen-induced apoptotic death of CD8+ T cells". Blood. 101 (7): 2711-20 ... also known as CD57 and LEU7). Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been characterized. In anatomical pathology, CD57 ...
CD15, CD20, CD30, CD43, CD45, ALK, CD57 and EMA. Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. CD45, EMA, ALK1, CD3, CD45RO, CD4, CD8, CD20, ... The lymph node processes and presents various antigens to either B or T lymphocytes. Antigenic stimulation can result in ...
Expression of CD57 defines replicative senescence and antigen-induced apoptotic death of CD8+ T cells. Blood. 101:2711-2720. ... D) Proportions of CD57+ cells within memory CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. (E) Correlation between naive and CD57+ memory CD4+ or CD8+ T ... Antigen challenge leads to in vivo activation and elimination of highly polarized TH1 memory T cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U ... In contrast, antigen-driven expansion of memory CD4+ T cells is limited, and fewer CD4+ T cells are able to survive after ...
Expression of CD57 defines replicative senescence and antigen-induced apoptotic death of CD8+ T cells. Blood 2003;101(7):2711- ... anti-CD57, and anti-Ki67 mAbs. Cells are gated for CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD4+/CD57+ (left) or CD3+/CD8+ and CD3+/CD8+/CD57+/CD28− ... CD45RA+/CD57−), TEMRA (CD57+/CD28−/CD27−), and "DNT-like" (CD57+/CD28+/CD27+) cells and analyzed for their Ki67 expression (A) ... Therefore, we analyzed Ki67 expression in naive (CD45RA+/CD57−), terminal differentiated (TEMRA, CD57+/CD27−/CD28−), and "DNT- ...
Expression of CD57 defines replicative senescence and antigen-induced apoptotic death of CD8+ T cells. Blood (2003) 101:2711-20 ... Skewed association of polyfunctional antigen-specific CD8 T cell populations with HLA-B genotype. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ( ... MHC class II tetramers and the pursuit of antigen-specific T cells: define, deviate, delete. Clin Immunol (2004) 110:232-42. ... Greenbaum J, Sidney J, Chung J, Brander C, Peters B, Sette A. Functional classification of class II human leukocyte antigen ( ...
Exbio - Research products - Antibodies - CD and related antigens - Anti-Hu CD57 FITC ... The mouse monoclonal antibody TB01 recognizes CD57, a carbohydrate extracellular antigen present mainly on NK cells, NK T cells ... Wangerin H, Kristiansen G, Schlomm T, Stephan C, Gunia S, Zimpfer A, Weichert W, Sauter G, Erbersdobler A: CD57 expression in ... Fernandez S, French MA, Price P: Immunosenescent CD57+CD4+ T-cells accumulate and contribute to interferon-γ responses in HIV ...
One type of tumor glands is scored as CD10−/CD13−/CD57− (blue arrow) while the other is scored as CD10+/CD13+/CD57+ (red arrow ... Cluster designation (CD) antigens are cell surface markers that can be used to identify constituent cell populations of an ... They are also more uniformly stained for CD57, however, normal glands elsewhere in this specimen were well stained by CD57. ... CD57, CD10, CD13, CD26, and CD107b are reactive to luminal cells; CD44, CD104, CD29, and CD55 are reactive to basal cells; CD29 ...
2003) Expression of CD57 defines replicative senescence and antigen-induced apoptotic death of CD8+ T cells. Blood 101, 2711- ... Elevated expression of CD57 has been observed on tumor-specific T cells. It may be the consequence of persistent chronic ... 2005) Modeling T cell antigen discrimination based on feedback control of digital ERK responses. Plos Biol. 3, 1925-1938. ... It has been reported that the anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 stimulation as used here preferentially expand CD45RO- cells (55). CD57 is ...
Expression of CD57 defines replicative senescence and antigen-induced apoptotic death of CD8+ T cells. Blood 101: 2711-2720. ... 5B, 5C; p = 0.03). In contrast, CD57, which has been reported as a marker of polyfunctional and/or terminally differentiated ... Innate Immunity Together with Duration of Antigen Persistence Regulate Effector T Cell Induction ... and CD57 histograms for each subset were generated and displayed using the same symbols (B). C, Combined results from five ...
Expression of CD57 defines replicative senescence and antigen-induced apoptotic death of CD8+ T cells. Blood 101: 2711-2720. ... T-cell antigen receptor genes and T-cell recognition. Nature 334: 395-402. ...
Theres also a useful indirect test called the CD57 test.. "CD-57" is a specific group of natural killer cells that are ... According to Klinghardt, the IGeneX Lab in Palo Alto is the gold standard for Lyme testing, as they use two different antigens ... because the only known infection to suppress CD57 is that of B. burgdorferi. ...
The associated natural killer cell antigens (NKa) CD16, CD56 and CD57 are variably expressed; CD57 is the most commonly ... by the co-expression of the T-cell CD3 antigen and at least one NKa CD57, CD16 or CD56 antigen. The normal range of T-LGL cell ... expressed cell antigen and CD56 is the least commonly expressed cell antigen. A total or partial lack of other T-cell antigens ... Demonstration of aberrant T-cell and natural killer cell antigen expression in all cases of granular lymphocytic leukemia. Br J ...
  • Many of these CD57+ cells co-express the CD8 antigen and are a subset of the suppressor / cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (
  • The NK-1 monoclonal antibody specifically reacts with a 110 kDa carbohydrate antigen associated with myelin-associated glycoprotein expressed on 7-35% of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes including a subset of natural killer cells, a subset of CD8-positive peripheral blood T cells, and on some neural tissues. (
  • The lymph node processes and presents various antigens to either B or T lymphocytes. (
  • Using immunohistochemistry, CD57 molecule can be demonstrated in around 10 to 20% of lymphocytes, as well as in some epithelial, neural, and chromaffin cells. (
  • Among lymphocytes, CD57 positive cells are typically either T cells or NK cells, and are most commonly found within the germinal centres of lymph nodes, tonsils, and the spleen. (
  • Note staining of CD57 positive T lymphocytes. (
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules on hematopoietic cancers and melanomas inhibit attack by natural killer lymphocytes, but previous studies have not consistently demonstrated that carcinoma cells are protected by HLA class I expression. (
  • We here studied whether subclinical CD is associated with changes in blood CD57-expressing and Vδ1-expressing lymphocytes in children, and whether cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection modifies this association. (
  • Tumor immunotherapy with T lymphocytes, which can recognize and destroy malignant cells, has been limited by the ability to isolate and expand T cells restricted to tumor-associated antigens. (
  • CD57+ T lymphocytes are derived from CD57- precursors by differentiation occurring in late immune responses. (
  • PPD, streptokinase, Candida antigen, and tetanus toxoid all activate lymphocytes, if the patient has had a prior exposure to the antigen or superantigen. (
  • T lymphocytes express certain antigens after activation. (
  • In immunology, the CD57 antigen (CD stands for cluster of differentiation) is also known as HNK1 (human natural killer-1) or LEU7. (
  • Since expression of CD antigens is associated with cellular differentiation, cancer cells may differ from their normal counterpart in their CD profile. (
  • Lymph node CD4 and CD8 cells less commonly expressed the terminal differentiation marker CD57, a finding consistent with an earlier differentiation state. (
  • I went on to investigate the impact of this advanced differentiation phenotype on NK cell responses in two vaccination studies: Gambian subjects of all ages made negligible NK cell CD107a, CD25, and IFN-γ responses to influenza or DTPiP vaccine antigens. (
  • Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the tumor cells were negative for cluster of differentiation 30 (CD30) and EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs), and positive for CD20, paired box protein 5, CD79a, octamer binding protein 2 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). (
  • A differentiation antigen of human NK and K cells identified by a monoclonal antibody (HNK-1). (
  • The CD antigens / Cluster of differentiation nomenclature was established in the 1st International Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA), which was held in Paris in 1982. (
  • CD antigens for cluster of differentiation, which indicates a defined subset of cellular surface receptors (epitopes) that identify cell type and stage of differentiation, and which are recognized by antibodies. (
  • T cells with chimeric antigen receptors have potent antitumor effects and can establish memory in patients with advanced leukemia. (
  • Recent clinical studies have used chimeric antigen receptors to modify T cells genetically to target and deplete leukemia cells ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are an application of this approach that combines an antigen recognition domain of a specific antibody with an intracellular domain of the CD3-ζ chain or FcγRI protein into a single chimeric protein ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • These antigens include CD69, IL-2 receptor (CD25), transferring receptors (CD71), and major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (human leukocyte antigen DR). (
  • Non peptide antigen presentation to T-cell receptors on NKT cells. (
  • Interferon (IFN)-γ producing antigen-specific CD4 + T cells have been demonstrated in primary HIV-1 infection, despite high levels of viremia. (
  • The function of CD57 is still unclear, however, its expression on T-cell subets occurs in late immune responses. (
  • Here, we show that human follicular B helper T (T(FH)) cells are characterized by high expression of the homeostatic chemokine receptor CXCR5 and the costimulatory molecule ICOS, but not CD57 expression. (
  • CD8 and CD57 expression was lower in CB than in adult NK cells. (
  • Also, CD57 expression can be found on a variety of neural cell types. (
  • High levels of CD57 expression amongst circulating CD8+ T cells is associated with other markers of immune ageing (immunosenescence) and may be associated with increased cancer risk in renal transplant recipients. (
  • Consistent with a relationship between Th2 and TFH cells, IL-4 protein production, reported by expression of huCD2 in IL-4 dual reporter (4get/KN2) mice, was a robust marker of TFH cells in LNs responding to helminth antigens. (
  • Upregulation of Tim-3 and PD-1 expression is associated with tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cell dysfunction in melanoma patients. (
  • In patients with advanced melanoma, we have previously shown that the cancer-germline antigen NY-ESO-1 stimulates spontaneous NY-ESO-1-specific CD8(+) T cells that up-regulate PD-1 expression. (
  • Expression levels of cell surface antigens such as CD38 and HLA-DR are related to HIV disease stages. (
  • CD57 (Leu-7) expression is helpful in diagnosis of the follicular vari" by Ashraf Khan, Stephen P. Baker et al. (
  • We have studied CD57 expression by immunohistochemistry to determine its utility in the classification of thyroid follicular lesions. (
  • CD57 expression in thyroid carcinomas was significantly different from that in normal and benign thyroid lesions (P (
  • The follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma also showed significantly higher CD57 expression than colloid nodules (P (
  • When given alone, GM-CSF increased the number of CD14 + cells but did not enhance the cells' expression of APC markers or antigen-presenting activity. (
  • Surface expression of CD45RO, CD27, and CD57 on responding cells was used to classify CD4 + T cell maturation. (
  • Mechtersheimer G, Staudter M, and Moller P. Expression of the natural killer cell-associated antigens CD56 and CD57 in human neural and striated muscle cells and in their tumors. (
  • A subset of CD8 + CD28 − cells with CD57 expression, termed effector memory cells, is expanded in several immune-mediated diseases and may have a role in immune surveillance. (
  • Conclusion: These data suggest that particularly after antigen stimulation, that surface phenotypes defined by CCR7, CD27 and CD45RA expression on antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, reflect a wide range of immunological functions, and that no single phenotype defined by memory marker expression can reliably be used to identify functional capacity. (
  • CD57 expression and cytokine production by T cells in lesional and unaffected skin from patients with psoriasis. (
  • We examined the expression of CD57 on T cells in the skin of patients affected with psoriasis, comparing lesional and unaffected skin. (
  • A 32-year-old Chinese woman diagnosed with ATLL with myeloid antigen expression received HSCT from her human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sister and presented with two lesions in her right breast 6 months later. (
  • Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with ATLL with myeloid antigen expression. (
  • Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma expressing cytokeratin and membrane epithelial antigen associated with a neuroendocrine population expressing CD56, CD57, and chromogranin A. The leukocyte markers were negative (Figure 3 ). (
  • This image is part of a large collection of immunohistochemistry images of cell-surface antigens generated by the SCGAP Urologic Epithelial Stem Cells (UESC) Project. (
  • It is present on multipotential neuroepithelial cells during embryogenesis, and tumours of epithelial, neuroectodermal and nerve sheath origin also express CD57. (
  • Therefore, NK cells and T cells can be further enumerated by using monoclonal antibodies against CD16, CD56, and CD57, though they are not lineage specific. (
  • Currently a professor of Nigata University Graduate School (immunology) He created monoclonal antibody against NK cell antigen CD57 while he attended Alabama University in 1980. (
  • Although usually strongly CD56+, these lymphomas are negative for other NK cell associated antigens such as CD16 and CD57. (
  • In the present study, we have investigated the functional profile of CD4 T cells from patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), including production of cytokines and proliferation in response to bacteria and virus-derived antigens. (
  • These autologous T cells have been generated either by ex vivo manipulation of antigen-specific T cells with cytokines or by genetically engineering T cells to exhibit strong antitumor responses ( 5 - 16 ). (
  • For the purpose of comparison, the number of positive events to each CD specificity ( x axis) is adjusted to the percentage of CD57 + cells in either NP (13%) or CP (57.6%) ( y axis), and tabulated. (
  • Although extensively cultured CTLs retain antigen specificity for the tumor ( 10 ), they present striking alterations in function and gene and protein expressions ( 8 ), e.g. they are in an irreversible cell cycle arrest, resistant to apoptosis, with short telomeres and unable to respond to antigenic cues or IL-2 stimulation. (
  • While the presence of mNKs has been suggested in humans based on the expansion of NK cells following pathogen exposure, evidence regarding antigen-specificity is lacking. (
  • This gene product functions as the key enzyme in a glucuronyl transfer reaction during the biosynthesis of the carbohydrate epitope HNK-1 (human natural killer-1, also known as CD57 and LEU7). (
  • We measured lymphocyte subset frequency and memory T-cell gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and proliferative responses to HCV peptide and control viral antigens in direct ex vivo assays. (
  • The CD57 molecule is not expressed on erythrocytes or platelets. (
  • Today, the HLDA Workshop meeting has been held 10 times and has over 371 CD antigens molecule have been identified. (
  • In most, but not all, animal models of adaptive immune responses to viral infection, optimal clearance of virus depends on synergistic interactions between antigen-specific populations of helper CD4 + T cells, antibody-producing B cells, and cytotoxic CD8 + T cells. (
  • The mouse monoclonal antibody TB01 recognizes CD57, a carbohydrate extracellular antigen present mainly on NK cells, NK T cells, and in neural tissue. (
  • Duodenal biopsies, additional Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) DQ 2.2, 2.5 and 8 and endomysial antibody (EMA) typing were performed in TG2A positive children. (
  • Emerging evidence suggests that NK cells could be important in the early effector response induced by vaccination, supported by vaccine antigen-specific CD4 IL-2 production and antigen-antibody immune complexes. (
  • Using gene transfer technologies, T cells can be genetically modified to stably express antibody binding domains on their surface that confer novel antigen specificities that are major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-independent. (
  • The recently described DotScan antibody microarray technology enables the simultaneous analysis of a large number of cell surface antigens. (
  • The recently developed antibody microarray technology enables the simultaneous analysis of a large number of cell surface antigens on a single chip. (
  • 12 ], who used a similar antibody microarray to demonstrate the conservation of unique cell surface antigen mosaics in cryopreserved PBMCs from HIV+ individuals. (
  • CD antigens have been used as targets in a wide variety of cancer therapeutics including monoclonal antibodies, antibody-drug-conjugates, tri-functional and bi-specific T-cell engager antibodies, radio immunoconjugates and CAR T-cell therapies. (
  • Global CD antigen based cancer therapy market has evolved since the approval of first CD antigen targeting monoclonal antibody. (
  • 1. one that combines with antibody produced in response to a different but related antigen, owing to similarity of antigenic determinants. (
  • 2. identical antigens in two bacterial strains, so that antibody produced against one strain will react with the other. (
  • Antibody to Forssman antigen is usually recognized by agglutination of sheep red blood cells. (
  • An assessment of functional antibody production in response to natural antigens or antigens to which the population is commonly exposed may be helpful. (
  • Similarly, an evaluation of the antibody response after active immunization with polysaccharide or protein antigens is possible. (
  • CD antigens have been present in disguise since the efforts began to develop therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in 1970s. (
  • CD antigens are the basis on which monoclonal antibodies were discovered. (
  • However, in PHI subjects with later presentation, antigen-specific CD4 + T cells could not be readily detected (median, 0.08%), coinciding with a 5-fold lower level of the CCR5 + CD38 +++ CD4 + T cells. (
  • But with continuous efforts in research more CD antigens were found to play significant roles in cancer progression which were then used as cancer therapeutic targets including CD19, CD22, CD38, CD33 and CD3. (
  • Cord blood T cells or NK cells lack the CD57 antigen. (
  • A population of NK cells expressing the activating receptor NKG2C and the maturation marker CD57 expands in response to human CMV (HCMV) infection. (
  • In this review, we have described the characteristics of natural killer (NK) cells from multiple cell sources, including pluripotent stem cells, the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modification method and strategy for these NK cells, and the current and planned clinical trials of CAR-modified induced pluripotent stem cell-derived NK cells. (
  • Hu Y, Tian ZG, Zhang C. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-transduced natural killer cells in tumor immunotherapy. (
  • Chimeric antigen receptor T cells for sustained remissions in leukemia. (
  • Chimeric antigen receptor-engineered NK-92 cells: an off-the-shelf cellular therapeutic for targeted elimination of cancer cells and induction of protective antitumor immunity. (
  • 17 ) transduced autologous T cells ex vivo with a vector expressing a natural T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for the melanoma-associated antigen recognized by T-cells 1 [MART-1(26-35)] epitope and reintroduced them into patients, resulting in tumor regression in two of the 15 subjects ( 17 ). (
  • Oligoclonal characteristics were also observed in total CD8 + cells from aplastic anemia patients with CD8 + CD57 + cell expansion by T-cell receptor deep sequencing, as well as the presence of 1-3 immunodominant clones. (
  • Oligoclonality was confirmed by T-cell receptor repertoire deep sequencing of enriched CD8 + CD57 + cells, which also showed decreased diversity compared to total CD4 + and CD8 + cell pools. (
  • 13 , 14 , 18 Further evidence for the presence of antigen-specific CD4 T cells is the production of high-affinity, isotype-switched antibodies to HIV-1, which presumably requires the provision of help for B-cell responses by CXCR5 + CD4 + follicular helper T cells. (
  • The antibodies employed were anti-cytokeratin (AE1/3, Dako), anti -cytokeratin (polyclonal wide, Dako), anti-p53 protein (DO-7, Dako) and anti-Ki-67 antigen (MIB-1, Dako). (
  • Therefore, they were immunohistologically characterized with antibodies recognizing CD3, CD8, CD57, T cell-restricted intracellular antigen (TIA-1), and granzyme B (GrB). (
  • Chronic antigen stimulation drives CD8+ memory T cell proliferation, while also inducing genome-wide epigenetic reprograming and dysfunction. (
  • We also observed that PD-1 regulates NY-ESO-1-specific CD8(+) T cell expansion upon chronic antigen stimulation. (
  • In addition, Tim-3-Tim-3L blockade enhanced cytokine production and proliferation of NY-ESO-1-specific CD8(+) T cells upon prolonged antigen stimulation and acted in synergy with PD-1-PD-L1 blockade. (
  • Although CD4 + T cells that proliferate in vitro in response to HIV-1 antigens are mostly absent in untreated chronically infected subjects, an average of approximately 0.1% of peripheral blood CD4 + T cells capable of producing IFN-γ can be detected in most HIV-infected individuals by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay or by intracellular cytokine assay. (
  • Previous studies of primary immune responses to viral infection in mice have shown that antigen-specific T-helper 1 (Th1) CD4 responses can be readily detected in the early stages of the infection, but rapidly decline as antigen is cleared. (
  • In the second part of this review, we provide evidence that frequent exercise enhances-rather than suppresses-immune competency, and highlight key findings from human vaccination studies which show heightened responses to bacterial and viral antigens following bouts of exercise. (
  • Fernandez S, French MA, Price P: Immunosenescent CD57+CD4+ T-cells accumulate and contribute to interferon-γ responses in HIV patients responding stably to ART. (
  • We report that CD8 + T cell responses specific for Gag and, in particular, the immunodominant p24 epitope KK10 correlate with control of HIV-1 replication in human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 patients. (
  • Vaccine development against tuberculosis (TB) is based on the induction of adaptive immune responses endowed with long-term memory against mycobacterial antigens. (
  • In contrast, control viral CD4 protein antigen and CD8 peptide antigen-specific IFN-γ responses were commonly observed in the periphery and uncommonly observed in the lymph nodes of these same subjects. (
  • helminths and antigens derived from them inherently induce Th2-polarized responses ( 13 ). (
  • The paradoxical coexistence of spontaneous tumor antigen-specific immune responses with progressive disease in cancer patients furthers the need to dissect the molecular pathways involved in tumor-induced T cell dysfunction. (
  • Here, we demonstrate the existence of HBV-specific mNKs in humans after vaccination and in chronic HBV infection.NK cell responses were evaluated by flow cytometry and ELISA following challenge with HBV antigens in HBV vaccinated, non-vaccinated and chronic HBV-infected individuals.NK cells from vaccinated subjects demonstrated higher cytotoxic and proliferative responses against autologous hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-pulsed monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) compared with unvaccinated subjects. (
  • Various cell type marker antigens were used for immunohistochemical identification of the type of cell that expressed COX-2. (
  • CD57 is a marker of replicative inability and immunosenescence on CD8+ T cells and the proportion of CD57 expressing CD8+ T cells is increased in a number of inflammatory conditions. (
  • A therapeutic vaccine comprising a recombinant vaccinia virus, MVA-EL, was designed to boost immunity to these tumor antigens. (
  • Chemotherapy has a potential to trigger nant cells have developed sophisticated mechanisms and immune activation by inducing immunogenic cell death pathways through which they regulate negative and posi- and subsequent tumor-associated neoantigen release, tive signals, blocking cytotoxic T cell activation and which in turn activates antigen-presenting cells (APCs) regulatory T cells and thus promoting tumor growth and such as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and eventual tumor metastasis [2]. (
  • Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are essential for stimulating antigen-specific immunity, including immunity against tumor cells. (
  • Neoplastic CD57 positive cells are seen in conditions as varied as large granular lymphocytic leukaemia, small-cell carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, and neural and carcinoid tumours. (
  • According to immunohistochemistry performed on paraffin blocks in France, infiltrating ductal carcinoma with a strong neuroendocrine component was confirmed by CD56, CD57, and chromogranin A markers. (
  • We conclude that CD57 immunohistochemistry is valuable in the classification of thyroid follicular lesions into benign and malignant groups and is also helpful in the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. (
  • 5 This deficit of antigen-specific CD4 + T cells may represent a major impediment to immune control of HIV-1 infection. (
  • Cells derived from aged cancer patients have a skewed immune repertoire toward cells that underwent extensive clonal expansion against persistent antigens, resulting in few tumor-specific CTLs ( 6 - 8 ). (
  • However, because the nonresponse rate to hepatitis B is so high, especially among persons older than 40 years, these antigens remain unreliable in the testing of immune competence. (
  • In May 2014, the patient received allogeneic HSCT from her human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sister. (
  • Cluster designation (CD) antigens are cell surface markers that can be used to identify constituent cell populations of an organ. (
  • Flow cytometry analysis (surface staining) of human peripheral blood with anti-human CD57 (TB01) FITC. (
  • To date, the immunophenotyping of cell surface antigens relies on flow cytometry, allowing estimation of 3-6 markers at a time. (
  • To date, the immunophenotyping of CD antigens relies on flow cytometry. (
  • The CD57 antigen (HNK-1 antigen carbohydrate moiety) is an oligosaccharide with sulfated glucoronic acid residues that may be linked to a variety of polypeptides or lipids. (
  • A negative test result to all antigens suggests impaired type IV immunity. (
  • The CD57 glycoprotein, also known as HNK-1, has a molecular weight of 110 kD.It is found on a subset of mononuclear cells with natural killer activity and on neuroectodermal cells expressing myelin-associated glycoprotein. (
  • Antigens, CD57" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • CD57, also known as HNK-1 or Leu-7, is an antigenic oligosaccharide moiety detected on extracellular proteins of certain cell types. (
  • 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase 1 (B3GAT1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the B3GAT1 gene, whose enzymatic activity creates the CD57 epitope on other cell surface proteins. (
  • CD57 is the most commonly expressed cell antigen and CD56 is the least commonly expressed cell antigen. (
  • A total or partial lack of other T-cell antigens, such as CD2, CD5 and CD7, can be observed (3-4). (
  • Freedman et al [35] studied the immunophenotype of 100 B-CLL patients and found that all cases expressed Ia, CD19, and CD20 (pan B-cell antigens). (
  • Tissue section of human prostate containing adenocarcinoma that has been immunostained for the cell-surface antigen CD57. (
  • In most cancers, tumor-specific antigens are not yet well defined, but in B cell malignancies, CD19 is an attractive tumor target. (
  • Pairwise comparisons identified 17 statistically differential cell surface antigens including 5 novel ones (CD212b1, CD218a, CD183, CD3 epsilon and CD9), not previously reported. (
  • Our study not only confirmed cell surface antigens previously reported to be related to HIV disease stages, but also identified 5 novel ones. (
  • For the first time our study shows how density of cell surface antigens could be efficiently exploited in an array manner in relation to HIV disease stages. (
  • Moreover, NK cell lysis of HBsAg-pulsed moDCs was significantly higher than that of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-pulsed moDCs (non-vaccine antigen) or tumour necrosis factor α-activated moDCs in a NKG2D-dependent manner. (
  • Approval of CD antigen directed CAR-T cell therapy has further encouraged public and private sectors to increase investments in research studies related to genomics and technological advancements for feasible gene sequencing and selection of target gene expressing CD antigens. (
  • 18 - 21 The TCR, an αβ or γδ heterodimer, is responsible for antigen recognition and T-cell activation. (
  • The CD antigens are protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells. (
  • As a siganl, CD antigens usually initiated, altering the behavior of the cell. (
  • this phenotypic dichotomy was also apparent in CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell populations, and exhibited features consistent with antigen-driven activation. (
  • Human lymph node: immunohistochemical staining for CD57 antigen using NCL-NK1. (
  • This image is part of a large collection of images generated from numerous specimens to characterize the distribution of CD57 in human prostate tissue. (
  • Links are provided below for the UESC Project database, the entire human prostate immunostain summary, the CD57 immunostain summary, and information on the specimen that this image is from. (
  • Other images of CD57 human prostate immunostains are accessible following the group link. (
  • Some of these limitations could be circumvented by the use of genetically modified human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC) to generate mature and functional antigen-specific T cells. (
  • Antigen-specific human T cells have been developed in vitro using OP9 stromal cells expressing the human Notch ligand Delta-like 1 ( 25 , 26 ). (
  • This view has been challenged following the identification of antigen-specific memory natural killer cells (mNKs) in mice and non-human primates. (
  • Although current global CD antigen based cancer therapeutic market is dominated for treating hematological malignancies but strong clinical pipeline having over 100 CD antigen directing cancer drugs consists of various drugs which will be used for treating solid tumors like breast cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer etc. (
  • an exponential growth can be experienced by Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market after the approval of anti-CD antigenic cancer drugs for treating solid tumors. (
  • The addition of OKT3 mAb to the effector cells totally blocked both the binding and the lysis of OKT3 hybridoma targets, indicating that the CD3 antigen on the effector cells may be involved in recognition of the targets. (
  • Effector cells responsible for lysis of OKT3 hybridomas expressed T3, T8, and Leu 7 antigens, but lacked T4 and Leu 11b antigens, and were sensitive to the treatment with L-leucine methyl ester. (
  • Many cells which co-express CD57 and CD8 proteins are a subset of suppressor/cytotoxic T cells. (
  • In a more direct approach, murine bone marrow-derived DCs have been loaded with tumor antigen peptides (3 , 4) , antigenic proteins (5) , tumor lysates (6) , or tumor antigen genes (7) and have been shown in each case to stimulate antitumor activity when used to vaccinate naive mice. (
  • The relationship of TFH cells to the Th2 lineage was confirmed when TFH cells were found to develop from CXCR5 − PD-1 − IL-4/GFP + CD4 + T cells after their transfer into naive mice and antigen challenge in vivo. (
  • We hypothesized that systemic administration of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4, which promote monocytes to differentiate into dendritic cells in vitro , might enhance the number and antigen-presenting activity of CD14 + cells in vivo . (
  • CD57 (HNK-1) is a oligosaccharide antigen that is expressed by cells of several lineages. (
  • Antigen-specific memory CD4 + T cells are not often found in untreated chronic HIV-1 infection, using the standard in vitro proliferation assay. (
  • Harnessing these antigen specific, functionally active mNKs provides an opportunity to develop novel treatments targeting HBV in chronic infection. (
  • As for the CD57 results - yep, you most definally have chronic lymes, and with that reading for some time I would say. (
  • Low CD57 is found in Chronic Lyme, but is not diagnostic. (
  • We hypothesized that effector memory CD8 + CD28 − CD57 + cells may drive aberrant oligoclonal expansion in aplastic anemia. (
  • Cross-reacting antigen (epitope), a common antigen that occurs in two or more different molecules or organisms. (
  • CD57 is not expressed on granulocytes, platelets, red blood cells or thymocytes. (
  • In blood, CD57 is found on 15-20% of mononuclear cells, including subsets of natural killer (NK) and T cells, though not on erythrocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, or platelets. (
  • The mNKs response was mediated by CD56dim NK cells coexpressing CD57, CD69 and KLRG1. (
  • Autoregulatory CD8 T cells depend on cognate antigen recognition and CD4/CD8 myelin determinants. (
  • Although the antigen is particularly common in carcinoid tumours, it is found in such a wide range of other conditions that it is of less use in distinguishing these tumours from others than more specific markers such as chromogranin and NSE. (
  • We investigated whether HIV-1 antigen-specific CD4 + T cells expressed the viral coreceptor CCR5 during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI). (
  • Pretreatment of FFPE tissues with Antigen Retrieval 1 (AR1), high pH can significantly increase staining intensity. (