Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Distinct clinical and laboratory activity of two recombinant interleukin-2 preparations. (1/766)

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a potent lymphokine that activates natural killer cells, T cells, and other cells of the immune system. Several distinct recombinant human IL-2 preparations have shown antitumor activity, particularly for renal cell cancer and melanoma. Somewhat distinct immune and clinical effects have been noted when different IL-2 preparations have been tested clinically; however, the regimens and doses used were not identical. To compare these more directly, we have evaluated two clinical recombinant IL-2 preparations in vitro and in vivo using similar regimens and similar IUs of IL-2. We used the Food and Drug Administration-approved, commercially available Chiron IL-2 and the Hoffmann LaRoche (HLR) IL-2 supplied by the National Cancer Institute. Using equivalent IUs of IL-2, we noted quantitative differences in vitro and in vivo in the IL-2 activity of these two preparations. In patients receiving comparable IUs of the two preparations, HLR IL-2 induced the release of more soluble IL-2 receptor alpha into the serum than Chiron IL-2. In addition, more toxicities were noted in patients receiving 1.5 x 10(6) IU of HLR IL-2 than were seen in patients treated with 1.5 x 10(6) or even 4.5 x 10(6) IU of Chiron IL-2. These toxicities included fever, nausea and vomiting, and hepatic toxicity. In vitro proliferative assays using IL-2-dependent human and murine cell lines indicated that the IU of HLR IL-2 was more effective than Chiron IL-2 at inducing tritiated thymidine incorporation. Using flow cytometry, we also found quantitative differences in the ability of these two preparations to bind to IL-2 receptors. These findings indicate that approximately 3-6 IU of Chiron IL-2 are required to induce the same biological effect as 1 IU of HLR IL-2.  (+info)

Long-term fetal microchimerism in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets in healthy women and women with scleroderma. (2/766)

Fetal CD34(+) CD38(+) cells have recently been found to persist in maternal peripheral blood for many years after pregnancy. CD34(+) CD38(+) cells are progenitor cells that can differentiate into mature immune-competent cells. We asked whether long-term fetal microchimerism occurs in T lymphocyte, B lymphocyte, monocyte, and natural-killer cell populations of previously pregnant women. We targeted women with sons and used polymerase chain reaction for a Y-chromosome-specific sequence to test DNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and from CD3, CD19, CD14, and CD56/16 sorted subsets. We also asked whether persistent microchimerism might contribute to subsequent autoimmune disease in the mother and included women with the autoimmune disease scleroderma. Scleroderma has a peak incidence in women after childbearing years and has clinical similarities to chronic graft-versus-host disease that occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, known to involve chimerism. Sixty-eight parous women were studied for male DNA in PBMC and 20 for PBMC subsets. Microchimerism was found in PBMC from 33% (16 of 48) of healthy women and 60% (12 of 20) women with scleroderma, P =.046. Microchimerism was found in some women in CD3, CD19, CD14, and CD56/16 subsets including up to 38 years after pregnancy. Microchimerism in PBMC subsets was not appreciably more frequent in scleroderma patients than in healthy controls. Overall, microchimerism was found in CD3, CD19, and CD14 subsets in approximately one third of women and in CD56/16 in one half of women. HLA typing of mothers and sons indicated that HLA compatibility was not a requirement for persistent microchimerism in PBMC subsets. Fetal microchimerism in the face of HLA disparity implies that specific maternal immunoregulatory pathways exist that permit persistence but prevent effector function of these cells in normal women. Although microchimerism in PBMC was more frequent in women with scleroderma than healthy controls additional studies will be necessary to determine whether microchimerism plays a role in the pathogenesis of this or other autoimmune diseases.  (+info)

Phenotypic analysis and proliferative responses of human endometrial granulated lymphocytes during the menstrual cycle. (3/766)

The in vivo function of the unusual population of CD56+ CD16- endometrial granulated lymphocytes (eGLs) in human endometrium is unknown; their increased numbers in the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle suggests that they may play a role in the immunobiology of nonpregnant endometrium. In the present study, the phenotype and proliferative responses of eGLs at various phases of the menstrual cycle were compared with those in early pregnancy. Endometrial GLs were highly purified (> 98% CD56+) using immunomagnetic separation, and the expression of cell surface antigens was examined in smears using a double immunohistochemical labeling technique. Proliferative responses to mitogens and interleukin 2 (IL-2) were assessed in hanging drops in 60-well Terasaki plates. There was low to no expression of CD3, CD8, CD16, HML-1, L-selectin, and CD25 (IL-2 receptor alpha) on CD56+ cells isolated from nonpregnant and pregnant endometrium. The expression of CD2, CD49a, and CD122 (IL-2 receptor beta, IL-2Rbeta), however, increased from the proliferative to the late secretory phase of the menstrual cycle. In contrast, CD11a, CD69, and CD49d expression was high and did not vary with menstrual cycle phase; CD49d levels were significantly reduced in early pregnancy. Unlike early-pregnancy eGLs, none of the CD56+ eGL cultures throughout the menstrual cycle displayed phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced lymphoproliferation. In contrast, eGLs from nonpregnant endometrium in the presence of 5 or 100 U/ml IL-2 after 48- and 120-h incubation showed significant proliferative responses, as did eGL cultures from early pregnancy. A significantly reduced number of proliferative phase eGL cultures proliferated in response to IL-2 compared to secretory phase and early-pregnancy eGL cultures. The IL-2-induced proliferative responses of CD56+ eGLs were associated with increased IL-2Rbeta (CD122) expression. These findings demonstrate 1) differential eGL expression of CD2, CD49a, and CD122 during the menstrual cycle; 2) differential IL-2-induced eGL proliferative responses during the menstrual cycle; and 3) differences between eGLs from nonpregnant and pregnant endometrium in CD49d expression and their ability to respond to PHA.  (+info)

Expression of killer inhibitory receptors on cytotoxic cells from HIV-1-infected individuals. (4/766)

Dysfunction of cytotoxic activity of T and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes is a main immunological feature in patients with AIDS, but its basis are not well understood. It has been recently described that T and NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity can be regulated by HLA killer inhibitory receptors (KIR). In this work, we have determined on cytotoxic T cells and NK cells from HIV-1-infected individuals the expression of the following KIR molecules: p58, p70, and ILT2 (immunoglobulin-like family KIR) as well as CD94 and NKG2A (C-lectin-type family KIR). With some exceptions, no significant changes were found on the expression of immunoglobulin-like KIR in either CD8+ or CD56+ cells. Interestingly, the percentages of CD8+ and CD56+ cells expressing CD94 were significantly increased in these individuals. We also show that, in vitro, IL-10 up-regulates CD94 expression on CD8+ and CD56+ cells obtained from normal individuals, suggesting that the augmented expression observed in HIV-infected individuals could be related to the high levels of IL-10 previously described in HIV-1-infected individuals.  (+info)

Differential cytokine and chemokine gene expression by human NK cells following activation with IL-18 or IL-15 in combination with IL-12: implications for the innate immune response. (5/766)

NK cells constitutively express monocyte-derived cytokine (monokine) receptors and secrete cytokines and chemokines following monokine stimulation, and are therefore a critical component of the innate immune response to infection. Here we compared the effects of three monokines (IL-18, IL-15, and IL-12) on human NK cell cytokine and chemokine production. IL-18, IL-15, or IL-12 alone did not stimulate significant cytokine or chemokine production in resting NK cells. The combination of IL-18 and IL-12 induced extremely high amounts of IFN-gamma protein (225 +/- 52 ng/ml) and a 1393 +/- 643-fold increase in IFN-gamma gene expression over those in resting NK cells. IL-15 and IL-12 induced less IFN-gamma protein (24 +/- 10 ng/ml; p < 0.007) and only a 45 +/- 19-fold increase in IFN-gamma gene expression over those in resting NK cells. The CD56bright NK cell subset produced significantly more IFN-gamma following IL-18 and IL-12 compared with CD56dim NK cells (p < 0.008). However, the combination of IL-15 and IL-12 was significantly more potent than that of IL-18 and IL-12 for NK cell production of IL-10, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta, and TNF-alpha at the protein and transcript levels. Granulocyte-macrophage CSF was optimally induced by IL-15 and IL-18. Resting CD56+ NK cells expressed IL-18R transcript that was up-regulated by IL-12 or IL-15. Our results show that distinct cytokine and chemokine patterns are induced in NK cells in response to different costimulatory signals from these three monokines. This suggests that NK cell cytokine production may be governed in part by the monokine milieu induced during the early proinflammatory response to infection and by the subset of NK cells present at the site of inflammation.  (+info)

Co-stimulation of human decidual natural killer cells by interleukin-2 and stromal cells. (6/766)

At the late secretory phase of the menstrual cycle and in early pregnancy, the uterine mucosa is infiltrated by large numbers of natural killer (NK) cells with a distinctive phenotype (CD56bright CD16- CD3-) and large granular lymphocyte (LGL) morphology. Circulating CD56bright NK cells generally proliferate in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2), but it is clear that cofactors besides IL-2 are required for optimal response. In the bone marrow, this co-stimulating signal is provided by stromal cells. In the present study we observe that uterine CD56+ cells from early pregnancy decidua similarly proliferate vigorously when cultured with decidual stromal cells and a suboptimal dose of IL-2. This response is dependent on cell-cell contact, as no proliferation of decidual NK cells was observed when they were separated from stromal cells by a permeable cyclopore membrane. In addition, we have studied the expression of Bcl-2 by decidual CD56+ cells. Our results show that the microenvironment of the uterus is likely to have a significant influence on the proliferation and survival of uterine CD56+ cells.  (+info)

Apoptosis of human endometrium mediated by perforin and granzyme B of NK cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (7/766)

Endometrial stromal granulocytes (EGs) were found to be a major component of human endometrial stroma in the late secretory phase. However, the role of EGs in the mechanism of human endometrial menstruation has not been clarified. Immunohistochemistry of CD56, perforin, granzyme B, and vimentin, in situ detection of apoptosis by TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick and labeling) and electron microscopy were performed in endometrial tissue samples with normal menstrual cycles. We analyzed the number of immunostained cells in the functional layer of stroma and the number of apoptotic cells detected by TUNEL in the endometrial glandular cells. Double-staining revealed that CD56-positive endometrial stromal cells were simultaneously positive for both perforin and granzyme B, and negative for vimentin, which recognized stromal tissue. Vimentin was positive for the predecidual cells and negative for EGs. CD56-positive EGs involving perforin and granzyme B were progressively recruited during the secretory phases before menstruation. Apoptosis in endometrial glandular cells increased from the late secretory phase, which maximized at the menstrual period. This finding suggests that the cytotoxic granules released from EGs, which are derived from cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, are initiators of the apoptotic pathway that induces endometrial menstruation.  (+info)

A case of synchronous double primary lung cancer with neuroendocrine features. (8/766)

We report a case of unique double primary lung cancers with neuroendocrine features in a 63-year-old male smoker. The mass in the left lower lobe (LLL) was a small cell/large cell carcinoma with spindle cell sarcomatous areas and organoid structure. The mass in the left upper lobe (LUL) was a tubular adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine features including organoid nests showing occasional rosette formation, nuclear palisading in the periphery of the nests and positive immunoreaction for CD56, chromogranin A and synaptophysin. The difference in histological structures between the two masses led us to diagnose double primary lung cancer. The combination of small cell lung carcinoma and spindle cell carcinoma is very uncommon. The relationship between LLL and LUL tumors remains unclear. Multiple lung cancers with neuroendocrine features have only rarely been reported in the literature. The patient in our case died of widespread cancer 2 years and 4 months after the surgery without adjuvant chemotherapy, a longer postoperative survival time than in cases of ordinary extensive small cell lung cancer. Multiple lung cancers with neuroendocrine features are extremely rare and similar cases have not been reported in the literature. Neuroendocrine differentiation has attracted widespread attention and, therefore, examining neuroendocrine features in lung cancers is important.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - CD4+/CD56+ hematodermic neoplasmの1例.. AU - Iwatsuki, Keiji. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Article. VL - 21. SP - 125. EP - 131. JO - Skin Cancer. JF - Skin Cancer. IS - 2. ER - ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about The Journal of Immunology.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Impaired immune regulatory function of natural killer (NK) cells in multiple sclerosis (MS). 10:02 Andreas Schulte-Mecklenbeck (010) CD56brightCD16-/dim NK cells exhibit enhanced migratory ca- pacity across the blood brain barrier and are the major in- trathecal NK cell subset. 10:15 Dejene M. Tufa (011 ...
Proteome Analysis of Distinct Developmental Stages of Human Natural Killer Cells The recent Natural Killer (NK) cell maturation model postulates that CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) first develop into CD56bright NK cells, then into CD56dimCD57− and finally into terminally maturated CD56dimCD57+. The molecular mechanisms of human NK cell differentiation and maturation however are incompletely characterized. Here we present a proteome analysis of distinct developmental stages of human primary NK cells, isolated from healthy human blood donors. Peptide sequencing was used to comparatively analyze CD56bright NK cells versus CD56dim NK cells and CD56dimCD57− NK cells versus CD56dimCD57+ NK cells and revealed distinct protein signatures for all of these subsets. Quantitative data for about 3400 proteins were obtained and support the current differentiation model. Furthermore, 11 donor-independently, but developmental stage specifically regulated proteins so far un-described in NK cells were ...
https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.6789 Josef Haik, Gil Nardini, Noga Goldman, Gilli Galore-Haskel, Moti Harats, Isaac Zilinsky, Oren Weissman, Jacob Schachter, Eyal Winkler, Gal Markel
Natural killer cells respond to stimulation with autologous iCD4. By using fluorochrome conjugated antibody panels it is possible to gate on NK cell populations expressing defined inhibitory NKRs (iNKR) and to detect anti-viral functions such as secretion of IFN-γ/CCL4 and expression of CD107a by flow cytometry. This strategy has been used to explore the factors governing how NK cells from HIV-uninfected persons respond to their first encounter with autologous iCD4.. NKG2A/CD94 is an iNKR expressed on almost all CD56bright and on ~40% of CD56dim NK cells. The ligand for NKG2A in HLA-E, a non-classical MHC-Ib antigen whose cell surface expression depends on binding highly conserved peptides from the leader sequence of many HLA-A, B, C and G MHC-I molecules [19]. HLA-E is expressed on many cell types and maintained on iCD4 [20]. As NKG2A is an iNKR, the interaction of NKG2A with HLA-E on iCD4 should inhibit NK cell activation. However, the highest frequency of functional NK cells induced by ...
Granularity is a characteristic of both dNK and CD56dim pNK cells, both of which are also called large granular lymphocytes (65), whereas CD56bright pNK cells are known to be less granular (15). Granzyme B and perforin (components of cytotoxic granules) were expressed at similar levels in dNK and CD56dim pNK cells, whereas granzyme A was 3- and 10-fold overexpressed in dNK cells versus the CD56dim and CD56bright pNK cells, respectively (Fig. 3 C). Thus, the potential cytolytic function of dNK cells, probably regulated, cannot be ignored. This nascent activity could be manifest in the decidua under special circumstances (e.g., virus infection of the trophoblast or decidual remodeling).. Many other genes overexpressed in dNK cells that are presented in Fig. 3 (e.g., CD31, CD38, MIP-1 α/β, Syk, LEF1, AARS, arp2/3 subunit, and tubulins) may be of considerable interest but are beyond the scope of the present paper. Likewise, genes that are absent or have lower expression in dNK cells in relation to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of Cord Blood Natural Killer and Lymphokine Activated Killer Lymphocytes Following Ex Vivo Cellular Engineering. AU - Ayello, Janet. AU - van de Ven, Carmella. AU - Fortino, Weiwei. AU - Wade-Harris, Cheryl. AU - Satwani, Prakash. AU - Baxi, Laxmi. AU - Simpson, Lynn L.. AU - Sanger, Warren G. AU - Pickering, Diana. AU - Kurtzberg, Joanne. AU - Cairo, Mitchell S.. PY - 2006/6/1. Y1 - 2006/6/1. N2 - Cord blood (CB) natural killer (NK) and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cytotoxic cells are poorly characterized but might be used to treat minimal residual and/or recurrent malignant disease. Currently, there is no mechanism to use CB for adoptive cancer cellular immunotherapy after CB transplantation (CBT). Recognizing this as a deficiency, we hypothesized that CB aliquots could be engineered ex vivo for potential donor lymphocyte infusion after CBT. Cryopreserved CB aliquots were thawed, depleted of monocytes, and cultured in serum-free medium alone or serum-free ...
treatment add-ons, you may be interested in some impartial and expert advice in two new scientific opinion papers published by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG). They call for more high quality research into the role of natural killer cells in fertility and the effect of endometrial scratching on pregnancy outcomes.. Scientific Impact Papers (SIP), are up-to-date reviews of emerging or controversial scientific issues. The first paper looks at the role of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, how they are measured, the role of testing and the evidence behind any links to improving implantation rates and early placental development. The paper clarifies that uNK cells are completely different from peripheral blood natural killer cells (which you would be testing in the blood tests some fertility clinics currently offer).. The paper makes it clear that there is no evidence to offer routine tests for NK cells as part of fertility treatment or testing, and that there is ...
Natural Killer Cells are the most aggressive white cells in the immune system. They make up about 5% to 15% of the total lymphocyte circulating population. They target tumor cell and protect against a wide variety of infectious microbes. Natural Killer Cells are a very important factor in the fight against cancer. Immune Stimulation is the key to keeping the white blood cell count high and giving the Natural Killer Cells a chance to fight cancer and other diseases.. ...
Publications Peer-reviewed publications Guidelines for the use of flow cytometry and cell sorting in immunological studies. Cossarizza A ... Fehniger TA ...Zimmermann J [100 Authors]. Eur J Immunol. 2017 Oct;47(10):158401797. CD56bright NK Cells Exhibit Potent Antitumor Responses Following IL-15 Priming Wagner JA, Rosario M, Romee R, Berrien-Elliott MM, Schneider SE, Leong JW, Sullivan RP, Jewell…
Natural killer (NK) cells comprise 5-20% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in humans. In addition to their fundamental roles in the defense against viral infections and tumor surveillance, NK cells help shape adaptive immune responses through their production of cytokines. NK cells are traditionally identified as CD3neg, CD14neg, CD19neg lymphocytes expressing CD56. Using a combination of markers that includes CD56 and CD7 greatly increases the ability to define the phenotype and function of NK cell subsets. Two key markers of NK cell function are the production of IFNγ and the release of cytotoxic granules measured by the expression of CD107a. Here we describe a method to assess IFNγ and CD107a expression in NK cells following stimulation with target cells or cytokines. This method can be used to assess the general functional capacity of NK cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a wide range of study participants.
Brunda, M J.; Taramelli, D; Holden, H T.; and Varesio, L, Effects of resting and activated macrophages on natural killer cell activity and lymphoproliferation. Abstr. (1981). Subject Strain Bibliography 1981. 551 ...
Natural Killer Cells are also defined as large granular lymphocytes (LGL) and comprise the third kind of cells other than B and T Lymphocytes. They usually...
New research out of the Raulet lab suggests a mechanism explaining why Natural Killer cells are sometimes rendered ineffective, and even more excitingly, suggests a therapeutic approach for re-awakening them to attack tumors. Read more...
Researchers observed a marked increase in natural killer cells in HIV - positive children receiving massage therapy than those who did not receive massage. Natural killer cells are unique in that they attack only cells infected by a microbe. The children who did not receive massage had a steady decrease of these important immune cells, while those receiving treatment either remained stable or had an increase in natural killer cells ...
GMO Free. Gluten Free Helps support immune health‡ Maintains upper respiratory health‡ Made with hypoallergenic ingredients Supports overall immune defense and provides enhanced support for upper respiratory health‡ Natural killer cells are part of the bodys innate, or first-line, immune response. They respond
Vladimir V. Senyukov is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Expansion, Purification, and Functional Assessment of Human Peripheral Blood NK Cells
All Is Bright: Două fântâni franceze canadiene nu se deplasează în New York cu o schemă de îmbogățire rapidă a copacilor de Crăciun.. Vizoneaza gratuit All Is Bright online cu subtitrare in limba romana.
Deals, coupons, events, images, phone number, directions, and whats nearby Body Shop Inc, a beauty supply business at 4190 Belden Village St NW, Canton, OH 44718 on Fave.
CD337, also known as NKp30, is a 30-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein which is a NK-specific triggering receptor involved in non-MHC-restricted natural cytotoxicity. NKp30 is strictly expressed by all resting and activated NK cells including the minor CD3-CD56brightCD16- subset. With NKp46 and NKp44 it is one of the three identified NK natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR). Its surface expression parallels that of NKp46. NKp46dull NK cells are also characterised by a NKp30dull phenotype while NKp46bright NK cells show a NKp30bright phenotype. The NKp30bright or NKp30dull phenotypes are correlated with high or low cytotoxicity, respectively. CD337 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily characterized by a single extracellular V-type Ig-like domain. It is associated with a homodimer of ITAM motif-containing CD3ζ adaptor proteins. These adaptor proteins are not necessary for surface expression of NKp30, but are necessary for signal transduction. In redirected killing assays, Z25-mediated cross ...
0072]While the CD34+ cells, CD31+CD34brightCD45dimAC133+ CHSPCs or CD31+CD34brightCD45dimAC133- CHSPCs all showed substantially similar rates of NOD/SCID engraftment, the capacity for promoting angiogenesis in an in vivo model was compared. Thus, NOD/SCID mice bearing human melanoma xenografts were intravenously injected with equal numbers of CB CD34+ cells, CD31+CD34brightCD45dimAC133+ CHSPCs or CD31+CD34brightCD45dimAC133- CHSPCs and tumor growth was monitored over time in each cohort (FIG. 6a). Surprisingly, mice injected with CD31+CD34brightCD45dimAC133+ CHSPCs demonstrated a 23.12±0.15% (mean±sem n=8, range 18.35-29.00) fold increase in tumor growth as compared to tumor bearing animals treated with CD31+CD34brightCD45dimAC133- CHSPCs (7.20±0.15% mean±sem n=8, range 5.31-9.87), the parental population of CD34+ cells (5.98±0.23% mean±sem n=8, range 4.99-7.59) and PBS control (9.17±0.14% mean±sem n=8, range 5.30-11.96; AC133+ CHSPCs vs. PBS, p=0.001 by two-tailed, unpaired Students t ...
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research aims to publish findings of doctors at grass root level and post graduate students, so that all unique medical experiences are recorded in literature.
Pomeroy, E. J., Hunzeker, J. T., Kluesner, M. G., Lahr, W. S., Smeester, B. A., Crosby, M. R., Lonetree, C., Yamamoto, K., Bendzick, L., Miller, J. S., Geller, M. A., Walcheck, B., Felices, M., Webber, B. R., Starr, T. K., Moriarity, B. S. A Genetically Engineered Primary Human Natural Killer Cell Platform for Cancer Immunotherapy. Molecular Therapy. 2020; 28(1), 52-63. doi:10.1016/j.ymthe.2019.10.009. ...
The protein-bound polysaccharide PSK was tested for the ability to activate human natural killer (NK) cells. When blood lymphocytes and purified CD3-CD16 ?
Human natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells with capacity to kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells. According to the expression of CD56 and CD16 several NK cell subsets have been ide
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
Now I am officially a recurrent miscarriage patient I have been researching reasons (all tests so far have come back normal). Has anybody looked into Natural Killer cells and suppressing the immune
상트페테르부르크 ✔ 25546₩1박 ✔ 2 ✔ TV, 부엌, 세탁기 / 건조기, 인터넷, 방 잠금 장치, 수건, 엘레베이터, 가족 / 아이들과 친근함
This is a list of characters that have appeared in Scott Adams Dilbert comic strip. The main character in the strip, Dilbert is a stereotypical technically-minded single male. Prior to October 2014, he was usually wearing a white dress shirt, black trousers and a red-and-black striped tie that inexplicably curves upward; since then, he has worn a red polo shirt with a name badge on a lanyard around his neck. Dilbert received his masters degree in electrical engineering from MIT; he understands engineering well and has good ideas, but has a poor social life. Neither attractive nor blessed with tremendous social graces, Dilbert is capable, but ignored at work and struggles with his romantic life. While he is frequently seen having dates with eligible women, his dates almost invariably end in disaster, usually in surreal and bizarre ways. Dilbert loves computers and technology and will spend much of his free time playing with such things. He had a girlfriend named Liz for a little over two years, ...
Background: Human peripheral blood NK cells constitutively express CD56 and CD16 antigens. Peripheral blood NK cells seem to be strongly related with decidual NK cells, and may reflect the decidual NK cell functional status. There are varied reports concerning the relationship between NK cell cytotoxicity in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion. Objective: To study NK activity in women with history of RSA by using a non-radioactive cytotoxicity assay. Methods: Peripheral blood lymphocytes from RSA and healthy multiparous women were obtained. Lymphocytes were isolated and mixed with K562 NK-sensitive cell line. A non-radioactive method for NK cell cytotoxicity assessment was utilized. Dead K562 cell populations were detected by FACS Calibur flow cytometry, and the data obtained was analysed on cell-Quest software. The proportion of CD16+ /CD56+ cells was then calculated. Results: The proportion of NK cells were 9.21% ± 3.06 and 13.48% ± 4.09 in healthy women and RSA, respectively. The percentage
Now, results from a new study carried out using a mouse model, show that modified cells called super natural killer cells are able to seek out cancer cells in lymph nodes to destroy them, thus halting the process of metastasis. Michael King, senior author of the study, said in a press release: We want to see lymph node metastasis become a thing of the past.. The super natural killer cells find the cancerous cells in the lymph nodes and induce apoptosis - in other words, the cancer cells self-destruct and disintegrate, thus averting their further lymphatic spread. But what are these super natural killer cells? They are a modified version of the so-called natural killer cells - or NK cells for short.. NK cells are a type of lymphocytes that play a major role in the killing of cancer cells and virus-infected cells by inducing apoptosis. To obtain the super version of these lymphocytes, scientists attached nanoparticles to the NK cell surface. These nanoparticles contain a protein dubbed TRAIL ...
CD57 is a marker of terminal differentiation on human CD8+ T cells and possibly on human NK cells. Newborn and fetal NK cells do not express CD57, however the frequency of CD57-bearing NK cells increases with age. Utilizing PBMC obtained from healthy donors we are assessing the phenotypic and functional differences between CD57+ and CD57neg NK cells. CD57+ NK cells express different activation markers and a distinct repertoire of NK receptors suggestive of a more mature phenotype. Preliminary data also indicate that there is a higher frequency of IFNγ CD57+ NK cells compare to CD57neg NK cells when stimulated through their activating receptors, CD57+ NK cells are less sensitive to activation-induced apoptosis, and interestingly, proliferate less when co-cultured with target cells and/or cytokines. The combination of a more activated phenotype and a decreased capacity to proliferate suggests CD57+ NK cells are terminally differentiated. Studies are underway to assess the phenotypic and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of IFN-γ production following 2B4 activation in human NK cells. AU - Johnson, Lori A.. AU - Goldfarb, Ronald H.. AU - Mathew, Porunelloor. PY - 2000/12/1. Y1 - 2000/12/1. N2 - IFN-γ is a cytokine that regulates various functions of the immune system. The major producers of IFN-γ are T cells and NK cells. 2B4 is a novel activating receptor expressed on all human NK cells, a subset of CD8+ T cells, monocytes and basophils. Activation of human NK cells through surface 2B4 enhances NK cell cytolytic function and secretion of IFN-γ. We have examined the regulation of IFN-γ production by the human NK cell line YT upon activation through surface 2B4. Our data indicate that ligation of surface 2B4 by mAb C1.7, that specifically recognizes 2B4, induces transcriptional activation of IFN-γ. Partial inhibition of transcription did not prevent the transcriptional upregulation of IFN-γ. S1 nuclease protection analysis indicated that transcriptional activation as well as mRNA ...
DNK (citozin-5-)-metiltransferaza (EC 2.1.1.37, EcoRI metilaza, DNK 5-citozinska metilaza, DNK citozinska C5 metilaza, DNK citozinska metilaza, DNK metilaza, DNK metiltransferaza, DNK transmetilaza, DNK-citozinska 5-metilaza, DNK-citozinska metiltransferaza, HpaII metilaza, HpaII metilaza, M.BsuRIa, M.BsuRIb, Tip II DNK metilaza, citozinska 5-metiltransferaza, citozinska DNK metilaza, citozinska DNK metiltransferaza, citozin-specifična DNK metiltransferaza, dezoksiribonukleinska metilaza, dezoksiribonukleinska metiltransferaza, dezoksiribonukleinska (citozin-5-)-metiltransferaza, dezoksiribonukleinska kiselina (citozin-5-)-metiltransferaza, dezoksiribonukleinska kiselina metilaza, dezoksiribonukleinska kiselina metiltransferaza, metilaza modifikacije dezoksiribonukleinske kiseline, dezoksiribonukleinska metilaza, metilfosfotriester-DNK metiltransferaza, modifikaciona metilaza, restrikciono-modifikacioni sistem, site-specifična DNK-metiltransferaza (citozin-specifična), DNK-(citozin ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Generation of monoclonal antibodies to a human natural killer clone. Characterization of two natural killer-associated antigens, NKH1A and NKH2, expressed on subsets of large granular lymphocytes. is an eagle-i resource of type Journal article at Oregon Health & Science University.
This data base was generated to collect data for an international registry about the treatment of patients with advanced malignant tumors with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells and to register new trials on the present homepage.. If you want to add another trial using CIK cells please use the form attached.. see Clinical trial CIK cells data form ...
Natural killer (NK) cell consitutes white blood cells which specifically functions in lysing tumor and virus invected cells. In this research, a commercial
Buy Bright Motivation by steamlove on AudioJungle. Very bright and positive tracks, mostly piano and electronic. Great for commercials or presentations.
Life will often times throw you a curve ball, but no matter what you need to look on the bright side. You have probably heard that statement or something like it more times then you care to admit. Being able to look on the bright side no matter what is...
Apparently the pay-TV networks-or at least their top-tier-are expecting that 2010 will be at the very least better than 2009 was. Not that 20
The skin condition atopic dermatitis (AD) is driven by a type 2 immune response. Mack et al. performed high-dimensional immune profiling of patients with AD and revealed deficiencies in certain subsets of natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells showed signs of activation-induced cell death and were restored in patients that responded to immunotherapy. Circulating NK cells were also decreased in a mouse AD model; boosting NK cells with an IL-15 superagonist ameliorated symptoms in the mice. These results suggest that strategies to restore NK cells could help rebalance immunity in AD. ...
Several experimental models have demonstrated a role for NK cells in host responses against virus infections (Lodoen and Lanier, 2006; Lee et al., 2007). The perhaps most well characterized experimental model system in this respect is that of infection of mice with mouse CMV (Dokun et al., 2001; Lodoen and Lanier, 2006; Sun et al., 2009). In experimental mouse CMV infection, the NK cell response is characterized by proliferation of a specific subset of NK cells that peaks within a few days after infection. Subsequently, this NK cell population undergoes rapid contraction by apoptosis (Dokun et al., 2001; Robbins et al., 2004). To investigate more directly how results from studies of viral infections in experimental model systems compare with infections in humans, we have studied the NK cell response throughout the course of an acute virus infection in humans.. In humans, involvement of NK cells in host responses to viruses were first indicated by the finding that virus-induced IFN-α enhanced NK ...
Sohlberg E, Saghafian-Hedengren S, Bachmayer N, Hamad RR, Bremme K, Holmlund U. Pre-eclampsia affects cord blood NK cell expression of activation receptors and serum cytokine levels but not CB monocyte characteristics. Am J Reprod Immunol 2014; 71: 178-188 ...
Lymph node (LN) plays a critical role in tumor cell survival outside of the primary tumor sites and dictates overall clinical response in many tumor types (1, 2). Previously, we and others have demonstrated that CCL3 plays an essential role in orchestrating T cell-antigen-presenting cell (APC) encounters in the draining LN following vaccination, and such interactions enhance the magnitude of the memory T cell pool (3-5). In the current study, we investigate the cellular responses in the tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) of a CCL3-secreting CT26 colon tumor (L3TU) as compared to wild-type tumor (WTTU) during the priming phase of an antitumor response (≤10 days). In comparison to WTTU, inoculation of L3TU resulted in suppressed tumor growth, a phenomenon that is accompanied by altered in vivo inflammatory responses on several fronts. Autologous tumor-derived CCL3 (aCCL3) secretion by L3TU bolstered the recruitment of T- and B-lymphocytes, tissue-migratory CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs), and CD49b+
CD56 MicroBeads were developed for the positive selection or depletion of natural killer (NK) cells from human PBMCs or single-cell suspensions from tissues. The CD56 antigen is expressed by most NK cells and a minor T cell subset (CD3+CD56+ NKT cells). Upon activation of NK cells, the surface expression of CD56 is increased. - Italia
Natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity is highly dependent on the ability of NK cells to migrate through the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment. Traditional imaging studies of NK cell migration and cytotoxicity have utilized 2-D surfaces, which do not properly reproduce the structural and mechanical cues that shape the migratory response of NK cells in vivo. In addition, current in vivo imaging does not allow for the accurate long-term single-cell imaging required to dissect the functional heterogeneity of NK cell populations, and importantly, it does not allow studies of human cells. Therefore, it is desirable to implement in vitro migration and killing assays that better mimic in vivo conditions.. We have combined a microwell assay that allows long-term imaging and tracking of small, well-defined populations of NK cells with an interstitial ECM-like matrix to more closely approximate in vivo conditions. The microwells, which are loaded with a gel mixture containing NK and target cells, ...
In order to grow large populations of NK cells, the team started with samples of blood containing a variety of different immune system cells. They placed this sample into a dish containing a type of human leukemia cell called K562. Campanas team genetically modified the K562 cells so they carried on their surfaces many copies of two different proteins, 4-1BBL and IL-15. The genetically modified K562 cells quickly stimulated the expansion of the NK cell population to more than10,000 times their original number. The technique triggered growth of NK cells specifically, which greatly simplified the ability of the researchers to collect a pure population of these immune cells ...
I had my natural killer cell count and function measured. Can anyone help me interpret these results? WBC Lymphs Lymphocites, Absolute - 1,746...
Are you sick and tired of always feeling sick and tired - worn out, worn down, and like you are walking around carrying the weight of the world on top of your shoulders with no…. ...
Downloadable! This report discusses Mathematica’s plan to conduct a mid-term and a longer-term impact evaluation of the Burkinabé Response to Improve Girl’s Chances to Succeed (BRIGHT) program that started in 2005 as BRIGHT I and continued in the same villages as BRIGHT II after 2008.
Order Neenah Paper 26741 online from Databazaar with Fast, Flat-Rate Shipping. Neenah Paper Exact Brights Paper, 8 1/2 x 11, Bright Pink, 20lb, 500 Sheets, Neenah Paper 26741
Last summer my now one-year-old was just a little worm who spent his days in the shade of his stroller. But this year were grabbing the sun by its rays and getting dirty in the sand. Only problem? Its bright out there yall and sometimes a cute hat just aint enough.
I HAVE A SORE RED RASH ON MY TESTACLES WITH A BRIGHT RED PEREMITER. SORE AS AND WON'T GO AWAY. ABOUT A WEEK. NOTHING - Answered by a verified Doctor
The EBV+ NK cells express CD56 antigen and are malignant with EBV in its latency II phase. The NK cells expression relatively ... These cells are EBV+ cytotoxic T cells and express CD8, CD3, CD2, TAI1, and granzyme but not CD56. Rarely and mostly in the ... The malignant cells express markers characteristic of NK and/or T cells (e.g. CD2, CD56, CD38), granzyme B, perforin, TIA1, and ... Addition of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against the CD20 antigen expressed on B cells, may be added to this or other ...
CD56 bright' is chiefly responsible for cytokine production and has enhanced survival. Traveling to lymph nodes the 'CD56 ... Once in a secondary lymphoid organ the B cell can be introduced to an antigen that it is able to recognize. Through this ... Human NK T cells are a unique population (which express NK cell markers such as CD56 and KIR). NKT cells are thought to play an ... T cells are formed in bone marrow then migrate to the cortex of the thymus to undergo maturation in an antigen-free environment ...
17%); pPCL plasma cells often lack CD56 antigen which is present on the majority of plasma cells taken form multiple myeloma ... For example: pPCL plasma cells more often express CD20 antigen, which is considered important in anchoring plasma cells to the ... Examination of plasma cell immunophenotype by measuring certain of their cell surface antigens, particularly Cluster of ...
Certain antibodies can be used to detect or purify cells with these markers by binding to their surface antigens. A standard ... and CD56 (NK cells) in humans. "Lineage Markers". Retrieved 12 July 2013. v t e. ...
... antigens, cd47 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.155 - antigens, cd55 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.156 - antigens, cd56 MeSH D23.050.301.264 ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.128 - antigens, cd28 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.156 - antigens, cd56 MeSH D23.050.301.264 ... antigens, cd47 MeSH D23.101.100.110.155 - antigens, cd55 MeSH D23.101.100.110.156 - antigens, cd56 MeSH D23.101.100.110.157 - ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.101.100.894.128 - antigens, cd28 MeSH D23.101.100.894.156 - antigens, cd56 MeSH D23.101.100.894.157 - ...
... antigens, cd56 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.520.578 - neural cell adhesion molecule l1 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.275 - integrin ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 - receptors, antigen, t- ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776.543.550 ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 - antigens, cd40 MeSH ...
iNKT cells recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d, a non-polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class I-like antigen ... Natural killer T cells can share other features with NK cells, as well, such as CD16 and CD56 expression and granzyme ... The best known antigen of iNKT cells is alpha-galactosylceramide (αGalCer), which is a synthetic form of a chemical purified ... The highly conserved TCR is made of Va24-Ja18 paired with Vb11 in humans, which is specific for glycolipid antigens. ...
... or CD56. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS): PTCL-NOS is a heterogenous group of T cell lymphomas ... and T-cell intracellular antigen-1) but no genetic abnormalities. Indolent T cell lymphoproliferative disorder of the ... CD56-negative, may express CD4, and usually do not express CD8. There is no standard treatment for MEITL. Most individuals have ... and CD56; by their failure to express CD4, CD5, or CD30; and, in particular, by their overexpression of megakaryocyte- ...
CK19, Cytokeratin 19, K19) Kit L-selectin (CD62L) Lamin A/C Lewis X antigen (Le(X)) LeX Lgr5 Lrp4 MCM2 MCSP Metallothionein (MT ... CD56) CD73 CD9 CD90 CDCP1 Circulating anticoagulants protein C (PC) CK19 CLV3 cyclic CMP ECMA-7 EDR1 EEC FGF-4 Flk-2 Flk1(+) ... May 2006). "Lack of expression of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan neuron-glial antigen 2 on candidate stem cell ... Muramatsu T, Muramatsu H (2004). "Carbohydrate antigens expressed on stem cells and early embryonic cells". Glycoconjugate ...
Some ILC3s can also express other NK cell markers, including NKp30 and CD56. NCR- ILC3s mainly produce IL-17A and IL-17F, and ... Although they can present antigens, via MHC class II receptors, ILCs lack co-stimulatory molecules, and therefore play a role ... "High and interrelated rates of PD-L1+ CD14+ antigen-presenting cells and regulatory T cells mark the microenvironment of ... rearranged antigen receptors found on T cells and B cells (due to the lack of the RAG gene), and phenotypic markers usually ...
Infusions of T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor that recognizes an antigen molecule on leukemia cells ... They are in the CD56bright NK cell subset, potent at cytokine secretion, but with low cytotoxic ability and relatively similar ... which subsequently enables antigen-specific T and B cell responses. Instead of acting via antigen-specific receptors, lysis of ... In contrast to NKT cells, NK cells do not express T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) or pan T marker CD3 or surface immunoglobulins ...
CD16 CD56 but not CD3 T helper cells Release cytokines and growth factors that regulate other immune cells 46% (28-59%) TCRαβ, ... antigens, during a process known as antigen presentation. Once they have identified an invader, the cells generate specific ... Following activation, B cells and T cells leave a lasting legacy of the antigens they have encountered, in the form of memory ... The lymphocytes involved in adaptive immunity (i.e. B and T cells) differentiate further after exposure to an antigen; they ...
"Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26". Science. 261 (5120): 466-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
... is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Leucocyte typing: human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
CD64+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
CD16, CD56 aga mitte CD3 T-abistajarakud. tsütokiinide ja kasvufaktorite tootmine,. mis reguleerivad teisi immuunsüsteemi rakke ... Aimee L. Edinger ja Craig B. Thompson, Antigen-presenting cells control T cell proliferation by regulating amino acid ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
Tissue Antigens (англ.)русск. : journal. - 2007. - Vol. 68, no. 6. - P. 509-517. - DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00726.x. - PMID ...
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... 2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... 1991). „Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID ... 2003). „Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". Int. J. Hematol. 75 ...
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11.[5] CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ... "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms cooperate to mediate colon carcinoma cell adhesion to E- and L-selectin in ...
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... 1996). "CD88 antibodies specifically bind to C5aR on dermal CD117+ and CD14+ cells and react with a desmosomal antigen in human ...
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
... uveitis antigens induce CXCR3- and CXCR5-expressing lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells to migrate (англ.) // Blood (англ ...
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
"Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
嵌合抗原受體T細胞免疫療法(Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Immunotherapy)乃是先取得患者自身的T細胞後,在體外以基因工程的技術,使T細胞具有辨
"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)".. *^ May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; ... CD61+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet degranulation. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling ...
Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of ...
CD16 CD56 but not CD3 T helper cells Release cytokines and growth factors that regulate other immune cells 46% (28-59%) TCRαβ, ... antigens, during a process known as antigen presentation. Once they have identified an invader, the cells generate specific ... Following activation, B cells and T cells leave a lasting legacy of the antigens they have encountered, in the form of memory ... The lymphocytes involved in adaptive immunity (i.e. B and T cells) differentiate further after exposure to an antigen; they ...
antigen binding. • virus receptor activity. • protein binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • identical protein ...
... is not routinely used to treat Hodgkin's lymphoma due to the lack of CD20 surface antigens in most cases. The use of rituximab ... most CD56). *Aggressive NK-cell leukemia. *Blastic NK cell lymphoma. T or NK. *EBV (Extranodal NK-T-cell lymphoma/Angiocentric ...
T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell. • T cell antigen ... CD51 · CD52 · CD53 · CD54 · CD55 · CD56 · CD57 · CD58 · CD59 · CD61 · CD62 (E, L, P) · CD63 · CD64 (A, B, C) · CD66 (a, b, c, d ...
Abstract 3499: CD56 targeted chimeric antigen receptors for immunotherapy of multiple myeloma. Reuben Benjamin, Maud Condomines ... CD56 CAR cells were generated by retroviral transduction of human T cells and showed antigen dependent proliferation and ... These results demonstrate for the first time the impressive anti-tumor efficacy of a CD56 targeted chimeric antigen receptor in ... Abstract 3499: CD56 targeted chimeric antigen receptors for immunotherapy of multiple myeloma ...
Likewise, the tumor antigen CDCP1 (CD318) was not expressed on primary CD271bright CD56− and CD271brightCD56+ cells (Figure 2B ... B) CD56 epitopes NCAM16.2 and 39D5 are expressed on a rare CD271+ bone marrow subset. (C) CD271+CD56+ and CD271+CD56− bone ... The CD271brightCD56+ population is enriched for CFU-F. To determine the clonogenic potential of sorted CD56+ and CD56− subsets ... CD271, SSEA-4 and CD56 were more densely expressed on CD271brightCD56+ derived MSC, whereas MSCA-1 (W8B2 antigen) expression ...
CD56" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, CD56" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... "Antigens, CD56" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD56" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Antigens, CD56". ...
The CD56 is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. ... CD56 Human Recombinant (aa 20-220) expressed in E.coli, shows a ... Neural cell adhesion molecule 1, 140 kDa isoform, N-CAM 140, NCAM-140, CD56 antigen, NCAM1, NCAM, CD56, MSK39. ... CD56 Human Recombinant (aa 20-220) expressed in E.coli, shows a 48 kDa band on SDS-PAGE. The CD56 is purified by proprietary ... CD56 at 100. Stability. Store vial at -20°C to -80°C. When stored at the recommended temperature, this protein is stable for 12 ...
The CD56 antigen is a 140 kDa isoform of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (N-CAM). Posttranslational modifications to the ... CD56 Antigen. The CD56 antigen is a 140 kDa isoform of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (N-CAM). Posttranslational ... The CD56 antigen is moderately expressed on a subpopulation of peripheral blood large granular lymphocytes and on all cells ... The N901 (NKH-1) antibody was used as a CD56 reference mAb during HLDA 6.. ...
CD56) - This anti-Human Lineage Cocktail is optimized for the detection of human lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and ... This cocktail is composed of CD3, CD14, CD19, CD20, and CD56. CD3 is the antigen mainly found on T cells; CD14 is expressed on ... Antigen References 1. Zola H, et al. Eds. 2007. Leukocyte and Stromal Cell Molecules. New Jersey. 2. Olweus J, et al. 1997. P. ... Antigen Details Distribution CD3 is expressed on all T lymphocytes. CD14 is expressed on monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, ...
CD56) - This anti-Human Lineage Cocktail is optimized for the detection of human peripheral blood T cells, B cells, NK cells, ... This cocktail is composed of CD3, CD14, CD16, CD19, CD20, and CD56. CD3 is the antigen mainly found on T cells; CD14 is ... Antigen Details Distribution T cells, B cells, NK cells, monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils ...
Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für CD56 Antikörper. Hier bestellen. ... Monoklonale und polyklonale CD56 Antikörper für viele Methoden. ... CD56 (NCAM1) Antigen-Profil Protein Überblick This gene encodes a cell adhesion protein which is a member of the immunoglobulin ... CD56 140 kDa isoform , adhesion molecule , CD56 antigen , neural cell adhesion molecule 1-like , N-CAM-1-A , NCAM-1-A , neural ...
The CD56 is purified by proprietary technologyary technonlogyary chromatographic techniques. ... CD56 Human Recombinant (aa 20-220) expressed in E.coli, shows a 48 kDa band on SDS-PAGE. ... Neural cell adhesion molecule 1, 140 kDa isoform, N-CAM 140, NCAM-140, CD56 antigen, NCAM1, NCAM, CD56, MSK39. ... CD56 Human Recombinant (aa 20-220) expressed in E.coli, shows a 48 kDa band on SDS-PAGE. The CD56 is purified by proprietary ...
Novus Biologicals NCAM-1/CD56 Antibody; Alexa Fluor 350; 0.1 mL ... NCAM-1/CD56 Rabbit anti-Human, Mouse, Rat, Alexa Fluor 350, ... CD56, CD56/ NCAM-1, CD56 antigen, MSK39, N-CAM-1, NCAM-1, NCAMantigen recognized by monoclonal 5.1H11, neural cell adhesion ... NCAM-1/CD56 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects NCAM-1/CD56 in Human,Mouse,Rat samples. It is validated for Western Blot, ... NCAM-1/CD56 Rabbit anti-Human, Mouse, Rat, Alexa Fluor 350, Clone: 735, Novus Biologicals ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about anti-Human CD56, Clone: NCAM16.2; BV421 Conjugate BD 100 Tests; ... Antigen. Human CD56. Conjugate. Brilliant Violet 421. Host Species. Murine. Isotype. κ. ...
The EBV+ NK cells express CD56 antigen and are malignant with EBV in its latency II phase. The NK cells expression relatively ... These cells are EBV+ cytotoxic T cells and express CD8, CD3, CD2, TAI1, and granzyme but not CD56. Rarely and mostly in the ... The malignant cells express markers characteristic of NK and/or T cells (e.g. CD2, CD56, CD38), granzyme B, perforin, TIA1, and ... Addition of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against the CD20 antigen expressed on B cells, may be added to this or other ...
CD56 bright is chiefly responsible for cytokine production and has enhanced survival. Traveling to lymph nodes the CD56 ... Once in a secondary lymphoid organ the B cell can be introduced to an antigen that it is able to recognize. Through this ... Human NK T cells are a unique population (which express NK cell markers such as CD56 and KIR). NKT cells are thought to play an ... T cells are formed in bone marrow then migrate to the cortex of the thymus to undergo maturation in an antigen-free environment ...
CD56 Antigen / immunology* * Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / immunology* * Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / metabolism ... Results: The CD56 bright CD16(-) NK cell subset was consistently observed as being highly enriched in tumor infiltrate and ... Natural killer cells infiltrating human nonsmall-cell lung cancer are enriched in CD56 bright CD16(-) cells and display an ...
2). These cells were CD56+; thus we believe they are natural killer T cells. Future studies will explore whether these cells or ... 2011) Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells in chronic lymphoid leukemia. N Engl J Med 365:725-733. ... 1A) (33, 34). F5 MART-1 is an improved MART-1-specific TCR displaying enhanced affinity to the antigen and was provided by the ... Antigen-specific human T cells have been developed in vitro using OP9 stromal cells expressing the human Notch ligand Delta- ...
Antigen Expression Blood Type O; Rh +; CD56; CD57 (HNK-1,Leu-7) ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-NCAM-1/CD56 Antibody. Validated: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat. 100% ... Alternate Names for NCAM-1/CD56 Antibody. *CD56 / NCAM-1. *CD56 antigen ... Home » NCAM-1/CD56 » NCAM-1/CD56 Antibodies » NCAM-1/CD56 Antibody ... Blogs on NCAM-1/CD56. There are no specific blogs for NCAM-1/CD56, but you can read our latest blog posts. ...
Anti-Human CD56 Clone HCD56 has been verified for flow cytometry. ... CD56 (NCAM) is expressed by NK cells, NK-T cells T cell clones ... human antibody CD56 HCD56,human antibody CD56 clone HCD56 ,clone HCD56,HCD56,CD56 antibody,CD56 HCD56,CD56 antibody clone HCD56 ... Around 90% of the NK cells express CD56 at low density while ~10% express the protein at relatively high levels. CD56 is also ... Human CD56 Positive Selection Kit and labeled with Anti-Human CD56 Clone HCD56, Alexa Fluor® 488. Histograms show labeling of ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-NCAM-1/CD56 Antibody (123c3.D5+123A8) [Alexa Fluor® 647]. Neuronal Cell Marker. Validated: WB, Flow, ICC/ ... Additional NCAM-1/CD56 Products. NCAM-1/CD56 NBP2-34519AF647 * NCAM-1/CD56 Antibodies ... Home » NCAM-1/CD56 » NCAM-1/CD56 Antibodies » NCAM-1/CD56 Antibody (123c3.D5+123A8) [Alexa Fluor® 647] ... Blogs on NCAM-1/CD56. There are no specific blogs for NCAM-1/CD56, but you can read our latest blog posts. ...
CSF Distribution Suggests Preferential Very Late Antigen-4-Dependent Trafficking of CD56bright NK Cells into the CNS.. ... CD56brightCD16− and CD3−CD56dimCD16+ NK cells were isolated by CD56+CD16+ and CD56+CD16− NK-cell isolation kits (Miltenyi), ... namely the CD56brightCD16dim/− and the CD56dimCD16+ subsets (here referred to as CD56bright and CD56dim, respectively), seem to ... A) Proportions of CD3−CD56+ NK cells and NK-cell subpopulations (CD56bright and CD56dim) in the PB of HDs (n = 43) and therapy- ...
The expression of CD56 antigen is associated with poor prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia ... The expression of CD56 antigen is associated with poor prognosis in patients with acute my ... Eight cases (16.7 percent) were CD56 positive without correlation to age or gender. The highest incidence of CD56 positivity ... The expression of CD56 is considered a bad prognostic factor for overall survival, lower rates or short complete remission and ...
CD56 Antigen / metabolism * Cell Adhesion Molecules / administration & dosage* * Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism ... We further demonstrate that CD56-positive lymphocytes within human PBMC contributed ,90% to ADCC and that normal serum levels ... antigen. We found that physiological levels of human sera strongly inhibited ADCC of both IgG1 antibodies. Effects showed some ...
Order this anti-CD56 antibody. , Product number ABIN94190 ... Mouse Monoclonal CD56 antibody for FACS, IHC (p), IP. Published ... Antigen Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (NCAM1) show synonyms for this antigen * CD56 ... anti-CD56 antibody (Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1) (PE) CD56 antibody (Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1) (PE). Details for ... CD56 (NCAM1 Antibody Abstract) Background CD56 (NCAM, neural cell adhesion molecule) is a transmembrane glycoprotein of ...
Order this anti-CD56 antibody. , Product number ABIN94188 ... Mouse Monoclonal CD56 antibody for FACS, IHC (p), IP. Published ... Antigen Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (NCAM1) show synonyms for this antigen * CD56 ... anti-CD56 antibody (Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1) (Biotin) CD56 antibody (Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1) (Biotin). Details ... Surface Receptors of Immune Cells, Signaling, CD Antigens Application Details References Images Handling Target details back to ...
Creative Biolabs provides Anti-CD56 (NKI-nbl-1) h(CD28-CD3ζ) CAR, pCDCAR1 product for Biopharmaceutical research,preclinical ... pCDCAR1 CD56 h(28ζ) (CAR-ZP5791). The vector of anti-CD56 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is constructed for the engineering of ... CD56 Antigen; N-CAM-1; NCAM-1; MSK39; CD56 ... It transmits an activation signal to the T cell after antigen ... CellRapeutics™ Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) Technology. *T-Scan Platform for High-throughput Identification of T Cell- ...
Antigens, CD56. Biological Markers. Down-Regulation / immunology*. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic ... 0/Antigens, CD56; 0/Biological Markers; 0/Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; 0/Receptors, IgG ...
antigen recognized by monoclonal antibody 5.1H11 antibody. *CD56 antibody. *cell adhesion molecule, neural, 1 antibody ... Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval via the pressure cooker method before commencing with IHC staining protocol. IHC-Fr: ... antigen MSK39 identified by monoclonal antibody 5.1H11 antibody. * ...
Many neuronal cells express cell surface proteins found on leukocytes and vice versa (e.g., CD56, CD100, CD168, and CD171). ... Reference: CD Antigens 2002. David Mason, Pascale André, Armand Bensussan, Chris Buckley, Curt Civin, Edward Clark, Masja de ... Reference: CD Antigens 2002. David Mason, Pascale André, Armand Bensussan, Chris Buckley, Curt Civin, Edward Clark, Masja de ... Reference: CD Antigens 2002. David Mason, Pascale André, Armand Bensussan, Chris Buckley, Curt Civin, Edward Clark, Masja de ...
Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for NCAM1 Gene. GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:. *Neural cell adhesion molecule ... R&D Systems Proteins and Enzymes for NCAM1 (NCAM-1/CD56). *R&D Systems ELISAs, Luminex Assays, Proteome Profiler Antibody ... R&D Systems ELISAs, Proteome Profiler Antibody Arrays, Luminex Assays, and other biochemical assays for NCAM1 (NCAM-1/CD56) ... Molecular and functional analysis of human natural killer cell- associated neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM/CD56). (PMID: ...
0/Antigens, CD; 56-65-5/Adenosine Triphosphate; 58-64-0/Adenosine Diphosphate; EC 3.5.4.4/Adenosine Deaminase; EC 3.6.1.5/ ... Antigens, CD / metabolism*. Apyrase / metabolism*. Case-Control Studies. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic*. ...