Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Ganglioside Galactosyltransferase: Catalyzes the final step in the galactocerebroside biosynthesis pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Tetraethylammonium: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.

Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and its ligand CD55 in rheumatoid synovial tissue. (1/570)

OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) express decay-accelerating factor (CD55) at high levels. Recently, it was found that CD55 is a specific cellular ligand for the 7-span transmembrane receptor CD97. The objective of this study was to define the expression of this receptor-ligand pair in synovial tissue (ST) to provide more insight into the interaction between FLS and surrounding cells. METHODS: Antibodies against CD97 and CD55 were used for immunohistologic analysis of synovial biopsy specimens from 16 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 15 patients with osteoarthritis (OA). In addition, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system was used to determine the expression of soluble CD97 (sCD97) in synovial fluid (SF) from 30 patients with RA, 13 with OA, and 10 with reactive arthritis (ReA). RESULTS: In both RA and OA ST sections, strong expression of CD55 was confirmed on FLS in the intimal lining layer, where it was also found that all macrophages expressed CD97. The percentage of macrophages that expressed CD97 was lower in the synovial sublining (P = 0.005). The mean levels of sCD97 in SF were significantly higher in RA patients than in patients with OA or ReA (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that FLS are able to interact with macrophages via the CD97/CD55 receptor-ligand system. In this respect, the CD97/CD55 pair may account for the specific architecture of the intimal lining layer and may be of primary importance in maintaining and amplifying synovial inflammation. The specific increase in sCD97 levels in RA SF might be related to the presence of activated proteolytic systems or to the increase in synovial mass, rather than a consequence of local receptor-ligand interaction.  (+info)

Decay accelerating factor (CD55): a target for cancer vaccines? (2/570)

The 791Tgp72 antigen has been used successfully as a target for tumor imaging and T-cell immunotherapy. We have characterized this antigen using the monoclonal antibody 791T/36 as a 72/66 kDa doublet. NH2-terminal protein sequencing of the two bands revealed identity with the complement regulatory protein CD55. Antibodies recognizing different domains of CD55 were also shown to bind to the purified 791Tgp72, although sequence analysis of the cDNA cloned from 791T tumor cells showed 100% homology with CD55 and transfection of the cDNA into antigen-negative CHO cells resulted in binding of 791T/36. This identifies the tumor antigen 791Tgp72 as CD55. This protein protects cells from complement attack; however, it can also transduce signals in lymphocytes and is a ligand for CD97, expressed by activated T cells. These results suggest that CD55 plays a role in signaling between the innate and adaptive immune responses. It is therefore a very intriguing target, because absence of the molecule makes the tumor cells susceptible to complement, whereas protective overexpression results in the antigen being a target for T-cell immunotherapy.  (+info)

Complement activation and expression of membrane regulators in the middle ear mucosa in otitis media with effusion. (3/570)

The aetiopathogenesis of chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) in children is not yet fully understood. OME is characterized by metaplasia of the epithelium and accumulation of sticky, glue-like effusion in the middle ear containing different mediators of inflammation, including activation fragments of the complement system. Here we examined whether the fluid phase complement activation is reflected in the middle ear mucosa and how the mucosa is protected against the cytolytic activity of complement. Mucosal biopsies from 18 middle ears of children with a history of chronic OME were taken. The biopsies were analysed by immunofluorescence microscopy after staining for complement fragments iC3b/C3c, C3d and C9, and regulators membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46), decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55) and protectin (CD59). There was a strong staining for iC3b/C3c, and a weaker one for C3d and C9 on the surface of the middle ear epithelial cells of OME patients but not in controls without OME. MCP was expressed on the hyperplastic three to four outer cell layers of the epithelium, while CD59 was expressed throughout the middle ear mucosa. The results suggest a strong ongoing complement activation and consequent inflammation in the middle ear cavity. Unrestricted complement damage of the epithelial lining is prevented by the strong expression of MCP and CD59.  (+info)

Identification of a human anti-CD55 single-chain Fv by subtractive panning of a phage library using tumor and nontumor cell lines. (4/570)

A large naive human single-chain (sc) Fv phage library was used to search for tumor-associated antigens by panning with a lung adenocarcinoma cell line, 1264, and counter-selecting with a nontumor bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. After three rounds of subtractive panning, 239 of 673 clones analyzed bound selectively to 1264 tumor cells in a phage ELISA. Diversity analysis of these tumor-selective clones by BstNI fingerprinting and nucleotide sequencing revealed 14 distinct scFv fragments. Four clones bound selectively to 1264 over BEAS-2B cells when analyzed by a more discriminating flow cytometric assay using scFv. Moreover, these clones showed only limited cross-reactivity to several primary human cell lines. One clone, LU30, also cross-reacted strongly with the lung adenocarcinoma line, A549. The LU30 antigen was identified as decay-accelerating factor (CD55) by expression cloning from a 1264 cDNA library. The mean number of decay-accelerating factor molecules on the surface of 1264 and BEAS cells used for panning and counter-selection was estimated as 75,000 +/- 5,000 and 13,000 +/- 10,000, respectively. Thus, phage library panning combined with expression cloning permits identification of antibodies and their cognate antigens for proteins that are differentially expressed on the surface of distinct cell populations.  (+info)

Decay-accelerating factor and cytoskeleton redistribution pattern in HeLa cells infected with recombinant Escherichia coli strains expressing Dr family of adhesins. (5/570)

Escherichia coli strains expressing Dr fimbriae are able to enter epithelial cells by interacting with a complement-regulatory protein, decay-accelerating factor. This model of bacterial internalization, with a well-characterized bacterial ligand and host receptor, provides a unique opportunity to investigate the early stages of invasion. We used immunofluorescence staining techniques to examine the distribution of receptor and cytoskeletal proteins in HeLa cells infected with E. coli recombinant strains that expressed Dr family of adhesins: Dr, Dr-II, F1845, AFA-I, and AFA-III. A major rearrangement of decay-accelerating factor was found at the adherence sites of recombinant strains expressing Dr, Dr-II, and F1845 adhesins. The changes in the distribution of receptor were significantly smaller on HeLa cells infected with E. coli bearing AFA-I or AFA-III afimbrial adhesins. Receptor aggregation was associated with the redistribution of cytoskeleton-associated proteins such as actin, alpha-actinin, ezrin, and occasionally tropomyosin. Purified Dr fimbriae coated on polystyrene beads were capable of triggering clustering of receptor and accumulating actin at the adhesion sites of beads to HeLa cells. Using scanning and transmission electron microscopic techniques, we have shown that beads coated with Dr fimbriae, as opposed to beads coated with bovine serum albumin, were enwrapped by cellular microvilli and ultimately internalized into HeLa cells. This indicates that interaction of Dr fimbriae with decay-accelerating factor is associated with redistribution of receptor and is sufficient to promote bacterial internalization.  (+info)

Molecular and functional analysis of mouse decay accelerating factor (CD55). (6/570)

Molecular cloning of mouse decay accelerating factor (DAF; CD55) predicted two forms of the molecule, one transmembrane (TM) and the other glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored; these are encoded by separate genes termed Daf-GPI and Daf-TM. In the present study several additional isoforms of mouse DAF, generated by alternative splicing from these genes, are described. Northern-blot analysis of RNA and reverse transcriptase-PCR from various tissues indicated that spleen and testis expressed high levels of DAF, which comprised several species. These species were cloned and sequence analysis revealed various novel forms in addition to those previously reported. Two novel forms were derived from the Daf-TM gene but the transmembrane sequence defined previously was replaced by a unique GPI-anchor addition sequence; one clone also had part of the serine/threonine/proline (STP) region deleted. A third clone, encoding a transmembrane protein, was also derived from this gene but the entire STP region was deleted. A fourth clone, derived from the Daf-GPI gene, contained a novel C-terminal sequence, suggestive of a secreted form of the protein. Two DAF cDNAs (TM and GPI-anchored) were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. When these cells were attacked with mouse or rat complement and analysed for C3b deposition, DAF-transfected cells had greatly reduced C3b deposition compared with controls. Transfection with DAF also conferred protection from complement in a cell-lysis assay, and a soluble, recombinant form of mouse DAF inhibited complement in a haemolytic assay.  (+info)

N-Glycans mediate the apical sorting of a GPI-anchored, raft-associated protein in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. (7/570)

Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)- anchored proteins are preferentially transported to the apical cell surface of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. It has been assumed that the GPI anchor itself acts as an apical determinant by its interaction with sphingolipid-cholesterol rafts. We modified the rat growth hormone (rGH), an unglycosylated, unpolarized secreted protein, into a GPI-anchored protein and analyzed its surface delivery in polarized MDCK cells. The addition of a GPI anchor to rGH did not lead to an increase in apical delivery of the protein. However, addition of N-glycans to GPI-anchored rGH resulted in predominant apical delivery, suggesting that N-glycans act as apical sorting signals on GPI-anchored proteins as they do on transmembrane and secretory proteins. In contrast to the GPI-anchored rGH, a transmembrane form of rGH which was not raft-associated accumulated intracellularly. Addition of N-glycans to this chimeric protein prevented intracellular accumulation and led to apical delivery.  (+info)

Picornavirus receptor down-regulation by plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2. (8/570)

Therapeutic interference with virus-cell surface receptor interactions represents a viable antiviral strategy. Here we demonstrate that cytoplasmic expression of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2), affords a high level of protection from lytic infection by multiple human picornaviruses. The antiviral action of PAI-2 was mediated primarily through transcriptional down-regulation of the following virus receptors: intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, a cellular receptor for the major group of rhinoviruses), decay-accelerating factor (a cellular receptor for echoviruses and coxsackieviruses), and to a lesser extent the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor protein (a cellular receptor for group B coxsackieviruses and group C adenoviruses). Expression of related cell surface receptors, including membrane cofactor protein and the poliovirus receptor, remained unaffected. These findings suggest that PAI-2 and/or related serpins may form the basis of novel antiviral strategies against picornavirus infections and also therapeutic interventions against ICAM-1-mediated respiratory inflammation.  (+info)

*Sushi domain

Complement decay-accelerating factor (Antigen CD55) belongs to the Cromer blood group system and is associated with Cr(a), Dr(a ... Es(a), Tc(a/b/c), Wd(a), WES(a/b), IFC and UMC antigens. Complement receptor type 1 (C3b/C4b receptor) (Antigen CD35) belongs ... Some of the proteins in this group are responsible for the molecular basis of the blood group antigens, surface markers on the ... Lomas-Francis, Christine; Reid, Marion E. (2004). The blood group antigen: factsbook. Boston: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-586585- ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd46 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.147 --- antigens, cd47 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.155 --- antigens, cd55 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd46 MeSH D23.101.100.110.147 --- antigens, cd47 MeSH D23.101.100.110.155 --- antigens, cd55 MeSH D23.101.100.110.156 ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...

*CD97

"Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and its ligand CD55 in rheumatoid synovial tissue". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 42 (4 ... Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... "Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and its ligand CD55 in rheumatoid synovial tissue". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 42 (4 ... Wu J, Lei L, Wang S, Gu D, Zhang J (2012). "Immunohistochemical expression and prognostic value of CD97 and its ligand CD55 in ...

*Complement receptor 1

CD55: Cromer antigen) protects host cells from complement-mediated damage by regulating the activation of C3 convertases on ... The Knops antigen was the 25th blood group system recognized and consists of the single antigen York (Yk) a with the following ... The Knops blood group system is a system of antigens located on this protein. The protein mediates cellular binding to ... Rao N, Ferguson DJ, Lee SF, Telen MJ (1991). "Identification of human erythrocyte blood group antigens on the C3b/C4b receptor ...

*CD59 antigen

Genetic defects in GPI-anchor attachment that cause a reduction or loss of both CD59 and CD55 on erythrocytes produce the ... CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. CD antigens nomenclature is updated at Protein Reviews On The Web (http ... CD59 antigen (also called 1F-5Ag, H19, HRF20, MACIF, MIRL, P-18 or protectin) inhibits formation of membrane attack complex ( ...

*Decay-accelerating factor

Complement decay-accelerating factor, also known as CD55 or DAF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CD55 gene. DAF ... Cromer blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH. ... "Molecular function for CD55 Gene". Brodbeck WG, Kuttner-Kondo L, Mold C, Medof ME (Sep 2000). "Structure/function studies of ... 2007). "The expression and action of decay-accelerating factor (CD55) in human malignancies and cancer therapy". Cell. Oncol. ...

*Complement control protein

DAF or CD55) Factor H (fH) Other soluble complement regulators that do not belong to the RCA/CCP family are Complement Factor I ... and unwanted material such as cell debris and antibody-antigen complexes. Most of the complement control proteins act on the ... module 2 and 3 from CD55 (pdb:1nwv)) or by X-ray diffraction (also with co-crystallized partner, e.g. CR2 CCP modules complexed ...

*CEACAM5

Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2000). "Recruitment of CD55 and CD66e Brush Border-Associated Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Proteins by Members of the ... 1987). "Carcinoembryonic antigen family: expression in a mouse L-cell transfectant and characterization of a partial cDNA in ... Boehm MK, Perkins SJ (2000). "Structural models for carcinoembryonic antigen and its complex with the single-chain Fv antibody ...

*Xenotransplantation

Indirect xenorecognition involves the presentation of antigens from the xenograft by recipient antigen presenting cells to CD4+ ... Experiments have shown this reduces α-Gal expression by 70%. Expression of human complement regulators (CD55, CD46, and CD59) ... Antigens of phagocytosed graft cells can also be presented by the host's class I MHC molecules to CD8+ T cells. The strength of ... These antigens (foreign objects) are often treated with powerful immunosuppressive drugs that could, in turn, make the patient ...

*CD59

1990). "The CD59 antigen is a structural homologue of murine Ly-6 antigens but lacks interferon inducibility". Eur. J. Immunol ... CD55)". Eur. J. Immunol. 22 (6): 1579-1585. doi:10.1002/eji.1830220635. PMID 1376264. Hahn WC, Menu E, Bothwell AL, et al. ( ... CD59 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD59 genome location and CD59 gene ... 1990). "Isolation and expression of the full-length cDNA encoding CD59 antigen of human lymphocytes". DNA Cell Biol. 9 (3): 213 ...

*CD90

It was originally named theta (θ) antigen, then Thy-1 (THYmocyte differentiation antigen 1) due to its prior identification in ... it can also be involved in cell to cell transfer of GPI anchored proteins like CD55 and CD59. Thy-1 is one of the most heavily ... The antigen Thy-1 was the first T cell marker to be identified. Thy-1 was discovered by Reif and Allen in 1964 during a search ... "The AKR thymic antigen and its distribution in leukemias and nervous tissue". J. Exp. Med. 120: 413-433. doi:10.1084/jem.120.3. ...

*Complement system

C3b binds to antigen-associated Ig and to the microbe surface. Ability of C3b to bind to antigen-associated Ig would work ... CD55 and CD59, depending on the cell. Pathogens, in general, don't have complement regulatory proteins (there are many ... which has formed a complex with antigens. C4b and C3b are also able to bind to antigen-associated IgG or IgM, to its Fc portion ... Upon immunisation with an antigen, more of these receptors are formed, and they are then shed from the cells to circulate in ...
Decay-accelerating factor (DAF), extracted from the stroma of human erythrocytes, was purified to homogeneity and incorporated into the membrane of sheep red cell complement intermediates, where its functional properties were analyzed. Incorporation of DAF into the cell membranes was temperature dependent, took place on pronase- or trypsin-treated erythrocytes, and did not depend on prior deposition of antibody, C1 or C4. Serum lipoproteins (high and low density) effectively inhibited DAF incorporation, but had no effect on the activity of DAF after its association with the cell membrane. The incorporated DAF could not be removed from the red cell surface by repeated washings in the presence of high salt concentration but was solubilized when the stroma were extracted with 0.1% Nonidet P-40. The presence of DAF in the membrane of EA did not affect the deposition of C1 and C4, but as few as 10(2) DAF molecules per cell profoundly inhibited the assembly of C3 and C5 convertases of both the ...
Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) is a 70,000 Mr protein that has been isolated from the membrane of red cells. The function of DAF is to inhibit the assembly of amplifying enzymes of the complement cascade on the cell surface, thereby protecting them from damage by autologous complement. We raised monoclonal antibodies to DAF and used them to study its distribution in cells from the peripheral blood of normal individuals and of patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), a disease characterized by the unusual susceptibility of red cells to the hemolytic activity of complement. The results of immunoradiometric assays and of fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis showed that DAF was present not only on red cells but was widely distributed on the surface membrane of platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, and B and T lymphocytes. By Western blotting, we observed small but consistent differences in the Mr of DAF from the membranes of various cell types. Quantitative studies showed that ...
Decay-accelerating factor (DAF, CD55) is a glycophosphatidyl inositol-anchored glycoprotein that regulates the activity of C3 and C5 convertases. In addition to understanding the mechanism of complement inhibition by DAF through structural studies, there is also an interest in the possible therapeutic potential of the molecule. In this report we describe the cloning, expression in Escherichia coli, isolation and membrane-targeting modification of the four short consensus repeat domains of soluble human DAF with an additional C-terminal cysteine residue to permit site-specific modification. The purified refolded recombinant protein was active against both classical and alternative pathway assays of complement activation and had similar biological activity to soluble human DAF expressed in Pichia pastoris. Modification with a membrane-localizing peptide restored cell binding and gave a large increase in antihemolytic potency. These data suggested that the recombinant DAF was correctly folded and suitable
Clone REA300 recognizes the CD55 antigen, a glycoprotein also known as complement decay-accelerating factor (DAF). There are two mouse CD55 genes, which share 85% nucleotide and 78% amino acid identities, and have been designated CD55-glycosylphosphatidylinositol and CD55-transmembrane to reflect the two alternate mechanisms of membrane attachment. Both proteins are recognized by clone REA300. CD55 is broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. It is expressed on the plasma membranes of all cell types that are in intimate contact with serum and it is also found on the surfaces of epithelial cells, lining extracellular compartments. CD55 plays multiple physiologic roles including tissue protection from the cytotoxic complement injury, anti-inflammatory function owing to its anti-adherence properties which enhance transmigration of monocytes and macrophages and reduce tissue injury. CD55 plays an essential role during pregnancy and is involved in the protection of the
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
CRP seems to be not only a biomarker for atherosclerosis but also a mediator of plaque formation.3 By binding to enzymatically degraded low-density lipoprotein, CRP is able to activate the classical pathway of complement,13 serving as a potential link between complement activation and atherosclerosis.9,10 To protect against complement-mediated cell lysis, nucleated cells express complement inhibitor proteins on their surface. By upregulating the expression of these proteins in endothelial cells, CRP may serve to protect ECs from complement-mediated injury.. The ability of CRP to bind to nucleated cells and cause complement activation without cytolysis14 has been largely attributed to its ability to recruit the inhibitory plasma protein factor H.15 However, our results indicate that CRP may play a more active, protective role by stimulating the expression of DAF, CD46, and CD59 in endothelial cells. The kinetics of DAF expression were analyzed in greater detail because DAF seems to be the most ...
The kidney is particularly susceptible to complement-mediated injury in a number of clinical settings, and congenital deficiency or defects in the complement-regulatory proteins MCP and factor H are strongly associated with the development of renal disease. In the current study, we demonstrated that Crry (the murine homolog of MCP in the kidney) is the only membrane-bound regulator of complement expressed by murine TECs. Crry is expressed on the cell membrane, and its expression is concentrated in the basolateral portion of the cell. Polarized TECs regulate complement more efficiently on the basolateral surface of the cells than on the apical surface, in part because of Crry expression at this site. As with renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) (21), chemical hypoxia of the TECs causes a reduction in surface Crry levels, and the distribution within the cell is also altered.. Spontaneous complement activation on the surface of TECs is also controlled by endogenous factor H. When rH 19-20 was added to ...
Decay-accelerating factor (CD55), a regulator of the alternative and classical pathways of complement activation, is expressed on all serum-exposed cells. It is used by pathogens, including many enteroviruses and uropathogenic Escherichia coli, as a receptor prior to infection. We describe the x-ray structure of a pathogen-binding fragment of human CD55 at 1.7 A resolution containing two of the three domains required for regulation of human complement. We have used mutagenesis to map biological functions onto the molecule; decay-accelerating activity maps to a single face of the molecule, whereas bacterial and viral pathogens recognize a variety of different sites on CD55.
Clone REA678 recognizes the mouse CD97 antigen variant 2 (CD97v2).CD97 is a member of the EGF-TM7 family, which is a group of class II seven-span transmembrane receptors expressed ubiquitously, but mainly expressed by cells of the immune system. CD97 has seven putative transmembrane domains. It has an extended extracellular segment containing several adhesion molecule structure motifs, and has been shown to interact with the human DAF (CD55). The variant 2 of CD97 exhibits a 94 aa deletion that results in loss of the third EGF-like repeat. Additional information: Clone REA678 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - USA
Simpson, R. J., Guy, K., Whyte, G. P., & Florida-James, G. D. (2005). Lymphocyte Apoptosis, Adhesion/activation Molecules And Complement Regulatory Proteins Following Intensive, Moderate And Eccentric Exercise: 1739 11:30 AM ??? 11:45 AM. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 37(Supplement), (S336). doi:10.1097/00005768-200505001-01738. ISSN 0195-9131. ...
Simpson, R. J., Guy, K., Whyte, G. P., & Florida-James, G. D. (2005). Lymphocyte Apoptosis, Adhesion/activation Molecules And Complement Regulatory Proteins Following Intensive, Moderate And Eccentric Exercise: 1739 11:30 AM ??? 11:45 AM. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 37(Supplement), (S336). doi:10.1097/00005768-200505001-01738. ISSN 0195-9131. ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Kamiya \ DAF_FM DA \ BC-035 for more molecular products just contact us
Vol 21: Study of Coxsackie B viruses interactions with Coxsackie Adenovirus receptor and Decay-Accelerating Factor using Human CaCo-2 cell line.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The objective of our study was the investigation of differential pathways in cardiac and skeletal muscles that protect one tissue and render the other susceptible to damage within a single organism. This approach might help to identify relevant pathways and possible candidates for therapeutic intervention. Dysferlin-deficient muscular dystrophy appeared to be a suitable model for this approach, because dysferlin is expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles, but, clinically, the heart is thought to be unaffected in LGMD2B (25, 26). We demonstrate down-regulation of DAF/CD55 on mRNA and protein levels in dysferlin-deficient mice and LGMD2B patients, leading to activation of the MAC of the complement cascade on skeletal muscle cells. In vitro, dysferlin-deficient human myotubes are highly susceptible to complement attack, whereas normal human myoblasts/myotubes are not (19). The underlying mechanism appears to be a lack of myostatin, leading to down-regulation of SMAD proteins, with a negative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decay accelerating factor regulates complement activation on glomerular epithelial cells. AU - Quigg, R. J.. AU - Nicholson-Weller, A.. AU - Cybulsky, A. V.. AU - Badalamenti, John. AU - Salant, D. J.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Epithelial cells of the glomerular capillary are the site of C5b-9 mediated injury in rat membranous nephropathy. We investigated the regulation of C activation by cultured glomerular epithelial cells (GEC). Rat and human GEC were more resistant to C injury by homologous C than heterologous C. In human GEC homologous C cytotoxicity was enhanced by antiserum to decay accelerating factor (DAF) indicating that homologous C activation was, at least in part, restricted by membrane DAF. Anti-DAF immunoprecipitated a 67-kDa protein from human glomeruli. In rat GEC, pronase and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (which are known to inactivate human DAF) enhanced cytotoxicity by homologous C. Thus, DAF is present on human GEC in culture and in human ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
During sublytic complement attack on human neutrophils, plasma-membrane vesicles are shed from the cell surface as a cell-protection mechanism. By using surface-iodinated neutrophils it was found that less than 2% of surface label was recovered in shed vesicles under conditions where 40% of complement component C9 was shed. SDS/PAGE of 125I-labelled shed vesicles and plasma membranes showed differences in iodination pattern, demonstrating the sorting of membrane proteins into the shed vesicles. Analysis of 32P-labelled phospholipids after labeling of neutrophils with [32P]Pi before sublytic complement attack showed the presence of phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and polyphosphoinositides in shed vesicles. Quantitative analysis using [3H]acetic anhydride-labelling method showed that the molar proportions of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine and sphingomyelin were the same in shed vesicles as in plasma ...
Membrane cofactor protein (MCP) is a complement regulatory protein that is expressed on human cells and cell lines as two relatively broad species with Mr of 58,000-68,000 and 48,000-56,000. The structure of a previously reported cDNA clone indicated that MCP was a type 1 membrane glycoprotein and a member of the regulators of complement activation gene/protein cluster. However, it did not provide an explanation for the unusual phenotypic pattern of MCP. Therefore, in parallel with an analysis of the gene, additional cDNAs were cloned and characterized. Six different MCP cDNA classes were identified. All encode the same 5 untranslated signal peptide, four SCRs, transmembrane domain, and basic amino acid anchor. However, they differ in the length and composition of an extracellular serine/threonine/proline (STP)-rich area, a site of heavy O-glycosylation, and cytoplasmic tail. Analysis of the MCP gene demonstrated that the variation in cDNA structure was a result of alternative splicing. ...
APT 3111 [APT 2392, CD59-Prodaptin™] is a derivative of the membrane-bound complement inhibitor CD59 and was under development with Adprotech (now Inflazyme
Daf Cf65 Daf Cf75 And Daf Cf85 Series Repair Service Manual Pdf Service Manual: 20 assigned downloads, like DAF CF65, DAF CF75 and DAF CF85 Series Repair Service Manual from autohouse
ARIUS Research (Roche) was developing monoclonal antibodies directed against the complement inhibitory protein CD59 for the treatment of cancer. CD59 blocks the
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Accu \ DAF; Clone RIK0_3, Hamster anti_Mouse; Biotin \ ACL7540B for more molecular products just contact us
Netzkatzen das untrüglichste zeichen dafür das eine katze krank Banminth paste für katzen hat eine breitbandwirkung gegen alle gängigen magen und darmwürmer.
Inhabit shallow gravel riffles, sometimes rocky runs and pools, of headwaters, creeks and small rivers (Ref. 5723); also found in streams (Ref. 10294). Adults feed on midge and blackfly larvae, mayfly nymphs, isopods, amphipods, and caddisfly larvae (Ref. 10294). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 36980). Eggs are found buried in the substrate (Ref. 7043). ...
Results Brain pathological injury was the most serious at 24 h after reperfusion, The complement regulatory protein CD46 expression decreased gradually after local cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion injury, the lowest at 24 h after reperfusion, and returned to normal at 96 h after reperfusion.complement regulatory protein CD46 expression was negative correlated with brain pathological injury.. ...
Membrane cofactor protein (MCP), a regulatory molecular of the complement system with cofactor activity for the factor I-mediated inactivation of C3b and C4b, is widely distributed, being present on leukocytes, platelets, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. MCP was purified from a human T cell line (HSB2) and the NH2-terminal 24-amino acid sequence obtained by Edman degradation. An oligonucleotide probe based on this sequence was used to identify a clone from a human monocytic (U937) cDNA library. Nucleotide sequencing showed a 43-bp 5-untranslated region, an open reading frame of 1,152 bp, and a 335-bp 3-untranslated region followed by a 16-bp poly(A) track. The deduced full-length MCP protein consists of a 34-amino acid signal peptide and a 350-amino acid mature protein. The protein has, beginning at the NH2 terminus, four approximately 60-amino acid repeat units that match the consensus sequence found in a multigene family of complement regulatory proteins (C3b-receptor or ...
Background/Purpose: The influence of complement-mediated innate immune responses on cartilage and bone homeostasis in the ageing joint have not been studied. Inappropriate complement-mediated cell damage is prevented by membrane regulators such as CD59. Synovial tissue expression of CD59 is altered during inflammatory arthritis; elevated CD59 levels may be necessary to protect joint tissues. Roles of CD59 in maintaining tissue equilibrium and structural architecture within the synovial joint have not been described previously. Since CD59a is the primary regulator of membrane attack complex assembly in mice; we used CD59a-gene-deleted mice (CD59a-/-) as tools to unravel the function of CD59a in modulating age-related joint degeneration. Methods: Hind limbs were collected from C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and CD59a-/- mice at 8-, 20- and 50- weeks of age (6 to 10 mice/group). The Mankin score was used to classify the histopathological severity of osteoarthritic (OA) lesions. Three dimensional ...
CD59 / Complement Regulatory Protein / Protectin Antibody - Without BSA and Azide, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone SPM616 ] validated in IHC, IF, FC (AH12772-100), Abgent
Myocarditis is a cardiac disease associated with inflammation and injury of the myocardium. It results from various etiologies, both noninfectious and infectious, but coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is still considered the dominant etiological agent. Myocarditis may be caused by direct cytopathic effects of virus, a pathologic immune response to persistent virus, or autoimmunity triggered by the viral infection. The virus enters the myocyte through internalization of the coxsackie-adenoviral receptor (CAR) and its coreceptor, decay-accelerating factor (DAF). Viral proteases cleave various proteins in the host cell. One example is viral protease 2A, which cleaves eukaryote initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and the dystrophin protein, resulting in a complete shutdown of cap-dependent RNA translation and cytoskeletal destruction in infected cardiomyocytes, respectively. CVB3 also cleaves the member of the Bcl-2 family Bid, leading to apoptosis. CVB3 infection also induces the cleavage of cyclin D protein ...
Objectives: To analyze the protective effects against complement-mediated cytolysis of the MCP, DAF, and CD59 human complement regulatory proteins, alone and in combination, on NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. Materials and Methods: We constructed 3 double and 3 single-human complement regulatory protein plasmids (pIRES-hMCP-hDAF, pIRES-hMCP-hCD59, pIRES-hDAF-hCD59, pIRES-A-hMCP, pIRES-B-hDAF, and pIRES-B-hCD59 ...
Looking for online definition of DAF in the Medical Dictionary? DAF explanation free. What is DAF? Meaning of DAF medical term. What does DAF mean?
2001 DAF Motor DAF XF 280 M / XF280M available on TruckTradex.co.uk through AutoGilles in Nordrhein-Westfalen , Germany. See full specifications as well as an extensive selection of additional Daf Motor DAF XF 280 M / XF280M Vehicle Spare Parts.
When you exercise heavily, you lose water and salt in your sweat. One good source is Emergen-C®. Emergen-C has an advantage over water because it is packed with the potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium and sugar to provide electrolyte replenishment and energy during workouts Athletes can stave off fatigue longer if they fortify their water with…
Homo sapiens membrane cofactor protein (CD46, trophoblast-lymphocyte cross-reactive antigen) (MCP), transcript variant h, mRNA. (H00004179-R27) - Products - Abnova
Homo sapiens membrane cofactor protein (CD46, trophoblast-lymphocyte cross-reactive antigen) (MCP), transcript variant n, mRNA. (H00004179-R17) - Products - Abnova
WWII German DAF Standarte-(aka German Labor Front, Deutsche Arbeitsfront) This is double sided and sewn on both side. Each color is a separate layer of sewn cloth including white border for cog, black cog wheel, white disk, and black swastika. There is a sewn sleeve on one edge for pole. A 6-in x 9-in brown patch, u
این مطالعه با هدف ارزیابی عملکرد سیستم لجن‌فعال هوادهی گسترده مورد استفاده برای تصفیه فاضلاب مجتمع پتروشیمی تبریز انجام شده است. سیستم تصفیه شامل آشغالگیر، API، متعادل‌سازی، انعقاد و لخته‌سازی، سیستم DAF، حوض هوادهی، زلال‌ساز اولیه و ثانویه و فیلتراسیون می‌باشد. این تصفیه‌خانه جهت تصفیه فاضلاب صنعتی تولیدی از واحدهای مختلف مجتمع و با هدف استفاده مجدد از پساب تصفیه شده، طراحی شده است. جهت ارزیابی عملکرد تصفیه‌خانه، نمونه‌های ترکیبی 12 ساعته متناسب با دبی در 4 نوبت در طی 6 ماه برداشته شده و پارامترهای COD، BOD5، TDS، TSS، فنل، سیانید، روغن، آمونیاک و TKN مطابق با
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessing donor chimerism using flow cytometry in paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria after stem cell transplantation--a case report.. AU - Raja Sabudin, Raja Zahratul Azma. AU - Hussin, Noor Hamidah. AU - Chooi Fun, Leong. AU - Ainoon, O.. AU - Cheong, S. K.. PY - 2006/12. Y1 - 2006/12. N2 - Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired haemopoietic stem cell disorder arising from somatic mutation of the X-linked PIG-A gene which leads to deficiency of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GP1) membrane anchor proteins such as CD 59 (MIRL: membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis) and CD 55 (DAF: decay accelerating factor). Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) is a curative mode of treatment in symptomatic PNH patients. Assessment of donor chimerism for PBSCT can be performed by various methods including short tandem repeat loci (STR) and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). Flow cytometry, which is much cheaper and faster, also can be used to ...
Treatment for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria in HAL, Bangalore, find doctors near you. Book Appointment Online, View Fees, Reviews Doctors for Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Treatment in HAL, Bangalore | Practo
Treatment for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria in Cox Town, Bangalore, find doctors near you. Book Appointment Online, View Fees, Reviews Doctors for Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Treatment in Cox Town, Bangalore | Practo
Find the best paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria doctors in Thane. Get guidance from medical experts to select paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria specialist in Thane from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria at PatientsLikeMe. 9 patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria experience fatigue, depressed mood, pain, anxious mood, and insomnia.
Another name for Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria is Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria. What is paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria? A person with ...
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects mainly diarthrodial joints and periarticular structures, and can acquire a systemic character. Rheumatoid arthritis affects approximately 1% of the world population, being two to three times more common in women.1. The etiology of RA has not been completely clarified. However, environmental and genetic factors have contributed to the development of the disease. In the early stages of RA, proliferation and edema of the synovial layer cells occur, with infiltration of B and T cells, macrophages, and granulocytes. The synovium thickens, and the joint becomes swollen and painful. With progression, synovial proliferation leads to the formation of pannus, a tissue that invades the articular cartilage and bone. Joint destruction is irreversible. Osteoclasts reabsorb bone, and there is release of proteolytic enzymes, such as metal-loproteinases, aggrecanases, and cathepsins, responsible for the destruction of ...
NEW HAVEN, Conn.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ:ALXN) today announced the initiation of two Phase 3 trials of ALXN1210, a highly innovative, longer-acting anti-C5 antibody that inhibits terminal complement. The first trial is a Phase 3 open-label, multinational, active-controlled study of ALXN1210 compared to eculizumab (Soliris®) in complement inhibitor treatment-naïve patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH).
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired disease characterized by clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder, with increased mortality and morbidity. Venous thrombosis is the most common cause of mortality in PNH. The relationship between PNH and cerebrovascular disease is unclear; few cases are reported in the literature, most of them related to cerebral venous thrombosis; In PNH the involvement of intracranial and extracranial arterial sites is very rare. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman who has a medical history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and PNH and presented multiple lacunar strokes in a routine consultation with a hematologist ...
Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) is a unique disorder in which a substantial proportion of the patients red cells have an abnormal susceptibility to activated complement. This results from the presence of a clone that originates from a haematopoietic stem cell bearing an acquired somatic mutation in the X-linked gene ...
Learn about paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. What are the symptoms, the causes and how to treat this condition? What can we do to cope...
Feldman L. Triiodothyronine (T3) toxicosis and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: report of case. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1981;80(7):491. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.1981.80.7.491.. Download citation file:. ...
1ERG: THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOLUTION STRUCTURE OF THE EXTRACELLULAR REGION OF THE COMPLEMENT REGULATORY PROTEIN, CD59, A NEW CELL SURFACE PROTEIN DOMAIN RELATED TO NEUROTOXINS
陣發性夜間血紅素尿症(paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, PNH)是一種罕見的造血幹細胞疾病,因後天基因突變而造成[1]。一般來說,正常紅血球的細胞膜上有幾種保護性蛋白質,例如:蛋白衰變加速因子(decay accelerating factor, CD55)以及溶解細胞膜抑制物(membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis, CD59),使紅血球不會因補體(免疫系統的一部分)的攻擊而破裂[1]。然而,PNH患者因為在X染色體上的phosphatidylinositol glycan A (PIG-A)基因發生突變,造成某些醣脂質,例如glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPI)無法形成,而使紅血球上的保護性蛋白質無法藉著GPI結合在紅血球的細胞膜上[1]。紅血球沒有這些蛋白質的保護就容易因人體內補體系統的攻擊而破裂,引起持續、慢性的血管內溶血性疾病,這也是造成疾病症狀及後續嚴重併發症的原因[2-4 ...
Speaking with your healthcare team about your condition and finding out what you can about the disease can be empowering and can help you understand how best to move forward. OneSource is a complimentary, personalized patient support program offered by Alexion, and tailored to the specific needs of people living with aHUS, gMG, HPP, LAL-D, NMOSD and PNH. Were here to help you learn, and were here to help you understand the options available to you.. ...
This study was presented at the European Hematology Association annual meeting in June 2013. Abstract EHA18ABSSUB-4921 Petra Muus, H. Schrezenmeier, G. Socié, J. Maciejewski, J. Szer, R Brodsky, A. Urbano-Ispizua, M. Bessler, Y. Kanakura, W. Rosse, G. Khursigara, C. Bedrosian, P. Hillmen
A look inside the world of forensics examines the use of human cadavers in a wide range of endeavors, including research into new surgical procedures, space exploration, and a Tennessee human decay research facility
... _Everything about DAF System DesignEverything you want to know about DAF system design. Original content by FRC engineeers.DAF System Design Plate Pack vs. Open TankWith DAF system design, how d
Quantity100 testsVolume0.4ImmunogenHuman Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) T cellsBackground InformationCD46 (MCP; membrane cofactor protein) is a m...
Find people with Napadowa nocna hemoglobinuria through the map. Connect with them and share experiences. Join the Napadowa nocna hemoglobinuria community.
Definition of Epidemic haemoglobinuria with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Napadowa nocna hemoglobinuria forum - Pytania na temat Napadowa nocna hemoglobinuria - Zadaj pytanie i uzyskaj odpowiedź od innych użytkowników.
Soliris (eculizumab) is used to treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Includes Soliris side effects, interactions and indications.
This volume reviews the fundamental understanding of this potentially life-threatening disease and the advances in treatment that have been achieved with the use of the monoclonal antibody eculizumab. Although the PIGA gene has been known for many years, the mechanism of clonal dominance in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is still largely unknown. This book, Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria, discusses the direction of continuing research in this area, as well as the potential for the development of management guidelines. It serves as a valuable source of information for both basic scientists and physicians, especially immunologists targeting GPI-anchored proteins and complements, and hematologists specializing in bone marrow failure. ...
SUMMARY In contrast to all other intrinsic abnormalities of the erythrocyte, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired, not an inherited, disorder. PNH arises as a consequence of somatic mutation, involving one or more hematopoietic stem cells, of PIGA, a gene located on the X chromosome that is required for synthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety that anchors some proteins to the cell surface. Consequently, all GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) that are normally expressed are deficient on the mutant hematopoietic stem cells and their progeny. The complement-mediated intravascular hemolytic anemia and the resulting hemoglobinuria that are the clinical hallmarks of PNH are a consequence of deficiency of the GPI-anchored complement regulatory proteins, CD55 and CD59. Although PNH is a neoplastic (clonal) disease, it is not a malignant disease in that there is no exaggerated proliferation of neoplastic cells and replacement of marrow or spread to other tissues, and ...
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a clonal bone marrow disorder, resulting from an acquired, somatic X-linked mutation of the PIG-A gene in an hematopoietic stem cell. Absence of PIG-A function in a cell prevents synthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety, which anchors many different types of proteins to the cell membrane. Intravascular red cell destruction, the hallmark of the disorder, is caused by susceptibility of the abnormal erythrocyte to complement-mediated lysis; this sensitivity is due to lack of CD59, a potent inhibitor of the late components of complement and reactive lysis. In vitro studies from this laboratory have demonstrated transfer of GPI-linked proteins, CD55 and CD59, from normal to deficient cells and transfer is associated with resistance to hemolysis. Patients with PNH frequently require transfusion as their standard care. In addition, patients with all blood groups requiring transfusion will often receive compatible group O blood. Group O ...
... is a rare acquired, life-threatening disease of the blood. The disease is characterized by destruction of red blood cells (hemolytic anemia), blood clots (thrombosis), and impaired bone marrow function (not making enough of the three blood components). PNH affects 1-1.5 persons per million of the population and is primarily a disease of younger adults. The median age of diagnosis is 35-40 years of age, with occasional cases diagnosed in childhood or adolescence. PNH is closely related to aplastic anemia. In fact, up to 30% of newly diagnosed cases of PNH evolve from aplastic anemia. Similarly, the risk of developing PNH after treatment for aplastic anemia with immunosuppressive therapy (anti-thymocyte globulin and cyclosporine) is approximately 20-30%. The median survival after diagnosis is 10 years; however, some patients can survive for decades with only minor symptoms.. PNH occurs when mutations of a gene called PIG-A occur in a bone marrow stem cell. ...
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired hematopoietic stem-cell disorder related to the somatic mutation in PIG-A gene (X-chromosome). This genetic alteration results in partial or total deficiency of all proteins normally linked to the cell membrane by glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol (GPI). Flow cytometry provides an efficient diagnostic test in which the lack of GPI-anchored proteins is studied on the major blood cell populations ...
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired hematopoietic stem-cell disorder related to the somatic mutation in PIG-A gene (X-chromosome). This genetic alteration results in partial or total deficiency of all proteins normally linked to the cell membrane by glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol (GPI). Flow cytometry provides an efficient diagnostic test in which the lack of GPI-anchored proteins is studied on the major blood cell populations ...
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) In this condition, the bone marrow--the soft spongy tissue that act as the blood manufacturing system for the entire body--produces defective red blood cells. The bodys natural defense system then destroys these defective red blood cells in a process is known as hemolysis.
The term "nocturnal" refers to the belief that hemolysis is triggered by acidosis during sleep. However, this observation was later disproved. In individuals with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, hemolysis has been shown to occur throughout the day, but the urine concentrated overnight produces the dramatic change in color.[1] It is most noticeable in the morning, upon passing urine that has accumulated in the bladder during the night.[2] ...
Severely anemic patients with PNH on treatment with Soliris™ can become transfusion-free with improved hemoglobin when switched to APL-2 monotherapy. Treatment-naïve patients with PNH show clinically meaningful improvements for all hematological parameters when treated with APL-2. CRESTWOOD, Ky. and WALTHAM, Mass., June 26, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq:APLS), a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of novel therapeutic compounds to treat disease through the inhibition of the complement system, will provide clinical updates today on its two ongoing Phase Ib PNH studies during an R&D Day in New York between 2.00 pm and 5.00 pm.. Apellis is developing APL-2 for the treatment of PNH, a rare, acquired, potentially life-threatening disease characterized by complement-mediated thrombosis and hemolytic anemia. The Company believes that by targeting C3, APL-2 can improve hematological parameters in patients with PNH on treatment with C5 ...
Primary analyses will assess safety endpoints, including occurrence and time to first event for the following: meningococcal infections, infections with serious outcomes, formation of HAHA to Soliris, malignancy, thrombotic events, pulmonary hypertension, impaired renal function, serious hemolysis, pregnancies, infusion reactions, targeted adverse events, bone marrow transplant, and mortality. In addition, all serious adverse events (SAEs), regardless of causality, will be collected in order to search for unknown safety concerns ...
I believe that a story is the shortest distance between two people. While this is my story, it is not just mine, and I did not do any of this alone. In April 1983, my husband Joe and I were 25 years old and attending to the required pre-marital blood work. Next thing we knew, we were sitting in a doctors office because my blood counts were abnormally low. They told us there was something wrong, but they didnt know what it was. ...
HighBeam Research is operated by Cengage Learning. © Copyright 2012. All rights reserved.. The HighBeam advertising network includes: womensforum.com GlamFamily ...
We report the case of a 37-year old man presenting with a left ventricular cardiac thrombus in the setting of subclinical paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinura (PNH) developing two years after immunosuppressive therapy for thymoma-associated aplastic an
Your help makes it possible to meet patients needs, hold impactful conferences, develop fresh education programs and fund research for the cures, along with improved treatments until cures are discovered. ...
infections; (ii) specific antibodies detected by conventional serology (CS) with epimastigote extracts, fixed trypomastigotes or other parasite antigens may circulate years after parasite elimination; (iii) functional antibodies are evidenced by complement-mediated lysis of freshly isolated trypomastigotes, a test which is 100% specific, highly sensitive, and the first to revert after T. cruzi elimination and (iv) the parasite target for the lytic antibodies is a glycoprotein of high molecular weight (gp160) anchored at the parasite surface. The complement regulatory protein has been cloned, sequenced and produced as a recombinant protein by other groups and is useful for identifying functional anti-T. cruzi antibodies in ELISA tests, thus dispensing with the need for live trypomastigotes to manage treated patients. If used instead of CS to define cures for Chagas patients, ELISA will avoid unnecessary delays in finding anti-T. cruzi drugs. Other highly sensitive techniques for parasite DNA ...
Fremeaux-Bacchi, V.; Kemp, E. J.; Goodship, J. A.; Dragon-Durey, M. A.; Strain, L.; Loirat, C.; Deng, H. W.; Goodship, T. H. J. The development of atypical haemolytic-uraemic syndrome is influenced by susceptibility factors in factor H and membrane cofactor protein: evidence from two independent cohorts. Journal of medical genetics. 2005, NOV. 42(11):852-856 ...
Fetal development inside the womb has many benefits, including protection from fluctuations in nourishment, temperature, and oxygen levels (41). Beyond the safety from external threats, fetal in utero existence, however, entails problems. Among the biggest challenges for mother and fetus is the establishment of immunologic coexistence of 2 genetically distinct entities while simultaneously ensuring potent immune defense against pathogens. To date, several maternal and fetal mechanisms contributing to the establishment and maintenance of fetal-maternal immune homeostasis have been described (11). Yet, numerous non-pathogen-related inflammatory reactions leading to pregnancy complications exist, which represent major threats to the developing fetus and its mother (42). Using a CMP-Sia-negative mouse model, we demonstrated sialylation to be crucial for protection of fetal extraembryonic tissue from maternal complement attack, thereby guaranteeing its proper development, which ultimately ensures ...
Download Code. Many things have been said about this band: they were called the "godfathers of techno," the pioneers of EBM and the forefathers of electropunk. Yet they only laugh coolly and remain tight- lipped in the face of any attempt to historicize them. Deutsch Amerikanische Freundschaft - better known as DAF - is a myth. What we know is that they released four albums in a short time span between 1980 and 1982, and that those albums changed the history of music worldwide. Yet DAFs international renown certainly was not based in the name: Gabi Delgado-López and Robert Görl were never looking for friendship; their expressions were invariably ones of steely, piercing stares, and they pre- sented themselves with a precisely staged iciness that belied the ardor burning inside them. DAF initially formed as a quintet in the confines of Ratinger Hof in Düsseldorf, alongside bands like Fehlfarben, Der Plan, Mittagspause and others, but later adopted a conceptual approach that left no space for ...
Species, Articles from Journal RESEARCH, Scientific Experts, Research Topics, Publications, Research Grants, Genomes and Genes about paroxysmal hemoglobinuria
... - Hemoglobinuria paroxística nocturna ,, Hemólisis intravascular microangiopática 31 l Hiperglicemia, verglucemia Hiperinsulinismo. se distingue por el
Weshalb können gewisse normalerweise rezeptpflichtigen Medikamente übers Internet von gewissen Anbietern erworben werden ohne dafür ein Rezept vorzuweisen? Macht sich die Internetapotheke nicht strafbar bzw. wird dies nicht kontrolliert?
OU_News Coming soon..OU Torahs weekly Shavua Tov newsletter: Articles and shiurim on the parsha, daf and more - sign up at https://t.co/WYEU5fcvOZ ...
OU_News Coming soon..OU Torahs weekly Shavua Tov newsletter: Articles and shiurim on the parsha, daf and more - sign up at https://t.co/WYEU5fcvOZ ...
In paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) the loss of iron in the urine in the form of hemoglobin or hemosiderin is primarily responsible for the unusually high incidence of iron deficiency that has been observed (1, 2). Although repletion of iron stores may result in significant improvement in the anemia of PNH, therapeutic replacement of iron can also constitute a special problem in this disease since iron administration may accelerate hemolytic activity (1, 3).. This relationship between iron and PNH hemolytic activity was demonstrated in a patient whom we have studied recently. His case was of particular interest since the iron ...
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria - Epidemiology Insights to 2025 is a market research report available at US $2950 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.
Title: Role of Dietary Fiber and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in the Colon. VOLUME: 9 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Akira Andoh, Tomoyuki Tsujikawa and Yoshihide Fujiyama. Affiliation:Division of Gastroenterology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-Tukinowa, Otsu 520-2192,Japan. Keywords:ibd, complement, decay-accelerating factor, fermentation, colon cancer. Abstract: Luminal nutrition is important for maintenance of gastrointestinal mucosal structure and function. In particular, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), metabolic products of anaerobic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber and resistant starch, are particularly important as the preferred respiratory fuel of the colonocytes. A variety of biological effects of SCFAs have been reported, and there is now increasing number of experimental works showing new aspects of these molecules. For example, as the mechanisms mediating anti-inflammatory effects of SCFAs, several investigators identified the inhibitory effect of butyrate on proinflammatory ...
GPI-Anchored Proteins. The majority of eukaryotic cell membrane proteins have hydrophobic amino acids stretches that consists of a transmembrane polypeptide chain, which embeds the proteins into phospholipids double layer of the membrane [18]. GPI anchored proteins are membrane bound proteins. Several proteins are linked to the outer cell membrane leaflet by GPI anchor. This structure involves three key elements: a core containing a phosphatidylinositol (PI) moiety, one glucosamine and three mannose molecules and one ethanolamine phosphate unit [19]. A peptide bond links the C-terminus of the protein polypeptide to the last moiety. The GPI-anchor is created in the endoplasmic reticulum and attached to the polypeptide post-translational by a transaminase enzyme [20-21]. Molecular Genetic Background. Until date, all PNH patients have had genetic mutations in an X-linked gene known as PIG-A [22, 23,9]. The PIG-A gene product is initially required in the assembly of GPI anchors [24]. Consequently, a ...
Specimen must arrive within 48 hours of draw. Specimen must arrive by 1800 on Friday and 1 day before a holiday.. EDTA and sodium heparin whole blood are required.. Specimen Type: Whole blood. Container/Tube: Lavender top (EDTA). Specimen Volume: Full tube. Specimen Minimum Volume: 1 mL or 5 mL if 1 tube is submitted (Testing can be performed on either EDTA or sodium heparin whole blood if only 1 tube with is submitted with sufficient volume.). Specimen Type: Whole blood. Container/Tube: 10-mL dark-green top (sodium heparin). Specimen Volume: Full tube. Specimen Minimum Volume: 5 mL or 5 mL if 1 tube is submitted (Testing can be performed on either EDTA or sodium heparin whole blood if only 1 tube with is submitted with sufficient volume.). ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Results At baseline, vWF, sVCAM-1, the EMP count, and F1+2 and D-dimer levels were significantly elevated in the patients, including those with no history of clinical thrombosis. Treatment with eculizumab was associated with significant decreases in plasma markers of coagulation activation (F1+2, p=0.012, and D-dimers, p=0.01), and reactional fibrinolysis (P-AP, p=0.0002). Eculizumab treatment also significantly reduced plasma markers of endothelial cell activation (t-PA, p=0.0005, sVCAM-1, p,0.0001, and vWF, p=0.0047) and total (p=0.0008) and free (p=0.0013) TFPI plasma levels. ...
Background-The cause of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown, and it is often difficult to obtain diagnostic histological specimens. In considering the diagnosis of IBD, other causes of enteritis should be excluded. We present a case that illustrates this.. Case report-A 32 year old man presented with a history of intermittent diarrhoea, vomiting, colicky abdominal pain, and weight loss. There was no history of foreign travel or recent contact with gastroenteritis, and he had no family history or past medical history of note. On examination, he was a pale thin man with central abdominal tenderness; other systems were unremarkable. Abnormal blood tests included a raised white cell count 20.4 × 106/l (normal 4-11 × 106), C-reactive protein (CRP) 246 mg/l (normal 1-6 mg/l), and ferritin 310 μg/l (normal 12-1200 μg/l). Stool cultures were negative for pathogenic organisms. Colonoscopy revealed patchy chronic inflammatory infiltration in the lamina propria and enteroscopy showed active ...
We compared the pattern of gene category overrepresentation in each gene set using the expression analysis systematic explorer (EASE) application (Hosack et al, 2003) (full data in Supplementary Data Set S1). As expected, Sets A and B showed enrichment of class 1, a set of genes independently defined as upregulated in long‐lived IIS mutants (Murphy et al, 2003), but Set C did not (Figure 3B), confirming that few of the genes in Set C are IIS/DAF‐16 regulated. Previous studies have shown upregulation by DAF‐16 of many drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), for example cytochrome P450 oxidases and glutathione S‐transferases (McElwee et al, 2007). These categories are not enriched among Sets B or C but are enriched in Set A (Figure 3B), suggesting that DAF‐16 upregulation of DMEs is indirect.. Given that they show both IIS/DAF‐16 regulation and DAF‐16 binding, the 65 genes in Set B represent high‐confidence DAF‐16 regulatory targets (Supplementary Table SII; Supplementary Figure S3). ...
BOSTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ:ALXN) today announced that Japans Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) has approved ULTOMIRIS® (ravulizumab), the first and only long-acting C5 complement inhibitor administered every eight weeks, for the treatment of adult patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH).
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder with its protean clinical manifestations. This is due to partial or complete absence of glycophosphatidyl-inositol-anchor proteins (GPI-AP). The main aim of this review is to highlight various diagnostic modalities available, basic principle of each test and recent advances in the diagnosis of PNH. Recently among various tests available, the flow cytometry has become the gold standard for PNH testing. In order to overcome the difficulties encountered by the testing and research laboratories throughout the world, International Clinical Cytometry Society has come up with guidelines regarding the indications for testing, protocol for sample collection, processing, panel of antibodies as well as gating strategies to be used, how to interpret the test and reporting format to be used ...
What: Shares of Alnylam Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ:ALNY) were trading nearly 10% lower at 10:00 a.m. Monday after the company presented updated clinical data on two of its investigational compounds at the ongoing American Society of Hematology meeting.. So what: On Sunday the company gave an update on its ongoing Phase 1/2 trial of ALN-CC5, a compound being tested as a potential treatment for Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria, or PNH. The results of the trial showed that ALN-CC5 achieved up to a 99% knockdown of Serum C5 levels and up to a 98% inhibition of Serum Hemolytic activity.. Those results managed to meet the companys goal of an 80% reduction in serum hemolytic activity and Alnylam management team believes that ALN-CC5 showed enough durability to possibly support a monthly, or even quarterly, dose regimen. The company will be transitioning the study to include patients with PNH by the end of this year and it plans on providing updated clinical data from this study by mid-2016.. In a ...
Amyndas Pharmaceuticals is a fast-developing innovator and emerging leader in the field of "complement therapeutics" developing advanced therapies to treat several human diseases including paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, age-related macular degeneration, chronic inflammation during hemodialysis, ischemia-reperfusion injury and graph rejections.. ...
MI Update - Volume 12, Issue 4 is centered on immunology of the liver. Including articles of vein tolerance and development of regulator CD4 T-cells, IL-27R, and T-cell Immunity
Mohamed Kharfan-Dabaja, MD, discusses the future of PNH treatment, the various symptoms that can present in PNH, and the challenges that still remain for further improving outcomes.
Purpose: : Uncontrolled activation of the alternative complement pathway is thought to be associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previously, we have shown that in retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) monolayers, oxidative stress reduced complement inhibitor expression and function on the cell surface, resulting in sublytic activation of the membrane attack complex . Here we examined the potential ligand and pathway(s) involved in initiating complement-dependent RPE cell damage by oxidative stress. Methods: : ARPE-19 cells were grown as monolayers on transwell plates. Sublytic complement activation was induced by challenging monolayers with H2O2 in the presence of complement-sufficient normal human serum (NHS). Since sublytic complement activation results in VEGF release, which in turn reduces barrier function, transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) measurements were used as a measure of cell injury. Results: : (1) TER deteriorated rapidly in H2O2-exposed monolayers upon ...
Purpose: Complement activation and oxidative stress have been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of AMD. Complement activation products have been detected in Bruchs membrane and drusen from patients, indicating that in AMD, complement attack likely occurs primarily on the RPE basal surface. Herein, we describe a model used to investigate the effect of oxidative stress on complement-mediated RPE cell injury, whereby complement attack was initiated with an RPE-specific priming antibody on the basal surface of differentiated human RPE cells.. Methods: ARPE-19 cells and RPE cells from 2 donors were cultured for one month on collagen-coated porous supports in DMEM-F12 containing 1% FBS. Transepithelial resistance (TER) was recorded, apical microvilli and tight junctions were identified by transmission electron microscope, and ZO-1 was examined by immuno-fluorescent staining. Cytokeratin-18 staining was used to confirm the epithelial nature of RPE cells. The cells were basally exposed for 2 ...
In vitro studies have proved the presence of epitopes of CD59 in the surface of trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). However, it has not been proved if CD59 molecules are expressed in the surface during the trophozoites tissue invasion. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the complement-regulatory protein CD59 is present on trophozoites of E. histolytica in human colon. Eleven specimens of amoebic colitis were studied by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy techniques with a monoclonal antibody against human CD59 molecule. Our results show that a CD59-like molecule is expressed in trophozoites of E. histolytica found in colonic amebic lesions. Also, a CD59-like molecule was detected by western blot analysis in whole lysate of E. histolytica as well as on the plasma membrane by immunocytochemistry. These results suggest that E. histolytica can use CD59-like protein against the lytic action of membrane attack complex.
Using sialic acid analogues to define the molecular basis of complement resistance mediated by sialylation of neisseria gonorrhoeae lipopolysaccharide and to design novel therapeutics

Search | IOVS | ARVO JournalsSearch | IOVS | ARVO Journals

TAGS: adenovirus infections, adenoviruses, antigens, cd55, complement system proteins, complement membrane attack complex, age- ... CD46, CD55, And CD59-mediated Attenuation Of Complement-induced Damage On Murine RPE Cells In-vitro And In-vivo: Therapeutic ... Decay Accelerating Factor (CD55)-Mediated Attenuation of Complement: Therapeutic Implications for Age-Related Macular ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/solr/searchresults.aspx?author=Kelly+N.+Ma

Steady-state distribution of endogenous GPI-anchored pr | Open-iSteady-state distribution of endogenous GPI-anchored pr | Open-i

Antigens, CD55/metabolism. *Caveolin 1. *Cell Line. *Cell Polarity. *Cholesterol/metabolism. *Glycosphingolipids/metabolism ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2140173_JCB14620.f7&req=4

CD55 ELISA & Assay KitsCD55 ELISA & Assay Kits

Compare and order CD55 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products ... CD55 Antigen Profile Antigen Summary This gene encodes a protein involved in the regulation of the complement cascade. The ... Protein level used designations for CD55 CD55 antigen , complement decay-accelerating factor , Cromer blood group , GPI anchor ... Search CD55 ELISA Kits for other reactivities: Rabbit,. Chicken,. Monkey,. Pig (Porcine),. Sheep (Ovine). ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/complement-system-pathway-11/cd55-elisa-kit-13407/

Complement C3-C5 Convertases
      - C3 Convertase
     Summary Report | CureHunterComplement C3-C5 Convertases - C3 Convertase Summary Report | CureHunter

Antigen-Antibody Complex (Immune Complex) 6. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) 7. CD55 Antigens (Decay Accelerating Factor) ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD050577-Complement-C3-C5-Convertases-C3-Convertase.do

The 529-amino-acid sequence of the scFv-35-DAF construc | Open-iThe 529-amino-acid sequence of the scFv-35-DAF construc | Open-i

Antigens, CD55/administration & dosage*. *Drug Delivery Systems/methods*. *Myasthenia Gravis, Autoimmune, Experimental/drug ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4296224_mus0049-0749-f2&req=4

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

CD55 - Cluster of differentiation antigen 55 Current Synonym true false 507010019 Cluster of differentiation antigen 55 Current ... Complement regulatory protein, membrane bound (substance) {106195005 , SNOMED-CT } Lymphocyte antigen (substance) {40992002 , ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=86261004

Complement components are upregulated and correlate with disease progression in the TDP-43Q331K mouse model of amyotrophic...Complement components are upregulated and correlate with disease progression in the TDP-43Q331K mouse model of amyotrophic...

CD55 antigen (Cd55; Mm00438 vated microglia was determined by the average of 11-14 377_m1), CD59a antigen (Cd59a; Mm00483149_m1 ... CD55 antigen (Cd55; Mm00438 vated microglia was determined by the average of 11-14 377_m1), CD59a antigen (Cd59a; Mm00483149_m1 ... 5d; n =5, *P ,0.05, WT pared to TDP-43 mice at 16 months of age, respect- **P , 0.01). The regulator, CD55, was increased by ... 5d; n =5, *P ,0.05, WT pared to TDP-43 mice at 16 months of age, respect- **P , 0.01). The regulator, CD55, was increased by ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/complement-components-are-upregulated-and-correlate-with-disease-DrwO5vDuxO

CD55 Antibody, FITC (Monoclonal, Bu14)
		        
	CD55 Antibody, FITC (Monoclonal, Bu14)

CD55 Monoclonal Antibody, FITC conjugate from Invitrogen for Flow Cytometry applications. This antibody reacts with Human ... Protein Aliases: CD55; CD55 antigen; CD55 molecule, decay accelerating factor for complement (Cromer blood group); Complement ... Cite CD55 Monoclonal Antibody (Bu14), FITC. The following antibody was used in this experiment: CD55 Monoclonal Antibody (Bu14 ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/CD55-DAF-Antibody-Bu14-Monoclonal/MA5-16596

CD55 Mouse | ProSpecCD55 Mouse | ProSpec

CD55 produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 336 amino acids (35-362 a.a.) and ... Complement decay-accelerating factor, GPI-anchored, DAF-GPI, CD_antigen: CD55.. Introduction. CD55 belongs to the RCA ( ... CD55 produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 336 amino acids (35-362 a.a.) and ... CD55 is expressed with an 8 amino acid His tag at C-Terminus and purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. ...
more infohttps://www.prospecbio.com/cd55_mouse

Lack of Association of CD55 Receptor Genetic Variants and Severe Malaria in Ghanaian Children.  - PubMed - NCBILack of Association of CD55 Receptor Genetic Variants and Severe Malaria in Ghanaian Children. - PubMed - NCBI

CD55 Antigens. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *HighWire. *Europe PubMed Central ... Lack of Association of CD55 Receptor Genetic Variants and Severe Malaria in Ghanaian Children.. Schuldt K1, Ehmen C2, ... Here, we present the first comprehensive analysis of variation in the CD55 gene in the context of SM and show that genetic ... A total of 26 genetic variants were detected in coding and regulatory regions of CD55 Five variants were previously unknown. ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=178456

Luis Pacheco, MD - Publications
     - UTMB Health Research Expert ProfilesLuis Pacheco, MD - Publications - UTMB Health Research Expert Profiles

DAlton, M. E., Bonanno, C. A., Berkowitz, R. L., Brown, H. L., Copel, J. A., Cunningham, F. G., Garite, T. J., Gilstrap, L. C., Grobman, W. A., Hankins, G., Hauth, J. C., Iriye, B. K., Macones, G. A., Martin, J. N., Martin, S. R., Menard, M. K., OKeefe, D. F., Pacheco, L., Riley, L. E., Saade, G. & 1 others, Spong, C. Y., Jun 2013, In : American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 208, 6, p. 442-448 7 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
more infohttps://researchexperts.utmb.edu/en/persons/luis-pacheco-2/publications/?ordering=type&descending=false

A promoter polymorphism of CD55 effect on the risk of esophageal cancer].  - PubMed - NCBIA promoter polymorphism of CD55 effect on the risk of esophageal cancer]. - PubMed - NCBI

CD55 Antigens. Grant support. *81101483/National Natural Science Foundation of China/. *14130225B/Tangshan Science and ... 采用非条件logistic回归模型比较CD55 rs2564978变异与食管癌发病风险的关系。 结果: 病例组和对照组的年龄分别为(60.04±9.19)、(59.21±9.98)岁。与CD55 rs2564978 TT基因型携带者相比,CC基因型携带者 ... 与CD55 rs2564978 TT基因型相比,CC基因型中的非吸烟人群、累计吸烟量≤30包/年、累计吸烟量,30包/年的人群食管癌发病的OR(95%CI)分别为1.79(1.13~2.83)、1.86(1.31~2.64
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=169425

Assessing donor chimerism using flow cytometry in paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria after stem cell transplantation--a case...Assessing donor chimerism using flow cytometry in paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria after stem cell transplantation--a case...

Engrafted patients will show the presence of CD 55 and CD 59 on their red cells and white cells. We describe here the ... Engrafted patients will show the presence of CD 55 and CD 59 on their red cells and white cells. We describe here the ... Engrafted patients will show the presence of CD 55 and CD 59 on their red cells and white cells. We describe here the ... Engrafted patients will show the presence of CD 55 and CD 59 on their red cells and white cells. We describe here the ...
more infohttps://ukm.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/assessing-donor-chimerism-using-flow-cytometry-in-paroxysmal-noct

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Lymphocyte positive for CD55 antigen (cell). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte positive for CD55 antigen (cell). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=117390009

HKU Scholars Hub: A functional variation in CD55 increases the severity of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus infectionHKU Scholars Hub: A functional variation in CD55 increases the severity of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus infection

Antigens, CD55 - genetics - immunology. -. dc.subject.mesh. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. -. dc.subject.mesh. Influenza A ... In conclusion, CD55 polymorphisms are associated with severe A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. CD55 may exert a substantial impact on the ... In conclusion, CD55 polymorphisms are associated with severe A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. CD55 may exert a substantial impact on the ... Article: A functional variation in CD55 increases the severity of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus infection. *Show simple ...
more infohttp://hub.hku.hk/handle/10722/159276

Anti-CD55 antibody (Biotin) [MEM-118] | AbcamAnti-CD55 antibody (Biotin) [MEM-118] | Abcam

Anti-CD55 antibody conjugated to Biotin [MEM-118] validated for Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to tissue ... CD55 antigen antibody. *CD55 Cromer blood group system antibody. *CD55 molecule (Cromer blood group) antibody ... Dcay accelerating factor for complement (CD55, Cromer blood group system) antibody. *Decay accelarating factor 1, isoform CRA_a ... Surface staining of human peripheral blood cells with anti-CD55 (MEM-118) biotin / streptavidin-APC. ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/cd55-antibody-mem-118-biotin-ab26005.html

Anti-CD55 antibody [MEM-118] (ab1422) | AbcamAnti-CD55 antibody [MEM-118] (ab1422) | Abcam

Mouse monoclonal CD55 antibody [MEM-118] validated for IP, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 3 ... CD55 antigen antibody. *CD55 Cromer blood group system antibody. *CD55 molecule (Cromer blood group) antibody ... Dcay accelerating factor for complement (CD55, Cromer blood group system) antibody. *Decay accelarating factor 1, isoform CRA_a ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/cd55-antibody-mem-118-ab1422.html

市場調査レポート | がんCD抗原阻害市場調査レポート | がんCD抗原阻害

調査レポート】がんCD抗原阻害剤の世界市場及びパイプライン2015 , 発行日:42217 , 商品コード:KUIK51101 , 発行/調査会社:KuicK Research , Cancer CD Antigens Inhibitors ... Figure 4-25: Cancer CD55 Antigen Pipeline by Phase (%), 2015. Figure 4-26: Cancer CD55 Antigen Pipeline by Phase (Number), 2015 ... 26.2 Marketed CD52 Antigen Inhibitors Drug Clinical Insight. 27. Cancer CD55 Antigen Inhibitors Clinical Pipeline by Company, ... Cancer CD Antigens Clinical Pipeline Dominated by CD20 Antigen: 44
more infohttps://www.marketreport.jp/kuik51101

CD55 (DAF) antibodies, mouse - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - USACD55 (DAF) antibodies, mouse - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - USA

There are two mouse CD55 genes, which share 85% nucleotide and 78% amino acid identities, and have been designated CD55- ... CD55 plays an essential role during pregnancy and is involved in the protection of the semiallogeneic fetus and in preventing ... CD55 is broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. It is expressed on the plasma membranes of all ... CD55 plays multiple physiologic roles including tissue protection from the cytotoxic complement injury, anti-inflammatory ...
more infohttps://www.miltenyibiotec.com/US-en/products/macs-flow-cytometry/antibodies/primary-antibodies/cd55-daf-antibodies-mouse-rea300-1-10.html?countryRedirected=1

CD55 (DAF) antibodies, mouse - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - LëtzebuergCD55 (DAF) antibodies, mouse - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Lëtzebuerg

There are two mouse CD55 genes, which share 85% nucleotide and 78% amino acid identities, and have been designated CD55- ... CD55 plays an essential role during pregnancy and is involved in the protection of the semiallogeneic fetus and in preventing ... CD55 is broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. It is expressed on the plasma membranes of all ... CD55 plays multiple physiologic roles including tissue protection from the cytotoxic complement injury, anti-inflammatory ...
more infohttps://www.miltenyibiotec.com/LU-en/products/macs-flow-cytometry/antibodies/primary-antibodies/cd55-daf-antibodies-mouse-rea300-1-10.html

Sushi domain - WikipediaSushi domain - Wikipedia

Complement decay-accelerating factor (Antigen CD55) belongs to the Cromer blood group system and is associated with Cr(a), Dr(a ... Es(a), Tc(a/b/c), Wd(a), WES(a/b), IFC and UMC antigens. Complement receptor type 1 (C3b/C4b receptor) (Antigen CD35) belongs ... Some of the proteins in this group are responsible for the molecular basis of the blood group antigens, surface markers on the ... Lomas-Francis, Christine; Reid, Marion E. (2004). The blood group antigen: factsbook. Boston: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-586585- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sushi_domain

CD55 polyclonal antibody - (PAB29331) - Products - AbnovaCD55 polyclonal antibody - (PAB29331) - Products - Abnova

Recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids of human CD55. (PAB29331) - Products - Abnova ... Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant human CD55. ... Antigens present on the DAF glycoprotein constitute the Cromer blood group system (CROM). Two alternatively spliced transcripts ... Immunofluorescent staining of human cell line U-251 MG with CD55 polyclonal antibody (Cat# PAB29331) under 1-4 ug/mL working ...
more infohttp://www.abnova.com/products/products_detail.asp?catalog_id=PAB29331

CD97 - WikipediaCD97 - Wikipedia

"Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and its ligand CD55 in rheumatoid synovial tissue". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 42 (4 ... Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... and expression of CD55 is fairly restricted to the endothelium. In pre-active lesion, increased expression of CD55 in ... Mice lacking CD97 or its ligand CD55 have twice as many granulocytes as wild-type mice possibly due to enhanced granulopoiesis. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD97

Human complement regulatory proteins expressed in transgenic swine protect swine xenografts from humoral injury.  - UCL...Human complement regulatory proteins expressed in transgenic swine protect swine xenografts from humoral injury. - UCL...

Animals, Animals, Genetically Modified, Antibody Formation, CD55 Antigens, CD59 Antigens, Complement System Proteins, Gene ...
more infohttp://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/91274/
  • The diagnosis of PNH is confirmed using flow cytometry to detect and quantify the percentage of blood erythrocytes and leukocytes (i. e., neutrophils and monocytes) that lack GPI-APs measured as intensity of CD55 and CD59 on the cell surface. (mhmedical.com)
  • CD55 belongs to the RCA (regulators of complement activation) family characterized by 4-30 SCRs (short consensus repeats) in their plasma-exposed regions. (prospecbio.com)
  • CD55 produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 336 amino acids (35-362 a.a.) and having a molecular mass of 36.8kDa (Migrates at 40-57kDa on SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions). (prospecbio.com)
  • CD55 is broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • CD55 plays an essential role during pregnancy and is involved in the protection of the semiallogeneic fetus and in preventing uncontrolled infiltration by white cells. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Cell debris and dead cells were excluded from the analysis based on scatter signals and propidium iodide fluorescence or 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) fluorescence, as in the case of CD55 (DAF)-PE-Vio770 and CD55 (DAF)-APC-Vio770. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Immunohistochemical staining of human lung with CD55 polyclonal antibody (Cat# PAB29331) shows strong membranous and cytoplasmic positivity in alveolar cells and macrophages at 1:50-1:200 dilution. (abnova.com)
  • In pre-active lesion, increased expression of CD55 in endothelial cells and robust CD97 expression on infiltrating leukocytes suggest a possible role of both molecules in immune cell migration through the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subjecting human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to low oxygen, mimicking a characteristic of neovessels, decreased the expression of the complement inhibitor Cd55. (nih.gov)
  • A total of 26 genetic variants were detected in coding and regulatory regions of CD55 Five variants were previously unknown. (cdc.gov)
  • CD55 is widely expressed in malignant tumors and nevertheless functions as an inhibitor of the complement system. (prospecbio.com)
  • Together, our data implicate the alternative complement pathway in facilitating neovessel clearance by down-regulating the complement inhibitor Cd55 specifically on neovessels, allowing for their targeted removal while leaving the established vasculature intact. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we present the first comprehensive analysis of variation in the CD55 gene in the context of SM and show that genetic variants present in a Ghanaian study group appear not to influence susceptibility to the disease. (cdc.gov)
  • There are two mouse CD55 genes, which share 85% nucleotide and 78% amino acid identities, and have been designated CD55-glycosylphosphatidylinositol and CD55-transmembrane to reflect the two alternate mechanisms of membrane attachment. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • A promoter polymorphism of CD55 effect on the risk of esophageal cancer]. (cdc.gov)
  • This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the genetic variation of CD55 promoter and the risk of esophageal cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • An allele-specific effect on CD55 expression was revealed and ascribed to a promoter indel variation, which was in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs2564978. (hku.hk)
  • In conclusion, CD55 polymorphisms are associated with severe A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. (hku.hk)
  • CD55 is expressed with an 8 amino acid His tag at C-Terminus and purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. (prospecbio.com)
  • Gene-environmental interaction analysis showed that CD55 rs2564978T/C polymorphism interacted with smoking status to increase the risk of esophageal cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Lack of Association of CD55 Receptor Genetic Variants and Severe Malaria in Ghanaian Children. (cdc.gov)
  • CD antigen cancer market is expected to witness introduction of several products which will help the pharmaceutical companies to generate significant revenues. (marketreport.jp)
  • An initially small-scale genome-wide association study guided the selection of CD55 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 425 Chinese patients with severe (n = 177) or mild (n = 248) disease. (hku.hk)
  • CD55 may exert a substantial impact on the disease severity of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. (hku.hk)
  • Numerous innovative CD antigen cancer therapeutics are at different stages of clinical trials which would increase their market shares. (marketreport.jp)
  • Several molecules have been discovered out of which CD antigens have been found to play an important role in cancer progression and proliferation. (marketreport.jp)
  • The OR and 95 %CI were calculated by non-conditional Logistic regression to evaluate the association of CD55 rs2564978T/C polymorphism with the risk of esophageal cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Commercial success of marketed CD antigen cancer therapeutics shows that they would be generating significant revenues in coming years. (marketreport.jp)
  • N-glycosylation of CD97 within the EGF domains is crucial for CD55 binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • N-glycosylation of CD97 within the EGF domains is crucial for CD55 binding. (wikidoc.org)