Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Gene microarray identification of redox and mitochondrial elements that control resistance or sensitivity to apoptosis. (1/29)Multigenic programs controlling susceptibility to apoptosis in response to ionizing radiation have not yet been defined. Here, using DNA microarrays, we show gene expression patterns in an apoptosis-sensitive and apoptosis-resistant murine B cell lymphoma model system both before and after irradiation. From the 11,000 genes interrogated by the arrays, two major patterns emerged. First, before radiation exposure the radioresistant LYar cells expressed significantly greater levels of message for several genes involved in regulating intracellular redox potential. Compared with LYas cells, LYar cells express 20- to 50-fold more mRNA for the tetraspanin CD53 and for fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. Expression of both of these genes can lead to the increase of total cellular glutathione, which is the principle intracellular antioxidant and has been shown to inhibit many forms of apoptosis. A second pattern emerged after radiation, when the apoptosis-sensitive LYas cells induced rapid expression of a unique cluster of genes characterized by their involvement in mitochondrial electron transport. Some of these genes have been previously recognized as proapoptotic; however others, such as uncoupling protein 2, were not previously known to be apoptotic regulatory proteins. From these observations we propose that a multigenic program for sensitivity to apoptosis involves induction of transcripts for genes participating in mitochondrial uncoupling and loss of membrane potential. This program triggers mitochondrial release of apoptogenic factors and induces the "caspase cascade." Conversely, cells resistant to apoptosis down-regulate these biochemical pathways, while activating pathways for establishment and maintenance of high intracellular redox potential by means of elevated glutathione. (+info)
Increased expression of the tetraspanins CD53 and CD63 on apoptotic human neutrophils. (2/29)The recently discovered tetraspanin superfamily comprises a group of cell-surface proteins that are suggested to be involved in cell activation and signal transduction as well as in cell adhesion, motility, and metastasis. In this study, we have assessed the expression of two tetraspanins, CD53 and CD63, and two principal leukocyte adhesion molecules, CD11b and CD62L, on human apoptotic neutrophils. After aging of human neutrophils for 20 and 40 h in vitro, apoptosis was analyzed by light microscopy and flow cytometry. The binding of monoclonal antibodies directed against CD11b, CD62L, CD53, and CD63 on apoptotic and nonapoptotic cells was determined by dual-color flow cytometry. Aging of neutrophils in vitro resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) down-regulation of expression of the selectin CD62L, and a significantly increased expression of the two tetraspanins CD53 and CD63. The selective analysis of apoptotic versus nonapoptotic cells proved that both the increased expression of the tetraspanins and the loss of CD62L were restricted to the apoptotic subpopulation. An identical pattern of surface molecule expression was detected at 12 h after induction of apoptosis by an agonistic anti-Fas IgM monoclonal antibody. Further studies are required to clarify whether tetraspanins participate in the recognition of apoptotic circulating or extravasated neutrophils by macrophages. (+info)
Transmembrane-4 superfamily proteins associate with activated protein kinase C (PKC) and link PKC to specific beta(1) integrins. (3/29)Translocation of conventional protein kinases C (PKCs) to the plasma membrane leads to their specific association with transmembrane-4 superfamily (TM4SF; tetraspanin) proteins (CD9, CD53, CD81, CD82, and CD151), as demonstrated by reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation and covalent cross-linking experiments. Although formation and maintenance of TM4SF-PKC complexes are not dependent on integrins, TM4SF proteins can act as linker molecules, recruiting PKC into proximity with specific integrins. Previous studies showed that the extracellular large loop of TM4SF proteins determines integrin associations. In contrast, specificity for PKC association probably resides within cytoplasmic tails or the first two transmembrane domains of TM4SF proteins, as seen from studies with chimeric CD9 molecules. Consistent with a TM4SF linker function, only those integrins (alpha(3)beta(1), alpha(6)beta(1), and a chimeric "X3TC5" alpha(3) mutant) that associated strongly with tetraspanins were found in association with PKC. We propose that PKC-TM4SF-integrin structures represent a novel type of signaling complex. The simultaneous binding of TM4SF proteins to the extracellular domains of the integrin alpha(3) subunit and to intracellular PKC helps to explain why the integrin alpha3 extracellular domain is needed for both intracellular PKC recruitment and PKC-dependent phosphorylation of the alpha(3) integrin cytoplasmic tail. (+info)
Differential cooperation between regulatory sequences required for human CD53 gene expression. (4/29)CD53 is a tetraspanin protein mostly expressed in to the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. We have characterized the human CD53 gene regulatory region. Within the proximal 2 kilobases, and with opposite transcriptional orientation, is located the promoter-enhancer of a second gene, which does not affect CD53. Twenty-four copies of a CA dinucleotide repeat separate these two gene promoters. The proximal enhanceosome of the human CD53 gene is comprised between residues -266 and +84, and can be subdivided into four major subregions, two of them within exon 1. Mutational analysis identified several cooperating sequences. An Sp1 and an ets-1 site, at positions -115 and +62, respectively, are essential for transcriptional competence in all cell lines. Five other regulatory sequences have a dual role, activator or down-regulator, depending on the cell line. At the end of the non-coding exon 1, +64 to +83, there is a second ets-1 regulatory element, which is required for high level of transcription, in cooperation with the Sp1 site, in K562 and Molt-4, but not in Namalwa cells, where it functions as a repressor. This Sp1 site also cooperates with another ets-1/PU.1 site at -172. Different cell types use different regulatory sequences in the enhanceosome for the expression of the same gene. (+info)
Transient activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity by ligation of the tetraspan CD53 antigen in different cell types. (5/29)The CD53 antigen is a member of the tetraspanin membrane protein family that is expressed in the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. We have studied the implication of CD53 antigen in signal transduction by determining the effect of its ligation on the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in different cell types. Ligation of the rat or human CD53 antigen induces a three- to fourfold transient activation of JNK activity that peaks at 3-5 min. The effect was detected by assaying the endogenous or exogenous (transfected) JNK activity. The JNK response was detected in IR938F cells, a rat B-cell lymphoma, and in Jurkat cells derived from a human T-cell lymphoma. This JNK activation was not mediated by the vav oncogene, and CD53 does not cooperate with CD3 for vav activation. A similar JNK activation was also detected in a human renal carcinoma cell line that was transiently transfected with the human CD53 cDNA to mimic the CD53 ectopic expression in carcinomas. In stable CD53-transfected cells it stimulated Jun-dependent transcriptional activity. We conclude that parts of the cell responses modulated by the CD53 are mediated by JNK activation, and this activation is independent of the different protein interactions that the CD53 protein has on specific cell types. (+info)
CD53, a thymocyte selection marker whose induction requires a lower affinity TCR-MHC interaction than CD69, but is up-regulated with slower kinetics. (6/29)The molecular mechanisms that govern the survival, maturation and export of thymocytes are the subject of intense study, and candidates for involvement in these processes might be identified by their differential expression during thymocyte selection. One such molecule is the tetraspanin CD53, which is not expressed on most CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) cells in the normal mouse. We have examined CD53 expression on DP from several class I- and class II-restricted TCR transgenic (Tg) mice, and have found a strong correlation between CD53 expression and positive selection. CD53 expression in DP was formally demonstrated to be dependent upon MHC recognition as evidenced by studying DP from MHC-deficient mice which totally lack expression of this molecule. This link between selection and CD53 expression was reminiscent of CD69, and indeed the majority of selected DP from normal mice that express CD53 also express CD69. We compared CD53 and CD69 induction in vitro using pre-selected thymocytes from TCR-Tg mice that were stimulated either with mAb against TCR or with antigen-presenting cells (APC) pulsed with peptides. The data shows that with either stimulus, CD69 is induced rapidly on the thymocyte surface with expression detected in as little as 2 h. CD53 induction is slower with maximal expression taking up to 20 h. We also stimulated pre-selected thymocytes from the OT-1 TCR-Tg strain with APC pulsed with peptides of varying affinities for the TCR. Here low-affinity peptides which induce CD69 expression poorly were able to induce significant levels of CD53 expression. These data demonstrate that the induction of CD53 and CD69 upon selection is not identical. Thus a combination of the CD69 and CD53 selection markers may be a powerful tool to isolate thymocytes that have either been very recently selected or have arisen from differing MHC--TCR affinity interactions during selection. (+info)
Differential stability of tetraspanin/tetraspanin interactions: role of palmitoylation. (7/29)The tetraspanins associate with various surface molecules and with each other to build a network of molecular interactions, the tetraspanin web. The interaction of tetraspanins with each other seems to be central for the assembly of the tetraspanin web. All tetraspanins studied, CD9, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD81, CD82 and CD151, were found to incorporate [3H]palmitate. By site-directed mutagenesis, CD9 was found to be palmitoylated at any of the four internal juxtamembrane regions. The palmitoylation of CD9 did not influence the partition in detergent-resistant membranes but contributed to the interaction with CD81 and CD53. In particular, the resistance of the CD9/CD81 interaction to EDTA, which disrupts other tetraspanin/tetraspanin interactions, was entirely dependent on palmitoylation. (+info)
Identification of three genes up-regulated in PU.1 rescued monocytic precursor cells. (8/29)The requirement of the transcription factor PU.1 for macrophage development has been well documented. However, the target genes regulated by PU.1 controlling macrophage maturation are not known. A granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent PU.1 null monocytic precursor cell was stably transduced with a PU.1-expressing retrovirus. The expression of PU.1 altered the surface expression of a few proteins expressed on monocytes; these cells, however, remained GM-CSF dependent and maintained an immature phenotype. In contrast to the PU.1 null cells, the cells expressing PU.1 responded to macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) with subsequent development into mature macrophages. Using suppressive subtractive hybridization between the PU.1 null and immature PU.1 rescued cells, three genes, MRP-14, Dap12 and CD53, were found expressed in the rescued cells, but not in the PU.1 null cells. In addition, these genes were modulated during M-CSF-induced maturation of the PU.1 rescued cells. The PU.1 null and rescued early monocytic cells provide a useful model to study the role of PU.1 in macrophage development. (+info)
Activation of rat T lymphocytes by anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies. | JEM
Rat T cells and thymocytes were induced to proliferate by a pair of mAbs, MRC OX-54 and MRC OX-55, directed against rat CD2. Accessory cells were required but their role was not simply for crosslinking of the two mAbs, as neither MRC OX-54 nor MRC OX-55 alone, in the presence of a crosslinking second antibody, caused T cell mitogenesis. Nor could the phorbol ester PMA replace either antibody. The two mAbs recognized distinct epitopes on rat CD2; however, MRC OX-54 could partially block MRC OX-55 binding whereas the reverse situation was not seen. A further CD2 epitope was recognized by two mutually competitive mAbs, MRC OX-34 and MRC OX-53, which were not mitogenic. Neither MRC OX-34 nor MRC OX-53 affected the binding of MRC OX-54 or MRC OX-55, yet they prevented the mitogenic effect induced by these mAbs. The presence of mAbs against CD4 and the IL-2-R also abrogated this mitogenesis, whereas an anti-CD5 mAb augmented the CD2-induced proliferation. ...
Results for cd05846
First immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of rat MRC OX-2 antigen (also known as CD200) and similar proteins. Ig1_ MRC-OX-2_like: domain similar to the first immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of rat MRC OX-2 antigen (also known as CD200). MRC OX-2 is a membrane glycoprotein expressed in a variety of lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells in rats. It has a similar broad distribution pattern in humans. MRC OX-2 may regulate myeloid cell activity. The protein has an extracellular portion containing two Ig-like domains, a transmembrane portion, and a cytoplasmic portion. ...
Anti-CD90 / Thy1 antibody [MRC OX-7] (ab225) Protocols
Anti-CD90 / Thy1 antibody [MRC OX-7] (ab225) References
Anti-CD90 / Thy1 抗体 [MRC OX-7] (ab225) 使用論文
SIRP alpha Antibody, FITC (Monoclonal, MRC OX-41)
SIRP alpha Monoclonal Antibody, FITC conjugate from Invitrogen for Immunofluorescence, Immunocytochemistry, Flow Cytometry and Radioimmune Assays applications. This antibody reacts with Rat samples. Clone: MRC OX-41. Supplied as 100 µg purified antibody (0.1 mg/ml) in PBS with 0.5% BSA and 0.02% sodium azide.
Species Concepts and Reproductive Isolating Barriers | BioEd Online
GPR56 - Wikipedia
G protein-coupled receptor 56 also known as TM7XN1 is a protein encoded by the ADGRG1 gene. GPR56 is a member of the adhesion GPCR family. Adhesion GPCRs are characterized by an extended extracellular region often possessing N-terminal protein modules that is linked to a TM7 region via a domain known as the GPCR-Autoproteolysis INducing (GAIN) domain. GPR56 is expressed in liver, muscle, neural, and cytotoxic lymphoid cells in human as well as in hematopoietic precursor, muscle, and developing neural cells in the mouse. GPR56 has been shown to have numerous role in cell guidance/adhesion as exemplified by its roles in tumour inhibition and neuron development. More recently it has been shown to be a marker for cytotoxic T cells and a subgroup of Natural killer cells. GPR56 binds transglutaminase 2 to suppress tumor metastasis and binds collagen III to regulate cortical development and lamination. GPR56 couples to Gαq/11 protein upon association with the tetraspanins CD9 and CD81. Forced GPR56 ...
In macrophages, HIV-1 assembles into an intracellular plasma membrane domain containing the tetraspanins CD81, CD9, and CD53
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Targeting the Tetraspanins with Monoclonal Antibodies in Oncology: Focus on Tspan8/Co-029
Tetraspanins are exposed at the surface of cellular membranes, which allows for the fixation of cognate antibodies. Developing specific antibodies in conjunction with genetic data would largely contribute to deciphering their biological behavior. In this short review, we summarize the main functions …
The inner loop of tetraspanins CD82 and CD81 mediates interactions with human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 Gag protein
The tetraspanin superfamily proteins play important roles in organizing membrane protein complexes, modulating integrin function, and controlling T cell adhesion. Tetraspanins such as CD82 contain two extracellular loops with its N terminus, C terminus, and inner loop exposed to the cytoplasm. The m …
Angelisová P, Hilgert I, Horejsí V (1994). "Association of four antigens of the tetraspans family (CD37, CD53, TAPA-1, and R2/ ... "The primary structure of the human leukocyte antigen CD37, a species homologue of the rat MRC OX-44 antigen". The Journal of ... Leukocyte antigen CD37 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD37 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of ... and protein sequence of mouse CD53 (Cd53): evidence that the transmembrane 4 superfamily arose by gene duplication". ...
1992). "C33 antigen recognized by monoclonal antibodies inhibitory to human T cell leukemia virus type 1-induced syncytium ... 1996). "Supramolecular complexes of MHC class I, MHC class II, CD20, and tetraspan molecules (CD53, CD81, and CD82) at the ... 1991). "A new superfamily of lymphoid and melanoma cell proteins with extensive homology to Schistosoma mansoni antigen Sm23". ... 1996). "Transmembrane-4 superfamily proteins CD81 (TAPA-1), CD82, CD63, and CD53 specifically associated with integrin alpha 4 ...
1991). "CD63 antigen. A novel lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, cloned by a screening procedure for intracellular antigens in ... Horejsí V, Vlcek C (1991). "Novel structurally distinct family of leucocyte surface glycoproteins including CD9, CD37, CD53 and ... CD63 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD63 gene. CD63 is mainly associated with membranes of intracellular ... 1992). "Genomic structure of the ME491/CD63 antigen gene and functional analysis of the 5'-flanking regulatory sequences". ...
... antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGA4 Info with links in the Cell ... and CD53 specifically associated with integrin alpha 4 beta 1 (CD49d/CD29)". J. Immunol. 157 (5): 2039-47. PMID 8757325. ... Takada Y, Strominger JL, Hemler ME (1987). "The very late antigen family of heterodimers is part of a superfamily of molecules ... antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor)". Hadari YR, Arbel-Goren R, Levy Y, Amsterdam A, Alon R, Zakut R, Zick Y ( ...
Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... 1990). "The human leucocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein structurally similar to the CD37 and MRC OX-44 antigens". ... CD53 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD53 genome location and CD53 ... 1993). "Chromosomal localization of the Ox-44 (CD53) leukocyte antigen gene in man and rodents". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 64 (3-4 ...
B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 or CD20 is an activated-glycosylated phosphoprotein expressed on the surface of all B-cells beginning ... CD53, CD81, and CD82) at the surface of a B cell line JY". Journal of Immunology. 157 (7): 2939-46. PMID 8816400. Kanzaki M, ... CD20 antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) representations of the shape are found here ... Stamenkovic I, Seed B (June 1988). "Analysis of two cDNA clones encoding the B lymphocyte antigen CD20 (B1, Bp35), a type III ...
... antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD9 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... Horejsí V, Vlcek C (1991). "Novel structurally distinct family of leucocyte surface glycoproteins including CD9, CD37, CD53 and ... Boucheix C, Benoit P, Frachet P, Billard M, Worthington RE, Gagnon J, Uzan G (1991). "Molecular cloning of the CD9 antigen. A ... Higashihara M, Takahata K, Yatomi Y, Nakahara K, Kurokawa K (1990). "Purification and partial characterization of CD9 antigen ...
During the antigen processing for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-I, the proteasome is the major degradation ... CD53, SELL, HLA-DQA1, PTPRC, B2M, and TAP2). With regards to oncology, PSMB9 in conjunction with other genes that are involved ... Yang Y, Früh K, Ahn K, Peterson PA (Nov 1995). "In vivo assembly of the proteasomal complexes, implications for antigen ... WHO Nomenclature Committee for factors of the HLA system". Tissue Antigens. 39 (4): 161-73. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1992. ...
1996). "Supramolecular complexes of MHC class I, MHC class II, CD20, and tetraspan molecules (CD53, CD81, and CD82) at the ... 1994). "Mouse homologue of C33 antigen (CD82), a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily: complementary DNA, genomic ... The tetraspanin family includes CD9, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD81 (this protein), CD82 and CD151. CD81 interacts directly with ... is associated on the cell surface with the Leu-13 antigen". J. Immunol. 145 (7): 2207-13. PMID 2398277. Matsumoto AK, Martin DR ...
ATP1B3 - Википедия
CD97 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom. ... 2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
CD74 - Википедия
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
Меланотрансферрин - Википедия
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
CD117 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... 1991). „Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID ... 2003). „Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". Int. J. Hematol. 75 ...
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11. CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ... "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms cooperate to mediate colon carcinoma cell adhesion to E- and L-selectin in ...
... is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Leucocyte typing: human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
CLEC12A - Википедия
CXCR5 - Википедия
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... Hamann J, Wishaupt JO, van Lier RA, Smeets TJ, Breedveld FC, Tak PP (Apr 1999). "Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and ... Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004325.x. PMID 11380941.. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
Integrin beta 3
Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 6
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a, b, c, d ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom. ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
CD36 - Википедия
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet degranulation. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling ...
ICAM-1 - Википедия
CD53 | SpringerLink
CD53 antigen; CD53 tetraspanin antigen; Cell surface glycoprotein CD53; Leukocyte surface antigen CD53; MOX44; Ox-44; OX44; ... Tetraspanin-25; Tspan-25; Tspan25; TSPAN25 CD53 is a member of... ... CD53 antigen; CD53 tetraspanin antigen; Cell surface ... CD53 has no known extracellular ligand. The specific function of CD53 has not yet been defined, but CD53 has been shown to ... glycoprotein CD53; Leukocyte surface antigen CD53; MOX44; Ox-44; OX44; Tetraspanin-25; Tspan-25; Tspan25; TSPAN25 ...
KEGG BRITE: CD Molecules - Homo sapiens (human)
CDW52 antigen K06489 CD53; CD53 antigen K06490 ICAM1; intercellular adhesion molecule 1 K04006 DAF; decay accelerating factor ... CD79A antigen K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen K05412 CD80; CD80 antigen K06508 CD81; CD81 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K06510 ... CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06721 CLEC10A; C-type lectin ... CD96 antigen K08446 ADGRE5; CD97 antigen K06519 SLC3A2; solute carrier family 3, member 2 K06520 CD99; CD99 antigen K06521 ...
Cd81 - CD81 antigen - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cd81 gene & protein
... associates with CD4 or CD8 coreceptors and defines the maturation state of antigen-induced synapses with B cells (By similarity ... lowering the threshold dose of antigen required to trigger B cell clonal expansion and humoral immune response (By similarity ... Interacts with CD53 and SCIMP (By similarity). Interacts with SAMHD1 (via its C-terminus) (By similarity). ... positive regulation of T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting ...
CD53 polyclonal antibody - (PAB30307) - Products - Abnova
Recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids 111-180 of human CD53. (PAB30307) - Products - Abnova ... Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against partial recombinant human CD53. ... CD53 antigen,CD53 glycoprotein,CD53 tetraspan antigen,OTTHUMP00000013686,OTTHUMP00000059505,antigen MOX44 identified by ... monoclonal antibody MRC-OX44,cell surface antigen,leukocyte surface antigen CD53,tetraspanin-25,transmembrane glycoprotein ...
REAlease® CD53 Complexes, human - REAlease releasable antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi...
Clone REAL144 recognizes the CD53 antigen, a 35-42 kDa type II transmembrane glycoprotein which is also known as tetraspanin-25 ... CD53 mediates oxidative burst in monocytes and has been shown to interact with a number of proteins including interleukin 4 (IL ... Cross-linking of CD53 on monocytes induces a strong increase in intracellular calcium ions, whereas a modest increase is seen ... CD53 is expressed on all leukocytes, including plasma cells, but not on platelets, erythrocytes, and non-hematopoietic tissues ...
Search results for: 'Cavia porcellus'
CD53 antibody | acris-antibodies.com
CD53 is a member of the tetraspan family of molecules, and is expressed by all leucocytes, but is absent from red cells and ... Lenti ORF particles, Cd53 (GFP-tagged) - Mouse CD53 antigen (Cd53), 200 uL, ,10^7 TU/mL. Not available. ... CD53 is a glycoprotein of 32-40 kDa belonging to the tetraspans family (TM4SF). CD53 antigen is exclusivelly expressed on ... CD53 (transcript variant 2). Not available. Purified recombinant protein of Homo sapiens CD53 molecule (CD53), transcript ...
CD53 - Wikipedia
Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... 1990). "The human leucocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein structurally similar to the CD37 and MRC OX-44 antigens". ... CD53 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD53 genome location and CD53 ... 1993). "Chromosomal localization of the Ox-44 (CD53) leukocyte antigen gene in man and rodents". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 64 (3-4 ...
KEGG BRITE: CD Molecules - Ursus arctos horribilis
113244899 CD53; leukocyte surface antigen CD53 isoform X1 113242979 ICAM1; intercellular adhesion molecule 1 113242611 CD55; ... CD79A antigen K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen K05412 CD80; CD80 antigen K06508 CD81; CD81 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K06510 ... CD33 antigen K06474 CD34; CD34 antigen K06259 CD36; CD36 antigen K06475 CD37; CD37 antigen K01242 CD38; ADP-ribosyl cyclase 1 [ ... CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06721 CLEC10A; C-type lectin ...
Recombinant Mouse CD53 cell lysate CD53-808MCL - Creative BioMart
Mouse CD53 (aa 107-181) derived in Human Cells. The whole cell lysate is provided in 1X Sample Buffer.Browse all transfected ... CD53. Synonyms:. CD53; CD53 antigen; leukocyte surface antigen CD53; cell surface glycoprotein CD53; Ox-44; Tspan25; AI323659; ... Recombinant Mouse CD53 cell lysate. Download Datasheet See All CD53 Products. Bring this labeled protein directly to your bench ... CD53-808MCL. Product Overview:. Mouse CD53 (aa 107-181) derived in Human Cells. The whole cell lysate is provided in 1X Sample ...
Leukocyte surface antigen elisa and antibody
Recombinant Protein and Leukocyte surface antigen Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody ... Leukocyte surface antigen CD53. Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 ELISA Kit. Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 Recombinant. Leukocyte ... Also known as Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 (Cell surface glycoprotein CD53) (CD antigen CD53).. CD53: May be involved in ... Leukocyte surface antigen CD47. Leukocyte surface antigen CD47 ELISA Kit. Leukocyte surface antigen CD47 Recombinant. Leukocyte ...
Genetic Dissection of the Gpnmb Network in the Eye | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Cd53 (leukocyte surface antigen) is a tetraspanin involved in the immune system. Through its interactions with integrins, Cd53 ... "antigen processing and presentation of exogenous antigens" (7 genes), "antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen ... identical analyses were performed using leukocyte surface antigen CD53. CD53 contributes to the transduction of CD2-generated ... "antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen" (6 genes), "phagocytosis engulfment" 5 genes), "dsRNA ...
CD53 ELISA Kits from RayBiotech | Biocompare
TSPAN4 - Wikipedia
CD81 (TAPA-1): a molecule involved in signal transduction and cell adhesion in the immune system. - PubMed - NCBI
CD81 can also affect cognate B-T cell interactions because anti-CD81 increases IL-4 synthesis by T cells responding to antigen ... The tetraspanin superfamily (or TM4SF) includes CD81, CD9, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD82, CD151, and an increasing number of ... These mice do exhibit diminished antibody responses to protein antigens. CD81 is also physically and functionally associated ...
TSPAN4 Gene - GeneCards | TSN4 Protein | TSN4 Antibody
This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein and is similar in sequence to its family member CD53 antigen. It is known ... Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TSPAN4 Gene. GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:. *Transmembrane 4 superfamily ... Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include integrin binding and antigen binding. An important paralog of this ...
Shoshana Levy | Stanford Medicine Profiles
The Leu-2 antigen in the supernatant was found to have only one Leu-2a determinant, whereas Leu-2 antigen from cell extracts ... The tetraspanin superfamily (or TM4SF) includes CD81, CD9, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD82, CD151, and an increasing number of ... Leu-2 antigen was present only in supernatants from T cell lines that expressed Leu-2 on their cell surface. Leu-2 antigen ... Their antigen uptake and presentation capacities enable them to prime and activate T cells. Immature DCs capture antigens; ...
CD9 - Beckman Coulter
Like other tetraspanins (e.g. CD63, CD81, CD82, CD37, CD53, among the 20 known members), CD9 structure is composed of 4 ... p24 antigen) is a single transmembrane polypeptide of 24 kDa related to the tetraspanin (TM4) family. ... CD9 Antigen. CD9 (p24 antigen) is a single transmembrane polypeptide of 24 kDa related to the tetraspanin (TM4) family. Like ... other tetraspanins (e.g. CD63, CD81, CD82, CD37, CD53, among the 20 known members), CD9 structure is composed of 4 ...
CD53 monoclonal antibody, clone MEM-53 - (MAB0890) - Products - Abnova
Native purified CD53 from leukocytes of a patient suffering from a LGL-type leukemia. (MAB0890) - Products - Abnova ... CD53 antigen,CD53 glycoprotein,CD53 tetraspan antigen,OTTHUMP00000013686,OTTHUMP00000059505,antigen MOX44 identified by ... monoclonal antibody MRC-OX44,cell surface antigen,leukocyte surface antigen CD53,tetraspanin-25,transmembrane glycoprotein ... Native purified CD53 from leukocytes of a patient suffering from a LGL-type leukemia. ...
Extracellular Vesicles: Role in Inflammatory Responses and Potential Uses in Vaccination in Cancer and Infectious Diseases
... including the surface markers of lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells such as CD37, CD9, CD53, CD63, CD81, and CD82. EVs ... I. Bourguin, M. Moser, D. Buzoni-Gatel et al., "Murine dendritic cells pulsed in vitro with Toxoplasma gondii antigens induce ... EVs derived from DC incubated with T. gondii antigens induce an intense immune response, increasing the levels of MHC class II ... M. F. Goncalves, E. S. Umezawa, A. M. Katzin et al., "Trypanosoma cruzi: shedding of surface antigens as membrane vesicles," ...
A New Approach for the Diagnosis of Systemic and Oral Diseases Based on Salivary Biomolecules
... tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), and cancer antigen CA125) that were found to have a high level in the saliva of patients ... CD53, SELL, HLA-DQA1, PTPRC, B2M, and TAP2) that were correlated with this syndrome and were responsible for the induction of ... The existing tests for viral infections are based on salivary biomarkers, basically on viral DNA and RNA, antigens, and ... CA 125 is a tumor-associated antigen that was found in high levels in the saliva of the patients with oral, breast, and ovarian ...
CD53 Monoclonal Antibody(AF647 Conjugated)[C53-2] - CD53 Monoclonal Antibody(AF647 Conjugated)[C53-2] Exporter, Importer,...
Trading Company of CD53 Monoclonal Antibody(AF647 Conjugated)[C53-2] based in Delhi, India ... Antigen Information. Alternate Names. Leukocyte surface antigen CD53,CD53,Cell surface glycoprotein CD53,Tetraspanin-25,Tspan- ... Cross-linking of CD53 promotes B cell activation. The CD53 antigen is highly glycosylated and treatment with endoglycosidase F ... CD53 is thought to be involved in signal transduction. It has been shown to interact with a number of proteins including IL-4, ...
Mouse Monoclonal anti-CD37 (IPO-24) | Biotium
Association of four antigens of the tetraspans family (CD37, CD53, TAPA-1, and R2/C33) with MHC class II glycoproteins. ... CD37 is a member of a family of tetraspan transmembrane proteins, including CD9, CD53, CD63, CD81, and CD82. It associates ... Monoclonal antibodies of IPO series against B cell differentiation antigens in leukemia and lymphoma immunophenotyping ...
Hepatitis C virus
This is the first identification of a cognate antigen for a human lymphoma BCR. The RF activity of the Igs from most of the HCV ... The tetraspanin superfamily (or TM4SF) includes CD81, CD9, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD82, CD151, and an increasing number of ... constant antigen stimulationref. Envelope protein E2 is now considered as a candidate antigen based on several lines of ... This contrasts with the reported common detection of HCV RNA and viral antigens in BM and PBMCs by in situ techniquesref1, ref2 ...
IMP: Integrative Multi-species Prediction
IMP: Integrative Multi-species Prediction
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia - Renal and Urology News
... which is typically positive for T-cell antigens CD2, CD3, CD7, and/or CD53. ... With a typical pattern of expression of B cell associated antigens (CD19, CD23, and dim CD20), low-level surface Ig (K or L), ... The malignant cells will typically express B cell-associated antigens (CD19, CD23, and dim CD20), low-level surface ... "Randomized, Phase II Dose Optimization Study of Chimeric Antigen Receptor Modified T Cells Directed Against CD19 (CTL019) in ...
CD antigens / Cluster of Differentiation
CD antigens found in various immune cell populations like B cells, T cells, Dendritic cells and NK cells.CD antigens can act in ... lot of ways, like as recepters or ligands in terms of physiology.As a siganl, CD antigens is usually initiated, altering the ... What are CD antigens or clusters of differentiation ? ... CD53 antigens. Tetraspanin-25, MOX44. Signal transduction. Cell ... CD1b antigens. T6. Antigen presenting protein. CD1c antigens. R7, CD1, CD1A, BDCA1. Non peptide antigen presentation to T-cell ...
OPAL - OHIO PRIVATE ACADEMIC LIBRARIES / Muskingum
Leukocyte Surface Antigen CD53 -- Leukosialin -- Leukotriene -- LFS1 -- Licorne (lic) -- Ligand-Dependent Nuclear Receptor ... Very Late Activation Antigen 1 (VLA-1) -- Very Late Activation Antigen 2 (VLA-2) -- Vesl -- Vitamin D receptor (VDR) -- ... Cancer-Associated Retinopathy Antigen -- CAR-Antigen -- CARD-Containing MAGUK Protein 1 -- CARD11 -- CARMA1 / Hiromitsu Hara ... CD283 -- CD283 Antigen -- CD284 -- CD3 / Sumit Deswal and Wolfgang W.A. Schamel -- CD314 -- CD335 -- CD38 / Leopoldo Santos- ...
CD63MoleculeGlycoproteinCD82CD37AntibodiesCD20LymphocyteReceptorIntegrinAntibodyReceptorsProteinsDifferentiationSignal transductionCD47LigandCD14Homo sapiens CD53Recombinant ProteinTetraspaninsCellsGeneCross-linkingMoleculesMusculusCD30SurfaceCD11aLymphocytesTumorSequenceMonocytesGenesCloneCDNA clonesELISA KitSNPs
- Beinert T, Munzing S, Possinger K, Krombach F. Increased expression of the tetraspanins CD53 and CD63 on apoptotic human neutrophils. (springer.com)
- Horejsi V, Vlcek C. Novel structurally distinct family of leucocyte surface glycoproteins including CD9, CD37, CD53 and CD63. (springer.com)
- The vesicles derived from mammalian cells contain a family of integral membrane proteins that cross four times the lipid bilayer and are called tetraspanins [ 11 ], including the surface markers of lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells such as CD37, CD9, CD53, CD63, CD81, and CD82. (hindawi.com)
- CD63 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD63 gene . (thefullwiki.org)
- 1992). "Genomic structure of the ME491/CD63 antigen gene and functional analysis of the 5'-flanking regulatory sequences. (thefullwiki.org)
- Here, we have identified 4 proteins (CD53, CD62L/L-selectin, CD63/lamp-3, and CD71/transferrin receptor) that segregate differentially in about 20% of primitive human hematopoietic cells that divide in stroma-free cultures. (ashpublications.org)
- Since 3 of these proteins, the transferrin receptor and the tetraspanins CD53 and CD63, are endosomal-associated proteins, they may provide a link between the endosomal compartment and the process of asymmetric cell division within the HSC/HPC compartment. (ashpublications.org)
- Clone REAL144 is an antibody fragment derived from the full CD53 antibody molecule. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- This antibody reacts also with deglycosylated molecule (molecular weight of the antigen is reduced by 15 KDa using endoglycosidase F). (abnova.com)
- Today, the HLDA Workshop meeting has been held 10 times and has over 371 CD antigens molecule have been identified. (sinobiological.com)
- Mouse monoclonal to CD53.COC53 monoclonal reacts CD53, a 32-42 kDa molecule, which is expressed on thymocytes, T cells, B cells, NK cells, monocytes and granulocytes, but is not present on red blood cells, platelets and non-hematopoietic cells. (onetownmanyvoices.com)
- CD53 (uc001dzw.3) at chr1:111413821-111442558 - Homo sapiens CD53 molecule (CD53), transcript variant 1, mRNA. (ucsc.edu)
- CD53 (uc010owa.2) at chr1:111415778-111442558 - Homo sapiens CD53 molecule (CD53), transcript variant 2, mRNA. (ucsc.edu)
- BC040693 - Homo sapiens CD53 molecule, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:49823 IMAGE:5498854), complete cds. (ucsc.edu)
- BC078900 - Rattus norvegicus Cd53 molecule, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:93640 IMAGE:7130719), complete cds. (ucsc.edu)
- BC113322 - Bos taurus CD53 molecule, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:137765 IMAGE:8082609), complete cds. (ucsc.edu)
- The CD20 molecule is involved in B cell activation and is associated with various Src family kinases (Lyn, Lck, Fyn), and exists in a complex with MHC class I and II, CD53, CD81, and CD82. (ichor.bio)
- Clone REAL144 recognizes the CD53 antigen, a 35-42 kDa type II transmembrane glycoprotein which is also known as tetraspanin-25. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- CD53 is a cell surface glycoprotein that is known to complex with integrins. (acris-antibodies.com)
- CD53 is a glycoprotein of 32-40 kDa belonging to the tetraspans family (TM4SF). (acris-antibodies.com)
- Also known as Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 (Cell surface glycoprotein CD53) (CD antigen CD53). (mybiosource.com)
- This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein and is similar in sequence to its family member CD53 antigen. (wikipedia.org)
- A novel lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, cloned by a screening procedure for intracellular antigens in eukaryotic cells. (thefullwiki.org)
- M37033 - Human CD53 glycoprotein mRNA, complete cds. (ucsc.edu)
- Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion . (wikidoc.org)
- Angelisova P, Vlcek C, Stefanova I, Lipoldova M, Horejsi V. The human leucocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein structurally similar to the CD37 and MRC OX-44 antigens. (springer.com)
- Angelisova P, Hilgert I, Horejsi V. Association of four antigens of the tetraspans family (CD37, CD53, TAPA-1, and R2/C33) with MHC class II glycoproteins. (springer.com)
- 1990) The human leucocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein structurally similar to the CD37 and MRC OX-44 antigens. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- Now Offering Over 102,157 Antibodies & 44,722 Antigens! (avivasysbio.com)
- CD antigens for cluster of differentiation, which indicates a defined subset of cellular surface receptors (epitopes) that identify cell type and stage of differentiation, and which are recognized by antibodies. (sinobiological.com)
- In essence, such targeting can be generalized as follows: antibodies specific to the CD20 surface antigen of B cells are administered to a patient. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- Sino biological offers a comprehensive set of tools for CD antigens related to cell adhesion research, including recombinant proteins, antibodies (mouse mAbs, rabbit mAbs, and rabbit pAbs), ELISA kits, and ORF cDNA clones. (sinobiological.com)
- CD53 mediates oxidative burst in monocytes and has been shown to interact with a number of proteins including interleukin 4 (IL-4), CD20, CD2, CD9, IL-2, VLA-4, and CD4. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- The malignant cells will typically express B cell-associated antigens (CD19, CD23, and dim CD20), low-level surface immunoglobulin (Ig) (K or L), and the T cell-associated antigen, CD5. (renalandurologynews.com)
- The CD20 antigen (also called human B-lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen, Bp35) is a hydrophobic transmembrane protein with a molecular weight of approximately 35 kD located on pre-B and mature B lymphocytes (Valentine et al. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- Given the expression of CD20 in B cell lymphomas, this antigen can serve as a candidate for "targeting" of such lymphomas. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- Stamenkovic I, Seed B. Analysis of two cDNA clones encoding the B lymphocyte antigen CD20 (B1, Bp35), a type III integral membrane protein. (hcdm.org)
- CD20 homo-oligomers physically associate with the B cell antigen receptor. (hcdm.org)
- Cao L, Yoshino T, Kawasaki N, Sakuma I, Takahashi K, Akagi T. Anti-CD53 monoclonal antibody induced LFA-1/ICAM-1-dependent and -independent lymphocyte homotypic cell aggregation. (springer.com)
- Here we show that CD53 is essential for lymphocyte recirculation. (cf.ac.uk)
- The disruption in lymphocyte recirculation in Cd53-/- mice led to impaired immune responses dependent on antigen delivery to lymph nodes. (cf.ac.uk)
- Together these findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized essential role for CD53 in lymphocyte trafficking and immune responses. (cf.ac.uk)
- 23499492 ). Upon initial encounter with a microbial pathogen, enables the assembly of CD19-CR2 and B cell receptor complexes at signaling TERMs, lowering the threshold dose of antigen required to trigger B cell clonal expansion and humoral immune response (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
- Scalable signaling mediated by T cell antigen receptor-CD3 ITAMs ensures effective negative selection and prevents autoimmunity. (springer.com)
- Malissen B. An evolutionary and structural perspective on T cell antigen receptor function. (springer.com)
- the alpha subunit of Mac-1 (Macrophage-1 antigen), the CR3 complement receptor which consists of CD11b and CD18. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
- A number of genes with both TE-derived HS sites and immune tissue related expression patterns were found to encode proteins involved in immune response such as T cell specific receptor antigens and secreted cytokines as well as proteins with clinical relevance to HIV and cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
- Also known as Leukocyte surface antigen CD47 (Antigenic surface determinant protein OA3) (Integrin-associated protein) (IAP) (Protein MER6) (CD antigen CD47). (mybiosource.com)
- Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include integrin binding and antigen binding . (genecards.org)
- Independently, the same protein was identified as an antigen, OA3, that is overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma and as a protein that copurified with certain integrins and named integrin-associated protein (IAP). (springer.com)
- Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against partial recombinant human CD53. (abnova.com)
- Immunohistochemical staining (Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) of human tonsil with CD53 polyclonal antibody (Cat # PAB30307) shows strong cytoplasmic positivity in germinal center cells. (abnova.com)
- Western Blot analysis of CD53 expression in transfected 293T cell line ( H00000963-T01 ) by CD53 MaxPab polyclonal antibody.Lane 1: CD53 transfected lysate(24.09 KDa).Lane 2: Non-transfected lysate. (acris-antibodies.com)
- These mice do exhibit diminished antibody responses to protein antigens. (nih.gov)
- Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against native CD53. (abnova.com)
- B cells mature within the bone marrow and leave the marrow expressing an antigen-binding antibody on their cell surface. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- Non peptide antigen presentation to T-cell receptors on NKT cells. (sinobiological.com)
- Chimeric antigen receptors modified T-cells for cancer therapy. (springer.com)
- Non-peptide antigen presentation to T-cell receptors on NKT cells, marks T-cells at the short cortical thymic stage of differentiation. (abcam.co.jp)
- An antigen-presenting protein that binds self and non-self lipid and glycolipid antigens and presents them to T-cell receptors on natural killer T-cells. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
- CD53 is a member of the tetraspanin family of hydrophobic membrane-spanning proteins. (springer.com)
- The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used application for detecting and quantifying proteins and antigens from various samples. (biocompare.com)
- Exosomes, cell-derived lipid vesicles that express high levels of a narrow spectrum of cell proteins represent a novel platform for delivering high levels of antigen in conjunction with costimulatory molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
- This has lead to many tumor antigen-specific strategies for the treatment of cancer, including the use of an immunodominant peptide alone, protein or peptide-pulsed dendritic cells, and antigen/co-stimulatory fusion proteins expressed from viral vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
- Recently, a novel platform for delivering high levels of antigen in conjunction with costimulatory molecules has been described, called exosomes, cell-derived lipid vesicles that express high levels of a narrow spectrum of cell proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
- Brackman D, Lund-Johansen F, Aarskog D. Expression of leukocyte differentiation antigens during the differentiation of HL-60 cells induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: comparison with the maturation of normal monocytic and granulocytic bone marrow cells. (springer.com)
- The CD antigens / Cluster of differentiation nomenclature was established in the 1st International Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA), which was held in Paris in 1982. (sinobiological.com)
- Since expression of CD antigens is associated with cellular differentiation, cancer cells may differ from their normal counterpart in their CD profile. (nih.gov)
- Antigens, CD14" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD14" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Antigens, CD14" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD14" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
- In mesangial cells, CD53 ligation stimulates the induction of DNA synthesis via the MEK-ERK pathway. (springer.com)
- In T cells, associates with CD4 or CD8 coreceptors and defines the maturation state of antigen-induced synapses with B cells (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
- CD53 is expressed on all leukocytes, including plasma cells, but not on platelets, erythrocytes, and non-hematopoietic tissues. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- CD53 is a member of the tetraspan family of molecules, and is expressed by all leucocytes, but is absent from red cells and platelets. (acris-antibodies.com)
- CD53 antigen is exclusivelly expressed on leucocytes (not present on platelets, red blood cells and non-hematopoietic cells). (acris-antibodies.com)
- CD53 cross-linking promotes activation of human B cells and rat macrophages. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Mouse CD53 (aa 107-181) derived in Human Cells. (creativebiomart.net)
- CD53: May be involved in growth regulation in hematopoietic cells. (mybiosource.com)
- CD81 can also affect cognate B-T cell interactions because anti-CD81 increases IL-4 synthesis by T cells responding to antigen presented by B cells but not by monocytes. (nih.gov)
- The CD antigens are protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells. (sinobiological.com)
- Functional annotation analysis reveals that both hematopoietic cell populations are more competent in MHC class II-associated antigen presentation and in T cell activation than non-hematopoietic cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our results highlight the potential of cells of hematopoietic origin in local antigen presentation, whatever their Ly6C expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- While MHC class I is ubiquitously expressed by almost all cells, MHC class II is mostly expressed by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- These cells are involved in external antigen (Ag) processing and antigenic peptide presentation in the context of MHC class II to CD4+ T helper (T h ) cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- TCR-associated zeta-Fc epsilon RI gamma heterodimers on CD4-CD8- NK1.1+ T cells selected by specific class I MHC antigen. (springer.com)
- CD45 is a protein antigen expressed on all haemopoietic white cells and "gating" the CD45 antigen positive cells in each sample was performed as part of the DHR assay in this study. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Lack of CD45 antigen on blast cells in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is associated with chromosomal hyperdiploidy and other favorable prognostic features. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Kamoun M, Kadin ME, Martin PJ, Nettleton J, Hansen JA A novel human T cell antigen preferentially expressed on mature T cells and shared by both well and poorly differentiated B cell leukemias and lymphomas. (springer.com)
- Lymph nodes of Cd53-/- mice were smaller than wild-type mice due to a marked reduction in B cells and a 50% decrease in T cells. (cf.ac.uk)
- This reduced cellularity reflected an inability of Cd53-/- B and T cells to efficiently home to lymph nodes, due to the near absence of L-selectin from Cd53-/- B cells and reduced stability of L-selectin on Cd53-/- T cells. (cf.ac.uk)
- CD53 is a protein in the tetraspanin family that is expressed in many white blood cells. (cdc.gov)
- In particular, it plays an important role in cytokine regulation and interaction between natural killer (NK) cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (cdc.gov)
- CD53 is a type of tetraspanin that is expressed on various immune cells. (cdc.gov)
- In an accompanying paper, we find specific localization of diabetogenic T cells only to islets of Langerhans bearing the specific antigen. (pnas.org)
- The entry of T cells to tissues containing antigen-presenting cells (APCs) bearing their protein antigen leads to an inflammatory response. (pnas.org)
- These events have been extensively examined, mainly in the case of the central nervous system (CNS) autoreactivity, where activated myelin antigen-specific T cells migrate to the CNS, leading to autoimmune encephalomyelitis ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- The adenoviral vectors are administered to antigen presenting cells (APCs) in vitro or to an animal in vivo. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- 4. The method of claim 1, wherein the antigen presenting cells are dendritic cells. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- It helps T lymphocytes to kill the infected cells that presents microbial antigen on the cell surface. (usda.gov)
- Differential cooperation between regulatory sequences required for human CD53 gene expression. (springer.com)
- Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Transcriptional enhancement of the human gene encoding for a melanoma-associated antigen (ME491) in association with malignant transformation. (thefullwiki.org)
- The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) difference of CD53 gene could affect TB case. (cdc.gov)
- Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the effect of SNPs of the CD53 gene on tuberculosis in TB cases and control groups. (cdc.gov)
- In this study, we identified eight statistically significant SNPs in CD53 gene, confirming that it could be involved in the regulation of CD53 gene expression. (cdc.gov)
- Below are the list of possible Leukocyte surface antigen products. (mybiosource.com)
- The CD45 antigen , expressed on the T cell surface, presents two different isoforms, RA and RO. (thefreedictionary.com)
- M60871 - Human cell surface antigen (CD53) mRNA, complete cds. (ucsc.edu)
- AK298723 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ52016 complete cds, moderately similar to Leukocyte surface antigen CD53. (ucsc.edu)
- HQ890092 - Equus caballus clone 06_h01 leukocyte surface antigen CD53-like protein (CD53) mRNA, complete cds. (ucsc.edu)
- Cluster designation (CD) antigens are cell surface markers that can be used to identify constituent cell populations of an organ. (nih.gov)
- Further analyses, including on human lymphocytes, showed that CD53 inhibits L-selectin shedding via both ADAM17-dependent and -independent mechanisms. (cf.ac.uk)
- The immunogenicity of the antigen is measured by screening for an immune response from effector T lymphocytes in vitro and by screening for the absence of pathogen-induced disease onset in vivo. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- CD antigens are used widely for research, immunotherary, tumor and drug target. (sinobiological.com)
- 1988). "Molecular cloning and characterization of an antigen associated with early stages of melanoma tumor progression. (thefullwiki.org)
- We performed this study to test the safety, feasibility and efficacy of autologous dendritic cell (DC)-derived exosomes (DEX) loaded with the MAGE tumor antigens in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (biomedcentral.com)
- Tumor-associated antigens that are capable of eliciting cytotoxic T cell responses have been identified. (biomedcentral.com)
- Demonstration of tumor-specific antigens in human colonic carcinomata by immunological tolerance and absorption techniques. (wikidoc.org)
- A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. (rush.edu)
- The invention provides a method of identifying an antigen from a pathogen or a disease antigen comprising the use of an adenoviral vector array comprising two or more different adenoviral vectors, wherein each adenoviral vector comprises a nucleic acid sequence encoding a different antigen of a pathogen. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- Your search returned 1 CD53 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
- Intended Use Human CD53 ELISA Kit allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of CD53 , concentrations in serum, Plasma , tissue homogenates and Cell culture supernates and Other biological fluids. (biobool.com)
- Inquiry About Human CD53 ELISA Kit If you hope to order it or contact us directly, please contact us via [email protected] (biobool.com)