Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

CD5 negatively regulates the T-cell antigen receptor signal transduction pathway: involvement of SH2-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. (1/601)

The negative regulation of T- or B-cell antigen receptor signaling by CD5 was proposed based on studies of thymocytes and peritoneal B-1a cells from CD5-deficient mice. Here, we show that CD5 is constitutively associated with phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity in Jurkat T cells. CD5 was found associated with the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain containing hematopoietic phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in both Jurkat cells and normal phytohemagglutinin-expanded T lymphoblasts. This interaction was increased upon T-cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 cell stimulation. CD5 co-cross-linking with the TCR-CD3 complex down-regulated the TCR-CD3-increased Ca2+ mobilization in Jurkat cells. In addition, stimulation of Jurkat cells or normal phytohemagglutinin-expanded T lymphoblasts through TCR-CD3 induced rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of several protein substrates, which was substantially diminished after CD5 cross-linking. The CD5-regulated substrates included CD3zeta, ZAP-70, Syk, and phospholipase Cgammal but not the Src family tyrosine kinase p56(lck). By mutation of all four CD5 intracellular tyrosine residues to phenylalanine, we found the membrane-proximal tyrosine at position 378, which is located in an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory (ITIM)-like motif, crucial for SHP-1 association. The F378 point mutation ablated both SHP-1 binding and the down-regulating activity of CD5 during TCR-CD3 stimulation. These results suggest a critical role of the CD5 ITIM-like motif, which by binding to SHP-1 mediates the down-regulatory activity of this receptor.  (+info)

An alternatively spliced form of CD79b gene may account for altered B-cell receptor expression in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (2/601)

Several functional anomalies of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells may be explained by abnormalities of the B-cell receptor (BCR), a multimeric complex formed by the sIg homodimer and the noncovalently bound heterodimer Igalpha/Igbeta (CD79a/CD79b). Because the expression of the extracellular Ig-like domain of CD79b has been reported to be absent in the cells of most CLL cases, we have investigated the molecular mechanisms that may account for this defect. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 50 patients and two cell lines (MEC1, MEC2) obtained from the PBL of one of them were studied. MEC1, MEC2, and 75% of CLL cases did not express detectable levels of the extracellular Ig-like domain of CD79b, which was nevertheless present in greater than 80% CD19(+) cells from normal donors. In healthy subjects the expression of CD79b was equally distributed in CD5(+) and CD5(-) B-cell subsets. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of CD79b RNA from all patients and from MEC1 and MEC2 cell lines consistently yielded two fragments of different size (709 bp and 397 bp). The 709-bp band corresponds to CD79b entire transcript; the 397-bp band corresponds to an alternatively spliced form lacking exon 3 that encodes the extracellular Ig-like domain. Both fragments were also visible in normal PBL. The expression of the 397-bp fragment was increased in normal activated B cells, while no difference was seen between CD5(+) and CD5(-) B cells. To obtain a more accurate estimate of the relative proportions of the two spliced forms, a radioactive PCR was performed in 13 normal and 22 B-CLL samples and the results analyzed using a digital imager. The mean value of the CD79b to the CD79b internally deleted ratio was 0.64 +/- 0.20 SD in normal donors and 0.44 +/- 0.27 SD in B-CLL (P =.01). Direct sequencing of 397-bp RT-PCR products and of genomic DNA corresponding to exon 3 from MEC1, MEC2, their parental cells, and five fresh B-CLL samples did not show any causal mutation. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of exon 3 performed in 18 additional B-CLL cases showed a single abnormal shift corresponding to a TGT --> TGC polymorphic change at amino acid 122. We propose a role for the alternative splicing of CD79b gene in causing the reduced expression of BCR on the surface of B-CLL cells. As normal B cells also present this variant, the mechanism of CD79b posttranscriptional regulation might reflect the activation stage of the normal B cell from which B-CLL derives.  (+info)

Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis and CD5+ B-lymphocyte expression. (3/601)

Myasthenia gravis is one of the typical organ specific autoimmune disease and the CD5+ B-lymphocytes are known to be associated with the secretion of autoimmune antibodies. The authors performed the study to establish an animal model of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) by immunizing the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and to understand CD5+ B-lymphocyte changes in peripheral blood of EAMGs. Lewis rats weighing 150-200 g were injected subcutaneously three times with 50 microg AChR purified from the electric organ of Torpedo marmorata and Freund's adjuvant. The EAMG induction was assessed by evaluating clinical manifestations. The CD5+ B-lymphocyte was double stained using monoclonal PE conjugated anti-CD5+ and FITC conjugated anti-rat CD45R antibodies and calculated using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). In three out of ten Lewis rats injected with purified AChR, the EAMG models were established. The animals showed definite clinical weakness responded to neostigmine; they had difficulty in climbing the slope, or easily fell down from a vertical cage. The range of CD5+ B-lymphocytes of peripheral blood in the EAMG models was 10.2%-17.5%, which was higher than in controls. In conclusion, the EAMG models were successfully established and the CD5+ B-lymphocyte expression in peripheral blood increased in EAMGs. This provided indirect evidence of the autoimmune pathomechanism of human myasthenia gravis.  (+info)

CD5 positive breast carcinoma in a patient with untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: molecular studies of chromosome 13q. (4/601)

A 67 year old woman presented with a right breast lump which proved to be a grade 2 invasive ductal carcinoma with axillary lymph node metastasis. She had a five year history of CD5 positive chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, which never required treatment. Immunoperoxidase stains for CD5, using the monoclonal antibody NCL-CD-54C7, showed that there was extensive infiltration of axillary lymph nodes with CD5 positive B lymphocytes. Strong staining for CD5 was also seen in the carcinoma cells within the breast and lymph node metastases. It has recently been suggested that there is a tumour suppresser locus in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia at 13q12.3 near or at the BRCA2 locus. Deletion of regions on chromosome 13q containing the BRCA2 and RB1 genes has also been reported in sporadic breast cancers. These observations suggest that there may be a link between these two diseases acting through chromosome 13, but amplification of several microsatellite repeat markers failed to show any loss of heterozygosity or repeat instability at either these or several other loci on chromosome 13. Examination of additional such cases is needed to perform a more comprehensive study of the significance of positive CD5 staining of breast carcinoma.  (+info)

Anti-phospholipid antibodies and CD5+ B cells in HIV infection. (5/601)

This cross-sectional study evaluates the correlation between anti-phospholipid antibodies and CD5+ B cells in 110 patients infected with HIV-1. There were 89.1% of the patients who had IgG antibodies against cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine. The prevalence of IgM and IgA antibodies was < 22%. AIDS was associated with lower frequencies of IgM antibodies against cardiolipin (P = 0.05) and IgG-antibodies against cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine (P = 0.011). Drug users had higher IgM antibodies against phospholipids than patients from other risk groups (P = 0.02). A history of thromboembolic events was not accompanied by higher levels of anti-phospholipid antibodies (P > 0.2). No correlation between anti-phospholipid antibodies and CD5+ B cells was detected. Percentage part of CD5+ B lymphocytes was elevated in all patients and absolute CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and HIV p24 antigen were inversely correlated. In advanced disease a significant reduction of anti-phospholipid antibodies was contrasted with persistent elevation of CD5+ B lymphocytes. These observations may reflect immunological dysfunction involving apoptosis and endothelial damage rather than polyclonal B cell hyperstimulation. A possible explanation would be that in HIV infection an increased rate of spontaneous apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes is accompanied by functional and structural changes of mitochondria. Therefore, structurally altered mitochondrial phospholipids could serve as antigen to induce specific humoral immune responses.  (+info)

Positive selection as a developmental progression initiated by alpha beta TCR signals that fix TCR specificity prior to lineage commitment. (6/601)

During positive selection, immature thymocytes commit to either the CD4+ or CD8+ T cell lineage ("commitment") and convert from short-lived thymocytes into long-lived T cells ("rescue"). By formal precursor-progeny analysis, we now identify what is likely to be the initial positive selection step signaled by alpha beta TCR, which we have termed "induction". During induction, RAG mRNA expression is downregulated, but lineage commitment does not occur. Rather, lineage commitment (which depends upon the MHC class specificity of the alpha beta TCR) only occurs after downregulation of RAG expression and the consequent fixation of alpha beta TCR specificity. We propose that positive selection can be viewed as a sequence of increasingly selective developmental steps (induction-->commitment-->rescue) that are signaled by alpha beta TCR engagements of intrathymic ligands.  (+info)

Signaling through CD5 involves acidic sphingomyelinase, protein kinase C-zeta, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase. (7/601)

The CD5 lymphocyte surface glycoprotein is a coreceptor involved in the modulation of Ag-specific receptor-mediated activation and differentiation signals. The molecular basis for its modulatory properties is not yet well understood. In the present study we describe early biochemical events triggered by CD5 stimulation, which include the phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC)-dependent activation of acidic sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) in normal and lymphoblastoid T and B cells. The functional coupling of PC-PLC and A-SMase is demonstrated by the abrogation of A-SMase activation by 1) xanthogenate tricyclodecan-9-yl (D609), a selective inhibitor of PC-PLC, and 2) replacement of several C-terminal serine residues (S458, S459, and S461) present in the cytoplasmic tail of CD5 that are known to be critical for PC-PLC activation. Additionally, we demonstrate that activation of protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-zeta) and members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade (MAPK kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase), but not the NF-kappaB, are downstream events of the CD5 signaling pathway. A-SMase, PKC-zeta, and MAPK family members are key mediators of cell responses as diverse as proliferation, differentiation, and growth arrest and may contribute to CD5-mediated modulation of TCR or BCR signaling.  (+info)

ChT1, an Ig superfamily molecule required for T cell differentiation. (8/601)

The thymus is colonized by circulating progenitor cells that differentiate into mature T cells under the influence of the thymic microenvironment. We report here the cloning and function of the avian thymocyte Ag ChT1, a member of the Ig superfamily with one V-like and one C2-like domain. ChT1-positive embryonic bone marrow cells coexpressing c-kit give rise to mature T cells upon intrathymic cell transfer. ChT1-specific Ab inhibits T cell differentiation in embryonic thymic organ cultures and in thymocyte precursor cocultures on stromal cells. Thus, we provide clear evidence that ChT1 is a novel Ag on early T cell progenitors that plays an important role in the early stages of T cell development.  (+info)

*CD5L

CD5 antigen-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD5L gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000073754 - Ensembl ... 2002). "IgM are associated to Sp alpha (CD5 antigen-like)". Electrophoresis. 23 (7-8): 1203-6. doi:10.1002/1522-2683(200204)23: ... "Entrez Gene: CD5L CD5 molecule-like". Human CD5L genome location and CD5L gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Tissot ...

*CD5 (protein)

CD5 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD5 genome location and CD5 gene ... CD5 CD5 molecule". Brown MH, Lacey E (Nov 15, 2010). "A ligand for CD5 is CD5". Journal of Immunology. 185: 6068-74. doi: ... CD5 includes a scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein domain. T cells express higher levels of CD5 than B cells. CD5 is ... "Evidence for an association between the T cell receptor/CD3 antigen complex and the CD5 antigen in human T lymphocytes". Eur. J ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigen, t-cell MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.104 --- antigens, cd4 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.105 --- antigens, cd5 MeSH D23.050. ... antigen, t-cell MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.100 --- antigens, cd4 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.101 --- antigens, cd5 MeSH D23.050. ... antigen, t-cell MeSH D23.101.100.110.104 --- antigens, cd4 MeSH D23.101.100.110.105 --- antigens, cd5 MeSH D23.101.100.110.107 ... antigen, t-cell MeSH D23.101.100.894.100 --- antigens, cd4 MeSH D23.101.100.894.101 --- antigens, cd5 MeSH D23.101.100.894.107 ...

*Mantle cell lymphoma

There are only about 15,000 patients presently in the U.S. MCL is a subtype of B-cell lymphoma, due to CD5 positive antigen- ... "Low-grade B-cell lymphoma with coexpression of both CD5 and CD10. A report of 3 cases". Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 125 (7): 951-3 ...

*CD79B

1994). "CD5 is associated with the human B cell antigen receptor complex". Eur. J. Immunol. 24 (4): 812-6. doi:10.1002/eji. ... It is associated with agammaglobulinemia-6. The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen ... Müller B, Cooper L, Terhorst C (1995). "Interplay between the human TCR/CD3 epsilon and the B-cell antigen receptor associated ... This gene encodes the Ig-beta protein of the B-cell antigen component. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding ...

*Pan-T antigens

... are antigens found on all T cells. They include CD2, CD3, CD5 and CD7. Mario Roederer (October 2004). Cytometry ...

*CD79A

"CD5 is associated with the human B cell antigen receptor complex". European Journal of Immunology. 24 (4): 812-6. doi:10.1002/ ... Reth M (1992). "Antigen receptors on B lymphocytes". Annual Review of Immunology. 10 (1): 97-121. doi:10.1146/annurev.iy. ... Engels N, Wollscheid B, Wienands J (Jul 2001). "Association of SLP-65/BLNK with the B cell antigen receptor through a non-ITAM ... Brown VK, Ogle EW, Burkhardt AL, Rowley RB, Bolen JB, Justement LB (Jun 1994). "Multiple components of the B cell antigen ...

*Antigen Shift

CD5" + 7", 2003) Next To Departed (CD, 2004) The Way Of The North (CD, 2006) Brotherhood (CD, 2014) Antigen Shift at discogs. ... In 2006, Antigen Shift's second full-length album, The Way of the North, was released on Ad Noiseam. Also in 2006, Antigen ... We demand better." In 2013, SIGNIFIER officially signed Antigen Shift for the release of "Brotherhood", Antigen Shift's first ... Antigen Shift is an electro industrial band hailing from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada led by Nick Thériault. The band takes its name ...

*B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

... b-lymphocyte surface antigens CD19, CD20, CD22, CD79a and FMC7, and weak expression of CD5 and CD23. Due to the similarities ... B-lymphocytes have two responsibilities: Production of antibodies - In response to antigens, B-lymphocytes produce and release ... one of its key identifiers is the absence in expression of the surface antigens CD10, CD11c, CD25, CD103 and cyclin D1 - an ... Interactions between antibodies and antigens allow B-lymphocytes to establish cellular memories, otherwise known as immunities ...

*MALT lymphoma

B-cell-associated antigens such as CD19, CD20, CD22, and CD79a are usually expressed. In contrast to small lymphocytic lymphoma ... and MCL, staining for CD5 is usually negative, and these lymphomas can be further distinguished with CD23 (positive in small ...

*Chang Yi Wang

Human lymphocyte bearing 1a-like antigens [now termed HLA-DK or class 1 MHC antigen]: Absence in patients with infantile ... Identification of a p69/71 complex [now termed LEU 1 or CD5] expressed on human T cells sharing determinants with B type ... An antigen characteristic of hairy cell leukemia cells is expressed on certain activated B cells. J immunol 1984; 133:1635. 48 ... Induction of Leu 10 (HLA-DC/DS) antigen expression by human precurso B cell lines. J Exp Med 1983; 158:1757. 52. Rinnooy Kan EA ...

*Lineage markers

Those antibodies are e.g. targeted to CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, NK1.1, B220, TER-119, and Gr-1 in mice and CD3 (T lymphocytes), ... Certain antibodies can be used to detect or purify cells with these markers by binding to their surface antigens. A standard ...

*Crosstalk (biology)

PKA type I colocalizes with the T-cell and B-cell antigen receptors and causes inhibition of T- and B-cell activation. PKA has ... 1986), "Antibody binding to CD5 (Tp67) and Tp44 T cell surface molecules: effects on cyclic nucleotides, cytoplasmic free ... 1996), "Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK) in human B cells: co-localization of type I cAK (RIα2C2) with the antigen ... In lymphocytes, the intracellular levels of cAMP increase upon antigen-receptor stimulation and even more so in response to ...

*B-1 cell

... and CD5. B1a expresses high CD5 level, while B1b expresses low CD5 to almost-absent levels; both are CD19+ and B220+.[citation ... making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen presenting cells. Notably, most B1 cells do not develop into memory B ... CD5-CD72 is thought to mediate B cell-B cell interaction. B-1 B cells, in the mouse, can be further subdivided into B-1a (CD5+ ... Hence, there appears to be a role for self or foreign antigen in shaping the repertoire of the B-1 B cell compartment. B1 B ...

*Nicholas Chiorazzi

Distinct sets of stereotyped antigen receptors indicate the limited primary structural diversity in antigen-binding sites of ... Production of autoantibodies by CD5-expressing B lymphocytes from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia" J Exp Med 169: ... These findings have led to the view that (auto)antigen drive is a promoting factor in the development and evolution of CLL and ... Chiorazzi N, Ferrarini M. (2003) B Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Lessons learned from studies of the B cell antigen ...

*Marginal zone B-cell

The MZ B cells are especially well positioned as a first line of defense against systemic blood-borne antigens that enter the ... CD5, and CD11b that help to distinguish them phenotypically from follicular (FO) B cells and B1 B cells. In humans the splenic ... It is believed they are especially reactive to bacterial cell wall components and self-antigens which are the products of aging ...

*Thymocyte

The ability of T cells to recognize foreign antigens is mediated by the T cell receptor (TCR), which is a surface protein able ... Early, double negative thymocytes express (and can be identified by) CD2, CD5 and CD7. Still during the double negative stage, ... This allows single positive thymocytes to be exposed to a more complex set of self-antigens than is present in the cortex, and ... Cells which do not have a high affinity for self-antigens survive negative selection. At this stage, some cells are also ...

*Follicular B cell

FO B cells express high levels of IgM, IgD, and CD23; lower levels of CD21; and no CD1 or CD5, readily distinguishing this ... Antigen-specific memory B cell development. Annu Rev Immunol. 2005;23:487-513.. ... Two-photon imaging of lymphocyte motility and antigen response in intact lymph node. Science. 2002;296(5574):1869-1873. ...

*CD6

Tsuge I, Utsumi KR, Ueda R, Takamoto S, Takahashi T (1985). "Assignment of gene coding human T-cell differentiation antigen, ... "The accessory molecules CD5 and CD6 associate on the membrane of lymphoid T cells". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (10): 8564-71. doi: ... "Involvement of CD166 in the activation of human gamma delta T cells by tumor cells sensitized with nonpeptide antigens". J. ...

*CD90

It was originally named theta (θ) antigen, then Thy-1 (THYmocyte differentiation antigen 1) due to its prior identification in ... It is one of the "pan T cell markers"(of mice) like CD2, CD5 and CD28. In humans, Thy-1 is also expressed by endothelial cells ... The antigen Thy-1 was the first T cell marker to be identified. Thy-1 was discovered by Reif and Allen in 1964 during a search ... "The AKR thymic antigen and its distribution in leukemias and nervous tissue". J. Exp. Med. 120: 413-433. doi:10.1084/jem.120.3. ...

*Regulatory B cells

Mouse Bregs were mainly CD5 and CD1d positive in model of EAE or after exposition of Leishmania major. By contrast mouse Bregs ... "IgG4 production is confined to human IL-10-producing regulatory B cells that suppress antigen-specific immune responses". The ...

*Lupus erythematosus

Other genes that are commonly thought to be associated with Lupus are those in the Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) family, which ... ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. [page needed] Böhm I (2004). "Increased peripheral blood B-cells expressing the CD5 molecules in ... List of cutaneous conditions List of target antigens in pemphigoid List of immunofluorescence findings for autoimmune bullous ... conditions List of human leukocyte antigen alleles associated with cutaneous conditions Fitzpatrick, Thomas B.; Klauss Wolff; ...

*Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Porter DL, Levine BL, Kalos M, Bagg A, June CH (2011). "Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified T Cells in Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia ... This atypical molecular pattern includes the coexpression of cell surface markers clusters of differentiation 5 (CD5) and 23. ... CD5, CD23, FMC7, CD22, and immunoglobulin light chain) Matutes's CLL scoring system is very helpful for the differential ... "T Cells with Chimeric Antigen Receptors Have Potent Antitumor Effects and Can Establish Memory in Patients with Advanced ...
Study Flashcards On chronic lymphocytic leukemias at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
This dissertation presents my studies investigating the delivery of CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154) from helper T lymphocytes to antigen-presenting B lymphocytes. CD40L is a type two transmembrane TNF superfamily cytokine made by T cells that engages CD40 on antigen-presenting cells, including B cells, initiating downstream signaling resulting in B cell proliferation, differentiation, and antibody formation. Helper T cells can produce CD40L de novo upon antigen-specific interactions, but they also have an intracellular secretory compartment containing a small amount of preformed CD40L that is brought to the T cell surface rapidly upon antigen recognition. In the second chapter of the dissertation, I investigate the function of preformed CD40L in the absence of de novo CD40L. Preformed CD40L is capable of fulfilling some functions previously assumed to require de novo CD40L, including upregulation of costimulatory molecules, production of cytokines by DCs, and antigen-specific proliferation of B cells.
Aggressive CD20 positive Diffuse Large B-cell lymphoma confirmed by Laboratory of Pathology, NCI.. HIV + serology.. All stages (I-IV) of disease.. ECOG Performance status 0-4. NHL previously untreated with cytotoxic chemotherapy; however, patients may be entered if they have had prior cyclophosphamide for an urgent problem at diagnosis (e.g. epidural cord compression, superior vena cava syndrome) and/or a single dose of intrathecal methotrexte (MTX) at the time of the pre-treatment diagnostic lumbar puncture. Age greater than or equal to 18 years. Laboratory tests (unless impairment due to respective organ involvement by tumor):. ...
Aggressive CD20 positive Diffuse Large B-cell lymphoma confirmed by Laboratory of Pathology, NCI.. HIV + serology.. All stages (I-IV) of disease.. ECOG Performance status 0-4. NHL previously untreated with cytotoxic chemotherapy; however, patients may be entered if they have had prior cyclophosphamide for an urgent problem at diagnosis (e.g. epidural cord compression, superior vena cava syndrome) and/or a single dose of intrathecal methotrexte (MTX) at the time of the pre-treatment diagnostic lumbar puncture. Age greater than or equal to 18 years. Laboratory tests (unless impairment due to respective organ involvement by tumor):. ...
In the past decade, the suppressive effects, mainly through the secretion of IL-10, of regulatory B cells on inflammatory responses have been reported in a variety of immune disorders (33-36). Additionally, immune regulation through the interaction of immune cells with the intrinsic phenotype of regulatory B cells (e.g., CD1dhiCD5+, T2-MZP, Tim-1+, and CD9+) were demonstrated in various diseases, and it plays a critical role in autoimmune diseases (37). In recent studies, functional studies in cancer diseases are emerging (38-40). In particular, the change of the distribution of regulatory B cells in cancer tissue is considered to one of important indicators (8-10). Emerging evidence suggests that regulatory B cells suppress effector immune cells including IFN-γ-producing cytotoxicity cells in various cancer diseases through the secretion of IL-10 (11). Although regulatory B cells have to play the suppressive role on the effector function of T cells in autoimmune diseases to cure diseases (41), ...
The described experiments indicate that a relatively simple procedure of delivering peptide for a prolonged time period in subimmunogenic forms is suited to induce de novo CD4+25+ suppressor T cells from naive T cells in peripheral lymphoid organs in the absence of a functioning thymus as well as in the absence of a developing immune response. By all investigated criteria (i.e., surface phenotype, long-term stability in the absence of the inducing TCR ligand, Foxp3 expression, Ag-induced expansion in vivo, and suppressive activity in vitro and in vivo as well as cytokine production), the induced suppressor T cells are indistinguishable from intrathymically generated CD4+25+ T cells that were shown to have an essential role in preventing autoimmunity under physiological conditions.. The described experiments are akin to studies conducted by i.v. injection of soluble proteins that were described decades ago and that became known as "low zone tolerance" experiments (29, 30). It is well possible ...
The described experiments indicate that a relatively simple procedure of delivering peptide for a prolonged time period in subimmunogenic forms is suited to induce de novo CD4+25+ suppressor T cells from naive T cells in peripheral lymphoid organs in the absence of a functioning thymus as well as in the absence of a developing immune response. By all investigated criteria (i.e., surface phenotype, long-term stability in the absence of the inducing TCR ligand, Foxp3 expression, Ag-induced expansion in vivo, and suppressive activity in vitro and in vivo as well as cytokine production), the induced suppressor T cells are indistinguishable from intrathymically generated CD4+25+ T cells that were shown to have an essential role in preventing autoimmunity under physiological conditions.. The described experiments are akin to studies conducted by i.v. injection of soluble proteins that were described decades ago and that became known as "low zone tolerance" experiments (29, 30). It is well possible ...
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a rare, recently defined tumor distinct in many aspects from ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). We present two additional cases of ALK+DLBCL recently diagnosed in our department and a review of literature. A 48-year old man presented with a large upper neck mass growing slowly over 18 months. Histologically the tumor was diagnosed as an ALK-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. with plasmablastic features. Large, frequently intrasinusoidal tumor cells expressed CD138, EMA, weakly IgA and kappa, but were negative for other B-cell markers, T-cell markers and CD30. The ALK staining was cytoplasmic with the increased intensity in the Golgi area. At the diagnosis the patient manifested with the stage IIIB. Three courses of CHOP resulted in partial and only transient remission. The patient died of massive bleeding from his decomposing tumor 3 months after the diagnosis. A 49-year old man complaining ...
To determine the clinical significance of CD5 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL) without a clinical history of low-grade B-cell lymphoma, we have reviewed the clinical features and therapeutic outcome of 25 patients with de novo CD5-positive DLBL, and compared the results with those of 87 patients with CD5-negative ...
Etiologic-based therapy is an ideal pharmacological option to treat or prevent diseases. There is no known etiology for multiple sclerosis (MS); however, envir...
Comentário: Bom aí está o novo CD do Ozzy, com uma pegada diferente de Black Rain muitos poderão não gostar e muitos vão amar, mas na minha opinião esse álbum tá bem ao estilo Ozzy só que diferente devido as pitadas de Firewind que Gus G. deixou nas bases e nos solos de guitarra. Recomendo que baixe pois na minha opinião ficou bom, é tipo um daqueles álbuns que não pode faltar quando você estiver na estrada! ...
A variety of cell surface markers have been proposed for different regulatory B cell subsets (21, 22). The generalized ex vivo phenotype of B10 cells from untreated mice is IgMhighIgDlowCD1dhighCD5+CD19highCD23lowB220high, with ,10% coexpressing IgG or IgA (13, 15, 35, 38). Thereby, spleen B10 cells share surface markers with multiple phenotypically defined B cell subsets, including transitional, marginal zone, marginal zone precursor, memory, and B1 B cells (6, 11, 13-15, 38, 41, 43, 44). Spleen B10 cells are enriched within the CD1dhighCD5+CD19high subpopulation (Fig. 2), where 15-20% are B10 cells, and up to 50% are B10+B10pro cells (6, 13, 15, 29). Small numbers of B10 cells are also found within other spleen B cell fractions. The phenotype of B10pro cells after culture reflects their in vitro activation more than their subset of origin. For example, most mouse and human B cells upregulate CD5 expression following CD40 stimulation in vitro (31, 32). Spleen IL-10+ B cells are also enriched ...
We present a case of a female patient (79 years) with pathohistologic diagnosis of Hodgkins lymphoma (HL) (stage IIIB, histologic type MC) for which she was treated with chemotherapy according to LVPP protocol (6 cycles) with good therapeutic response. Unexpectedly, 18 months after HL diagnosis leukocytosis occurred (19.4 x 10(9)/L) with 65% of lymphocytes with lymphoplasmocytic differentiation. Immunophenotype of these cells is typical for B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) (CD5/CD19+, CD23-, CD38 +/-; with weak expression of monoclonal light chains lambda). Molecular analysis confirmed clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IgH) rearrangement of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The diagnosis of B-CLL imposed the question of the connection between two neoplasms of lymphocytic origin. Molecular analysis of lymph node biopsy taken at the time of lymphoma diagnosis revealed clonal population of B lymphocytes. That test undeniably proved coexistence of both diseases from the beginning. The latest PCR
Information on this site is provided for educational purposes. It is not meant to and cannot substitute for advice or care provided by an in-person medical professional. The information contained herein is not meant to be used to diagnose or treat a health problem or disease, or for prescribing any medication. You should always consult your own healthcare provider if you have a health problem or medical condition.. ...
IL-21 can induce both plasma cells and regulatory B cells. In this article, we demonstrate that untreated HIV patients display CD4+ T cells with enhanced IL-21 expression and high in vivo frequencies of regulatory B cells overexpressing the serine protease granzyme B. Granzyme B-expressing regulatory B cells (GraB cells) cells from HIV patients exhibit increased expression of CD5, CD43, CD86, and CD147 but do not produce IL-10. The main functional characteristic of their regulatory activity is direct granzyme B-dependent degradation of the TCR-ζ-chain, resulting in significantly decreased proliferative T cell responses. Although Th cells from HIV patients secrete IL-21 in a Nef-dependent manner, they barely express CD40L. When culturing such IL-21+CD40L− Th cells with B cells, the former directly induce B cell differentiation into GraB cells. In contrast, the addition of soluble CD40L multimers to T cell/B cell cultures redirects B cell differentiation toward plasma cells, indicating that ...
Carole Goutsmedt, Laëtitia Le Pottier, Jacques-Olivier Pers. Identification of an antigen-specific regulatory B cell subset in humans.. 35th European Workshop for Rheumatology Research, Mar 2015, Budapest, Hungary. 74 (Supplément 1 A1.27), pp.A11, 2015, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 〈hal-01128705〉 ...
In this issue of Clinical Cancer Research, Saiya-Cork and colleagues used integrative genomic profiling to identify that the insulin receptor (INSR) is significantly overexpressed in about 25% of chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLL), many of which carry deletion 11q (1). Deletion 11q has been associated with marked lymphadenopathy and rapid disease progression in CLL, leading to short overall survival (2, 3). At diagnosis or initiation of first therapy, deletion 11q is the most common high-risk abnormality in CLL. Although the molecular pathogenesis of CLL with each characteristic chromosome abnormality is being intensively studied, much remains to be understood. Most interest in 11q deletion has focused on loss of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, a well-known tumor suppressor gene involved in cell cycle checkpoint signaling and DNA repair. Because 11q deletion generally only affects one of the two chromosomes, the other ATM allele would be expected to be mutated if ATM is a key ...
Warwick Davis has praised the late Bob Monkhouse for being a genius. The 44-year-old star - who is to follow in Bobs footsteps by taking over as host of game show Celebrity Squares when it re-launches on ITV - has confessed he knows he has big…
Ibrutinib, a new drug under development, is showing promise as a treatment for mantle cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), according to new studies.
TLR-9 and IL-15 synergy promotes the in vitro clonal expansion of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cellsMongini PK, Gupta R, Boyle E, Nieto J, Lee H, Stein J, Bandovic J, Stankovic T, Barrientos J, Kolitz JE, Allen SL, Rai K, Chu CC, Chiorazzi N, J Immunol. 2015 Aug 1; 195(3):901-23. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1403189. Epub 2015 Jul 1 ...
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. ...
Description: B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia - Pipeline Review, H1 2017, provides an overview of the B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (Infectious Di
Uzonyi, Barbara and Mácsik-Valent, Bernadett and Lukácsi, Szilvia Zsófia and Kiss, Richárd and Török, Katalin and Kremlitzka, Mariann and Bajtay, Zsuzsanna and Demeter, Judit and Bödör, Csaba and Erdei, Anna (2017) Functional studies of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells expressing beta2-integrin type complement receptors CR3 and CR4. IMMUNOLOGY LETTERS, 189. pp. 73-81. ISSN 0165-2478 Peti, E. and Schellenberger, Judit and Németh, G. and Málnási Csizmadia, G. and Oláh, I. and Török, Katalin and Czóbel, Szilárd (2017) Presentation of the HUSEEDwild - a seed weight and germination database of the Pannonian flora - through analysing life forms and social behaviour types. APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, 15 (1). pp. 225-244. ISSN 1589-1623 Kövendi-Jakó, Anna and Csecserits, Anikó and Halassy, Melinda and Halász, Krisztián and Szitár, Katalin and Török, Katalin (2017) Relationship of germination and establishment for twelve plant species in restored dry grassland. ...
CD22 expression mediates the regulatory functions of peritoneal B-1a cells during the remission phase of contact hypersensitivity reactions.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
... B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast - - Market research report and industry analysis - 10975456
CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 is a carbohydrate adhesion molecule that can be expressed on glycoproteins, glycolipids and proteoglycans. CD15 mediates phagocytosis and chemotaxis, found on neutrophils; expressed in patients with Hodgkin disease, some B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias, acute lymphoblastic leukemias, and most acute nonlymphocytic leukemias. It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem cells, in which it plays an important role in adhesion and migration of the cells in the preimplantation embryo. It is synthezised by FUT4 (fucosyltransferase 4) and FUT9. CD15 is present on almost all Reed-Sternberg cells, including their rare mononuclear variants, and, as such, can be used in immunohistochemistry to identify the presence of such cells in biopsies. The presence of these cells is diagnostic of Hodgkins ...
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in B cell-mediated innate and adaptive immunity. It has been shown that interleukin 10 (IL-10)-producing regulatory B cells (B10 cells) can negatively regulate cellular immune responses and inflammation in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we determined the effect of TLR4 signaling on the CD40-activated B10 cell competency. The results demonstrated that LPS and CD40L synergistically stimulated proliferation of mouse splenocytes. The percentage of B10 cells in cultured splenocytes was significantly increased after CD40L stimulation but such increase was diminished by the addition of LPS. Such effects by LPS were only observed in cells from WT but not TLR4−/− mice. IL-10 mRNA expression and protein production in B10 cells from cultured splenocytes were significantly up-regulated by CD40L stimulation but were inhibited after the addition of LPS in a TLR4-dependent manner. This study suggests that LPS-induced TLR4 signaling attenuate CD40L-activated
In order to clarify whether PMNs mediate trogocytosis or phagocytosis of opsonized primary CLL B cells, we performed live-cell time-lapse microscopy experiments. Purified PMNs from healthy donors were cocultured with CLL B-cell samples in the presence of the following anti-CD20 antibodies: wild-type rituximab (RTX-WT), glycoengineered rituximab (RTX-GE), or glycoengineered obinutuzumab (OBZ-GE). Cells were followed for up to 6 hours under the microscope. To our surprise, we could not detect any phagocytic event in up to 6 hours of time-lapse experiments, but only observed the repeated close contact between PMNs and anti-CD20-opsonized CLL B-cell targets, suggesting that trogocytosis rather than phagocytosis takes place. Figure 1A shows selected images of PMNs in contact with CLL B cells opsonized with OBZ-GE. The phase-contrast images obtained at the start of the experiment, before all CLL B cells had settled down to the bottom of the well, show the clear morphological differences between the ...
This clinical trial studies lenalidomide as chemoprevention in treating patients with high-risk, early stage B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL)
O Expensive Taste foi um grupo norte-americano de Rap/Hip-Hop criado em 2005 e formado por Paul Wall, Skinhead Rob e Travis Barker. O Expensive Taste liberou recentemente em seu site o download de 15 faixas de suas músicas, mas eles ainda não marcaram datas para shows, pois é prioridade para Travis Barker trabalhar no novo CD do Blink 182 e de Paul Wall trabalhar em seu próximo álbum solo, em 2010 o grupo foi extinto. http://www.blink182forever.com/expensive_taste ...
The balance between immune effector cells and immunosuppressive cells and how this regulates the tumor microenvironment has been well referred to. of Bregs and review our current understanding of Bregs and their inhibition of anti-tumor resistant replies in murine growth versions and tumor sufferers. research, in the past due 1990s, displaying that the adoptive transfer of turned on splenic N cells activated patience and the difference of Testosterone levels cells into suppressor Testosterone levels cells in unsuspecting receiver rodents.33, 34 After these seminal findings, which designated a function for Temsirolimus suppressor B cells in resistant patience, the term regulatory B cells (Bregs) was not coined until nearly 30 years later on, by Bhan and Mizoguchi.35 Mizoguchi et al identified a population of gut-associated, IL-10-creating, CD1d-expressing B cells that suppressed the development of colitis-related intestinal inflammation by downregulating inflammatory cascades.35 However, despite ...

Cd5l - CD5 antigen-like precursor - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cd5l gene & proteinCd5l - CD5 antigen-like precursor - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cd5l gene & protein

CD5 antigen-likeAdd BLAST. 331. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. Length ... CD5 antigen-like. Alternative name(s):. Apoptosis inhibitor expressed by macrophages1 Publication. Manual assertion based on ... sp,Q9QWK4,CD5L_MOUSE CD5 antigen-like OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Cd5l PE=1 SV=3 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q9QWK4

CD5 Antigen-Like -  Proteins | BioVendor Research and Diagnostics ProductsCD5 Antigen-Like - Proteins | BioVendor Research and Diagnostics Products

CD5 Antigen-Like - Proteins. Product filter CD5 Antigen-Like molecule 4-1BB Ligand 4-1BB Receptor 6-Phosphogluconate ... CD5 Antigen-Like CDNF Cell Death-Inducing DFFA-Like Effector C Claudin-4 Club Cell Protein Clusterin CNTF Collagen Triple Helix ... Prostate Specific Antigen Prostate-Specific Gene-1 Protein Delta Homolog 1 Protein disulfide-isomerase A3 Prouroguanylin PTHrP ...
more infohttps://www.biovendor.com/proteins?molecule=CD5+Antigen-Like

CD5 antigen-likeCD5 antigen-like

Secreted protein that acts as a key regulator of lipid synthesis: mainly expressed by macrophages in lymphoid and inflammed tissues and regulates mechanisms in inflammatory responses, such as infection or atherosclerosis. Able to inhibit lipid droplet size in adipocytes. Following incorporation into mature adipocytes via CD36-mediated endocytosis, associates with cytosolic FASN, inhibiting fatty acid synthase activity and leading to lipolysis, the degradation of triacylglycerols into glycerol and free fatty acids (FFA). CD5L-induced lipolysis occurs with progression of obesity: participates in obesity-associated inflammation following recruitment of inflammatory macrophages into adipose tissues, a cause of insulin resistance and obesity-related metabolic disease. Regulation of intracellular lipids mediated by CD5L has a direct effect on transcription regulation mediated by nuclear receptors ROR-gamma (RORC). Acts as a key regulator of metabolic switch in T-helper Th17 cells. Regulates the ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/CD5L

CD5 negatively regulates the T-cell antigen receptor signal transduction pathway: involvement of SH2-containing phosphotyrosine...CD5 negatively regulates the T-cell antigen receptor signal transduction pathway: involvement of SH2-containing phosphotyrosine...

CD5-fl, CD5-F378, CD5-F429, CD5-F441, CD5-F463, CD5-428*, and CD5-462*) were stained with the isotype-matched control rat anti- ... CD5-F378, CD5-F429, CD5-F441, and CD5-F463), and truncated forms (CD5-428* and CD5-462*; numbered according to the last amino ... or B-cell antigen receptor signaling by CD5 was proposed based on studies of thymocytes and peritoneal B-1a cells from CD5- ... CD5 negatively regulates the T-cell antigen receptor signal transduction pathway: involvement of SH2-containing phosphotyrosine ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10082557

The ectodomains of the lymphocyte scavenger receptors CD5 and CD6 interact with tegumental antigens from |i|Echinococcus...The ectodomains of the lymphocyte scavenger receptors CD5 and CD6 interact with tegumental antigens from |i|Echinococcus...

The ectodomains of the lymphocyte scavenger receptors CD5 and CD6 interact with tegumental antigens from ,i,Echinococcus ... antigen P-29) for CD6, as their potential interactors. Further in vitro assays demonstrate that membrane-bound or soluble CD5 ... CD5 and CD6 are two highly homologous class I SRs mainly expressed on all T cells and the B1a cell subset, and involved in the ... We report herein the interaction of CD5 and CD6 lymphocyte surface receptors with Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). ...
more infohttps://www.classicistranieri.com/the-ectodomains-of-the-lymphocyte-scavenger-receptors-cd5-and-cd6-interact-with-tegumental-antigens-from-iechinococcus-granulosus-sensu-lato-i-and-protect-mice-against-secondary-cystic.html

CD5L CD5 molecule like [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBICD5L CD5 molecule like [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI

CD5 antigen-like. Names. CD5 antigen-like (scavenger receptor cysteine rich family). apoptosis inhibitor 6. apoptosis inhibitor ... NM_005894.2 → NP_005885.1 CD5 antigen-like isoform 1 precursor. See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_ ... CD5L CD5 molecule like [Homo sapiens] CD5L CD5 molecule like [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:922 ... CD5 molecule likeprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:1690 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000073754 MIM:602592; Vega: ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/922

UBP1 Gene - GeneCards | UBIP1 Protein | UBIP1 AntibodyUBP1 Gene - GeneCards | UBIP1 Protein | UBIP1 Antibody

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for UBP1 Gene. GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:. *Transcription factor LBP-1 ( ... GeneTex Cd5 antibody for UBP1 * Search for UBP1 Antibodies at ProSci * Custom Antibody Services ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=UBP1

CD5 Gene - GeneCards | CD5 Protein | CD5 AntibodyCD5 Gene - GeneCards | CD5 Protein | CD5 Antibody

CD5 Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CD5 Gene. GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:. *Lymphocyte antigen T1/Leu-1 ( ... Animal Models for CD5 Gene. MGI Knock Outs for CD5:. * Cd5 Cd5,tm1.1(KOMP)Mbp, ... GeneCards Summary for CD5 Gene CD5 (CD5 Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CD5 include Thymus Cancer ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CD5

CD5L - WikipediaCD5L - Wikipedia

CD5 antigen-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD5L gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000073754 - Ensembl ... 2002). "IgM are associated to Sp alpha (CD5 antigen-like)". Electrophoresis. 23 (7-8): 1203-6. doi:10.1002/1522-2683(200204)23: ... "Entrez Gene: CD5L CD5 molecule-like". Human CD5L genome location and CD5L gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Tissot ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD5L

Conjunctival CD5+ MALT lymphoma | British Journal of OphthalmologyConjunctival CD5+ MALT lymphoma | British Journal of Ophthalmology

3 The T cell antigen CD5 has been reported in B cell NHL between 3% and 40%.145In extranodal MZL the presence of CD5 is ... Especially the T cell antigen CD5 is used to subclassify this group of B cell lymphomas. Since CD5+ B cells were found in ... 2D) About 50% of the tumour cells express the T cell antigen CD5. Immunoreactive cells are indicated by a red membranous signal ... moreover the pan B cell antigens CD19, CD20, CD22, and CD79a.2 Typically, they are negative for CD5, CD10, and CD23.2 ...
more infohttp://bjo.bmj.com/content/85/4/496.4

IgE elisa kits, antibodies, proteins productsIgE elisa kits, antibodies, proteins products

MyBioSource offers the widest selection of antigen, biochemical, peptide, cdna, clia, pcr, sirna, recombinant protein, antibody ... CD5 Antigen Like Protein, ELISA Kit. (#MBS095642). • Pigeon CD5 Antigen Like Protein ELISA Kit. ... Ultrasensitive Prostate Specific Antigen, ELISA Kit. (#MBS092969). • Pigeon Ultrasensitive Prostate Specific Antigen ELISA Kit ... Aspergillus Galactomannan Antigen (AGMAg), ELISA Kit. (#MBS9388710). • Pigeon Aspergillus Galactomannan Antigen (AGMAg) ELISA ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/products.php?keywords=IgE

Scientific Nomenclature - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDCScientific Nomenclature - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

CD5 antigen: Cd5 (mice) and CD5 (humans). A list of human gene names is available at http://www.genenames.org/guidelines.html ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/page/scientific-nomenclature

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

0 (CD5 Antigens); 0 (Receptors, Scavenger); 0 (SCARB1 protein, human); 0 (Scavenger Receptors, Class B). ... carcinoembryonic antigen, and cancer antigen 15-3. The associations among circulating M2-like monocytes and clinical breast ... Ant genos CD5/imunologia. Homeostase. Seres Humanos. Imunoterapia/m todos. Camundongos. Neoplasias/imunologia. Neoplasias/ ... a value higher than those for carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen 15-3. High frequencies of circulating CD14 CD204 and ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=D12.776.543.750.705.940

https://www.cancer.gov/types/leukemia/hp/cll-treatment-pdqhttps://www.cancer.gov/types/leukemia/hp/cll-treatment-pdq

CLL lymphocytes coexpress the B-cell antigens CD19 and CD20 along with the T-cell antigen CD5.[33] This coexpression only ... Autologous T cells were modified by a lentiviral vector to incorporate antigen receptor specificity for the B-cell antigen CD19 ... Porter DL, Levine BL, Kalos M, et al.: Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells in chronic lymphoid leukemia. N Engl J Med ... clinical trials are testing the concept of T cells directed at specific antigen targets with engineered chimeric-antigen ...
more infohttps://www.cancer.gov/types/leukemia/hp/cll-treatment-pdq

CD5 Antibody, APC (Monoclonal, CRIS1)
		        
	CD5 Antibody, APC (Monoclonal, CRIS1)

CD5 Monoclonal Antibody, APC conjugate from Invitrogen for Flow Cytometry applications. This antibody reacts with Human samples ... Protein Aliases: CD5; CD5 antigen (p56-62); CD5 antigen p56-62; Lymphocyte antigen T1/Leu-1; T-cell surface glycoprotein CD5 ... Cite CD5 Monoclonal Antibody (CRIS1), APC. The following antibody was used in this experiment: CD5 Monoclonal Antibody (CRIS1 ... The CD20 antigen is present on human pre-B lymphocytes and on B-lymphocytes atall stage of maturation, except on plasma cells. ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/CD5-Antibody-CRIS1-Monoclonal/MA1-19474

Tight regulation of wingless-type signaling in the articular cartilage - subchondral bone biomechanical unit: transcriptomics...Tight regulation of wingless-type signaling in the articular cartilage - subchondral bone biomechanical unit: transcriptomics...

CD3 antigen (CD3), CD8 antigen (CD8), protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type C (CD45)). Cartilage- and bone-specific genes ... B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 (Ms4a1), B-cell progenitor kinase (Btk), lymphoid-restricted immunoglobulin octamer-binding protein ( ...
more infohttps://arthritis-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/ar3695

ENSDARG00000045752 - Zebrafish Mutation Project - Wellcome Sanger InstituteENSDARG00000045752 - Zebrafish Mutation Project - Wellcome Sanger Institute

CD5 antigen-like Gene [Source:MGI Symbol;Acc:MGI:1334419]. RIKEN cDNA A430110N23 gene Gene [Source:MGI Symbol;Acc:MGI:3606211] ... CD5 molecule-like [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:1690]. Scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain-containing protein LOC284297 [Source: ...
more infohttp://www.sanger.ac.uk/sanger/Zebrafish_Zmpgene/ENSDARG00000045752

CD5 (protein) - WikipediaCD5 (protein) - Wikipedia

CD5 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD5 genome location and CD5 gene ... CD5 CD5 molecule". Brown MH, Lacey E (Nov 15, 2010). "A ligand for CD5 is CD5". Journal of Immunology. 185: 6068-74. doi: ... CD5 includes a scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein domain. T cells express higher levels of CD5 than B cells. CD5 is ... "Evidence for an association between the T cell receptor/CD3 antigen complex and the CD5 antigen in human T lymphocytes". Eur. J ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD5_(protein)

tumor of the cauda equina drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search enginetumor of the cauda equina drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

MeSH-major] Antigens, CD20. Antigens, CD5. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, ... MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Combined ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=tumor+of+the+cauda+equina+drug+therapy+2000:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b1

Internet Scientific PublicationsInternet Scientific Publications

The MALT lymphomas express pan-B-cell antigens but typically lack CD5 expression [2]. CD5 is a T-cell antigen that is expressed ... Especially the T cell antigen CD5 is used to subclassify this group of B cell lymphomas. ... In conclusion, this case of CD5+ MZL shows that the aberrant expression of CD5 occurs in rare cases of histologically typical ... The neoplastic cells express pan B-cell antigens (CD19, CD20, CD22). Typically, they are negative for CD5, CD10, and CD23 [2]. ...
more infohttp://ispub.com/IJPA/8/2/13533

adult all tdt positive 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineadult all tdt positive 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Antigens, CD5 / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mediastinum / ... Antigens, CD15; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD163 antigen; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Receptors, Cell ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, CD7; 0 / B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein; 0 / ... Antigens, CD3 / metabolism. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Antigens, CD7 / metabolism. Biopsy. Face. Humans. Male. Necrosis ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=adult+all+tdt+positive+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

CD5 - cluster of differentiation antigen 5 Current Synonym true false 51207012 Lymphocyte antigen CD5 Current Synonym true ... Lymphocyte antigen CD5 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD5 (substance). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=30594007

Nordic BioSiteNordic BioSite

CD and Related Antigens (Human) Notes. CD5 antigen (T1; 67 kDa) is a human cell surface T-lymphocyte single-chain transmembrane ... CD5 modulates signaling through the antigen-specific receptor complex (TCR and BCR). CD5 crosslinking induces extracellular ... CD5 is expressed on all mature T-lymphocytes, most of thymocytes, subset of B-lymphocytes and on many T-cell leukemias and ... Mouse Monoclonal to CD5 Recommended Dilution. The purified antibody is conjugated with Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) under ...
more infohttps://nordicbiosite.com/product/AFC-5081-2/CD5
  • CD5 serves to mitigate activating signals from the BCR so that the B-1 cells can only be activated by very strong stimuli (such as bacterial proteins) and not by normal tissue proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD5 crosslinking induces extracellular Ca++ mobilization, tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular proteins and DAG production. (nordicbiosite.com)
  • The CD5-regulated substrates included CD3zeta, ZAP-70, Syk, and phospholipase Cgammal but not the Src family tyrosine kinase p56(lck). (nih.gov)
  • By mutation of all four CD5 intracellular tyrosine residues to phenylalanine, we found the membrane-proximal tyrosine at position 378, which is located in an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory (ITIM)-like motif, crucial for SHP-1 association. (nih.gov)
  • Binding studies show that both soluble and membrane-bound forms of CD5 and CD6 bind to intact viable protoscoleces from E . granulosus s . l . through recognition of metaperiodate-resistant tegumental components. (classicistranieri.com)
  • Further in vitro assays demonstrate that membrane-bound or soluble CD5 and CD6 forms differentially modulate the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine release induced following peritoneal cells exposure to E . granulosus s . l . tegumental components. (classicistranieri.com)
  • Importantly, prophylactic infusion of soluble CD5 or CD6 significantly ameliorated the infection outcome in the mouse model of secondary cystic echinococcosis. (classicistranieri.com)
  • CD5 is a cluster of differentiation expressed on the surface of T cells (various species) and in a subset of murine B cells known as B-1a. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report a 35-year-old woman with multicentric CD5-positive mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of conjunctival region. (ispub.com)
  • The occurrence of multicentric conjunctival CD5-positive MALT lymphoma in the younger age further support to the notation that CD5+ MALT-lymphomas arising in the ocular adnexa might be characterized by an unusual clinical course. (ispub.com)
  • In recent studies, several cases of conjunctival CD5-positive MALT lymphoma have been reported [ 3 5 6 ]. (ispub.com)
  • Fig . 2B ) With exception of CD5 expression, the morphological findings and growth pattern of the neoplastic cells, led us to diagnosis of a malignant small cell B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and sub-typed as extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT type. (ispub.com)
  • Here, we show that CD5 is constitutively associated with phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity in Jurkat T cells. (nih.gov)
  • CD5 was found associated with the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain containing hematopoietic phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in both Jurkat cells and normal phytohemagglutinin-expanded T lymphoblasts. (nih.gov)
  • CD5 co-cross-linking with the TCR-CD3 complex down-regulated the TCR-CD3-increased Ca2+ mobilization in Jurkat cells. (nih.gov)
  • CD5 and CD6 are two highly homologous class I SRs mainly expressed on all T cells and the B1a cell subset, and involved in the fine tuning of activation and differentiation signals delivered by the antigen-specific receptors (TCR and BCR, respectively), to which they physically associate. (classicistranieri.com)
  • Immunohistochemically, the malignant cells expressed markers of B-cell lineage and unusually CD5 positive. (ispub.com)
  • T cells express higher levels of CD5 than B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD5 is upregulated on T cells upon strong activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD5 is a good immunohistochemical marker for T-cells, although not as sensitive as CD3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpes virus infections induce loss of CD5 expression in the expanded CD8+ human T cells. (nordicbiosite.com)
  • It has thought that CD5-expression is a marker for unusual and aggressive clinical course. (ispub.com)
  • CD5 is the phenotypic marker of a B cell subpopulation involved in the production of autoreactive antibodies.Disease relevance: CD5 is a phenotypic marker for some B cell lymphoproliferative disorders (B-CLL, Hairy cell leukemia, etc. (nordicbiosite.com)
  • Taken together, the results expand the pathogen binding properties of CD5 and CD6 and provide novel evidence for their therapeutic potential in human cystic echinococcosis. (classicistranieri.com)
  • Circulating Autoantibodies in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Recognize Human Macular Tissue Antigens Implicated in Autophagy, Immunomodulation, and Protection from Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis. (duke.edu)
  • BACKGROUND: We investigated sera from elderly subjects with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD) for presence of autoantibodies (AAbs) against human macular antigens and characterized their identity. (duke.edu)
  • In the thymus, there is a correlation with CD5 expression and strength of the interaction of the T cell towards self-peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD5 may serve as a dual receptor, giving either stimulatory or inhibitory signals depending both on the cell type and development stage. (nordicbiosite.com)
  • These results suggest a critical role of the CD5 ITIM-like motif, which by binding to SHP-1 mediates the down-regulatory activity of this receptor. (nih.gov)