Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

CD5 negatively regulates the T-cell antigen receptor signal transduction pathway: involvement of SH2-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. (1/601)

The negative regulation of T- or B-cell antigen receptor signaling by CD5 was proposed based on studies of thymocytes and peritoneal B-1a cells from CD5-deficient mice. Here, we show that CD5 is constitutively associated with phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity in Jurkat T cells. CD5 was found associated with the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain containing hematopoietic phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in both Jurkat cells and normal phytohemagglutinin-expanded T lymphoblasts. This interaction was increased upon T-cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 cell stimulation. CD5 co-cross-linking with the TCR-CD3 complex down-regulated the TCR-CD3-increased Ca2+ mobilization in Jurkat cells. In addition, stimulation of Jurkat cells or normal phytohemagglutinin-expanded T lymphoblasts through TCR-CD3 induced rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of several protein substrates, which was substantially diminished after CD5 cross-linking. The CD5-regulated substrates included CD3zeta, ZAP-70, Syk, and phospholipase Cgammal but not the Src family tyrosine kinase p56(lck). By mutation of all four CD5 intracellular tyrosine residues to phenylalanine, we found the membrane-proximal tyrosine at position 378, which is located in an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory (ITIM)-like motif, crucial for SHP-1 association. The F378 point mutation ablated both SHP-1 binding and the down-regulating activity of CD5 during TCR-CD3 stimulation. These results suggest a critical role of the CD5 ITIM-like motif, which by binding to SHP-1 mediates the down-regulatory activity of this receptor.  (+info)

An alternatively spliced form of CD79b gene may account for altered B-cell receptor expression in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (2/601)

Several functional anomalies of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells may be explained by abnormalities of the B-cell receptor (BCR), a multimeric complex formed by the sIg homodimer and the noncovalently bound heterodimer Igalpha/Igbeta (CD79a/CD79b). Because the expression of the extracellular Ig-like domain of CD79b has been reported to be absent in the cells of most CLL cases, we have investigated the molecular mechanisms that may account for this defect. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 50 patients and two cell lines (MEC1, MEC2) obtained from the PBL of one of them were studied. MEC1, MEC2, and 75% of CLL cases did not express detectable levels of the extracellular Ig-like domain of CD79b, which was nevertheless present in greater than 80% CD19(+) cells from normal donors. In healthy subjects the expression of CD79b was equally distributed in CD5(+) and CD5(-) B-cell subsets. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of CD79b RNA from all patients and from MEC1 and MEC2 cell lines consistently yielded two fragments of different size (709 bp and 397 bp). The 709-bp band corresponds to CD79b entire transcript; the 397-bp band corresponds to an alternatively spliced form lacking exon 3 that encodes the extracellular Ig-like domain. Both fragments were also visible in normal PBL. The expression of the 397-bp fragment was increased in normal activated B cells, while no difference was seen between CD5(+) and CD5(-) B cells. To obtain a more accurate estimate of the relative proportions of the two spliced forms, a radioactive PCR was performed in 13 normal and 22 B-CLL samples and the results analyzed using a digital imager. The mean value of the CD79b to the CD79b internally deleted ratio was 0.64 +/- 0.20 SD in normal donors and 0.44 +/- 0.27 SD in B-CLL (P =.01). Direct sequencing of 397-bp RT-PCR products and of genomic DNA corresponding to exon 3 from MEC1, MEC2, their parental cells, and five fresh B-CLL samples did not show any causal mutation. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of exon 3 performed in 18 additional B-CLL cases showed a single abnormal shift corresponding to a TGT --> TGC polymorphic change at amino acid 122. We propose a role for the alternative splicing of CD79b gene in causing the reduced expression of BCR on the surface of B-CLL cells. As normal B cells also present this variant, the mechanism of CD79b posttranscriptional regulation might reflect the activation stage of the normal B cell from which B-CLL derives.  (+info)

Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis and CD5+ B-lymphocyte expression. (3/601)

Myasthenia gravis is one of the typical organ specific autoimmune disease and the CD5+ B-lymphocytes are known to be associated with the secretion of autoimmune antibodies. The authors performed the study to establish an animal model of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) by immunizing the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and to understand CD5+ B-lymphocyte changes in peripheral blood of EAMGs. Lewis rats weighing 150-200 g were injected subcutaneously three times with 50 microg AChR purified from the electric organ of Torpedo marmorata and Freund's adjuvant. The EAMG induction was assessed by evaluating clinical manifestations. The CD5+ B-lymphocyte was double stained using monoclonal PE conjugated anti-CD5+ and FITC conjugated anti-rat CD45R antibodies and calculated using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). In three out of ten Lewis rats injected with purified AChR, the EAMG models were established. The animals showed definite clinical weakness responded to neostigmine; they had difficulty in climbing the slope, or easily fell down from a vertical cage. The range of CD5+ B-lymphocytes of peripheral blood in the EAMG models was 10.2%-17.5%, which was higher than in controls. In conclusion, the EAMG models were successfully established and the CD5+ B-lymphocyte expression in peripheral blood increased in EAMGs. This provided indirect evidence of the autoimmune pathomechanism of human myasthenia gravis.  (+info)

CD5 positive breast carcinoma in a patient with untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: molecular studies of chromosome 13q. (4/601)

A 67 year old woman presented with a right breast lump which proved to be a grade 2 invasive ductal carcinoma with axillary lymph node metastasis. She had a five year history of CD5 positive chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, which never required treatment. Immunoperoxidase stains for CD5, using the monoclonal antibody NCL-CD-54C7, showed that there was extensive infiltration of axillary lymph nodes with CD5 positive B lymphocytes. Strong staining for CD5 was also seen in the carcinoma cells within the breast and lymph node metastases. It has recently been suggested that there is a tumour suppresser locus in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia at 13q12.3 near or at the BRCA2 locus. Deletion of regions on chromosome 13q containing the BRCA2 and RB1 genes has also been reported in sporadic breast cancers. These observations suggest that there may be a link between these two diseases acting through chromosome 13, but amplification of several microsatellite repeat markers failed to show any loss of heterozygosity or repeat instability at either these or several other loci on chromosome 13. Examination of additional such cases is needed to perform a more comprehensive study of the significance of positive CD5 staining of breast carcinoma.  (+info)

Anti-phospholipid antibodies and CD5+ B cells in HIV infection. (5/601)

This cross-sectional study evaluates the correlation between anti-phospholipid antibodies and CD5+ B cells in 110 patients infected with HIV-1. There were 89.1% of the patients who had IgG antibodies against cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine. The prevalence of IgM and IgA antibodies was < 22%. AIDS was associated with lower frequencies of IgM antibodies against cardiolipin (P = 0.05) and IgG-antibodies against cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine (P = 0.011). Drug users had higher IgM antibodies against phospholipids than patients from other risk groups (P = 0.02). A history of thromboembolic events was not accompanied by higher levels of anti-phospholipid antibodies (P > 0.2). No correlation between anti-phospholipid antibodies and CD5+ B cells was detected. Percentage part of CD5+ B lymphocytes was elevated in all patients and absolute CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and HIV p24 antigen were inversely correlated. In advanced disease a significant reduction of anti-phospholipid antibodies was contrasted with persistent elevation of CD5+ B lymphocytes. These observations may reflect immunological dysfunction involving apoptosis and endothelial damage rather than polyclonal B cell hyperstimulation. A possible explanation would be that in HIV infection an increased rate of spontaneous apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes is accompanied by functional and structural changes of mitochondria. Therefore, structurally altered mitochondrial phospholipids could serve as antigen to induce specific humoral immune responses.  (+info)

Positive selection as a developmental progression initiated by alpha beta TCR signals that fix TCR specificity prior to lineage commitment. (6/601)

During positive selection, immature thymocytes commit to either the CD4+ or CD8+ T cell lineage ("commitment") and convert from short-lived thymocytes into long-lived T cells ("rescue"). By formal precursor-progeny analysis, we now identify what is likely to be the initial positive selection step signaled by alpha beta TCR, which we have termed "induction". During induction, RAG mRNA expression is downregulated, but lineage commitment does not occur. Rather, lineage commitment (which depends upon the MHC class specificity of the alpha beta TCR) only occurs after downregulation of RAG expression and the consequent fixation of alpha beta TCR specificity. We propose that positive selection can be viewed as a sequence of increasingly selective developmental steps (induction-->commitment-->rescue) that are signaled by alpha beta TCR engagements of intrathymic ligands.  (+info)

Signaling through CD5 involves acidic sphingomyelinase, protein kinase C-zeta, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase. (7/601)

The CD5 lymphocyte surface glycoprotein is a coreceptor involved in the modulation of Ag-specific receptor-mediated activation and differentiation signals. The molecular basis for its modulatory properties is not yet well understood. In the present study we describe early biochemical events triggered by CD5 stimulation, which include the phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC)-dependent activation of acidic sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) in normal and lymphoblastoid T and B cells. The functional coupling of PC-PLC and A-SMase is demonstrated by the abrogation of A-SMase activation by 1) xanthogenate tricyclodecan-9-yl (D609), a selective inhibitor of PC-PLC, and 2) replacement of several C-terminal serine residues (S458, S459, and S461) present in the cytoplasmic tail of CD5 that are known to be critical for PC-PLC activation. Additionally, we demonstrate that activation of protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-zeta) and members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade (MAPK kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase), but not the NF-kappaB, are downstream events of the CD5 signaling pathway. A-SMase, PKC-zeta, and MAPK family members are key mediators of cell responses as diverse as proliferation, differentiation, and growth arrest and may contribute to CD5-mediated modulation of TCR or BCR signaling.  (+info)

ChT1, an Ig superfamily molecule required for T cell differentiation. (8/601)

The thymus is colonized by circulating progenitor cells that differentiate into mature T cells under the influence of the thymic microenvironment. We report here the cloning and function of the avian thymocyte Ag ChT1, a member of the Ig superfamily with one V-like and one C2-like domain. ChT1-positive embryonic bone marrow cells coexpressing c-kit give rise to mature T cells upon intrathymic cell transfer. ChT1-specific Ab inhibits T cell differentiation in embryonic thymic organ cultures and in thymocyte precursor cocultures on stromal cells. Thus, we provide clear evidence that ChT1 is a novel Ag on early T cell progenitors that plays an important role in the early stages of T cell development.  (+info)

How to treat a patient with c-Myc positive diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma? - From Our Readers, Viewpoints, You Make the Call: Readers Response - ASH Clinical News
Study Flashcards On chronic lymphocytic leukemias at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
CD20/CD22-positive diffuse large B-cell NHL that has relapsed after 1 or 2 prior therapies; one prior therapy must include anthracyclines and one must include rituximab in combination with chemotherapy. - Relapsed/disease progression within 12 months after start of prior therapy and/or secondary International Prognostic Index (sIPI) score greater than 1. - Eligible for autologous stem cell transplant (aSCT). ...
This dissertation presents my studies investigating the delivery of CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154) from helper T lymphocytes to antigen-presenting B lymphocytes. CD40L is a type two transmembrane TNF superfamily cytokine made by T cells that engages CD40 on antigen-presenting cells, including B cells, initiating downstream signaling resulting in B cell proliferation, differentiation, and antibody formation. Helper T cells can produce CD40L de novo upon antigen-specific interactions, but they also have an intracellular secretory compartment containing a small amount of preformed CD40L that is brought to the T cell surface rapidly upon antigen recognition. In the second chapter of the dissertation, I investigate the function of preformed CD40L in the absence of de novo CD40L. Preformed CD40L is capable of fulfilling some functions previously assumed to require de novo CD40L, including upregulation of costimulatory molecules, production of cytokines by DCs, and antigen-specific proliferation of B cells.
Genetic factors that contribute to increased incidence of CLL:. - Early studies have associated the risk of developing aggressive CLL with polymorphisms in the gene encoding CD5 (located at 11q13), CD38 (located at 4p15), or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and other genes mapping to 13q21.33-q22.2.. - Disease-susceptibility associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms in or around genes encoding proteins involved in apoptosis or immune regulatory pathways, namely CCNH (located at 5q13.3), APAF1 (located at 12q23), IL16 (located at 15q26.3), CASP8 (located at 2q33.1), NOS2A (located at 17q11.1), and CCR7 (located at 17q21.2). ...
Aggressive CD20 positive Diffuse Large B-cell lymphoma confirmed by Laboratory of Pathology, NCI.. HIV + serology.. All stages (I-IV) of disease.. ECOG Performance status 0-4. NHL previously untreated with cytotoxic chemotherapy; however, patients may be entered if they have had prior cyclophosphamide for an urgent problem at diagnosis (e.g. epidural cord compression, superior vena cava syndrome) and/or a single dose of intrathecal methotrexte (MTX) at the time of the pre-treatment diagnostic lumbar puncture. Age greater than or equal to 18 years. Laboratory tests (unless impairment due to respective organ involvement by tumor):. ...
Aggressive CD20 positive Diffuse Large B-cell lymphoma confirmed by Laboratory of Pathology, NCI.. HIV + serology.. All stages (I-IV) of disease.. ECOG Performance status 0-4. NHL previously untreated with cytotoxic chemotherapy; however, patients may be entered if they have had prior cyclophosphamide for an urgent problem at diagnosis (e.g. epidural cord compression, superior vena cava syndrome) and/or a single dose of intrathecal methotrexte (MTX) at the time of the pre-treatment diagnostic lumbar puncture. Age greater than or equal to 18 years. Laboratory tests (unless impairment due to respective organ involvement by tumor):. ...
We recently demonstrated that the prognosis for de novo CD5-positive (CD5+) diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is markedly worse than that for CD5-negative (CD5-) DLBCL. Our findings also suggested that on the basis of its clinical features CD5+ DLBCL may constitute a unique disease category. How …
In the past decade, the suppressive effects, mainly through the secretion of IL-10, of regulatory B cells on inflammatory responses have been reported in a variety of immune disorders (33-36). Additionally, immune regulation through the interaction of immune cells with the intrinsic phenotype of regulatory B cells (e.g., CD1dhiCD5+, T2-MZP, Tim-1+, and CD9+) were demonstrated in various diseases, and it plays a critical role in autoimmune diseases (37). In recent studies, functional studies in cancer diseases are emerging (38-40). In particular, the change of the distribution of regulatory B cells in cancer tissue is considered to one of important indicators (8-10). Emerging evidence suggests that regulatory B cells suppress effector immune cells including IFN-γ-producing cytotoxicity cells in various cancer diseases through the secretion of IL-10 (11). Although regulatory B cells have to play the suppressive role on the effector function of T cells in autoimmune diseases to cure diseases (41), ...
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The described experiments indicate that a relatively simple procedure of delivering peptide for a prolonged time period in subimmunogenic forms is suited to induce de novo CD4+25+ suppressor T cells from naive T cells in peripheral lymphoid organs in the absence of a functioning thymus as well as in the absence of a developing immune response. By all investigated criteria (i.e., surface phenotype, long-term stability in the absence of the inducing TCR ligand, Foxp3 expression, Ag-induced expansion in vivo, and suppressive activity in vitro and in vivo as well as cytokine production), the induced suppressor T cells are indistinguishable from intrathymically generated CD4+25+ T cells that were shown to have an essential role in preventing autoimmunity under physiological conditions.. The described experiments are akin to studies conducted by i.v. injection of soluble proteins that were described decades ago and that became known as low zone tolerance experiments (29, 30). It is well possible ...
The described experiments indicate that a relatively simple procedure of delivering peptide for a prolonged time period in subimmunogenic forms is suited to induce de novo CD4+25+ suppressor T cells from naive T cells in peripheral lymphoid organs in the absence of a functioning thymus as well as in the absence of a developing immune response. By all investigated criteria (i.e., surface phenotype, long-term stability in the absence of the inducing TCR ligand, Foxp3 expression, Ag-induced expansion in vivo, and suppressive activity in vitro and in vivo as well as cytokine production), the induced suppressor T cells are indistinguishable from intrathymically generated CD4+25+ T cells that were shown to have an essential role in preventing autoimmunity under physiological conditions.. The described experiments are akin to studies conducted by i.v. injection of soluble proteins that were described decades ago and that became known as low zone tolerance experiments (29, 30). It is well possible ...
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Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a rare, recently defined tumor distinct in many aspects from ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). We present two additional cases of ALK+DLBCL recently diagnosed in our department and a review of literature. A 48-year old man presented with a large upper neck mass growing slowly over 18 months. Histologically the tumor was diagnosed as an ALK-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. with plasmablastic features. Large, frequently intrasinusoidal tumor cells expressed CD138, EMA, weakly IgA and kappa, but were negative for other B-cell markers, T-cell markers and CD30. The ALK staining was cytoplasmic with the increased intensity in the Golgi area. At the diagnosis the patient manifested with the stage IIIB. Three courses of CHOP resulted in partial and only transient remission. The patient died of massive bleeding from his decomposing tumor 3 months after the diagnosis. A 49-year old man complaining ...
Fibrin associated Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-positive Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) - a published case study within a frontotemporal arachnoid cyst with hemorrhage
To determine the clinical significance of CD5 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL) without a clinical history of low-grade B-cell lymphoma, we have reviewed the clinical features and therapeutic outcome of 25 patients with de novo CD5-positive DLBL, and compared the results with those of 87 patients with CD5-negative ...
Etiologic-based therapy is an ideal pharmacological option to treat or prevent diseases. There is no known etiology for multiple sclerosis (MS); however, envir...
Comentário: Bom aí está o novo CD do Ozzy, com uma pegada diferente de Black Rain muitos poderão não gostar e muitos vão amar, mas na minha opinião esse álbum tá bem ao estilo Ozzy só que diferente devido as pitadas de Firewind que Gus G. deixou nas bases e nos solos de guitarra. Recomendo que baixe pois na minha opinião ficou bom, é tipo um daqueles álbuns que não pode faltar quando você estiver na estrada! ...
It is generally assumed that chronic lymphocytic leukemia of B cell origin (B-CLL) is characterized by the presence of surface membrane immunoglobulins (SmIg) and by the absence of cytoplasmic immunoglobulins (CyIg). In a variable number of cases SmI
A variety of cell surface markers have been proposed for different regulatory B cell subsets (21, 22). The generalized ex vivo phenotype of B10 cells from untreated mice is IgMhighIgDlowCD1dhighCD5+CD19highCD23lowB220high, with ,10% coexpressing IgG or IgA (13, 15, 35, 38). Thereby, spleen B10 cells share surface markers with multiple phenotypically defined B cell subsets, including transitional, marginal zone, marginal zone precursor, memory, and B1 B cells (6, 11, 13-15, 38, 41, 43, 44). Spleen B10 cells are enriched within the CD1dhighCD5+CD19high subpopulation (Fig. 2), where 15-20% are B10 cells, and up to 50% are B10+B10pro cells (6, 13, 15, 29). Small numbers of B10 cells are also found within other spleen B cell fractions. The phenotype of B10pro cells after culture reflects their in vitro activation more than their subset of origin. For example, most mouse and human B cells upregulate CD5 expression following CD40 stimulation in vitro (31, 32). Spleen IL-10+ B cells are also enriched ...
We present a case of a female patient (79 years) with pathohistologic diagnosis of Hodgkins lymphoma (HL) (stage IIIB, histologic type MC) for which she was treated with chemotherapy according to LVPP protocol (6 cycles) with good therapeutic response. Unexpectedly, 18 months after HL diagnosis leukocytosis occurred (19.4 x 10(9)/L) with 65% of lymphocytes with lymphoplasmocytic differentiation. Immunophenotype of these cells is typical for B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) (CD5/CD19+, CD23-, CD38 +/-; with weak expression of monoclonal light chains lambda). Molecular analysis confirmed clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IgH) rearrangement of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The diagnosis of B-CLL imposed the question of the connection between two neoplasms of lymphocytic origin. Molecular analysis of lymph node biopsy taken at the time of lymphoma diagnosis revealed clonal population of B lymphocytes. That test undeniably proved coexistence of both diseases from the beginning. The latest PCR
CD 11c or Integrin alpha-X (ITGAX) is a heterodimeric glycoprotein consisting of an α- and β-subunit and has seven repeating integrin domains. This transmembrane receptor type I plays a pivotal role in T cell killing and mediates intercellular adhesions during inflammation. Predominat expression levels have been found in dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and a small subset of B cells. Under pathological conditions, CD 11c is a marker for hairy cell leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemias, and some chronic lymphocytic leukemias ...
B cell subsets have been found to exhibit a negative regulatory function, like Tregs. The present study investigates the effects of CD5+CD19+ interleukin (IL)-10 (B10) on the occurrence and development of oesophageal carcinoma by analysing B10 levels in the peripheral blood of patients with...
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IL-21 can induce both plasma cells and regulatory B cells. In this article, we demonstrate that untreated HIV patients display CD4+ T cells with enhanced IL-21 expression and high in vivo frequencies of regulatory B cells overexpressing the serine protease granzyme B. Granzyme B-expressing regulatory B cells (GraB cells) cells from HIV patients exhibit increased expression of CD5, CD43, CD86, and CD147 but do not produce IL-10. The main functional characteristic of their regulatory activity is direct granzyme B-dependent degradation of the TCR-ζ-chain, resulting in significantly decreased proliferative T cell responses. Although Th cells from HIV patients secrete IL-21 in a Nef-dependent manner, they barely express CD40L. When culturing such IL-21+CD40L− Th cells with B cells, the former directly induce B cell differentiation into GraB cells. In contrast, the addition of soluble CD40L multimers to T cell/B cell cultures redirects B cell differentiation toward plasma cells, indicating that ...
Carole Goutsmedt, Laëtitia Le Pottier, Jacques-Olivier Pers. Identification of an antigen-specific regulatory B cell subset in humans.. 35th European Workshop for Rheumatology Research, Mar 2015, Budapest, Hungary. 74 (Supplément 1 A1.27), pp.A11, 2015, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 〈hal-01128705〉 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estrogen induces multiple regulatory B cell subtypes and promotes M2 microglia and neuroprotection during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. AU - Benedek, Gil. AU - Zhang, Jun. AU - Bodhankar, Sheetal. AU - Nguyen, Ha. AU - Kent, Gail. AU - Jordan, Kelley. AU - Manning, Dustin. AU - Vandenbark, Arthur A.. AU - Offner, Halina. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by NIH/NINDS grant RO1 NS080890 (H.O). This material is the result of work supported with resources and the use of facilities at the VA Portland Health Care System, Portland, OR. The contents do not represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the US government. Funding Information: This work was supported by NIH/NINDS grant RO1 NS080890 (H.O). This material is the result of work supported with resources and the use of facilities at the VA Portland Health Care System, Portland, OR. The contents do not represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the US government. ...
In this issue of Clinical Cancer Research, Saiya-Cork and colleagues used integrative genomic profiling to identify that the insulin receptor (INSR) is significantly overexpressed in about 25% of chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLL), many of which carry deletion 11q (1). Deletion 11q has been associated with marked lymphadenopathy and rapid disease progression in CLL, leading to short overall survival (2, 3). At diagnosis or initiation of first therapy, deletion 11q is the most common high-risk abnormality in CLL. Although the molecular pathogenesis of CLL with each characteristic chromosome abnormality is being intensively studied, much remains to be understood. Most interest in 11q deletion has focused on loss of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, a well-known tumor suppressor gene involved in cell cycle checkpoint signaling and DNA repair. Because 11q deletion generally only affects one of the two chromosomes, the other ATM allele would be expected to be mutated if ATM is a key ...
Warwick Davis has praised the late Bob Monkhouse for being a genius. The 44-year-old star - who is to follow in Bobs footsteps by taking over as host of game show Celebrity Squares when it re-launches on ITV - has confessed he knows he has big…
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells express auto/xeno antigen-reactive antibodies that bind to self-epitopes and resemble natural IgM antibodies within their repertoire. anti-IgM (n=4) or oxLDL (n=5), and once again analyzed for ERK1/2 phosphorylation (Body 3B). As reported for anergic cells previously, ERK1/2 phosphorylation was reduced after lifestyle,38 and 3 of 5 from the cultured leukemic cells also regained their capability to react to BcR-triggering (Body LY170053 3B), indicating that constant autoantigen occupancy could be implicated in attenuated BcR triggering critically, similar to reviews in various other contexts.39 The elevated degree of pERK1/2 after anti-IgM exposure LY170053 was statistically significant (relaxation time (antigen wash-out time) (situation. The antigen was examined alone or in conjunction with TLR ligands on the lands that TLRs exert co-stimulatory results in the BcR. Cognate antigen gets the benefit over surrogate antigens (anti-IgM or IgD) in useful research ...
Ibrutinib, a new drug under development, is showing promise as a treatment for mantle cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), according to new studies.
TLR-9 and IL-15 synergy promotes the in vitro clonal expansion of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cellsMongini PK, Gupta R, Boyle E, Nieto J, Lee H, Stein J, Bandovic J, Stankovic T, Barrientos J, Kolitz JE, Allen SL, Rai K, Chu CC, Chiorazzi N, J Immunol. 2015 Aug 1; 195(3):901-23. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1403189. Epub 2015 Jul 1 ...
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In the simplest form of ultrasonography, ultrasound is transmitted as a continuous beam from a probe that contains two piezoelectric crystals. The transmitting crystal produces ultrasound at a fixed frequency (set by the operator according to the depth of the vessel being examined), and the receiving crystal vibrates in response to reflected waves and produces an output voltage. Conventional B mode (brightness mode) ultrasonography records the ultrasound waves reflected from tissue interfaces, and a two dimensional picture is built up according to the reflective properties of the tissues.. ...
The first index of the hashed array will represent character a second will represent b and so on. If the result is positive b is sorted before a.
B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients display leukemic clones bearing either germline or somatically mutated immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV ) genes. Most information on CLL immunoglobulins (Igs), such as the definition of stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCRs), was derived from germline unmutated Igs. In particular, detailed studies on the distribution and nature of mutations in paired heavy- and light-chain domains of CLL clones bearing mutated Igs are lacking. To address the somatic hyper-mutation dynamics of CLL Igs, we analyzed the mutation pattern of paired IGHV-diversity-joining (IGHV-D-J ) and immunoglobulin kappa/lambda variable-joining (IGK/LV-J ) rearrangements of 193 leukemic clones that displayed ≥ 2% mutations in at least one of the two immunoglobulin variable (IGV ) genes (IGHV and/or IGK/LV ). The relationship between the mutation frequency in IGHV and IGK/LV complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and framework regions (FRs) was evaluated by correlation ...
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. ...
Description: B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia - Pipeline Review, H1 2017, provides an overview of the B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (Infectious Di
Uzonyi, Barbara and Mácsik-Valent, Bernadett and Lukácsi, Szilvia Zsófia and Kiss, Richárd and Török, Katalin and Kremlitzka, Mariann and Bajtay, Zsuzsanna and Demeter, Judit and Bödör, Csaba and Erdei, Anna (2017) Functional studies of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells expressing beta2-integrin type complement receptors CR3 and CR4. IMMUNOLOGY LETTERS, 189. pp. 73-81. ISSN 0165-2478 Peti, E. and Schellenberger, Judit and Németh, G. and Málnási Csizmadia, G. and Oláh, I. and Török, Katalin and Czóbel, Szilárd (2017) Presentation of the HUSEEDwild - a seed weight and germination database of the Pannonian flora - through analysing life forms and social behaviour types. APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, 15 (1). pp. 225-244. ISSN 1589-1623 Kövendi-Jakó, Anna and Csecserits, Anikó and Halassy, Melinda and Halász, Krisztián and Szitár, Katalin and Török, Katalin (2017) Relationship of germination and establishment for twelve plant species in restored dry grassland. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Cytokine gene expression in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: Evidence of constitutive interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA expression and secretion of biologically active IL-8 protein. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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CD22 expression mediates the regulatory functions of peritoneal B-1a cells during the remission phase of contact hypersensitivity reactions.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
The study is a Phase 1b open label, non-randomized, single institution clinical trial that is designed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of three repeat
Heart transplantation is widely used for the treatment of several heart diseases. Regulatory B cells (Breg cells) serve a critical role in immune tolerance. However, the role of Breg cells in immune tolerance in the context of allogeneic heart transplantation remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to explore the effect of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA)‑regulated Breg on the regulation of immune tolerance in heart transplantation. By constructing anallogeneic heart transplantation mouse model, and performing flow cytometry, reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR, western blotting and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl esterstaining assays, TSA‑regulated Breg cells and their effects on immune tolerance in heart transplantation were evaluated. The results demonstrated that TSA increased the frequency of CD19+CD5+CD1dhigh Breg cells both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, TSA treatment increased the frequency of IL‑10 and TGF‑β‑producing ...
Reacts with ZAP-70 expressed in T cells, natural killer cells, pro/pre B cells but not in normal mature B cells. The antibody is a useful aid for classification of a subset of chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLL). In CLL, ZAP-70 expression is closely associated with an unmutated configuration of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region (IgVH) genes (1).|* This product is for in vitro diagnostic use only. The product embodies technology described in US Patent 7,329,502 and pending Canadian Patent Application No. 2,413,475.
B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast - 2025 B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast - - Market research report and industry analysis - 10975456
Due to its relatively slow clinical progression, B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is classically described as a disease of accumulation rather than proliferation. However, evidence for various forms of clonal evolution suggests that B-CLL clones may be more dynamic than previously assumed. We used a nonradioactive, stable isotopic labeling method to measure B-CLL cell kinetics in vivo. Nineteen patients drank an aliquot of deuterated water (2H2O) daily for 84 days, and 2H incorporation into the deoxyribose moiety of DNA of newly divided B-CLL cells was measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, during and after the labeling period. Birth rates were calculated from the kinetic profiles. Death rates were defined as the difference between calculated birth and growth rates. These analyses demonstrated that the leukemic cells of each patient had definable and often substantial birth rates, varying from 0.1% to greater than 1.0% of the entire clone per day. Those patients with birth ...
CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 is a carbohydrate adhesion molecule that can be expressed on glycoproteins, glycolipids and proteoglycans. CD15 mediates phagocytosis and chemotaxis, found on neutrophils; expressed in patients with Hodgkin disease, some B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias, acute lymphoblastic leukemias, and most acute nonlymphocytic leukemias. It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem cells, in which it plays an important role in adhesion and migration of the cells in the preimplantation embryo. It is synthezised by FUT4 (fucosyltransferase 4) and FUT9. CD15 is present on almost all Reed-Sternberg cells, including their rare mononuclear variants, and, as such, can be used in immunohistochemistry to identify the presence of such cells in biopsies. The presence of these cells is diagnostic of Hodgkins ...
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in B cell-mediated innate and adaptive immunity. It has been shown that interleukin 10 (IL-10)-producing regulatory B cells (B10 cells) can negatively regulate cellular immune responses and inflammation in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we determined the effect of TLR4 signaling on the CD40-activated B10 cell competency. The results demonstrated that LPS and CD40L synergistically stimulated proliferation of mouse splenocytes. The percentage of B10 cells in cultured splenocytes was significantly increased after CD40L stimulation but such increase was diminished by the addition of LPS. Such effects by LPS were only observed in cells from WT but not TLR4−/− mice. IL-10 mRNA expression and protein production in B10 cells from cultured splenocytes were significantly up-regulated by CD40L stimulation but were inhibited after the addition of LPS in a TLR4-dependent manner. This study suggests that LPS-induced TLR4 signaling attenuate CD40L-activated
In order to clarify whether PMNs mediate trogocytosis or phagocytosis of opsonized primary CLL B cells, we performed live-cell time-lapse microscopy experiments. Purified PMNs from healthy donors were cocultured with CLL B-cell samples in the presence of the following anti-CD20 antibodies: wild-type rituximab (RTX-WT), glycoengineered rituximab (RTX-GE), or glycoengineered obinutuzumab (OBZ-GE). Cells were followed for up to 6 hours under the microscope. To our surprise, we could not detect any phagocytic event in up to 6 hours of time-lapse experiments, but only observed the repeated close contact between PMNs and anti-CD20-opsonized CLL B-cell targets, suggesting that trogocytosis rather than phagocytosis takes place. Figure 1A shows selected images of PMNs in contact with CLL B cells opsonized with OBZ-GE. The phase-contrast images obtained at the start of the experiment, before all CLL B cells had settled down to the bottom of the well, show the clear morphological differences between the ...
The balance between immune effector cells and immunosuppressive cells and how this regulates the tumor microenvironment has been well referred to. of Bregs and review our current understanding of Bregs and their inhibition of anti-tumor resistant replies in murine growth versions and tumor sufferers. research, in the past due 1990s, displaying that the adoptive transfer of turned on splenic N cells activated patience and the difference of Testosterone levels cells into suppressor Testosterone levels cells in unsuspecting receiver rodents.33, 34 After these seminal findings, which designated a function for Temsirolimus suppressor B cells in resistant patience, the term regulatory B cells (Bregs) was not coined until nearly 30 years later on, by Bhan and Mizoguchi.35 Mizoguchi et al identified a population of gut-associated, IL-10-creating, CD1d-expressing B cells that suppressed the development of colitis-related intestinal inflammation by downregulating inflammatory cascades.35 However, despite ...
... are antigens found on all T cells. They include CD2, CD3, CD5 and CD7. Mario Roederer (October 2004). Cytometry ... v t e (All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs, Antigen presenting cells). ...
CD5 antigen-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD5L gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000073754 - Ensembl ... 2002). "IgM are associated to Sp alpha (CD5 antigen-like)". Electrophoresis. 23 (7-8): 1203-6. doi:10.1002/1522-2683(200204)23: ... "Entrez Gene: CD5L CD5 molecule-like". Human CD5L genome location and CD5L gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Tissot ...
CD5+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD5 genome location and CD5 gene ... "Entrez Gene: CD5 CD5 molecule". Brown MH, Lacey E (Nov 15, 2010). "A ligand for CD5 is CD5". Journal of Immunology. 185 (10): ... CD5 includes a scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein domain. T cells express higher levels of CD5 than B cells. CD5 is ... "Evidence for an association between the T cell receptor/CD3 antigen complex and the CD5 antigen in human T lymphocytes". Eur. J ...
1994). "CD5 is associated with the human B cell antigen receptor complex". Eur. J. Immunol. 24 (4): 812-6. doi:10.1002/eji. ... It is associated with agammaglobulinemia-6. The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human B-cell antigen receptor complex- ... Müller B, Cooper L, Terhorst C (1995). "Interplay between the human TCR/CD3 epsilon and the B-cell antigen receptor associated ...
... and CD5. B1a expresses high CD5 level, while B1b expresses low CD5 to almost-absent levels; both are CD19+ and B220low/-.[ ... B1b cells seem to recognize more types of antigens including intracellular antigens. Previously, B1b cell antigen recognition ... making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen-presenting cells. These B1 cells are commonly found in peripheral ... B-1 B cells, in the mouse, can be further subdivided into B-1a (CD5+) and B-1b (CD5−) subtypes. Unlike B-1a B cells, the B-1b ...
Like the B-cell, the B10 cell requires antigen specific binding to the surface of CD5 receptor to illicit a response from the T ... Once an antigen binds to the CD19 receptor, immediate downregulation in B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signal expression occurs ... When compared to the wild type or normal expression of antigen receptors, the B-cells bound to CD19 molecules actually ...
MCL is a subtype of B-cell lymphoma, due to CD5 positive antigen-naive pregerminal center B-cell within the mantle zone that ... "Low-grade B-cell lymphoma with coexpression of both CD5 and CD10. A report of 3 cases". Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 125 (7): 951-3 ...
B-cell-associated antigens such as CD19, CD20, CD22, and CD79a are usually expressed. In contrast to small lymphocytic lymphoma ... and MCL, staining for CD5 is usually negative, and these lymphomas can be further distinguished with CD23 (positive in small ...
... involvement of malignant B-cells that do not express CD5, CD10, or BCL6 and commonly have a translocation between chromosomes ... develops as a consequence of chronic inflammation and specific antigen stimulation. In support of this possibility, there have ... and associations with chronic inflammatory diseases and chronic antigen stimulation; Mantle cell lymphoma differs from DFL by ...
... b-lymphocyte surface antigens CD19, CD20, CD22, CD79a and FMC7, and weak expression of CD5 and CD23. Due to the similarities ... A case has been described as CD20+, CD22+, and CD5-. It can also be CD5+. Another case was described as CD45+, CD19+, CD20+, ... B-lymphocytes have two responsibilities: Production of antibodies - In response to antigens, B-lymphocytes produce and release ... one of its key identifiers is the absence in expression of the surface antigens CD10, CD11c, CD25, CD103 and cyclin D1 - an ...
... antigen, t-cell MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.104 - antigens, cd4 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.105 - antigens, cd5 MeSH D23.050.301.264. ... antigen, t-cell MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.100 - antigens, cd4 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.101 - antigens, cd5 MeSH D23.050.301.264. ... antigen, t-cell MeSH D23. - antigens, cd4 MeSH D23. - antigens, cd5 MeSH D23. - ... antigen, t-cell MeSH D23.101.100.894.100 - antigens, cd4 MeSH D23.101.100.894.101 - antigens, cd5 MeSH D23.101.100.894.107 - ...
"CD5 is associated with the human B cell antigen receptor complex". European Journal of Immunology. 24 (4): 812-6. doi:10.1002/ ... Reth M (1992). "Antigen receptors on B lymphocytes". Annual Review of Immunology. 10 (1): 97-121. doi:10.1146/annurev.iy. ... Engels N, Wollscheid B, Wienands J (Jul 2001). "Association of SLP-65/BLNK with the B cell antigen receptor through a non-ITAM ... Brown VK, Ogle EW, Burkhardt AL, Rowley RB, Bolen JB, Justement LB (Jun 1994). "Multiple components of the B cell antigen ...
Those antibodies are e.g. targeted to CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, NK1.1, B220, TER-119, and Gr-1 in mice and CD3 (T lymphocytes), ... Certain antibodies can be used to detect or purify cells with these markers by binding to their surface antigens. A standard ...
PKA type I colocalizes with the T-cell and B-cell antigen receptors and causes inhibition of T- and B-cell activation. PKA has ... 1986), "Antibody binding to CD5 (Tp67) and Tp44 T cell surface molecules: effects on cyclic nucleotides, cytoplasmic free ... 1996), "Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK) in human B cells: co-localization of type I cAK (RIα2C2) with the antigen ... In lymphocytes, the intracellular levels of cAMP increase upon antigen-receptor stimulation and even more so in response to ...
Antigen-naive T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... Double negative thymocytes can be identified by the surface expression of CD2, CD5 and CD7. Still during the double negative ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help. Antigen ... These self-antigens are expressed by thymic cortical epithelial cells on MHC molecules, which reside on the surface of cortical ...
FO B cells express high levels of IgD, and CD23; lower levels of CD21 and IgM; and no CD1 or CD5, readily distinguishing this ... Antigen-specific memory B cell development. Annu Rev Immunol. 2005;23:487-513. (B cells, Human cells, Immune system, ... Two-photon imaging of lymphocyte motility and antigen response in intact lymph node. Science. 2002;296(5574):1869-1873. ...
Tsuge I, Utsumi KR, Ueda R, Takamoto S, Takahashi T (1985). "Assignment of gene coding human T-cell differentiation antigen, ... "The accessory molecules CD5 and CD6 associate on the membrane of lymphoid T cells". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (10): 8564-71. doi: ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P30203 (Human T-cell differentiation antigen CD6) ... "Involvement of CD166 in the activation of human gamma delta T cells by tumor cells sensitized with nonpeptide antigens". J. ...
Normal B lymphocytes make antibodies that recognize and bind to foreign antigens. The formation of these antibodies requires ... CD5 surface membrane protein in ∼30% of cases, and CD23 surface membrane protein in ∼15% of cases. In 90-95% of cases, these ... a blood group antigen carbohydrate on the cell surface). One study reported the RS cells in HL-RT do not express CD20 but ...
The ability of T cells to recognize foreign antigens is mediated by the T cell receptor (TCR), which is a surface protein able ... Early, double negative thymocytes express (and can be identified by) CD2, CD5 and CD7. Still during the double negative stage, ... This allows single positive thymocytes to be exposed to a more complex set of self-antigens than is present in the cortex, and ... Cells which do not have a high affinity for self-antigens survive negative selection. At this stage, some cells are also ...
The cells usually do not express CD5, CD10, CD30, or CD138. The neoplastic cells are also usually characterized as being of the ... chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy using CD19-directed CAR-T cells; and lenalidomide, a drug with multiple anti-tumor ...
It was originally named theta (θ) antigen, then Thy-1 (THYmocyte differentiation antigen 1) due to its prior identification in ... It is one of the "pan T cell markers"(of mice) like CD2, CD5 and CD28. In humans, Thy-1 is also expressed by endothelial cells ... The antigen Thy-1 was the first T cell marker to be identified. Thy-1 was discovered by Reif and Allen in 1964 during a search ... Reif AE, Allen JM (1964). "The AKR thymic antigen and its distribution in leukemias and nervous tissue". J. Exp. Med. 120 (3): ...
MZ B cells shuttle between the blood-filled marginal zone for antigen collection and the follicle for antigen delivery to ... CD5, and CD11b that help to distinguish them phenotypically from follicular (FO) B cells and B1 B cells. MZ B cells are innate- ... MZ B cells respond to a wide spectrum of T-independent, but also T-dependent antigens. It is believed that MZ B cells are ... Moreover, MZ B cells are potent antigen-presenting cells, that are able to activate CD4+ T cells more effectively than FO B ...
The 5-10% of DLBCL, NOS cases in which the neoplastic cells express CD5 have a very poor prognosis that is not improved by even ... Zheng XH, Zhang XY, Dong QQ, Chen F, Yang SB, Li WB (January 2020). "Efficacy and safety of chimeric antigen receptor-T cells ... Gene and protein markers in the neoplastic cells of DLBCL, NOS that have clinical significance include CD5, MYC, BCL2, BCL6, ... Lee YH, Kim CH (July 2019). "Evolution of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy: current status and future ...
The malignant cells in this disease, unlike FL, stain positive for CD5 and CD23. FL is typically a slowly growing lymphoma with ... lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3, that is involved in activating T-cells), CDKN2A (encoding p16INK4a and p14arf tumor ... infusion of tisagenlecleucel chimeric antigen receptor T cells (i.e. CAR T cells) (i.e. T cells that have been isolated from ... and CD79 but not CD5, CD11c, or CD23 cell surface proteins; genomic analyses reveal that these cells contain t(14:18)(q32:q21.3 ...
CD5, or CD30; and, in particular, by their overexpression of megakaryocyte-associated tyrosine kinase. They are not infected ... and T-cell intracellular antigen-1) but no genetic abnormalities. Indolent T cell lymphoproliferative disorder of the ...
CD5, CD10, surface Ig Frequently occurs outside lymph nodes, very indolent, may be cured by local excision Nodal marginal zone ... Four chimeric antigen receptor CAR-T cell therapies are FDA-approved for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including lisocabtagene ... By immunohistochemistry, the lymphoma cells expressed CD20, CD5, and Cyclin D1 (high-power view, H&E) Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular ... of lymphomas in adults Lymphocytes of small to intermediate size growing in diffuse pattern CD5 About 50 to 70% Occurs mainly ...
This rearrangement results in the B-cells responding to the ab\normal antigens by taking on features of marginal B-cells and ... The cells almost always express BCL2 and may express MNDA (~70% of cases), CD23 (~33% of cases) and CD5 (~20% of cases) marker ... The lymphocytes have marker protein profiles (e.g. CD20 and Bcl-2 positive; CD5, cyclin D1 and CD10 negative) that are typical ... Campylobacter jejuni-associated disease is more prevalent in individuals who express human leukocyte antigen AI19, B12, or A9 ...
CD5 molecule like CENPL: Centromere protein L CENPF (1q41) CHTOP: Chromatin target of prmt1 CNIH4: cornichon homolog 4 CNST: ... encoding protein Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen-like Partial list of the genes located on p-arm (short arm) of human ...
Mouse Bregs were mainly CD5 and CD1d positive in model of EAE or after exposition of Leishmania major. By contrast mouse Bregs ... "IgG4 production is confined to human IL-10-producing regulatory B cells that suppress antigen-specific immune responses". The ...
Other genes that are commonly thought to be associated with lupus are those in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) family. There ... ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1.[page needed] Böhm I (2004). "Increased peripheral blood B-cells expressing the CD5 molecules in ... List of cutaneous conditions List of target antigens in pemphigoid List of immunofluorescence findings for autoimmune bullous ... conditions List of human leukocyte antigen alleles associated with cutaneous conditions List of people with lupus Fitzpatrick, ...
Cao JX, Gao WJ, You J, Wu LH, Liu JL, Wang ZX (July 2019). "The efficacy of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells for B- ... CD5) and 23. In addition, all the CLL cells within one individual are clonal, that is, genetically identical. In practice, this ... Kalos M, Levine BL, Porter DL, Katz S, Grupp SA, Bagg A, June CH (August 2011). "T cells with chimeric antigen receptors have ... Porter DL, Levine BL, Kalos M, Bagg A, June CH (August 2011). "Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells in chronic lymphoid ...
Immune checkpoint therapies block inhibitory co-receptors, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and ... Though much is known about the role of CD5 in B cells, recent research has expanded our understanding of CD5 function in T ... Similar to CTLA-4 and PD-1, the co-receptor CD5 has been known to act as a negative regulator of T cell activation and to alter ... Here we review these recent findings and discuss how our improved understanding of CD5 Ca2+ signaling regulation could be ...
CD5 is a 67 kD protein, also known as Lyt-1, Ly-1, T1, Tp67, or Ly-12. ... Although mature α/β T cells express high levels of CD5, very few γ/δ T cells express this antigen. The interaction of CD5 with ... Antigen References 1. Barclay A, et al. 1997. The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook Academic Press.. 2. Kipps TJ. 1988. Adv. Immunol. ... CD5 is a 67 kD protein, also known as Lyt-1, Ly-1, T1, Tp67, or Ly-12. It is a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich ...
CD5 Antigens / biosynthesis * DNA-Binding Proteins / deficiency * DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics * Female ... We found a similar frequency of phosphatidylcholine-specific CD5(+) B-1 cells in the two strains of mice. By contrast, the Cr2( ... decrease in the CD5(+) B-1 population. To determine whether this reduction reflects a loss of certain specificities or simply a ...
MCL typically expresses the B-cell antigen FMC-7. Importantly, expression of CD20 is bright in MCL, whereas it is dim in CLL. ... Like CLL, MCL expresses CD5, CD19, and CD20; however, MCL does not express CD23, which is expressed in CLL. ... An introduction to chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell immunotherapy for human cancer. Am J Hematol. 2019 May. 94 (S1):S3-S9 ... is moderately positive for surface membrane immunoglobulins of multiple heavy-chain classes and is typically negative for CD5 ...
CD5 antigen: Cd5 (mice) and CD5 (humans). A list of human gene names is available at ...
View Mouse CD5 Alexa Fluor® 405-conjugated Antibody (FAB115V-025) datasheet. ... CD5 antigen (p56-62); CD5 antigen; CD5 molecule; CD5; LEU1T-cell surface glycoprotein CD5; Lymphocyte antigen T1/Leu-1; T1 ... Background: CD5. Mouse CD5 has been shown to react with a mouse monomorphic CD5 (Ly-1), a Group B member of the scavenger ... Reviews for Mouse CD5 Alexa Fluor® 405-conjugated Antibody. There are currently no reviews for this product. Be the first to ...
In addition, they express CD5, which is more typically found on T cells. Because normal CD5+ B cells are present in the mantle ... An introduction to chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell immunotherapy for human cancer. Am J Hematol. 2019 May. 94 (S1):S3-S9 ... CLL B-lymphocytes typically show B-cell surface antigens, as demonstrated by CD19, CD20dim, CD21, and CD23 monoclonal ...
Differential effects of selection and somatic hypermutation on human peripheral CD5(+)/IgM+ and CD5(-)/IgM+ B cells. J Clin ... Unlike the variable region which is involved in antigen recognition, the constant region is thought to have more of a ... Is there a role for antigen selection in mantle cell lymphoma? Immunogenetic support from a series of 807 cases. Blood. 2011; ... Plasma proteomic profiling suggests an association between antigen driven clonal B cell expansion and ME/CFS. *Milica ...
... sarcoma patients identified the proliferative marker PCNA and DNAM-1 ligands CD112 and/or CD155 as commonly expressed antigens ... sarcoma patients identified the proliferative marker PCNA and DNAM-1 ligands CD112 and/or CD155 as commonly expressed antigens ... Preclinical targeting of aggressive T-cell malignancies using anti-CD5 chimeric antigen receptor. Leukemia. (2017) 31:2151-60. ... Engineering antigen-specific NK cell lines against the melanoma-associated antigen tyrosinase via TCR gene transfer. Eur J ...
CD5 antigen-like protein (Cd5l), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1), and uromodulin. Our results also showed that peroxisomal ... CD5 antigen-like protein (Cd5l), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1), and uromodulin. Our results also showed that peroxisomal ...
54 who did express CD5 and lacked myeloid antigens. ... such as genes codifying for myeloid antigens (CD11b, CD66c CD24 ... These patients showed over-expression of a large set of genes that are typical of the myeloid lineage, such as antigens, ... These cases were characterized by over-expression of a large set of myeloid-related genes for surface antigens, transcription ... Nevertheless, at the immunophenotypic level our cases expressed CD5, CD8 and CD1a. It is intriguing to speculate that these ...
Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells in Refractory B-Cell Lymphomas. N Engl J Med. 2017 Dec 28. 377 (26):2545-2554. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Cell surface marker analysis by flow cytometry: kappa/lambda, CD45, CD20, CD3, CD5, CD19, CD10, TdT ... In addition, both the NCCN and ESMO recommend assaying Ki-67 proliferative antigen to evaluate cell proliferation. Low Ki-67 ... Cell surface marker analysis by flow cytometry: kappa/lambda, CD45, CD3, CD5, CD19, CD10, CD20 ...
T cells expressing CD5/CD7 bispecific chimeric antigen receptors with fully human heavy-chain-only domains mitigate tumor ... T-cell antigen CD7. Names. CD7 antigen (p41). T-cell leukemia antigen. T-cell surface antigen Leu-9. p41 protein. ... Title: T cells expressing CD5/CD7 bispecific chimeric antigen receptors with fully human heavy-chain-only domains mitigate ... Frequent CD7 antigen loss in aggressive natural killer-cell leukemia: a useful diagnostic marker. Yoo EH, et al. Korean J Lab ...
It has been identified as the major ligand of the B-cell antigen CD72. ... CD5, also known as Lyt-1, is a monomeric type I transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on thymocytes, T lymphocytes, and a subset ... It has been identified as the major ligand of the B-cell antigen CD72. The frequency of CD5+ B cells exhibits strain-dependent ... CD5, also known as Lyt-1, is a monomeric type I transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on thymocytes, T lymphocytes, and a subset ...
The human leukocyte antigen DR (HLA-DR) molecule was expressed in 1 case (patient no. 9) and CD7 in 1 case (patient no. 10). ... TdT, CD3, CD19, CD10, CD5, CD20, CD79 and CD22 were negative in all the cases. ... Antigen expression was considered to be homogenous if the distribution of the cells occupied up to 1 logarithmic decade on the ... CD5 (FITC), TdT (FITC), cCD22 (PE), cMPO (FITC), cCD79a (PE) and CD20 (FITC). All antibodies were obtained from Beckman Coulter ...
Immmunostains performed revealed neoplastic cells positive for CD2, CD3, CD5, CD7, CD8, granzyme B, and T cell intracellular ... Flow cytometry did not demonstrate evidence of B cell clone or loss of T cell surface antigens. ... antigen (TIA-1); negative for CD4 and CD56. Clonal T cell receptor-beta rearrangement was detected. Bone marrow biopsy failed ...
CD5 instructs extrathymic regulatory T cell development in response to self and tolerizing antigens. Immunity. 2015;42(3):471- ... Jiang J, Wang X, Wang X, Cao Z, Liu Y, Dong M, Tong A, Cheng X. Reduced CD27 expression on antigen-specific CD4+ T cells ... BTLA-expressing CD11c antigen presenting cells in patients with active tuberculosis exhibit low capacity to stimulate T cell ... T cells through the upregulation of CD5 and subsequent inhibition of PI3K/mTOR activation, therefore inducing extrathymic Treg ...
The population of lymphocytes share both B-cell antigens [CD19, CD20 (typically dim expression), or CD23] as well as CD5 in the ... Those who are hepatitis B surface antigen positive or hepatitis B PCR positive and those who are hepatitis C PCR positive will ... Note: Subjects with hepatitis B core antibody positive who are surface antigen negative or who are hepatitis C antibody ...
CD5 antigen-like. $5.00. USD Add to cart. * CD97 antigen. $5.00. USD Add to cart ... H-2 class I histocompatibility antigen, Q10 alpha chain. $5.00. USD Add to cart ...
... human leukocyte antigen DR isotype, immunoglobulin (Ig)M, CD79b and CD20, and weakly expressed CD5 (Fig. 4). The nuclear cells ... MCL is characterized by CD5 and cyclin D1 expression. However, weak CD5 expression was observed in the bone marrow but no CD5 ... FCM analysis could be used for the quantitative detection of CD5-positive cells. It would be quite hard to quantify the CD5 ... 5I), CD5 (Fig. 5J), Bcl6 (Fig. 5K), CD10 (Fig. 5L), CD21 (Fig. 5M), CD23 (Fig. 5N), CD30 (Fig. 5O), CD15 (Fig. 5P), CD43 (Fig. ...
Platelet Antigens. Platelets possess HLA antigens and platelet-specific antigens. HLA class I antigens induce alloimmunisation ... antigen-independent and antigen-dependent. Antigen-independent development occurs in bone marrow while antigen-dependent ... Class I antigens: Genes at HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C positions specify class I antigens. Class I antigens are glycoproteins which ... Class III antigens: Genes specifying class III antigens are situated between genes which specify class I and class II antigens ...
... as well as lymphoid-associated antigens, including CD2, CD5, CD7, CD19, CD10, and CD20, and lineage nonspecific antigens HLA-DR ... Expression of surface antigens on the leukemia cells was shown by an indirect immunoalkaline phosphatase method (26) before ... Immunophenotyping. A panel of monoclonal antibodies to myeloid-associated antigens, including CD13, CD33, CD11b, CD15, CD14, ... such as expression of antigens, cytogenetics, mutation, or methylation of a specific gene, etc., and Mann-Whitney tests were ...
Antigen, CD5 Antigens, CD5 CD5 Antigen Leu 1 Antigen Leu-1 Antigen T1 Antigen ... Antigen, CD5. Antigens, CD5. CD5 Antigen. Leu 1 Antigen. Leu-1 Antigen. T1 Antigen. ... 2018; see ANTIGENS, CD5 1996-2017 and CD5 ANTIGEN 1988-1995; CD5 ANTIGENS was indexed under ANTIGENS, CD 1990-95; and under ... CD5 Antigens - Preferred Concept UI. M0028326. Scope note. Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a ...
The dimeric antigen receptors have antibody-like properties as they bind specifically to a target antigen. The dimeric antigen ... The two polypeptide chains that make up the dimeric antigen receptors can dimerize to form an antigen binding domain. ... constructs that bind a BCMA target antigen, where the DAR construct comprises a heavy chain binding region on one polypeptide ... The present disclosure provides dimeric antigen receptors (DAR) ... CD5, CD9, CD22, CD33, CD37, CD64, CD80, CD86, CD137, CD154, LFA ...
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a clinical entity characterized by the proliferation of CD5-positive antigen-naive pregerminal ... 2c), CD4-, CD5+, CD7-, CD8-, CD10-, CD23-, TiA1-. Molecular investigations for immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene ... Marti RM, Campo E, Bosch F, Palou J, Estrach T. Cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA) expression in a lymphoblastoid ...
Human CD5L(CD5 Antigen-like) ELISA Kit (HUES03547) MSRP: Now: €599 Was: ...
CD5 - cluster of differentiation antigen 5 Active Synonym false false 51207012 Lymphocyte antigen CD5 Active Synonym false ... Lymphocyte antigen CD5 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD5 (substance). ...
CD5 antigen: Cd5 (mice) and CD5 (humans). A list of human gene names is available at ...
The extracellular domain of CD6 is significantly related to the extracellular domain of the human and mouse T cell antigen CD5 ... Solution structure of the N-terminal extracellular domain of the lymphocyte receptor CD5 (CD5 domain 1). ... May bind bacterial antigens in the protein MARCO.. Interpro abstract (IPR017448):. The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) ... Crystal structure of CD5 domain III reveals the fold of a group B scavenger cysteine-rich receptor. ...
  • T cells are activated when T cell receptors (TCRs) engage peptides presented by antigen-presenting cells (APC), causing an increase of intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) concentration. (
  • Immune checkpoint therapies block inhibitory co-receptors, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1), to increase T cell Ca 2+ signaling and promote T cell survival. (
  • In support of interaction with cognate Ag, deficiency in the complement receptors CD21/CD35 results in a 30-40% decrease in the CD5(+) B-1 population. (
  • It has been proposed that CD5 negatively regulates signal transduction mediated by the T-cell and B-cell receptors. (
  • Receptor-ligand interaction is required for the transduction of second signal, following the first signal conveyed by the interaction of MHC molecules on APCs and T cell receptors on effector T cells loaded with cognate antigens [ 3 ]. (
  • The present disclosure provides dimeric antigen receptors (DAR) constructs that bind a BCMA target antigen, where the DAR construct comprises a heavy chain binding region on one polypeptide chain and a light chain binding region on a separate polypeptide chain. (
  • The two polypeptide chains that make up the dimeric antigen receptors can dimerize to form an antigen binding domain. (
  • The dimeric antigen receptors have antibody-like properties as they bind specifically to a target antigen. (
  • The dimeric antigen receptors can be used for directed cell therapy. (
  • The present disclosure provides dimeric antigen receptors (DAR) protein constructs that bind specifically to a target antigen, nucleic acids that encode the dimeric antigen receptors, vectors comprising the nucleic acids, and host cells harboring the vectors. (
  • Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been developed to target antigens associated, in particular, with cancer. (
  • Adoptive immunotherapy by infusion of T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for redirected tumoricidal activity represents a potentially highly specific modality for the treatment of metastatic cancer. (
  • Antigen receptors comprising both an antibody heavy chain binding region and an antibody light chain binding region in separate polypeptide chains and their use in directed cell therapy are disclosed herein in an effort to meet this need and/or provide other benefits, or at least provide the public with a useful choice. (
  • Endogenous co-expression of two T cell receptors promotes lymphopenia-induced proliferation via increased affinity for self-antigen. (
  • The nanoparticles deliver mRNA to T cells, reprogramming them in vivo to transiently express chimeric antigen receptors (gold) that target pathogenic cardiac fibroblasts. (
  • Mouse CD5 has been shown to react with a mouse monomorphic CD5 (Ly-1), a Group B member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein superfamily (1). (
  • Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. (
  • The results suggest that the novel protein is a macrophage-specific membrane receptor with a role in host defense, as it shows postnatal expression in macrophages, which are considered responsible for the binding of bacterial antigens and phagocytosis. (
  • The extracellular domain of CD6 is significantly related to the extracellular domain of the human and mouse T cell antigen CD5, the cysteine-rich domain of the bovine and mouse type I macrophage scavenger receptor, the extracellular domain of the sea urchin spermatozoa protein that crosslinks the egg peptide speract, the mammalian complement factor 1, and the human lung tumor antigen L3. (
  • 3. Stimulation of CD5 Enhances Signal Transduction by the T cell Antigen Receptor. (
  • CD5 is part of the antigen-receptor complex and acts as an inhibitor of both, TCR and BCR signaling. (
  • To begin elucidating the role for this cytosolic phosphatase in lymphoid cell signal transduction, we have examined early signaling events and mitogenic responses induced by B cell antigen receptor (BCK) ligation in me and me v splenic B cells and in CD5 + CH12 lymphoma cells, which represent the lymphoid population amplified in motheaten mice. (
  • An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN . (
  • The application of antigen receptor gene rearrangement of BIOMED-2 in the pathologic diagnosis of 348 cases with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a single institution in Southwest of China. (
  • from these, 27 proteins were identified as potential renal aging biomarkers, including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1), CD5 antigen-like protein (Cd5l), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1), and uromodulin. (
  • 3. Luo W, van de Velde H, von Hoegen I, Parnes JR, Thielemans K. Ly-1 (CD5), a membrane glycoprotein of mouse T lymphocytes and a subset of B cells, is a natural ligand of the B cell surface protein Lyb-2 (CD72). (
  • May bind bacterial antigens in the protein MARCO. (
  • Clinical Significance of BCL2 , C- MYC , and BCL6 Genetic Abnormalities, Epstein-Barr Virus Infection, CD5 Protein Expression, Germinal Center B Cell/Non-Germinal Center B-Cell Subtypes, Co-expression of MYC/BCL2 Proteins and Co-expression of MYC/BCL2/BCL6 Proteins in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: A Clinical and Pathological Correlation Study of 120 Patients. (
  • Mouse splenocytes were stained with Rat Anti-Mouse CD3 APC-conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB4841A ) and either (A) Rat Anti-Mouse CD5 Alexa Fluor® 405-conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB115V) or (B) Rat IgG 2A Alexa Fluor 405 Isotype Control (Catalog # IC006V ). (
  • APC Anti-Mouse CD5 antibody for use in flow cytometry assays. (
  • 1. Anti-DNA Antibody Production by CD5+ and CD5- B Cells of Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. (
  • 4. Surface Immunoglobulin Ligands and Cytokines Differentially Affect Proliferation and Antibody Production by Human CD5+ and CD5- B Lymphocytes. (
  • This is a monoclonal antibody which is greatly purified and with high binding affinity for the antigen that it is risen against. (
  • 1. Ledbetter JA, Herzenberg LA. Xenogeneic monoclonal antibodies to mouse lymphoid differentiation antigens. (
  • Therefore, a close follow-up on research developments on new CD antigens and their corresponding monoclonal antibodies is important in veterinary laboratory diagnostics. (
  • ProSci's Primary antibodies are used to detect, analyze and purify specific antigens helping to accelerate discoveries in cancer, infectious disease, neuroscience, cell biology, and immunology research. (
  • It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. (
  • The population of lymphocytes share both B-cell antigens [CD19, CD20 (typically dim expression), or CD23] as well as CD5 in the absence of other pan-T-cell markers (CD3, CD2, etc. (
  • Materials and methods This is a prospective study where 152 consecutive B-ALL patients were analyzed for aberrant expression of T/NK cell antigens (CD1a, CD5, CD4, CD7, CD8 and CD56) by FCI. (
  • TCR CAR-T cells against various tumor antigens have been developed (Ma et al. (
  • Furthermore, T cells and NK cells complement each other in that certain immune suppression mechanisms taken by tumor cells that are effective against T cells, such as the downregulation of human leukocyte antigens (HLA), have proven to be stimulatory for NK cells. (
  • Results In our B-ALL cohort, CD5, CD7 and CD56 expression were observed in one, six and nine patients, respectively. (
  • It has been identified as the major ligand of the B-cell antigen CD72. (
  • 4. Bikah G, Lynd FM, Aruffo AA, Ledbetter JA, Bondada S. A role for CD5 in cognate interactions between T cells and B cells, and identification of a novel ligand for CD5. (
  • The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (
  • The interaction of CD5 with CD72, gp35-37, TCR, or BCR is involved in T and B cell activation. (
  • Los anticuerpos específicos de los antígenos CD5 fomentan la activación de los linfocitos T mediada por los receptores de los linfocitos T. La molécula CD72 específica de los linfocitos B es un ligando natural de CD5. (
  • Thwarting among the main dogmas of immunology, central tolerance induction, which predicts removing all self-reactive B cells highly, Hayakawa and co-workers demonstrated the current presence of the self-antigen Thy-1 to be needed for the advancement and/or development of PF-05089771 Thy-1 particular B-1 cells [9]. (
  • CD5 is a 67 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein found on thymocytes, T cells, and a subset of B cells but not on NK cells (2‑6). (
  • CD5, also known as Lyt-1, is a monomeric type I transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on thymocytes, T lymphocytes, and a subset of B lymphocytes, but not on natural killer (NK) cells. (
  • We found high numbers of CD19 + CD5 + B lymphoid cells in the bone marrows and spleens of NOD/SCID mice transplanted with human CD34 + stem/progenitor cells. (
  • The CD5 + cells accounted for a particularly large percentage of the B lymphoid cells in the spleens of chimeras analyzed three months after transplantation. (
  • Thus, the CD19 + CD5 + cell population detected in our study has the phenotype of previously described CD5 + B lymphoid cells in humans and other species. (
  • The origin and role of the B lymphoid cells which express CD5 cell surface glycoprotein are poorly understood. (
  • The malignant cells in B lymphoid chronic lymphocytic leukemia express CD5, and the numbers of CD5 + B lymphoid cells are elevated in several autoimmune conditions. (
  • The human-NOD/SCID chimera system may provide an in vivo model to investigate the maturation and development of this cryptic human CD5 + B lymphoid cell subpopulation. (
  • Immunohistochemical investigations of these cells showed a T-lymphoid phenotype: CD3 + , CD2 + with partial expression of CD5, CD7, and TIA1. (
  • Immune checkpoint proteins can regulate the immune response in malignancies and infectious diseases via numerous types of activating and inhibitory signals between antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • We now understand B-1 cells to be mainly of fetal origin, selected during development for their ability to recognize self-antigens, and prevented from causing autoimmune disease through the expression of CD5, identified as an inhibitory component of the BCR complex. (
  • Consistent with a prominent inhibitory role for CD5 in. (
  • Flow cytometry did not demonstrate evidence of B cell clone or loss of T cell surface antigens. (
  • The human CD antigens do not always correspond to surface markers found on animal lymphocytes. (
  • CD45 is the common leukocyte antigen, however, it is absent from ruminant WC1+ lymphocytes and monocytes. (
  • Furthermore, most case exhibit positivity for EMA (epithelial membrane antigen) as well as the cytotoxic markers TIA-1, granzyme and perforin. (
  • The neoplastic cells express T-cell antigens, including cytoplasmic CD3 ( Figure 1C ) and markers of immaturity, such as nuclear terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) ( Figure 1D ). (
  • These cases were characterized by over-expression of a large set of myeloid-related genes for surface antigens, transcription factors and granule proteins. (
  • Binding of CD5 on the T cell surface can augment alloantigen- or mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and induces increased cytosolic free calcium, IL-2 secretion, and IL-2R expression. (
  • Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a clinical entity characterized by the proliferation of CD5-positive antigen-naive pregerminal centre B cells within the mantle zone that surrounds normal germinal centre follicles (1). (
  • Differences in homeostatic proliferation were not attributable to differences in total TCR expression or signaling, but were dependent on interaction with MHC and associated with increased affinity for positively selecting self-pMHC as evidenced by higher expression of CD5 by dual TCR cells from wild-type mice. (
  • Although mature α/β T cells express high levels of CD5, very few γ/δ T cells express this antigen. (
  • We found a similar frequency of phosphatidylcholine-specific CD5(+) B-1 cells in the two strains of mice. (
  • Analysis of tumors from 32 sarcoma patients identified the proliferative marker PCNA and DNAM-1 ligands CD112 and/or CD155 as commonly expressed antigens that could be efficiently targeted by genetically modified (GM) NK cells. (
  • The frequency of CD5 + B cells exhibits strain-dependent variation, and the phenotypic, anatomical, functional, developmental, and pathological characteristics of the CD5 + B cells suggest that they may represent a distinct lineage, known as B-1 cells. (
  • Identification of human helper/inducer T cells expressing the 67,000 M.W. surface antigen, 85% peripheral blood lyymphocytes that form rosettes with sheep red blood cells (E+), and a small subset of B cells. (
  • CD5=Derived from the hybridization of mouse NS-1/Ag4 myeloma cells with spleen cells of BALB/c mice immunized with human t-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. (
  • 6. In Vivo and In Vitro Expression of Myeloid Antigens on B-lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells. (
  • From the initial double-negative phenotype for CD4 and CD8, they progressively mature into double-positive type with co-expression of the antigens and become stage II thymocyte or double-positive T cells. (
  • The level of CD5 expression by T cells correlated with the strength of TCR-signaling during positive selection of thymocytes [12]. (
  • On B cells, CD5 expression was identified not only on B-1 cells but also on anergic conventional B cells [13]. (
  • CD5, red) to specifically target T cells while inside the bloodstream and tissues with mRNA (light yellow within the nanoparticles). (
  • 1997. The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook Academic Press. (
  • 2. Ledbetter JA, Rouse RV, Micklem HS, Herzenberg LA. T cell subsets defined by expression of Lyt-1,2,3 and Thy-1 antigens. (
  • Cell surface expression of the λ light chain, surface IgD, CD9, and CD40 antigens was detected in some but not all chimeras. (
  • In patients diagnosed with precursor B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), expression of certain non-lineage/cross lineage antigens is of prognostic and cytogenetic relevance. (
  • There is a paucity of studies that have comprehensively analyzed the clinical and laboratory profiles of B-ALL patients showing aberrant T/natural killer (NK) cell antigen expression. (
  • CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE . (
  • 5. Evidence for Differential Responsiveness of Human CD5+ and CD5- B cell Subsets to T cell Independent Mitogens. (
  • 2020) Plasma proteomic profiling suggests an association between antigen driven clonal B cell expansion and ME/CFS. (
  • The clinical and laboratory profile of these T/NK-cell antigen-expressing B-ALL patients was statistically analyzed against conventional B-ALL patients. (
  • In addition, the vast majority of ALCLs express one or more T cell antigens. (