Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

The vitronectin receptor and its associated CD47 molecule mediates proinflammatory cytokine synthesis in human monocytes by interaction with soluble CD23. (1/302)

The vitronectin receptor, alphavbeta3 integrin, plays an important role in tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis, and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. CD47, a member of the multispan transmembrane receptor family, physically and functionally associates with vitronectin receptor (VnR). Although vitronectin (Vn) is not a ligand of CD47, anti-CD47 and beta3 mAbs suppress Vn, but not fibronectin (Fn) binding and function. Here, we show that anti-CD47, anti-beta3 mAb and Vn, but not Fn, inhibit sCD23-mediated proinflammatory function (TNF-alpha, IL-12, and IFN-gamma release). Surprisingly, anti-CD47 and beta3 mAbs do not block sCD23 binding to alphav+beta3+ T cell lines, whereas Vn and an alphav mAb (clone AMF7) do inhibit sCD23 binding, suggesting the VnR complex may be a functional receptor for sCD23. sCD23 directly binds alphav+beta3+/CD47(-) cell lines, but coexpression of CD47 increases binding. Moreover, sCD23 binds purified alphav protein and a single human alphav chain CHO transfectant. We conclude that the VnR and its associated CD47 molecule may function as a novel receptor for sCD23 to mediate its proinflammatory activity and, as such, may be involved in the inflammatory process of the immune response.  (+info)

The thrombospondin receptor integrin-associated protein (CD47) functionally couples to heterotrimeric Gi. (2/302)

Integrin-associated protein (IAP; CD47) is a thrombospondin receptor that forms a signaling complex with beta3 integrins resulting in enhanced alphavbeta3-dependent cell spreading and chemotaxis and, in platelets, alphaIIbbeta3-dependent spreading and aggregation. These actions of CD47 are all specifically abrogated by pertussis toxin treatment of cells. Here we report that CD47, its beta3 integrin partner, and Gi proteins form a stable, detergent-soluble complex that can be recovered by immunoprecipitation and affinity chromatography. Gialpha is released from this complex by treatment with GTP or AlF4. GTP and AlF4 also reduce the binding of CD47 to its agonist peptide (4N1K) derived from thrombospondin, indicating a direct association of CD47 with Gi. 4N1K peptide causes a rapid decrease in intraplatelet cyclic AMP levels, a Gi-dependent event necessary for aggregation. Finally, 4N1K stimulates the binding of GTPgamma35S to membranes from cells expressing IAP and alphavbeta3. This functional coupling of CD47 to heterotrimeric G proteins provides a mechanistic explanation for the biological effects of CD47 in a wide variety of systems.  (+info)

Cellular entry of hantaviruses which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is mediated by beta3 integrins. (3/302)

Hantaviruses replicate primarily in the vascular endothelium and cause two human diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). In this report, we demonstrate that the cellular entry of HFRS-associated hantaviruses is facilitated by specific integrins expressed on platelets, endothelial cells, and macrophages. Infection of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and Vero E6 cells by the HFRS-causing hantaviruses Hantaan (HTN), Seoul (SEO), and Puumala (PUU) is inhibited by antibodies to alphavbeta3 integrins and by the integrin ligand vitronectin. The cellular entry of HTN, SEO, and PUU viruses, but not the nonpathogenic Prospect Hill (PH) hantavirus (i.e., a virus with no associated human disease), was also mediated by introducting recombinant alphaIIbbeta3 or alphavbeta3 integrins into beta3-integrin-deficient CHO cells. In addition, PH infectivity was not inhibited by alphavbeta3-specific sera or vitronectin but was blocked by alpha5beta1-specific sera and the integrin ligand fibronectin. RGD tripeptides, which are required for many integrin-ligand interactions, are absent from all hantavirus G1 and G2 surface glycoproteins, and GRGDSP peptides did not inhibit hantavirus infectivity. Further, a mouse-human hybrid beta3 integrin-specific Fab fragment, c7E3 (ReoPro), also inhibited the infectivity of HTN, SEO, and PUU as well as HPS-associated hantaviruses, Sin Nombre (SN) and New York-1 (NY-1). These findings indicate that pathogenic HPS- and HFRS-causing hantaviruses enter cells via beta3 integrins, which are present on the surfaces of platelets, endothelial cells, and macrophages. Since beta3 integrins regulate vascular permeability and platelet function, these findings also correlate beta3 integrin usage with common elements of hantavirus pathogenesis.  (+info)

Cell spreading distinguishes the mechanism of augmentation of T cell activation by integrin-associated protein/CD47 and CD28. (4/302)

Integrin-associated protein (IAP/CD47) is a 50 kDa transmembrane protein initially defined as a regulator of beta3 integrin-mediated functions in neutrophils. IAP also can synergize with the TCR in T cell activation independent of beta3 integrins. To analyze the mechanism for IAP synergy with TCR, we expressed in Jurkat cells a chimeric molecule, consisting of the CD16 extracellular domain, the CD7 transmembrane domain and the TCR zeta chain cytoplasmic tail (CD16-7-zeta), which on its own is unable to induce IL-2 production. Ligation of IAP acted in synergy with TCR to induce IL-2 transcription and synthesis, but failed to synergize with the signal generated by CD16-7-zeta, while CD28 was a potent co-stimulator with both TCR and CD16-7-zeta. The failure of IAP to activate Jurkat together with CD16-7-zeta correlated with a lack of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, but not extracellular-signal-regulated kinase activation. Jurkat adhesion to anti-IAP, but not anti-CD28, induced cell spreading and the same domains of IAP required for augmentation of T cell activation were required to induce cell spreading. IAP synergy with TCR signaling likely results from its ability to stimulate adhesion to a ligand-expressing surface or antigen-presenting cell (APC), rather than from initiation of a novel signaling cascade. We conclude that a major role for ligation of IAP in T cell activation is to enhance the efficiency of TCR signaling by causing T cells to spread on an APC or surface.  (+info)

CD47 signals T cell death. (5/302)

Activation-induced death of T cells regulates immune responses and is considered to involve apoptosis induced by ligation of Fas and TNF receptors. The role of other receptors in signaling T cell death is less clear. In this study we demonstrate that activation of specific epitopes on the Ig variable domain of CD47 rapidly induces apoptosis of T cells. A new mAb, Ad22, to this site induces apoptosis of Jurkat cells and CD3epsilon-stimulated PBMC, as determined by morphological changes, phosphatidylserine exposure on the cell surface, uptake of propidium iodide, and true counts by flow cytometry. In contrast, apoptosis was not observed following culture with anti-CD47 mAbs 2D3 or B6H12 directed to a distant or closely adjacent region, respectively. CD47-mediated cell death was independent of CD3, CD4, CD45, or p56lck involvement as demonstrated by studies with variant Jurkat cell lines deficient in these signaling pathways. However, coligation of CD3epsilon and CD47 enhanced phosphatidylserine externalization on Jurkat cells with functional CD3. Furthermore, normal T cells required preactivation to respond with CD47-induced apoptosis. CD47-mediated cell death appeared to proceed independent of Fas or TNF receptor signaling and did not involve characteristic DNA fragmentation or requirement for IL-1beta-converting enzyme-like proteases or CPP32. Taken together, our data demonstrate that under appropriate conditions, CD47 activation results in very rapid T cell death, apparently mediated by a novel apoptotic pathway. Thus, CD47 may be critically involved in controlling the fate of activated T cells.  (+info)

Thrombospondin-1 acts via IAP/CD47 to synergize with collagen in alpha2beta1-mediated platelet activation. (6/302)

Integrin-associated protein (IAP; or CD47) is a receptor for the cell binding domain (CBD) of thrombospondin-1 (TS1). In platelets, IAP associates with and regulates the function of alphaIIbbeta3 integrin (Chung et al, J Biol Chem 272:14740, 1997). We test here the possibility that CD47 may also modulate the function of platelet integrin alpha2beta1, a collagen receptor. The CD47 agonist peptide, 4N1K (KRFYVVMWKK), derived from the CBD, synergizes with soluble collagen in aggregating platelet-rich plasma. 4N1K and intact TS1 also induce the aggregation of washed, unstirred platelets on immobilized collagen with a rapid increase in tyrosine phosphorylation. The effects of TS1 and 4N1K on platelet aggregation are absolutely dependent on IAP, as shown by the use of platelets from IAP-/- mice. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) prevents 4N1K-dependent aggregation on immobilized collagen but does not inhibit the 4N1K peptide stimulation of alpha2beta1-dependent platelet spreading. Finally, a detergent-stable, physical association of IAP and alpha2beta1 integrin is detected by coimmunoprecipitation. These results imply a role for IAP and TS1 in the early activation of platelets upon adhesion to collagen.  (+info)

Role of cholesterol in formation and function of a signaling complex involving alphavbeta3, integrin-associated protein (CD47), and heterotrimeric G proteins. (7/302)

Integrin-associated protein (CD47) is a multiply membrane spanning member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that regulates some adhesion-dependent cell functions through formation of a complex with alphavbeta3 integrin and trimeric G proteins. Cholesterol is critical for the association of the three protein components of the supramolecular complex and for its signaling. The multiply membrane spanning domain of IAP is required for complex formation because it binds cholesterol. The supramolecular complex forms preferentially in glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane domains. Binding of mAb 10G2 to the IAP Ig domain, previously shown to be required for association with alphavbeta3, is affected by both the multiply membrane spanning domain and cholesterol. These data demonstrate that cholesterol is an essential component of the alphavbeta3/IAP/G protein signaling complex, presumably acting through an effect on IAP conformation.  (+info)

Identification of CD47/integrin-associated protein and alpha(v)beta3 as two receptors for the alpha3(IV) chain of type IV collagen on tumor cells. (8/302)

Previous studies from our laboratories demonstrated that a peptide from the noncollagenous domain of the alpha3 chain of basement membrane collagen (COL IV), comprising residues 185-203, inhibits polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation and melanoma cell proliferation independently of its ability to promote cell adhesion; these properties require the presence of the triplet -SNS- at residues 189-191 (J. C. Monboisse et al., J. Biol. Chem., 269: 25475-25482, 1994; J. Han et al., J. Biol. Chem., 272: 20395-20401, 1997). More recently, we demonstrated that native COL IV and -SNS-containing synthetic peptides (10 microg/ml) added to culture medium inhibit the proliferation of not only melanoma cells but also breast, pancreas, and stomach tumor cells up to 82% and prostate tumor cells by 15%. This inhibition was shown to be dependent on a COL IV- or peptide-induced increase in intracellular cAMP (T. A. Shahan et al., Connect. Tissue Res., 40: 221-232, 1999). Attempts to identify the putative receptor(s) on tumor cells led to the isolation of five proteins (Mr 33,000, 52,000, 72,000, 95,000, and 250,000) from melanoma and prostate cells by affinity purification with the alpha3(IV)179-208 peptide. The Mr 52,000, 95,000, and 250,000 proteins were shown to be CD47/integrin-associated protein(IAP), the integrin beta3 subunit, and the alpha(v)beta3 integrin complex, respectively. The Mr 33,000 and 72,000 proteins have not yet been identified. To confirm the specificity of ligand binding to the receptors, cell membranes from either melanoma or prostate tumor cells were pretreated with the unlabeled ligand alpha3(IV)187-191 (-YYSNS-); alternatively, the peptide was pretreated with a peptide-reactive monoclonal antibody (A5D7) before receptor isolation. These treatments inhibited the purification of CD47/IAP, the integrin beta3 subunit, and the alpha(v)beta3 integrin complex from tumor cells. Furthermore, cells treated with CD47/IAP- or the alpha(v)beta3 integrin-reactive antibodies prevented the alpha3(IV)185-203 peptide from inhibiting cell proliferation and the subsequent rise in intracellular cAMP. Pretreating cells with the alpha3(IV)187-191 (-YYSNS-) peptide also inhibited their adhesion to the alpha3(IV)185-203 peptide substrate, whereas the inactive alpha1(IV)185-203 peptide, from the same region of the alpha1 chain as the alpha3(IV)185-203 peptide, had no effect. Incubation of cells with either CD47/IAP and/or alpha(v)beta3 integrin-reactive antibodies inhibited their adhesion to the alpha3(IV)185-203 peptide, whereas antibodies to the beta1 and beta2 integrin subunits were without effect. These data suggest that ALC-COL IV, through its alpha3(IV) chain, inhibits tumor cell proliferation using the receptors CD47/IAP and the alpha(v)beta3 integrin.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd45 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.146 --- antigens, cd46 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.147 --- antigens, cd47 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd45 MeSH D23.101.100.110.146 --- antigens, cd46 MeSH D23.101.100.110.147 --- antigens, cd47 MeSH D23.101.100.110.155 ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...

*CD47

... was first identified as a tumor antigen on human ovarian cancer in the 1980s. Since then, CD47 has been found to be ... CD47 CD47 molecule". Sick E, Jeanne A, Schneider C, Dedieu S, Takeda K, Martiny L (December 2012). "CD47 update: a multifaceted ... is elevated in CD47-null endothelial cells and a human T cell line lacking CD47. Activation of CD47 with TSP-1 in wild-type ... 1994). "Rh-related antigen CD47 is the signal-transducer integrin-associated protein". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (3): 1567-70. PMID ...

*SIRPG

2006). "Adhesion of human T cells to antigen-presenting cells through SIRPbeta2-CD47 interaction costimulates T-cell ... Brooke G, Holbrook JD, Brown MH, Barclay AN (2004). "Human lymphocytes interact directly with CD47 through a novel member of ...

*Phagoptosis

... signal CD47, and exposure of novel antigens that bind endogenous antibodies. Neutrophils have a daily rhythm of entry and exit ... Antigen recognition causes phosphatidylserine exposure on activated T-cells, which is recognized by Tim-4 on macrophages, ... "Don't-eat-me" signals include CD47, which when expressed on the surface of a cell, inhibit phagocytosis of that cell, by ... More recently it has become clear that most human cancer cells overexpress CD47 on their surface to prevent themselves being ...

*RHAG

The Rh antigens appear to exist as a multisubunit complex of CD47 (MIM 601028), LW (MIM 111250), glycophorin B (MIM 111740), ... The Rh blood group antigens (MIM 111700) are associated with human erythrocyte membrane proteins of approximately 30 kD, the so ... Dahl KN, Westhoff CM, Discher DE (Feb 2003). "Fractional attachment of CD47 (IAP) to the erythrocyte cytoskeleton and visual ... blood-group antigen expression". The Biochemical Journal. 287. 287 (1): 223-8. PMC 1133147 . PMID 1417776. Avent ND, Ridgwell K ...

*Cancer immunotherapy

Anti-CD47 antibodies, which block the protein CD47 from telling the cancer host's immune system not to attack it, have been ... Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the mammalian immune system. In cancer treatment they aid cancer antigen ... Cancer vaccine Antigen 5T4 Chimeric antigen receptor Coley's Toxins Combinatorial ablation and immunotherapy Cryoimmunotherapy ... CD47 is present on many cancer cells and on many healthy cells. After the cancer cells have been engulfed by macrophages, the ...

*ITGAV

CD51 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGAV Info with links in the Cell Migration ... "The vitronectin receptor and its associated CD47 molecule mediates proinflammatory cytokine synthesis in human monocytes by ... "Entrez Gene: ITGAV integrin, alpha V (vitronectin receptor, alpha polypeptide, antigen CD51)". Hermann P, Armant M, Brown E, ...

*Calreticulin

... but calreticulin is not a Ro/SS-A antigen. Earlier papers referred to calreticulin as an Ro/SS-A antigen, but this was later ... The reason why most of the cells are not destroyed is the presence of another molecule with signal CD47, which blocks CRT. ... Hence antibodies that block CD47 might be useful as a cancer treatment. In mice models of myeloid leukemia and non-Hodgkin's ... This association prepares the MHC class I for binding an antigen for presentation on the cell surface. Calreticulin is also ...

*Signal-regulatory protein alpha

SIRPα recognizes CD47, that is an antiphagocytic signal distinguished live cells from dying. CD47 has a single Ig-like ... 1997). "BIT, an immune antigen receptor-like molecule in the brain". FEBS Lett. 411 (2-3): 327-34. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(97) ... The extracellular domain of SIRP α binds to CD47 and transmits intracellular signals through its cytoplasmic domain. CD47- ... SIRP α recognize soluble ligands such as surfactant protein A and D that bind to the same region as CD47 and block binding of ...

*K. Christopher Garcia

At Stanford University, Garcia has continued to study antigen recognition by both antibodies and TCRs. The Garcia Laboratory ... In 2013, Garcia's group developed high affinity antagonists of the receptor CD47 that potently enhance the antitumor effects of ... Garcia later determined that the therapeutic effects of CD47 blockade require combination therapy with checkpoint blockade ... which revealed how pre-BCRs oligomerize to signal in the absence of antigen. Garcia's group has also authored several landmark ...

*Tumor microenvironment

TAMs mediate the effects of antitumor antibodies and genetically engineered ligands that interact with CD47 to prevent the CD47 ... One such antigen was MAGE-A1. The coexistence of a progressing melanoma with melanoma-specific T cells implicitly does not ... complexes that activate intratumoral DCs to cross-present antigen to CD8+ T cells. They are targeted against oncogenic ... in which clinical ACT trials with chimeric antigen receptor T cells have demonstrated efficacy. See: Tumor-associated ...

*Induced stem cells

A different approach to CRC is to inhibit CD47-a membrane protein that is the thrombospondin-1 receptor. Loss of CD47 permits ... DC-like antigen-presenting cells obtained from human induced pluripotent stem cells can serve as a source for vaccination ... Thrombospondin-1 is a key environmental signal that inhibits stem cell self-renewal via CD47. Thus, CD47 antagonists enable ... CD47 knockdown acutely increases mRNA levels of c-Myc and other stem cell transcription factors in cells in vitro and in vivo. ...
Two closely related proteins, signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα; SHPS-1/CD172) and SIRPβ, have been described in humans. The existence of a third SIRP protein has been suggested by cDNA sequence only. We show that this third SIRP is a separate gene that is expressed as a protein with unique characteristics from both α and β genes and suggest that this gene should be termed SIRPγ. We have expressed the extracellular region of SIRPγ as a soluble protein and have shown that, like SIRPα, it binds CD47, but with a lower affinity (K d , ∼23 μM) compared with SIRPα (K d , ∼2 μM). mAbs specific to SIRPγ show that it was not expressed on myeloid cells, in contrast to SIRPα and -β, being expressed instead on the majority of T cells and a proportion of B cells. The short cytoplasmic tail of SIRPγ does not contain any known signaling motifs, nor does it contain a characteristic lysine, as with SIRPα, that is required for DAP12 interaction. DAP12 coexpression is a requirement for SIRPβ surface
Signal regulatory proteins (SIRPs) constitute a family of transmembrane glycoproteins with extracellular Ig-like domains. Several SIRP family members have thus far been identified on myeloid and other cells in man, mouse, rat, and cattle. In the present study, we provide a description of the SIRP multigene family, including a number of previously undescribed SIRP genes, based on the complete genome sequences of various mammalian and bird species. We discuss this information in the context of the known immunological properties of the individual SIRP family members. Our analysis reveals SIRPs as a diverse multigene family of immune receptors, which includes inhibitory SIRPalpha, activating SIRPbeta, nonsignaling SIRPgamma, and soluble SIRPdelta members. For each species, there appears to be a single inhibitory SIRPalpha member that, upon interaction with the self ligand CD47, controls homeostatic innate immune effector functions, such as host cell phagocytosis. The activating SIRPbeta proteins show
Complete information for SIRPA gene (Protein Coding), Signal Regulatory Protein Alpha, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The leukocyte response integrin (LRI) is a phagocyte integrin which recognizes the basement membrane protein entactin and the synthetic peptide Lys-Gly-Ala-Gly-Asp-Val (KGAGDV). The function of LRI is intimately associated with that of a distinct membrane protein, integrin-associated protein (IAP), as antibodies which recognizes IAP can inhibit all known functions of LRI. When adherent to surface, the LRI ligands entactin and KGAGDV activate the respiratory burst in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes, as do monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed at either LRI or IAP. When added in solution, peptides and antibodies specific for LRI, and some, but not all, anti-IAP antibodies, can inhibit the respiratory burst activated by any of these surface-adherent ligands. Only monoclonal anti-IAP antibodies which can inhibit LRI function when added in solution are competent to activate the respiratory burst when adherent to a surface. KGAGDV peptide and anti-LRI added in solution can inhibit ...
Neutrophil granulocytes constitute the front line of defense in the innate immune response to invading microorganisms, but can also contribute to development of inflammatory disease and tissue destruction following e.g. myocardial infarction or stroke. During inflammatory activation, neutrophils leave the blood, interact with extracellular matrix proteins, and migrate into tissues in response to chemotactic factors to phagocytose and kill infectious agents by using toxic granule contents and reactive oxygen metabolites. The functional neutrophil response relies on exocytosis of cytoplasmic granules, each containing membrane proteins, which are thereby mobilized to the plasma membrane. Specific programmed cell death (apoptotic) pathways regulate neutrophil homeostasis, where an inflammatory milieu can prolong the life span of neutrophils to several days, whereas non-activated neutrophils are committed to constitutive/spontaneous apoptosis within hours.. Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) is ...
CD47 functions as a marker of self on red blood cells (RBCs) by binding to signal regulatory protein alpha on macrophages, preventing phagocytosis of autologous RBCs by splenic red pulp macrophages, and Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaR)- or complement receptor-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages in general. RBC senescence involves a series of biochemical changes to plasma membrane proteins or lipids, which may regulate phagocytosis by macrophages. Here, we investigated whether CD47 on experimentally senescent murine RBCs affects their phagocytosis by macrophages in vitro. Clustering of CD47 with antibodies was more pronounced in the plasma membrane of untreated RBCs, compared with that in in vitro oxidized RBCs (Ox-RBCs). Phagocytosis of Ox-RBCs was mediated by scavenger receptors (SRs) distinct from SR-A or CD36 and required serum factors. We found that wild-type (WT) and CD47(-/-) Ox-RBCs were phagocytosed equally well by macrophages in the presence of serum, suggesting that phagocytosis via SRs is ...
Interaction of signal regulatory protein (SIRP) expressed on the surface of macrophages with its ligand CD47 expressed on target cells negatively regulates phagocytosis of the latter cells by the former. We recently showed that blocking Abs to mouse SIRP enhanced both the Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) activity of mouse macrophages for Burkitts lymphoma Raji cells opsonized with an Ab to CD20 (rituximab) invitro as well as the inhibitory effect of rituximab on the growth of tumors formed by Raji cells in nonobese diabetic (NOD)/SCID mice. However, the effects of blocking Abs to human SIRP in preclinical cancer models have remained unclear given that such Abs have failed to interact with endogenous SIRP expressed on macrophages of immunodeficient mice. With the use of Rag2(c)(-/-)(-/-) mice harboring a transgene for human SIRP under the control of human regulatory elements (hSIRP-DKO mice), we here show that a blocking Ab to human SIRP significantly enhanced the ADCP activity of ...
Signal integration between activating Fc receptors and inhibitory signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) controls macrophage phagocytosis. Here, using dual-color direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, we report that Fcγ receptor I (FcγRI), FcγRII, and SIRPα are not homogeneously distributed at macrophage surfaces but are organized in discrete nanoclusters, with a mean radius of 71 ± 11 nm, 60 ± 6 nm, and 48 ± 3 nm, respectively. Nanoclusters of FcγRI, but not FcγRII, are constitutively associated with nanoclusters of SIRPα, within 62 ± 5 nm, mediated by the actin cytoskeleton. Upon Fc receptor activation, Src-family kinase signaling leads to segregation of FcγRI and SIRPα nanoclusters to be 197 ± 3 nm apart. Co-ligation of SIRPα with CD47 abrogates nanocluster segregation. If the balance of signals favors activation, FcγRI nanoclusters reorganize into periodically spaced concentric rings. Thus, a nanometer- and micron-scale reorganization of activating and inhibitory
The P84 monoclonal antibody reacts with Signal-Regulatory Protein α (SIRPα), also known as CD172a. SIRPα is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Neurons and other tissues of the central nervous system have also been shown to express SIRPα. Its ligand, CD47 is expressed by a wide variety of cells. SIRPα and CD47 regulate dendritic cell-mediated T cell activation, neutrophil migration, and phagocytosis. SIRPα diffuses laterally on the macrophage membrane and accumulates at a phagocytic synapse to bind CD47 which inhibits phagocytosis by macrophages. Anti-SIRPα antibodies that block the interaction of SIRPα with CD47 have been shown to suppress tumor formation in mice. The P84 antibody has been shown to have neutralizing activity in vivo and in vitro ...
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Clone B4B6 recognizes the human CD172b antigen, a single-pass type I membrane protein also known as signal-regulatory protein beta (SIRPβ). SIRPs are a family of transmembrane receptor-like signaling proteins that are abundantly expressed in hematopoietic cells, including granulocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes. In addition, SIRPs are expressed in neuronal cells and certain types of cancer cells. SIRPs can be divided into two subfamilies, CD172a and CD172b, based on the putative structures of their C-terminal intracellular domains which distinguish them as either activating (CD172b) or inhibitory (CD172a) isoforms. CD172b is expressed on peripheral blood monocytes, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. - USA
Immunoglobulin-like cell surface receptor involved in the negative regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase-coupled signaling processes.
Reaktivität: Rind (Kuh), Pferd, Human and more. 68 verschiedene SIRPG Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
Targeting the CD47-signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα) pathway represents a novel therapeutic approach to enhance anti-cancer immunity by promoting both innate and adaptive immune responses. Unlike CD47, which is expressed ubiquitously, SIRPα expression is mainly restricted to myeloid cells and neurons. Therefore, compared to CD47-targeted therapies, targeting SIRPα may result in differential safety and efficacy profiles, potentially enabling lower effective doses and improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The development of effective SIRPα antagonists is restricted by polymorphisms within the CD47-binding domain of SIRPα, necessitating pan-allele reactive anti-SIRPα antibodies for therapeutic intervention in diverse patient populations. We immunized wild-type and human antibody transgenic chickens with a multi-allele and multi-species SIRPα regimen in order to discover pan-allelic and pan-mammalian reactive anti-SIRPα antibodies suitable for clinical translation. A total of ...
CD47 (Cluster of Differentiation 47) also known as integrin associated protein (IAP) is a transmembrane protein that in humans is encoded by the CD47 gene. CD47 belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and partners with membrane integrins and also binds the ligands thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα).
CD47 is involved in a range of cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation, adhesion, and migration. Furthermore, it plays a key role in immune and angiogenic responses. CD47 is ubiquitously expressed in human cells and has been found to be overexpressed in many different tumor cells.
SIRP alpha antibody [OX-41] (signal-regulatory protein alpha) for FACS, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB. Anti-SIRP alpha mAb (GTX42349) is tested in Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
SIRPB1 - SIRPB1 (untagged)-Human signal-regulatory protein beta 1 (SIRPB1), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
SIRPG - SIRPG (untagged)-Human signal-regulatory protein gamma (SIRPG), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
SIRP alpha小鼠多克隆抗体(ab77061)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Looking for online definition of Signal-regulatory protein alpha-1 in the Medical Dictionary? Signal-regulatory protein alpha-1 explanation free. What is Signal-regulatory protein alpha-1? Meaning of Signal-regulatory protein alpha-1 medical term. What does Signal-regulatory protein alpha-1 mean?
High autophagic activity in podocytes, terminally differentiated cells that serve as main components of the kidney filtration barrier, is essential for podocyte survival under various challenges. How podocytes maintain such a high level of autophagy, however, remains unclear. Here we report that signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) plays a key role in promoting podocyte autophagy. Unlike other glomerular cells, podocytes strongly expressed SIRPα, which was, however, downregulated in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and mice with experimental nephropathy. Podocyte SIRPα levels were inversely correlated with the severity of podocyte injury and proteinuria but positively with autophagy. Compared with WT littermates, Sirpa-deficient mice displayed greater age-related podocyte injury and proteinuria and developed more rapid and severe renal injury in various models of experimental nephropathy. Mechanistically, podocyte SIRPα strongly reduced Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exosome-SIRPα, a CD47 blockade increases cancer cell phagocytosis. AU - Koh, Eunee. AU - Lee, Eun Jung. AU - Nam, Gi Hoon. AU - Hong, Yeonsun. AU - Cho, Eunji. AU - Yang, Yoosoo. AU - Kim, In-San. PY - 2017/3/1. Y1 - 2017/3/1. N2 - CD47, a "dont eat me" signal, is over-expressed on the surface of most tumors that interacts with signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) on phagocytic cells. By engaging SIRPα, CD47 limits the ability of macrophages to engulf tumor cells, which acts as a major phagocytic barrier. In this study, we developed an exosome-based immune checkpoint blockade that antagonizes the interaction between CD47 and SIRPα. These exosomes harboring SIRPα variants (SIRPα-exosomes) were sufficient to induce remarkably augmented tumor phagocytosis, lead to prime effective anti-tumor T cell response. Given that clustering of native CD47 provides a high binding avidity to ligate dimerized SIRPα on macrophage, nature-derived exosomes could be appreciable platform to ...
Hornet trap | Radiopaque elastomeric horseshoe | Cooler and tackle box | Apparatus for breeding fly larvae | Non-human animals having a humanized signal-regulatory protein gene |
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) SHP-1 and SHP-2 are critical regulators in the intracellular signaling pathways that result in cell responses such as mitosis, differentiation, migration, survival, transformation or death. SHP-2 is a signal transducer for several receptor tyrosine kinases and cytokine receptors. A novel SHP-2 associated glycoprotein was recently cloned from human, rat, mouse and cattle by several labs and was designated SIRPalpha, SHPS-1, MyD-1, BIT and p84. SIRPalpha is a new gene family containing at least fifteen members. SIRPalpha is a substrate of many activated tyrosine kinases such as insulin receptor, EGFR, PDGFR and src, and a specific docking protein for SHP-2. SIRPalpha has regulatory effects on cellular responses induced by serum, growth factors, insulin, oncogenes, growth hormones and cell adhesion and plays a general role in different physiological and pathological processes.. ...
Volume 108, Issue 1, 15 February 2002, Pages: 16-22, Mohammad A. Karim, Koji Suzuki, Kazuyoshi Fukai, Jangsuk Oh, Deborah L. Nagle, Karen J. Moore, Ernest Barbosa, Tzipora Falik-Borenstein, Alexandra Filipovich, Yasushi Ishida, Sirpa Kivrikko, Christoph Klein, Friedmar Kreuz, Alex Levin, Hiroaki Miyajima, Jose R. Regueiro, Carolyn Russo, Eiichiro Uyama, Outi Vierimaa and Richard A. Spritz. Version of Record online : 16 JAN 2002, DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.10184. ...
Siinkohal on kohane kritiseerida ka valitsevat arvamust, nagu oleks kaalu langetamine imelihtne - tuleb vaid süüa vähem ja sportida rohkem. Paraku me kõik teame, et sellel on vaid lühiajaline mõju. Inimkeha on väga kohanemisvõimeline. Kui toidust saadav energiakogus väheneb, siis hakkab keha vastusena vähendama ka kulutatavat energiat - ainevahetuse baastase langeb. Seda on teatud tegelikult juba pea sada aastat14 ja see muudab meie praeguse obsessiivse kalorilugemismaania veelgi veidramaks. Dieeditav inimene tunneb ennast peagi apaatse ja väsinuna, tal on külm ja pidevalt vaevab näljatunne. Tõsi, kaal on vähenenud, aga peagi jõutakse nn platooni, mis tähendab seda, et kulutatav ja tarbitav energiakogus on tasakaalus.. Kui masenduses dieeditaja siis näljatunde leevendamiseks pisut rohkem sööma hakkab, hakkavad ka kilod tagasi tulema, sest ainevahetus on endiselt kokkuhoiurežiimil. Kõige kurvem on, et see juhtub ka siis, kui tarbitav energiakogus on ikkagi palju väiksem kui ...
During the development of multicellular organisms, integrins act through integrin-associated molecules to regulate essential aspects of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, cell polarity and cell survival. On p. 2913, Reinhard Fässler and co-authors report that the integrin-associated protein PINCH1 regulates all four of these processes during the peri-implantation stage of mouse development. PINCH1 interacts with integrin cytoplasmic tails at focal adhesions via integrin-linked kinase (ILK). The authors show that, like β1-integrin- and Ilk-deficient mice, mouse embryos carrying a disrupted PINCH1 gene arrest at the peri-implantation stage. To pinpoint this phenotype, the authors examined embryoid bodies (EBs), an experimental model for this stage of development. Although PINCH1-null EBs show many of the same defects as β1-integrin- and Ilk-mutant EBs (including abnormal epiblast polarity and detachment of cells from matrix), they also exhibit abnormal cell-cell adhesion and increased ...
Sirpa Leppänens publications https://www.jyu.fi/hytk/fi/laitokset/kivi/tutkimus/hankkeet/paattyneet-tutkimushankkeet/varieng/en/personnel/leppanen/List_of_publications_Leppnen4_2013.doc/view https://www.jyu.fi/hytk/@@site-logo/logo.png ...
Dendritic cells (DCs) can be sub-divided into various subsets that play specialized roles in priming of adaptive immune responses. Atherosclerosis is regarded as a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall and DCs can be found in non-inflamed and diseased arteries. We here performed a systematic analyses of DCs subsets during atherogenesis. Our data indicate that distinct DC subsets can be localized in the vessel wall. In C57BL/6 and low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr−/−) mice, CD11c+ MHCII+ DCs could be discriminated into CD103− CD11b+F4/80+, CD11b+F4/80− and CD11b−F4/80− DCs and CD103+ CD11b−F4/80− DCs. Except for CD103− CD11b− F4/80− DCs, these subsets expanded in high fat diet-fed Ldlr−/− mice. Signal-regulatory protein (Sirp)-α was detected on aortic macrophages, CD11b+ DCs, and partially on CD103− CD11b− F4/80− but not on CD103+ DCs. Notably, in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-ligand-deficient (Flt3l−/−) mice, a specific loss of CD103+ ...
Director Teppo Kröger (teppo.kroger(at)jyu.fi). Vice director Sirpa Wrede (sirpa.wrede(at)helsinki.fi). Coordinator Emilia Leinonen (emilia.a.leinonen(at)jyu.fi). ...
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Biohit Oyj Stock Exchange Release June 11, 2014 at 5 p.m. local time (EEST) MEP Sirpa Pietikäinen asked the Commission, whether the Commission, in the light of research which stresses the carcinogenic nature of acetaldehyde, does intend to set a limit for acetaldehyde in food or alcoholic beverages?
The identification of Rap1 effector proteins has provided important insights into mechanisms by which Rap1 regulates T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling to integrins. A constitutively active Rap1 construct, Rap1G12V, was used as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify RAPL as a Rap1-binding protein.[3]. Overexpression of RAPL enhances LFA-1 clustering and adhesion, and RAPL-deficient lymphocytes and dendritic cells exhibit impaired adhesion and migration.[4] RAPL is also an integrin-associated protein as RAPL polarizes to the immunological synapse following antigen stimulation of T cells, colocalizes with LFA-1 following TCR or chemokine stimulation, and co-immunoprecipitates with LFA-1 in a Rap1-dependent manner (108). This interaction between RAPL and LFA-1 is dependent on lysine residues at positions 1097 and 1099 in the juxtamembrane region of the αL-subunit cytoplasmic domain. This is a functionally significant region of the αL cytoplasmic domain as deletion of the adjacent GFFKR ...
Sirpa encodes an Ig superfamily receptor expressed on macrophages, dendritic cells, and neurons. SIRPα and its ubiquitously expressed ligand CD47 interact through their respective Ig variable region (IgV) like domains . Upon binding CD47, SIRPα immunoreceptor tyrosine- based inhibition motifs mediate inhibitory signals via recruitment of the src homology-2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 leading to decreased phagocytosis by macrophages, inhibition of neutrophil migration, and attenuated production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
As the buzz in plastic surgery circles continues to build about breast augmentation through fat transfer, it may be ever more tempting to consider the procedure. That is, if you feel Mother Nature shorted you in the breast department.
SIRP alpha Monoclonal Antibody, Biotin conjugate from Invitrogen for Immunohistochemistry (Frozen) and Flow Cytometry applications. This antibody reacts with Rat samples. Clone: OX-41. Supplied as 500 ug purified antibody (0.1 mg/ml) in PBS with 4-5mg/ml BSA and 0.02% sodium azide.
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ABT-510 is synthetic peptide that mimics the anti-angiogenic activity of the endogenous protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). ABT-510 inhibits the actions of several pro-angiogenic growth factors important to tumor neovascularization; these pro-angiogenic growth factors include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and interleukin 8 (IL-8). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung IAP. Online im Internet; URL: https://www.iap.fraunhofer.de/de/Das_Fraunhofer_IAP/Auszeichnungen.html. Datum: 14.11.2019 18:59. ...
CD47-specific antibodies and fusion proteins that block CD47-SIRPα signaling are employed as antitumor agents for several cancers. Here, we investigated the synergistic antitumor effect of simultaneously targeting CD47 and autophagy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). SIRPαD1-Fc, a novel CD47-targeting fusion protein, was generated and was found to increase the phagocytic and cytotoxic activities of macrophages against NSCLC cells. During this process, autophagy was markedly triggered, which was characterized by the three main stages of autophagic flux, including formation and accumulation of autophagosomes, fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes, and degradation of autophagosomes in lysosomes. Meanwhile, reactive oxygen species and inactivation of mTOR were shown to be involved in autophagy initiation in SIRPαD1-Fc-treated cells, indicating a probable mechanism for autophagy activation after targeting CD47 by SIRPαD1-Fc. Inhibition of autophagy enhanced macrophage-mediated phagocytosis ...
EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF), Vittorio Silano, Claudia Bolognesi, Laurence Castle, Kevin Chipman, Jean‐Pierre Cravedi, Karl‐Heinz Engel, Paul Fowler, Roland Franz, Konrad Grob, Rainer Gürtler, Trine Husøy, Sirpa Kärenlampi, Maria Rosaria Milana, Karla Pfaff, Gilles Riviere, Jannavi Srinivasan, Maria de Fátima Tavares Poças, Christina Tlustos, Detlef Wölfle, Holger Zorn, Ulla Beckman Sundh, Romualdo Benigni, Mona‐Lise Binderup, Leon Brimer, Francesca Marcon, Daniel Marzin, Pasquale Mosesso, Gerard Mulder, Agneta Oskarsson, Camilla Svendsen, Maria Anastassiadou, Maria Carfì, Wim ...
EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP), Guido Rychen, Gabriele Aquilina, Giovanna Azimonti, Vasileios Bampidis, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Georges Bories, Andrew Chesson, Pier Sandro Cocconcelli, Gerhard Flachowsky, Jürgen Gropp, Boris Kolar, Maryline Kouba, Marta López‐Alonso, Secundino López Puente, Alberto Mantovani, Baltasar Mayo, Fernando Ramos, Maria Saarela, Roberto Edoardo Villa, Pieter Wester, Lucio Costa, Noël Dierick, Lubomir Leng, Boet Glandorf, Lieve Herman, Sirpa Kärenlampi, Jaime Aguilera, Jordi Tarrés‐Call, Robert John ...
We, at the New England Center for Hair Restoration strive to get the latest techniques and innovations in hair transplant surgery for excellence. Over the years, we have incorporated the use of A Cell MatriStem MicroMatrix®, a sterile porcine-derived naturally occurring lyophilized extracellular matrix in powder form that maintains and supports a healing environment for soft tissue environment. Our experience shows that exposing and soaking the grafts to A Cell MatriStem MicroMatrix® yield an optimal hair follicular tissue survival, growth and proliferation. As have been claimed from other sources, the A Cell MatriStem MicroMatrix® grows a severed fingertips and other loss of tissues.. ...
The innate-immune function of phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, tissue-debris, pathogens and cancer cells is essential for homeostasis, tissue repair, fighting infection and combating malignancy. Phagocytosis is carried out in the CNS by resident microglia and in both CNS and PNS by recruited macrophages. While phagocytosis proceeds, bystander healthy cells protect themselves by sending a
CD47 and SHPS-1 are transmembrane proteins that interact with each other through their extracellular regions and constitute a bidirectional cell-cell communication system (the CD47-SHPS-1 system). We have now shown that the trans-interaction of CD47 and SHPS-1 that occurred on contact of CD47-expressing CHO cells and SHPS-1-expressing CHO cells resulted in ...
Health & Wellness column: - Originally made to be a topping for oven baked onions, Danish chef Oscar Umahro Cadogans recipe for Lentil-Zucchini Mash With Nigella Seeds And Roasted Sesame Oil can also be used like mashed potatoes or as a spread. Try adding chili, coriander, fresh basil, fish sauce, sesame seeds, or other condiments.
Although CD99 has been known to be critical for leukocyte transmigration for over a decade (Schenkel et al., 2002; Bixel et al., 2004, 2010; Lou et al., 2007; Dufour et al., 2008), the mechanism has remained completely unknown. Here, we report that homophilic engagement of endothelial CD99 recruits membrane from the LBRC to sites of leukocyte-endothelial contact to facilitate the passage of leukocytes through the endothelial junctions. This engagement of endothelial CD99 (Fig. 10 e, #1) signals through sAC (Fig. 10 e, #2) to activate PKA (Fig. 1 e, #3), which works through a yet-to-be-defined mechanism (Fig. 10 e, #4) to induce LBRC membrane trafficking (Fig. 10 e, #5). Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD99 and sAC are held together in a signaling complex with ezrin and PKA and that this interaction is dependent on a lysine-rich juxtamembrane region in the cytoplasmic tail of CD99. These findings represent the first description of the immediate downstream signaling mechanisms of CD99, as well as ...
SIRP alpha Monoclonal Antibody, FITC conjugate from Invitrogen for Immunofluorescence, Immunocytochemistry, Flow Cytometry and Radioimmune Assays applications. This antibody reacts with Rat samples. Clone: MRC OX-41. Supplied as 100 µg purified antibody (0.1 mg/ml) in PBS with 0.5% BSA and 0.02% sodium azide.
Hans Christer Andersson, Salvatore Arpaia, Detlef Bartsch, Josep Casacuberta, Howard Davies, Patrick du Jardin, Lieve Herman, Niels Hendriksen, Sirpa Kärenlampi, Jozsef Kiss, Gijs Kleter, Ilona Kryspin-Sørensen, Harry Kuiper, Ingolf Nes, Nickolas Panopoulos, Joe Perry, Annette Pöting, Joachim Schiemann, Willem Seinen, Jeremy Sweet and Jean-Michel Wal ...
Ischemic and pharmacological preconditioning are protective phenomena that occur in virtually every tissue and experimental model. While being particularly sensitive to I/R injury, endothelial integrity is of critical importance to obtain effective reperfusion and survival of tissues exposed to I/R (23); for instance, I/R-induced endothelial dysfunction is felt to be responsible for the no-reflow phenomenon, a condition where, despite effective recanalization, reperfusion (and tissue survival) are limited by (endothelium-dependent) phenomena such as platelet and leukocyte activation, endothelial swelling, and (micro)vascular thrombosis. Studies of I/R injury are very complex in humans. Of importance, the human in vivo forearm model described here has been previously used by our group and others (10, 11, 22) to specifically study I/R-induced endothelial dysfunction while leaving smooth muscle responses unaltered, and the I/R-induced endothelial dysfunction observed in this model can be prevented ...
Sign regulatory protein (SIRP) is certainly a important resistant inhibitory receptor in macrophages, and its interaction with Compact disc47 prevents autologous phagocytosis. hCD47-LCL cells are considerably even more resistant than pKS-LCL cells to devastation by individual macrophages (Body 1), which is certainly constant with our prior findings (12). Jerk/SCID rodents had been intraperitoneally inserted with the 1:1 blended hCD47-LCL and pKS-LCL cells (5107 /mouse in total; Body 2A), and sacrificed either when they initial demonstrated symptoms constant with growth advancement (listlessness, hunched position, pounds reduction, and palpable stomach bloating and/or mass) or Esomeprazole Magnesium trihydrate supplier at time 45 post-injection. In the 12 Esomeprazole Magnesium trihydrate supplier rodents analyzed, five created noticeable tumors (Body 2B). Growth cell suspensions had been eventually ready and tarnished with anti-pig course I and anti-human Compact disc47 in purchase to Rabbit ...
Hans Christer Andersson, Salvatore Arpaia, Detlef Bartsch, Josep Casacuberta, Howard Davies, Patrick du Jardin, Lieve Herman, Niels Hendriksen, Sirpa Kärenlampi, Jozsef Kiss, Gijs Kleter, Ilona Kryspin-Sørensen, Harry Kuiper, Ingolf Nes, Nickolas Panopoulos, Joe Perry, Annette Pöting, Joachim Schiemann, Willem Seinen, Jeremy Sweet and Jean-Michel Wal ...
Thrombospondin小鼠单克隆抗体[A6.1](ab1823)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 羊, 马, 牛, 狗, 人, 猪样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被17篇文献引用…
TY - JOUR. T1 - An actin-based protrusion originating from a podosome-enriched region initiates macrophage fusion. AU - Faust, James J.. AU - Balabiyev, Arnat. AU - Heddleston, John M.. AU - Podolnikova, Nataly P.. AU - Baluch, D. Page. AU - Chew, Teng Leong. AU - Ugarova, Tatiana P.. PY - 2019/8/1. Y1 - 2019/8/1. N2 - Macrophage fusion resulting in the formation of multinucleated giant cells occurs in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, yet the mechanism responsible for initiating this process is unknown. Here, we used live cell imaging to show that actin-based protrusions at the leading edge initiate macrophage fusion. Phase-contrast video microscopy demonstrated that in the majority of events, short protrusions (∼3 µm) between two closely apposed cells initiated fusion, but occasionally we observed long protrusions (∼12 µm). Using macrophages isolated from LifeAct mice and imaging with lattice light sheet microscopy, we further found that fusion-competent protrusions formed at ...
Coamplification of signals from the extracellular matrix and L1 has been described in studies on cell migration and axon outgrowth (Felsenfeld et al., 1994; Treubert and Brümmendorf, 1998; Thelen et al., 2002), but the mechanism has not been defined previously. Here we demonstrate coamplification in oligodendrocyte survival signaling, and our data on the activation of Fyn provide a mechanism to explain these present and previous observations. They also significantly extend our previous knowledge on how axon contact mediates oligodendrocyte survival by answering two questions. First, how is Fyn activated by axonal contact? Second, given that laminins are present in the extracellular matrix of the CNS, and therefore may remain accessible even when an axon is myelinated, how is oligodendrocyte survival precisely linked to the axolemmal contact that precedes myelination? The identification of contactin as an integrin-associated surface molecule, required for phosphorylation of the activating ...
Wang, Qin; Würtz, Peter; Auro, Kirsi; Mäkinen, Ville-Petteri; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Tiainen, Mika; Tynkkynen, Tuulia; Jokelainen, Jari; Santalahti, Kristiina; Salmi, Marko; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Salomaa, Veikko; Perola, Markus; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Raitakari, Olli T.; Kettunen, Johannes; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Ala-Korpela, Mika ...
On 28 June, MEPs Marisa Matias (Portugal) and Sirpa Pietikäinen (Finland) co-hosted an AE lunch debate entitled "Using the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) to support the rights of people living with dementia" in the European Parliament in Brussels. The first speaker was Helen Rochford Brennan, Chair of the Irish Dementia Working Group and also a Vice-Chairperson of the European Working Group of People with Dementia. She was followed by Jill Stavert, Professor of Law and Director of the Centre for Mental Health and Incapacity Law at Edinburgh Napier University. The final speaker was Jonathan Stabenow from the Cabinet of Marianne Thyssen, Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility at the European Commission ...
Katrin Idla. KAUPO TEESALU, sünd 1971 Tartu Ülikool Taotletav teaduskraad: filosoofiadoktor (PhD), arstiteadus Doktoritöö „Autoantibodies against desmin and transglutaminase 2 in celiac disease: diagnostic and functional significance" („Autoantikehad desmiini ja transglutaminaas 2 vastu tsöliaakia korral: diagnostiline ja funktsionaalne tähendus") http://dspace.utlib.ee/dspace/bitstream/handle/10062/24888/teesalu_kaupo.pdf?sequence=1 Kaitsmine toimub neljapäeval, 3. mail kl 15 Tartus Ravila 19 Biomeedikumi auditooriumis 1006. Juhendajad: prof, MD Raivo Uibo ja PhD Meeme Utt Oponent: MD, PhD Ilma R. Korponay-Szabó (Debreceni Ülikool, Ungari). HANNES LUIDALEPP, sünd 1982. Tartu Ülikool. Taotletav teaduskraad: filosoofiadoktor (PhD), biomeditsiini tehnika. Doktoritöö „Studies on the antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli" („Escherichia coli antibiootikumitundlikkust mõjutavad faktorid") ...

CD47 - Leukocyte surface antigen CD47 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - CD47 gene & proteinCD47 - Leukocyte surface antigen CD47 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - CD47 gene & protein

sp,Q08722,CD47_HUMAN Leukocyte surface antigen CD47 OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=CD47 PE=1 SV=1 ... IPR006704 CD47. IPR013147 CD47_TM. IPR013270 CD47_Vset. IPR007110 Ig-like_dom. IPR036179 Ig-like_dom_sf. IPR013783 Ig-like_fold ... IPR006704 CD47. IPR013147 CD47_TM. IPR013270 CD47_Vset. IPR007110 Ig-like_dom. IPR036179 Ig-like_dom_sf. IPR013783 Ig-like_fold ... Leukocyte surface antigen CD47Add BLAST. 305. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q08722

Gentaur Molecular :Meretciel  \ Canine Leukocyte surface antigen CD47,CD47 ELISA kit \ CC003Gentaur Molecular :Meretciel \ Canine Leukocyte surface antigen CD47,CD47 ELISA kit \ CC003

Canine Leukocyte surface antigen CD47,CD47 ELISA kit \ CC003 for more molecular products just contact us ... Canine Leukocyte surface antigen CD47,CD47 ELISA kit. Related products : Canine Leukocyte surface antigen CD47,CD47 ELISA kit ... Canine Leukocyte surface antigen CD47,CD47 ELISA kit / Product Detail : CC003 Canine Leukocyte surface antigen CD47,CD47 ELISA ... Canine Leukocyte surface antigen CD47,CD47 ELISA kit antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at - ...
more infohttp://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product5893982-search-Canine_Leukocyte_surface_antigen_CD47,CD47_ELISA_kit.html

Global and United States Leukocyte Surface Antigen CD47 Market Research by Company, Type & Application 2013-2025 - RnR Market...Global and United States Leukocyte Surface Antigen CD47 Market Research by Company, Type & Application 2013-2025 - RnR Market...

Global and United States Leukocyte Surface Antigen CD47 Market Research by Company, Type & Application 2013-2025 is a market ... Global Leukocyte Surface Antigen CD47 Sales Market Report 2017. Global Leukocyte Surface Antigen CD47 Sales Market Report 2018 ... Global Leukocyte Surface Antigen CD47 Market Insights, Forecast to 2025. Global Leukocyte Surface Antigen CD47 Market Status ... Figure Global Leukocyte Surface Antigen CD47 Market Size and CAGR 2013-2017 (Volume). Figure Global Leukocyte Surface Antigen ...
more infohttp://www.rnrmarketresearch.com/global-and-united-states-leukocyte-surface-antigen-cd47-market-research-by-company-type-application-2013-2025-market-report.html

Research delivers insight into the leukocyte surface antigen cd47 pipeline report - WhaTechResearch delivers insight into the leukocyte surface antigen cd47 pipeline report - WhaTech

... outlays comprehensive information on the Leukocyte Surface Antigen CD47 (Antigenic Surface Determinant Protein OA3 or Integrin ... Associated Protein or Protein MER6 or CD47) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development ... Leukocyte Surface Antigen CD47 - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, outlays comprehensive information on the Leukocyte Surface Antigen ... Research delivers insight into the leukocyte surface antigen cd47 pipeline report Details WhaTech Channel: Industrial Market ...
more infohttps://www.whatech.com/market-research/industrial/446939-research-delivers-insight-into-the-leukocyte-surface-antigen-cd47-pipeline-report

Recombinant Human CD47 protein (ab126004) | AbcamRecombinant Human CD47 protein (ab126004) | Abcam

Buy our Recombinant Human CD47 protein. Ab126004 is a protein fragment produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in ... CD47 antigen. *CD47 antigen (Rh-related antigen, integrin-associated signal transducer). *CD47 glycoprotein ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-cd47-protein-ab126004.html

Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 4 - Pipeline Review, H2 2019Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 4 - Pipeline Review, H2 2019

Leukocyte Surface Antigen CD47 - Pipeline Review, H2 2019; Leukocyte Surface Antigen CD47 ... ... Leukocyte Surface Antigen CD47 - Pipeline Review, H2 2019SummaryAccording to the recently published report ... The report reviews latest news and deals related to Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 4 (ACT35 Antigen or TAX ... It also reviews key players involved in Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 4 (ACT35 Antigen or TAX ...
more infohttps://www.reportlinker.com/p05830780/Tumor-Necrosis-Factor-Receptor-Superfamily-Member-4-Pipeline-Review-H2.html

Active proteins online for research use  - CusabioActive proteins online for research use - Cusabio

Recombinant Mouse Leukocyte surface antigen CD47(Cd47),partial (Active). CSB-AP005351MO. 1mg/500μg/50μg/10μg. ... CD Antigen. FC Receptor. Immune Checkpoint. Colony Stimulating Factors. Growth Factors. Tumor Necrosis Factors. Interferons. ... Recombinant Human CD160 antigen(CD160) (Active). CSB-AP005221HU. 1mg/500μg/50μg/10μg. ...
more infohttps://www.cusabio.com/catalog-42-1.html

B6H12.2  ATCC ® HB-9771™ Mus musculus (B cell); Mus musculusB6H12.2 ATCC ® HB-9771™ Mus musculus (B cell); Mus musculus

Rh-related antigen CD47 is the signal-transducer integrin-associated protein. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 1567-1570, 1994. PubMed: ... Rh-related antigen CD47 is the signal-transducer integrin-associated protein. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 1567-1570, 1994. PubMed: ... immunoglobulin; monoclonal antibody; against integrin associated protein (CD47) and vitonectin receptor (VnR) ... immunoglobulin; monoclonal antibody; against integrin associated protein (CD47) and vitonectin receptor (VnR) ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/en/Global/Products/A/9/7/6/HB-9771.aspx

B6H12.2  ATCC ® HB-9771™ Mus musculus (B cell); Mus musculusB6H12.2 ATCC ® HB-9771™ Mus musculus (B cell); Mus musculus

Rh-related antigen CD47 is the signal-transducer integrin-associated protein. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 1567-1570, 1994. PubMed: ... Rh-related antigen CD47 is the signal-transducer integrin-associated protein. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 1567-1570, 1994. PubMed: ... immunoglobulin; monoclonal antibody; against integrin associated protein (CD47) and vitonectin receptor (VnR) ... immunoglobulin; monoclonal antibody; against integrin associated protein (CD47) and vitonectin receptor (VnR) ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/en/Global/Products/A/9/7/6/HB-9771.aspx?slp=1

JP2010059568 METHOD FOR SCREENING OF INHIBITOR USING FACTOR CAPABLE OF ENHANCING PRODUCTION OF AMYLOID-BETA PEPTIDE, AND...JP2010059568 METHOD FOR SCREENING OF INHIBITOR USING FACTOR CAPABLE OF ENHANCING PRODUCTION OF AMYLOID-BETA PEPTIDE, AND...

... leukocyte surface antigen CD47; flotillin-1; band 4.1 like 1; a regulator of G-protein signaling 7; phospholipase D3; ectoderm- ... Leukocyte surface antigen CD47;Flotillin-1;Band 4.1 like 1;Regulator of G-protein signaling 7;Phospholipase D3;Ectoderm-neural ... lantigène de surface de leucocytes CD47 ; la flotilline-1 ; band-4.1-like 1; un régulateur de la signalisation de protéine G 7 ...
more infohttps://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2010140694

Reactome | CD47 [specific granule membrane]Reactome | CD47 [specific granule membrane]

Leukocyte surface antigen CD47, CD47_HUMAN, Integrin-associated protein, IAP Locations in the PathwayBrowser Expand all ... Homologues of CD47 [specific granule membrane] (Canis familiaris) Homologues of CD47 [specific granule membrane] (Gallus gallus ... Homologues of CD47 [specific granule membrane] (Rattus norvegicus) Homologues of CD47 [specific granule membrane] (Taeniopygia ... Homologues of CD47 [specific granule membrane] (Bos taurus) ... CD47 [specific granule membrane] (Bos taurus) CD47 [specific ...
more infohttps://reactome.org/content/detail/R-HSA-6799523

Role of Cholesterol in Formation and Function of a Signaling Complex Involving αvβ3, Integrin-Associated Protein (Cd47), and...Role of Cholesterol in Formation and Function of a Signaling Complex Involving αvβ3, Integrin-Associated Protein (Cd47), and...

1994) Rh-related antigen CD47 is the signal-transducer integrin associated protein. J. Biol. Chem. 269:1567-1570, pmid:8294396. ... 1995) In vivo expression of alternatively spliced forms of integrin-associated protein (CD47). J. Cell Sci. 108:3419-3425, pmid ... 1996b). The following mAbs were used in this study: 2D3, B6H12, 2B7, 1F7, and 10G2 (anti-IAP, CD47; Brown et al. 1990); MAR4 ( ... 1990) and was later shown to be identical to CD47 (Lindberg et al. 1994). IAP has a role in multiple αvβ3-integrin mediated ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/146/3/673

Leukocyte surface antigen elisa and antibodyLeukocyte surface antigen elisa and antibody

Recombinant Protein and Leukocyte surface antigen Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody ... Leukocyte surface antigen CD47. Leukocyte surface antigen CD47 ELISA Kit. Leukocyte surface antigen CD47 Recombinant. Leukocyte ... Leukocyte surface antigen CD53. Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 ELISA Kit. Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 Recombinant. Leukocyte ... CD47 ELISA Kit. CD47 Recombinant. CD47 Antibody. MER6 ELISA Kit. MER6 Recombinant. MER6 Antibody. ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/protein_family.php?root=leukocyte-surface-antigen

Plus itPlus it

CD47 antigen (CD47) (1:200; BD Biosciences), FABP7 (1:100; kindly provided by T. Mueller, C. Birchmeier, MDC, Berlin, Germany ... c, d, g, h, PTPNS1 and CD47 signals are shown in green. a, b, e, f, PTPNS1 and CD47 signals are shown in red. Note the band- ... CD47 and GFAP (f), PTPNS1 and PSA-NCAM (c) as well as CD47 and PSA-NCAM (h). Scale bars: a, e, 100 μm; b-d, f, h, 50 μm. ... or GFAP and CD47 (b) are marked by arrows. c, d, Arrows depict examples of cells positive for PTPNS1 and HUC/D (c) or CD47 and ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/24/26/5982

Mouse Sequences Summary ReportMouse Sequences Summary Report

Cd47 CD47 antigen (Rh-related antigen, integrin-associated signal transducer) MGI:96617 ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/sequence/marker/MGI:96617

Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Human Cytomegalovirus Reprograms Monocyte Differentiation toward an M1 Macrophage | The Journal...Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Human Cytomegalovirus Reprograms Monocyte Differentiation toward an M1 Macrophage | The Journal...

CD47 antigen (Rh-related antigen, integrin-associated signal transducer). CD47. 37890_at. 1.9. ... CD86 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 2, B7-2 antigen). CD86. 36270_at. −3.4. ... CD80 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 1, B7-1 antigen). CD80. 35015_at. 4.7. ... CD209 antigen-like. CD209L. 39270_at. nc. CD36 antigen (collagen type I receptor, thrombospondin receptor). CD36. 36656_at. nc ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/181/1/698/tab-figures-data

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Lymphocyte antigen CD47 Current Synonym true false 1232476016 CD47 - Cluster of differentiation antigen 47 Current Synonym true ... Lymphocyte antigen CD47 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD47 (substance). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=63621008

adult acute myeloid leukemia cellular diagnosis 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineadult acute myeloid leukemia cellular diagnosis 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

MeSH-major] Antigens, CD47 / immunology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / immunology. ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / HLA Antigens; 0 / HLA-G Antigens; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD47; 0 / Ptpns1 protein, mouse; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic ... We found that CD47 was more highly expressed on AML LSC than their normal counterparts, and that increased CD47 expression ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=adult+acute+myeloid+leukemia+cellular+diagnosis+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0

GO Gene ListGO Gene List

Cd47. CD47 antigen (Rh-related antigen, integrin-associated signal transducer). NM_010581. Gene Info. ... CD300A antigen. NM_170758. Gene Info. Cd36. CD36 antigen. NM_001159558. NM_007643. NM_001159555. NM_001159557. NM_001159556. ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GoGeneQuery?PAGE=1&ORG=Mm&GOID=0060627

Cancers | Free Full-Text | CD47-CAR-T Cells Effectively Kill Target Cancer Cells and Block Pancreatic Tumor GrowthCancers | Free Full-Text | CD47-CAR-T Cells Effectively Kill Target Cancer Cells and Block Pancreatic Tumor Growth

Moreover, we humanized mouse CD47 ScFv and showed that it effectively bound CD47 antigen. The humanized CD47-CAR-T cells also ... T cells that bind CD47 antigen. We used ScFv (single chain variable fragment) from mouse CD47 antibody to generate CD47-CAR-T ... pancreatic and other cancer cells and produced high level of cytokines that correlated with expression of CD47 antigen. In ... and cervical cancer cell lines and produced IL-2 that correlated with expression of CD47. Thus, CD47-CAR-T cells can be used as ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/9/10/139

KEGG BRITE: CD Molecules - Homo sapiens (human)KEGG BRITE: CD Molecules - Homo sapiens (human)

CD47 antigen (Rh-related antigen, integrin-associated signal transducer) K06479 CD48; CD48 antigen K06480 ITGA1; integrin alpha ... CD79A antigen K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen K05412 CD80; CD80 antigen K06508 CD81; CD81 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K06510 ... CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06721 CLEC10A; C-type lectin ... CD96 antigen K08446 ADGRE5; CD97 antigen K06519 SLC3A2; solute carrier family 3, member 2 K06520 CD99; CD99 antigen K06521 ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?hsa04090+4486

NCI Drug Dictionary - National Cancer InstituteNCI Drug Dictionary - National Cancer Institute

chimeric humanized anti-CD47 antibody A humanized, high-chimeric antibody targeting the human cell surface antigen CD47, with ... CD47 antagonist ALX-148 A variant of signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa) that antagonizes the human cell surface antigen ... chimeric humanized anti-CD47 antibody selectively binds to CD47 expressed on tumor cells and blocks the interaction of CD47 ... CD47, also called integrin-associated protein (IAP), is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on normal, healthy ...
more infohttps://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-drug?expand=C&first=201&page=2
  • In addition, CD47-CAR-T cells significantly blocked BxPC3 pancreatic xenograft tumor growth after intratumoral injection into NSG mice. (mdpi.com)
  • Upon administration, ALX148 binds to CD47 expressed on tumor cells and prevents the interaction of CD47 with its ligand SIRPa, a protein expressed on phagocytic cells. (cancer.gov)
  • In addition, blocking CD47 signaling activates both an anti-tumor cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune response and T-cell-mediated killing of CD47-expressing tumor cells. (cancer.gov)
  • CD47 is ubiquitously expressed in human cells and has been found to be overexpressed in many different tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD47 ligation leads to cell death in many normal and tumor cell lines via apoptosis or autophagy. (wikipedia.org)
  • A proprietary agent that targets the cancer stem cell (CSC) antigen CD44, with potential antineoplastic activity. (cancer.gov)
  • Activation of CD47 with TSP-1 increases proliferation of human U87 and U373 astrocytoma cells but not normal astrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of several stem cell markers, including c-Myc, is elevated in CD47-null endothelial cells and a human T cell line lacking CD47. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD47-CAR-T cells effectively killed ovarian, pancreatic and other cancer cells and produced high level of cytokines that correlated with expression of CD47 antigen. (mdpi.com)
  • Expression of CD47, and its interaction with SIRPa, leads to the inhibition of macrophage activation and protects cancer cells from phagocytosis, which allows cancer cells to proliferate. (cancer.gov)
  • The CD47/SIRPα interaction leads to bidirectional signaling, resulting in different cell-to-cell responses including inhibition of phagocytosis, stimulation of cell-cell fusion, and T-cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of CD47 in promoting cell proliferation is heavily dependent on cell type as both activation and loss of CD47 can result in enhanced proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of CD47 with TSP-1 in wild-type cells inhibits proliferation and reduces expression of stem cell transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apoptosis inducing function of CD47 appears to be dependent on activation of specific epitopes on the extracellular domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of CD47 with TSP-1 results in loss of viability in these RAS-expressing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the exact mechanism is unclear, it is likely that CD47 promotes proliferation via the PI3K/Akt pathway in cancerous cells but not normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are four alternatively spliced isoforms of CD47 that differ only in the length of their cytoplasmic tail. (wikipedia.org)