Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

The vitronectin receptor and its associated CD47 molecule mediates proinflammatory cytokine synthesis in human monocytes by interaction with soluble CD23. (1/302)

The vitronectin receptor, alphavbeta3 integrin, plays an important role in tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis, and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. CD47, a member of the multispan transmembrane receptor family, physically and functionally associates with vitronectin receptor (VnR). Although vitronectin (Vn) is not a ligand of CD47, anti-CD47 and beta3 mAbs suppress Vn, but not fibronectin (Fn) binding and function. Here, we show that anti-CD47, anti-beta3 mAb and Vn, but not Fn, inhibit sCD23-mediated proinflammatory function (TNF-alpha, IL-12, and IFN-gamma release). Surprisingly, anti-CD47 and beta3 mAbs do not block sCD23 binding to alphav+beta3+ T cell lines, whereas Vn and an alphav mAb (clone AMF7) do inhibit sCD23 binding, suggesting the VnR complex may be a functional receptor for sCD23. sCD23 directly binds alphav+beta3+/CD47(-) cell lines, but coexpression of CD47 increases binding. Moreover, sCD23 binds purified alphav protein and a single human alphav chain CHO transfectant. We conclude that the VnR and its associated CD47 molecule may function as a novel receptor for sCD23 to mediate its proinflammatory activity and, as such, may be involved in the inflammatory process of the immune response.  (+info)

The thrombospondin receptor integrin-associated protein (CD47) functionally couples to heterotrimeric Gi. (2/302)

Integrin-associated protein (IAP; CD47) is a thrombospondin receptor that forms a signaling complex with beta3 integrins resulting in enhanced alphavbeta3-dependent cell spreading and chemotaxis and, in platelets, alphaIIbbeta3-dependent spreading and aggregation. These actions of CD47 are all specifically abrogated by pertussis toxin treatment of cells. Here we report that CD47, its beta3 integrin partner, and Gi proteins form a stable, detergent-soluble complex that can be recovered by immunoprecipitation and affinity chromatography. Gialpha is released from this complex by treatment with GTP or AlF4. GTP and AlF4 also reduce the binding of CD47 to its agonist peptide (4N1K) derived from thrombospondin, indicating a direct association of CD47 with Gi. 4N1K peptide causes a rapid decrease in intraplatelet cyclic AMP levels, a Gi-dependent event necessary for aggregation. Finally, 4N1K stimulates the binding of GTPgamma35S to membranes from cells expressing IAP and alphavbeta3. This functional coupling of CD47 to heterotrimeric G proteins provides a mechanistic explanation for the biological effects of CD47 in a wide variety of systems.  (+info)

Cellular entry of hantaviruses which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is mediated by beta3 integrins. (3/302)

Hantaviruses replicate primarily in the vascular endothelium and cause two human diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). In this report, we demonstrate that the cellular entry of HFRS-associated hantaviruses is facilitated by specific integrins expressed on platelets, endothelial cells, and macrophages. Infection of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and Vero E6 cells by the HFRS-causing hantaviruses Hantaan (HTN), Seoul (SEO), and Puumala (PUU) is inhibited by antibodies to alphavbeta3 integrins and by the integrin ligand vitronectin. The cellular entry of HTN, SEO, and PUU viruses, but not the nonpathogenic Prospect Hill (PH) hantavirus (i.e., a virus with no associated human disease), was also mediated by introducting recombinant alphaIIbbeta3 or alphavbeta3 integrins into beta3-integrin-deficient CHO cells. In addition, PH infectivity was not inhibited by alphavbeta3-specific sera or vitronectin but was blocked by alpha5beta1-specific sera and the integrin ligand fibronectin. RGD tripeptides, which are required for many integrin-ligand interactions, are absent from all hantavirus G1 and G2 surface glycoproteins, and GRGDSP peptides did not inhibit hantavirus infectivity. Further, a mouse-human hybrid beta3 integrin-specific Fab fragment, c7E3 (ReoPro), also inhibited the infectivity of HTN, SEO, and PUU as well as HPS-associated hantaviruses, Sin Nombre (SN) and New York-1 (NY-1). These findings indicate that pathogenic HPS- and HFRS-causing hantaviruses enter cells via beta3 integrins, which are present on the surfaces of platelets, endothelial cells, and macrophages. Since beta3 integrins regulate vascular permeability and platelet function, these findings also correlate beta3 integrin usage with common elements of hantavirus pathogenesis.  (+info)

Cell spreading distinguishes the mechanism of augmentation of T cell activation by integrin-associated protein/CD47 and CD28. (4/302)

Integrin-associated protein (IAP/CD47) is a 50 kDa transmembrane protein initially defined as a regulator of beta3 integrin-mediated functions in neutrophils. IAP also can synergize with the TCR in T cell activation independent of beta3 integrins. To analyze the mechanism for IAP synergy with TCR, we expressed in Jurkat cells a chimeric molecule, consisting of the CD16 extracellular domain, the CD7 transmembrane domain and the TCR zeta chain cytoplasmic tail (CD16-7-zeta), which on its own is unable to induce IL-2 production. Ligation of IAP acted in synergy with TCR to induce IL-2 transcription and synthesis, but failed to synergize with the signal generated by CD16-7-zeta, while CD28 was a potent co-stimulator with both TCR and CD16-7-zeta. The failure of IAP to activate Jurkat together with CD16-7-zeta correlated with a lack of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, but not extracellular-signal-regulated kinase activation. Jurkat adhesion to anti-IAP, but not anti-CD28, induced cell spreading and the same domains of IAP required for augmentation of T cell activation were required to induce cell spreading. IAP synergy with TCR signaling likely results from its ability to stimulate adhesion to a ligand-expressing surface or antigen-presenting cell (APC), rather than from initiation of a novel signaling cascade. We conclude that a major role for ligation of IAP in T cell activation is to enhance the efficiency of TCR signaling by causing T cells to spread on an APC or surface.  (+info)

CD47 signals T cell death. (5/302)

Activation-induced death of T cells regulates immune responses and is considered to involve apoptosis induced by ligation of Fas and TNF receptors. The role of other receptors in signaling T cell death is less clear. In this study we demonstrate that activation of specific epitopes on the Ig variable domain of CD47 rapidly induces apoptosis of T cells. A new mAb, Ad22, to this site induces apoptosis of Jurkat cells and CD3epsilon-stimulated PBMC, as determined by morphological changes, phosphatidylserine exposure on the cell surface, uptake of propidium iodide, and true counts by flow cytometry. In contrast, apoptosis was not observed following culture with anti-CD47 mAbs 2D3 or B6H12 directed to a distant or closely adjacent region, respectively. CD47-mediated cell death was independent of CD3, CD4, CD45, or p56lck involvement as demonstrated by studies with variant Jurkat cell lines deficient in these signaling pathways. However, coligation of CD3epsilon and CD47 enhanced phosphatidylserine externalization on Jurkat cells with functional CD3. Furthermore, normal T cells required preactivation to respond with CD47-induced apoptosis. CD47-mediated cell death appeared to proceed independent of Fas or TNF receptor signaling and did not involve characteristic DNA fragmentation or requirement for IL-1beta-converting enzyme-like proteases or CPP32. Taken together, our data demonstrate that under appropriate conditions, CD47 activation results in very rapid T cell death, apparently mediated by a novel apoptotic pathway. Thus, CD47 may be critically involved in controlling the fate of activated T cells.  (+info)

Thrombospondin-1 acts via IAP/CD47 to synergize with collagen in alpha2beta1-mediated platelet activation. (6/302)

Integrin-associated protein (IAP; or CD47) is a receptor for the cell binding domain (CBD) of thrombospondin-1 (TS1). In platelets, IAP associates with and regulates the function of alphaIIbbeta3 integrin (Chung et al, J Biol Chem 272:14740, 1997). We test here the possibility that CD47 may also modulate the function of platelet integrin alpha2beta1, a collagen receptor. The CD47 agonist peptide, 4N1K (KRFYVVMWKK), derived from the CBD, synergizes with soluble collagen in aggregating platelet-rich plasma. 4N1K and intact TS1 also induce the aggregation of washed, unstirred platelets on immobilized collagen with a rapid increase in tyrosine phosphorylation. The effects of TS1 and 4N1K on platelet aggregation are absolutely dependent on IAP, as shown by the use of platelets from IAP-/- mice. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) prevents 4N1K-dependent aggregation on immobilized collagen but does not inhibit the 4N1K peptide stimulation of alpha2beta1-dependent platelet spreading. Finally, a detergent-stable, physical association of IAP and alpha2beta1 integrin is detected by coimmunoprecipitation. These results imply a role for IAP and TS1 in the early activation of platelets upon adhesion to collagen.  (+info)

Role of cholesterol in formation and function of a signaling complex involving alphavbeta3, integrin-associated protein (CD47), and heterotrimeric G proteins. (7/302)

Integrin-associated protein (CD47) is a multiply membrane spanning member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that regulates some adhesion-dependent cell functions through formation of a complex with alphavbeta3 integrin and trimeric G proteins. Cholesterol is critical for the association of the three protein components of the supramolecular complex and for its signaling. The multiply membrane spanning domain of IAP is required for complex formation because it binds cholesterol. The supramolecular complex forms preferentially in glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane domains. Binding of mAb 10G2 to the IAP Ig domain, previously shown to be required for association with alphavbeta3, is affected by both the multiply membrane spanning domain and cholesterol. These data demonstrate that cholesterol is an essential component of the alphavbeta3/IAP/G protein signaling complex, presumably acting through an effect on IAP conformation.  (+info)

Identification of CD47/integrin-associated protein and alpha(v)beta3 as two receptors for the alpha3(IV) chain of type IV collagen on tumor cells. (8/302)

Previous studies from our laboratories demonstrated that a peptide from the noncollagenous domain of the alpha3 chain of basement membrane collagen (COL IV), comprising residues 185-203, inhibits polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation and melanoma cell proliferation independently of its ability to promote cell adhesion; these properties require the presence of the triplet -SNS- at residues 189-191 (J. C. Monboisse et al., J. Biol. Chem., 269: 25475-25482, 1994; J. Han et al., J. Biol. Chem., 272: 20395-20401, 1997). More recently, we demonstrated that native COL IV and -SNS-containing synthetic peptides (10 microg/ml) added to culture medium inhibit the proliferation of not only melanoma cells but also breast, pancreas, and stomach tumor cells up to 82% and prostate tumor cells by 15%. This inhibition was shown to be dependent on a COL IV- or peptide-induced increase in intracellular cAMP (T. A. Shahan et al., Connect. Tissue Res., 40: 221-232, 1999). Attempts to identify the putative receptor(s) on tumor cells led to the isolation of five proteins (Mr 33,000, 52,000, 72,000, 95,000, and 250,000) from melanoma and prostate cells by affinity purification with the alpha3(IV)179-208 peptide. The Mr 52,000, 95,000, and 250,000 proteins were shown to be CD47/integrin-associated protein(IAP), the integrin beta3 subunit, and the alpha(v)beta3 integrin complex, respectively. The Mr 33,000 and 72,000 proteins have not yet been identified. To confirm the specificity of ligand binding to the receptors, cell membranes from either melanoma or prostate tumor cells were pretreated with the unlabeled ligand alpha3(IV)187-191 (-YYSNS-); alternatively, the peptide was pretreated with a peptide-reactive monoclonal antibody (A5D7) before receptor isolation. These treatments inhibited the purification of CD47/IAP, the integrin beta3 subunit, and the alpha(v)beta3 integrin complex from tumor cells. Furthermore, cells treated with CD47/IAP- or the alpha(v)beta3 integrin-reactive antibodies prevented the alpha3(IV)185-203 peptide from inhibiting cell proliferation and the subsequent rise in intracellular cAMP. Pretreating cells with the alpha3(IV)187-191 (-YYSNS-) peptide also inhibited their adhesion to the alpha3(IV)185-203 peptide substrate, whereas the inactive alpha1(IV)185-203 peptide, from the same region of the alpha1 chain as the alpha3(IV)185-203 peptide, had no effect. Incubation of cells with either CD47/IAP and/or alpha(v)beta3 integrin-reactive antibodies inhibited their adhesion to the alpha3(IV)185-203 peptide, whereas antibodies to the beta1 and beta2 integrin subunits were without effect. These data suggest that ALC-COL IV, through its alpha3(IV) chain, inhibits tumor cell proliferation using the receptors CD47/IAP and the alpha(v)beta3 integrin.  (+info)

  • CD47 belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and partners with membrane integrins and also binds the ligands thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα). (assaysolution.com)
  • CD47 is a widely distributed membrane protein that interacts with signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα), an inhibitory receptor on myeloid cells that gives a "don't-eat-me" signal. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The amino-terminal ligand binding domain of SIRPα is highly polymorphic in contrast to the single Ig-like domain of CD47. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We show by x-ray crystallography that one human SIRPα allele differing in 13 amino acid residues has a very similar binding site and that several different alleles all bind CD47 with similar affinity as expected because the residues are mostly surface-exposed and distant from the binding site. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A peptide from the binding site of CD47 has been reported to mimic the CD47 interaction with SIRPα, but we could find no binding. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This strengthens the suggestion from sequence analysis that SIRP is evolutionarily closely related to antigen recognition proteins. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Co-ligation of SIRPα with CD47 abrogates nanocluster segregation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The N-terminal (V-set) domain mediates binding to CD47, and the two others are found to be constant (C1-set) domains. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We developed bispecific antibody variants targeting CD47 and CD20 to combine these two functions into a single molecule that recapitulated the potent synergistic effect of combination therapy with no toxic effects on normal cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD47 (CD47 Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. (cancer.gov)
  • Irving Weissman , MD, professor of pathology and of developmental biology , and his team previously showed that nearly all cancers use the molecule CD47 as a "don't-eat-me" signal to escape from being eaten and eliminated by macrophages. (healthcanal.com)
  • We argue that CD47 is a checkpoint molecule for both innate and adaptive immunity for tumor evasion and is thus a promising target for cancer immunotherapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, CD47 engagement also induces an α 4 β 1 -mediated, RGD-independent adhesion of SS RBCs to immobilized vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). (elsevier.com)
  • 1993). To directly assess whether CD47 expression was required for sCD23 interaction with αv/CD51, we examined sCD23 binding to human CD47 deficient cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • Treg cells protect dopaminergic neurons against MPP + neurotoxicity by a cell-to-cell contact mechanism underlying CD47 (show CD47 ELISA Kits )- SIRPA interaction and Rac1 / Akt (show AKT1 ELISA Kits ) activation. (antibodies-online.com)
  • CD47 signaling induces an "inside-out" activation of α 4 β 1 on SS RBCs as indicated by an RGD-dependent interaction of this integrin with soluble, plasma fibronectin. (elsevier.com)
  • Forskolin, 8-bromo cAMP, and isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) all prevented CD47-mediated apoptosis, indicating the involvement of cAMP. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Epidermal growth factor also inhibited CD47-induced apoptosis via a PKC-dependent but ERK-independent pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Binding of TSP-1 to CD47 influences several fundamental cellular functions including cell migration and adhesion, cell proliferation or apoptosis, and plays a role in the regulation of angiogenesis and inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD47 ligation leads to cell death in many normal and tumor cell lines via apoptosis or autophagy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apoptosis inducing function of CD47 appears to be dependent on activation of specific epitopes on the extracellular domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A population of CD3-positive lymphocytes expressing the CD56 surface antigen, with potential immunomodulating activity. (cancer.gov)
  • During protein synthesis and maturation, CD1 family members bind endogenous lipids that are replaced by lipid or glycolipid antigens when the proteins are internalized and pass through endosomes, before trafficking back to the cell surface. (uniprot.org)
  • Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
  • sCD23 directly binds alphav+beta3+/CD47(-) cell lines, but coexpression of CD47 increases binding. (nih.gov)
  • EMA binds predominantly to band 3, but also to CD47 and Rhesus (Rh)-related glycoproteins, together leading to the markedly reduced EMA binding in hereditary spherocytosis [ 3 , 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Chao MP, Weissman IL, Majeti R (2012) The CD47-SIRPalpha pathway in cancer immune evasion and potential therapeutic implications. (springer.com)
  • Our results highlight an underappreciated contribution of the adaptive immune system to anti-CD47 adjuvant therapy and suggest that targeting both innate and adaptive immune checkpoints can potentiate the vaccinal effect of antitumor antibody therapy. (pnas.org)
  • Is CD47 an innate immune checkpoint for tumor evasion? (biomedcentral.com)
  • The activity of this CAR-T cell is controlled by a tumor antigen-specific based on dose of Fab, thus providing a fully controllable immune response. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Furthermore, we found that the cGAS-STING-IRF3 signaling pathway plays a critical role to drive robust innate and adaptive immune response upon anti-CD47 therapy," Dr. Fu said. (eurekalert.org)
  • The magnitude and breadth of the body's immune response is regulated by balancing co-stimulatory signals and inhibitory signals that prevent indiscriminate attack on self-antigens by preventing autoimmune diseases. (autozygosity.org)
  • The ready-to-use lentiviral particles of Lenti-CD47 CAR (scFv-28εRIγ, B6H12.2)-VP is packaged using 3rd generation of lentiviral packaging system, in which the gene of CAR will be driven by a CMV promotor. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • However, the functional relationship between human leukocyte antigen gene(s) and disease development remains unknown. (tripdatabase.com)
  • To the later point, a human CD47-negative AML cell line (MOLM13) was unable to establish disseminated disease in a xenograft mouse transplant model ( 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In initial studies, CD47 was found to be overexpressed in both mouse and human AML compared to normal cell counterparts and its upregulation was directly tied to disease pathogenesis via macrophage evasion ( 3 , 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This CD47-mediated cell death did not require active caspases or Bcl-2 degradation and did not cause DNA laddering or cytochrome c release. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ligation of CD47 by these peptides in different cell types also stimulated calcium influx and changes in cAMP levels, MAP kinase activities, and Giα activation. (springer.com)
  • A second major function of CD47 signaling is to control cell survival. (springer.com)
  • These interactions result in CD47/integrin complexes that affect a range of cell functions including adhesion, spreading and migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of CD47 in promoting cell proliferation is heavily dependent on cell type as both activation and loss of CD47 can result in enhanced proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Product Quality tested by: Transient overexpression cell lysate was tested with Anti-CD47 antibody by Western Blots. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • WB analysis of extracts from various cell lines using CD47 antibody. (genetex.com)
  • Increased pSHP-1, decreased antigen processing, and depressed T cell stimulation characterized Pt Dysf DC. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Binding of sCD23 to CD47+ and CD47cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • As shown in Fig. 8, sCD23 bound to OV10 ovarian carcinoma VnR+/CD47cell line demonstrating that CD47 was dispensable for sCD23 binding. (nih.gov)
  • CD47 is involved in the increase in intracellular calcium concentration that occurs upon cell adhesion to extracellular matrix. (creativebiomart.net)
  • It transmits an activation signal to the T cell after antigen is bound. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • A novel CAR-T cell therapy (called SmarT-cell) that simultaneously targets three antigens (PSCA, TGF, and IL4), was discovered. (selfgrowth.com)
  • T cell co-cultures were also performed to assess effects on antigen-presentation. (eventscribe.com)
Anti-human SIRP antibody is a new tool for cancer immunotherapy
Anti-human SIRP antibody is a new tool for cancer immunotherapy (umu.diva-portal.org)
Assay Solution. Human CD47 ELISA Kit
Assay Solution. Human CD47 ELISA Kit (assaysolution.com)
CD172a (SIRP alpha), FITC, clone: 15-414, eBioscience™ 25 Tests; FITC CD172a (SIRP alpha), FITC, clone: 15-414, eBioscience™
CD172a (SIRP alpha), FITC, clone: 15-414, eBioscience™ 25 Tests; FITC CD172a (SIRP alpha), FITC, clone: 15-414, eBioscience™ (fishersci.co.uk)
CD47, Mouse anti-Human, Clone: B6H12, BV711, BD 100 Tests; BV711
 | Fisher Scientific
CD47, Mouse anti-Human, Clone: B6H12, BV711, BD 100 Tests; BV711 | Fisher Scientific (fishersci.com)
Recombinant human CD47 protein (Active) (ab174029) | Abcam
Recombinant human CD47 protein (Active) (ab174029) | Abcam (abcam.com)
Plus it
Plus it (jneurosci.org)
Community Academic Profiles - Faculty & Researchers - Stanford Medicine
Community Academic Profiles - Faculty & Researchers - Stanford Medicine (med.stanford.edu)
ASCO Congress 2018: melanoma treatment | springermedizin.at
ASCO Congress 2018: melanoma treatment | springermedizin.at (springermedizin.at)
Mouse anti-CD47, Clone: IAP/964 + B6H12.2, Novus Biologicals 0.02mg; Unlabeled:Life
 | Fisher Scientific
Mouse anti-CD47, Clone: IAP/964 + B6H12.2, Novus Biologicals 0.02mg; Unlabeled:Life | Fisher Scientific (fishersci.com)
Human Cells Human CD47 Lysate | ABIN1331262
Human Cells Human CD47 Lysate | ABIN1331262 (antikoerper-online.de)
CD47 Antibody, anti-human, REAfinity™ - Recombinant antibodies - MACS Antibodies - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - 대한민국
CD47 Antibody, anti-human, REAfinity™ - Recombinant antibodies - MACS Antibodies - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - 대한민국 (miltenyibiotec.com)
Chemotherapy/immunotherapy combination thwarts glioblastoma in
pre-clinical research | MD Anderson Cancer Center
Chemotherapy/immunotherapy combination thwarts glioblastoma in pre-clinical research | MD Anderson Cancer Center (mdanderson.org)
Xconomy: IPO Wave Rolls On as Five Life Science Firms Haul In $651M
Xconomy: IPO Wave Rolls On as Five Life Science Firms Haul In $651M (xconomy.com)
ASMscience | Antigen-Presenting Cell
ASMscience | Antigen-Presenting Cell (asmscience.org)
The Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer | Details for CPTC-CD47-1
The Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer | Details for CPTC-CD47-1 (antibodies.cancer.gov)
Immunostimulatory and anti-tumor metronomic cyclophosphamide regimens assessed in primary orthotopic and metastatic murine...
Immunostimulatory and anti-tumor metronomic cyclophosphamide regimens assessed in primary orthotopic and metastatic murine... (nature.com)
JCI -
Aging promotes acquisition of naive-like CD8+ memory T cell traits and enhanced functionalities
JCI - Aging promotes acquisition of naive-like CD8+ memory T cell traits and enhanced functionalities (jci.org)
SIRP gamma from ACROBiosystems : Get Quote, RFQ, Price or Buy
SIRP gamma from ACROBiosystems : Get Quote, RFQ, Price or Buy (news-medical.net)
Current advances in chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for refractory/relapsed multiple myeloma | Springer for Research &...
Current advances in chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for refractory/relapsed multiple myeloma | Springer for Research &... (rd.springer.com)
Innovent's Anti-CD47 Antibody IBI188 Receives IND Approval in China
Innovent's Anti-CD47 Antibody IBI188 Receives IND Approval in China (medindia.net)
Christopher Lock | Stanford Medicine Profiles
Christopher Lock | Stanford Medicine Profiles (med.stanford.edu)
JCI -
Volume 130, Issue 11
JCI - Volume 130, Issue 11 (jci.org)
JCI -
Welcome
JCI - Welcome (jci.org)
Table of Contents - May 15, 2006, 176 (10) | The Journal of Immunology
Table of Contents - May 15, 2006, 176 (10) | The Journal of Immunology (jimmunol.org)
Niaz Banaei | Stanford Medicine Profiles
Niaz Banaei | Stanford Medicine Profiles (med.stanford.edu)