Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Structural and functional studies of the measles virus hemagglutinin: identification of a novel site required for CD46 interaction. (1/488)

The entry of measles virus (MV) into human cells is mediated by the initial attachment of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) to the complement regulatory protein CD46. Two subdomains, one each within CD46 short consensus repeats (SCRs) 1 and 2, are responsible for this interaction. However, little is known about the regions within MV HA needed for a high-affinity CD46 interaction. To better define the HA-CD46 interaction, we took three approaches: chimeric domain swapping, peptide scanning, and alanine scanning mutagenesis. Chimeras of MV HA and the closely related rinderpest virus (RPV) HA were generated and tested for cell surface expression and the ability to hemadsorb CD46+ red blood cells (RBC). Exchanges with the N terminus of RPV were tolerated as MV HA could be replaced with RPV HA up to amino-acid position 154. However, both larger swaps with RPV and a small RPV HA replacement at the C terminus aborted cell-surface expression. Peptide scanning with 51 overlapping peptides derived from three MV HA regions showed one peptide, corresponding to MV HA amino acids 468-487, blocked hemagglutination of African green monkey (AGM) RBCs and inhibited MV infection of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) expressing human CD46. Alanine scanning mutants mapped sites on the MV HA that were not required for trafficking to the cell surface or function in hemagglutination as well as a novel site required for CD46 interaction, amino acids 473-477.  (+info)

Epitope mapping of 10 monoclonal antibodies against the pig analogue of human membrane cofactor protein (MCP). (2/488)

Pig membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is a 50 000-60 000 MW glycoprotein that is expressed on a wide variety of cells, including erythrocytes. Pig MCP has cofactor activity for factor I-mediated cleavage of C3b and is an efficient regulator of the classical and alternative pathway of human and pig complement. A panel of 10 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was collected from two different laboratories; all of these mAbs were raised against pig leucocytes and all recognized the same complex banding pattern on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of erythrocyte membranes. All were shown to be reactive with pig MCP and were divided into four groups of mutually competitive antibodies based on competition studies for membrane-bound MCP and for soluble MCP, the latter by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. The antigenic properties of membrane-bound and soluble MCP were similar, although some interesting differences were revealed. None of the 10 mAbs were cross-reactive with human MCP and only one showed cross-reactivity with leucocytes from a panel of large mammals - a weak cross-reactivity with a subset of dog leucocytes. All antibodies in one of the epitope groups and some in a second epitope group were able to block the functional activity of pig MCP, as measured by inhibition of MCP-catalysed C3 degradation by factor I.  (+info)

Human CD46 enhances nitric oxide production in mouse macrophages in response to measles virus infection in the presence of gamma interferon: dependence on the CD46 cytoplasmic domains. (3/488)

CD46 is a transmembrane complement regulatory protein widely expressed on nucleated human cells. Laboratory-adapted strains of measles virus (MV) bind to the extracellular domains of CD46 to enter human cells. The cytoplasmic portion of CD46 consists of a common juxtamembrane region and different distal sequences called Cyt1 and Cyt2. The biological functions of these cytoplasmic sequences are unknown. In this study, we show that expression of human CD46 with the Cyt1 cytoplasmic domain in mouse macrophages enhances production of nitric oxide (NO) in response to MV infection in the presence of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). Human CD46 does not increase the basal levels of NO production in mouse macrophages and does not augment NO production induced by double-stranded polyribonucleotides. Replacing the cytoplasmic domain of human CD46 with Cyt2 reduces MV and IFN-gamma-induced NO production in mouse macrophages. Deleting the entire cytoplasmic domains of human CD46 does not prevent MV infection but markedly attenuates NO production in response to MV and IFN-gamma. Mouse macrophages expressing a tailless human CD46 mutant are more susceptible to MV infection and produce 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more infectious virus than mouse macrophages expressing human CD46 with intact cytoplasmic domains. These results reveal a novel function of CD46 dependent on the cytoplasmic domains (especially Cyt1), which augments NO production in macrophages. These findings may have significant implications for roles of CD46 in innate immunity and MV pathogenesis.  (+info)

Infection of chicken embryonic fibroblasts by measles virus: adaptation at the virus entry level. (4/488)

Measles virus (MV) has a tropism restricted to humans and primates and uses the human CD46 molecule as a cellular receptor. MV has been adapted to grow in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) and gave rise to an attenuated live vaccine. Halle and Schwarz MV strains were compared in their ability to infect both simian Vero cells and CEF. Whereas both strains infected Vero cells, only the CEF-adapted Schwarz strain was able to efficiently infect CEF. Since the expression of the human MV receptor CD46 rendered the chicken embryonic cell line TCF more permissive to the infection by the Halle MV strain, the MV entry into CEF appeared to be a limiting step in the absence of prior MV adaptation. CEF lacked reactivity with anti-CD46 antibodies but were found to express another protein allowing MV binding as an alternative receptor to CD46.  (+info)

Detection of partial and complete acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa: which inducers and probes to use? (5/488)

The acrosome reaction (AR), an essential step for achieving mammalian fertilization, was recently introduced as a means of clinical evaluation of male fertility. However, most of the available techniques for acrosomal status assessment (except those employing electron microscopy) do not define whether the measurements represent partial or complete AR. We, therefore, performed a crossover investigation of the types of inducers and probes required for detecting partial or complete AR in human spermatozoa. The acrosomal status before and after stimulation with four AR inducers was evaluated after incubation for 3 h in capacitating conditions. We used a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibody CD46 (FITC-CD46) targeting the inner acrosomal membrane for detecting a complete AR, and fluorescein isothiocyanate-Pisum sativum agglutinin (FITC-PSA) targeting the acrosomal content for detection of both partial and complete AR. Without stimulation or following stimulation with progesterone, follicular fluid (FF) or phorbol myristate ester (PMA), the AR could be detected with FITC-PSA but not with FITC-CD46. Following stimulation with the calcium ionophore A23187, the AR could be detected by both FITC-PSA and FITC-CD46. These results suggest that spontaneous AR as well as AR induced by progesterone, PMA and FF are partial. In contrast, the AR induced by A23187 is total, i.e. both partial and complete. These findings are valuable for both research and clinical purposes and are a step towards an international agreement on a standard test for human sperm AR, for which there is an urgent need.  (+info)

Progesterone promotes the acrosome reaction in capacitated human spermatozoa as judged by flow cytometry and CD46 staining. (6/488)

The acrosome reaction is a necessary prerequisite for spermatozoa to acquire fertilizing ability. Several different moieties appear to promote the acrosome reaction through different pathways, including solubilized zona pellucidae, recombinant zona protein ZP3, follicular fluid, calcium ionophores, and mannosylated bovine serum albumin (BSA). Although many investigators have presented evidence that progesterone also promotes the acrosome reaction through the mediation of a non-genomic cell membrane receptor, this concept has been challenged. Other workers have suggested that progesterone does not promote an acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa, as judged by the detection of CD46, a complement regulatory protein present on the inner acrosome membrane, through flow cytometric analysis of large numbers of spermatozoa. Prior investigations were criticized by the limited numbers of spermatozoa enumerated visually, the use of non-specific staining techniques, and the failure to eliminate dead spermatozoa during the scoring of the acrosome reaction. We have repeated these experiments, using both a supravital dye to eliminate dead spermatozoa from flow cytometric analysis, and anti-CD46 monoclonal antibody to score acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. Care was taken to validate the adequacy of capacitation conditions, which were proven by the ability of spermatozoa to acrosome react in response to mannosylated BSA and to penetrate zona-free hamster eggs. Confocal microscopy was used to confirm that CD46 immunostaining was limited to the acrosomal region of the spermatozoon head. Our results indicate that progesterone does promote an acrosome reaction within capacitated spermatozoa.  (+info)

Crystal structure of two CD46 domains reveals an extended measles virus-binding surface. (7/488)

Measles virus is a paramyxovirus which, like other members of the family such as respiratory syncytial virus, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The cell surface receptor for measles virus in humans is CD46, a complement cofactor. We report here the crystal structure at 3.1 A resolution of the measles virus-binding fragment of CD46. The structure reveals the architecture and spatial arrangement of two glycosylated short consensus repeats with a pronounced interdomain bend and some flexibility at the domain interface. Amino acids involved in measles virus binding define a large, glycan-free surface that extends from the top of the first to the bottom of the second repeat. The extended virus-binding surface of CD46 differs strikingly from those reported for the human virus receptor proteins CD4 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), suggesting that the CD46 structure utilizes a novel mode of virus recognition. A highly hydrophobic and protruding loop at the base of the first repeat bears a critical virus-binding residue, thereby defining an important recognition epitope. Molecules that mimic the conformation of this loop potentially could be effective anti-viral agents by preventing binding of measles virus to CD46.  (+info)

Exogenous gene expression and protein targeting in lens fiber cells. (8/488)

PURPOSE: To test the ability of lens fiber cells at various stages of differentiation to transcribe and translate microinjected DNA templates. METHODS: Expression plasmids encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) or a GFP-tagged membrane protein (human CD46) were microinjected into organ-cultured embryonic chicken lenses. Protein expression was visualized by confocal microscopy. RESULTS: GFP expression was detected within 12 hours of microinjection, evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm of the injected cell. All nucleated fiber cells were competent to express GFP, whereas the anucleated central fiber cells were not. When GFP was fused to the C-terminal of CD46, the fusion protein was synthesized intact and properly inserted in the fiber cell plasma membrane. In contrast, N-terminal fusions were cleaved during synthesis, resulting in retention of the GFP tag in the endoplasmic reticulum. CONCLUSIONS: Microinjection of expression plasmids is an effective technique for introducing exogenous genes into individual fiber cells. With this approach, the results show that fiber cells are transcriptionally and translationally competent until the time of organelle loss, and that fiber cells deep within the lens are capable of synthesizing new plasma membrane proteins. The techniques described here should have broad application in studies of fiber cell differentiation and provide a useful complement to conventional transgenic approaches.  (+info)

Membrane cofactor protein (MCP), a regulatory molecular of the complement system with cofactor activity for the factor I-mediated inactivation of C3b and C4b, is widely distributed, being present on leukocytes, platelets, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. MCP was purified from a human T cell line (HSB2) and the NH2-terminal 24-amino acid sequence obtained by Edman degradation. An oligonucleotide probe based on this sequence was used to identify a clone from a human monocytic (U937) cDNA library. Nucleotide sequencing showed a 43-bp 5-untranslated region, an open reading frame of 1,152 bp, and a 335-bp 3-untranslated region followed by a 16-bp poly(A) track. The deduced full-length MCP protein consists of a 34-amino acid signal peptide and a 350-amino acid mature protein. The protein has, beginning at the NH2 terminus, four approximately 60-amino acid repeat units that match the consensus sequence found in a multigene family of complement regulatory proteins (C3b-receptor or ...
Oligodendrocytes, neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and endothelial cells are capable of synthesizing complement inhibitor proteins. Oligodendrocytes are vulnerable to complement attack, which is particularly observed in multiple sclerosis. This vulnerability may be related to a deficiency in their ability to express complement regulatory proteins. This study compared the expression level of complement inhibitor mRNAs by human oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that C1 inhibitor (C1-inh) mRNA expression was dramatically lower in oligodendroglial cells compared with astrocytes and microglia. The mRNA expression level of membrane cofactor protein (MCP) by oligodendrocytes was also significantly lower than for other cell types. The lower mRNA expression of C1-inh and MCP by oligodendrocytes could contribute to their vulnerability in several neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system.
Membrane cofactor protein (MCP) is a complement regulatory protein that is expressed on human cells and cell lines as two relatively broad species with Mr of 58,000-68,000 and 48,000-56,000. The structure of a previously reported cDNA clone indicated that MCP was a type 1 membrane glycoprotein and a member of the regulators of complement activation gene/protein cluster. However, it did not provide an explanation for the unusual phenotypic pattern of MCP. Therefore, in parallel with an analysis of the gene, additional cDNAs were cloned and characterized. Six different MCP cDNA classes were identified. All encode the same 5 untranslated signal peptide, four SCRs, transmembrane domain, and basic amino acid anchor. However, they differ in the length and composition of an extracellular serine/threonine/proline (STP)-rich area, a site of heavy O-glycosylation, and cytoplasmic tail. Analysis of the MCP gene demonstrated that the variation in cDNA structure was a result of alternative splicing. ...
Subspecies B2 Ads have rarely been associated with ARD, and only in Eurasia. This survey represents the first report of AdB2-associated ARD in the Western Hemisphere. The simultaneous emergence of several species B Ads suggests a common external source (the civilian population) and a decrease in pre …
CD46 is a transmembrane protein that is known as a complement membrane cofactor protein, MCP, and measles virus receptor. It is widely expressed on leukocytes, platelets, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. Multiple isoforms of CD46 have been reported with molecular weights ranging from 45-75 kD. CD4
Buy our Recombinant human MCP2 protein. Ab73834 is an active full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE. Abcam…
Homo sapiens membrane cofactor protein (CD46, trophoblast-lymphocyte cross-reactive antigen) (MCP), transcript variant n, mRNA. (H00004179-R17) - Products - Abnova
Homo sapiens membrane cofactor protein (CD46, trophoblast-lymphocyte cross-reactive antigen) (MCP), transcript variant h, mRNA. (H00004179-R27) - Products - Abnova
Quantity100 testsVolume0.4ImmunogenHuman Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) T cellsBackground InformationCD46 (MCP; membrane cofactor protein) is a m...
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Results Brain pathological injury was the most serious at 24 h after reperfusion, The complement regulatory protein CD46 expression decreased gradually after local cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion injury, the lowest at 24 h after reperfusion, and returned to normal at 96 h after reperfusion.complement regulatory protein CD46 expression was negative correlated with brain pathological injury.. ...
|p|Recombinant Human MCP4/CCL13 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 75 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: MCP-4/CCL13 is a chemoattractant for monocytes and eosinophils, and activates basophils. In addition, it has been reported to be
Simpson, R. J., Florida-James, G., Whyte, G. P., Middleton, N., Shave, R., George, K. & Guy, K. (2007). The effects of marathon running on expression of the complement regulatory proteins CD55 (DAF) and CD59 (MACIF) on red blood cells. European journal of applied physiology. 99, 201-204. doi:10.1007/s00421-006-0326-2. ISSN 1439-6327. ...
Simpson, R. J., Florida-James, G., Whyte, G. P., Middleton, N., Shave, R., George, K. & Guy, K. (2007). The effects of marathon running on expression of the complement regulatory proteins CD55 (DAF) and CD59 (MACIF) on red blood cells. European journal of applied physiology. 99, 201-204. doi:10.1007/s00421-006-0326-2. ISSN 1439-6327. ...
25,83,91 Most fI and MCP mutations functionally impair. their ability to inactivate C3b, but surprisingly the majority of fH mutations are not in the functional N-terminus; instead they cluster in the C-terminal domains (SCR 19-20) that mediate fH binding to the cell Proteasome inhibitor review surface.35,83 An additional population of aHUS patients (5%) are characterized by the development of autoantibodies to fH that inhibit fH binding to host cells.96 Recent studies have demonstrated that many of these autoantibody-positive patients have deletion or alternative splicing of CFHR1 and CFHR3,97,98 two fH-related genes that encode plasma proteins with 5 SCRs that have homologous C-termini with fH. These findings suggest that lack of CFHR may play a role in fH autoantibody production and aHUS pathogenesis. Corresponding biochemical and animal studies have selleck chemicals bolstered the clinical data and reaffirmed the causal link between increased AP activity and the development of aHUS symptoms. ...
Blocked or clogged ears occur when the eustachian tubes inside your ears fill with fluid. Sinus infections, cold and flu viruses and allergies can inflame the linings in your ears, leading to blocked passages. Though not a cure, acupuncture can help relieve ear pressure and congestion.
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is an extremely rare, life-threatening, progressive disease that frequently has a genetic component. In most cases it is caused by chronic, uncontrolled activation of the complement system, a branch of the bodys immune system that destroys and removes foreign particles. The disease affects both children and adults and is characterized by systemic thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), the formation of blood clots in small blood vessels throughout the body, which can lead to stroke, heart attack, kidney failure, and death. The complement system activation may be due to mutations in the complement regulatory proteins (factor H, factor I, or membrane cofactor protein), or is occasionally due to acquired neutralizing autoantibody inhibitors of these complement system components, for example anti-factor H antibodies. Despite the use of supportive care, historically an estimated 33-40% of patients died or developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with the first ...
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects mainly diarthrodial joints and periarticular structures, and can acquire a systemic character. Rheumatoid arthritis affects approximately 1% of the world population, being two to three times more common in women.1. The etiology of RA has not been completely clarified. However, environmental and genetic factors have contributed to the development of the disease. In the early stages of RA, proliferation and edema of the synovial layer cells occur, with infiltration of B and T cells, macrophages, and granulocytes. The synovium thickens, and the joint becomes swollen and painful. With progression, synovial proliferation leads to the formation of pannus, a tissue that invades the articular cartilage and bone. Joint destruction is irreversible. Osteoclasts reabsorb bone, and there is release of proteolytic enzymes, such as metal-loproteinases, aggrecanases, and cathepsins, responsible for the destruction of ...
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is definitely defined with the triad of mechanised hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal impairment. genes encoding supplement regulatory proteins aspect H, membrane cofactor proteins (MCP), aspect I or thrombomodulin have already been showed in 20-30%, 5-15%, 4-10% and 3-5% buy 74285-86-2 of sufferers respectively, and mutations in the genes of C3 convertase proteins, C3 and aspect B, in 2-10% and 1-4%. Furthermore, 6-10% of sufferers have got anti-factor H antibodies. Medical diagnosis of aHUS depends on 1) No linked disease 2) No requirements for Shigatoxin-HUS (feces lifestyle and PCR for Shiga-toxins; serology for anti-lipopolysaccharides antibodies) 3) No requirements for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (serum ADAMTS 13 activity 10%). Analysis of the supplement system is necessary (C3, C4, aspect H and aspect I plasma focus, MCP appearance on leukocytes and anti-factor H antibodies; hereditary screening to recognize risk elements). The condition ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro investigation of pig cells for resistance to human antibody-mediated rejection. AU - Hara, Hidetaka. AU - Long, Cassandra. AU - Lin, Yih Jyh. AU - Tai, Hao Chih. AU - Ezzelarab, Mohamed. AU - Ayares, David. AU - Cooper, David K.C.. PY - 2008/12. Y1 - 2008/12. N2 - Although human complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) of α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO) pig cells is significantly weaker than that of wild-type (WT) cells, successful xenotransplantation will require pigs with multiple genetic modifications. Sera from healthy humans were tested by (i) flow cytometry for binding of IgM/IgG, and (ii) CDC assay against peripheral blood mononuclear cells and porcine aortic endothelial cells from five types of pig - WT, GTKO, GTKO transgenic for H-transferase (GTKO/HT), WT transgenic for human complement regulatory protein CD46 (CD46) and GTKO/CD46. There was significantly higher mean IgM/IgG binding to WT and CD46 cells than to GTKO, GTKO/HT, and GTKO/CD46, but ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective expression of a subset of measles virus receptor-competent CD46 isoforms in human brain. AU - Buchholz, Christian J.. AU - Gerlier, Denis. AU - Hu, Aizhong. AU - Cathomen, Toni. AU - Liszewski, M. Kathryn. AU - Atkinson, John P.. AU - Cattaneo, Roberto. PY - 1996/3/1. Y1 - 1996/3/1. N2 - The human cell surface protein CD46 is the main measles virus (MV) receptor. We analyzed the CD46 isoforms expressed in the brain of three patients who died with persistent MV infections and in an unaffected brain. Complete CD46 cDNAs were produced and found to code exclusively for CD46 isoforms with cytoplasmic tail 2. Selective expression of tail 2 isoforms was shown in a second control brain by Western blots with antibodies specific for each of the cytoplasmic tails. Binding of purified MV particles and virus-dependent cell fusion were tested after transient expression of brain-derived CD46 proteins in mouse cells. All the brain-derived proteins mediated MV binding and ...
Zyagen : Human Membrane Protein Products - Antibodies Kits, Reagents & Biochemical Tissue Sections RNA Products cDNA Products Genomic DNA Products Tissue Lysates Products Premade Northern Blots Premade Western Blots Recombinant Proteins & Peptides Tissue Microarrays
PGK1 an apparent multifunctional protein. A glycolytic enzyme and a polymerase alpha cofactor protein (primer recognition protein). Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB ...
just picked up three bottles of receptor and i was just wondering what was the best way to use it. during a cycle or right before a cycle? any
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measles virus selectively blind to signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM; CD150) is attenuated and induces strong adaptive immune responses in rhesus monkeys. AU - Leonard, Vincent H J. AU - Hodge, Gregory. AU - Reyes-Del Valle, Jorge. AU - McChesney, Michael B.. AU - Cattaneo, Roberto. PY - 2010/4. Y1 - 2010/4. N2 - The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM; CD150) is the immune cell receptor for measles virus (MV). To assess the importance of the SLAM-MV interactions for virus spread and pathogenesis, we generated a wild-type IC-B MV selectively unable to recognize human SLAM (SLAM-blind). This virus differs from the fully virulent wild-type IC-B strain by a single arginine-to-alanine substitution at amino acid 533 of the attachment protein hemagglutinin and infects cells through SLAM about 40 times less efficiently than the isogenic wild-type strain. Ex vivo, this virus infects primary lymphocytes at low levels regardless of SLAM expression. When a group of ...
Measles remains a leading cause of death worldwide among children because it suppresses immune function. The measles virus (MV) P gene encodes three proteins (P, V, and C) that interfere with innate immunity, controlling STAT1, STAT2, mda5, and perhaps other key regulators of immune function. We identified here three residues in the shared domain of the P and V proteins-tyrosine 110, valine 112, and histidine 115-that function to retain STAT1 in the cytoplasm and inhibit interferon transcription. This information was used to generate a recombinant measles virus unable to antagonize STAT1 function (STAT1-blind MV) differing only in these three residues from a wild-type strain of well-defined virulence. This virus was used to assess the relevance of P and V interactions with STAT1 for virulence in primates. When a group of six rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) was inoculated intranasally with STAT1-blind MV, viremia was short-lived, and the skin rash and other clinical signs observed with wild-type MV were
A new study has found wild-type measles virus in tissues from patients...Because persons have apparently contracted SSPE without ever knowingly...Brain tissue specimens from 11 patients suspected of having SSPE were ...The researchers discovered wild-type measles virus in brain tissues fr...The fact that 12 SSPE patients identified in the study had measles bet...,New,study,shows,measles,immunization,may,prevent,fatal,brain,infection,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Fremeaux-Bacchi, V.; Kemp, E. J.; Goodship, J. A.; Dragon-Durey, M. A.; Strain, L.; Loirat, C.; Deng, H. W.; Goodship, T. H. J. The development of atypical haemolytic-uraemic syndrome is influenced by susceptibility factors in factor H and membrane cofactor protein: evidence from two independent cohorts. Journal of medical genetics. 2005, NOV. 42(11):852-856 ...
CD59 / Complement Regulatory Protein / Protectin Antibody - Without BSA and Azide, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone SPM616 ] validated in IHC, IF, FC (AH12772-100), Abgent
In response to the need for prompt differentiation between vaccine reactions and wild-type measles virus infection cases, laboratories have been developing methods that do not require sequencing of N-450. A method targeting a region on the hemagglutinin gene has been described and tested with a small number of vaccine and wild-type specimens or isolates (15). Here, we describe the development and validation of a measles virus genotype A-specific RT-qPCR, MeVA RT-qPCR, that targets the N gene of MeV. This assay produces rapid results and is capable of high throughput. The MeVA RT-qPCR was thoroughly tested at three global reference laboratories. Two RT-qPCR platforms and over 300 samples were included in the evaluation. Overall, our data show very high (99.5%) specificity for the A genotype, albeit with lower (94%) sensitivity than the standard MeV RT-qPCR (16). Because of the lower sensitivity, the MeVA RT-qPCR is intended to be used as a tool for rapid detection of genotype A sequences and not ...
aHUS patients raised the question are the predisposing genetic factors of aHUS fully catalogued? as a topic of research which matters to them in their Global Research Agenda.. Those affected by aHUS know well that it is imperfections in components of the Complement System that made them susceptible to the disease when one of many triggering hits over their lives caused a catastrophic onset of aHUS.. They know that there are different imperfections in different aHUS patients, some not yet found. But how many and who is keeping a record of what to look for as an aHUS susceptibility imperfection , or mutation or significant variant.. At University College London, the Department of Structural and Molecular Biology has been collating variants in the Complement System for 15 years and creating a database of information about them. It is known as the Database of Complement Gene Variants and can seen online , click here.. Designed for use by scientist and clinicians the information held is ...
Information for healthcare professionals for diagnosing and treating Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome. Soliris is the only therapy approved for the treatment of aHUS.
Read about a case report study describing the clinical case of a patient with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) associated with heart disease.
Mesman AW, Zijlstra-Willems EM, Kaptein TM, de Swart RL, Davis ME, Ludlow M, Duprex WP, Gack MU, Gringhuis SI, Geijtenbeek TB; Measles virus suppresses RIG-I-like receptor activation in dendritic cells via DC-SIGN-mediated inhibition of PP1 phosphatases.; Cell Host Microbe, 2014 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia ...
Mesman AW, Zijlstra-Willems EM, Kaptein TM, de Swart RL, Davis ME, Ludlow M, Duprex WP, Gack MU, Gringhuis SI, Geijtenbeek TB; Measles virus suppresses RIG-I-like receptor activation in dendritic cells via DC-SIGN-mediated inhibition of PP1 phosphatases.; Cell Host Microbe, 2014 PubMed Europe PMC ...
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Nuclear receptors are ligand‐modulated transcription factors that act in the nucleus to regulate target gene transcription through interaction with cofactor proteins
Selectins represent a new family of adhesion molecules, expressed by leukocytes and endothelial cells, that are involved in the regulation of leukocyte traffic.
I attended the aHUS UK patient meeting and the aHUS Alliance meeting in London during the last week of June. I learnt a lot of new things about aHUS....
It contains a nitro group, think what you may. In order to confirm the binding affinity of the compound without immobilizing protein, they used the methyl resonances to do the titrations. The two separate peaks they followed gave values of 32 and 28 uM (+/- 8). Given the broadness of these peaks, I think this is a pretty decent assay, although it is an order of magnitude different than the biochemical Kd. However, subsequent structural studies revealed that there is significant structural dynamic differences between pH 6.5 and 7.5. ITC gave the same number (33 uM and enthalpy driven); however, the ITC had to be run at high compound concentration and a different pH. They then went off the deep end and decided to use CD (I cant link to a previous post of using CD because we have never had a post where someone used it). With a horrible assay (dont even get me started on near-UV CD as a readout of tertiary structure), they got reasonably close to the Kds determined by ITC and methyl-NMR ...
MI Update - Volume 12, Issue 4 is centered on immunology of the liver. Including articles of vein tolerance and development of regulator CD4 T-cells, IL-27R, and T-cell Immunity
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by Hewson, R and Biccard, B.M and Beattie, Scott and Fleisher, Lee A and Holt, Peter and Moreno, Rui and Januszewska, Marta and Myles, Paul and Wouters, Patrick and Futier, Emmanuel and Geddoa, Emad and Abbas, Muntadhar and Bouwman, Arthur and Short, Tim and Biccard, Bruce and Douglas, Jeanene and Kerridge, Ross and Jain, Megha and Stewart, Marcelle and Clyde, Antony and Haisjackl, Markus and Holaubek, Caroline and Schneider, Elisabeth and Bauer, Marlene and Mayrhofer, Thomas and Schindler, Elke and Trampitsch, Ernst and Duenser, Martin and Hoelzenbein, Thomas and Jaeger, Tarkan and Steindl, Johannes and Kahn, David and Prégardien, Caroline and De Kegel, Dirk and De Jongh, Karen and Deblaere, Isabel and Neckebroek, Martine and Van de Velde, Marc and Dylst, Dimitri and Batista, Hugo Dias and Amendola, Cristina Prata and Cardoso, Gutemberg and Almeida, William and Neto, Calim Neder and Tardelli, Maria Angela and Machado, Marcio and Azevedo, Caroline and Applewhaite, Christopher and Carr, Adrienne ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - First-line therapy in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. T2 - consideration on infants with a poor prognosis. AU - Szarvas, Nóra. AU - Szilágyi, Ágnes. AU - Tasic, Velibor. AU - Nushi-Stavileci, Valbona. AU - Sofijanova, Aspazija. AU - Gucev, Zoran. AU - Szabó, Miklós. AU - Szabó, Attila. AU - Szeifert, Lilla. AU - Reusz, György. AU - Rusai, Krisztina. AU - Arbeiter, Klaus. AU - Müller, Thomas. AU - Prohászka, Zoltán. PY - 2014/12/11. Y1 - 2014/12/11. N2 - BACKGROUND: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare and heterogeneous disorder. The first line treatment of aHUS is plasma therapy, but in the past few years, the recommendations have changed greatly with the advent of eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal anti C5-antibody. Although recent recommendations suggest using it as a primary treatment for aHUS, important questions have arisen about the necessity of immediate use of eculizumab in all cases. We aimed to draw attention to a specific subgroup of aHUS ...
ConclusionThe atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare disease entity requiring a high index of suspicion to diagnose. It is a diagnosis of exclusion. Early diagnosis with prompt treatment will render a better outcome. The atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome needs to be considered in all patients with thrombotic microangiopathy....
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inherited complement hyperactivation is critical for the pathogenesis of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) but undetermined in postdiarrheal HUS. Our aim was to investigate complement activation and variants of complement genes, and their association with disease severity in children with Shiga toxin-associated HUS. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Determination of complement biomarkers levels and next-generation sequencing for the six susceptibility genes for atypical HUS were performed in 108 children with a clinical diagnosis of post-diarrheal HUS (75 Shiga toxin-positive, and 33 Shiga toxin-negative) and 80 French controls. As an independent control cohort, we analyzed the genotypes in 503 European individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project. RESULTS: During the acute phase of HUS, plasma levels of C3 and sC5b-9 were increased, and half of patients had decreased membrane cofactor protein expression, which normalized after 2 weeks. Variants with minor
Zhang X., Lu G., Qi J., Li Y., He Y., Xu X., Shi J., Zhang C.W., Yan J., Gao G.F.. Measles virus is a major public health concern worldwide. Three measles virus cell receptors have been identified so far, and the structures of the first two in complex with measles virus hemagglutinin (MV-H) have been reported. Nectin-4 is the most recently identified receptor in epithelial cells, and its binding mode to MV-H remains elusive. In this study, we solved the structure of the membrane-distal domain of human nectin-4 in complex with MV-H. The structure shows that nectin-4 binds the MV-H β4-β5 groove exclusively via its N-terminal IgV domain; the contact interface is dominated by hydrophobic interactions. The binding site in MV-H for nectin-4 also overlaps extensively with those of the other two receptors. Finally, a hydrophobic pocket centered in the β4-β5 groove is involved in binding to all three identified measles virus receptors, representing a potential target for antiviral drugs.. Nat. ...
A specific hypoglycosylated isoform of the complement regulator membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is expressed on the inner acrosomal membrane (IAM) of spermatozoa. This membrane is exposed after the acrosome reaction, an exocytosis event that occurs upon contact with the zona pellucida. We initiated this investigation to assess MCPs regulatory function in situ on spermatozoa. Upon exposure of human spermatozoa to autologous serum or follicular fluid, we unexpectedly observed that acrosome-reacted spermatozoa activated the complement cascade efficiently through C3 but not beyond. Using FACS to simultaneously evaluate viability, acrosomal status, and complement deposition, we found that complement activation was initiated by C-reactive protein (CRP) and was C1q, C2, and factor B dependent. This pattern is consistent with engagement of the classical pathway followed by amplification through the alternative pathway. C3b deposition was targeted to the IAM, where it was cleaved to C3bi. Factor ...
A specific hypoglycosylated isoform of the complement regulator membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is expressed on the inner acrosomal membrane (IAM) of spermatozoa. This membrane is exposed after the acrosome reaction, an exocytosis event that occurs upon contact with the zona pellucida. We initiated this investigation to assess MCPs regulatory function in situ on spermatozoa. Upon exposure of human spermatozoa to autologous serum or follicular fluid, we unexpectedly observed that acrosome-reacted spermatozoa activated the complement cascade efficiently through C3 but not beyond. Using FACS to simultaneously evaluate viability, acrosomal status, and complement deposition, we found that complement activation was initiated by C-reactive protein (CRP) and was C1q, C2, and factor B dependent. This pattern is consistent with engagement of the classical pathway followed by amplification through the alternative pathway. C3b deposition was targeted to the IAM, where it was cleaved to C3bi. Factor ...
This is a Phase 3, multicenter study of OMS721 in adults and adolescents with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). The uncontrolled, open-label study will evaluate the effect of OMS721 in subjects with plasma therapy-resistant aHUS and plasma therapy-responsive aHUS. This study has four periods: Screening, Treatment Induction, Treatment Maintenance, and Follow-up. Approximate enrollment is 80 subjects. An interim analysis will be performed after 40 subjects have completed 26 weeks of treatment for potential registration ...
Abstract. Abstract 2085Introduction:. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare chronic disorder characterized by persistent uncontrolled complement
Zuber J, Le Quintrec M, Krid S, Bertoye C, Gueutin V, Lahoche A et al (2012) Eculizumab for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome recurrence in renal transplantation. Am J Transplant 12(12):3337-3354. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.04252.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Buy our Recombinant Measles virus Priorix, Schwarz strain, nucleocapsid protein. Ab74559 is a full length protein produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and has…
Abbkine Scientific has officially announced the release of its EliKine™ Human CCL2 ELISA Kit. The product also is known as the Human MCP1 ELISA Kit which is unique for its high sensitivity and excellent specificity.. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. Other alternative names include MCP-1, HC11, MCAF, HSMCR30, SMC-CF, GDCF-2, SCYA2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, monocyte secretory protein JE. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection. Abbkine newly launched EliKine™ Human CCL2/MCP-1 ELISA Kit exerts high sensibility and specificity for the quantification of Human CCL2/MCP-1 in various samples to CCL2 level determination.. The Human MCP1 ELISA Kit comes with different features and benefits that stand it out from its ...
Abbkine Scientific has officially announced the release of its EliKine™ Human CCL2 ELISA Kit. The product also is known as the Human MCP1 ELISA Kit which is unique for its high sensitivity and excellent specificity.. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. Other alternative names include MCP-1, HC11, MCAF, HSMCR30, SMC-CF, GDCF-2, SCYA2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, monocyte secretory protein JE. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection. Abbkine newly launched EliKine™ Human CCL2/MCP-1 ELISA Kit exerts high sensibility and specificity for the quantification of Human CCL2/MCP-1 in various samples to CCL2 level determination.. The Human MCP1 ELISA Kit comes with different features and benefits that stand it out from its ...
Measles Virus Infection Negatively Affects Host Immune Status New evidence shows that measles infection decreases the breadth and titers of preexisting antibodies to a wide variety of pathogens SOURCE Science. November 1, 2019 V.366 N.6465 P.599-606. Mina MJ1,2,3, Kula T4,2, Leng Y4, Li M2, de Vries RD5, Knip M6,7, Siljander H6,7, Rewers M8, Choy DF9,…
Two hallmarks of measles virus (MV) infection are the ability of the virus to cause immunosuppression and the resultant enhanced susceptibility of the infected host to microbial insults. We investigated the effect of MV infection on the ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to induce IL-12 via toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. When infected with MV, transgenic mice which expressed human SLAM receptor on their DCs were defective in the selective synthesis of IL-12 in DCs in response to stimulation of TLR4 signaling, but not to engagements of TLR2, 3, 7 or 9. MV suppressed TLR4-mediated IL-12 induction in DCs even in the presence of co-stimulation with another ligand for TLR2, 3, 7, or 9. While MV V and C proteins were not responsible for IL-12 inhibition, interaction of MV hemagglutinin with human SLAM facilitated the suppression. These results suggest that MV, by altering DC function, renders them unresponsive to secondary pathogens via TLR4 ...
PsiOxus Therapeutics Ltd. (PsiOxus), an Oxford, UKbased biotechnology company developing innovative oncolytic immuno-oncologytreatments for cancer, has expanded two of its on-going phase I studies using its anti-cancer treatment candidate, enadenotucirev (EnAd), an oncolytic Ad11/Ad3 chimeric group B adenovirus. The expanded studies, introduce a number of additional cancer types into the programme, as a result of phase I data demonstrating the successful tumour delivery of EnAd through intravenous administration. The treatment was generally well tolerated with repeated dosing. PsiOxus has already enrolled its first patients in each indication of the expanded studies.. ...
The PSI drew criticisms from many in the structural biology community from its inception, however. Critics of the first two phases of the PSI pointed out that it focused mainly on solving small bacterial protein structures that were not biologically very interesting, simply because they were relatively easy to express, purify and crystallize. This led the PSI to substantially change course in the third and current phase, PSI-Biology, which began in 2010. The emphasis on throughput was diminished and shifted to solving important, difficult structures like human membrane proteins and drug targets. This change of course has led to several successful structures for highly interesting yet difficult proteins such as GPCRs.. In 2013, a scientific advisory panel produced a mid-point evaluation report of PSI-Biology for NIGMS (PDF), assessing its strengths and weaknesses. The panel commended the impressive number of high-quality structures and methodological advances of the PSI centers, but noted that ...
It is hardly necessary to define the concept of receptors to readers of this series, but it should be borne in mind that in several instances receptors are undefined entities, whose molecular details
Im really fed up that my periods have gone AWOL, followed by bleeds lasting for 20 days. My dr says this is not a problem as long as Im not lookin
The human CD46 antigen is known to be the functional cellular receptor for Measles virus. This type 1 integral membrane ... Dörig, R. E.; A. Marcil; A. Chopra; C. D. Richardson (1993-10-22). "The human CD46 molecule is a receptor for measles virus ( ... is an improvement over initial efforts to engineer a Measles virus to carry the soluble marker human carcinoembryonic antigen ( ...
... antigens, cd46 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250 - complement c1 inactivator proteins MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250.500 - ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.124.790.106.050 - alpha 1-antichymotrypsin MeSH ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301 - antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.301 - antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH ...
... antigens, cd43 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.145 - antigens, cd45 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.146 - antigens, cd46 MeSH D23.050.301.264 ... antigens, cd43 MeSH D23.101.100.110.145 - antigens, cd45 MeSH D23.101.100.110.146 - antigens, cd46 MeSH D23.101.100.110.147 - ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.900.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 - antigens, ly MeSH D23.101.100.930 - antigens, ... forssman antigen MeSH D23.050.285.018 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.285.025 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.285.040 - antigens, ...
... antigen, t-cell, gamma-delta MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.833.124 - antigens, cd46 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.833.249 - integrin ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 - receptors, antigen, t- ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776.543.550 ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 - antigens, cd40 MeSH ...
That antigen could be from any species of virus/bacteria or even human disease antigens, for example cancer antigens. Vaccines ... One example of this is the targeting of CD46 on multiple myeloma cells by measles virus. The expression of these receptors are ... Chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR T cell) are a type of immunotherapy that makes use of viral gene editing. CAR T cell use ... Tumor antigens and danger-associated molecular patterns are also released during the lysis process which helps recruit host ...
The key to the success of the complement system in clearing antigens is regulating the effects of C3b to pathogens alone and ... An example RCA is membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46), which is ubiquitously expressed and plays a critical role in ... Additionally, C3b molecules can attach to the Fc regions of antigen-bound antibodies leading to phagocytosis or movement to the ... C3b is potent in opsonization: tagging pathogens, immune complexes (antigen-antibody), and apoptotic cells for phagocytosis. ...
MS patients are also known to be CD46 defective, and this leads to Interleukin-10 (IL-10) deficiency, being this involved in ... and down-regulation of CNS antigens, tested by microarrays. In particular, RRMS is characterized by autoantibodies to heat ...
... endocytosis of antigen bound to the BCR and its routing to late endosomes to facilitate loading of antigen-derived peptides ... binds to human CD46 on host cell surface. All these viral receptors are located in lipid rafts or would be relocated into lipid ... T cell antigen receptor signalling, B cell antigen receptor signalling, EGF receptor signalling, insulin receptor signalling ... The process of B cell antigen receptor signalling is similar to Immunoglobulin E signalling and T-cell antigen receptor ...
This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... CD46) deficiency Membrane attack complex inhibitor (CD59) deficiency Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria Immunodeficiency ... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ...
Antigens of phagocytosed graft cells can also be presented by the host's class I MHC molecules to CD8+ T cells.[1][29] ... Expression of human complement regulators (CD55, CD46, and CD59) to inhibit the complement cascade.[27] ... Indirect xenorecognition involves the presentation of antigens from the xenograft by recipient antigen presenting cells to CD4+ ... In direct xenorecognition, antigen presenting cells from the xenograft present peptides to recipient CD4+ T cells via ...
CD46) deficiency Membrane attack complex inhibitor (CD59) deficiency Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria Ficolin 3 deficiency ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ...
... and antigen-presenting cells, or nectin-4, a cellular adhesion molecule.[40][42] Once bound, the fusion, or F protein helps the ... which could be CD46, which is expressed on all nucleated human cells, CD150, aka signaling lymphocyte activation molecule or ...
The contents include surface antigens necessary for binding to the egg's cell membrane, and numerous enzymes which are ... or fluoresceinated antibody such as FITC-CD46. The antibodies/lectins have a high specificity for different parts of the ... "Comparative flow cytometric analysis of the human sperm acrosome reaction using CD46 antibody and lectins". Journal of Assisted ...
Tissue Antigens (англ.)русск. : journal. - 2007. - Vol. 68, no. 6. - P. 509-517. - DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00726.x. - PMID ...
CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen ... 2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
MCP or CD46) ... Antigen presentation/Professional APCs: Dendritic cell. * ...
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11.[5] CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ... "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms cooperate to mediate colon carcinoma cell adhesion to E- and L-selectin in ...
1991). „Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID ... CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens ...
... is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Leucocyte typing: human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
1996). "CD88 antibodies specifically bind to C5aR on dermal CD117+ and CD14+ cells and react with a desmosomal antigen in human ... CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ...
C3b binds to antigen-associated Ig and to the microbe surface. Ability of C3b to bind to antigen-associated Ig would work ... CD46, CD55 and CD59, depending on the cell. Pathogens, in general, don't have complement regulatory proteins (there are many ... which has formed a complex with antigens. C4b and C3b are also able to bind to antigen-associated IgG or IgM, to its Fc portion ... This occurs when C1q binds to IgM or IgG complexed with antigens. A single pentameric IgM can initiate the pathway, while ...
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
... uveitis antigens induce CXCR3- and CXCR5-expressing lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells to migrate (англ.) // Blood (англ ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
"Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
Antigen-specific peripheral shaping of the natural regulatory T cell population. „J Exp Med". 205 (13), s. 3105-3117, grudzień ... po uprzednim otrzymaniu sygnału za pośrednictwem cząsteczki CD46[91]. ... De novo production of antigen-specific suppressor cells in vivo. „Nat Protoc". 1 (2), s. 653-661, 2006. PMID: 17802642. ... Regulation of the immune response to tumor antigens. X. Activation of third-order suppressor T cells that abrogate anti-tumor ...
... antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ...
"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)".. *^ May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; ... CD61+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
"Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26". Science. 261 (5120): 466-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet degranulation. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling ...
Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of ...
antigen binding. • virus receptor activity. • protein binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • identical protein ...
Multiple isoforms of CD46 have been reported with molecular weights ranging from 45-75 kD. CD4 ... CD46 is a transmembrane protein that is known as a complement membrane cofactor protein, MCP, and measles virus receptor. It is ... Antigen References 1. Cardone J, et al. 2010. Nat. Immunol. 11:862.. 2. Dorig RE, et al. 1993. Cell 75:295.. 3. Kemper C, et al ... Multiple isoforms of CD46 have been reported with molecular weights ranging from 45-75 kD. CD46 binds complement components C3b ...
Novus Biologicals CD46 Antibody; Alexa Fluor 532; 0.1 mL. ... Shop a large selection of products and learn more about CD46 ... AHUS2, CD46 antigen, CD46 molecule, complement regulatory protein, membrane cofactor protein (CD46, trophoblast-lymphocyte ... trophoblast leucocyte common antigen, Trophoblast leukocyte common antigen, trophoblast-lymphocyte cross-reactive antigen. ... CD46 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects CD46 in Human samples. It is validated for Western Blot,Flow Cytometry,ELISA, ...
CD_antigen: CD46. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy ... "CD46 is a cellular receptor for bovine viral diarrhea virus.". Maurer K., Krey T., Moennig V., Thiel H.-J., Ruemenapf T.. J. ... "CD46 is a cellular receptor for bovine viral diarrhea virus.". Maurer K., Krey T., Moennig V., Thiel H.-J., Ruemenapf T.. J. ... "CD46 is a cellular receptor for bovine viral diarrhea virus.". Maurer K., Krey T., Moennig V., Thiel H.-J., Ruemenapf T.. J. ...
CD46 complement, also known as membrane cofactor protein (MCP), is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein which is widely ... Complement system - CD46 MCP Introduction of CD46 MCP CD46 complement also known as membrane cofactor protein MCP is a type 1 ... 46 Immunoglobulins , Complement system, Antigen Antibody reactions By: prabukutti4u * MCP PPT By: aSGuest45575 ... Fig.1 The Structure of the CD46 protein. Reynaud 2013. slide 2: Functions of CD46 MCP • Regulator of Complement Activation CD46 ...
CD46 Antibody (C-term), Peptide Affinity Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) validated in WB, IHC-P, FC, IF, E (AP4785b ... Membrane cofactor protein, TLX, Trophoblast leukocyte common antigen, CD46, CD46, MCP, MIC10. ... home , Products , Primary Antibodies , Immunology , CD46 Antibody (C-term) CD46 Antibody (C-term). Peptide Affinity Purified ... CD46 is a type I membrane protein and is a regulatory part of the complement system. The encoded protein has cofactor activity ...
CD46 antigen density on various BM cell populations from 3 normal donors. (. G. ) CD46 antigen density on various peripheral ... Quantitative FACS results for CD46 antigen density from MM versus NPCs from patients with amp1q21 (1q+, n. = 5). (. D. ) CD46 ... CD46 antigen density on various BM normal cell populations compared with MM cells from 7 additional patients. (. F. ) ... Quantitative FACS results for CD46 antigen density from MM versus NPCs from patients with normal (Nml) 1q (. n. = 5). (. C. ) ...
The human CD46 antigen is known to be the functional cellular receptor for Measles virus. This type 1 integral membrane ... Dörig, R. E.; A. Marcil; A. Chopra; C. D. Richardson (1993-10-22). "The human CD46 molecule is a receptor for measles virus ( ... is an improvement over initial efforts to engineer a Measles virus to carry the soluble marker human carcinoembryonic antigen ( ...
CD46 acts as a co-factor for complement factor I, a serine protease which protects autologous cells against complement-mediated ... Additionally, CD46 functions as a receptor for measles virus, human herpesvirus, and human adenovirus. It is a potent ... At least fourteen different transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for CD46. It is expressed by a ... Clone REA312 recognizes the human CD46 antigen, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, which is also known as the membrane ...
0 (Actins); 0 (CD46 protein, human); 0 (CD55 Antigens); 0 (CD59 Antigens); 0 (Complement Membrane Attack Complex); 0 ( ... Shear stress was observed to promote the expression of complement regulatory protein CD59, but not CD46 or CD55, on EPCs. In ... In this study, we observed shear stress-mediated changes in the expression of complement regulatory proteins CD46, CD55, and ... Membrane regulatory proteins, such as CD46, CD55, and CD59, prevent excess complement activation and to protect cells from ...
K04007 CD46; membrane cofactor protein K06266 CD47; CD47 antigen (Rh-related antigen, integrin-associated signal transducer) ... CD79A antigen K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen K05412 CD80; CD80 antigen K06508 CD81; CD81 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K06510 ... CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06721 CLEC10A; C-type lectin ... CD96 antigen K08446 ADGRE5; CD97 antigen K06519 SLC3A2; solute carrier family 3, member 2 K06520 CD99; CD99 antigen K06521 ...
Homology of an acrosome-reacted sperm-specific antigen to CD46. (1992) * 9 ... HOMOLOGY OF AN ACROSOME-REACTED SPERM-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN TO MEMBRANE COFACTOR PROTEIN (1993) ...
... antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD46 genome location and CD46 gene details ... "Entrez Gene: CD46 CD46 molecule, complement regulatory protein". Riley-Vargas RC, Gill DB, Kemper C, Liszewski MK, Atkinson JP ... CD46 complement regulatory protein also known as CD46 (cluster of differentiation 46) and Membrane Cofactor Protein is a ... As has been demonstrated for CD46 with other ligands, the CD46 protein structure is believed to linearize upon binding HHV-6. ...
Gaggar A, Shayakhmetov DM, Lieber A. CD46 is a cellular receptor for group B adenoviruses. Nat Med. 2003;9(11):1408-1412.. View ... Antigen expression determines adenoviral vaccine potency independent of IFN and STING signaling. Kylie M. Quinn,1 Daniel E. Zak ... Prior studies have shown that certain rAds can differ with respect to antigen (Ag) expression levels in vivo and their innate ... Type-I IFN signaling is required for the induction of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses by adenovirus vector vaccine in ...
Exbio - Research products - Antibodies - CD and related antigens - Anti-Hu CD46 Purified ... The antibody MEM-258 recognizes an epitope on SCR4 (the membrane-proximal SCR) domain of CD46 (Membrane cofactor protein). CD46 ... CD46, alters T cell polarity and response to antigen presentation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Dec 5;103(49):18685-90. ... Gaggar A, Shayakhmetov DM, Lieber A: CD46 is a cellular receptor for group B adenoviruses. Nat Med. 2003 Nov;9(11):1408-12. ...
... which has been transfected with an Anti-human CD46 MAb gene to allow expression of the MAb. It is an example of a cell line ... CHO-Anti-Human CD46 MAb stable cell line is clonally-derived from a CHO cell line, ... CD46. Synonyms:. CD46; CD46 molecule, complement regulatory protein; antigen identified by monoclonal TRA 2 10 , CD46 antigen, ... CD46 antigen, complement regulatory protein; trophoblast-lymphocyte cross-reactive antigen; antigen identified by monoclonal ...
Antigen: Recombinant human CD46.. Host species: Mouse.. Antibody Class: IgG1.. Preservative: None. ... Additional bands due to glycosylation of CD46 may be detected.. ELISA: use at 0.1-1ug/ml with human CD46 on the solid phase.. ... CD46 / Membrane Cofactor Protein is a type I membrane protein and is a regulatory part of the complement system; it has ... CD46 / Membrane Cofactor Protein Monoclonal Antibody. ORDERING INFORMATION. Catalog No.: 90004 (clone 3F1) Format: 100ug, ...
Accommodation in this model was associated with the prevention of the early antibody responses induced against donor antigens ... Some antiapoptotic proteins and complement regulatory proteins, including Bcl-2, CD59, CD46 and clusterin, were upregulated in ...
... against CD46, today announced the U.S. Food and ... surface antigens present on the cells. ... Fortis Therapeutics Receives FDA Clearance of Two IND Applications for Novel Anti-CD46 Therapeutic for Treatment of Late-Stage ... "CD46 is an attractive target for a number of cancers but has yet to be exploited due to its role in healthy tissues," said Jay ... While CD46 is expressed throughout the body, preclinical studies show that FOR46 activity is primarily restricted to prostate ...
The receptor returns to the cell membrane surface and the pathogen-derived antigens are presented to resting T-cells via MHC ... Probably recognizes in a calcium-dependent manner high mannose N-linked oligosaccharides in a variety of pathogen antigens, ... Lewis-x antigen in Helicobacter pylori LPS, mannose in Klebsiella pneumonae LPS, di-mannose and tri-mannose in Mycobacterium ... tuberculosis ManLAM and Lewis-x antigen in Schistosoma mansoni SEA.,br/,On DCs it is a high affinity receptor for ICAM2 and ...
Relative lysis of target cells was assessed by LDH release assay after 48 h. Cells lacking the BTE target antigen (B16-CD46) ... B16-CD46/ B16-CD20-CD46. J. Heidbuechel, DKFZ Heidelberg. available upon request. ... including enhancing tumor antigen recognition [e.g., tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) or inducers of major histocompatibility ... Antigen-specific oncolytic MV-based tumor vaccines through presentation of selected tumor-associated antigens on infected cells ...
Ligation of the cell surface receptor, CD46, alters T cell polarity and response to antigen presentation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... Asymmetric cell division of T cells upon antigen presentation uses multiple conserved mechanisms. J. Immunol. 185:367-375. doi: ... Asymmetric segregation of polarized antigen on B cell division shapes presentation capacity. Science. 335:475-479. doi:10.1126/ ... During activation of mature T cells, polarity during ACD is dictated by contact with the antigen-presenting cell that bears a ...
Recently determined crystal structures of the MV-H protein unbound and bound to SLAM or CD46 have provided insights into ... Recently determined crystal structures of the MV H protein unbound and bound to SLAM or CD46 have provided insights into ... CD46 or nectin-4. Entry is mediated by two MV envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (H) and the fusion (F) protein. The H ... CD46 or nectin-4. Entry is mediated by two MV envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (H) and the fusion (F) protein. The H ...
Strong antigen-specific T-cell immunity induced by a recombinant human TERT measles virus vaccine and amplified by a DNA/viral ... vector prime boost in IFNAR/CD46 mice.. Pliquet E, Ruffie C, Escande M, Thalmensi J, Najburg V, Combredet C, Bestetti T, ... Oral administration of low doses of plant-based HBsAg induced antigen-specific IgAs and IgGs in mice, without increasing levels ... Immunogenicity of a recombinant lentiviral vector carrying human telomerase tumor antigen in HLA-B*0702 transgenic mice. ...
CD46 transgenic mouse models that have CD46 expression profile similar to monkeys and humans, have been suggested as a suitable ... Tissue Antigens. 2004;64:111-118. [PubMed]. *Russell WC. Adenoviruses. Topley and Wilsons Microbiology and Microbial ... CD46. Membrane cofactor protein (MCP) or CD46 is a ubiquitously expressed type I transmembrane glycoprotein, and its biological ... Because of the lack of CD46 expression on rodent cells and low homology between human and rodent CD46, rodents do not serve as ...
The direct pathway refers to the recognition of antigens presented by pig antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by recipient T cells ... Expression of human CD46 modulates inflammation associated with GalTKO lung xenograft injury. Am J Transplant. (2014) 14:1084- ... These data suggest that non-Gal antigens cause AHXR, and non-Gal antigens present an additional barrier to the transplantation ... is the third examined xenogeneic antigen (29). This antigen was first identified using complementary DNA expression libraries ...
... and only a few syncytiotrophoblasts were positive for measles virus antigen. At present, 7 months after the delivery, the ... and some residual trophoblasts contained many inclusion bodies positive for measles virus antigen. Fetal organs and cells other ... Dorig RE, Marcil A, Richardson CD . CD46, a primate-specific receptor for measles virus. Trends Microbiol 1994; 2: 312-318. ... No MV antigen was demonstrated in any organ other than the spleen, in which there were a few scattered lymphoid cells positive ...
... trophoblast-lymphocyte cross-reactive antigen) (MCP), transcript variant n, mRNA. (H00004179-R17) - Products - Abnova ... Homo sapiens membrane cofactor protein (CD46, trophoblast-lymphocyte cross-reactive antigen) (MCP), transcript variant n, mRNA ... CD46 antigen, complement regulatory protein,OTTHUMP00000034577,OTTHUMP00000034622,OTTHUMP00000034623,OTTHUMP00000034624, ... OTTHUMP00000034625,OTTHUMP00000034626,OTTHUMP00000034706,antigen identified by monoclonal antibody TRA-2-10,complement membrane ...
These mice express the MV vaccine strain receptor human CD46 with human-like tissue specificity in an IFN type I receptor ... The widely used HBV vaccine is based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae-expressed small surface antigen (hepatitis B surface antigen [ ... Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expression cassettes were inserted into this cDNA and three MVs expressing HBsAg at ... Novel immunogenicity of Oka varicella vaccine vector expressing hepatitis B surface antigen. J. Infect. Dis. 181:1158-1161. ...
With a variable antigen-binding region that acts as a surrogate antigen for CA-125, abagovomab may stimulate the host immune ... Upon intramuscular administration of the Ad5/F35-hGCC-PADRE, the Ad5/F35 targets CD46, which is expressed widely on most tumor ... The monoclonal antibody moiety of actinium Ac 225 lintuzumab specifically binds to the cell surface antigen CD33 antigen, ... associated antigen and a member of the carbonic anhydrase family that contains a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2.1-restricted ...
Antigens, CD46/isolation & purification/metabolism*. *Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics/immunology/isolation & purification* ... D and E. Detection of HHV-6 antigen gp60/110 in HHV-6A infected cells. HHV-6A-and mock-infected cells were fixed and stained ... D and E. Detection of HHV-6 antigen gp60/110 in HHV-6A infected cells. HHV-6A-and mock-infected cells were fixed and stained ... Bottom Line: Western blot analyses showed that the cellular complement protein CD46, the receptor for HHV-6A, is associated ...
  • CD46 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects CD46 in Human samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Lé vy 2017 Because of the importance in the regulation of complement activation control of pathogens entry and activation of T Cell Immunity CD46 has become a promising target for therapeutic antibody exploration and clinical trial. (authorstream.com)
  • Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
  • In our prior work, we identified a panel of macropinocytosing human monoclonal antibodies against CD46, a negative regulator of the innate immune system, and constructed antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). (jci.org)
  • Overall, these findings indicate that CD46 is a promising target for antibody-based treatment of multiple myeloma, especially in patients with gain of chromosome 1q. (jci.org)
  • The antibody MEM-258 recognizes an epitope on SCR4 (the membrane-proximal SCR) domain of CD46 (Membrane cofactor protein). (exbio.cz)
  • Weyand NJ, Lee SW, Higashi DL, Cawley D, Yoshihara P, So M: Monoclonal antibody detection of CD46 clustering beneath Neisseria gonorrhoeae microcolonies. (exbio.cz)
  • Monoclonal antibody binds to CD46. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This antibody recognizes human CD46. (qedbio.com)
  • Accommodation in this model was associated with the prevention of the early antibody responses induced against donor antigens by complement inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • SAN DIEGO--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Fortis Therapeutics, Inc., an immuno-oncology biotech developing a novel antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) against CD46, today announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared two investigational new drug (IND) applications for the company's lead candidate, FOR46, for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and late-stage multiple myeloma. (businesswire.com)
  • The FOR46 program originated at the University of California, San Francisco, in the laboratory of Bin Liu, Ph.D. It was identified through an antibody selection process that uses living tumor cells residing in their tissue microenvironment, thereby preserving the natural range of surface antigens present on the cells. (businesswire.com)
  • A murine IgG1 monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody, containing a variable antigen-binding region that functionally mimics the three-dimensional structure of a specific epitope on the ovarian cancer tumor-associated antigen CA-125, with potential antineoplastic activity. (cancer.gov)
  • In other preferred embodiments, the F-18 labeled moiety may comprise a targetable conjugate that may be used in combination with a bispecific or multispecific antibody to target the F-18 to an antigen expressed on a cell or tissue associated with a disease, medical condition, or pathogen. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Samples were loaded onto a 10% SDS-PAGE gel and probed with a CD46 polyclonal antibody (Product # PA5-29672) at a dilution of 1:1000. (antibodypedia.com)
  • Immunofluorescent analysis of CD46 in methanol-fixed A431 cells using a CD46 polyclonal antibody (Product # PA5-29672) at a 1:500 dilution. (antibodypedia.com)
  • There has recently been a considerable amount of interest regarding the possible association of HHV6 with multiple sclerosis (MS), based on the detection of HHV6 DNA in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid, or serum of affected individuals, antibody reactivity to viral antigens, and findings of elevated levels of CD46 (the receptor for HHV6). (dana.org)
  • The greater activity of the truncated IgG3 hinge mutants indicates that the long hinge of IgG3 seems to downregulate through an unknown mechanism the inherent increased complement-activating capability of IgG3 Fc when the antibody binds to a sparse antigen. (asm.org)
  • However, cross-linking of CD46 at the cell surface, by either multivalent antibody or by measles virus, induces pseudopodia that engulf the ligand in a process similar to macropinocytosis, and leads to the degradation of cell surface CD46. (edu.au)
  • Increased representation of the minor allele G for an intronic CD46 SNP was associated with an allele dose-related decrease (978 vs. 522 mIU/ml, p = 0.0007) in antibody levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Mouse anti Human CD46 antibody, clone MEM-258 ( MCA2113 ) used for blocking adenovirus attachment to cells in vitro in blocking experiments on smoooth muscle and endothelial cells. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • β-Gal activity normalised to total protein in (C) HSVSMC and (D) HSVEC infected with 5000 vp/cell in the presence or absence of CD46 function-blocking antibody MEM258 or an isotype matched control. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Muse ati HumanCD46 antibody, clone MEM-258 ( MCA2113 ) used for the evaluation of CD46 expression on human cell lines by flow cytometry. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Mouse anti Human CD46 antibody, clone MEM-258 recognizes the human CD46 cell surface antigen, a broadly expressed glycoprotein also known as membrane co-factor protein (MCP). (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Signal Transduction CD46 can mediate intracellular signal transduction such as calcium flux NO production and phosphorylation by cross-linking with antibodies or binding of natural ligands at the surface of several cell types. (authorstream.com)
  • The agent-polymer-peptide complex may be delivered to target cells by, for example, a pre-targeting technique utilizing bispecific or multispecific antibodies or fragments, having at least one binding arm that recognizes the hapten and at least a second binding arm that binds specifically to a disease or pathogen associated antigen, such as a tumor associated antigen. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • CD antigens for cluster of differentiation, which indicates a defined subset of cellular surface receptors (epitopes) that identify cell type and stage of differentiation, and which are recognized by antibodies. (sinobiological.com)
  • We compared the bactericidal activity of recombinant sets of chimeric IgG monoclonal antibodies against two important outer membrane meningococcal vaccine antigens: PorA and factor H binding protein (FHbp). (asm.org)
  • On the other hand, the IgG3 hinge-truncated antibodies IgG3m15 and IgGm17 showed higher bactericidal activity than both IgG1 and IgG3 regardless of the target antigen. (asm.org)
  • Immune protection against invasive meningococcal disease depends on recognition of bacterial surface antigens by antibodies, followed by activation of complement, leading to degradation of the bacteria by bacteriolysis, also named serum bactericidal activity (SBA). (asm.org)
  • By using monoclonal hapten (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenacetyl [NP/NIP])-specific antibodies of all four IgG isotypes, we have demonstrated that IgG1 and IgG3 are best in inducing complement-mediated cellular lysis and IgG1 performs better than IgG3 when the antigen concentration on the target cells is high, while IgG3 performs better than IgG1 when the antigen concentration on the target cells is low ( 20 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • In separate studies, IgG3 antibodies also showed higher SBA than IgG1 antibodies when the target antigen was sparsely expressed (as in the case of FHbp) ( 22 ), but IgG1 antibodies were more bactericidal than IgG3 antibodies when the target antigen was highly expressed, such as for PorA ( 23 ). (asm.org)
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex and heterogeneous autoimmune disease affecting multiple organs that is characterized by circulating antibodies to nuclear antigens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this report, we investigated the relationship between enhanced ADCC and antigen density on target cells using IgG1 antibodies with reduced fucose. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using EL4 cell-derived transfectants with differential expression levels of exogenous human CC chemokine receptor 4 or human CD20 as target cells, ADCC of fucose variants of chimeric IgG1 antibodies specific for these antigens were measured. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A previously detected association of the CD46 SNP rs2724384 with measles-specific antibodies was successfully replicated in this study. (cdc.gov)
  • These surface antigens were identified initially by monoclonal antibodies and the designations of the antibodies were used often as synonyms for the cell surface proteins they detected, giving rise to a plethora of different names. (prospecbio.com)
  • CD antigen nomenclature describes different monoclonal antibodies from different sources that recognize identical antigens. (prospecbio.com)
  • In Hematology the morphological criteria is for the description of specific developmental stages of lymphocytes unlike in CD antigens which the use of monoclonal antibodies allows the objective and precise analysis and standardized typing of mature and immature normal and malignant cells of all hematopoietic cell lineages. (prospecbio.com)
  • In the last decade the wide palette of monoclonal antibodies has been prepared which recognise of CD antigens on human cells. (prospecbio.com)
  • The detection of antibodies specific for HHV-6 U94/REP shows that the immune system is exposed to this antigen during natural infection. (asm.org)
  • PC7 and PC9 cells, expressed Lewis Y antigen and were lysed by cH18A as effectively as by the parent mouse anti-Lewis Y antibodies (mH18A) in a concentration-dependent manner. (elsevier.com)
  • cH18A mediated CDC activity against PC7 and PC9 cells was enhanced by the combined use of monoclonal antibodies directed against CD46(MCP), CD55(DAF), and CD59. (elsevier.com)
  • Membrane regulatory proteins, such as CD46, CD55, and CD59, prevent excess complement activation and to protect cells from damage. (bireme.br)
  • In this study, we observed shear stress-mediated changes in the expression of complement regulatory proteins CD46, CD55, and CD59 on human EPCs and focused on the mechanical transmission mechanism in transformed cells in response to the ECM-F-actin pathway in vitro. (bireme.br)
  • Shear stress was observed to promote the expression of complement regulatory protein CD59, but not CD46 or CD55, on EPCs. (bireme.br)
  • Some antiapoptotic proteins and complement regulatory proteins, including Bcl-2, CD59, CD46 and clusterin, were upregulated in the surviving renal allografts. (nih.gov)
  • Cell surface regulators of complement, 5I2 antigen, and CD59, in the rat eye and adnexal tissues. (arvojournals.org)
  • METHODS: After euthanasia of female Wistar rats, followed by orbital exenteration, eyelids and orbital tissue including the lacrimal gland were separated from the globes and immediately snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen at -70 degrees C. Tissues then were sectioned at -20 degrees C and examined immunohistochemically for 5I2 antigen and rat CD59. (arvojournals.org)
  • Corneal endothelial cells showed intense labeling for rat CD59 but not for 5I2 antigen. (arvojournals.org)
  • The retina showed labeling at multiple levels, with that of rat CD59 being more intense than that of 5I2 antigen. (arvojournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: 5I2 antigen and rat CD59 are expressed in high levels and distributed similarly in the rat eye and lacrimal gland to DAF, MCP, and MIRL in the human eye and lacrimal gland. (arvojournals.org)
  • Human T Cell Immunity Researches have revealed that CD46 can regulate the adaptive immune response acting as an additional costimulatory molecule for human T cells controlling T cell activation and inducing their differentiation into Tr1 cells. (authorstream.com)
  • The measles virus (MV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , enters cells through a cellular receptor, the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), CD46 or nectin-4. (frontiersin.org)
  • Three protein molecules have been identified as MV receptors, the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), CD46, and nectin-4. (frontiersin.org)
  • Overexpression of the measles virus (MV) receptor CD46 in many tumour cells may direct the virus to preferentially enter transformed cells and there is increasing awareness of the importance of nectin-4 and signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) in oncolysis. (mdpi.com)
  • The extended virus‐binding surface of CD46 differs strikingly from those reported for the human virus receptor proteins CD4 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule‐1 (ICAM‐1), suggesting that the CD46 structure utilizes a novel mode of virus recognition. (embopress.org)
  • Today, the HLDA Workshop meeting has been held 10 times and has over 371 CD antigens molecule have been identified. (sinobiological.com)
  • According to the paradigm of antigen processing by the antigen presenting cells (APC), peptides arising from intracellular proteins are presented via class I MHC molecule. (hindawi.com)
  • Dörig RE, Marcil A, Chopra A, Richardson CD (1993) The human CD46 molecule is a receptor for measles virus (Edmonston strain). (springer.com)
  • CD46 is a transmembrane protein that is known as a complement membrane cofactor protein, MCP, and measles virus receptor. (biolegend.com)
  • Complement system - CD46 MCP Introduction of CD46 MCP CD46 complement also known as membrane cofactor protein MCP is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein which in humans is encoded by the CD46 gene. (authorstream.com)
  • Clone REA312 recognizes the human CD46 antigen, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, which is also known as the membrane cofactor protein (MCP). (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • CD46 complement regulatory protein also known as CD46 (cluster of differentiation 46) and Membrane Cofactor Protein is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD46 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Okada N, Liszewski MK, Atkinson JP, Caparon M: Membrane cofactor protein (CD46) is a keratinocyte receptor for the M protein of the group A streptococcus. (exbio.cz)
  • Fleischli C, Sirena D, Lesage G, Havenga MJ, Cattaneo R, Greber UF, Hemmi S: Species B adenovirus serotypes 3, 7, 11 and 35 share similar binding sites on the membrane cofactor protein CD46 receptor. (exbio.cz)
  • Fleischli C, Verhaagh S, Havenga M, Sirena D, Schaffner W, Cattaneo R, Greber UF, Hemmi S: The distal short consensus repeats 1 and 2 of the membrane cofactor protein CD46 and their distance from the cell membrane determine productive entry of species B adenovirus serotype 35. (exbio.cz)
  • The receptor returns to the cell membrane surface and the pathogen-derived antigens are presented to resting T-cells via MHC class II proteins to initiate the adaptive immune response. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Homo sapiens membrane cofactor protein (CD46, trophoblast-lymphocyte cross-reactive antigen) (MCP), transcript variant n, mRNA. (abnova.com)
  • membrane cofactor protein) is a multifunctional cell surface transmembrane protein that binds and inactivates C3b and C4b complement fragments, regulates T cell-induced inflammatory responses by either inhibiting (CD46-1 isoform) or increasing (CD46-2 isoform) the contact hypersensitivity reaction. (sysmex-flowcytometry.com)
  • CD46 is a protector of placental tissue and is also expressed on the inner acrosomal membrane of spermatozoa. (sysmex-flowcytometry.com)
  • CD46 encoding membrane cofactor protein (MCP), and CFH encoding factor H (FH). (biomedcentral.com)
  • First-in-Human Phase I study of CTT1057, a Novel 18F Labeled Imaging Agent with Phosphoramidate Core Targeting Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen in Prostate Cancer. (ucsf.edu)
  • The CD Antigen's designation isn't related to the biological function, thus CD antigens include receptors, glycans, adhesion molecules, membrane-bound enzymes, etc. (prospecbio.com)
  • CD antigens have been characterized as both transmembrane proteins and cell surface proteins anchored to the plasma membrane via covalent attachment to fatty acid-containing glycolipids such as glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). (prospecbio.com)
  • On the other hand, antigens of intracellular origin can be presented also in class II MHC, after being delivered to the lysosomes, through double membrane vesicles, called autophagosomes [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A recombinant protein fragment specific for human CD46 was used as the immunogen. (fishersci.com)
  • Antigen: Recombinant human CD46. (qedbio.com)
  • Strong antigen-specific T-cell immunity induced by a recombinant human TERT measles virus vaccine and amplified by a DNA/viral vector prime boost in IFNAR/CD46 mice. (nih.gov)
  • The PA5-29672 immunogen is recombinant protein fragment corresponding to a region within amino acids 174 and 359 of Human CD46. (antibodypedia.com)
  • Immunogenicity of a recombinant lentiviral vector carrying human telomerase tumor antigen in HLA-B*0702 transgenic mice. (invectys.com)
  • Fig.1 The Structure of the CD46 protein. (authorstream.com)
  • Entry Receptor for Pathogens Identified as a receptor for measles virus CD46 can bind to human herpesvirus 6 Neisseria gonorrhoeaeand Neisseria meningitides bacteria and the M protein of Streptococcus. (authorstream.com)
  • As has been demonstrated for CD46 with other ligands, the CD46 protein structure is believed to linearize upon binding HHV-6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently determined crystal structures of the MV-H protein unbound and bound to SLAM or CD46 have provided insights into paramyxovirus entry and the effectiveness of measles vaccine. (frontiersin.org)
  • A soluble fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of human cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to a modified Fc (hinge, CH2, and CH3 domains) portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) with immunosuppressive activity. (cancer.gov)
  • Western blot analyses showed that the cellular complement protein CD46, the receptor for HHV-6A, is associated with the purified and infectious virions.Also, the cellular proteins clathrin, ezrin and Tsg101 are associated with intact HHV-6A virions.Cellular proteins are associated with HHV-6A virions. (nih.gov)
  • CD45 is a protein antigen expressed on all haemopoietic white cells and "gating" the CD45 antigen positive cells in each sample was performed as part of the DHR assay in this study. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It was recently discovered that the cellular receptor of the virus is CD46, a ubiquitous protein expressed on the surfaces of different types of human cells ( 45 ). (asm.org)
  • An antigen-presenting protein that binds self and non-self lipid and glycolipid antigens and presents them to T-cell receptors on natural killer T-cells. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
  • Structure of CD46 MCP Similar to CD55 CD46 also contains four short consensus repeat SCR domains also called CCP modules in the extracellular part followed by a region rich in serine threonine and proline STP region with three potential glycosylation sites. (authorstream.com)
  • CD46 is also known to be a cellular receptor for human measles virus and human herpes virus-6 as well as other human pathogens, such as Streptococcus pyogenes . (biolegend.com)
  • The human CD46 antigen is known to be the functional cellular receptor for Measles virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This imaging technique is an improvement over initial efforts to engineer a Measles virus to carry the soluble marker human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, CD46 functions as a receptor for measles virus, human herpesvirus, and human adenovirus. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The placenta of the stillbirth showed massive fibrin deposition, and some residual trophoblasts contained many inclusion bodies positive for measles virus antigen. (nature.com)
  • The placenta of the surviving infant showed focal intervillous fibrin deposits, and only a few syncytiotrophoblasts were positive for measles virus antigen. (nature.com)
  • The cell surface receptor for measles virus in humans is CD46, a complement cofactor. (embopress.org)
  • We report here the crystal structure at 3.1 Å resolution of the measles virus‐binding fragment of CD46. (embopress.org)
  • Molecules that mimic the conformation of this loop potentially could be effective anti‐viral agents by preventing binding of measles virus to CD46. (embopress.org)
  • CD46 is a ubiquitous human cell surface receptor for the complement components C3b and C4b and for various pathogens, including the measles virus and human herpes virus 6. (edu.au)
  • Here we present data about characterization of the humoral immune response against NAP-tagged antigens, encoded by attenuated measles virus (MV) vector platform, in MV infection susceptible type I interferon receptor knockout and human CD46 transgenic (Ifnarko-CD46Ge) mice. (elsevier.com)
  • NAP-tagged antigen expression did not affect development of protective anti-measles immunity. (elsevier.com)
  • The measles virus (MV) interacts with two known cellular receptors: CD46 and SLAM. (cdc.gov)
  • 764 subjects previously immunized with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine were genotyped for 66 candidate SNPs in the CD46, SLAM and CD209 genes as part of a larger study. (cdc.gov)
  • Anderson BD, Nakamura T, Russell SJ, Peng K-W (2004) High CD46 receptor density determines preferential killing of tumor cells by oncolytic measles virus. (springer.com)
  • Successful attempts to retarget MV by inserting genes for tumour-specific ligands to antigens such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CD20, CD38, and by engineering the virus to express synthetic microRNA targeting sequences, and "blinding" the virus to the natural viral receptors are exciting measures to increase viral specificity and enhance the oncolytic effect. (mdpi.com)
  • Do serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 levels serve as prognostic indicators in patients with gastric cancer (GC)? (statescale.tk)
  • Non peptide antigen presentation to T-cell receptors on NKT cells. (sinobiological.com)
  • Several CD antigens act as relatively specific receptors for virus attachment, e.g. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • CD antigens participate in immune reaction as receptors for cell communication (e.g. adherence molecules, antigen recognizing receptors). (prospecbio.com)
  • CD antigens have been shown to be identical with receptors of cytokines such as CD25 (TAC antigen). (prospecbio.com)
  • Non-peptide antigen presentation to T-cell receptors on NKT cells, marks T-cells at the short cortical thymic stage of differentiation. (abcam.co.jp)
  • Modification of monocytes that favor immune evasion, including reduced levels of CD14, CD64 and HLA-DR antigen on their surface while CD32 expression is unaffected ( Janelle 2006 ). (hhv-6foundation.org)
  • Antigens, CD14" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD14" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Antigens, CD14" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD14" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Abatacept binds CD80 and CD86 on antigen presenting cells (APCs), blocking interaction with CD28 on T lymphocytes, which initiates a co-stimulatory signal required for full activation of T lymphocytes. (cancer.gov)
  • CD antigens are involved in modulating the biological activities of cytokines such as CD4, CD28 and CD40. (prospecbio.com)
  • It is of clinical interest that the CD46 gene resides on chromosome 1q, which undergoes genomic amplification in the majority of relapsed myeloma patients. (jci.org)
  • CHO-Anti-Human CD46 MAb stable cell line is clonally-derived from a CHO cell line, which has been transfected with an Anti-human CD46 MAb gene to allow expression of the MAb. (creativebiomart.net)
  • CD8-LV mediated stable in vitro and in vivo reporter gene transfer as well as efficient transfer of genes encoding TCRs recognizing the melanoma antigen tyrosinase. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Whereas TCR gene-modified T cells recognize peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC), CAR recognize antigen in an MHC-independent fashion. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 0.001), in the CD46 gene and TNF-α secretion. (cdc.gov)
  • YS5, a human full-length IgG1 with high specificity for CD46, was identified to have high binding affinity for prostate cancer tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD46 binds complement components C3b and C4b and has been reported to play a role in T cell regulation. (biolegend.com)
  • CD46 also serves as a receptor for several human pathogens (both bacteria and viruses), and its ligation alteres T lymphocyte polarization toward antigen-presenting cells or target cells, inhibiting lymphocyte function. (sysmex-flowcytometry.com)
  • IgG1 showed higher bactericidal activity than IgG3 when directed against PorA (an abundant antigen), while IgG3 was more bactericidal than IgG1 when directed against FHbp (a sparsely and variably distributed antigen). (asm.org)
  • We further investigated IgG1 binding to natural killer (NK) cells and NK cell activation during ADCC induction to elucidate the mechanism by which low-fucose IgG1 induces ADCC upon target cells with low antigen expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • IgG1 binding to NK cells was increased by ligating IgG1 with clustered antigen, especially for low-fucose IgG1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our data showed that fucose removal from IgG1 could reduce the antigen amount required for ADCC induction via efficient recruitment and activation of NK cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • FOR46 targets a novel immune modulatory receptor, CD46, which is highly expressed in multiple tumor types and is part of the tumor's immune defense shield. (businesswire.com)
  • With a variable antigen-binding region that acts as a surrogate antigen for CA-125, abagovomab may stimulate the host immune system to elicit humoral and cellular immune responses against CA-125-positive tumor cells, resulting in inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. (cancer.gov)
  • This proposal is based on the novel finding that common marmosets, a species of New World primates that is prone to develop an MS-like immune-mediated CNS illness after immunization with myelin antigens, can be infected with HHV6. (dana.org)
  • A "two-hit" infection with HHV-6A appears to result in neurological deficits and pathologically, CNS inflammatory demyelination similar to human MS. Affected animals appear to develop immune reactivity to myelin antigens, indicating the possibility that mechanisms of mimicry may be involved in pathogenesis. (dana.org)
  • Possible cytotoxicity of lymphocytes from HHV6-infected animals towards antigen-sensitized targets and capacity for immune viral clearance or neutralization will be explored. (dana.org)
  • Ligand binding to CD46 affects (i) protection of autologous cells from complement attack by breakdown of complement components, (ii) intracellular signals that affect the regulation of immune cell function, (iii) antigen presentation, and (iv) down-regulation of cell surface CD46. (edu.au)
  • Recent evidence indicates that CD46 signaling can link innate and acquired immune function. (edu.au)
  • Boost of immune response to poor immunogens using live vectors expressing NAP-tagged chimeric antigens is an attractive approach with potential application in immunoprophylaxis of infectious diseases and cancer immunotherapy. (elsevier.com)
  • Cell surface antigens of leukocytes are called CD antigens, and important for immune reactions of organisms. (prospecbio.com)
  • The heterotetramer gH/gL/gQ1/gQ2 complex of HHV-6 has been identified as a CD46 ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligand binding determines whether CD46 is internalized by clathrin-coated pits or macropinocytosis. (edu.au)
  • Regulator of Complement Activation CD46 primarily functions as a cofactor for complement factor I in mediating cleavage of C3b. (authorstream.com)
  • CD46 functions as an inhibitor of complement activation limiting the formation and activity of C3 convertases. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • A number of viral and bacterial pathogens seem to exploit this property and directly induce an immunosuppressive phenotype in T-cells by binding to CD46. (fishersci.com)
  • Researches focused on expression of these antigens on phagocytes, which are involved in the first defence mechanisms, including: antigen presentation, recognition and phagocytosis of IgG and complement opsonised pathogens, and complement activity. (termedia.pl)
  • This has important implications for CD46 signaling, antigen presentation, CD46 down-regulation, and engulfment of pathogens. (edu.au)
  • Defects in CD46 have been associated with hemolytic-uremic syndrome. (biolegend.com)
  • The exons of complement inhibitor genes CD46 and CFH (factor H) were fully sequenced using the Sanger method in SLE patients with nephritis originating from two cohorts from southern and mid Sweden ( n = 196). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Results suggest a possible role for multidrug resistance genes ABCA10 (zeige ABCA10 Antikörper ) and ABCA6 in follicular lymphoma survival and add to the evidence that genetic variation in CD46 (zeige CD46 Antikörper ) and IL8 (zeige IL8 Antikörper ) may have prognostic implications follicular lymphoma. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Further characterisation of CD46 , one of the genes upregulated in the DLL1 + cluster, revealed it to be a novel cell surface marker of human epidermal stem cells. (biologists.org)
  • In addition to the complement components, CD46 has been shown to interact with moesin, c-Src, tetraspanin 4, c-Yes, and integrin β1. (biolegend.com)
  • Cells with high endogenous levels of CD46 expressed high levels of β1 integrin and DLL1 and were highly adhesive and clonogenic. (biologists.org)
  • Knockdown of CD46 decreased proliferative potential and β1 integrin-mediated adhesion. (biologists.org)
  • CD antigens appear to carry out cytokine receptor-like functions such as CD27, CD30 and CD40. (prospecbio.com)
  • We found that the cell surface expression level of CD46 was markedly higher in patient myeloma cells with 1q gain than in those with normal 1q copy number. (jci.org)
  • CD46 is overexpressed on cell surface of primary MM patient cells and further amplified in patients with amp1q21 compared with normal 1q. (jci.org)
  • A ) FACS plot showing that CD46 surface expression correlates with CD38 in CD138-selected cells to identify the MM population by FACS (representative data, n = 25). (jci.org)
  • Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expression cassettes were inserted into this cDNA and three MVs expressing HBsAg at different levels generated. (asm.org)
  • The widely used HBV vaccine is based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae -expressed small surface antigen (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]) and has a three-dose schedule ( 22 ). (asm.org)
  • The CD antigens are protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells. (sinobiological.com)
  • We demonstrate here that, in nonlymphoid cells, CD46 is constitutively internalized via clathrin-coated pits, traffics to multivesicular bodies, and is recycled to the cell surface. (edu.au)
  • The CD45 antigen , expressed on the T cell surface, presents two different isoforms, RA and RO. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • During the course of development from precursor cells into functionally mature forms, lymphocytes display a complex pattern of surface antigens, some of which are acquired at certain stages while others are lost. (prospecbio.com)
  • PA5-29672 targets CD46 in IF and WB applications and shows reactivity with Human samples. (antibodypedia.com)
  • Longitudinal studies of reactivity to myelin antigens and to HHV6, and viral persistence/replication in relation to time-course of disease will be examined. (dana.org)
  • ELISA: use at 0.1-1ug/ml with human CD46 on the solid phase. (qedbio.com)
  • In contrast, ELISA titers against MV antigens were not significantly different between the animals vaccinated with MV-lambda or MV-lambda-NAP. (elsevier.com)
  • Lack of CD45 antigen on blast cells in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is associated with chromosomal hyperdiploidy and other favorable prognostic features. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Infective virus in rat cells does not kill them all and transformed cells appear which on injection grow into tumors and contain viral antigen. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • Among them, also viral antigens can end up in the lysosomes, in virally infected cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Levels of soluble human leukocyte antigen G (sHLA-G), a factor promoting embryo implant, measured in uterine flushings negatively correlated with the 489TT genotype and HHV-6A infection, while proinflammatory cytokines interleukins 1α (IL-1α), 1β (IL-1β), and 8 (IL-8) positively correlated with both the 489T allele presence and viral infection. (cdc.gov)
  • The CD antigens / Cluster of differentiation nomenclature was established in the 1st International Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA), which was held in Paris in 1982. (sinobiological.com)
  • An internationally agreed system of naming differentiation antigens on cell surfaces. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • Such a vaccine has already been tested in a number of trials involving other tumor types which have a high expression of CD46, including one type of adult brain tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other more important CD antigens include the leukocytes integrins (CD11/CD18) and the hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34. (prospecbio.com)
  • CD46 acts as a cofactor for complement factor I, a serine protease, which protects autologous cells against complement-mediated injury by cleaving C3b and C4b deposited on host tissue. (fishersci.com)
  • In this report, we show that an anti-CD46 ADC (CD46-ADC) potently inhibited proliferation in myeloma cell lines with little effect on normal cells. (jci.org)
  • In primary myeloma cells derived from bone marrow aspirates, CD46-ADC induced apoptosis and cell death, but did not affect the viability of nontumor mononuclear cells. (jci.org)
  • E ) CD46 antigen density on various BM normal cell populations compared with MM cells from 7 additional patients. (jci.org)
  • CD46 acts as a co-factor for complement factor I, a serine protease which protects autologous cells against complement-mediated injury by cleaving C3b and C4b deposited on host tissue. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • FOR46 cracks the code, in a sense, by binding a specific conformational epitope of CD46, that appears to be specific to tumor cells. (businesswire.com)
  • D and E. Detection of HHV-6 antigen gp60/110 in HHV-6A infected cells. (nih.gov)
  • Class II MHC restricted, the CD4 antigen is a receptor for binding HIV-1, and the onset of AIDS is associated with marked depletion of CD4 cells in the blood. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • The quantitative analysis revealed that fucose depletion could reduce the antigen amount on target cells required for constant degrees of ADCC induction by 10-fold for CC chemokine receptor 4 and 3-fold for CD20. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nielsen, Afzelius, Ersbøll, Nielsen, Hansen: Expression of the activation antigen CD69 predicts functionality of in vitro expanded peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors and HIV-infected patients. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The most commonly know CD antigens are CD4 and CD8 which are markers for T-helper and T-suppressor cells, respectively. (prospecbio.com)
  • However, exceptions to this model have been described and, for example, dendritic cells (DCs), the most powerful APC [ 2 ], are able to present extracellular antigens also via class I MHC. (hindawi.com)
  • This event, known as cross-presentation, allows DCs to activate both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, in response to an extracellular antigen [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • PC14 cells did not express Lewis Y antigen and were not lysed by either cH18A or mH18A. (elsevier.com)
  • The extracellular region of CD46 contains four short consensus repeats (SCR) of about 60 amino acids that fold into a compact beta-barrel domain surrounded by flexible loops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differently, peptides that originate from extracellular antigens are delivered to the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment, where they are degraded by the lysosomal proteases and then presented in association with class II MHC. (hindawi.com)