Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Structural and functional studies of the measles virus hemagglutinin: identification of a novel site required for CD46 interaction. (1/488)

The entry of measles virus (MV) into human cells is mediated by the initial attachment of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) to the complement regulatory protein CD46. Two subdomains, one each within CD46 short consensus repeats (SCRs) 1 and 2, are responsible for this interaction. However, little is known about the regions within MV HA needed for a high-affinity CD46 interaction. To better define the HA-CD46 interaction, we took three approaches: chimeric domain swapping, peptide scanning, and alanine scanning mutagenesis. Chimeras of MV HA and the closely related rinderpest virus (RPV) HA were generated and tested for cell surface expression and the ability to hemadsorb CD46+ red blood cells (RBC). Exchanges with the N terminus of RPV were tolerated as MV HA could be replaced with RPV HA up to amino-acid position 154. However, both larger swaps with RPV and a small RPV HA replacement at the C terminus aborted cell-surface expression. Peptide scanning with 51 overlapping peptides derived from three MV HA regions showed one peptide, corresponding to MV HA amino acids 468-487, blocked hemagglutination of African green monkey (AGM) RBCs and inhibited MV infection of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) expressing human CD46. Alanine scanning mutants mapped sites on the MV HA that were not required for trafficking to the cell surface or function in hemagglutination as well as a novel site required for CD46 interaction, amino acids 473-477.  (+info)

Epitope mapping of 10 monoclonal antibodies against the pig analogue of human membrane cofactor protein (MCP). (2/488)

Pig membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is a 50 000-60 000 MW glycoprotein that is expressed on a wide variety of cells, including erythrocytes. Pig MCP has cofactor activity for factor I-mediated cleavage of C3b and is an efficient regulator of the classical and alternative pathway of human and pig complement. A panel of 10 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was collected from two different laboratories; all of these mAbs were raised against pig leucocytes and all recognized the same complex banding pattern on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of erythrocyte membranes. All were shown to be reactive with pig MCP and were divided into four groups of mutually competitive antibodies based on competition studies for membrane-bound MCP and for soluble MCP, the latter by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. The antigenic properties of membrane-bound and soluble MCP were similar, although some interesting differences were revealed. None of the 10 mAbs were cross-reactive with human MCP and only one showed cross-reactivity with leucocytes from a panel of large mammals - a weak cross-reactivity with a subset of dog leucocytes. All antibodies in one of the epitope groups and some in a second epitope group were able to block the functional activity of pig MCP, as measured by inhibition of MCP-catalysed C3 degradation by factor I.  (+info)

Human CD46 enhances nitric oxide production in mouse macrophages in response to measles virus infection in the presence of gamma interferon: dependence on the CD46 cytoplasmic domains. (3/488)

CD46 is a transmembrane complement regulatory protein widely expressed on nucleated human cells. Laboratory-adapted strains of measles virus (MV) bind to the extracellular domains of CD46 to enter human cells. The cytoplasmic portion of CD46 consists of a common juxtamembrane region and different distal sequences called Cyt1 and Cyt2. The biological functions of these cytoplasmic sequences are unknown. In this study, we show that expression of human CD46 with the Cyt1 cytoplasmic domain in mouse macrophages enhances production of nitric oxide (NO) in response to MV infection in the presence of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). Human CD46 does not increase the basal levels of NO production in mouse macrophages and does not augment NO production induced by double-stranded polyribonucleotides. Replacing the cytoplasmic domain of human CD46 with Cyt2 reduces MV and IFN-gamma-induced NO production in mouse macrophages. Deleting the entire cytoplasmic domains of human CD46 does not prevent MV infection but markedly attenuates NO production in response to MV and IFN-gamma. Mouse macrophages expressing a tailless human CD46 mutant are more susceptible to MV infection and produce 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more infectious virus than mouse macrophages expressing human CD46 with intact cytoplasmic domains. These results reveal a novel function of CD46 dependent on the cytoplasmic domains (especially Cyt1), which augments NO production in macrophages. These findings may have significant implications for roles of CD46 in innate immunity and MV pathogenesis.  (+info)

Infection of chicken embryonic fibroblasts by measles virus: adaptation at the virus entry level. (4/488)

Measles virus (MV) has a tropism restricted to humans and primates and uses the human CD46 molecule as a cellular receptor. MV has been adapted to grow in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) and gave rise to an attenuated live vaccine. Halle and Schwarz MV strains were compared in their ability to infect both simian Vero cells and CEF. Whereas both strains infected Vero cells, only the CEF-adapted Schwarz strain was able to efficiently infect CEF. Since the expression of the human MV receptor CD46 rendered the chicken embryonic cell line TCF more permissive to the infection by the Halle MV strain, the MV entry into CEF appeared to be a limiting step in the absence of prior MV adaptation. CEF lacked reactivity with anti-CD46 antibodies but were found to express another protein allowing MV binding as an alternative receptor to CD46.  (+info)

Detection of partial and complete acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa: which inducers and probes to use? (5/488)

The acrosome reaction (AR), an essential step for achieving mammalian fertilization, was recently introduced as a means of clinical evaluation of male fertility. However, most of the available techniques for acrosomal status assessment (except those employing electron microscopy) do not define whether the measurements represent partial or complete AR. We, therefore, performed a crossover investigation of the types of inducers and probes required for detecting partial or complete AR in human spermatozoa. The acrosomal status before and after stimulation with four AR inducers was evaluated after incubation for 3 h in capacitating conditions. We used a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibody CD46 (FITC-CD46) targeting the inner acrosomal membrane for detecting a complete AR, and fluorescein isothiocyanate-Pisum sativum agglutinin (FITC-PSA) targeting the acrosomal content for detection of both partial and complete AR. Without stimulation or following stimulation with progesterone, follicular fluid (FF) or phorbol myristate ester (PMA), the AR could be detected with FITC-PSA but not with FITC-CD46. Following stimulation with the calcium ionophore A23187, the AR could be detected by both FITC-PSA and FITC-CD46. These results suggest that spontaneous AR as well as AR induced by progesterone, PMA and FF are partial. In contrast, the AR induced by A23187 is total, i.e. both partial and complete. These findings are valuable for both research and clinical purposes and are a step towards an international agreement on a standard test for human sperm AR, for which there is an urgent need.  (+info)

Progesterone promotes the acrosome reaction in capacitated human spermatozoa as judged by flow cytometry and CD46 staining. (6/488)

The acrosome reaction is a necessary prerequisite for spermatozoa to acquire fertilizing ability. Several different moieties appear to promote the acrosome reaction through different pathways, including solubilized zona pellucidae, recombinant zona protein ZP3, follicular fluid, calcium ionophores, and mannosylated bovine serum albumin (BSA). Although many investigators have presented evidence that progesterone also promotes the acrosome reaction through the mediation of a non-genomic cell membrane receptor, this concept has been challenged. Other workers have suggested that progesterone does not promote an acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa, as judged by the detection of CD46, a complement regulatory protein present on the inner acrosome membrane, through flow cytometric analysis of large numbers of spermatozoa. Prior investigations were criticized by the limited numbers of spermatozoa enumerated visually, the use of non-specific staining techniques, and the failure to eliminate dead spermatozoa during the scoring of the acrosome reaction. We have repeated these experiments, using both a supravital dye to eliminate dead spermatozoa from flow cytometric analysis, and anti-CD46 monoclonal antibody to score acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. Care was taken to validate the adequacy of capacitation conditions, which were proven by the ability of spermatozoa to acrosome react in response to mannosylated BSA and to penetrate zona-free hamster eggs. Confocal microscopy was used to confirm that CD46 immunostaining was limited to the acrosomal region of the spermatozoon head. Our results indicate that progesterone does promote an acrosome reaction within capacitated spermatozoa.  (+info)

Crystal structure of two CD46 domains reveals an extended measles virus-binding surface. (7/488)

Measles virus is a paramyxovirus which, like other members of the family such as respiratory syncytial virus, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The cell surface receptor for measles virus in humans is CD46, a complement cofactor. We report here the crystal structure at 3.1 A resolution of the measles virus-binding fragment of CD46. The structure reveals the architecture and spatial arrangement of two glycosylated short consensus repeats with a pronounced interdomain bend and some flexibility at the domain interface. Amino acids involved in measles virus binding define a large, glycan-free surface that extends from the top of the first to the bottom of the second repeat. The extended virus-binding surface of CD46 differs strikingly from those reported for the human virus receptor proteins CD4 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), suggesting that the CD46 structure utilizes a novel mode of virus recognition. A highly hydrophobic and protruding loop at the base of the first repeat bears a critical virus-binding residue, thereby defining an important recognition epitope. Molecules that mimic the conformation of this loop potentially could be effective anti-viral agents by preventing binding of measles virus to CD46.  (+info)

Exogenous gene expression and protein targeting in lens fiber cells. (8/488)

PURPOSE: To test the ability of lens fiber cells at various stages of differentiation to transcribe and translate microinjected DNA templates. METHODS: Expression plasmids encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) or a GFP-tagged membrane protein (human CD46) were microinjected into organ-cultured embryonic chicken lenses. Protein expression was visualized by confocal microscopy. RESULTS: GFP expression was detected within 12 hours of microinjection, evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm of the injected cell. All nucleated fiber cells were competent to express GFP, whereas the anucleated central fiber cells were not. When GFP was fused to the C-terminal of CD46, the fusion protein was synthesized intact and properly inserted in the fiber cell plasma membrane. In contrast, N-terminal fusions were cleaved during synthesis, resulting in retention of the GFP tag in the endoplasmic reticulum. CONCLUSIONS: Microinjection of expression plasmids is an effective technique for introducing exogenous genes into individual fiber cells. With this approach, the results show that fiber cells are transcriptionally and translationally competent until the time of organelle loss, and that fiber cells deep within the lens are capable of synthesizing new plasma membrane proteins. The techniques described here should have broad application in studies of fiber cell differentiation and provide a useful complement to conventional transgenic approaches.  (+info)

*Measles virus encoding the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (MV-NIS)

The human CD46 antigen is known to be the functional cellular receptor for Measles virus. This type 1 integral membrane ... Dörig, R. E.; A. Marcil; A. Chopra; C. D. Richardson (1993-10-22). "The human CD46 molecule is a receptor for measles virus ( ... is an improvement over initial efforts to engineer a Measles virus to carry the soluble marker human carcinoembryonic antigen ( ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)

... antigens, cd46 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250 -- complement c1 inactivator proteins MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250.500 -- ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.950.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.124.790.106.050 -- alpha 1-antichymotrypsin ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301 -- antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.138 -- antivenins MeSH ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.301 -- antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.301.138 -- antivenins MeSH ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd43 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.145 --- antigens, cd45 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.146 --- antigens, cd46 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd43 MeSH D23.101.100.110.145 --- antigens, cd45 MeSH D23.101.100.110.146 --- antigens, cd46 MeSH D23.101.100.110.147 ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...

*CD46

NIH/UW entry on Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome OMIM entries on Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome CD46 antigen at the US ... "Entrez Gene: CD46 CD46 molecule, complement regulatory protein". Riley-Vargas RC, Gill DB, Kemper C, Liszewski MK, Atkinson JP ... CD46 complement regulatory protein also known as CD46 (cluster of differentiation 46) and Membrane Cofactor Protein is a ... As has been demonstrated for CD46 with other ligands, the CD46 protein structure is believed to linearize upon binding HHV-6. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... antigen, t-cell, gamma-delta MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.833.124 -- antigens, cd46 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.833.249 -- integrin ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 -- receptors, antigen, ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 -- antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 -- antigens, cd40 ...

*Sushi domain

IFC and UMC antigens. Complement receptor type 1 (C3b/C4b receptor) (Antigen CD35) belongs to the Knops blood group system and ... CD46, CD55, CFB, CFH, CFHR1, CFHR2, CFHR3, CFHR4, CFHR5, CR1, CR1L, CR2, CSMD1, CSMD2, CSMD3, CSPG3, DAF, F13B, FHR4, GABBR1, ... Some of the proteins in this group are responsible for the molecular basis of the blood group antigens, surface markers on the ... Complement decay-accelerating factor (Antigen CD55) belongs to the Cromer blood group system and is associated with Cr(a), Dr(a ...

*Complement control protein

The best-studied members of this family are: Complement receptor 1 (CR1 or CD35) Membrane cofactor protein (MCP or CD46) C4b- ... and unwanted material such as cell debris and antibody-antigen complexes. Most of the complement control proteins act on the ... especially CD46, DAF and CD59. This mechanism allows some tumours to evade complement action. Norman, D.G., Barlow, P.N., Baron ...

*CD29

... Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human ITGB1 genome location and ITGB1 gene ... CD29 has been shown to interact with ACTN1; CD46, CD9, FHL2, Filamin, FLNB, CD81, GNB2L1, ITGB1BP1, LGALS8, MAP4K4, NME1, PKC ... CD29 is an integrin unit associated with very late antigen receptors. It is known to conjoin with alpha-3 subunit to create ... Lozahic S, Christiansen D, Manié S, Gerlier D, Billard M, Boucheix C, Rubinstein E (Mar 2000). "CD46 (membrane cofactor protein ...

*CD9

... antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD9 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... Lozahic S, Christiansen D, Manié S, Gerlier D, Billard M, Boucheix C, Rubinstein E (March 2000). "CD46 (membrane cofactor ... Boucheix C, Benoit P, Frachet P, Billard M, Worthington RE, Gagnon J, Uzan G (1991). "Molecular cloning of the CD9 antigen. A ... CD9 has been shown to interact with: CD117, CD29 CD46, CD49c, CD81, PTGFRN, and TSPAN4. Tetraspanin Myogenesis Fertilisation ...

*CD151

Raph blood group system in the BGMUT blood group antigen gene mutation database Human CD151 genome location and CD151 gene ... CD151 has been shown to interact with CD46. Cluster of differentiation Tetraspanin GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000177697 ... "CD46 (membrane cofactor protein) associates with multiple beta1 integrins and tetraspans". Eur. J. Immunol. 30 (3): 900-7. doi: ... identifies a novel platelet surface antigen". Br. J. Haematol. 79 (2): 263-70. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.1991.tb04531.x. PMID ...

*C3b

The key to the success of the complement system in clearing antigens is regulating the effects of C3b to pathogens alone and ... An example RCA is membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46), which is ubiquitously expressed and plays a critical role in ... Additionally, C3b molecules can attach to the Fc regions of antigen-bound antibodies leading to phagocytosis or movement to the ... C3b is potent in opsonization: tagging pathogens, immune complexes (antigen-antibody), and apoptotic cells for phagocytosis. ...

*Xenotransplantation

Indirect xenorecognition involves the presentation of antigens from the xenograft by recipient antigen presenting cells to CD4+ ... Experiments have shown this reduces α-Gal expression by 70%. Expression of human complement regulators (CD55, CD46, and CD59) ... Antigens of phagocytosed graft cells can also be presented by the host's class I MHC molecules to CD8+ T cells. The strength of ... These antigens (foreign objects) are often treated with powerful immunosuppressive drugs that could, in turn, make the patient ...

*CD59

1990). "The CD59 antigen is a structural homologue of murine Ly-6 antigens but lacks interferon inducibility". Eur. J. Immunol ... CD46) and decay accelerating factor (CD55)". Eur. J. Immunol. 22 (6): 1579-1585. doi:10.1002/eji.1830220635. PMID 1376264. Hahn ... CD59 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD59 genome location and CD59 gene ... 1990). "Isolation and expression of the full-length cDNA encoding CD59 antigen of human lymphocytes". DNA Cell Biol. 9 (3): 213 ...

*Pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis

MS patients are also known to be CD46 defective, and this leads to Interleukin-10 (IL-10) deficiency, being this involved in ... F. Quintana et al., Specific Serum Antibody Patterns Detected with Antigen Arrays Are Associated to the Development of MS in ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Astier AL (2008). "T-cell regulation by CD46 and its relevance in multiple ... December 2008). "Antigen microarrays identify unique serum autoantibody signatures in clinical and pathologic subtypes of ...

*TSPAN4

This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein and is similar in sequence to its family member CD53 antigen. It is known ... 2000). "CD46 (membrane cofactor protein) associates with multiple beta1 integrins and tetraspans". Eur. J. Immunol. 30 (3): 900 ...

*Complement system

C3b binds to antigen-associated Ig and to the microbe surface. Ability of C3b to bind to antigen-associated Ig would work ... CD46, CD55 and CD59, depending on the cell. Pathogens, in general, don't have complement regulatory proteins (there are many ... which has formed a complex with antigens. C4b and C3b are also able to bind to antigen-associated IgG or IgM, to its Fc portion ... Upon immunisation with an antigen, more of these receptors are formed, and they are then shed from the cells to circulate in ...

*Human herpesvirus 6

As such, at least fourteen isoforms of CD46 exist, all of which bind HHV-6a. The extracellular region of CD46 contains four ... or IgM early antigen antibody assays. The majority of these studies have shown an association between CFS and active HHV-6 ... As has been demonstrated for CD46 with other ligands, the CD46 protein structure linearizes upon binding HHV-6. While their ... CD46). The CD46 protein possesses a single variable region, as a result of alternative splicing. ...

*Primary immunodeficiency

This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... CD46) deficiency Membrane attack complex inhibitor (CD59) deficiency Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria Immunodeficiency ... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ...

*Lipid raft

... endocytosis of antigen bound to the BCR and its routing to late endosomes to facilitate loading of antigen-derived peptides ... binds to human CD46 on host cell surface; all these viral receptors are located in lipid rafts or would be relocated into lipid ... T cell antigen receptor signalling, B cell antigen receptor signalling, EGF receptor signalling, insulin receptor signalling ... The process of B cell antigen receptor signalling is similar to Immunoglobulin E signalling and T-cell antigen receptor ...

*Acrosome reaction

The contents include surface antigens necessary for binding to the egg's cell membrane, and numerous enzymes which are ... or fluoresceinated antibody such as FITC-CD46. The antibodies/lectins have a high specificity for different parts of the ... "Comparative flow cytometric analysis of the human sperm acrosome reaction using CD46 antibody and lectins". Journal of Assisted ...

*Adenoviridae

The two currently established receptors are: CD46 for the group B human adenovirus serotypes and the coxsackievirus adenovirus ... Adenovirus dodecahedron can qualify as a potent delivery platform for foreign antigens to human myeloid dendritic cells (MDC), ... genetically engineered adenovirus vector targeted to CD40 mediates transduction of canine dendritic cells and promotes antigen- ...
Membrane cofactor protein (MCP) is a complement regulatory protein that is expressed on human cells and cell lines as two relatively broad species with Mr of 58,000-68,000 and 48,000-56,000. The structure of a previously reported cDNA clone indicated that MCP was a type 1 membrane glycoprotein and a member of the regulators of complement activation gene/protein cluster. However, it did not provide an explanation for the unusual phenotypic pattern of MCP. Therefore, in parallel with an analysis of the gene, additional cDNAs were cloned and characterized. Six different MCP cDNA classes were identified. All encode the same 5 untranslated signal peptide, four SCRs, transmembrane domain, and basic amino acid anchor. However, they differ in the length and composition of an extracellular serine/threonine/proline (STP)-rich area, a site of heavy O-glycosylation, and cytoplasmic tail. Analysis of the MCP gene demonstrated that the variation in cDNA structure was a result of alternative splicing. ...
CD46 is a transmembrane protein that is known as a complement membrane cofactor protein, MCP, and measles virus receptor. It is widely expressed on leukocytes, platelets, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. Multiple isoforms of CD46 have been reported with molecular weights ranging from 45-75 kD. CD4
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Quantity100 testsVolume0.4ImmunogenHuman Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) T cellsBackground InformationCD46 (MCP; membrane cofactor protein) is a m...
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Results Brain pathological injury was the most serious at 24 h after reperfusion, The complement regulatory protein CD46 expression decreased gradually after local cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion injury, the lowest at 24 h after reperfusion, and returned to normal at 96 h after reperfusion.complement regulatory protein CD46 expression was negative correlated with brain pathological injury.. ...
|p|Recombinant Human MCP4/CCL13 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 75 amino acids.|/p| |p|Background: MCP-4/CCL13 is a chemoattractant for monocytes and eosinophils, and activates basophils. In addition, it has been reported to be
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Simpson, R. J., Florida-James, G., Whyte, G. P., Middleton, N., Shave, R., George, K. & Guy, K. (2007). The effects of marathon running on expression of the complement regulatory proteins CD55 (DAF) and CD59 (MACIF) on red blood cells. European journal of applied physiology. 99, 201-204. doi:10.1007/s00421-006-0326-2. ISSN 1439-6327. ...
Simpson, R. J., Florida-James, G., Whyte, G. P., Middleton, N., Shave, R., George, K. & Guy, K. (2007). The effects of marathon running on expression of the complement regulatory proteins CD55 (DAF) and CD59 (MACIF) on red blood cells. European journal of applied physiology. 99, 201-204. doi:10.1007/s00421-006-0326-2. ISSN 1439-6327. ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Blocked or clogged ears occur when the eustachian tubes inside your ears fill with fluid. Sinus infections, cold and flu viruses and allergies can inflame the linings in your ears, leading to blocked passages. Though not a cure, acupuncture can help relieve ear pressure and congestion.
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is an extremely rare, life-threatening, progressive disease that frequently has a genetic component. In most cases it is caused by chronic, uncontrolled activation of the complement system, a branch of the bodys immune system that destroys and removes foreign particles. The disease affects both children and adults and is characterized by systemic thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), the formation of blood clots in small blood vessels throughout the body, which can lead to stroke, heart attack, kidney failure, and death. The complement system activation may be due to mutations in the complement regulatory proteins (factor H, factor I, or membrane cofactor protein), or is occasionally due to acquired neutralizing autoantibody inhibitors of these complement system components, for example anti-factor H antibodies. Despite the use of supportive care, historically an estimated 33-40% of patients died or developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with the first ...
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects mainly diarthrodial joints and periarticular structures, and can acquire a systemic character. Rheumatoid arthritis affects approximately 1% of the world population, being two to three times more common in women.1. The etiology of RA has not been completely clarified. However, environmental and genetic factors have contributed to the development of the disease. In the early stages of RA, proliferation and edema of the synovial layer cells occur, with infiltration of B and T cells, macrophages, and granulocytes. The synovium thickens, and the joint becomes swollen and painful. With progression, synovial proliferation leads to the formation of pannus, a tissue that invades the articular cartilage and bone. Joint destruction is irreversible. Osteoclasts reabsorb bone, and there is release of proteolytic enzymes, such as metal-loproteinases, aggrecanases, and cathepsins, responsible for the destruction of ...
CD46 is a complement inhibitor membrane cofactor which also acts as a receptor for various microbes, including species B adenoviruses (Ads). While most Ad gene therapy vectors are derived from species C and infect cells through coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), CAR expression is downregulated in many cancer cells, resulting inefficient Ad-based therapeutics. Despite a limited knowledge on the expression status of many cancer cells, an increasing number of cancer gene therapy studies include fiber-modified Ad vectors redirected to the more ubiquitously expressed CD46. Since our finding from tumor microarray indicate that CD46 was overexpressed in cancers of the prostate and colon, fiber chimeric Ad5/35 vectors that have infection tropism for CD46 were employed to demonstrate its efficacy in colorectal cancers (CRC). CD46-overexpressed cells showed a significantly higher response to Ad5/35-GFP and to Ad5/35-tk/GCV. While CRC cells express variable levels of CD46, CD46 expression was positively ...
Table 1 Continued. Other name (s). Main reactivity of mAbs. Short characteristic of the CD molecule. Molecular weight reduced (kDa). CD44 Pgp-1; gp80-95; In (Unrelated p80, Hermes antigen, ECMR-III and HUTCH-I CD44R CD44 variant; CD44v9. CD45 T200; leukocyte common antigen (LCA); EC3.1.3.4. CD45R0 Restricted T200; gp180. T, B, G, M Receptor for hyaluronate and Involved in lymphocyte homing. T act, carcinoma cells Leukocytes. CD45RA Restricted T200; gp220;. isoform of leukocyte common antigen CD45RB Restricted T200; isoform of leukocyte common antigen CD45RC Restricted T200; isoform of leukocyte common antigen. CD46 Membrane cofactor protein (MCP); gp45-70. Leukocytes broad. CD47 Integrin associated protein;. OA3; 1D8 CD48 gp41; BLAST-1. CD49a VLA-1 a chain. CD49b VLA-2 a chain platelet glycoprotein GPIa. CD49c VLA-3 a chain. CD49d VLA-4 a chain. CD49e VLA-5 a chain. CD49f VLA-6 a chain. CD50 Intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3). CD44R (CD44v9) may be a marker for cell transformation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective expression of a subset of measles virus receptor-competent CD46 isoforms in human brain. AU - Buchholz, Christian J.. AU - Gerlier, Denis. AU - Hu, Aizhong. AU - Cathomen, Toni. AU - Liszewski, M. Kathryn. AU - Atkinson, John P.. AU - Cattaneo, Roberto. PY - 1996/3/1. Y1 - 1996/3/1. N2 - The human cell surface protein CD46 is the main measles virus (MV) receptor. We analyzed the CD46 isoforms expressed in the brain of three patients who died with persistent MV infections and in an unaffected brain. Complete CD46 cDNAs were produced and found to code exclusively for CD46 isoforms with cytoplasmic tail 2. Selective expression of tail 2 isoforms was shown in a second control brain by Western blots with antibodies specific for each of the cytoplasmic tails. Binding of purified MV particles and virus-dependent cell fusion were tested after transient expression of brain-derived CD46 proteins in mouse cells. All the brain-derived proteins mediated MV binding and ...
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PGK1 an apparent multifunctional protein. A glycolytic enzyme and a polymerase alpha cofactor protein (primer recognition protein). Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB ...
just picked up three bottles of receptor and i was just wondering what was the best way to use it. during a cycle or right before a cycle? any
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measles virus selectively blind to signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM; CD150) is attenuated and induces strong adaptive immune responses in rhesus monkeys. AU - Leonard, Vincent H J. AU - Hodge, Gregory. AU - Reyes-Del Valle, Jorge. AU - McChesney, Michael B.. AU - Cattaneo, Roberto. PY - 2010/4. Y1 - 2010/4. N2 - The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM; CD150) is the immune cell receptor for measles virus (MV). To assess the importance of the SLAM-MV interactions for virus spread and pathogenesis, we generated a wild-type IC-B MV selectively unable to recognize human SLAM (SLAM-blind). This virus differs from the fully virulent wild-type IC-B strain by a single arginine-to-alanine substitution at amino acid 533 of the attachment protein hemagglutinin and infects cells through SLAM about 40 times less efficiently than the isogenic wild-type strain. Ex vivo, this virus infects primary lymphocytes at low levels regardless of SLAM expression. When a group of ...
Measles remains a leading cause of death worldwide among children because it suppresses immune function. The measles virus (MV) P gene encodes three proteins (P, V, and C) that interfere with innate immunity, controlling STAT1, STAT2, mda5, and perhaps other key regulators of immune function. We identified here three residues in the shared domain of the P and V proteins-tyrosine 110, valine 112, and histidine 115-that function to retain STAT1 in the cytoplasm and inhibit interferon transcription. This information was used to generate a recombinant measles virus unable to antagonize STAT1 function (STAT1-blind MV) differing only in these three residues from a wild-type strain of well-defined virulence. This virus was used to assess the relevance of P and V interactions with STAT1 for virulence in primates. When a group of six rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) was inoculated intranasally with STAT1-blind MV, viremia was short-lived, and the skin rash and other clinical signs observed with wild-type MV were
A new study has found wild-type measles virus in tissues from patients...Because persons have apparently contracted SSPE without ever knowingly...Brain tissue specimens from 11 patients suspected of having SSPE were ...The researchers discovered wild-type measles virus in brain tissues fr...The fact that 12 SSPE patients identified in the study had measles bet...,New,study,shows,measles,immunization,may,prevent,fatal,brain,infection,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Fremeaux-Bacchi, V.; Kemp, E. J.; Goodship, J. A.; Dragon-Durey, M. A.; Strain, L.; Loirat, C.; Deng, H. W.; Goodship, T. H. J. The development of atypical haemolytic-uraemic syndrome is influenced by susceptibility factors in factor H and membrane cofactor protein: evidence from two independent cohorts. Journal of medical genetics. 2005, NOV. 42(11):852-856 ...
Decay-accelerating factor (DAF, CD55) is a glycophosphatidyl inositol-anchored glycoprotein that regulates the activity of C3 and C5 convertases. In addition to understanding the mechanism of complement inhibition by DAF through structural studies, there is also an interest in the possible therapeutic potential of the molecule. In this report we describe the cloning, expression in Escherichia coli, isolation and membrane-targeting modification of the four short consensus repeat domains of soluble human DAF with an additional C-terminal cysteine residue to permit site-specific modification. The purified refolded recombinant protein was active against both classical and alternative pathway assays of complement activation and had similar biological activity to soluble human DAF expressed in Pichia pastoris. Modification with a membrane-localizing peptide restored cell binding and gave a large increase in antihemolytic potency. These data suggested that the recombinant DAF was correctly folded and suitable
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aHUS patients raised the question " are the predisposing genetic factors of aHUS fully catalogued?" as a topic of research which matters to them in their Global Research Agenda.. Those affected by aHUS know well that it is imperfections in components of the Complement System that made them susceptible to the disease when one of many "triggering hits" over their lives caused a catastrophic onset of aHUS.. They know that there are different imperfections in different aHUS patients, some not yet found. But how many and who is keeping a record of what to look for as an aHUS "susceptibility imperfection" , or "mutation" or "significant variant".. At University College London, the Department of Structural and Molecular Biology has been collating variants in the Complement System for 15 years and creating a database of information about them. It is known as the Database of Complement Gene Variants and can seen online , click here.. Designed for use by scientist and clinicians the information held is ...
Information for healthcare professionals for diagnosing and treating Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome. Soliris is the only therapy approved for the treatment of aHUS.
Read about a case report study describing the clinical case of a patient with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) associated with heart disease.
Objectives: To analyze the protective effects against complement-mediated cytolysis of the MCP, DAF, and CD59 human complement regulatory proteins, alone and in combination, on NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. Materials and Methods: We constructed 3 double and 3 single-human complement regulatory protein plasmids (pIRES-hMCP-hDAF, pIRES-hMCP-hCD59, pIRES-hDAF-hCD59, pIRES-A-hMCP, pIRES-B-hDAF, and pIRES-B-hCD59 ...
Mesman AW, Zijlstra-Willems EM, Kaptein TM, de Swart RL, Davis ME, Ludlow M, Duprex WP, Gack MU, Gringhuis SI, Geijtenbeek TB; Measles virus suppresses RIG-I-like receptor activation in dendritic cells via DC-SIGN-mediated inhibition of PP1 phosphatases.; Cell Host Microbe, 2014 PubMed Europe PMC ...
Bavituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that is being combined with chemotherapy to treat patients with lung or pancreatic cancer in randomized Phase II clinical trials. Bavituximab targets the immunosuppressive lipid, phosphatidylserine (PS), which becomes exposed on the outer membrane surface of tumor blood vessels and tumor cells in tumors responding to therapy. The antibody acts by destroying tumor vasculature and by reactivating tumor immunity. Here, we generated new PS-targeting therapeutics by fusing domains of the PS-binding plasma protein, mouse β2-glycoprotein I (≥2GP1), to the Fc region of mouse IgG2a. Such betabodies potentially have advantages over bavituximab. They bind directly to PS, whereas bavituximab requires a cofactor protein (≥2GP1) for binding; they can be made fully human; they are smaller in size (100KDa versus 250KDa for the bavituximab: β2GP1 complexes); and they have slower blood clearance rates. Many different constructions of betabodies were tested, ...
Nuclear receptors are ligand‐modulated transcription factors that act in the nucleus to regulate target gene transcription through interaction with cofactor proteins
APT 3111 [APT 2392, CD59-Prodaptin™] is a derivative of the membrane-bound complement inhibitor CD59 and was under development with Adprotech (now Inflazyme
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It contains a nitro group, think what you may. In order to confirm the binding affinity of the compound without immobilizing protein, they used the methyl resonances to do the titrations. The two separate peaks they followed gave values of 32 and 28 uM (+/- 8). Given the broadness of these peaks, I think this is a pretty decent assay, although it is an order of magnitude different than the biochemical Kd. However, subsequent structural studies revealed that there is significant structural dynamic differences between pH 6.5 and 7.5. ITC gave the same number (33 uM and enthalpy driven); however, the ITC had to be run at high compound concentration and a different pH. They then went off the deep end and decided to use CD (I cant link to a previous post of using CD because we have never had a post where someone used it). With a horrible assay (dont even get me started on near-UV CD as a readout of tertiary structure), they got reasonably close to the Kds determined by ITC and methyl-NMR ...
MI Update - Volume 12, Issue 4 is centered on immunology of the liver. Including articles of vein tolerance and development of regulator CD4 T-cells, IL-27R, and T-cell Immunity
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Zhang X., Lu G., Qi J., Li Y., He Y., Xu X., Shi J., Zhang C.W., Yan J., Gao G.F.. Measles virus is a major public health concern worldwide. Three measles virus cell receptors have been identified so far, and the structures of the first two in complex with measles virus hemagglutinin (MV-H) have been reported. Nectin-4 is the most recently identified receptor in epithelial cells, and its binding mode to MV-H remains elusive. In this study, we solved the structure of the membrane-distal domain of human nectin-4 in complex with MV-H. The structure shows that nectin-4 binds the MV-H β4-β5 groove exclusively via its N-terminal IgV domain; the contact interface is dominated by hydrophobic interactions. The binding site in MV-H for nectin-4 also overlaps extensively with those of the other two receptors. Finally, a hydrophobic pocket centered in the β4-β5 groove is involved in binding to all three identified measles virus receptors, representing a potential target for antiviral drugs.. Nat. ...
A specific hypoglycosylated isoform of the complement regulator membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is expressed on the inner acrosomal membrane (IAM) of spermatozoa. This membrane is exposed after the acrosome reaction, an exocytosis event that occurs upon contact with the zona pellucida. We initiated this investigation to assess MCPs regulatory function in situ on spermatozoa. Upon exposure of human spermatozoa to autologous serum or follicular fluid, we unexpectedly observed that acrosome-reacted spermatozoa activated the complement cascade efficiently through C3 but not beyond. Using FACS to simultaneously evaluate viability, acrosomal status, and complement deposition, we found that complement activation was initiated by C-reactive protein (CRP) and was C1q, C2, and factor B dependent. This pattern is consistent with engagement of the classical pathway followed by amplification through the alternative pathway. C3b deposition was targeted to the IAM, where it was cleaved to C3bi. Factor ...
A specific hypoglycosylated isoform of the complement regulator membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is expressed on the inner acrosomal membrane (IAM) of spermatozoa. This membrane is exposed after the acrosome reaction, an exocytosis event that occurs upon contact with the zona pellucida. We initiated this investigation to assess MCPs regulatory function in situ on spermatozoa. Upon exposure of human spermatozoa to autologous serum or follicular fluid, we unexpectedly observed that acrosome-reacted spermatozoa activated the complement cascade efficiently through C3 but not beyond. Using FACS to simultaneously evaluate viability, acrosomal status, and complement deposition, we found that complement activation was initiated by C-reactive protein (CRP) and was C1q, C2, and factor B dependent. This pattern is consistent with engagement of the classical pathway followed by amplification through the alternative pathway. C3b deposition was targeted to the IAM, where it was cleaved to C3bi. Factor ...
Thrombotic Microangiopathy: Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Moderator: Charles T. Quinn, MD MS, Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center Speaker:...
This is a Phase 3, multicenter study of OMS721 in adults and adolescents with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). The uncontrolled, open-label study will evaluate the effect of OMS721 in subjects with plasma therapy-resistant aHUS and plasma therapy-responsive aHUS. This study has four periods: Screening, Treatment Induction, Treatment Maintenance, and Follow-up. Approximate enrollment is 80 subjects. An interim analysis will be performed after 40 subjects have completed 26 weeks of treatment for potential registration ...
Zuber J, Le Quintrec M, Krid S, Bertoye C, Gueutin V, Lahoche A et al (2012) Eculizumab for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome recurrence in renal transplantation. Am J Transplant 12(12):3337-3354. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.04252.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary xenotransplantation is currently limited by hyperacute rejection mediated in part by xenoreactive natural antibody and complement. Transgenic swine organs that express the human complement regulatory protein CD59 have demonstrat
Abbkine Scientific has officially announced the release of its EliKine™ Human CCL2 ELISA Kit. The product also is known as the Human MCP1 ELISA Kit which is unique for its high sensitivity and excellent specificity.. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. Other alternative names include MCP-1, HC11, MCAF, HSMCR30, SMC-CF, GDCF-2, SCYA2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, monocyte secretory protein JE. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection. Abbkine newly launched EliKine™ Human CCL2/MCP-1 ELISA Kit exerts high sensibility and specificity for the quantification of Human CCL2/MCP-1 in various samples to CCL2 level determination.. The Human MCP1 ELISA Kit comes with different features and benefits that stand it out from its ...
Abbkine Scientific has officially announced the release of its EliKine™ Human CCL2 ELISA Kit. The product also is known as the Human MCP1 ELISA Kit which is unique for its high sensitivity and excellent specificity.. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2. Other alternative names include MCP-1, HC11, MCAF, HSMCR30, SMC-CF, GDCF-2, SCYA2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, monocyte secretory protein JE. CCL2 is a small cytokine that belongs to the CC chemokine family. CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection. Abbkine newly launched EliKine™ Human CCL2/MCP-1 ELISA Kit exerts high sensibility and specificity for the quantification of Human CCL2/MCP-1 in various samples to CCL2 level determination.. The Human MCP1 ELISA Kit comes with different features and benefits that stand it out from its ...
Measles Virus Infection Negatively Affects Host Immune Status New evidence shows that measles infection decreases the breadth and titers of preexisting antibodies to a wide variety of pathogens SOURCE Science. November 1, 2019 V.366 N.6465 P.599-606. Mina MJ1,2,3, Kula T4,2, Leng Y4, Li M2, de Vries RD5, Knip M6,7, Siljander H6,7, Rewers M8, Choy DF9,…
Two hallmarks of measles virus (MV) infection are the ability of the virus to cause immunosuppression and the resultant enhanced susceptibility of the infected host to microbial insults. We investigated the effect of MV infection on the ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to induce IL-12 via toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. When infected with MV, transgenic mice which expressed human SLAM receptor on their DCs were defective in the selective synthesis of IL-12 in DCs in response to stimulation of TLR4 signaling, but not to engagements of TLR2, 3, 7 or 9. MV suppressed TLR4-mediated IL-12 induction in DCs even in the presence of co-stimulation with another ligand for TLR2, 3, 7, or 9. While MV V and C proteins were not responsible for IL-12 inhibition, interaction of MV hemagglutinin with human SLAM facilitated the suppression. These results suggest that MV, by altering DC function, renders them unresponsive to secondary pathogens via TLR4 ...
Im really fed up that my periods have gone AWOL, followed by bleeds lasting for 20 days. My dr says this is not a problem as long as Im not lookin
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a disease characterized by excessive complement activation in the microvasculature. In both the (...)
Essentially all organisms depend upon molybdenum oxidoreductases which require a molybdopterin cofactor for catalytic activity. Mutations resulting in a lack of the cofactor show a pleiotropic loss of molybdoenzyme activities and thereby define genes involved in cofactor biosynthesis or utilization. In prokaryotes, two operons are directly associated with biosynthesis of the pterin moiety and its side chain while additional loci play a role in the acquisition of molybdenum and/or activation of the cofactor. Here we report the cloning of cinnamon, a Drosophila molybdenum cofactor gene encoding a protein with sequence similarity to three of the prokaryotic cofactor proteins. In addition, the Drosophila cinnamon protein is homologous to gephyrin, a protein isolated from the rat central nervous system. Our results suggest that some portions of the prokaryotic cofactor biosynthetic pathway composed of monofunctional proteins have evolved into a multifunctional protein in higher eukaryotes. ...
Since the 1980s, plasma exchange therapy has been the mainstay method for management of aHUS. This therapy aims to eliminate abnormal complement regulatory proteins and anti-CFH antibodies, while supplementing normal complement regulatory proteins. Eculizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to C5 complement protein. Eculizumab suppresses C5 cleavage to C5a and C5b and thereby prevents the production of the membrane attack complement complex (MAC).. In practical terms, when a patient presents with TMA and is negative for STEC-HUS and invasive pneumococcal infection (the latter of which is not indicated for plasma exchange), the treating physician should start the empirical treatments described below, while continuing diagnostic efforts. Physicians should also pay attention to systemic management such as fluid and electrolyte control, blood pressure control, and supportive therapies for AKI.. If the physician considers plasma exchange appropriate, it should be started immediately. ...
Author Summary Measles virus is a primate-specific virus that causes acute respiratory disease and can also lead to short term immune suppression resulting in secondary infections by bacteria or parasites. Wild type measles virus attaches to and infects lymphocytes using the receptor CD150 (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule, SLAM). Measles virus is also known to infect epithelial cells of the upper respiratory system and lungs. However, the viral receptor on these cells was previously unknown. Adenocarcinomas are derived from glandular epithelial cells of organs including the lung, breast, or colon. We showed that wild type isolates of measles virus can infect human airway epithelial cells and many adenocarcinoma cell lines. A comparative analysis of membrane genes expressed in cells susceptible and non-susceptible for measles virus infections revealed candidate receptor proteins. Only PVRL4 (Nectin 4) converted cells that were resistant to measles viral infections, to cells that could support
Author Summary Measles virus is a primate-specific virus that causes acute respiratory disease and can also lead to short term immune suppression resulting in secondary infections by bacteria or parasites. Wild type measles virus attaches to and infects lymphocytes using the receptor CD150 (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule, SLAM). Measles virus is also known to infect epithelial cells of the upper respiratory system and lungs. However, the viral receptor on these cells was previously unknown. Adenocarcinomas are derived from glandular epithelial cells of organs including the lung, breast, or colon. We showed that wild type isolates of measles virus can infect human airway epithelial cells and many adenocarcinoma cell lines. A comparative analysis of membrane genes expressed in cells susceptible and non-susceptible for measles virus infections revealed candidate receptor proteins. Only PVRL4 (Nectin 4) converted cells that were resistant to measles viral infections, to cells that could support
Twenty-eight outbreaks in six regions and two major cities in Ethiopia from 2000 to 2004 were investigated, with the collection of 207 venous blood and/or oral fluid samples. Measles diagnosis was confirmed by detection of measles-specific IgM and/or detection of measles virus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 176 suspected cases tested for specific measles IgM, 142 (81%) were IgM positive. Suspected cases in vaccinated children were much less likely to be laboratory confirmed than in unvaccinated children (42% vs. 83%, P , 0.0001). Of 197 samples analyzed by RT-PCR measles virus genome was detected in 84 (43%). A total of 58 wild-type measles viruses were characterized by nucleic acid sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) and hemagglutinin (H) genes. Two recognized genotypes (D4 and 133) were identified. Each outbreak comprised only a single genotype and outbreaks of each genotype tended to occur in distinct geographical locations. 133 was first observed in 2002, and has now been the ...
Looking for online definition of measles virus in the Medical Dictionary? measles virus explanation free. What is measles virus? Meaning of measles virus medical term. What does measles virus mean?
Moore et al in this issue of Blood provide clinical data from 13 cases with anti-fH autoantibodies in the Newcastle cohort that further support their relevance in aHUS pathogenesis.4 Most importantly, they show for the first time that some of these aHUS patients also carry mutations (or polymorphisms) in other complement genes previously associated with increased risk for aHUS. Occurrence of multiple different risk factors is relatively common among aHUS patients and has been invoked as an explanation for the incomplete penetrance of aHUS (close to 50%) in carriers of mutations in the complement AP proteins.5 The concurrence of genetic defects and autoantibodies, therefore, reinforces the idea that multiple hits in complement components are necessary for the development of aHUS in some patients. In addition, it indicates that autoantibodies and mutations may contribute in a similar way to aHUS pathogenicity.. Why do some persons develop anti-fH autoantibodies that mimic the aHUS-associated CFH ...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether eculizumab is safe and effective in the treatment of adult patients with plasma therapy-sensitive Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (aHUS).
Although measles is a monotypic virus, 22 genotypes of wild-type virus are recognized; many genotypes have been associated with endemic circulation of measles virus in certain geographic regions or have been documented in connection with an outbreak or epidemic in an area [4, 5]. The measles vaccine virus strains belong to genotype A and can be distinguished from wild-type virus of the same genotype by means of sequence analysis [6 -8]. Analyses of measles virus sequences in brain tissue samples obtained from patients with SSPE have identified only wild-type measles virus, and the virus genotypes identified have been consistent with the genotype of measles virus that circulated in the area where the patients lived and to which the patients had been exposed ⩽10 years before the onset of symptoms of SSPE [6, 9 -13]. Genetic studies have supported epidemiologic evidence that measles vaccine virus does not cause SSPE [6, 14, 15]. In cases of SSPE that developed in children or adults who had no ...
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
Health, ...Laval Canada -- Measles virus is perhaps the most contagious virus in...Measles virus spreads from host to host primarily by respiratory secre...The study in Nature shows for the first time how the measles vi...Nectin-4 is a biomarker for certain types of cancer such as breast o...,Researchers,discover,why,measles,spreads,so,quickly,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
In a significant development the FDA in the USA approved Soliris (Eculizumab) for use in atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome. To those saying,
Just in case people were wondering, measles in Disneyland is linked to the wild measles virus. (Data from Jan 2 3, 201 5) http://emergency.cdc.gov/HAN/
Replication-competent viruses based on the Edmonston vaccine strain of measles virus (MV-Edm) have potent and selective activities against various types of tumours in vitro but the responses in vivo are more variable. Some tumours are eliminated consistently while others persist despite evidence of ongoing v
View Measles Virus Culture Fluid (1 mL) 0810025CF from our online collection of viruses, microorganisms, and other products for infectious disease diagnostic development. Browse our larger selection of Microorganisms,Microorganisms,Microorganisms for Assay Developers,Research and Development,Clinical Laboratories products from ZeptoMetrix.
MBOAT7 - MBOAT7 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 7 (MBOAT7), transcript variant 4 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Measles is a highly contagious virus that lives in the nose and throat of an infected person. Measles symptoms include high fever and cough.
Rare Disease Day is 28 February 2018. The aHUS Alliance has announced a global project to raise awareness about the rare disease atypical HUS (aHUS).
1. Tom has just been exposed to the measles virus, and since he cant remember if he has had the measles before, he wonders if he is going to come down with the disease or not. He asks you if there is any way he can tell if he has been previously exposed or if he is going to get sick before it actually happens. What would you tell him ...
Mothercell - Results RESULTS Encouraging Unpredictable Sporadic miraculous results Unfortunately, its impossible beforehand to give any pro
Upon the addition of antibody to measles virus, measles virus antigens expressed on the surface of infected cells can be modulated from the cells membrane in vitro. Removal of measles virus antigens from the surface of cells occurs relatively rapidly and is accompanied by a parallel reduction in the ability of antibody and complement to lyse these cells. Modulation of surface viral antigens can occur in the absence of cap formation and is fully reversible once measles virus antibodies are removed from culture medium. Protracted exposure of acutely infected cells to measles virus antibodies results in a population of cells that exhibit normal cytomorphology and growth behavior. These cells continue to express measles virus antigens internally, but not at the cell surface, and are refractory to immune lysis. Once antiviral antibody is removed, measles virus antigens again appear on the cell surface, giant cell and syncytial formation occur, and cell death follows. These observations may explain ...
Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-linked protein (SAP) plays an essential role in the immune Ezatiostat system mediating the function of several members of the SLAM family (SLAMF) of receptors whose expression is essential for T NK and B-cell Rabbit Polyclonal to GABRD. responses. in mouse. However it is definitely less obvious whether other users of this family may also participate in the development of these innate T cells. Here we display that and strain suggesting that Slamf5 may function as a negative regulator of innate CD8+ T cell development. Accordingly B6 mice showed an exclusive growth of innate CD8+ T cells but not NKT cells. Interestingly the SAP-independent strain showed an growth of both splenic innate CD8+ T cells and thymic NKT cells. On the other hand and similar to what was recently demonstrated in BALB/c mice the proportions of thymic promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZFhi) NKT cells and innate CD8+ T cells significantly improved in the SAP-independent ...
A diagnosis of thrombotic microangiopathy on kidney biopsy in a patient presenting with hypertensive emergency has historically elicited the diagnosis of malignant hypertension-associated thrombotic microangiopathy. Recent studies, however, have raised awareness that a number of these patients may actually represent atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. To further investigate this premise, we performed next-generation sequencing to interrogate the coding regions of 29 complement and coagulation cascade genes associated with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in 100 non-elderly patients presenting with severe hypertension, renal failure and a kidney biopsy showing microangiopathic changes limited to the classic accelerated hypertension-associated lesion of arterial intimal edema (mucoid intimal hyperplasia) in isolation and without accompanying glomerular microthrombi ...
Eculizumab is a monoclonal antibody that prevents complement activation. It has been found to be an effective treatment for atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS). This retrospective study is the largest collection of previously published and unpublished cases to date. Eculizumab was effective at both preventing and treating recurrence of aHUS.. ...
Alexions product Soliris® (eculizumab), is a therapy indicated for the treatment of patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH).
Prof. Tim Goodship from the Institute of Genetic Disease in Newcastle University, UK has been one of the leading researchers on this disease. He has been working on this disease for the last twenty years! A lot of the authoritative papers that are referenced by doctors around the world are authored by him ...
Are you looking for disease information or support? Simply type in the name of a disease or condition and Disease InfoSearch will locate quality information from a database of more than 13,000 diseases and thousands of support groups and foundations.
Looking for measles virus? Find out information about measles virus. or , highly contagious disease of young children, caused by a filterable virus and spread by droplet spray from the nose, mouth, and throat of individuals... Explanation of measles virus
The Center for Life at Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, is organizing a conference for patients and their family on atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome on Sat...
Be careful not to be attacked by the measles virus,Measles is caused by a measles virus common respiratory infectious disease, which is a highly infectious disease, the winter season is high
The Mayo Clinic is one of the countrys top mesothelioma research centers. Their development of a drug using the measles virus is now in clinical trials.
... Both the common (red) measles and german measles have similar looking rashes. In spite of the similar names they are caused by different viruses. Detailed description of the measles rash and measles pictures included. Measles is sometimes misspelled as measels.
The results of this study suggest that babies born to HIV mothers would not be able to neutralize the measles virus as effectively and would lose ...
What a fantastic way to start the year! The first Grand Slam of 2012 ended with a memorable match between the top two seeds in probably the best Grand Slam final of all time...
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A description of tropes appearing in Slam Dunk. Hanamichi Sakuragi is an incredibly tall red-haired Jerk with a Heart of Gold (the gold heart part often …
The kidney is particularly susceptible to complement-mediated injury in a number of clinical settings, and congenital deficiency or defects in the complement-regulatory proteins MCP and factor H are strongly associated with the development of renal disease. In the current study, we demonstrated that Crry (the murine homolog of MCP in the kidney) is the only membrane-bound regulator of complement expressed by murine TECs. Crry is expressed on the cell membrane, and its expression is concentrated in the basolateral portion of the cell. Polarized TECs regulate complement more efficiently on the basolateral surface of the cells than on the apical surface, in part because of Crry expression at this site. As with renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) (21), chemical hypoxia of the TECs causes a reduction in surface Crry levels, and the distribution within the cell is also altered.. Spontaneous complement activation on the surface of TECs is also controlled by endogenous factor H. When rH 19-20 was added to ...
In vitro studies have proved the presence of epitopes of CD59 in the surface of trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). However, it has not been proved if CD59 molecules are expressed in the surface during the trophozoites tissue invasion. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the complement-regulatory protein CD59 is present on trophozoites of E. histolytica in human colon. Eleven specimens of amoebic colitis were studied by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy techniques with a monoclonal antibody against human CD59 molecule. Our results show that a CD59-like molecule is expressed in trophozoites of E. histolytica found in colonic amebic lesions. Also, a CD59-like molecule was detected by western blot analysis in whole lysate of E. histolytica as well as on the plasma membrane by immunocytochemistry. These results suggest that E. histolytica can use CD59-like protein against the lytic action of membrane attack complex.
Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy. C11 (Eye Diseases). Corneal Injuries. C12 (Male Urogenital Diseases). Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome. C13 (Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications). Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome ...
We investigated the presence of the measles virus genome in order to identify asymptomatic infections in the adult population. Bone-marrow aspirates were obtained from 179 patients, 20-96 years of age, for the diagnosis of malignant diseases (29 with malignant lymphoma, 28 with acute leukaemia, 21 with myelodysplastic syndrome, five with multiple myeloma and 96 with other diseases). The measles virus genome was detected in 17 (9·5%) of 179 individuals by RT-PCR and 28 (15·6%) through hybridization. The genomes detected in bone marrow were all in the same cluster, D5, the strain circulating during the study period, and no evidence of persistent infection was obtained. We conclude that asymptomatic infections of measles virus are common in adults and the presence of the measles virus genome would not be related to the pathogenesis of illness.
CONTROL AND ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE MATTER BY MEMBRANE FILTRATION. This system has exhibited tadalafil stability in the sense of, bar a number of notable exceptions, surface temperature remaining within the bounds required for liquid water and so a significant biosphere. Based on whether the PCT level was monitored or not, we divided patients into regular group and PCT group. C4NeFs were not detected in tadalafil 20 mg 150 patients with another complement-mediated kidney disease, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. The absorption of hydrophobic drugs and nutrients from the intestine is principally determined by the tadalafil 20 mg canadian drug stores amount that can be dissolved by the endogenous fluids present in the gut. The MLE algorithm searches for the image that has the maximum probability to generate the projection data.. Processing of pain- and body-related verbal material in chronic pain patients: central and peripheral correlates. However, genotyping of the flanking sequences on 22q ...
During mammalian fertilization, the exposure of the inner acrosomal membrane (IAM) after acrosomal exocytosis is essential for the secondary binding between sperm and zona pellucida (ZP) of the oocyte, a prerequisite for sperm penetration through the ZP. The identification of the sperm protein(s) responsible for secondary binding has posed a challenge for researchers. We were able to isolate a sperm head fraction in which the IAM was exposed. Attached to the IAM was an electon dense layer, which we termed the IAM extracellular coat (IAMC). The IAMC was also observable in acrosome reacted sperm. High salt extraction removed the IAMC including a prominent 38 kDa polypeptide, referred to as IAM38. Antibodies raised against IAM38 confirmed its presence in the IAMC of intact, sonicated, and acrosome-reacted sperm. Sequencing of IAM38 revealed it as the ortholog of porcine SP38, a protein that was found to bind specifically to ZP2 but whose intra-acrosomal location was not known. We showed that IAM38 ...

JCI -
Antibody-drug conjugate targeting CD46 eliminates multiple myeloma cellsJCI - Antibody-drug conjugate targeting CD46 eliminates multiple myeloma cells

F) CD46 antigen density on various BM cell populations from 3 normal donors. (G) CD46 antigen density on various peripheral ... human CD46 and murine CD46 share weak homology, and our anti-CD46 antibody does not bind the mouse CD46 protein. For these ... Antigen shedding. To assay for CD46 antigen shed into cell culture media, 4 × 105 RPMI8226 cells were seeded in a 6-well plate ... CD46 antigen is highly expressed in myeloma cell lines. To evaluate whether CD46 was overexpressed in MM, we studied its cell ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/85856

Measles virus encoding the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (MV-NIS) - WikipediaMeasles virus encoding the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (MV-NIS) - Wikipedia

The human CD46 antigen is known to be the functional cellular receptor for Measles virus. This type 1 integral membrane ... Dörig, R. E.; A. Marcil; A. Chopra; C. D. Richardson (1993-10-22). "The human CD46 molecule is a receptor for measles virus ( ... is an improvement over initial efforts to engineer a Measles virus to carry the soluble marker human carcinoembryonic antigen ( ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Measles_virus_encoding_the_human_thyroidal_sodium_iodide_symporter_(MV-NIS)

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Lymphocyte antigen CD46 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD46 (substance). ... Complement regulatory protein, membrane bound (substance) {106195005 , SNOMED-CT } Lymphocyte antigen (substance) {40992002 , ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=60407000

Genetic Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome - GeneReviews® - NCBI BookshelfGenetic Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome - GeneReviews® - NCBI Bookshelf

CD46 ANTIGEN; CD46. 134370. COMPLEMENT FACTOR H; CFH. 134371. COMPLEMENT FACTOR H-RELATED 1; CFHR1. ... CD46. 1q32. ​.2. Membrane cofactor protein. CD46 database. CD46. CD46. CFB. 6p21. ​.33. Complement factor B. CFB database. CFB ... CD46. The rationale for using plasma in individuals with CD46 pathogenic variants is not so clear, since the CD46 protein (also ... C3, CD46, CFH, CFI, and THBD. Penetrance for pathogenic variants in these genes is: C3: 56%; CD46: 53%; CFH: 48%; CFI: 50%; and ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1367/

Infections of JJHAN cells with HHV-6A (U1102). A. Quant | Open-iInfections of JJHAN cells with HHV-6A (U1102). A. Quant | Open-i

Antigens, CD46/isolation & purification/metabolism*. *Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics/immunology/isolation & purification* ... D and E. Detection of HHV-6 antigen gp60/110 in HHV-6A infected cells. HHV-6A-and mock-infected cells were fixed and stained ... D and E. Detection of HHV-6 antigen gp60/110 in HHV-6A infected cells. HHV-6A-and mock-infected cells were fixed and stained ... Bottom Line: Western blot analyses showed that the cellular complement protein CD46, the receptor for HHV-6A, is associated ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2164960_1743-422X-4-101-1&req=4

CiNii Articles - Ikawa MasahitoCiNii Articles - Ikawa Masahito

Homology of an acrosome-reacted sperm-specific antigen to CD46. (1992) * 9 ... HOMOLOGY OF AN ACROSOME-REACTED SPERM-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN TO MEMBRANE COFACTOR PROTEIN (1993) ...
more infohttps://ci.nii.ac.jp/author?q=Ikawa+Masahito

JCI -
Antibody-drug conjugate targeting CD46 eliminates multiple myeloma cellsJCI - Antibody-drug conjugate targeting CD46 eliminates multiple myeloma cells

CD46 antigen density on various BM cell populations from 3 normal donors. (. G. ) CD46 antigen density on various peripheral ... Quantitative FACS results for CD46 antigen density from MM versus NPCs from patients with amp1q21 (1q+, n. = 5). (. D. ) CD46 ... CD46 antigen density on various BM normal cell populations compared with MM cells from 7 additional patients. (. F. ) ... Quantitative FACS results for CD46 antigen density from MM versus NPCs from patients with normal (Nml) 1q (. n. = 5). (. C. ) ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/85856/figure/6

CD46 Antibody (C-term) - Peptide Affinity Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) WB, IHC-P, FC, IF, E - Buy Now! |AbgentCD46 Antibody (C-term) - Peptide Affinity Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) WB, IHC-P, FC, IF, E - Buy Now! |Abgent

CD46 Antibody (C-term), Peptide Affinity Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) validated in WB, IHC-P, FC, IF, E (AP4785b ... Membrane cofactor protein, TLX, Trophoblast leukocyte common antigen, CD46, CD46, MCP, MIC10. ... home , Products , Primary Antibodies , Immunology , CD46 Antibody (C-term) CD46 Antibody (C-term). Peptide Affinity Purified ... CD46 is a type I membrane protein and is a regulatory part of the complement system. The encoded protein has cofactor activity ...
more infohttps://www.abgent.com/products/AP4785b-CD46-Antibody-C-term

Yuzawa Yukio - Research Output
     - Fujita Health UniversityYuzawa Yukio - Research Output - Fujita Health University

In vivo gene transfer of endo-β-galactosidase C removes αGal antigen on erythrocytes and endothelial cells of the organs. Miki ... Antibody-mediated redistribution and shedding of endothelial antigens in the rabbit. Yuzawa, Y., Brentjens, J. R., Brett, J., ... Renal immune deposits induced by antibodies reactive with cell-surface antigens in laboratory animals and in man. Fukatsu, A., ... Interaction of antibody with Forssman antigen in guinea pigs: A mechanism of adaptation to antibody- and complement-mediated ...
more infohttps://pure.fujita-hu.ac.jp/en/persons/yukio-yuzawa/publications/?type=%2Fdk%2Fatira%2Fpure%2Fresearchoutput%2Fresearchoutputtypes%2Fcontributiontojournal%2Farticle&page=3

Retinal pigment epithelial cells upregulate expression of complement factors after co-culture with activated T cells - Danish...Retinal pigment epithelial cells upregulate expression of complement factors after co-culture with activated T cells - Danish...

Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Antigens, CD28; Antigens, CD3; Antigens, CD46; Antigens, CD59; Cell Line; ... CD46, CD55, CD59, and clusterin, in a dose-dependent manner. Soluble factors derived from activated T cells are capable of ...
more infohttps://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/180217002

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Lymphocyte positive for CD46 antigen (cell). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte positive for CD46 antigen (cell). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=117376006

List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D12.776.124) - Wikipedia

... antigens, cd46 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250 -- complement c1 inactivator proteins MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250.500 -- ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.950.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.124.790.106.050 -- alpha 1-antichymotrypsin ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301 -- antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.138 -- antivenins MeSH ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.301 -- antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.301.138 -- antivenins MeSH ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D12.776.124)

Cd46 Polyclonal Antibody, HRP Conjugated | EpiGentekCd46 Polyclonal Antibody, HRP Conjugated | EpiGentek

Description Cd46 Polyclonal Antibody, HRP Conjugated. HRP. Raised in Rabbit. Formulation Liquid. 0.03% Proclin 300. 50% ... CD_antigen=CD46 Cd46 Mcp. Application. ELISA User Guide & MSDS [User Guide]*. *Always use the actual User Guide that shipped ... Home » Antibodies » Primary Antibodies » Immunology & Inflammation Antibodies » Cell Marker & Receptor Antibodies » Cd46 ... Cd46 Polyclonal Antibody, HRP Conjugated. HRP. Raised in: Rabbit.. Formulation. Liquid. 0.03% Proclin 300. 50% Glycerol, 0.01M ...
more infohttps://www.epigentek.com/catalog/cd46-polyclonal-antibody-hrp-conjugated-p-9038.html

IMP: Integrative Multi-species PredictionIMP: Integrative Multi-species Prediction

Cd46. CD46 antigen, complement regulatory protein. 0.011. Zfp57. zinc finger protein 57. 0.011. ...
more infohttp://imp.princeton.edu/predictions/process/mouse-context-global/12433/?gene=61737

Cd46 - PCR Primer Pair - Probe | PrimePCR | Bio-RadCd46 - PCR Primer Pair - Probe | PrimePCR | Bio-Rad

CD46 antigen, complement regulatory protein. Aliases:. Mcp. RefSeq:. NC_000067.6 NT_039190.8. ... PrimePCR™ Probe Assay: Cd46, Mouse. print Real-time PCR probe assay designed for gene expression analysis. Probe assays consist ... Home , Life Science Research , Products , PCR Amplification , PrimePCR™ PCR Primers, Assays, and Arrays , Gene: Cd46, Mouse , ... PrimePCR™ Template for Probe Assay: Cd46, Mouse Reaction: 200 x 20 µl reactions Gene-specific synthetic DNA template designed ...
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CD46 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi BiotecCD46 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec

CD46 acts as a co-factor for complement factor I, a serine protease which protects autologous cells against complement-mediated ... Additionally, CD46 functions as a receptor for measles virus, human herpesvirus, and human adenovirus. It is a potent ... At least fourteen different transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for CD46. It is expressed by a ... Clone REA312 recognizes the human CD46 antigen, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, which is also known as the membrane ...
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Paramyxoviruses for Tumor-targeted Immunomodulation: Design and Evaluation Ex Vivo | ProtocolParamyxoviruses for Tumor-targeted Immunomodulation: Design and Evaluation Ex Vivo | Protocol

Relative lysis of target cells was assessed by LDH release assay after 48 h. Cells lacking the BTE target antigen (B16-CD46) ... B16-CD46/ B16-CD20-CD46. J. Heidbuechel, DKFZ Heidelberg. available upon request. ... including enhancing tumor antigen recognition [e.g., tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) or inducers of major histocompatibility ... Antigen-specific oncolytic MV-based tumor vaccines through presentation of selected tumor-associated antigens on infected cells ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/58651/paramyxoviruses-for-tumor-targeted-immunomodulation-design-evaluation

CD46/Membrane Cofactor Protein · QED Bioscience IncCD46/Membrane Cofactor Protein · QED Bioscience Inc

Antigen: Recombinant human CD46.. Host species: Mouse.. Antibody Class: IgG1.. Preservative: None. ... Additional bands due to glycosylation of CD46 may be detected.. ELISA: use at 0.1-1ug/ml with human CD46 on the solid phase.. ... CD46 / Membrane Cofactor Protein is a type I membrane protein and is a regulatory part of the complement system; it has ... CD46 / Membrane Cofactor Protein Monoclonal Antibody. ORDERING INFORMATION. Catalog No.: 90004 (clone 3F1) Format: 100ug, ...
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CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutation revealed cytoplasmic tail is dispensable for IZUMO1 function and male fertility in: Reproduction...CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutation revealed cytoplasmic tail is dispensable for IZUMO1 function and male fertility in: Reproduction...

OkabeMYingXNagiraMIkawaMKohamaYMimuraTTanakaK1992Homology of an acrosome-reacted sperm-specific antigen to CD46. Journal of ... Homology of an acrosome-reacted sperm-specific antigen to CD46. . Journal of Pharmacobio-Dynamics. 15. 455. -. 459. . (. doi: ... OkabeMAdachiTTakadaKOdaHYagasakiMKohamaYMimuraT1987Capacitation-related changes in antigen distribution on mouse sperm heads ... OkabeMNagiraMKawaiYMatznoSMimuraTMayumiT1990A human sperm antigen possibly involved in binding and/or fusion with zona-free ...
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Anti-Hu CD46 Purified - EXBIO AntibodiesAnti-Hu CD46 Purified - EXBIO Antibodies

Exbio - Research products - Antibodies - CD and related antigens - Anti-Hu CD46 Purified ... The antibody MEM-258 recognizes an epitope on SCR4 (the membrane-proximal SCR) domain of CD46 (Membrane cofactor protein). CD46 ... CD46, alters T cell polarity and response to antigen presentation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Dec 5;103(49):18685-90. ... Gaggar A, Shayakhmetov DM, Lieber A: CD46 is a cellular receptor for group B adenoviruses. Nat Med. 2003 Nov;9(11):1408-12. ...
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CD46 Molecule, Complement Regulatory Protein ELISA & Assay KitsCD46 Molecule, Complement Regulatory Protein ELISA & Assay Kits

Compare and order CD46 Molecule, Complement Regulatory Protein ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, ... Bezeichner auf Proteinebene für CD46 CD46 antigen, complement regulatory protein , antigen identified by monoclonal antibody ... CD46 Antigen Profile Beschreibung des Gens The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane protein and is a regulatory ... CD46, trophoblast-lymphocyte cross-reactive antigen) , trophoblast leucocyte common antigen , trophoblast leukocyte common ...
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Immunology of Isolated and Recurrent Spontaneous Pregnancy Loss | GLOWMImmunology of Isolated and Recurrent Spontaneous Pregnancy Loss | GLOWM

... antigen, are CD46. Immunology, 1990. 70(2): p. 155-61. ... CD46 can be found on a wide variety of cells and has no ... antigen-presenting cells. These include dendritic cells, macrophages, monocytes, B cells, and tissue-specific antigen ... Antigen Presentation by MHC Class I Versus MHC Class II Molecules Cellular and humoral immune responses are largely dependent ... MHC Antigens in the Placenta Using available reagents and investigative techniques, early investigators failed to detect MHC- ...
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MCP Pre-design Chimera RNAi - (H00004179-R17) - Products - AbnovaMCP Pre-design Chimera RNAi - (H00004179-R17) - Products - Abnova

... trophoblast-lymphocyte cross-reactive antigen) (MCP), transcript variant n, mRNA. (H00004179-R17) - Products - Abnova ... Homo sapiens membrane cofactor protein (CD46, trophoblast-lymphocyte cross-reactive antigen) (MCP), transcript variant n, mRNA ... CD46 antigen, complement regulatory protein,OTTHUMP00000034577,OTTHUMP00000034622,OTTHUMP00000034623,OTTHUMP00000034624, ... OTTHUMP00000034625,OTTHUMP00000034626,OTTHUMP00000034706,antigen identified by monoclonal antibody TRA-2-10,complement membrane ...
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MCP Pre-design Chimera RNAi - (H00004179-R27) - Products - AbnovaMCP Pre-design Chimera RNAi - (H00004179-R27) - Products - Abnova

... trophoblast-lymphocyte cross-reactive antigen) (MCP), transcript variant h, mRNA. (H00004179-R27) - Products - Abnova ... Homo sapiens membrane cofactor protein (CD46, trophoblast-lymphocyte cross-reactive antigen) (MCP), transcript variant h, mRNA ... CD46 antigen, complement regulatory protein,OTTHUMP00000034577,OTTHUMP00000034622,OTTHUMP00000034623,OTTHUMP00000034624, ... OTTHUMP00000034625,OTTHUMP00000034626,OTTHUMP00000034706,antigen identified by monoclonal antibody TRA-2-10,complement membrane ...
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  • A "two-hit" infection with HHV-6A appears to result in neurological deficits and pathologically, CNS inflammatory demyelination similar to human MS. Affected animals appear to develop immune reactivity to myelin antigens, indicating the possibility that mechanisms of mimicry may be involved in pathogenesis. (dana.org)
  • Longitudinal studies of reactivity to myelin antigens and to HHV6, and viral persistence/replication in relation to time-course of disease will be examined. (dana.org)
  • This imaging technique is an improvement over initial efforts to engineer a Measles virus to carry the soluble marker human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). (wikipedia.org)
  • CD46 is also known to be a cellular receptor for human measles virus and human herpes virus-6 as well as other human pathogens, such as Streptococcus pyogenes . (biolegend.com)
  • G ) CD46 antigen density on various peripheral blood cell populations from 3 normal donors. (jci.org)
  • D and E. Detection of HHV-6 antigen gp60/110 in HHV-6A infected cells. (nih.gov)
  • Marie JC, Astier AL, Rivailler P, Rabourdin-Combe C, Wild TF, Horvat B: Linking innate and acquired immunity: divergent role of CD46 cytoplasmic domains in T cell induced inflammation. (exbio.cz)
  • We found that the cell surface expression level of CD46 was markedly higher in patient myeloma cells with 1q gain than in those with normal 1q copy number. (jci.org)
  • CD46 is overexpressed on cell surface of primary MM patient cells and further amplified in patients with amp1q21 compared with normal 1q. (jci.org)
  • A ) FACS plot showing that CD46 surface expression correlates with CD38 in CD138-selected cells to identify the MM population by FACS (representative data, n = 25). (jci.org)
  • Plasma was prepared from citrated blood samples and the following parameters were determined: Thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complexes, prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), plasmin-antiplasmin (PAP) complexes, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) activity and the levels of both u-PA activity (scu-PA) and antigen (u-PA Ag). (tudelft.nl)
  • B ) Quantitative FACS results for CD46 antigen density from MM versus NPCs from patients with normal (Nml) 1q ( n = 5). (jci.org)
  • D ) CD46 antigen density is further increased in amp1q21 patients ( n = 5) compared with patients with normal 1q ( n = 5). (jci.org)
  • Possible cytotoxicity of lymphocytes from HHV6-infected animals towards antigen-sensitized targets and capacity for immune viral clearance or neutralization will be explored. (dana.org)
  • Liszewski MK, Kemper C, Price JD, Atkinson JP: Emerging roles and new functions of CD46. (exbio.cz)
  • Additional bands due to glycosylation of CD46 may be detected. (qedbio.com)
  • Of interest is that medulloblastoma (a malignant brain tumor common in childhood) specimens express a high level of CD46. (qedbio.com)
  • This proposal is based on the novel finding that common marmosets, a species of New World primates that is prone to develop an MS-like immune-mediated CNS illness after immunization with myelin antigens, can be infected with HHV6. (dana.org)
  • CD46-ADC also potently eliminated myeloma growth in orthometastatic xenograft models. (jci.org)