Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Adenoviral gene transfer into the normal and injured spinal cord: enhanced transgene stability by combined administration of temperature-sensitive virus and transient immune blockade. (1/2721)

This study characterized gene transfer into both normal and injured adult rat dorsal spinal cord using first (E1-/E3-) or second (E1-/E2A125/E3-, temperature-sensitive; ts) generation of replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors. A novel immunosuppressive regimen aimed at blocking CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors was tested for improving transgene persistence. In addition, the effect of gene transfer on nociception was also evaluated. Seven days after treatment, numerous LacZ-positive cells were observed after transfection with either viral vector. By 21 days after transfection, beta-galactosidase staining was reduced and suggestive of ongoing cytopathology in both Ad-treated groups, despite the fact that the immunogenicity of LacZ/Adts appeared less when compared with that elicited by the LacZ/Ad vector. In contrast, immunosuppressed animals showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in the number of LacZ-positive cells not displaying cytopathology. In these animals, a concomitant reduction in numbers of macrophages/microglia and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes was observed. Only animals that received LacZ/Adts and immunosuppression showed transgene expression after 60 days. Similar results were observed in animals in which the L4-L5 dorsal roots were lesioned before transfection. Gene transfer into the dorsal spinal cord did not affect nociception, independent of the adenovirus vector. These results indicate that immune blockade of the CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors enhanced transgene stability in adult animals with normal or injured spinal cords and that persistent transgene expression in the spinal cord does not interfere with normal neural function.  (+info)

Oval cell numbers in human chronic liver diseases are directly related to disease severity. (2/2721)

The risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma is significantly increased in patients with genetic hemochromatosis, alcoholic liver disease, or chronic hepatitis C infection. The precise mechanisms underlying the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in these conditions are not well understood. Stem cells within the liver, termed oval cells, are involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma in animal models and may be important in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in human chronic liver diseases. The aims of this study were to determine whether oval cells could be detected in the liver of patients with genetic hemochromatosis, alcoholic liver disease, or chronic hepatitis C, and whether there is a relationship between the severity of the liver disease and the number of oval cells. Oval cells were detected using histology and immunohistochemistry in liver biopsies from patients with genetic hemochromatosis, alcoholic liver disease, or chronic hepatitis C. Oval cells were not observed in normal liver controls. Oval cell numbers increased significantly with the progression of disease severity from mild to severe in each of the diseases studied. We conclude that oval cells are frequently found in subjects with genetic hemochromatosis, alcoholic liver disease, or chronic hepatitis C. There is an association between severity of liver disease and increase in the number of oval cells consistent with the hypothesis that oval cell proliferation is associated with increased risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic liver disease.  (+info)

Peripheral autoantigen induces regulatory T cells that prevent autoimmunity. (3/2721)

Previous studies have shown that autoimmune thyroiditis can be induced in normal laboratory rats after thymectomy and split dose gamma-irradiation. Development of disease can be prevented by reconstitution of PVG rats shortly after their final irradiation with either peripheral CD4(+)CD45RC- T cells or CD4(+)CD8(-) thymocytes from syngeneic donors. Although the activity of both populations is known to depend on the activities of endogenously produced interleukin 4 and transforming growth factor beta, implying a common mechanism, the issue of antigen specificity of the cells involved has not yet been addressed. In this study, we show that the regulatory T cells that prevent autoimmune thyroiditis are generated in vivo only when the relevant autoantigen is also present. Peripheral CD4(+) T cells, from rats whose thyroids were ablated in utero by treatment with 131I, were unable to prevent disease development upon adoptive transfer into thymectomized and irradiated recipients. This regulatory deficit is specific for thyroid autoimmunity, since CD4(+) T cells from 131I-treated PVG.RT1(u) rats were as effective as those from normal donors at preventing diabetes in thymectomized and irradiated PVG.RT1(u) rats. Significantly, in contrast to the peripheral CD4(+) T cells, CD4(+)CD8(-) thymocytes from 131I-treated PVG donors were still able to prevent thyroiditis upon adoptive transfer. Taken together, these data indicate that it is the peripheral autoantigen itself that stimulates the generation of the appropriate regulatory cells from thymic emigrant precursors.  (+info)

Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. (4/2721)

Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions.  (+info)

CD45 can act as a negative regulator for the transition from early to late CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes. (5/2721)

The differentiation process from CD4-CD8- double-negative (DN) thymocytes to CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) stage is accompanied by vigorous proliferation. The resulting DP cells contain a sizable proportion of large cycling cells, but most DP cells are small resting cells. To explore the molecular mechanisms which regulate cell proliferation of DP thymocytes prior to further development, we used TCR-transgenic (Tg) mice with non-selecting MHC (Tg-Neut), which contain almost exclusively DP thymocytes that are not subject to either positive or negative selection. In Tg-Neut, the thymus contained DP cells of relatively large size, which showed higher extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity and enhanced responsiveness to mitogen compared to small DP cells. This indicates that all the large DP cells in the thymus are not positively selected and that they possess proliferative potential. When Tg-Neut mice were backcrossed with CD45 knockout mice (CD454-/- Tg-Neut), the thymus showed an increase of large DP cells and cycling cells, but a decrease of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, Bcl-2 expression and Jun N-terminal kinase activity, which are associated with resistance to apoptosis, were enhanced. These observations suggest that thymocyte proliferation in the DP stage is suppressed by a CD45-related process with regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Bcl-2 unless DP cells receive TCR-mediated signals.  (+info)

Early ontogeny of monocytes and macrophages in the pig. (6/2721)

Prenatal development of cord blood monocytes and tissue macrophages was studied in pig foetuses by immunophenotyping and functional assays. The function of peripheral blood monocytes was compared in germ-free and conventional piglets. First macrophages were identified by electron microscopy in foetal liver on the 25th day of gestation. Monoclonal antibodies against porcine CD45 and SWC3 antigens were used for flow cytometric identification of myelomonocytic cells in cell suspensions prepared from the yolk sac, foetal liver, spleen and cord blood. Leukocytes expressing the common myelomonocytic antigen SWC3 were found in all organs studied since the earliest stages of development. Opsonized zymosan ingestion assay was used to determine the phagocytic capacity of foetal mononuclear phagocytes isolated from cord blood, liver and spleen. In the foetal liver, avid phagocytosis of apoptic cells had been found to occur before cells were able to ingest zymosan in vitro. The first cells capable of ingesting zymosan particles were found on the 40th day of gestation in umbilical blood and 17 days later in foetal spleen and liver. Their relative proportion increased with age. Cord blood monocytes and peripheral blood monocytes in germ-free piglets had low oxidatory burst activity as shown by iodonitrophenyl tetrazolium reduction assay. A remarkable increase of oxidatory burst activity was observed in conventional piglets, probably due to activation of immune mechanisms by the microflora colonizing gastrointestinal tract.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of CD45 by casein kinase 2. Modulation of activity and mutational analysis. (7/2721)

CD45 is a receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that is required for antigen-specific stimulation and proliferation in lymphocytes. This study was designed to determine the nature of specific kinases in lymphocytes that phosphorylate CD45 and to determine the effect of phosphorylation on CD45 PTP activity. A major cytoplasmic lymphocyte kinase that phosphorylated CD45 was identified as casein kinase 2 (CK2) by use of an in-gel kinase assay in combination with immunoprecipitation, immunodepletion, and specific inhibition. Mutational analysis of CK2 consensus sites showed that the target for CK2 was in an acidic insert of 19 amino acids in the D2 domain, and Ser to Ala mutations at amino acids 965, 968, 969, and 973 abrogated CK2 phosphorylation of CD45. CK2 phosphorylation increased CD45 activity 3-fold toward phosphorylated myelin basic protein, and this increase was reversible by PP2A treatment. Mutation of Ser to Glu at the CK2 sites had the same effect as phosphorylation and also tripled the Vmax of CD45. CD45 isolated in vivo was highly phosphorylated and could not be phosphorylated by CK2 without prior dephosphorylation with phosphatase PP2A. We conclude that CK2 is a major lymphocyte kinase that is responsible for in vivo phosphorylation of CD45, and phosphorylation at specific CK2 sites regulates CD45 PTP activity.  (+info)

Differential effects of manipulating signaling in early T cell development in intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and thymocytes. (8/2721)

A pre-TCR-CD3 signal is required for the efficient maturation of CD4- CD8- thymocytes to the CD4+ CD8+ stage. This study addressed whether a similar signal is required for maturation of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) that may develop extrathymically. We have shown previously that IEL from mice deficient for CD3- associated zeta chains include an immature population of CD3- CD8alphaalpha+ cells expressing cytoplasmic TCR beta chains but lacking detectable surface TCRalphabeta, CD16 and B220. Here we stimulated the appearance of such IEL in epsilon+/- zeta-/- mice by expression of an activated Lck transgene or in vivo treatment with anti-CD3epsilon. Anti-CD3epsilon treatment of RAG-deficient animals also yielded CD16- B220- IEL. In contrast, expression of a TCRbeta transgene in rag-1(-/-) mice did not stimulate the appearance of CD3- CD8alphaalpha+ CD16- B220- cells. Taken together these data indicate that although anti-CD3epsilon treatment and LckF505 assist in catalyzing a CD16+ B220+ --> CD16- B220- transition, these manipulations are not equivalent to a pre-TCR signal in IEL lymphocytes.  (+info)

Following M. bovis infection, a marked in vitro expansion suggests that bovine γδ T cells can mount memory-like responses upon restimulation with mycobacterial Ag (Fig. 1) and (reviewed in Ref. 35). However, to date, a combination of surface markers that effectively identify effector/memory-like subsets of bovine Ag-specific γδ T cells have not been reported. In this study, we show that, compared with CD4 T cells, proliferating M. bovis-specific γδ T cells do not significantly alter CD45RO expression after restimulation with mycobacterial Ags in vitro. Our results agree with reports showing that γδ T cells from human TB patients do not modulate CD45RO expression compared with γδ T cells from noninfected subjects (16, 17). Thus, γδ T cells may acquire a "preactivated" state early in their development and thus, CD45RO is not useful to identify Ag-experienced γδ T cells. In contrast to CD45RO expression, we found that proliferating γδ T cells from M. bovis-infected cattle ...
PTPRC - PTPRC (untagged)-Human protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C (PTPRC), transcript variant 3 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Mark, there has been a number of discussions on this list regarding RA/RO... Im not going to rehash those discussions, since I dont want to bore everyone else. Go to the archives and read over the material -- it includes references. But once again, CD45RA+ cells are BOTH naive AND memory. You CANNOT use RA and/or RO to identify naive T cells without an additional marker such as CD62L, CD11a, CD27. As for Double-positive, it depends on how you define positive. Bright (true) RA+RO+ double positives are very rare in peripheral blood but common in active tissues (like tonsil). Cells positive for one and dull for the other are normal resting memory T cells. There are no double-negative cells that are viable. Percentages in the peripheral blood are meaningless for the simple reason that RA+ cells are a heterogeneous mixture of naive & memory. Especially the CD8s, where anywhere between 20 and 80% of RA+ cells can be memory. (In CD4, most (95%) are naive; however, in many disease states ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against native PTPRC. Native purified PTPRC from human thymocytes and T lymphocytes. (MAB4578) - Products - Abnova
The CD45 molecules are single chain integral membrane proteins comprising at least five isoforms ranging from 180 to 220 kDa. They are generated by alternative splicing combinations of three exons (A, B, and C) of the genomic sequence. The non-restricted CD45, Leucocyte Common Antigen (LCA) consists of an extracellular sequence, proximal to the membrane, which is common to all CD45 isoforms. All the monoclonal antibodies that belong to the CD45 cluster react with this part of the antigen and are able to recognize all CD45 isoforms. These isoforms have extracytoplasmic sequences ranging from 391 to 552 amino acids long with numerous N-linked carbohydrate attachment sites. The cytoplasmic portion contains two phospho-tyrosine-phosphatase domains. The non-restricted CD45 epitope is present on the surface of all human leucocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils monocytes, basophils and neutrophils by order of decreasing level of expression. CD45 is a major component of the lymphocyte membrane. It is absent ...
The CD45 molecules are single chain integral membrane proteins comprising at least five isoforms ranging from 180 to 220 kDa. They are generated by alternative splicing combinations of three exons (A, B, and C) of the genomic sequence. The non-restricted CD45, Leucocyte Common Antigen (LCA) consists of an extracellular sequence, proximal to the membrane, which is common to all CD45 isoforms. All the monoclonal antibodies that belong to the CD45 cluster react with this part of the antigen and are able to recognize all CD45 isoforms. These isoforms have extracytoplasmic sequences ranging from 391 to 552 amino acids long with numerous N-linked carbohydrate attachment sites. The cytoplasmic portion contains two phospho-tyrosine-phosphatase domains. The non-restricted CD45 epitope is present on the surface of all human leucocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils monocytes, basophils and neutrophils by order of decreasing level of expression. CD45 is a major component of the lymphocyte membrane. It is absent ...
The CD45 molecules are single chain integral membrane proteins comprising at least five isoforms ranging from 180 to 220 kDa. They are generated by alternative splicing combinations of three exons (A, B, and C) of the genomic sequence. The non-restricted CD45, Leucocyte Common Antigen (LCA) consists of an extracellular sequence, proximal to the membrane, which is common to all CD45 isoforms. All the monoclonal antibodies that belong to the CD45 cluster react with this part of the antigen and are able to recognize all CD45 isoforms. These isoforms have extracytoplasmic sequences ranging from 391 to 552 amino acids long with numerous N-linked carbohydrate attachment sites. The cytoplasmic portion contains two phospho-tyrosine-phosphatase domains. The non-restricted CD45 epitope is present on the surface of all human leucocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils monocytes, basophils and neutrophils by order of decreasing level of expression. CD45 is a major component of the lymphocyte membrane. It is absent ...
The CD45 antibody recognizes the human CD45 antigen, a tyrosine phosphatase also known as leukocyte common antigen (LCA). The CD45 molecule is required for T and B cell activation and is expressed in at least five isoforms depending on the differentiation status of the cell. The CD45 antibody recognizes a common epitope of all CD45 isoforms. - Australia
|p|CD45 is a 180 - 240 kD single chain type I membrane glycoprotein also known as leukocyte common antigen (LCA) and T200. It is a tyrosine phosphatase expressed on the plasma membrane of all hematopoietic cells, except erythrocytes or platelets. CD45 is a signaling molecule that regulates a va
|p|CD45 is a 180 - 240 kD single chain type I membrane glycoprotein also known as leukocyte common antigen (LCA) and T200. It is a tyrosine phosphatase expressed on the plasma membrane of all hematopoietic cells, except erythrocytes or platelets. CD45 is a signaling molecule that regulates a va
Quantity100 testsVolume1ImmunogenHuman thymocytes and T lymphocytesBackground InformationCD45 (LCA; leukocyte common antigen) is a receptor-type pr...
Quantity100 testsVolume0.4ImmunogenHuman thymocytes and T lymphocytesBackground InformationCD45 (LCA; leukocyte common antigen) is a receptor-type ...
CD45, also known as leukocyte common antigen (LCA) and T200, is expressed on the plasma membrane of all hematopoietic cells except mature red blood cells and platelets.
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Looking for online definition of leukocyte common antigen in the Medical Dictionary? leukocyte common antigen explanation free. What is leukocyte common antigen? Meaning of leukocyte common antigen medical term. What does leukocyte common antigen mean?
Abstract. We recently reported that cross-linking the leukocyte common antigen (CD45) can rapidly induce aggregation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell
In the present study, we show several new findings on the functional roles of PTP-1B and CD148 in platelet activation. The main finding is that PTP-1B is a selective regulator of SFKs downstream of the integrin αIIbβ3, whereas CD148 is a global regulator of SFKs in resting and activated platelets. As a result, deletion of PTP-1B has much milder effects than deletion of CD148 and additive effects in some instances, such as downstream of αIIbβ3 and CLEC-2, but not GPVI. The other major finding of this study is that PTP-1B is essential for optimal platelet aggregation on collagen under high shear rates, an experience in stenotic arteries. Ablation of PTP-1B results in a dramatic reduction in large aggregate formation but still allows platelets to stick together and form monolayers and smaller aggregates. This is in striking contrast to CD148-deficient platelets, which form very few and small clusters of platelets under the same conditions. These findings have important implications for ...
In this study, we have analyzed the role of IL-10 signaling in CD4 T cells by generating dominant-negative IL-10Rα TG mice. Our results indicated that direct IL-10 signals control colitis development, in particular when caused by the Treg cell-depleted CD45RBlo memory/effector CD4 T cell population. This has also spotlighted characteristic differences in the mechanism of colitis development mediated by CD45RBhi cells or Treg cell-depleted CD45RBlo CD4+ T cells.. It was previously reported by others that activation could reduce the expression of IL-10R1 (IL-10Rα) mRNA in human T cell clones (Liu et al., 1994). We found that although expression of mouse IL-10Rα is reduced upon activation, it recovered after 24-48 h both at the level of mRNA (not depicted) and cell surface protein expression (Fig. S1). In addition, the surface expression of IL-10Rα is detectable at any time of activation by flow cytometry. The IL-10Rα on the surface of T cells is functional after IL-10 stimulation as Stat3 ...
In this study, we have analyzed the role of IL-10 signaling in CD4 T cells by generating dominant-negative IL-10Rα TG mice. Our results indicated that direct IL-10 signals control colitis development, in particular when caused by the Treg cell-depleted CD45RBlo memory/effector CD4 T cell population. This has also spotlighted characteristic differences in the mechanism of colitis development mediated by CD45RBhi cells or Treg cell-depleted CD45RBlo CD4+ T cells.. It was previously reported by others that activation could reduce the expression of IL-10R1 (IL-10Rα) mRNA in human T cell clones (Liu et al., 1994). We found that although expression of mouse IL-10Rα is reduced upon activation, it recovered after 24-48 h both at the level of mRNA (not depicted) and cell surface protein expression (Fig. S1). In addition, the surface expression of IL-10Rα is detectable at any time of activation by flow cytometry. The IL-10Rα on the surface of T cells is functional after IL-10 stimulation as Stat3 ...
Clone REA504 recognizes the rat CD45 antigen, also known as leukocyte common antigen (LCA), which is a 180-220 kDa type I transmembrane protein with multiple isoforms and differential glycosylation. It appears in at least five isoforms depending on the differentiation status of the cell. CD45 is expressed at high levels on all cells of hematopoietic origin except for erythrocyte and platelets. It plays a role in signal transduction through B and T cell antigen receptors. Additional information: Clone REA504 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Suomi
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In a previous study we isolated a series of rat monoclonal antibodies to the human leukocyte common (LC) antigen and demonstrated that synergistic complement lysis was possible between IgG2b antibodies which recognised different epitopes. In this report we have examined the mechanisms that were involved in synergistic lysis. We found that the number of C1q binding sites increased from 30,000 to 40,000/cell using a single antibody to 90,000/cell when two IgG2b antibodies to different epitopes were used together. The affinity of C1q binding also increased approx. 3-fold for the synergistic pair, and there was a similar increase in the rate of C1 activation. Combinations of an IgG2b with IgG1 or IgG2a gave much smaller increases in the amount of C1q bound and in the rate of C1 activation. Despite the large number of C1q molecules bound with the optimal synergistic pair and the increased rate of C1 activation, lysis was inefficient in serum depleted of Factor D, suggesting a requirement for the alternative
Abstract. Abstract 3988Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy predominantly negative for the surface protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45. P
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Hello everyone, Weve talked before about where and how B cells mature from naive cells to memory cells, and how that process might be responsible for autoimmunity. During an infection, B cells migrate to the so-called Germinal centres where they ...
Попробуйте оправдать игровые автоматы Вокруг киберпространства, которое вы покидаете, вы услышите, как веб-сайты дают вам возможность сыграть в онлайн-слоты на мертвую версию. Если вы выполнили загрузку «Кассино», то вы точно поймете, что нужно выиграть в следующих четырех казино. В эдикте, чтобы исключить очередное разочарование в слотах, вы можете захотеть получить авто, которое завещает гарантированную плату, сопоставимую с тем, что на самом деле говорится. Осуществление выставки дает вам возможность убедиться, что мерчендайзинг был просто ...
Попробуйте оправдать игровые автоматы Вокруг киберпространства, которое вы покидаете, вы услышите, как веб-сайты дают вам возможность сыграть в онлайн-слоты на мертвую версию. Если вы выполнили загрузку «Кассино», то вы точно поймете, что нужно выиграть в следующих четырех казино. В эдикте, чтобы исключить очередное разочарование в слотах, вы можете захотеть получить авто, которое завещает гарантированную плату, сопоставимую с тем, что на самом деле говорится. Осуществление выставки дает вам возможность убедиться, что мерчендайзинг был просто ...
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Before I get this party started, I must say thanks to everyone for all your sweet prayers, thoughts and phone calls. Its always a blessing to feel loved! In case you dont know or havent heard yet, Lovebug was involved in a car chase /shooting / fight while working last Tuesday night. During a physical altercation with one of the…
... Which water is optimal for the origin (generation) of life? The memory of water is an informational medium for the biggest miracle in nature. More information:. http://www.medicalbiophysics.dir.bg/de/water_memory.html. Memory of Water an Origin of Living Matter Bioresonance Effects. Dr. Ignat Ignatov - Biophysicist. 2006 Sofia, Bulgarien. ...
He was completely out of the water now, bare feet against the untamed earth. The grass was soft, but jagged pine needles lay in wait beneath it. Antonius felt none of it, his feet numbed to the sensations. He stared at Abigail, his height towering over her, looking considerably intimidating without trying. He was waiting for her reply and instead, saw that she had once again remembered his state of undress.. The obvious was no concern of hers, her eyes too caught on his chest and the jagged scars that marked it. Two were long and particularly nasty looking, one moving over his pectoral and the other looking as if it had been a harsh stab near his kidney. The others were small and faded, but those two were like glaring beacons in the night, somewhat new, but closed and freshly scarred. A sudden, shuddering thought came to her mind-what did he do when he was a werewolf? She had never truly considered it before and now felt immensely foolish.. She had moved closer to him and not realized it until ...
On Wed, Apr 30, 2008 at 10:09:04AM +0100, Richard Earnshaw wrote: , The compiler never directly generates SWP, so this must be an in-line , assembler statement. Since theres no SWP instruction in Thumb, the , code that generates this will need reworking to push the required , instructions out-of-line. Ok, I tried finding the culprit asm code but failed to notice sys/arch/arm/include/lock.h: ... #if defined(_KERNEL) static __inline int __swp(int __val, volatile unsigned char *__ptr) { __asm volatile(swpb %0, %1, [%2] : =&r (__val) : r (__val), r (__ptr) : memory); return __val; } #else static __inline int __swp(int __val, volatile int *__ptr) { __asm volatile(swp %0, %1, [%2] : =&r (__val) : r (__val), r (__ptr) : memory); return __val; } #endif /* _KERNEL */ ... static __inline void __attribute__((__unused__)) __cpu_simple_lock(__cpu_simple_lock_t *alp) { while (__swp(__SIMPLELOCK_LOCKED, alp) != __SIMPLELOCK_UNLOCKED) continue; } static __inline int ...
FMO controls are samples that contain all the antibodies you are testing in your experimental samples, minus one of them. When analyzing the minus, or left out parameter in an FMO control, you give yourself a strong negative control to work with. Its a strong negative control because the left out marker in the FMO control allows you to take into account how the other stains in your panel affect the respective minus parameter. Many flow cytometry gates are difficult to define. This is especially true when youre looking at activation markers within a continuum or accounting for the large data spread that occurs when compensating a 10+ color experiment. The only way to convince reviewers that your gate is in the proper place is by using FMO controls. Heres why you need to use FMO controls for any multicolor flow cytometry experiment and how to prepare these controls properly.. Read More ...
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in NAGNAG acceptors are highly predictive for variations of alternative splicing. [PMID 18634151] No association between systemic sclerosis and C77G polymorphism in the human PTPRC (CD45) gene. [PMID 20158892 ...
The revelation of the memories of previous lives, on the other hand-that is, the revelation of what has been experienced by "selves" and thinkers prior to the present "self" and thinker-consists of a time-reversal to a time either hundreds or thousands of years before the present time (parallel to the time-reversal from 55 to 44 in the above report), which is then followed by a progression of time in a forward direction (parallel to the forward movement of time from 44 to 55-and, 33 minutes later, to 28-in the above report) through those experiences in precisely the same way they were first experienced; that is, without any knowledge of either future time or future experiences of other "selves" and thinkers. In other words, a memory of a previous life does not perfectly fit the definition of a memory as experienced, or defined, by a "self" or a thinker. That is, one does not really remember what those previous "selves" and thinkers have experienced. Rather, it is the re-experience ...
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Some snippets from your converted document: Designing and Implementing a High-Level Multicolor Flow Cytometry Assay Brent Wood MD PhD Department of Laboratory Medicine University of Washington Define Purpose of Assay • Most important question - What information is required? - What information is most important? • Prioritize • Compromises are inevitable - Simplest assay is best Outline • Instrument optimization • Compensation • Reagent selection and optimization • Panel validation • Data analysis Detector Optimization Detector Optimization PMT Voltage Green = 400 V, Blue = 450 V, Red = 500 V, Violet = 550 V Detector Voltage 475 volts 575 volts 675 volts 775 volts 875 volts • Too low reduces sensitivity • Too high pushes bright signals off scale - Dilute with unlabeled antibody • May need to compromise Optimization • Daily optimization not practical • Once optimized, do NOT change instrument settings unless change in performance - New optical filters - New PMT ...
In a previous study employing conventional immunological marker analysis we found that 17% of high grade malignant lymphomas were devoid of cytoplasmic and membrane immunoglobulin and also sheep erythrocyte receptors. Cryostat sections from 24 of these cases (four of low grade and 20 of high grade malignancy) were stained with a panel of 30 monoclonal antibodies and six polyclonal antisera using a sensitive immunoperoxidase method. All tumours expressed the leucocyte common antigen (detected by monoclonal antibody 2D1) and all lacked epithelial cytokeratin (monoclonal antibody LE61), confirming their haematopoietic origin. All but one of the lymphomas expressed antigens characteristic of either B cells (17 cases) or T cells (six cases), while one case (morphologically a centroblastic lymphoma) had an unusual dual phenotype in which strong staining for T6 (marker of immature T cells) was associated with expression of the pan B lymphocyte antigens detectable with To15, anti-B1, anti-Leu12. This ...
Looking for common antigen? Find out information about common antigen. see immunity immunity, ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have... Explanation of common antigen
039 and p=0.006, Erlotinib respectively). At week 12, the TB IRIS group trended toward greater HLADR+ CD38+ CD8+ T cell counts than the Other IRIS group (p=0.072), and exhibited significantly greater counts than the No IRIS group (p=0.007) (Figure 3C). In contrast, CD8+ T cells expressing only HLADR were increased by HAART in both their relative frequency (Figure 3A) and absolute counts (Figure 3D). Figure 3 Frequencies and absolute counts of activated CD8 T cell subsets. A) Frequencies of activated CD8 T cell subsets according to CD38 and HLADR expression during follow up. The numbers in each quadrant correspond to the mean of all patients�� percentage … Figure 4 Expansion of activated naive CD8 T cells during TB IRIS.. Zebra plots of CD8+ T cell maturation subpopulations according to CCR7 and CD45RA expression (see Methods) in a week 8 sample from a TB IRIS patient (A), and of week 8 sample from an Other IRIS … No differences between groups in the absolute counts of CD38+ HLADR- or ...
anyway, the special topological homeomorphism [AoK, short paper, Ap 3, 5, 7, 9] of the nervous system - the one IFR Geometry -[the skelleton upon which everything else is hung] enables the extraordinarily-powerful information-processing that happens between our Human ears. you see, all of whats been difficult in the algorithm stuff of traditional computers [including parallel-processors] is Resolved in the special topological homeomorphism of the nervous system. theres no need to time processing in a complex hierarchical fashion [which is where complexity goes exponential, and, thereby, thwarts implementation of this or that algorithmic stuff. all of the analogous stuff [all of the algorithmic complexity] is built-rithg-into the special topological homeomorphism, and [with respect to machine implementation] the only problem becomes [as i discussed in the From Biological to Computational Model thread] selecting any of an infinite number of ways to assign memory to the ...
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Perform sample processing and run multicolor flow cytometry panels for clinical research sample testing with an emphasis on sample processing, assay procedure, instrument operation, troubleshooting and data analysis.. Follow this link for more information.. ...
BD continues to expand its instrument and reagent portfolio to enable the enrichment, sorting and analysis of dendritic cells and their different subsets by multicolor flow cytometry.
GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter is involved in intrusive thoughts, rumination and even hallucinations. If the levels of GABA are low in the hippocampus, then it will be difficult to control our thoughts. GABA, GABA, my kingdom for GABA! https://www.technologynetworks.com/neuroscience/news/brain-mechanism-that-inhibits-unwanted-memories-uncovered-293915 Scientists have identified a key chemical within the memory region of the brain that allows us…
Cell surface markers of mouse thymic dendritic cells have been studied by flow cytometry after isolation by collagenase digestion, separation of the low-density cell fraction and differential adherence. The dendritic cell preparation had a purity of , 90%, the contaminating population being essentially composed of thymocytes, macrophages constituting ,1%. Dendritic cells displayed high forward and low-intermediate side angle scatter, and expressed high levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules, the heat-stable antigen (HSA), the adhesion molecules Pgp-1 (CD44), LFA-1, ICAM-1 and low levels of Mac-1 and the leukocyte common antigen CD45. Thymic dendritic cells are negative for the stem cell antigen-2 (Sca-2), the B cell-specific form of CD45 (B220), the mouse macrophage markers Fc receptor and F4/80, and the granulocyte marker Gr-1. However, although they do not express the T cell markers Thy-1, CD2, CD3, CD4 and CD5, 20%-30% of dendritic cells are positive ...
The Flow Cytometry group is a core facility of the Center for Integrated BioSystems at Utah State University. The facility provides instrumentation, personnel, and expertise to assist researchers in flow cytometry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) applications. The laboratory is equipped with a BD Biosciences Special Order FACSAria™ II, which is a high-speed FACS that can perform high-resolution, multicolor flow cytometry analysis. Our FACSAria™ II has 4 lasers that can detect up to 13 different colors in addition to the cell sorting functionality, and uses BD FACSDiva™ software for data acquisition and analysis.. For a complete list of available filter sets, lasers, and wavelengths, see our filter worksheet. Services are offered as fee for service (see fee schedule). For more information please contact Dr. Lihong Teng.. ...
Background: Patients with regionally advanced melanoma were treated with neoadjuvant ipilimumab in a previously reported study (Tarhini. PLOS One 2014) where significant changes in circulating Treg, MDSC and peptide specific type I CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were observed early on-treatment (6 weeks) that correlated with clinical outcome.. Methods: Patients were treated with ipilimumab (10 mg/kg IV every 3 weeks x 2 doses) bracketing surgery. Blood (serum / peripheral blood mononuclear cells) specimens were collected at baseline and during treatment for up to 9 months. We conducted longer term monitoring in patients with available specimens at 3 (n = 28), 6 (n = 22) and 9 (n = 13) months utilizing multicolor flow cytometry. We compared the frequencies of circulating suppressive Treg and MDSC on-study to baseline levels, as well as frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells specific to shared tumor-associated antigens (Gp-100, MART-1, NY-ESO-1) utilizing overlapping peptide libraries (15-mer peptides ...
Complex analysis of cellular responses after experimental treatment is important for screening, mechanistic understanding of treatment effects, and the identification of sensitive and resistant cell phenotypes. Modern multicolor flow cytometry has demonstrated its power for such analyses. Here, we introduce a multiparametric protocol for complex analysis of cytokinetics by the simultaneous detection of seven fluorescence parameters. This analysis includes the detection of two surface markers for immunophenotyping, analysis of proliferation based on the cell cycle and the measurement of incorporated nucleoside analogue 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) in newly synthesized DNA, analysis of DNA damage using an anti-phospho-histone H2A ...
Much time series data are recorded on economic and financial variables. Statistical modelling of such data is now very well developed, and has applications in forecasting. We review a variety of statistical models from the viewpoint of memory, or strength of dependence across time, which is a helpful discriminator between different phenomena of interest. Both linear and nonlinear models are discussed.. ...
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Efficient elimination of a pathogen is dependent on both rapid and sustained antibody production by B cells. In contrast with conventional (B2) B cells, which produce antigen-specific antibody later in infection, B1 B cells generate natural antibodies and contribute to the T-cell independent (TI) antibody response. B cell activation and subsequent antibody secretion involve tyrosine phosphorylation, which is tightly regulated by protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs). Previous studies from our lab have demonstrated that the RPTPs CD148 and CD45 have redundant positive regulatory roles in the development and antigen receptor signaling of B2 B cells by acting on on Src PTKs. However, the role of RPTPs in signal transduction in B1 B cells is not well understood. We have found that mice with a targeted deletion of the transmembrane domain of CD148 have an impaired IgM response when challenged with a TI antigen. This suggests that CD148 has a unique ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heterogeneity of antigen expression and lectin labeling on microglial cells in the olfactory bulb of adult rats. AU - Wu, C. H.. AU - Chien, H. F.. AU - Chang, C. Y.. AU - Ling, E. A.. PY - 1997/5. Y1 - 1997/5. N2 - Microglia in different layers of the rat olfactory bulb expressed a variety of membrane antigens except for CD4 (OX-35). Bulb microglial cells bearing complement receptor type 3 (OX-42) were ubiquitous and their immunoreactivity varied considerably in different bulb layers. Although very few in number, labeled microglia in all layers also expressed major histocompatibility complex class I antigen (OX-18), leukocyte common antigen (OX-1) and unknown macrophage antigen (ED-2). The latter was localized in cells distributed almost exclusively in the perivascular spaces. The immunoreactivity of ED-1, an unknown cytoplasmic or lysosomal membrane antigen in macrophages, was localized in labeled microglia which were concentrated mainly in the granule cell layer and ...
RNA-binding protein that functions as regulator of alternative splicing for multiple target mRNAs, including PTPRC/CD45 and STAT5A. Required for alternative splicing of PTPRC.
Participates in at least several B-cell activation processes as well as of other cell types. It is a costimulator of DNA-synthesis. It induces the expression of class II MHC molecules on resting B-cells. It enhances both secretion and cell surface expression of IgE and IgG1. It also regulates the expression of the low affinity Fc receptor for IgE (CD23) on both lymphocytes and monocytes. Positively regulates IL31RA expression in macrophages.
Citation: Koo, H., Davis, W.C., Park, Y., Kwon, N., Hamilton, M., Barrington, G.M., Dahl, J.N., Waters, W.R. 2004. Analysis of the immune response to m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in experimentally infected calves and naturally infected cows with clinical symptoms [abstract]. Veterinary Immunology International Symposium. Paper No. WK.11.6.6:368. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Johnes disease of cattle is widespread and causes significant economic loss to producers due to increased food consumption, a decrease in milk production and poor health of affected animals. Control of the disease has been hindered by the lack of an effective vaccine and sensitive specific diagnostic assays that identify infected animals before they begin to shed bacteria. The present study was conducted to gain further insight into factors affecting the immune response to the causative agent, M. paratuberculosis (Map) and to determine if multicolor flow cytometry (FC) can be used to monitor the appearance ...
Deidre Carson answers: Vaccines are biological products used to stimulate some immunity to a disease. They do this by mimicking the disease agent (usually a virus, a bacteria or a bacterial product) and making the body think that it has been infected, so that it mounts an immune response.. This response is usually in the form of antibodies, although there will also be a response at cell level (CMI).. The process works because the cell retains a memory of the disease agent, and is able to respond more quickly and effectively to infection.. Most vaccines require two initial doses a few weeks apart to establish a good level of protection. The need for further vaccination and the frequency of these depend on the vaccine and the disease being vaccinated against.. ...
Este artículo ilustra un método eficaz para cuantificar las mitocondrias o lisosomas en las células vivas. La combinación de tintes...
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Platelets play a fundamental role in hemostasis and thrombosis. They are also involved in pathologic conditions resulting from blocked blood vessels, including myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation at sites of vascular injury are regulated by a diverse repertoire of tyrosine kinase-linked and G protein-coupled receptors. Src family kinases (SFKs) play a central role in initiating and propagating signaling from several platelet surface receptors; however, the underlying mechanism of how SFK activity is regulated in platelets remains unclear. CD148 is the only receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase identified in platelets to date. In the present study, we show that mutant mice lacking CD148 exhibited a bleeding tendency and defective arterial thrombosis. Basal SFK activity was found to be markedly reduced in CD148-deficient platelets, resulting in a global hyporesponsiveness to agonists that signal through SFKs, including collagen and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduced protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) activity of CD45 on peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). AU - Takeuchi, T.. AU - Pang, M.. AU - Amano, K.. AU - Koide, J.. AU - Abe, T.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - To disclose the mechanism of aberrant function of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in SLE, we focused on the catalytic function of CD45, and determined the CD45 PTPase activity in SLE patients. The sample population consisted of 32 SLE patients with different disease activity. PTPase activity of cell lysates immunoprecipitated by anti-CD45 MoAb was assayed against phosphotyrosine analogue PNPP, followed by measuring the release of para- nitro phenol at 410 nm. CD45 PTPase activity of PBL was significantly decreased in SLE patients, compared with that of normal controls and patients with systemic sclerosis (964 ± 265, 1202 ± 172, 1210 ± 125, respectively; SLE versus normal, P,0.05). It was correlated with SLE Disease ...
BACKGROUND Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by a severe impairment of HCV-specific CD4+ T cell help that is driven by chronic antigen stimulation. We aimed to study the fate of HCV-specific CD4+ T cells after virus elimination.METHODS HCV-specific CD4+ T cell responses were longitudinally analyzed using MHC class II tetramer technology, multicolor flow cytometry, and RNA sequencing in a cohort of patients chronically infected with HCV undergoing therapy with direct-acting antivirals. In addition, HCV-specific neutralizing antibodies and CXCL13 levels were analyzed.RESULTS We observed that the frequency of HCV-specific CD4+ T cells increased within 2 weeks after initiating direct-acting antiviral therapy. Multicolor flow cytometry revealed a downregulation of exhaustion and activation markers and an upregulation of memory-associated markers. Although cells with a Th1 phenotype were the predominant subset at baseline, cells with phenotypic and transcriptional ...
NiCads (Nickel Cadmium) are the most used rechargeable batteries today. They have many good features, and last a long time. You can buy NiCads and a charger off-the-shelf and use them instead of AAs.. You will find them considerably more expensive than Lithium or Alkalines. NiCads perform the same way as Lithium batteries but they don t die as quickly. Their starting voltage is 1.25v and they hold their charge for the life of the battery. They are very good at responding to power surges, which means they provide reliable power for many applications. There are various brands available, with Radio Shack offering 650 and 850mAh batteries. NiCads have several disadvantages. The capacity is much less than Lithium and alkalines, and they dissipate just sitting on the shelf - 10% in the first 24 hours. It s use it or lose it with NiCads. Also, to get full potential from the batteries you have to let them drain completely. They are infamous for their memory effect-crystals forming on the cell plates. ...
Ra-223 (Z= 88, A=223), MT=102 (n,γ) Ra-224 (Z= 88, A=224), MT= 2 (Elastic scattering) Ra-224 (Z= 88, A=224), MT= 4 (Inelastic scattering) Ra-225 (Z= 88, A=225), MT= 16 (n,2n) Ra-226 (Z= 88, A=226), MT= 17 (n,3n ...
D/Earth is a non-toxic mineral of crushed fossils that can be given in feed daily, or applied to premises during parasite season, or year around for maximum benefit. Diatomaceous Earth consists of fossilized remains of hard-shelled algae.
When this test is ordered, 1 or more of the listed reflex tests will be performed and charged separately. The reviewing neuromuscular pathologist will determine the need for additional testing.. Wet tissue for consultation: When adequate tissue is provided, routine testing will include: teased fiber examination, Congo red stain, Turnbull blue stain, methyl violet stain, Masson’s trichrome stain, leukocyte common antigen, luxol fast blue/PAS stain, KP-1 macrophage, methylene blue stain, and hematoxylin and eosin stain.. Slides and blocks sent for consultation: Special stains and studies performed on the case should be sent with the case for review. In order to determine an accurate diagnosis, some of these stains or studies may be deemed to warrant repeat testing at an additional charge at the discretion of the reviewing Mayo Clinic neuromuscular pathologist. In addition, testing requested by the referring physician (immunostains, molecular studies, etc) may not be performed if deemed ...
Autotransplantation of cryopreserved ovarian cortex can be associated with a risk of cancer cell reseeding. This issue could be eliminated by grafting isolated preantral follicles. Collagenase NB6 is an enzyme produced under good manufacturing practices (GMP) in compliance with requirements for tissue engineering and transplantation in humans and thus can be used to isolate preantral follicles from ovarian tissue in the framework of further clinical applications. Multicolor flow cytometry is an effective tool to evaluate the potential contamination of follicular suspensions by leukemic cells. The efficiency of collagenase NB6 was evaluated in comparison to collagenase type IA and Liberase DH, in terms of yield, morphology and viability. A short-term in vitro culture of follicles isolated with collagenase NB6 was conducted for 3 days in a fibrin matrix. A modelization procedure was carried out to detect the presence of leukemic cells in follicular suspensions using multicolor flow cytometry (MFC). No
Chattopadhyay, P. K. and Roederer, M. 2005. Immunophenotyping of T Cell Subpopulations in HIV Disease. Current Protocols in Immunology. 65:12.12:12.12.1-12.12.15. ...
These are some of the tests used to measure memory T-cell responses. While the presence of memory T-cells specific for a particular infection (e.g. CMV) ...
Cadouri handmadewww.cadouri-handmade.ro Scoala Nationala de Studii Politice si Administrative Master Publicitate Echipa: ...
Pao LI, Bedzyk WD, Persin C, Cambier JC (1997). "Molecular targets of CD45 in B cell antigen receptor signal transduction". J. ... recruitment to B cell antigen receptor and activation following stimulation of CD45- B cells". J. Immunol. 158 (6): 2663-9. ... 1997). "B cell antigen receptor desensitization: disruption of receptor coupling to tyrosine kinase activation". J. Immunol. ... 2007). "Distinct expression and inhibitory function of B and T lymphocyte attenuator on human T cells". Tissue Antigens. 69 (2 ...
2000). "CD45-associated protein is not essential for the regulation of antigen receptor-mediated signal transduction". Eur. J. ... 2004). "PTPRC (CD45) C77G mutation does not contribute to multiple sclerosis susceptibility in Sardinian patients". J. Neurol. ... Vogel A, Strassburg CP, Manns MP (2003). "77 C/G mutation in the tyrosine phosphatase CD45 gene and autoimmune hepatitis: ... 1994). "LPAP, a novel 32-kDa phosphoprotein that interacts with CD45 in human lymphocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (46): 29102-11. ...
In these cells, a small amount of LYN is associated with cell surface receptor proteins, including the B cell antigen receptor ... Greer SF, Justement LB (May 1999). "CD45 regulates tyrosine phosphorylation of CD22 and its association with the protein ... Brown VK, Ogle EW, Burkhardt AL, Rowley RB, Bolen JB, Justement LB (Jun 1994). "Multiple components of the B cell antigen ... Yamamoto T, Yamanashi Y, Toyoshima K (Apr 1993). "Association of Src-family kinase Lyn with B-cell antigen receptor". ...
Marker analysis has also led to debate over the origin of the cell type; it coexpresses CD45, a leukocyte common antigen, and ... centers of lymphoid follicles and have an integral role in regulation of the germinal center reaction and present antigens to B ... CD15, a monocyte common antigen. Because of the debate and difficulty of staining, pathologic diagnosis often requires ...
1994). "Multiple components of the B cell antigen receptor complex associate with the protein tyrosine phosphatase, CD45". J. ... It is associated with agammaglobulinemia-6. The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen ... Müller B, Cooper L, Terhorst C (1995). "Interplay between the human TCR/CD3 epsilon and the B-cell antigen receptor associated ... 1994). "CD5 is associated with the human B cell antigen receptor complex". Eur. J. Immunol. 24 (4): 812-6. doi:10.1002/eji. ...
They express LCAs (leucocyte common antigens) CD45, CD14, CD33, and CD4 (also expressed by T helper cells). These histiocytes ... Their main activity is antigen presentation; they express Factor XIIIa, CD1c, and Class II Human leukocyte antigens. A subset ... Langerhans cells are antigen-presenting cells but have undergone further differentiation. Skin Langerhans cells express CD1a, ... Phagocytosis is the main process of macrophages and antigen presentation the main property of dendritic cells (so called ...
... is also known as CD45 antigen (CD stands for cluster of differentiation), which was originally called leukocyte common ... A unique secreted adenovirus E3 protein binds to the leukocyte common antigen CD45 and modulates leukocyte functions. Proc Natl ... CD45 does not colocalize with lipid rafts on murine and human non-transformed hematopoietic cells, but CD45 positioning within ... on a subset of dendritic cells and other antigen-presenting cells. Naive T lymphocytes express large CD45 isoforms and are ...
Cd45, a cell surface glycoprotein, plays a critical role in antigen-stimulated dephosphorylation of specific phosphotyrosines ... Hermiston ML, Zikherman J, Zhu JW (March 2009). "CD45, CD148, and Lyp/Pep: critical phosphatases regulating Src family kinase ...
The process of formation begins when the T-cell receptor (TCR) binds to the peptide:MHC complex on the antigen-presenting cell ... d-SMAC (distal-SMAC) enriched in CD43 and CD45 molecules. New investigations, however, have shown that a "bull's eye" is not ... Play media In immunology, an immunological synapse (or immune synapse) is the interface between an antigen-presenting cell or ... p-SMAC (peripheral-SMAC) within which the lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and the cytoskeletal protein talin ...
"Physical associations between CD45 and CD4 or CD8 occur as late activation events in antigen receptor-stimulated human T cells ... The CD8 antigen, acting as a coreceptor, and the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte recognize antigen displayed by an antigen ... The CD8 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediates efficient cell-cell ... Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ...
Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... the Interleukin-6 receptor and lack of expression of CD45. In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ... Pieces of the antigen (which are now known as antigenic peptides) are loaded onto MHC II molecules, and presented on its ...
... small clusters of microglial cells with enhanced major histocompatibility complex class II antigen, CD45 and CD68 antigen ... December 2008). "Antigen microarrays identify unique serum autoantibody signatures in clinical and pathologic subtypes of ... August 2008). "EBNA1-specific T cells from patients with multiple sclerosis cross react with myelin antigens and co-produce IFN ...
Reth M (1992). "Antigen receptors on B lymphocytes". Annual Review of Immunology. 10 (1): 97-121. doi:10.1146/annurev.iy. ... CD45". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (25): 17238-44. PMID 7516335. Pani G, Kozlowski M, Cambier JC, Mills GB, ... Engels N, Wollscheid B, Wienands J (Jul 2001). "Association of SLP-65/BLNK with the B cell antigen receptor through a non-ITAM ... Brown VK, Ogle EW, Burkhardt AL, Rowley RB, Bolen JB, Justement LB (Jun 1994). "Multiple components of the B cell antigen ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... Immunohistochemical panels for the diagnosis of Hodgkins disease typically employ CD15 along with CD30 and CD45; the latter ... Sialyl Lewis X CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Kerr MA, Stocks SC (November ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
With the assistance of a phosphatase present on the intracellular section of CD45 (common leukocyte antigen), these molecules ... For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a ... It is unknown what role the relatively bulky extracellular region of CD45 plays during cell interactions, but CD45 has various ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ...
CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion molecule - Cell biology - cell cycle ... T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence - taste bud - TATA box - ... carcinoembryonic antigen - carrier - carrier protein - CAS registry number - casein - catabolism - catalyst - catalytic domain ... alpha-beta T-cell antigen receptor - alpha-fetoprotein - alpha-globulin - alpha-macroglobulin - alpha-MSH - Ames test - amide ...
... and CD79a and also express the common leukocyte antigen CD45, which is uncommon on RSH cells. The LP cells have scant cytoplasm ...
CD45 antigens, and many other surface receptors required to act in the antigen-presenting, phagocytic, and cytotoxic roles that ... In some cases, microglia can also be activated by IFN-γ to present antigens, but do not function as effectively as if they had ... As mentioned above, resident non-activated microglia act as poor antigen presenting cells due to their lack of MHC class I/II ... Once they have been presented with antigens, T-cells go on to fulfill a variety of roles including pro-inflammatory recruitment ...
... antigens, cd45 MeSH D08.811.277.352.650.625.700.200 --- cdc25 phosphatase MeSH D08.811.277.352.650.625.725 --- pyruvate ... antigens, cd38 MeSH D08.811.277.450.770 --- oligo-1,6-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.770.800 --- sucrase-isomaltase complex ... antigens, cd13 MeSH D08.811.277.656.350.555.200 --- carboxypeptidase b MeSH D08.811.277.656.350.555.250 --- carboxypeptidase h ... antigens, cd13 MeSH D08.811.277.656.675.555.200 --- carboxypeptidase b MeSH D08.811.277.656.675.555.250 --- carboxypeptidase h ...
... antigens, cd40 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.143 --- antigens, cd43 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.145 --- antigens, cd45 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd40 MeSH D23.101.100.110.143 --- antigens, cd43 MeSH D23.101.100.110.145 --- antigens, cd45 MeSH D23.101.100.110.146 ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...
CD45 phosphatase is not completely excluded from the close-contact zone and thus the signal generated in the case of a ... How Do T Cells Recognize Antigen?". Current Biology. Cambridge, MA: Cell Press. 15 (10): R382-R385. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.05. ... CD45 steric exclusion extends the phosphorylation half-lives of TCR/peptide-MHC complexes, which are trapped within the close- ... As the authors propose, this forms small zones of close contact, from which the inhibitory CD45 phosphatase molecules with ...
This process prevents the circulation of T cells that are self-reactive and recognise self antigen. Both galectin-1 and ... CD43 and CD45 are involved in apoptosis. Galectin-7 is expressed under the p53 promoter and may have a key role in regulating ...
... Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... Regulation by the CD45 tyrosine phosphatase". J. Immunol. 145 (8): 2448-54. PMID 1976695. Luzzati AL, Pugliese O, Giacomini E, ... The great majority of T cell lymphomas and leukaemias also express CD2, making it possible to use the presence of the antigen ... It has also been called T-cell surface antigen T11/Leu-5, LFA-2, LFA-3 receptor, erythrocyte receptor and rosette receptor. It ...
However, this antigen disappears rapidly ex vivo. Recently, however, it was discovered that the surface antigen CD319 (SLAMF7) ... CD319 positive and CD19 and CD45 negative.[citation needed] Cytogenetics may also be performed in myeloma for prognostic ...
T-cell sensitivity to antigen could be increased via avidity-based mechanism. The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen- ... CD45 - a transmembrane protein whose intracellular tail functions as a tyrosine phosphatase that activates Src family kinases ... Each recombined TCR possess unique antigen specificity, determined by the structure of the antigen-binding site formed by the α ... many TCRs recognize the same antigen peptide and many antigen peptides are recognized by the same TCR.[2] ...
This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... CD45 deficiency, CD3δ/CD3ε deficiency. T-/B- SCID (both T and B cells absent): RAG 1/2 deficiency, DCLRE1C deficiency, ... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ...
Surface antigens[edit]. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... the Interleukin-6 receptor and lack of expression of CD45. In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ...
... Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD22 genome location and CD22 gene ... Greer SF, Justement LB (May 1999). "CD45 regulates tyrosine phosphorylation of CD22 and its association with the protein ... A pathway for regulation of B lymphocyte antigen receptor-induced calcium flux". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (23 ... "SHP-1 requires inhibitory co-receptors to down-modulate B cell antigen receptor-mediated phosphorylation of cellular substrates ...
CD45 antigen explanation free. What is CD45 antigen? Meaning of CD45 antigen medical term. What does CD45 antigen mean? ... Looking for online definition of CD45 antigen in the Medical Dictionary? ... CD45 antigen , definition of CD45 antigen by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/CD45+antigen ... CD45. (redirected from CD45 antigen) CD45. a type I transmembrane protein present on all hemopoietic cells (except erythrocytes ...
The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons. ... CD45 Antigens: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic ... CD45 Antigen; Antigens, CD45; 2H4 Antigens; B220 Antigen; B220 Antigens; CD45R0 Antigens; CD45RB Antigens; CD45RCAntigens; L-CA ... Leukocyte Common Antigen; T200 Antigens; Antigen, B220; Antigen, CD45; Antigen, Leukocyte Common; Antigens, 2H4; Antigens, B220 ...
The CD45 tyrosine phosphatase regulates specific pools of antigen receptor-associated p59fyn and CD4-associated p56lck tyrosine ... which did not express the CD45 phosphotyrosine phosphatase. The cells were sorted into CD45- and CD45+ populations and shown to ... Activation by CD45 of these receptor-associated kinase pools correlates with the ability of the TCR and its coreceptors to ... Using this technique it was shown that cell surface CD4-p56lck kinase activity was 78% lower in CD45- than in CD45+ cells. ...
The CPT codes provided are based on AMA guidelines and are for informational purposes only. CPT coding is the sole responsibility of the billing party. Please direct any questions regarding coding to the payer being billed ...
Human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase CD45 (PTPRC) Antigen Immunoaffinity Purified Polyclonal \ X2178P for more molecular products ... Antigen Immunoaffinity Purified Polyclonal. Related products : Human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase CD45 (PTPRC) Antigen ... Antigen Immunoaffinity Purified Polyclonal / Product Detail : X2178P Human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase CD45 (PTPRC) Antigen ... Human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase CD45 (PTPRC) Antigen Immunoaffinity Purified Polyclonal antibody storage GENTAUR recommends ...
Leukocyte Common Antigens. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Elsevier Science. Medical. *Immune System and ... Previously, the serpentine twists and turns of the CD45 research field have tended to draw attention to CD45 either as a ... This review draws heavily on CD45 knockout mouse data to emphasize that CD45 has both positive and negative actions in ... The CD45 tyrosine phosphatase: a positive and negative regulator of immune cell function.. Alexander DR1. ...
On human leucocytes, five different isoforms of CD45 have been identified, named ABC, AB, BC, B and 0. Clone 2B11 reacts with ... all known isotypes of the CD45 family and clone PD7/26 has been clustered as anti-CD45RB. The antibody is a useful aid for ... CD45 is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on most nucleated cells of hematopoetic origin. ... FLEX Monoclonal Mouse Anti-Human CD45, Leucocyte Common Antigen, Clones 2B11 + PD7/26, Ready-to-Use (Dako Omnis) - EN / FR / DE ...
CD45 is a signaling molecule that regulates a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, ce ... CD45 is known as leukocyte common antigen (LCA) and T200. It is a tyrosine phosphatase expressed on the plasma membrane of all ... CD45 is known as leukocyte common antigen (LCA) and T200. It is a tyrosine phosphatase expressed on the plasma membrane of all ... CD45 has been reported to bind galectin-1 and to be associated with several other cell surface antigens including CD1, CD2, CD3 ...
CD45 is a 180-240 kD glycoprotein also known as the leukocyte common antigen (LCA), T200, or Ly-5. It is a member of the ... Antigen References 1. Barclay A, et al. 1997. The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook Academic Press.. 2. Trowbridge IS, et al. 1993. ... Antigen Details Structure Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family, 180-240 kD Distribution All hematopoietic cells except ... CD45 plays a key role in TCR and BCR signal transduction. These isoforms are very specific to the activation and maturation ...
Anti-CD45 antibody produced in rabbit Prestige Antibodies® Powered by Atlas Antibodies, affinity isolated antibody, buffered ... Prestige Antigens™-Blocking Protocol Prestige Antigens and the corresponding Prestige Antibodies are recommended to be used ... Anti-CD45 antibody produced in rabbit Prestige Antibodies® Powered by Atlas Antibodies, affinity isolated antibody, buffered ...
Shop online for a wide selection of CD45 Rat anti-Mouse, APC-eFluor(T) 780, Clone: 30-F11, eBioscience Rat Monoclonal Antibody ... CD45 has been shown to be an essential regulator of T- and B-cell antigen receptor signaling and suppresses JAK kinases to ... CD45 glycoprotein is crucial in lymphocyte development and antigen signaling, serving as an important regulator of Src-family ... CD45 (LCA, leukocyte common antigen) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) ubiquitously expressed in all ...
Antigen Expression CD30 +; CD45 +; EMA + (epithelial membrane antigen). Comments The cells contain two viral genomes: Epstein- ...
Antigen Expression CD30 +; CD38 +; CD45 +; CD 54 +; CD71 +; HLA-DR +; EMA + (epithelial membrane antigen); CD2 -; CD3 -; CD4 ... The cells do not express B-cell lineage restricted antigens or kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chains or T-cell lineage- ...
CD45) can rapidly induce aggregation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell ... We recently reported that cross-linking the leukocyte common antigen ( ... The cell and molecular basis of leukocyte common antigen (CD45)- triggered, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1-/ ... HM Lorenz, AS Lagoo, KJ Hardy; The cell and molecular basis of leukocyte common antigen (CD45)- triggered, lymphocyte function- ...
Buy our Recombinant mouse CD45 protein. Ab102105 is an active protein fragment produced in Escherichia coli and has been ... Protein tyrosine-protein phosphatase required for T-cell activation through the antigen receptor. Acts as a positive regulator ...
Mouse monoclonal CD45 antibody [MEM-28] conjugated to APC. Validated in Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Cited in 4 publication(s ... Horejsí V et al. Monoclonal antibodies against human leucocyte antigens. II. Antibodies against CD45 (T200), CD3 (T3), CD43, ... Primary - Mouse Anti-CD45 antibody [MEM-28] (APC) (ab28106) Flow Cyt Protein - Recombinant human CD45 protein (Fc Chimera ... CD10 (CALLA), transferrin receptor (T9), a novel broadly expressed 18-kDa antigen (MEM-43) and a novel antigen of restricted ...
CD45. common leukocyte antigen. all human leukocytes including lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, eosinophils, and ... CD45. common leukocyte antigen. all human leukocytes including lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, eosinophils, and ... Next plot with SSC-A and CD45 fluorescence intensity contains a gate selecting all CD45+ (immune) cells (blue). (B) FACS plot ... common B cell antigen. B cell development from pro-B cell to blastoid B cell and plasma B cell. Fitc. 3 µL. HIB19. ...
... were used without antigen retrieval on cryosections. Hamster anti-T1α (clone 8.1.1, 1:1,000; DSHB) was used without antigen ... Lastly, there is an increase in the number of cells expressing CD45 after bleomycin (Fig. 1C). The simplest explanation is that ... After antigen retrieval (10 mM sodium citrate, pH 6, in a 2100 Retriever followed by 2M HCl at 37° for 20 min and 0.05% Trypsin ... Some S100a4-positive cells coexpressed vimentin and/or CD45 (Fig. 1 A and C and Fig. S1A). ...
Identity of circulating ECFCs defined by surface antigens using FACS. Unknown. CD45-CD34+(CD31+CD146+) ... Tan K, Lessieur E, Cutler A et al (2010) Impaired function of circulating CD34+ CD45- cells in patients with proliferative ... Rather, CD34+ cells in the CD45- fraction eventually co-expressing other endothelial markers (e.g. CD31 and CD146), are ... Asakage M, Tsuno NH, Kitayama J et al (2006) Early-outgrowth of endothelial progenitor cells can function as antigen-presenting ...
Vaccines and related immunotherapeutic methods utilizing antigens stabilized by the fixative of the present invention are also ... Lymphocytes were gated using CD45-FITC and CD14-PE. Background staining was evaluated using isotope control monoclonal ... Examples of such antigens are the CD antigens present on the surface of hematopoietic cells. Because much of the clinically ... Tumor specific antigens appear labile and antigens must be presented to the immune system while on the tumor cell. Thus, ...
Rat Monoclonal Anti-CD45 Antibody (IBL-3/16) [DyLight 405]. Validated: Flow, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IP. Tested Reactivity: Mouse ... CD45 - Much more than just a housekeeping protein. CD45, also known as T200 or the Leukocyte Common Antigen (LCA), is encoded ... Home » CD45 » CD45 Antibodies » CD45 Antibody (IBL-3/16) [DyLight 405] (NB100-65364V) ... Blogs on CD45. Check out the latest blog posts on CD45.. The application of CD31/Pecam-1 (MEC 7.46) in breast cancer research ...
1. Expose mouse to antigen. 2. Remove splenic lymphocytes. 3. fuse with mouse myseloma to make hybrid that produces Ab and has ... Still use mono Abs but have a fluorescent tag attached, remain attached to antigen after slide rinse. ... Where is CD45? What is it known as? All leukocytes. LCA: Leukocyte common antigen ...
Antigens, CD45 / metabolism. Benzimidazoles / administration & dosage, pharmacology, therapeutic use*. Cell Proliferation / ... EC 3.1.3.48/Antigens, CD45; EC 3.6.5.2/ras Proteins ... Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Melanoma / drug therapy*, genetics ... BI-69A11-resistant Nras((Q61K)) ::Ink4a(-/-) tumors exhibited increased CD45 expression, reflective of immune cell infiltration ... 0/Ki-67 Antigen; 0/Quinolones; 0/Small Molecule Libraries; EC 2.7.11.1/Braf protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.1/Proto-Oncogene Proteins ...
Antigens, CD45 / blood*. Female. Fetal Blood. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Infection / blood, congenital*. Male. ...
CD45, immune-staining for leukocyte common antigen (LCA). Scale bars 400 μm (big panels) and 50 μm (small panels). Labels 1, 2 ... 49), Ki67 (1:500, Cell Signaling, catalog 12202, clone D3B5), ACTA2 (1:300, Biocare Medical, catalog CME305B, clone E184), CD45 ... Protein G (Seracare, catalog 223-51-01) was used to pull down the antibody-antigen complexes immunoprecipitated with antibodies ...
  • Clone 2B11 reacts with all known isotypes of the CD45 family and clone PD7/26 has been clustered as anti-CD45RB. (agilent.com)
  • Clone 2B11 was clustered as anti-CD45 at the Third International Workshop and Conference on Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens and reacts with all the known isotypes of the CD45 family (6). (agilent.com)
  • Clone PD7/26 was clustered as anti-CD45RB at the Fifth International Workshop and Conference on Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens (7). (agilent.com)
  • C57BL/6 mouse Splenocytes were stained with purified CD45 (clone QA17A26) (Filled histogram) or mouse IgG1, κ purified isotype control (open histogram) and then stained with PE-rat anti-mouse IgG1. (biolegend.com)
  • C57BL/6 mouse splenocytes were stained with CD45 (clone 30-F11) Brilliant Violet 750™ (closed histogram). (biolegend.com)
  • Analysis of the CD45-deficient CD8+ T-cell clone L3M-93 demonstrates that the Src family members p56lck and p59fyn show increased immunoreactivity with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody and exhibit decreased kinase activity. (pnas.org)
  • These data suggest that CD45 dephosphorylates the negative regulatory site of multiple Src family members in the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clone L3 and show a correlation between the ability to respond efficiently to antigen and the dephosphorylation of Src family members by CD45. (pnas.org)
  • 1 2 Subsequent to transformation some evidence suggests that cells from the malignant clone undergo further differentiation, creating a hierarchy of cells that differ in their expression of cell-surface antigens and may also differ in their proliferative potential. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Anti-CD45 (mouse) Antibody, PE, clone 30-F11 is a highly specific rat monoclonal antibody, that targets CD45 & has been tested in Flow Cytometry, IHC, Activity Assay, IP & western blotting. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Anti-CD45 Antibody, clone F10-89-4 detects level of CD45 & has been published & validated for use in FC, WB, IF, IP, IH(P). (merckmillipore.com)
  • This antibody reacts specifically with human CD45 and is useful for identifying human leukocytes transplanted into immunodeficient mice. (osu.edu)
  • CD45 is a signaling molecule that regulates a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, cell cycle, and oncogenic transformation. (biolegend.com)
  • CD45 plays a critical role in T and B cell antigen receptor-mediated activation by dephosphorylating substrates including p56Lck, p59Fyn, and other Src family kinases. (biolegend.com)
  • When a primary lymphoid follicle is stimulated by an antigen, a secondary lymphoid follicle is formed. (medscape.com)
  • Human CD45 contains three exons which encode peptide segments designated A, B and C, respectively. (fishersci.com)
  • Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
  • Thus, CD45 dephosphorylates not only the negative but also the positive regulatory tyrosine residues of Lyn. (jimmunol.org)