Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Calcium Pyrophosphate: An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Botulinum Antitoxin: Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Fetal Viability: The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Gentianella: A plant genus of the family GENTIANACEAE that contains nitiol (a C25 sesterterpenoid) & nitidasin.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

The splicing factor-associated protein, p32, regulates RNA splicing by inhibiting ASF/SF2 RNA binding and phosphorylation. (1/2559)

The cellular protein p32 was isolated originally as a protein tightly associated with the essential splicing factor ASF/SF2 during its purification from HeLa cells. ASF/SF2 is a member of the SR family of splicing factors, which stimulate constitutive splicing and regulate alternative RNA splicing in a positive or negative fashion, depending on where on the pre-mRNA they bind. Here we present evidence that p32 interacts with ASF/SF2 and SRp30c, another member of the SR protein family. We further show that p32 inhibits ASF/SF2 function as both a splicing enhancer and splicing repressor protein by preventing stable ASF/SF2 interaction with RNA, but p32 does not block SRp30c function. ASF/SF2 is highly phosphorylated in vivo, a modification required for stable RNA binding and protein-protein interaction during spliceosome formation, and this phosphorylation, either through HeLa nuclear extracts or through specific SR protein kinases, is inhibited by p32. Our results suggest that p32 functions as an ASF/SF2 inhibitory factor, regulating ASF/SF2 RNA binding and phosphorylation. These findings place p32 into a new group of proteins that control RNA splicing by sequestering an essential RNA splicing factor into an inhibitory complex.  (+info)

The role of alternative splicing of the adhesion molecule, CD44, in lymphoid malignancy. (2/2559)

AIM: To investigate the expression of CD44 isoforms containing variant exon 6 (v6) in a well characterised cohort of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), and to correlate this with phenotype and disease course. METHODS: Cryostat sections of OCT embedded diagnostic nodal material from NHL patients and cryopreserved mononuclear preparations from CLL patients were used as sources of RNA. After reverse transcription, PCR was carried out with amplimers positioned at either side of the variant exon insertion site to amplify all possible CD44 isoforms. Those isoforms containing v6 were identified after Southern blotting and hybridisation with a radiolabelled oligonucleotide. RESULTS: Of 32 NHL samples analysed, 16 did not express CD44 isoforms containing v6, six expressed an isoform containing exon v6 alone, and 10 expressed v6 long isoforms which contained exon v6 in addition to other variant exons. These data did not correlate with lymphoma classification, disease staging, or the presence or absence of extranodal disease. However, those patients expressing v6 long CD44 isoforms had a worse overall survival than those that did not. The plateau of the survival curves was 50% compared with 82%. No v6 long isoforms were detected in the 21 CLL samples investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of v6 long CD44 isoforms is associated with aggressive disease in NHL, independent of grade, stage, or presence of extranodal disease.  (+info)

Enhanced adhesion of Pasteurella multocida to cultured turkey peripheral blood monocytes. (3/2559)

Capsular hyaluronic acid (HA) mediates adhesion of serogroup A strains of Pasteurella multocida to elicited turkey air sac macrophages (TASM). In contrast, freshly isolated turkey peripheral blood monocytes (TPBM) do not bind serogroup A strains. Following culture of TPBM for 6 days in chamber slides, adhesion of the bacteria to TPBM increased gradually. Incubation in chamber slides coated with entactin-collagen IV-laminin (ECL) attachment matrix or exposure to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) further enhanced the adhesion of P. multocida to TPBM. Addition of HA, but not Arg-Gly-Asp peptide, to TPBM culture inhibited bacterial adherence similarly to the inhibition previously reported for TASM. Exposure of TPBM to monoclonal antibody directed against HA-binding cell surface proteoglycan (CD44) decreased binding of P. multocida. Collectively, these findings indicate that P. multocida adhesion to TPBM is mediated by capsular HA and can be increased by culture on ECL attachment matrix or PMA exposure. Additionally, the findings suggest that the capsular mucopolysaccharide of serogroup A strains of P. multocida recognizes an isoform of CD44 expressed on cultured TPBM.  (+info)

Expression of CD44 in Apc and Tcf mutant mice implies regulation by the WNT pathway. (4/2559)

Overexpression of cell surface glycoproteins of the CD44 family is an early event in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This suggests a link with disruption of APC tumor suppressor protein-mediated regulation of beta-catenin/Tcf-4 signaling, which is crucial in initiating tumorigenesis. To explore this hypothesis, we analyzed CD44 expression in the intestinal mucosa of mice and humans with genetic defects in either APC or Tcf-4, leading to constitutive activation or blockade of the beta-catenin/Tcf-4 pathway, respectively. We show that CD44 expression in the non-neoplastic intestinal mucosa of Apc mutant mice is confined to the crypt epithelium but that CD44 is strongly overexpressed in adenomas as well as in invasive carcinomas. This overexpression includes the standard part of the CD44 (CD44s) as well as variant exons (CD44v). Interestingly, deregulated CD44 expression is already present in aberrant crypt foci with dysplasia (ACFs), the earliest detectable lesions of colorectal neoplasia. Like ACFs of Apc-mutant mice, ACFs of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients also overexpress CD44. In sharp contrast, Tcf-4 mutant mice show a complete absence of CD44 in the epithelium of the small intestine. This loss of CD44 concurs with loss of stem cell characteristics, shared with adenoma cells. Our results indicate that CD44 expression is part of a genetic program controlled by the beta-catenin/Tcf-4 signaling pathway and suggest a role for CD44 in the generation and turnover of epithelial cells.  (+info)

Overexpression of the receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM) characterizes the malignant clone in multiple myeloma: identification of three distinct RHAMM variants. (5/2559)

The receptor for hyaluronan (HA)-mediated motility (RHAMM) controls motility by malignant cells in myeloma and is abnormally expressed on the surface of most malignant B and plasma cells in blood or bone marrow (BM) of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). RHAMM cDNA was cloned and sequenced from the malignant B and plasma cells comprising the myeloma B lineage hierarchy. Three distinct RHAMM gene products, RHAMMFL, RHAMM-48, and RHAMM-147, were cloned from MM B and plasma cells. RHAMMFL was 99% homologous to the published sequence of RHAMM. RHAMM-48 and RHAMM-147 variants align with RHAMMFL, but are characterized by sequence deletions of 48 bp (16 amino acids [aa]) and 147 bp (49 aa), respectively. The relative frequency of these RHAMM transcripts in MM plasma cells was determined by cloning of reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products amplified from MM plasma cells. Of 115 randomly picked clones, 49% were RHAMMFL, 47% were RHAMM-48, and 4% were RHAMM-147. All of the detected RHAMM variants contain exon 4, which is alternatively spliced in murine RHAMM, and had only a single copy of the exon 8 repeat sequence detected in murine RHAMM. RT-PCR analysis of sorted blood or BM cells from 22 MM patients showed that overexpression of RHAMM variants is characteristic of MM B cells and BM plasma cells in all patients tested. RHAMM also appeared to be overexpressed in B lymphoma and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. In B cells from normal donors, RHAMMFL was only weakly detectable in resting B cells from five of eight normal donors or in chronically activated B cells from three patients with Crohn's disease. RHAMM-48 was detectable in B cells from one of eight normal donors, but was undetectable in B cells of three donors with Crohn's disease. RHAMM-147 was undetectable in normal and Crohn's disease B cells. In situ RT-PCR was used to determine the number of individual cells with aggregate RHAMM transcripts. For six patients, 29% of BM plasma cells and 12% of MM B cells had detectable RHAMM transcripts, while for five normal donors, only 1. 2% of B cells expressed RHAMM transcripts. This work suggests that RHAMMFL, RHAMM-48, and RHAMM-147 splice variants are overexpressed in MM and other B lymphocyte malignancies relative to resting or in vivo-activated B cells, raising the possibility that RHAMM and its variants may contribute to the malignant process in B-cell malignancies such as lymphoma, CLL, and MM.  (+info)

Heparan sulfate-modified CD44 promotes hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-induced signal transduction through the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met. (6/2559)

CD44 has been implicated in tumor progression and metastasis, but the mechanism(s) involved is as yet poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that CD44 isoforms containing the alternatively spliced exon v3 carry heparan sulfate side chains and are able to bind heparin-binding growth factors. In the present study, we have explored the possibility of a physical and functional interaction between CD44 and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), the ligand of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met. The HGF/SF-c-Met pathway mediates cell growth and motility and has been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis. We demonstrate that a CD44v3 splice variant efficiently binds HGF/SF via its heparan sulfate side chain. To address the functional relevance of this interaction, Namalwa Burkitt's lymphoma cells were stably co-transfected with c-Met and either CD44v3 or the isoform CD44s, which lacks heparan sulfate. We show that, as compared with CD44s, CD44v3 promotes: (i) HGF/SF-induced phosphorylation of c-Met, (ii) phosphorylation of several downstream proteins, and (iii) activation of the MAP kinases ERK1 and -2. By heparitinase treatment and the use of a mutant HGF/SF with greatly decreased affinity for heparan sulfate, we show that the enhancement of c-Met signal transduction induced by CD44v3 was critically dependent on heparan sulfate moieties. Our results identify heparan sulfate-modified CD44 (CD44-HS) as a functional co-receptor for HGF/SF which promotes signaling through the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met, presumably by concentrating and presenting HGF/SF. As both CD44-HS and c-Met are overexpressed on several types of tumors, we propose that the observed functional collaboration might be instrumental in promoting tumor growth and metastasis.  (+info)

LYVE-1, a new homologue of the CD44 glycoprotein, is a lymph-specific receptor for hyaluronan. (7/2559)

The extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is an abundant component of skin and mesenchymal tissues where it facilitates cell migration during wound healing, inflammation, and embryonic morphogenesis. Both during normal tissue homeostasis and particularly after tissue injury, HA is mobilized from these sites through lymphatic vessels to the lymph nodes where it is degraded before entering the circulation for rapid uptake by the liver. Currently, however, the identities of HA binding molecules which control this pathway are unknown. Here we describe the first such molecule, LYVE-1, which we have identified as a major receptor for HA on the lymph vessel wall. The deduced amino acid sequence of LYVE-1 predicts a 322-residue type I integral membrane polypeptide 41% similar to the CD44 HA receptor with a 212-residue extracellular domain containing a single Link module the prototypic HA binding domain of the Link protein superfamily. Like CD44, the LYVE-1 molecule binds both soluble and immobilized HA. However, unlike CD44, the LYVE-1 molecule colocalizes with HA on the luminal face of the lymph vessel wall and is completely absent from blood vessels. Hence, LYVE-1 is the first lymph-specific HA receptor to be characterized and is a uniquely powerful marker for lymph vessels themselves.  (+info)

Expression of CD44 in human cumulus and mural granulosa cells of individual patients in in-vitro fertilization programmes. (8/2559)

CD44 is a polymorphic and polyfunctional transmembrane glycoprotein widely expressed in many types of cells. Here, the expression of this protein on human membrana granulosa was studied by two techniques. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) with the mouse monoclonal antibody to human CD44 (clone G44-26), cells immunoreactive for CD44 were observed in both cumulus and mural granulosa cell masses. On the other hand, using monoclonal antibody to human CD44v9, goat polyclonal antibody to human CD44v3-10 and the clone G44-26, no immunoreactivity for CD44v9 and/or CD44v3-10 was observed in either cell group by flow cytometry. In the flow cytometric analysis of 32 patients, the incidence of CD44 expression in cumulus cells (62.6+/-1.3%) was significantly higher than that in mural granulosa cells (38.5+/-3.2%) (P<0.0001). In the comparison of CD44 expression by flow cytometry according to the maturation of each cumulus-oocyte complex, the incidence of CD44 expression of cumulus cells was significantly higher in the mature group than in the immature group (P<0.05). In a flow cytometric analysis, patients with endometriosis showed a significantly lower incidence of CD44 expression in cumulus cells compared to the infertility of unknown origin group (P<0.05), and compared to both the male infertility group and the unknown origin group in mural granulosa cells (P<0.01). These findings suggest that the standard form of CD44 is expressed in human membrana granulosa with polarity and may play an important role in oocyte maturation.  (+info)

*Link domain

CD44 antigen, the main cell surface receptor for HA. Hyaladherin "Link domain signature and profile". PROSITE. December 2004. ... aggrecan and CD44 is similar to that of the C-type lectin superfamily". FEBS Lett. 388 (2-3): 211-6. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(96) ...

*CD44

In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11. CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH Articles at IHOP. Human CD44 genome ... CD44, along with CD25, is used to track early T cell development in the thymus. CD44 expression is an indicative marker for ...

*Translational glycobiology

By modifying CD44 antigens using glycosyltransferase-programmed stereosubstitution (GPS), the HCELL expression on the surfaces ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.395)

... antigens, cd44 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.625.347 -- integrin alpha4beta1 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.625.550 -- lymphocyte function ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.098 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... 395.550.200.170 -- antigens, cd146 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.175 -- antigens, cd164 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.200 -- cadherins ... antigens, cd43 MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.650.264 -- antigens, cd164. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... antigens, cd44 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.625.347 -- integrin alpha4beta1 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.625.550 -- lymphocyte function ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 -- receptors, antigen, ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 -- antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 -- antigens, cd40 ...

*Carcinoembryonic antigen

Thomas SN, Zhu F, Schnaar RL, Alves CS, Konstantopoulos K (Jun 2008). "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms ... Carcinoembryonic Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CEA at Lab Tests Online CEA: ... Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. CEA is normally ... Ballesta, AM; Molina, R; Filella, X; Jo, J; Giménez, N (1995). "Carcinoembryonic antigen in staging and follow-up of patients ...

*DHRS7B

In breast cancer cells expressing CD44 and CD24, DHRS7B expression was observed to be down regulated. CD44 is an antigen found ...

*Outline of immunology

CD44 Carcinoembryonic antigens CEACAM1 CEACAM3 CEACAM4 CEACAM5 CEACAM6 CEACAM7 CEACAM8 CEACAM16 CEACAM18 CEACAM19 CEACAM20 ... Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... B cells Antigen receptor - B cell receptor (BCR) Subunits- Immunoglobulin heavy chain / Immunoglobulin light chain Co-receptors ...

*Retinal ganglion cell

A group of diencephalic cells that express the cell surface antigen stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-1 and CD44 will ... "Embryonic neurons of the developing optic chiasm express L1 and CD44, cell surface molecules with opposing effects on retinal ...

*Cancer stem cell

... stage-specific embryonic antigen-1), EGFR and CD44. The use of CD133 for identification of brain tumor stem-like cells may be ... Both CD44+CD24− and CD44+CD24+ cell populations are tumor initiating cells; however, CSC are most highly enriched using the ... In breast cancer CD44+CD24−/low cells are detectable in metastatic pleural effusions. By contrast, an increased number of CD24+ ... CD44 (PGP1) is an adhesion molecule that has pleiotropic roles in cell signaling, migration and homing. It has multiple ...

*Indian blood group system

Most individuals express the Inb antigen that results from an arginine residue at position 46 of CD44 . The Ina blood type ... is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigens that reside within the CD44 molecule that ... Telen MJ, Udani M, Washington MK, Levesque MC, Lloyd E, Rao N (March 1996). "A blood group-related polymorphism of CD44 ... "Red Cell Antigens - Fun Facts, Questions, Answers, Information". Fun Trivia. Retrieved 2014-01-03. ...

*Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen

... in colon cancer is predominantly carried on high molecular weight splice variants of CD44". ... Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAcα1) is a disaccharide. It is usually present on cell surfaces in a cryptic form ... As sited on: Dippold, W; Steinborn, A; Meyer; Büschenfelde, KH (August 1990). "The role of the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen as ... Tumor restriction of Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen may therefore be determined either by the protein backbone or by the beta- ...

*Bivatuzumab

It is officially described as "immunoglobulin G1 (human-mouse monoclonal BIWA4 γ1-chain anti-human antigen CD44v6), disulfide ... Bivatuzumab (previously BIWA 4) is a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD44 v6. ... with human-mouse monoclonal BIWA4 κ-chain, dimer". Prior to 2002 it was described as targeting CD44 v8. It has been chemically ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd44 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.850.347 --- integrin alpha4beta1 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.850.550 --- lymphocyte ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ... hla-b35 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.390 --- hla-c antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.400 --- hla-d antigens MeSH D23.050. ...

*Naive T cell

When a recognized antigen binds to the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) located in the cell membrane of Th0 cells, these cells are ... CD44 or CD69; and the absence of memory CD45RO isoform. They also express functional IL-7 receptors, consisting of subunits IL- ... Recognition by a naïve T cell clone of its cognate antigen results in the initiation of an immune response. In turn, this ... von Essen MR, Kongsbak M, Schjerling P, Olgaard K, Odum N, Geisler C (April 2010). "Vitamin D controls T cell antigen receptor ...

*Systemic lupus erythematosus

That leads to maturation of DCs and also to the presentation of intracellular antigens of late apoptotic or secondary necrotic ... Monocytes isolated from whole blood of people with SLE show reduced expression of CD44 surface molecules involved in the uptake ... In close proximity to TBM, follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are localised in GC, which attach antigen material to their surface ... When apoptotic material is not removed correctly by phagocytes, they are captured instead by antigen-presenting cells, which ...

*Memory T cell

... that have previously encountered and responded to their cognate antigen; thus, the term antigen-experienced T cell is often ... Note- CD44 expression is usually used to distinguish murine naive from memory T cells). Effector memory T cells (TEM cells and ... Antigen-specific memory T cells against viruses or other microbial molecules can be found in both TCM and TEM subsets. Although ... This population, now termed stem cell memory (TSCM), can be identified by the markers CD44(low)CD62L(high)CD122(high)sca-1(+) ...

*CD74

HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain also known as HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain or CD74 (Cluster ... "The chondroitin sulfate form of invariant chain can enhance stimulation of T cell responses through interaction with CD44". ... 1992). "HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell line are associated with invariant chain peptides". Nature. 360 ... Machamer CE, Cresswell P (1983). "Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens". J. ...

*CD43

... antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human SPN genome location and SPN gene ... proteins bind to a positively charged amino acid cluster in the juxta-membrane cytoplasmic domain of CD44, CD43, and ICAM-2". J ... Fukuda M, Carlsson SR (1987). "Leukosialin, a major sialoglycoprotein on human leukocytes as differentiation antigens". Med. ... it is generally less effective at demonstrating this condition than is CD3 antigen. However, it may be useful as part of a ...

*Lymph node stromal cell

Antigen-presenting cells accumulate near high endothelial venules to process soluble antigens. Antigens are also presented on ... a homologue of CD44. These molecules allow the entry of hematopoietic cells into the lymphatic vessels. During an inflammatory ... Via the reticular network, the MRCs bring antigens from the sub-capsular sinuses to the B cell follicles. MRCs express the ... Naive lymphocytes (those with no history of contact with antigens) travel from the bone marrow or high endothelial venules of ...

*FYN

... has been shown to interact with: ADD2, BCAR1, C-Raf, CBLC, CD36, CD44, CDH1, CHRNA7, CTNND1, CBL, CSF1R, DLG4, Dystroglycan ... "Src-related protein tyrosine kinases are physically associated with the surface antigen CD36 in human dermal microvascular ... Ilangumaran S, Briol A, Hoessli DC (May 1998). "CD44 selectively associates with active Src family protein tyrosine kinases Lck ...

*T cell

Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... Note- CD44 expression is usually used to distinguish murine naive from memory T cells). Effector memory T cells (TEM cells and ... These self-antigens are expressed by thymic cortical epithelial cells on MHC molecules on the surface of cortical epithelial ... The second signal licenses the T cell to respond to an antigen. Without it, the T cell becomes anergic, and it becomes more ...

*Harvey Cantor

Boyse EA, Old LJ, Stockert E. An approach to the mapping of antigens on the cell surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1968;60:886. ... Weber GF, Ashkar S, Glimcher MJ, Cantor H. Receptor-ligand interaction between Osteopontin (Eta-1) and CD44. Science 271: 509- ... J Exp Med 145: 1-9. Rao A, Ko WW, Faas SJ, Cantor H. Binding of antigen in the absence of histocompatibility proteins by ... Glimcher L, Shen F-W, Cantor H. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell. J. ...

*CD24

... Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... 2008). "Tissue-specific promoters active in CD44+CD24-/low breast cancer cells". Cancer Res. 68 (14): 5533-9. doi:10.1158/0008- ... "The CD24 surface antigen in neural development and disease". Neurobiology of Disease. 99: 133-144. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2016.12. ... Signal transducer CD24 also known as cluster of differentiation 24 or heat stable antigen CD24 (HSA) is a protein that in ...

*Hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor

RHAMM is less well studied than the main hyaluronan (HA) receptor, CD44. In contrast to CD44 and other cell-surface receptors ... is a new immunogenic leukemia-associated antigen in acute and chronic myeloid leukemia". Experimental Hematology. 30 (9): 1029- ... While RHAMM has been less studied than CD44 in the process of cancer metastasis, it is likely just as important in this process ... As with CD44, RHAMM can promote focal adhesion turnover by controlling focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation and ...

*Prostate cancer

Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) stimulates the development of prostate cancer by increasing folate levels for the ... Relative frequency of loss of E-cadherin and CD44 has also been observed. RUNX2 is a transcription factor that prevents cancer ... Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing increases cancer detection but does not decrease mortality. The United States ... Prostate specific membrane antigen is a transmembrane carboxypeptidase and exhibits folate hydrolase activity. This protein is ...
We report here that joint inflammation in collagen-induced arthritis is more aggravated in CD44-knockout mice than in WT mice, and we provide evidence for molecular redundancy as a causal factor. Furthermore, we show that under the inflammatory cascade, RHAMM (receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility), a hyaluronan receptor distinct from CD44, compensates for the loss of CD44 in binding hyaluronic acid, supporting cell migration, up-regulating genes involved with inflammation (as assessed by microarrays containing 13,000 cDNA clones), and exacerbating collagen-induced arthritis. Interestingly, we further found that the compensation for loss of the CD44 gene does not occur because of enhanced expression of the redundant gene (RHAMM), but rather because the loss of CD44 allows increased accumulation of the hyaluronic acid substrate, with which both CD44 and RHAMM engage, thus enabling augmented signaling through RHAMM. This model enlightens several aspects of molecular redundancy, which is widely
Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that down-regulation of the standard CD44 isoform at the mRNA and protein level is associated with the acquisition of high metastatic ability within the Dunning R-3327 system of rat prostate cancers. Additional studies demonstrated that transfection-induced enhanced expression of the standard CD44 isoform suppresses the metastatic ability of the AT3.1 Dunning subline without suppressing tumorigenicity. The standard CD44 isoform is a major cell surface receptor for the extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronate. In this study, an investigation was made to resolve whether the ability of the standard CD44 isoform to suppress metastasis of the AT3.1 prostate cancer cells critically requires enhanced hyaluronate binding. Highly metastatic Dunning AT3.1 rat prostate cancer cells were transfected with expression plasmids encoding either the wild-type or mutant standard CD44 isoform. The mutant standard CD44 isoform construct encoded a ...
Fibroblasts transformed by Fos oncogenes display increased expression of a number of genes implicated in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. In contrast to normal 208F rat fibroblasts, Fos-transformed 208F fibroblasts are growth factor independent for invasion. We demonstrate that invasion of v-Fos- or epidermal growth factor (EGF)-transformed cells requires AP-1 activity. v-Fos-transformed cell invasion is inhibited by c-jun antisense oligonucleotides and by expression of a c-jun dominant negative mutant, TAM-67. EGF-induced invasion is inhibited by both c-fos and c-jun antisense oligonucleotides. CD44s, the standard form of a transmembrane receptor for hyaluronan, is implicated in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. We demonstrate that increased expression of CD44 in Fos- and EGF-transformed cells is dependent upon AP-1. CD44 antisense oligonucleotides reduce expression of CD44 in v-Fos- or EGF-transformed cells and inhibit invasion but not migration. Expression of a fusion protein between ...
Results RHAMM expression in the subgroup of large cell carcinomas (LCC) was associated with inferior survival (p=0.000223). Median overall survival was 92 versus 18 months for RHAMM-negative and positive patients, respectively. This survival difference remained significant in both nodal negative and positive patients (pN0: p=0.013 and pN≥1: p=0.007, respectively). P-gp expression was associated with inferior survival in adenocarcinomas (ACA; p=0.013) and appeared to be a postsurgical Union International Contre le Cancer (pUICC)- stage and gender-independent prognostic factor, irrespective of adjuvant chemotherapy, in the multivariable analysis; considering nodal status, this survival difference applied to pN0 cancers (p=0.026).. ...
CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which can exist in a multitude of isoforms due to alternative splicing of the pre-mRNA. We have generated monoclonal antibodies to several of these variant regions, which are encoded by 10 additional exons in the extracellular part of the molecule. CD44 variant isoforms have been reported to be involved in the malignant progression of rat and human tumours. The precise localization of CD44 variant isoforms in normal developmental and morphogenetic processes is essential for diagnostic studies of human tumorigenesis. Therefore, we have analysed a large number of different human tissues by immunohistochemistry for the expression of CD44 isoforms containing either exons 4v, 6v or 9v. Expression of exon 9v-isoforms was detected in almost all epithelia analysed, with a few exceptions. Exon 6v isoforms are expressed only in squamous and glandular epithelial, e.g. skin epidermis, sweat and sebaceous glands, oesophagus, ducts of the mammary gland, salivary and ...
Do you know what to do if an equation doesnt look like y=mx+b?! If not, then this video is for you. Chances are the equation is in standard form,...
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Mouse Monoclonal. Reactivity: Hu, Ms. Application: IHC-P. Specificity: Recognizes a cell surface glycoprotein of 80-95kDa (CD44) on lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes (Leucocyte Typing Workshop V). Its epitope is resistant to digestion by trypsin and chymotrypsin. The CD44 family of glycoproteins exists in a number of variant isoforms, the most common being the standard 85-95kDa or hematopoietic variant (CD44s). Higher molecular weight isoforms are described in epithelial cells (CD44v), which are believed to function in intercellular adhesion and stromal binding. CD44 immunostaining is commonly used for the discrimination of urothelial transitional cell carcinoma in-situ from non-neoplastic changes in the urothelium.. Package: 100μg. ...
CD44 is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that regulates cell adhesion, movement and activation of cells. Depending on the molecules to which it binds, different responses are generated.17,18 Different variant isoforms are generated by alternative RNA splicing19 and a variety of microRNA affects its expression in cancer.20 After G-CSF mobilization, CD44 levels are diminished on CD34+ cells relative to BM-resident CD34+ cells.21 We observed an overall decrease of CD44 mRNA expression after G-CSF; however, this effect was not detected in individuals carrying the recessive TT genotype, who had the lowest mobilization yields. This scarce reduction of CD44 expression could be influential in retaining CD34+ cells in BM and lead to a lower mobilization yield. The mechanism of this effect in donors carrying the CD44-2392C SNP is unknown, but the position of the SNP in the 3′UTR region makes it susceptible to a different degree of mRNA degradation among the genetic variants and ...
If you have forgotten your password, well email a link to a page where you can easily reset your current password and create a new one.. ...
SiR-Kaufmann and colleagues (March 11, p 615) assessthe expression of CD44 isoforms in breast cancer andcorrelate the data with outlook. With antibodies againsthuman CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v), they showsignificant correlations between presence of v6 epitopes andoverall survival. Reactivity against DIII, a polyclonal serum,emerged as an independent prognostic factor in multivariateanalyses, surpassing in risk even such established factors aslymph-node status, tumour size, and histological grading.These workers claim the necessity for further studiesincluding more patients ...
Files an error against a form element.. When a validation error is detected, the validator calls form_set_error() to indicate which element needs to be changed and provide an error message. This causes the Form API to not execute the form submit handlers, and instead to re-display the form to the user with the corresponding elements rendered with an error CSS class (shown as red by default).. The standard form_set_error() behavior can be changed if a button provides the #limit_validation_errors property. Multistep forms not wanting to validate the whole form can set #limit_validation_errors on buttons to limit validation errors to only certain elements. For example, pressing the Previous button in a multistep form should not fire validation errors just because the current step has invalid values. If #limit_validation_errors is set on a clicked button, the button must also define a #submit property (may be set to an empty array). Any #submit handlers will be executed even if there is invalid ...
Ettekande slaidid. [pdf]. Abstract: Designing a viable language for total (as in type theory) functional programming is remarkably difficult: it takes a term calculus for a type language with inductive and coinductive types that is satisfactory both metatheoretically and practically. Basic structured (co)recursion schemes in their standard form are not an option, they are far too cumbersome to program with.. The alternatives include what are known as guarded and Mendler-style (co)recursion primitives. These are general-recursor like combinators. Guarded combinators are governed by syntactic side-conditions enforcing conformance of an a priori general-recursive definition to a structured (co)recursion scheme. Mendler-style combinators are cleaner: here the same effect is achieved by more restrictive typing employing universal quantification. But a problem with both is that the choice of the structured (co)recursion scheme to support is non-canonical.. We argue that one meaningful canonical ...
Given a tanru which expresses an idea to be used frequently, it can be turned into a lujvo by following the lujvo-making algorithm which is given in Section 4.11.. In building a lujvo, the first step is to replace each gismu with a rafsi that uniquely represents that gismu. These rafsi are then attached together by fixed rules that allow the resulting compound to be recognized as a single word and to be analyzed in only one way.. There are three other complications; only one is serious.. The first is that there is usually more than one rafsi that can be used for each gismu. The one to be used is simply whichever one sounds or looks best to the speaker or writer. There are usually many valid combinations of possible rafsi. They all are equally valid, and all of them mean exactly the same thing. (The scoring algorithm given in Section 4.12 is used to choose the standard form of the lujvo - the version which would be entered into a dictionary.). The second complication is the serious one. Remember ...
The following system is one of many which could fulfill the above criteria.. 1. Suppose that every organization (and even active individuals) was given the facility to register its address, interests, current and planned programmes, etc. into a computer file. The act of registration could be accomplished through the post by filling out a standard form.. 2. Clearly this project would prove impractical if the attempt was made to do this at. an international central office. The amount of information would be too great, therefore making the processing costly, and the project would run foul of, criteria (b). 3. Suppose however that the project was catalyzed (not organized) by the United Nations and other such bodies, and the attempt was made to encourage the creation of city, province or national level computer files around the world. Clearly in some cases only a national or even sub-continental file would be possible. In cities, even local files would be possible. This would reflect the amount of ...
D. Berfau - Verbs 1. The Present Tense All verb -nouns are added to various persons of the verb to be - linked by yn. There is no mutation after this linking yn. (a) The Affirmative forms Standard forms
We applied our factoring skills to convert quadratic equations in Standard Form ($latex y=ax^2+bx+c $) to Factored Form ($latex y=a(x-r)(x-s) $). Its the same process as weve been using for factoring expressions, but theres an extra step at the end to factor out any coefficients on the linear terms. For example, if you factor an…
If you spend $1,000 for something you could have bought for $800, youll need to produce an extra $200 to make up for it. Make this easy on yourself by using a standard form to solicit bids on purchase over a certain amount. E-mail it to at least three vendors, with a tight deadline for their bid. Youll be surprised how well this works. I once saved more than $4,000 on a car purchase with just this method. Even better, I saved hours of time I would have spent driving to each dealership and dealing with the whole sales pitch hassle. ...
Write the standard form of the ellipse x^2+4y^2+6x-8y+9=0 Im not sure how to start it, I think I need to set it equal to one because eventually it needs to end up equal to one but Im not certain. I know the answer is (x+3)^2/4 + (y-1)^2/1=1 but have no idea how to get there... ...
If you record wma or mp3 files directly to the CD without choosing AUDIO CD, your CD will be recorded as a Data CD, and only players capable of decoding those files will be able to play your talks, and the CD that you make will not be playable in a standard CD player ...
If you record wma or mp3 files directly to the CD without choosing AUDIO CD, your CD will be recorded as a Data CD, and only players capable of decoding those files will be able to play your talks, and the CD that you make will not be playable in a standard CD player ...
In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13), this notice announces that the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) submitted to the Office of Management and Budget a request for review and clearance of the revised collection of information, Questionnaires for National Security, Public Trust, and Non-Sensitive Positions (OMB Control No. 3206-0005), which includes the following electronic, on-line collection instruments: Questionnaire for Non-Sensitive Positions, Standard Form 85 (SF 85); Questionnaire for Public Trust Positions, Standard Form 85P (SF 85P); and Questionnaire for National Security Positions, Standard Form 86 (SF 86). This notice also announces that the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) submitted to the Office of Management and Budget a request to discontinue clearance of the Continuation Sheet for Questionnaires SF 85, 85P, and 86, Standard Form 86A (SF 86A), the Certification Statement for SF 86, Standard Form SF 86C (SF 86C); and the Supplemental ...
A number of reports have shown that CD44 is present in cholesterol-enriched lipid raft microdomains in various cell types including T cells (Ilangumaran et al., 1998; Gómez-Móuton et al., 2001; Oliferenko et al., 1999; Seveau et al., 2001; Pierini et al., 2003; Bourguignon et al., 2004). However, the functional significance of CD44 localization in the lipid rafts had been largely unknown. This study demonstrated the functional significance of this association in T cell adhesion properties. We demonstrated in the present study that cellular cholesterol modulates the HA-binding ability of CD44. Using BW5147 T cells, which express CD44 with HA-binding ability, we showed that cholesterol depletion induced with MβCD upregulates both the HA-binding ability of CD44 (Fig. 1) and the loss of CD44 from detergent-insoluble fractions (Fig. 3). We also found that cholesterol oxidation and sequestration upregulate CD44s HA-binding ability (Fig. 2), suggesting that the lipid rafts modulate CD44 function. ...
Cancer stem cells (CSC) play an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis and prognosis. The study aimed at examining the expression of CD24, CD44, and CD133 in human PDAC and CP in order to evaluate its clinicopathological correlations and the clinical significance. Surgical specimens from 23 patients with PDAC and 15 patients with chronic pancreatitis after pancreatic resection were stained with CD24, CD44, and CD133 antibodies. The intensity of staining was scored from 0 (negative) to 3 (strongly positive). Results. Mean CD24 staining score in PDAC was 1.38 ± 0.76 and was significantly higher than that in CP: 0.70 ± 0.53 (p | 0.01); CD44 score in PDAC was 2.23 ± 0.42 and was significantly higher than that in CP: 1.87 ± 0.55 (p | 0.05); CD133 score 0.93 ± 0.58 was not different from CP: 0.71 ± 0.43 (p | 0.05). CD44 immunoreactivity was significantly higher (p | 0.05) in pT1 and pT2 patients together as regards pT3: 2.45 ± 0.37 versus 2.06 ± 0.38 as well as in N0 patients compared to N1
Irish is recognised by the Constitution of Ireland as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland (English is the other official language). Despite this, almost all government debates and business are conducted in English.[21] In 1938, the founder of Conradh na Gaeilge (Gaelic League), Douglas Hyde, was inaugurated as the first President of Ireland. The record of his delivering his inaugural Declaration of Office in Roscommon Irish is one of only a few recordings of that dialect.[22][23][24][25] In the 2016 census, 10.5% of respondents stated that they spoke Irish, either daily or weekly,[26] while over 70,000 people speak it as a habitual daily means of communication. From the foundation of the Irish Free State in 1922 (see also History of the Republic of Ireland), a degree of proficiency in Irish was required of all those newly appointed to the Civil Service of the Republic of Ireland, including postal workers, tax collectors, agricultural inspectors, Garda Síochána, ...
Irish was spoken as a community language in Irish towns and cities down to the 19th century. In the 16th and 17th centuries it was widespread even in Dublin and the Pale.[56]. The Irish of Dublin, situated as it was between the east Ulster dialect of Meath and Louth to the north and the Leinster-Connacht dialect further south, may have reflected the characteristics of both in phonology and grammar. In County Dublin itself the general rule was to place the stress on the initial vowel of words. With time it appears that the forms of the dative case took over the other case endings in the plural (a tendency found to a lesser extent in other dialects). In a letter written in Dublin in 1691 we find such examples as the following: gnóthuimh (accusative case, the standard form being gnóthaí), tíorthuibh (accusative case, the standard form being tíortha) and leithscéalaibh (genitive case, the standard form being leithscéalta).[57]. English authorities of the Cromwellian period, aware that Irish ...
A study from the Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA; and Womens Guild Lung Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA shows that: "Hyaluronan and TLR4 promote surfactant-protein-C-positive alveolar progenitor cell renewal and prevent severe pulmonary fibrosis in mice." This study was published in the 03 October 2016 issue of the journal "Nature Medicine" by Prof. Noble PW, Liang J and others.. On the foundation of this interesting finding, Dr L Boominathan PhD, Director-cum-chief Scientist of GBMD, reports that: Natural product therapy for Pulmonary Fibrosis: Onion Peel extract (OPE) increases Toll-like receptor 4 expression and extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan Hyaluronan levels, promotes alveolar progenitor cell renewal and repair of lung injury and prevents severe pulmonary fibrosis via down-regulation of its target gene. Significance:. Given that: (1) Pulmonary disease (PD)/Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a progressive ...
A major component of the extracellular matrix is hyaluronan, a regulator of cell migration/survival and differentiation during response-to-injury processes. The receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM) binds to HA and has limited constitutive expression but is upregulated during tissue injury. Blocking HA fragment:RHAMM interactions has therapeutic potential for treating cancer but truncation of RHAMM into peptides mimicking only the HA binding domains is predicted to lose their natural α-helical structure. The goal of this project is to explore the effects cyclizing each binding domain has on helicity and its biological effect. Eighteen peptides were synthesized and cyclized using lactam bridges. The peptides were analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy and one stapled peptide exhibited a 4-fold increase in helicity compared to the unstapled sequence and significantly decreased migration, inflammation, and fibrosis in vitro. This cyclic peptide is a novel protein-carbohydrate inhibitor
In this study we demonstrate that LC and DC during in vitro activation and during their in vivo migration to the peripheral LN differentially upregulate pan CD44 epitopes and sequences encoded by variant exons CD44v4, v5, v6, and v9. Thus LC and DC activation or migration is accompanied by increased synthesis of CD44 and by a change of either epitope accessibility or splicing. The mechanisms underlying this change remain to be elucidated: granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β, secreted by keratinocytes in response to antigen application to the skin, play a role in LC-maturation, emigration, and accumulation in LN (9, 11, 16). Furthermore, the generation of activated DC from peripheral blood precursors depends upon the presence of GM-CSF (35). However, at present we have no evidence that GM-CSF and tumor necrosis factorα are involved in CD44 modulation by LC or DC, since biologically active mAbs neutralizing these cytokines added ...
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The CD44 antigens are transmembrane glycoproteins and members of the hyaladherin family of hyaluronan-binding proteins. Multiple CD44 isoforms have been described, the predominant form being CD44S, a glycoprotein of 85 kDa. CD44 is present on most cells or tissues, but not on platelets, hepatocytes, cardiac muscle, kidney tubular epithelium, testis and skin portions. The human blood group antigens Ina/b reside on CD44. *Alexa Fluor and Pacific Blue are registered trademarks of Molecular Probes, Inc.
The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System - Sorting Test is one of the nine tests presented in the DKEFS manual and explores the patients executive abilities. It has a standard form (version A, administered at screening and Month-18 visit) and an alternate form (version B, administered at Month-9 visit). The standard form consists of the practice card set, card set 1 and card set 2. The alternate form consists of the same practice card set, card set 3 and card set 4. In free sorting, six scores were obtained: Confirmed Correct sorts for card sets 1 and 2 (or 3 and 4 for version B), sum of confirmed Correct Sorts, Free Sorting Description score for card set 1 and 2 (or 3 and 4 for version B) and sum of Free Sorting Description scores. In sort recognition, a description score for card set 1 and 2 (or 3 and 4 for version B) was obtained, as well as the sum of description scores of both sets. The total score ranged from 0 to 64. Higher values represent a better ...
Equations for the probability functions are given for the standard form of the distribution. Formulas exist for defining the functions with location and scale parameters in terms of the standard form of the distribution. The sections on parameter estimation are restricted to the method of moments and maximum likelihood. This is because the least squares and PPCC and probability plot estimation procedures are generic. The maximum likelihood equations are not listed if they involve solving simultaneous equations. This is because these methods require sophisticated computer software to solve. Except where the maximum likelihood estimates are trivial, you should depend on a statistical software program to compute them. References are given for those who are interested. Be aware that different sources may give formulas that are different from those shown here. In some cases, these are simply mathematically equivalent formulations. In other cases, a different parameterization may be used ...
CD44 is a cell surface receptor for the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA). Not all CD44-positive cells bind HA, and binding ability is strictly regulated. Three different HA binding states have been defined: inactive, inducible (by certain CD44-specific monoclonal antibodies), and constitutively active. The observation that sets of genetically related cell lines representing different HA binding states showed correlated differences in N-glycosylation of CD44, and that inhibition of N-glycosylation enhanced HA binding (Lesley et al., J. Exp. Med., 182: 431-437, 1995) led us to examine directly whether specific N-glycosylation site modifications were involved in regulating the HA binding function. CD44-negative, -active, and inducible cell lines were stably transfected with mutant constructs in which each of the five N-glycosylation sites of murine CD44 had been separately inactivated. Ability to bind soluble HA was examined over a range of CD44 expression levels. For the active cell line, AKR1, ...
Su, J., and J. Forman. CD8 T cells in MHC class Ia-deficient mice. AAI, Denver, CO, 2003. Su, J., R. E. Berg, S. Murry, and J. Forman. Thymus dependent MHC non class Ia selected memory phenotype CD8 T cells from naïve mice provide rapid protection against infection. AAI, San Diego, CA, 2005. xiii List of Figures 1. An elevated percentage of CD8 T cells in DKO are CD8?+CD8?-………………………….50 2. There are less CD8??CD44hi cells and similar CD8?? cells in DKO mice compared to B6 mice…………………………………………………………………………………………..52 3. A significant portion of CD8?? T cells in DKO mice is CD44hiCD122+Ly6C+ and CD62Llo……………………………………………………………………………...............53 4. Expression of NK cell markers by CD8??CD44hi cells from naïve B6 and DKO mice ………………………………………………………………………………………………..55 5. ...
We urgently need patient advocates to be involved in clinical studies, not as researchers, but as patient representatives who are well acquainted with the reality of the patients situation.. Clinical Studies From A Patient Perspective - Interview with Markus Wartenberg, Co-Chair of SPAEN. Clinical studies are an essential step in the development of novel treatment methods for cancer and other diseases. They show researchers what works for the welfare of patients and what does not. In addition to safety and effectiveness they also determine whether the side effects of a new treatment are acceptable and, increasingly, what quality of life for patients is associated with a new therapy. Clinical studies are an important component of treatment concepts for rare forms of cancer because here the standard forms of therapy are often limited. Nevertheless, only up to 5 % of cancer patients actually participate in clinical studies. Recent studies show that 3 out of 5 phase III studies are not able to ...
G43a1 modified to contain SEP (phosphoserine), TPO (phosphothreonine), and PTR (phosphotyrosine) (all PO4^{2-} forms), and SEPH, TPOH, PTRH (PO4H^{-} forms). The charges and vdw parameters come from Hansson, Nordlund and Aqvist jmb 265 118-27 1997. They worked mostly with gromos 87 but I generally use gromos 96 so I\ve made the files in that format (there seem to be no differences in the amino acid charges between 87 and 96). Hansson et al don\t report bond angle or dihedral parameters, and I don\t know how to do QM calculations, so I\ve used the standard forms from the *bon.itp file. For the dihedrals, I\ve used the 3-fold gd_11. Because of their symmetry, the PO4^{2-} forms at least cannot have the 2-fold + 3-fold symmetry used in the gmx DNA bases. The OP-X LJ-14 parameters are the same as for OA. I\ve checked that I can build simple 1-molecule topologies and tprs for the PO4H forms, and for the PO4 forms have done 100 ps solvated MD of the isolated am acs and the am acs in proteins ...
Dutch, along with German, English, Frisian, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, and Afrikaans, is a Germanic language. It is very closely related to the dialects of northern Germany known as Low German. Indeed, the traditional dialects along the Dutch-German border are virtually the same. You may want to read about the linguistic situation in the lower Rhine area or about spelling variations there. Dutch words for nouns (persons, places, and things) are classified as either common or neuter. Variant Forms of Words In Dutch, as in English, the forms of some words will vary according to how they are used in a sentence. Who-whose-whom, or marry-marries-married are examples of words in English with variant forms. This word list gives the standard form of each Dutch word. As you read Dutch records, you will need to be aware that some words vary with usage. The prefix tis equal to the Dutch word het, which means the. The prefixs- is a part of many place-names and means des (of the). All prefixes are ...
Dutch, along with German, English, Frisian, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, and Afrikaans, is a Germanic language. It is very closely related to the dialects of northern Germany known as Low German. Indeed, the traditional dialects along the Dutch-German border are virtually the same. You may want to read about the linguistic situation in the lower Rhine area or about spelling variations there. Dutch words for nouns (persons, places, and things) are classified as either common or neuter. Variant Forms of Words In Dutch, as in English, the forms of some words will vary according to how they are used in a sentence. Who-whose-whom, or marry-marries-married are examples of words in English with variant forms. This word list gives the standard form of each Dutch word. As you read Dutch records, you will need to be aware that some words vary with usage. The prefix tis equal to the Dutch word het, which means the. The prefixs- is a part of many place-names and means des (of the). All prefixes are ...
The evidence at trial establishes that the application of the Act has been in compliance with its statutory framework, and that CIRM and the ICOC are operating in the same fashion as other state agencies. Each ICOC member, and each alternate, has taken the oath of office and publicly filed Form 700, the standard form California public officials file to disclose financial holdings. The ICOC developed and adopted incompatible activities statements, the conflict of interest code required by the Political Reform Act, and conflict of interest policies for ICOC members, CIRM staff, and members of each of the ICOC advisory groups. Between January 2005 and the date of the trial, the ICOC, its subcommittees, and its working groups held over 40 noticed, public meetings, in cities across the state, held pursuant to the Bagley-Keene Open Meeting Act. CIRM has responded to numerous Public Records Act requests. The selection of the site for the CIRMs facilities was run by the Department of General Services, ...
A Modular Operating Topology Element (MOTE) is provided within a software-latticed networked topology for implementing ultra-concurrent operation of a plurality of such elements, as a single miniaturized package having a prevailing standard form, e.g., Compact Flash, with an embedded a full function processor (CPU), a unique resident operating system, and dedicated applications. The external interface projects a virtual mass storage volume. A MOTE selectively acts as an ultra-modular processor, operating with ultra-concurrency, with the CPU internally bus connected to non-volatile RAM, dedicated non-volatile ROM (firmware), a dedicated battery-backed real-time clock-calendar unit, and a dedicated interrupt monitor unit. Internally accessed data and internal applications stored in ROM or in non-volatile RAM are invisible to the outside. Optional input/output devices may be connected to the internal hardware bus. A host external bus connection is provided for mass storage volumes, which support file-level
I can get part of the answer then I get stumped. find the center and radius of the circle, Write the standard form of the equation. (4,3)(1,3) to get center: (1+4/2, 3+3/2)=5/2,3 answer:5/2,3 for center radius: then i am stuck ...
The Fly F2 Carbon in its standard form is as close to a factory race bike as a helmet can be. Used by top Fly racers such as Trey Canard, Andrew Short…
REFER A PATIENT Thank you for referring your patient to us. If you prefer, you may call 800-888-5533 to refer patients via the UK-MD phone line. Department-specific referral forms If referring a patient to one of the areas below, complete and submit the department-specific form only. You do not need to complete the standard form.
For pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications, the ALU-LOOK™ blister films offer a versatile, high-speed packaging option compared with cold-form foil and aluminum strip packaging. Metallic look helps ensure shelf life and protect contents. Runs on all standard form/fill/seal blister machinery with no processing parameter changes necessary ...
So you are wanting to do 6 total sets for your back? In that case how about 3 bent over rows, 2 pulldowns/pullups/chins, and 1 rear delt row. The thing with bent over rows is if you bend more and lift the bar further up like just below the pecs, it doesnt get the lats much, but it hits the rear delts pretty hard. If you stand up a little higher then normal and go just above the waist, it is more of a lat exercise, doesnt get the rear delts much, and does a bit less for the traps. It is a versatile exercise that can be done different ways for different goals. In my example I suggest the standard form ...
T Cell Specific Surface Glycoprotein CD28 (TP44 or CD28) - Pipeline Review, H1 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-06-13 Available for US$ 3500 at Researchmoz.us
Hyaluronan is a negatively charged polydisperse polysaccharide where both its size and tissue concentration play an important role in many physiological and pathological processes. The various functions of hyaluronan depend on its molecular size. Up to now, it has been difficult to study the role of hyaluronan in diseases with pathological changes in the extracellular matrix where availability is low or tissue samples are small. Difficulty to obtain large enough biopsies from human diseased tissue or tissue from animal models has also restricted the study of hyaluronan. In this paper, we demonstrate that gas-phase electrophoretic molecular mobility analyzer (GEMMA) can be used to estimate the distribution of hyaluronan molecular sizes in biological samples with a limited amount of hyaluronan. The low detection level of the GEMMA method allows for estimation of hyaluronan molecular sizes from different parts of small organs. Hence, the GEMMA method opens opportunity to attain a profile over the ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Cusabio \ Human T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1a(CD1A) ELISA kit \ CSB-EL004889HU for more molecular products just contact us
Buy anti-HMMR antibody, Rabbit HMMR / CD168 / RHAMM Polyclonal Antibody-NP_036616.2 (MBS243539) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: Immunohistochemistry (IHC - Paraffin), Western Blot (WB)
Complete information for FKBPL gene (Protein Coding), FK506 Binding Protein Like, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
As the glorious release date of March 29 inches closer and closer, the anticipation of hearing Becks upcoming album Guero in its entirety is driving me crazy. Mr. Hanson is releasing not one, not two, but three versions of the new record. According to Billboard there will be a standard CD, a double-disc package featuring two videos and a surround sound mix and a third version which includes four remixes. The two videos featured on the double-disc set will be for "E-Pro" and "Black Tambourine". The remix artists on the third version of the release will include Boards Of Canada, Octet, Dizzee Rascall and Royksopp.. ...
Hyaluronan is a major component of the extracellular matrix and plays pivotal roles in inflammation and cancer. Hyaluronan oligomers are frequently found in these pathological conditions, in which they exert their effects via association with the transmembrane receptor CD44. Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains that may regulate membrane receptors while serving as platforms for transmembrane signaling at the cell surface. This article focuses on the recent discovery that lipid rafts regulate the interaction between CD44 and hyaluronan, which depends largely on hyaluronans size. Lipid rafts regulate CD44s ability to bind hyaluronan in T cells, control the rolling adhesion of lymphocytes on vascular endothelial cells, and regulate hyaluronan- and CD44-mediated cancer cell migration. The implications of these findings for preventing inflammatory disorders and cancer are also discussed.
Washington, Nov 24 (ANI): Scientists have discovered a novel way to halt the expansion of breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs), the aggressive cells thought to be resistant to current anti-cancer therapies and which promote
The hyaluronan (HA)-binding function (lectin function) of the leukocyte homing receptor, CD44, is tightly regulated. Herein we address possible mechanisms that regulate CD44 isoform-specific HA binding. Binding studies with melanoma transfectants expressing CD44H, CD44E, or with soluble immunoglobulin fusions of CD44H and CD44E (CD44H-Rg, CD44E-Rg) showed that although both CD44 isoforms can bind HA, CD44H binds HA more efficiently than CD44E. Using CD44-Rg fusion proteins we show that the variably spliced exons in CD44E, V8-V10, specifically reduce the lectin function of CD44, while replacement of V8-V10 by an ICAM-1 immunoglobulin domain restores binding to a level comparable to that of CD44H. Conversely, CD44 bound HA very weakly when exons V8-V10 were replaced with a CD34 mucin domain, which is heavily modified by O-linked glycans. Production of CD44E-Rg or incubation of CD44E-expressing transfectants in the presence of an O-linked glycosylation inhibitor restored HA binding to CD44H-Rg and ...
Reactivation of the stem cell programme in breast cancer is significantly associated with persistent cancer progression and therapeutic failure. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are involved in the...
Cell surface protein GD2 blows potent tumor-generating cells cover. The first single marker of breast cancer stem cells also is targetable by a drug in preclinical tests.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interleukin 15 induces endothelial hyaluronan expression in vitro and promotes activated T cell extravasation through a CD44-dependent pathway in vivo. AU - Estess, Pila. AU - Nandi, Animesh. AU - Mohamadzadeh, Mansour. AU - Siegelman, Mark H.. PY - 1999/7/5. Y1 - 1999/7/5. N2 - T cell recruitment to extralymphoid tissues is fundamental to the initiation and perpetuation of the inflammatory state during immune and autoimmune responses. Interleukin (IL)-15 is a proinflammatory cytokine whose described functions largely overlap with those of IL-2. The latter is attributable in large part to its binding of the heterotrimeric receptor that contains the β and γ chains of the IL-2R in combination with an unique IL- 151α chain. However, unlike IL-2, IL-15 and its receptor have a wide tissue and cell type distribution, including endothelial cells. Here, we examine the effect of IL-15 on hyaluronan expression by endothelial cells, and investigate its role in vivo in promoting the ...
The cancer stem cell (CSC) theory was first proposed to explain the fact that only a small proportion of leukemia or solid tumor cells have the capacity to induce growing tumors in immunodeficient mice.[1,2] 1
Prolonged exposure to topotecan (TPT) in in vitro experiments and in vivo studies in animals yielded the highest antitumor efficacy. An oral bioavailability of TPT of 32-44% enables convenient prolonged administration. Because of unpredictable diarrhea in the third week of the twice daily (b.i.d.) 21-day schedule of p.o. administered TPT and the finding of optimal down-regulation of topoisomerase I level after 10-14 days in mononuclear peripheral blood cells, a shorter period of administration (10 days) was chosen for Phase I and pharmacological studies of oral administration of TPT. Adult patients with malignant solid tumors that were refractory to standard forms of chemotherapy were entered. Two dose schedules were studied: once daily (o.d.) and b.i.d. administration for 10 days every 3 weeks. TPT o.d. for 10 days was studied at dose levels 1.0, 1.4, and 1.6 mg/m2/day, and dose levels were 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8 mg/m2 with the 10-day b.i.d. schedule. Pharmacokinetics were performed on days 1 ...
International Workshop and Satellite Meeting of the 14th ISN Meeting sponsored by NICHD, NIH, Bethesda on: The neuronal phenotype: molecular genetics, cell specification, plasticity and therapeutical frontiers. August 29-September 3, 1993, Lozari, Corsica, France Organized by: D. v. Agoston, Bethesda & J. A. Waschek, Los Angeles There will be 6 plenary sessions on: 1. Genetics; 2. Neurogenesis and lineage; 3. Phenotypic diversity 4.Developmental specification and 5. Maintanance and plasticity of neurotransmitter phenotypes; 6.Therapeutical frontiers Partial list of speakers: Campos-Ortega, Jan, Horvitz, Kimmel, Anderson, LeDouarin, Evans, Unsicker, Landis, Patterson, McKay, Hokfelt, Waschek, Agoston, Mallet, Young, Rostene, McConnel, Palkovits, Comb, Bjorklund, Zon, Breakfield, Gage. Attendance at the Workshop is limited to 75 participants. Registration is US$ 150. Applications for attendance with abstracts (ISN standard form) and registration fee in US$ should be sent as soon as possible but ...
DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone) is a pharmaceutical grade, purified supplement. This micronized form is designed to increase its bioavailability when compared to the standard form. DHEA is a naturally occurring androgen secreted by the adrenal glands, and is found in plasma and brain tissue. Do NOT take DHEA if you are at risk for hormonally related cancers such as reproductive or prostate abnormalities, if under the age of 40, or if pregnant, lactating or trying to conceive.. Synonyms: Dehydroepiandrosterone, prasterone ...
3 Dial Before You Dig What & Where - A FREE enquiry referral service for members information on underground pipes and cables anywhere in Australia Why - To prevent damage, disruption, injury and death. That is, to dig without causing a disaster When - Call no less than two clear working days before the job is due to start How - Web : Fax : anytime (Standard form available) Phone: 1100 from 8 am to 5 pm weekdays ( except public holidays)
In addition to the standard forms of documentation, many Microsoft products are available in other formats to make them more accessible.. If you have difficulty reading or handling printed documentation, you can obtain many Microsoft publications from Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic, Inc. RFB&D distributes these documents to registered, eligible members of their distribution service, either on audio cassettes or on floppy disks. The RFB&D collection contains more than 80,000 titles, including Microsoft product documentation and books from Microsoft Press. You can download many of these books from http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=3895.. For more information, contact Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic at:. Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic, Inc.. 20 Roszel Road. Princeton, NJ 08540. Phone: (800) 803-7201 (within the United States and Canada) or (609) 452 0606. World Wide Web: http://www.rfbd.org/. ...
Aldiablosus Marvellous Note The Codename Remains The Same If You Change The Worksheet Name Or The Order Of Your Worksheets So This Is The Safest Way To Reference A Worksheet With Heavenly Excel Vba Workbook And Worksheet Object Easy Excel Macros And Beautiful Water Worksheet For Kids As Well As Deciduous Forest Worksheet Additionally Fifth Grade Worksheets Printable With Write Linear Equations In Standard Form Worksheet Also Printable Worksheets For Year In Addition Worksheet Addition And Subtraction Via Exceleasycom › Gallery ...
1 Test-in I was genuinely nervous about receiving my eyebrows completed permanently but Im SO Pleased I did this!!!! When you very first get there, you will discover standard forms to complete to disclose overall health history. The Business office is incredibly clear and peaceful And that i felt snug The full time. She is astonishingly sweet and certainly patient with getting the shape appropriate. She does The form very first simply to get an concept of how you want the arch to look and where you want the brow to start out and finish, but dont get flustered as it is not going to glimpse as dark or severe as what she attracts on. It truly is just to get the shape. At the time she is finished it appears truly natural ...
Introduced to Hawaii by early Polynesians, occurring in mesic forests & valleys. Numerous ornamental cultivars in gardens. Culturally important throughout the Pacific. Large green-leaf variety is the standard form. Originally from SE Asia. Formerly assigned under lily and agave families. http://www2.bishopmuseum.org/ethnobotanydb/resultsdetailed.asp?search=ki. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cordyline_fruticosa. ...
The Crown Commercial Service has published a new standard form public procurement prequalification questionnaire (PQQ). The new questionnaire, which…
My recent research has focused on how leukocytes control their adhesiveness and has resulted in a discovery of a novel regulatory pathway, Rogelj relates. Its a Rube Goldberg kind of sequence: Biochemical events that occur along this pathway determine the expression of a critical cell surface adhesion molecule, which in turn determines the ability of a leukocyte to recognize its target. Signals that lead to a loss of cell adhesiveness, therefore, result in suppression of the immune response. And, suppression of the immune system may or may not be a good thing ...
The lymphocyte homing receptor CD44 attracted considerable interest, when it was described that CD44 splice variants (CD44v) suffice to confer a metastatic phenotype to locally growing tumor cells (1). Meanwhile, there is ample evidence for the importance of CD44v in tumor progression (2, 3). In addition, CD44 has been recognized as a cancer-initiating cell (CIC) marker in several types of cancer (4, 5). Notably, CIC are supposed to act as initiators of metastatic spread (4, 6). In view of the rather ubiquitous expression of CD44, its definition as a CIC marker may seem surprising. Yet, CD44 molecules vary considerably by N- and O-glycosylation and by insertion of alternatively spliced variable exon products in the extracellular domains of the molecule (7, 8). A multitude of isoforms is generated this way, which correspond to a multitude of functions (reviewed in refs. 2, 3, 9, 10). Indeed, the functional activities ascribed to CD44 could cover many activities required for metastasizing tumor ...
Heavy metal (Fe2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+) ion:H+ symporter, Nramp2 or divalent metal transporter, DMT1 (Garrick et al. 2003). A 12 TMS topology with intracellular N- and C- termini is established. Two-fold structural symmetry in the arrangement of membrane helices for TM1-5 and TM6-10 (conserved Slc11 hydrophobic core) is suggested (Czachorowski et al., 2009). A conserved motif in a central flexible region of TMS1 (DPGN) binds the metal ion (Wang et al. 2011). Upregulated by iron deficiency and downregulated by iron loading (Nam et al. 2013). NRAMP2 also serves as the Sindbis alpha virus receptor (Rose et al. 2011). DMT1 interacts with the iron chaparone protein, PCBP2 (Q15366), in an iron-dependent fashion, and may be essential for iron uptake (Lane and Richardson 2014). Mutations cause a syndrome of congenital microcytic hypochromic anemia, poorly responsive to oral iron treatment, with liver iron overload associated paradoxically with normal to moderately elevated serum ...
Find out about the science and chemistry of Hyaluronan (Hyaluronic acid, Restylane, Macrolane, Healon), see colourful images of Hyaluronan and explore interactive 3D molecules of Hyaluronan
CD44 variant 9 を発現する癌幹細胞の誘導は、"chemoradioselection(=化学放射線療法による選別)"の有効性を減弱させ、進行頭頸部癌患者の予後を悪化させる可能性があ ...
Hyaluron complex consists of a mixture of various ingredients that work synergistically, mutually reinforcing! Hyaluronan or hyaluronic acid /
The major lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1, a Link superfamily glycoprotein similar to the hyaluronan-binding/inflammatory leukocyte homing receptor CD44, was initially implicated in hyaluronan (HA)-mediated cell adhesion and lymph-borne hyaluronan metabolism. However, the apparently normal phenotype of Lyve-1 knock-out mice and the recent demonstration that the receptor undergoes cytokine-induced endocytosis independent of HA uptake have cast doubt on such functions. Here we present new data that reconcile these anomalies by showing that LYVE-1 is functionally silenced in a cell-specific fashion by autoinhibitory glycosylation. We demonstrate that LYVE-1 transfected in HEK 293T fibroblasts and Jurkat T cells is competent to bind HA, whereas the endogenous receptor in cultured lymphatic endothelial cells or the receptor transfected in Chinese hamster ovary and HeLa cells is not. Moreover, through a combination of mutagenesis and functional analysis in HEK 293T fibroblasts and
miR-1 inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer stem cells by targeting EVI-1 Lei Wu,1 Tianyi Wang,2 Dongning He,2 Xiaoxi Li,1 Youhong Jiang1 1Molecular Oncology Laboratory of Cancer Research Institute, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China; 2Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou 121001, China Purpose: Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have been regarded as the key factor for treatment failure in breast cancer. The abnormal expression of miRNAs plays a significant role in different tumor types. However, the role of miR-1 in breast cancer remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of miR-1 on the proliferation and apoptosis of BCSCs. Materials and methods: CD44+/CD24-/low/epithelial-specific antigen+ BCSCs were isolated by flow cytometry. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the expression of miRNAs, mRNAs, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT
We show here that, within the brain, invasive ability can be conferred on a noninvasive glioma cell line by expression of an N-terminal fragment of the BEHAB/brevican protein but not by expression of the full-length protein. Because partial proteolytic cleavage of the BEHAB/brevican protein occurs endogenously in both human and rodent invasive brain tumors, these results provide an explanation for glioma cell motility in the adult human brain. In addition, they suggest new therapeutic possibilities for human brain tumor.. Many studies have suggested a central role for extracellular matrix proteins in tumor growth and motility (Paulus et al., 1996; Haugland et al., 1997; Merzak and Pilkington, 1997). HA and HA-binding proteins have been implicated in tumor metastasis (Knudson and Knudson, 1993;Entwistle et al., 1996). For example, the HA-binding protein RHAMM increases the metastatic potential of fibroblast cell lines (Hall et al., 1995). Our present results provide evidence that expression of ...
Gene expression studies in Cancer provide an insight into the global functioning of tumor and their pathways. In our previous studies on Retinoblastoma tumors, using a two parameter analysis (size and phenotype), we observed a FSClo/SSClo population that was CD133-CD44+ CD90- and expressed primitive stem cell markers, lacking the expression of differentiation markers (Balla et al. 2009). Since, CD44 and CD90 expression was absent in Y79 cell line, we used CD133 to sort the cells and analysed for various stem cell assays. This study highlights gene expression signature specific to putative cancer stem cells in Y79 cell line.. ...
The researchers identified a receptor, CXCR1, on the cancer stem cells which triggers growth of stem cells in response to inflammation and tissue damage. A drug originally developed to prevent organ transplant rejection blocks this receptor, killing breast cancer stem cells and preventing their metastasis in mice, according to the study.. Cancer stem cells, the small number of cells that fuel a tumors growth, are believed to be resistant to current chemotherapies and radiation treatment, which researchers say may be the reason cancer so often returns after treatment.. ...
The Application. The application is made through the submission of the materials described below. It is essential that the application contain all the information requested and be submitted in the formats described. If it is not, the application may be rejected on administrative grounds. If an application is considered for award, (i.e., after successful external peer review and internal review) additional forms and other information will be requested by the Project Officer. The application should not be bound or stapled in any way. The Application contains the following:. A. Standard Form 424: The applicant must complete Standard Form 424 (see attached form and instructions). This form will act as a cover sheet for the application and should be its first page. Instructions for completion of the SF424 are included with the form. The form must contain the original signature of an authorized representative of the applying institution. Please note that both the Principal Investigator and an ...
Before coverage is bound, counsel should analyze the contracts being offered with the companys major liability and loss exposures in mind. Insurance policies for businesses are typically complex, lengthy contracts written in arcane language, with many exclusions that take away much of the coverage that is otherwise afforded. Many of the key provisions found in standard form policies have been interpreted by the courts and are best understood in light of that case law.. An attorneys review of the companys insurance policies is not as daunting a task as it might first appear, at least after going through the exercise once. Most policies consist largely of standard forms, many of which remain largely unchanged from year to year. The insurance broker can be asked to identify all changes in coverage. Moreover, excess policies often follow form to primary policies. So, reviewing higher-layer policies in a tower of insurance is typically far less involved than gaining an understanding of primary ...
Epidemiological studies prove that incidence of colorectal cancer is increasing. The first line therapy of colorectal cancer is surgical resection of the primary tumor and elimination of regional and remote metastases.The aim of the study was to determine expression of adhesion molecules CD134 and CD137 in the peripheral blood in colorectal cancer patients, depending on clinical cancer stage, size and invasion of the tumor.Material and methods. The study enrolled 72 patients with primary colorectal adenocarcinoma. An average patient age was 64.55 years. Clinical tumor stage was assessed using two scales: Dukes: A and Astler-Coller scale. Expression of adhesion molecules was determined in the peripheral blood collected on the day of the procedure and 10 days after the procedure.Results. An average activity of CD134 molecules (12.66%) was significantly higher than that of CD137 (6.26%) (p,0.001). Clinical tumor stage was assessed on Dukes scale and was unrelated to CD134 activity, while activity ...
So what is a cluster of differentiation, or CD?. In medical practice, the two-letter acronym specifies a molecule, or antigen, usually on a cells surface. In 1982, an international group of immunologists got together for the First International Workshop on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens. The initial focus was on leukocyte (white blood cell) molecules. The goal was to agree on definitions of receptors and other complex proteins to which monoclonal antibodies bind, so that scientists could communicate more effectively.. A few examples of CDs about which you might be curious:. CD1 - the first-named CD; this complex glycoprotein is expressed in immature T cells, some B cells and other, specialized immune cells in the skin; there are several variants (CD1a, -b, -c…) encoded by genes on human chromosome 1.. CD4 - a molecule on a mature "helper" T cell surface; T lymphocytes with CD4 diminish in people with untreated HIV disease.. CD20 - a molecule at the surface of immature B lymphocytes ...
Baxyl 6 FL OZ.Pure & Fast ActingClinically Proven For Joint HealthHyaluronan is a naturally occurring constituent of many of the bodys tissues and biologic fluids. It is the same molecule in all mammals and has been safely supplemented in people for years.*There are no known contra-indications, interactions, or side effects associated with Baxyl supplementation.* The profound roles of the bodys own hyaluronan in healthy joints and connective tissue function are the basis for using Baxyl.Thats why Baxyl has been designed to match the bodys own hyaluronan.*Baxyl provides consistent replenishment of hyaluronan.*The physical properties of hyaluronan provide the hydration and moisture retention necessary to lubricate the joints and tissues, and to initiate cell proliferation and migration within the body.* Baxyl is a safe and effective oral liquid hyaluronan supplement for the support of joint health and mobility in humans.*Dont just reach for any hyaluronan on the store shelf. You deserve better
Researchers then identified two signals from a cytokine network - a type of protein that affects how cells communicate - that were responsible for stem cell regulation. These same cytokines play a role in inflammation and drugs that block them have already been approved for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. By blocking these cytokine signals, researchers hope that they can successfully target the cancer stem cell population providing a more effective treatment for breast cancer ...
GFP Bunny" is a transgenic artwork and not a breeding project ... Traditionally, animal breeding has been a multi-generational selection process that has sought to create pure breeds with standard form and structure, often to serve a specific performative function. As it moved from rural milieus to urban environments, breeding de-emphasized selection for behavioral attributes but continued to be driven by a notion of aesthetics anchored on visual traits and on morphological principles. Transgenic art, by contrast, offers a concept of aesthetics that emphasizes the social rather than the formal aspects of life and biodiversity, that challenges notions of genetic purity, that incorporates precise work at the genomic level, and that reveals the fluidity of the concept of species in an ever increasingly transgenic social context. As a transgenic artist, I am not interested in the creation of genetic objects, but on the invention of transgenic social subjects. In other words, what is important is the ...
GFP Bunny" is a transgenic artwork and not a breeding project ... Traditionally, animal breeding has been a multi-generational selection process that has sought to create pure breeds with standard form and structure, often to serve a specific performative function. As it moved from rural milieus to urban environments, breeding de-emphasized selection for behavioral attributes but continued to be driven by a notion of aesthetics anchored on visual traits and on morphological principles. Transgenic art, by contrast, offers a concept of aesthetics that emphasizes the social rather than the formal aspects of life and biodiversity, that challenges notions of genetic purity, that incorporates precise work at the genomic level, and that reveals the fluidity of the concept of species in an ever increasingly transgenic social context. As a transgenic artist, I am not interested in the creation of genetic objects, but on the invention of transgenic social subjects. In other words, what is important is the ...
Hifi News - The Baby Reference V2 is the latest incarnation of this British companys TVC preamplifier and costs £6120 in standard form.
The Office of Personnel Management has invited the public to comment on proposed changes to Standard Form (SF) 86, the questionnaire that must be filled out by all persons who are seeking a security clearance for access to classified information.. Although critics have argued that the SF-86 is hopelessly out of date and should be abandoned in favor of a more streamlined process, the changes that OPM is currently considering are mostly technicalities, not a wholesale revision. Proposed changes include a recognition of civil unions as a legal alternative to marriage, a clarification that use of drugs that are illegal under federal law must be reported even if they are legal under state law, and changes in wording and instructions for completion of the Form.. Public comments on the changes were solicited by OPM in a March 12 Federal Register notice.. SF-86 is notoriously burdensome to fill out, requiring individuals to supply detailed personal information about all places they have lived for the ...
From the Associated Press: Wayne Frost, a hip-hop pioneer known as Frosty Freeze whose acrobatic performance with the legendary Rock Steady Crew in the 1983 hit movie Flashdance set off a worldwide breakdancing craze, has died. He was 44. Complete obit is here. Tribute video on YouTube: Interesting that he has passed at a time when dancing of all sorts, including things with break moves, is enjoying a considerable revival. Dance shows abound on the tube. Dance-themed movies pop up frequently, and sometimes even have plots. When the New Kids on the Block announced their reunion, an almost immediate question was whether they could do their dance moves. And breakdancing itself is now a standard form; my Websters includes a definition (although it still treats breakdancing as two words): a style of dance engaged in by youths, involving acrobatic movements, spinning about on the head or shoulders, etc. Interesting, too, that Frosty Freezes biggest claim to fame involves a movie…
All estoppels/questionnaires must include the billing name, property address, and unit number (if applicable). You must also include contact information (phone, fax, and/or email) in order for our office to return the completed form.. If no form is provided with payment, a standard form will be issued. If you later require an additional form to be filled out, an additional fee/payment must be provided.. If the request is received after 2:00 p.m., it will begin processing the next business day.. All estoppels are only valid for 30 days after completion. If a revision or a new estoppel is requested for the same property after 30 days, fees will apply (no refunds).. If the unit/home in question is in foreclosure, the certificate of title must be turned in with the estoppel/questionnaire form in order for it to be completed.. The fees for completing an estoppel/questionnaire are as follows:. ...
Targeting and killing specific cells discriminately has been the goal of targeted therapy dating back to the era of Paul Ehrlich. The discovery of cancer stem cells has caused a paradigm shift within the cancer field and provided an opportunity to use targeted therapies such as targeted toxins to bind and kill these cells selectively. A number of targeted toxins have been developed against recently identified cancer stem cell markers. In this review we discuss the development and current status of these exciting novel drugs and their potential use to combat drug-refractory relapse.
Targeting and killing specific cells discriminately has been the goal of targeted therapy dating back to the era of Paul Ehrlich. The discovery of cancer stem cells has caused a paradigm shift within the cancer field and provided an opportunity to use targeted therapies such as targeted toxins to bind and kill these cells selectively. A number of targeted toxins have been developed against recently identified cancer stem cell markers. In this review we discuss the development and current status of these exciting novel drugs and their potential use to combat drug-refractory relapse.
Integrins are cell‐surface adhesion molecules formed from eight different β chains and 18 different α chains that assemble as heterodimeric transmembrane receptors to mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions
The vertebrate Xlink domain is found in two types of genes: lecticans and their associated hyaluronan-and-proteoglycan-binding-link-proteins (HAPLNs), which are components of the extracellular matrix, and those represented by CD44 and stabilins, which are expressed on the surface of lymphocytes. In both types of genes, Xlink functions as a hyaluronan binding domain. We have already reported that protochordate ascidians possess only the latter type of gene. The present analysis of the expression of ascidian Xlink domain genes revealed that these genes function in blood cell migration and apoptosis. While the Xlink domain is found in various metazoans, including ascidians and nematodes, hyaluronan is believed to be specific for vertebrates. In comprehensive genome surveys for hyaluronan synthase (HAS), we found no HAS gene in ascidians. We also established that hyaluronan is absent from the ascidian body biochemically. Therefore, ascidians possess the Xlink domain, but they lack HA. We recovered ...
Reissue of the mini album originally released by God Is Myth in only 100 copies on 3 CD. Now in standard Cd format with two bonus tracks including a cover of Emperors Night of the Graveless Souls.This is edition is limited to 500 copies ...
The SureSelect Human All Exon V6 is a high performing design that targets updated content, including challenging regions, from the databases relevant to both the clinical and translational researchers. Optimized bait selection and boosting enables highly uniform coverage of the exome and each individual targeted exon. This improvement helps address the current observation of the inverse correlation between depth of coverage and breadth of coverage providing balanced coverage, maximizing variant information output for per exome sequenced.. Most comprehensive content, an exome solution for every application. ...
Hyaluronan, a major extracellular matrix molecule in the vital cell layers of skin epidermis, has been suggested to support proliferation and migration of keratinocytes, during challenges like wounding and inflammation. An organotypic keratinocyte culture originated from continuous rat epidermal keratinocyte cell line was subjected to the proliferative and antiproliferative growth factors epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor beta, respectively, to study their influence on hyaluronan synthesis and epidermal morphology. Epidermal growth factor induced a 4-fold increase of epidermal hyaluronan concentration. This was associated with upregulation of the hyaluronan synthases Has2 and Has3, and the hyaluronan receptor CD44. 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine labeling, basal cell height, and the thickness of vital epidermis were increased, reflecting the hyperplastic effects of epidermal growth factor. The expression of keratin 10 and the maturation of filaggrin were inhibited, and epidermal ...
Full Text - Gomisin M2 isolated from Schisandra viridis A. C. Smith has potential anti-tumor effects on certain cancers, including breast cancer. However, only a few investigations have been conducted on the effects of Gomisin M2 on breast cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have the ability to self-renew and differentiate, as a possible strategy to resolve cancer cell resistance to apoptosis and to improve treatments. It is essential to investigate the effects of Gomisin M2 on breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). In this study, we enriched breast cancer stem cells with CD44+/CD24- from MDA-MB-231 and HCC1806 cells through magnetic-activated cell sorting and cultured these in serum-free medium. The ability of Gomisin M2 to kill breast cancer stem cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Gomisin M2 significantly inhibited the proliferation of the triple-negative breast cancer cell lines and mammosphere formation in breast CSCs and downregulated the Wnt/β-catenin self-renewal pathway.
Wnt signaling through β-catenin and the lymphoid-enhancing factor 1/T-cell factor (LEF1/TCF) family of transcription factors maintains stem cell properties in both normal and malignant tissues; however, the underlying molecular pathway involved in this process has not been completely defined. Using a microRNA microarray screening assay, we identified the let-7 miRNAs as downstream targets of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Expression studies indicated that Wnt/β-catenin pathway suppresses mature let-7 miRNAs but not the primary transcripts, which suggests a posttranscriptional regulation of repression. Furthermore, we identified Lin28, a negative let-7 biogenesis regulator, as a novel direct downstream target of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Loss of function of Lin28 impairs the Wnt/β-catenin pathway-mediated let-7 inhibition and breast cancer stem cell expansion; enforced expression of let-7 blocks the Wnt/β-catenin pathway-stimulated breast cancer stem cell phenotype. Finally, we demonstrated that ...
Objectives: The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is a well known participant in inflammatory cell invasion and extracellular matrix remodeling. Given the role of HA in the delivery of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2, HA may link remodeling, inflammation, and ossification in calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). Excess BMP-2 is also linked with production of brown fat cells that stimulate hypoxic conditions in heterotopic ossification. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which these inflammatory, HA-driven, and hypoxic mechanisms were present in CAVD.. Methods: Calcified human aortic valves (n=14, mean age 65±15) were immunohistochemically stained for proteins involved in matrix remodeling, hypoxia, and cell differentiation. Staining intensity was evaluated within and surrounding mature calcified nodules, immature pre-nodules, and non-calcified regions of the leaflet. Inflammatory cell infiltration was assessed by the percentage of CD32, CD44, and CD45RO positive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antiangiogenic agents increase breast cancer stem cells via the generation of tumor hypoxia. AU - Conley, Sarah J.. AU - Gheordunescu, Elizabeth. AU - Kakarala, Pramod. AU - Newman, Bryan. AU - Korkaya, Hasan. AU - Heath, Amber N.. AU - Clouthier, Shawn G.. AU - Wicha, Max S.. PY - 2012/2/21. Y1 - 2012/2/21. N2 - Antiangiogenic therapy has been thought to hold significant potential for the treatment of cancer. However, the efficacy of such treatments, especially in breast cancer patients, has been called into question, as recent clinical trials reveal only limited effectiveness of antiangiogenic agents in prolonging patient survival. New research using preclinical models further suggests that antiangiogenic agents actually increase invasive and metastatic properties of breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that by generating intratumoral hypoxia in human breast cancer xenografts, the antiangiogenic agents sunitinib and bevacizumab increase the population of cancer stem cells. In ...
Studies of the most immature T cell progenitors in the human thymus have been hampered by the lack of markers and assays that define these cells. In this report we used a novel human fetal thymic organ culture system to determine the potential of T cell precursors isolated from human postnatal thymus, to differentiate into CD3+ thymocytes, and to investigate early stages of human T cell development. It was found that thymocytes that lack the markers CD3, CD4, and CD8 (triple negative [TN]) can differentiate in an allogeneic organotypic thymic culture. The capacity of TN thymocytes to differentiate was exclusively confined to the CD34+ population. CD34- TN thymocytes failed to differentiate in this system. In contrast, cloned lines of CD3- thymocytes could only be established from CD34- TN thymocytes. Five subsets of CD3- thymocytes were found with the following phenotype: CD1-TN, CD1+TN, CD1+CD4+CD8-, CD1+CD4+CD8 alpha+ beta-, and CD1+CD4+CD8 alpha beta+. These subpopulations expressed ...

Cd44 - CD44 antigen - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cd44 gene & proteinCd44 - CD44 antigen - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cd44 gene & protein

tr,Q80X37,Q80X37_MOUSE CD44 antigen OS=Mus musculus GN=Cd44 PE=1 SV=1 ... CD44 antigenImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href ... Name:Cd44Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href="/ ... Cd44 proteinImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q80X37

CD44 Antibody | CD44 Antigen | Hyaluronic Acid Receptor | AbgentCD44 Antibody | CD44 Antigen | Hyaluronic Acid Receptor | Abgent

Abgent offer the CD44 Antibody ( CD44 Antigen ) & many other monoclonal antibodies from our labs. Get this hyaluronic acid ... Hermes antigen, Hyaluronate receptor, Phagocytic glycoprotein 1, PGP-1, Phagocytic glycoprotein I, PGP-I, CD44, CD44, LHR, MDU2 ... CD44 antigen, CDw44, Epican, Extracellular matrix receptor III, ECMR-III, GP90 lymphocyte homing/adhesion receptor, HUTCH-I, ... This CD44 monoclonal antibody is against human Peyers patch endothelial cells (CD44) .. ...
more infohttps://www.abgent.com/products/AM1901b-CD44-Antibody

Antigens, CD44 | The Chopra LibraryAntigens, CD44 | The Chopra Library

Role of CD44 in the differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cells: CD44-deficiency enhances the development of Th2 effectors in response ... suggesting that CD44 may play an important role in breast cancer development. In this study, we examined whether CD44 exon 2 ... as well as examined Th1-Th2 differentiation in vivo and in vitro from CD44-sufficient and CD44-deficient naive CD4 T cells. ... CD44 is a marker of T cell activation and a property of long-lived memory cells and implicated in cell migration, activation, ...
more infohttp://isharonline.org/tags/antigens-cd44

Enhancive effects of Lewis y antigen on CD44-mediated adhesion and spreading of human ovarian cancer cell line RMG-I | Journal...Enhancive effects of Lewis y antigen on CD44-mediated adhesion and spreading of human ovarian cancer cell line RMG-I | Journal...

The co-location of Lewis y antigen and CD44 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. The co-expression of CD44 and Lewis y ... The mRNA level of CD44 in both cell lines was similar (P > 0.05). Lewis y antigen strengthens CD44-mediated adhesion and ... the expression of Lewis y antigen and CD44 was detected by Western Blot. The structural relationship between Lewis y antigen ... effects of Lewis y antigen on CD44-mediated adhesion and spreading of ovarian cancer cell line RMG-I and the Lewis y antigen- ...
more infohttps://jeccr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-9966-30-15

Leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and CD44 are signalling molecules for cytoskeleton-dependent morphological...Leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and CD44 are signalling molecules for cytoskeleton-dependent morphological...

Signaling through the leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) molecule has previously been shown to induce homotypic ... 0/Alkaloids; 0/Antigens, CD2; 0/Antigens, CD3; 0/Antigens, CD44; 0/Enzyme Inhibitors; 0/Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen- ... Antigens, CD2 / metabolism. Antigens, CD3 / physiology. Antigens, CD44 / physiology*. Cell Membrane / ultrastructure. Cell Size ... Leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and CD44 are signalling molecules for cytoskeleton-dependent morphological ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Leukocyte-function-associated-antigen-1/7595055.html

C-type lectin fold (IPR016187) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIC-type lectin fold (IPR016187) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

CD44 antigen (IPR001231). *C-type lectin-like (IPR001304). *Collagen IV, non-collagenous (IPR001442) ... Structure of the regulatory hyaluronan binding domain in the inflammatory leukocyte homing receptor CD44.. Mol. Cell 13 483-96 ... and the hyaluronan binding domain of CD44 (which contains extra N-terminal beta-strand and C-terminal beta-hairpin) [PMID: ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR016187

Cytotoxicity of natural extract from Tegillarca granosa on ovarian cancer cells is mediated by multiple molecules.Cytotoxicity of natural extract from Tegillarca granosa on ovarian cancer cells is mediated by multiple molecules.

Antigens, CD24 / metabolism. Antigens, CD44 / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents / chemistry, pharmacology*, therapeutic use*. ... 0/Antigens, CD24; 0/Antigens, CD44; 0/Antineoplastic Agents; 0/Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0/Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 ... but not CD44, were involved in the effect of growth inhibition induced by HSS. Although p53 mediated apoptosis induced by HSS ... and CD44. RESULTS: Continuous exposure to HSS for 48 h produced cytotoxic effects on both cell lines in a concentration ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Cytotoxicity-natural-extract-from-Tegillarca/19796578.html

Anti-CD44 antibody (ab157107) | AbcamAnti-CD44 antibody (ab157107) | Abcam

Rabbit polyclonal CD44 antibody. Validated in WB, IP, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. Cited in 34 ... Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with citrate buffer pH 6 before commencing with IHC staining protocol.. ... The expression of CD44 in MCF-7 is low (PMID: 25635866; PMID: 26005723). Jurkat does not express CD44 (PMID: 24127558). ... All lanes : Anti-CD44 antibody (ab157107) at 0.1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : HeLa whole cell lysate at 50 µg. Lane 2 : HeLa whole cell ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/cd44-antibody-ab157107.html?productwalltab=abreviews

Cytosolic levels of neuron-specific enolase in squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. | CureHunterCytosolic levels of neuron-specific enolase in squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. | CureHunter

Antigens, CD44 (biosynthesis) *Antigens, Neoplasm (biosynthesis) *Biomarkers, Tumor. *CA-125 Antigen (biosynthesis) ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed14535589.do

NCI Drug Dictionary - National Cancer InstituteNCI Drug Dictionary - National Cancer Institute

CD44 targeted agent SPL-108 A proprietary agent that targets the cancer stem cell (CSC) antigen CD44, with potential ... CD44 targeted agent SPL-108 binds to CD44 and prevents the activation of various CD44-mediated signal transduction pathways, ... Cibisatamab contains two antigen-recognition sites: one for human CD3, a T-cell surface antigen, and one for human CEA, a tumor ... An agent targeting the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), with potential antineoplastic activity. ...
more infohttps://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-drug?expand=C&first=201&page=2

KEGG BRITE: KEGG Orthology (KO) - Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster)KEGG BRITE: KEGG Orthology (KO) - Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster)

... suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 K06256 CD44; CD44 antigen K16989 MIR103; microRNA 103 K11592 DICER1; endoribonuclease Dicer ... 100750640 Cd44; CD44 molecule (Indian blood group) 102464844 Mir103; microRNA 103 100689239 Dicer1; dicer 1, ribonuclease III ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?cge00001+100774486

KEGG BRITE: CD Molecules - Homo sapiens (human)KEGG BRITE: CD Molecules - Homo sapiens (human)

... sialophorin K06256 CD44; CD44 antigen K06478 PTPRC; receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C [EC:3.1.3.48] K04007 CD46; ... CD79A antigen K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen K05412 CD80; CD80 antigen K06508 CD81; CD81 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K06510 ... CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06721 CLEC10A; C-type lectin ... CD96 antigen K08446 ADGRE5; CD97 antigen K06519 SLC3A2; solute carrier family 3, member 2 K06520 CD99; CD99 antigen K06521 ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?hsa04090+4486

Search | IOVS | ARVO JournalsSearch | IOVS | ARVO Journals

TAGS: pregnancy, stem cells, adult, cd44 antigens, pericytes, blood capillaries, choroid, retina, homing-associated cell ... Role of CD44 + Stem Cells in Mural Cell Formation in the Human Choroid: Evidence of Vascular Instability Due to Limited ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/solr/searchresults.aspx?author=E.+Bean

CD24 expression by pleural effusion cells as detected b | Open-iCD24 expression by pleural effusion cells as detected b | Open-i

Antigens, CD24/biosynthesis. *Antigens, CD44/biosynthesis. *Cell Line, Tumor. *Cell Membrane/metabolism ... Using the same CD24 antibody used by Al Hajj and colleagues [12] (ML5) and the same CD44 antibody, we found that only some ... Using the same CD24 antibody used by Al Hajj and colleagues [12] (ML5) and the same CD44 antibody, we found that only some ... Analysis of surface expression of CD24 and CD44 on uncultured cells from 21 of the samples showed that the cells from some ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2481500_bcr2106-2&req=4

Loading apparatus to apply sustained compressive loadin | Open-iLoading apparatus to apply sustained compressive loadin | Open-i

Antigens, CD44/biosynthesis. *Cell Culture Techniques. *Cell Line. *Compressive Strength. *Cyclooxygenase 2/biosynthesis ... CD44, HAS2, and COX2 expression was upregulated; and the concentrations of HSP90α, hyaluronan (HA), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ... CD44, HAS2, and COX2 expression was upregulated; and the concentrations of HSP90α, hyaluronan (HA), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ... CD44, HAS2, and COX2 expression was upregulated; and the concentrations of HSP90α, hyaluronan (HA), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4125229_pone.0104676.g001&req=4

Search | IOVS | ARVO JournalsSearch | IOVS | ARVO Journals

TAGS: phenotype, aldehyde dehydrogenases, stem cells, cd44 antigens, cell lines, neoplasms, homing-associated cell adhesion ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/solr/searchresults.aspx?author=Karen+Sisley

Mouse Anti-Human CD44 Azide free Clone B-F24 mAb |  Cell SciencesMouse Anti-Human CD44 Azide free Clone B-F24 mAb | Cell Sciences

CD44 is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. It is a receptor for ... Hermes antigen, Hyaluronate receptor, Phagocytic glycoprotein 1, PGP-1, Phagocyti ... CD44 is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. It is a receptor for ... CD44 participates in a wide variety of cellular functions including lymphocyte activation, recirculation and homing, ...
more infohttps://www.cellsciences.com/mouse-anti-human-cd44-azide-free-clone-b-f24-mab

Senescence in the Sbds-Deficient Murine Pancreas: Cell-Type Specific Consequences of Translation Insufficiency | proLékaře.czSenescence in the Sbds-Deficient Murine Pancreas: Cell-Type Specific Consequences of Translation Insufficiency | proLékaře.cz

Abbreviations in B: Akt1: Thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1; Cd44: CD44 antigen; Cdkn1a: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A; ... For immunohistochemistry, antigen retrieval was achieved by boiling in citrate buffer (10 mM sodium citrate, pH6.0), endogenous ... Cell suspensions were stained with conjugated antibodies against cell surface antigens with a FACSCalibur system (BD ...
more infohttps://www.prolekare.cz/casopisy/plos-genetics/2015-6/senescence-in-the-sbds-deficient-murine-pancreas-cell-type-specific-consequences-of-translation-insufficiency-55327

Sherman, L. (.<...Sherman, L. (.<...

CD44 transmembrane receptor and hyaluronan regulate adult hippocampal neural stem cell quiescence and differentiation. Su, W., ...
more infohttps://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/lawrence-larry-sherman

ENSDARG00000087863 - Zebrafish Mutation Project - Wellcome Sanger InstituteENSDARG00000087863 - Zebrafish Mutation Project - Wellcome Sanger Institute

CD44 molecule (Indian blood group) [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:1681]. Mouse Orthologue:. Cd44. Mouse Description:. CD44 antigen ...
more infohttps://www.sanger.ac.uk/sanger/Zebrafish_Zmpgene/ENSDARG00000087863

Article abstract | Medical Science MonitorArticle abstract | Medical Science Monitor

This study aimed to evaluate the association of CD44 gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms with susceptibility to breast cancer ... The PR status interacts with CD44 gene SNP.. Keywords: Antigens, CD44, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Triple Negative Breast ... The single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the CD44 gene in the 2 groups were genotyped by PCR-LDR method. The OR and its 95% CI ... Association of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms of CD44 Gene with Susceptibility to Breast Cancer in Chinese Women. Xiao Lin, ...
more infohttps://www.medscimonit.com/abstract/index/idArt/907422

Staurosporine augments EGF-mediated EMT in PMC42-LA cells through actin depolymerisation, focal contact size reduction and...Staurosporine augments EGF-mediated EMT in PMC42-LA cells through actin depolymerisation, focal contact size reduction and...

CD44, S100A4) and induced genes which alter the actin cytoskeleton (NLF1, NLF2, EPHB4). Examination of the public database of ... CD44: CD44 antigen (Indian blood group). S100A4: S100 calcium binding protein A4 ... CD44, CLDN1, CTGF, KRT14, KRT7 and S100A4. Expression of the last 6 genes in this list persisted at later timepoints (24-72 h) ... CD44, S100A4) and induced genes which alter the actin cytoskeleton (NLF1, NLF2, EPHB4). Examination of the public database of ...
more infohttps://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-9-235

Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Human Cytomegalovirus Reprograms Monocyte Differentiation toward an M1 Macrophage | The Journal...Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Human Cytomegalovirus Reprograms Monocyte Differentiation toward an M1 Macrophage | The Journal...

CD44 antigen (homing function and Indian blood group system). CD44. 1125_s_at. 3.0. ... CD86 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 2, B7-2 antigen). CD86. 36270_at. −3.4. ... CD80 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 1, B7-1 antigen). CD80. 35015_at. 4.7. ... CD209 antigen-like. CD209L. 39270_at. nc. CD36 antigen (collagen type I receptor, thrombospondin receptor). CD36. 36656_at. nc ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/181/1/698/tab-figures-data
  • Link domain, which includes the Link module of TSG-6 [ PMID: 12972412 ] (a hyaladherin with important roles in inflammation and ovulation) and the hyaluronan binding domain of CD44 (which contains extra N-terminal beta-strand and C-terminal beta-hairpin) [ PMID: 14992719 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • We tested the hypothesis that sustained compressive loading applied to three dimensional cultured fibroblasts leads to upregulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs), CD44, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) along with apoptosis via disruption of adhesion. (nih.gov)
  • Enhances hyaluronan binding to CD44. (cellsciences.com)
  • Direct nucleotide sequencing analysis showed that multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms were present in the CD44 exon 2 coding region in female patients with breast cancer. (isharonline.org)
  • Although the mechanism of action has not been elucidated, following subcutaneous administration, CD44 targeted agent SPL-108 binds to CD44 and prevents the activation of various CD44-mediated signal transduction pathways, which may lead to reduced proliferation of CD44-expressing tumor stem cells. (cancer.gov)
  • CD47, also called integrin-associated protein (IAP), is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on normal, healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and overexpressed on the surface of a variety of cancer cells. (cancer.gov)
  • CD44 is a marker for many types of cancer stem cells (CSC), including breast CSCs that possess higher tumorigenicity and metastatic potential, colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate CSCs. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • On the contrary, in some neoplasms CD44 upregulation is associated with a favorable outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these experiments, cells were sometimes gated for epithelial specific antigen-positive (ESA+) cells, and there was a suggestion that the ESA+ subset of CD44+/CD24low/- cells were more tumorigenic. (nih.gov)
  • To date, whether CD44 has a role in regulating Th1-Th2 differentiation has not been determined. (isharonline.org)
  • In this study, we compared Th1 and Th2 responses in wild-type and CD44-deficient mice in response to sheep RBC and chicken OVA, as well as examined Th1-Th2 differentiation in vivo and in vitro from CD44-sufficient and CD44-deficient naive CD4 T cells. (isharonline.org)
  • CD44 is involved in adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells, stromal cells, and the extracellular matrix. (novusbio.com)
  • A variant of signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa) that antagonizes the human cell surface antigen CD47, with potential phagocytosis-inducing, immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. (cancer.gov)
  • Furthermore, because alternative splicing and posttranslational modifications generate many different CD44 sequences, including, perhaps, tumor-specific sequences, the production of anti-CD44 tumor-specific agents may be a realistic therapeutic approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and CD44 are signalling molecules for cytoskeleton-dependent morphological changes in activated T cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with citrate buffer pH 6 before commencing with IHC staining protocol. (abcam.com)