Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

The splicing factor-associated protein, p32, regulates RNA splicing by inhibiting ASF/SF2 RNA binding and phosphorylation. (1/2559)

The cellular protein p32 was isolated originally as a protein tightly associated with the essential splicing factor ASF/SF2 during its purification from HeLa cells. ASF/SF2 is a member of the SR family of splicing factors, which stimulate constitutive splicing and regulate alternative RNA splicing in a positive or negative fashion, depending on where on the pre-mRNA they bind. Here we present evidence that p32 interacts with ASF/SF2 and SRp30c, another member of the SR protein family. We further show that p32 inhibits ASF/SF2 function as both a splicing enhancer and splicing repressor protein by preventing stable ASF/SF2 interaction with RNA, but p32 does not block SRp30c function. ASF/SF2 is highly phosphorylated in vivo, a modification required for stable RNA binding and protein-protein interaction during spliceosome formation, and this phosphorylation, either through HeLa nuclear extracts or through specific SR protein kinases, is inhibited by p32. Our results suggest that p32 functions as an ASF/SF2 inhibitory factor, regulating ASF/SF2 RNA binding and phosphorylation. These findings place p32 into a new group of proteins that control RNA splicing by sequestering an essential RNA splicing factor into an inhibitory complex.  (+info)

The role of alternative splicing of the adhesion molecule, CD44, in lymphoid malignancy. (2/2559)

AIM: To investigate the expression of CD44 isoforms containing variant exon 6 (v6) in a well characterised cohort of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), and to correlate this with phenotype and disease course. METHODS: Cryostat sections of OCT embedded diagnostic nodal material from NHL patients and cryopreserved mononuclear preparations from CLL patients were used as sources of RNA. After reverse transcription, PCR was carried out with amplimers positioned at either side of the variant exon insertion site to amplify all possible CD44 isoforms. Those isoforms containing v6 were identified after Southern blotting and hybridisation with a radiolabelled oligonucleotide. RESULTS: Of 32 NHL samples analysed, 16 did not express CD44 isoforms containing v6, six expressed an isoform containing exon v6 alone, and 10 expressed v6 long isoforms which contained exon v6 in addition to other variant exons. These data did not correlate with lymphoma classification, disease staging, or the presence or absence of extranodal disease. However, those patients expressing v6 long CD44 isoforms had a worse overall survival than those that did not. The plateau of the survival curves was 50% compared with 82%. No v6 long isoforms were detected in the 21 CLL samples investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of v6 long CD44 isoforms is associated with aggressive disease in NHL, independent of grade, stage, or presence of extranodal disease.  (+info)

Enhanced adhesion of Pasteurella multocida to cultured turkey peripheral blood monocytes. (3/2559)

Capsular hyaluronic acid (HA) mediates adhesion of serogroup A strains of Pasteurella multocida to elicited turkey air sac macrophages (TASM). In contrast, freshly isolated turkey peripheral blood monocytes (TPBM) do not bind serogroup A strains. Following culture of TPBM for 6 days in chamber slides, adhesion of the bacteria to TPBM increased gradually. Incubation in chamber slides coated with entactin-collagen IV-laminin (ECL) attachment matrix or exposure to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) further enhanced the adhesion of P. multocida to TPBM. Addition of HA, but not Arg-Gly-Asp peptide, to TPBM culture inhibited bacterial adherence similarly to the inhibition previously reported for TASM. Exposure of TPBM to monoclonal antibody directed against HA-binding cell surface proteoglycan (CD44) decreased binding of P. multocida. Collectively, these findings indicate that P. multocida adhesion to TPBM is mediated by capsular HA and can be increased by culture on ECL attachment matrix or PMA exposure. Additionally, the findings suggest that the capsular mucopolysaccharide of serogroup A strains of P. multocida recognizes an isoform of CD44 expressed on cultured TPBM.  (+info)

Expression of CD44 in Apc and Tcf mutant mice implies regulation by the WNT pathway. (4/2559)

Overexpression of cell surface glycoproteins of the CD44 family is an early event in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This suggests a link with disruption of APC tumor suppressor protein-mediated regulation of beta-catenin/Tcf-4 signaling, which is crucial in initiating tumorigenesis. To explore this hypothesis, we analyzed CD44 expression in the intestinal mucosa of mice and humans with genetic defects in either APC or Tcf-4, leading to constitutive activation or blockade of the beta-catenin/Tcf-4 pathway, respectively. We show that CD44 expression in the non-neoplastic intestinal mucosa of Apc mutant mice is confined to the crypt epithelium but that CD44 is strongly overexpressed in adenomas as well as in invasive carcinomas. This overexpression includes the standard part of the CD44 (CD44s) as well as variant exons (CD44v). Interestingly, deregulated CD44 expression is already present in aberrant crypt foci with dysplasia (ACFs), the earliest detectable lesions of colorectal neoplasia. Like ACFs of Apc-mutant mice, ACFs of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients also overexpress CD44. In sharp contrast, Tcf-4 mutant mice show a complete absence of CD44 in the epithelium of the small intestine. This loss of CD44 concurs with loss of stem cell characteristics, shared with adenoma cells. Our results indicate that CD44 expression is part of a genetic program controlled by the beta-catenin/Tcf-4 signaling pathway and suggest a role for CD44 in the generation and turnover of epithelial cells.  (+info)

Overexpression of the receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM) characterizes the malignant clone in multiple myeloma: identification of three distinct RHAMM variants. (5/2559)

The receptor for hyaluronan (HA)-mediated motility (RHAMM) controls motility by malignant cells in myeloma and is abnormally expressed on the surface of most malignant B and plasma cells in blood or bone marrow (BM) of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). RHAMM cDNA was cloned and sequenced from the malignant B and plasma cells comprising the myeloma B lineage hierarchy. Three distinct RHAMM gene products, RHAMMFL, RHAMM-48, and RHAMM-147, were cloned from MM B and plasma cells. RHAMMFL was 99% homologous to the published sequence of RHAMM. RHAMM-48 and RHAMM-147 variants align with RHAMMFL, but are characterized by sequence deletions of 48 bp (16 amino acids [aa]) and 147 bp (49 aa), respectively. The relative frequency of these RHAMM transcripts in MM plasma cells was determined by cloning of reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products amplified from MM plasma cells. Of 115 randomly picked clones, 49% were RHAMMFL, 47% were RHAMM-48, and 4% were RHAMM-147. All of the detected RHAMM variants contain exon 4, which is alternatively spliced in murine RHAMM, and had only a single copy of the exon 8 repeat sequence detected in murine RHAMM. RT-PCR analysis of sorted blood or BM cells from 22 MM patients showed that overexpression of RHAMM variants is characteristic of MM B cells and BM plasma cells in all patients tested. RHAMM also appeared to be overexpressed in B lymphoma and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. In B cells from normal donors, RHAMMFL was only weakly detectable in resting B cells from five of eight normal donors or in chronically activated B cells from three patients with Crohn's disease. RHAMM-48 was detectable in B cells from one of eight normal donors, but was undetectable in B cells of three donors with Crohn's disease. RHAMM-147 was undetectable in normal and Crohn's disease B cells. In situ RT-PCR was used to determine the number of individual cells with aggregate RHAMM transcripts. For six patients, 29% of BM plasma cells and 12% of MM B cells had detectable RHAMM transcripts, while for five normal donors, only 1. 2% of B cells expressed RHAMM transcripts. This work suggests that RHAMMFL, RHAMM-48, and RHAMM-147 splice variants are overexpressed in MM and other B lymphocyte malignancies relative to resting or in vivo-activated B cells, raising the possibility that RHAMM and its variants may contribute to the malignant process in B-cell malignancies such as lymphoma, CLL, and MM.  (+info)

Heparan sulfate-modified CD44 promotes hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-induced signal transduction through the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met. (6/2559)

CD44 has been implicated in tumor progression and metastasis, but the mechanism(s) involved is as yet poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that CD44 isoforms containing the alternatively spliced exon v3 carry heparan sulfate side chains and are able to bind heparin-binding growth factors. In the present study, we have explored the possibility of a physical and functional interaction between CD44 and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), the ligand of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met. The HGF/SF-c-Met pathway mediates cell growth and motility and has been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis. We demonstrate that a CD44v3 splice variant efficiently binds HGF/SF via its heparan sulfate side chain. To address the functional relevance of this interaction, Namalwa Burkitt's lymphoma cells were stably co-transfected with c-Met and either CD44v3 or the isoform CD44s, which lacks heparan sulfate. We show that, as compared with CD44s, CD44v3 promotes: (i) HGF/SF-induced phosphorylation of c-Met, (ii) phosphorylation of several downstream proteins, and (iii) activation of the MAP kinases ERK1 and -2. By heparitinase treatment and the use of a mutant HGF/SF with greatly decreased affinity for heparan sulfate, we show that the enhancement of c-Met signal transduction induced by CD44v3 was critically dependent on heparan sulfate moieties. Our results identify heparan sulfate-modified CD44 (CD44-HS) as a functional co-receptor for HGF/SF which promotes signaling through the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met, presumably by concentrating and presenting HGF/SF. As both CD44-HS and c-Met are overexpressed on several types of tumors, we propose that the observed functional collaboration might be instrumental in promoting tumor growth and metastasis.  (+info)

LYVE-1, a new homologue of the CD44 glycoprotein, is a lymph-specific receptor for hyaluronan. (7/2559)

The extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is an abundant component of skin and mesenchymal tissues where it facilitates cell migration during wound healing, inflammation, and embryonic morphogenesis. Both during normal tissue homeostasis and particularly after tissue injury, HA is mobilized from these sites through lymphatic vessels to the lymph nodes where it is degraded before entering the circulation for rapid uptake by the liver. Currently, however, the identities of HA binding molecules which control this pathway are unknown. Here we describe the first such molecule, LYVE-1, which we have identified as a major receptor for HA on the lymph vessel wall. The deduced amino acid sequence of LYVE-1 predicts a 322-residue type I integral membrane polypeptide 41% similar to the CD44 HA receptor with a 212-residue extracellular domain containing a single Link module the prototypic HA binding domain of the Link protein superfamily. Like CD44, the LYVE-1 molecule binds both soluble and immobilized HA. However, unlike CD44, the LYVE-1 molecule colocalizes with HA on the luminal face of the lymph vessel wall and is completely absent from blood vessels. Hence, LYVE-1 is the first lymph-specific HA receptor to be characterized and is a uniquely powerful marker for lymph vessels themselves.  (+info)

Expression of CD44 in human cumulus and mural granulosa cells of individual patients in in-vitro fertilization programmes. (8/2559)

CD44 is a polymorphic and polyfunctional transmembrane glycoprotein widely expressed in many types of cells. Here, the expression of this protein on human membrana granulosa was studied by two techniques. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) with the mouse monoclonal antibody to human CD44 (clone G44-26), cells immunoreactive for CD44 were observed in both cumulus and mural granulosa cell masses. On the other hand, using monoclonal antibody to human CD44v9, goat polyclonal antibody to human CD44v3-10 and the clone G44-26, no immunoreactivity for CD44v9 and/or CD44v3-10 was observed in either cell group by flow cytometry. In the flow cytometric analysis of 32 patients, the incidence of CD44 expression in cumulus cells (62.6+/-1.3%) was significantly higher than that in mural granulosa cells (38.5+/-3.2%) (P<0.0001). In the comparison of CD44 expression by flow cytometry according to the maturation of each cumulus-oocyte complex, the incidence of CD44 expression of cumulus cells was significantly higher in the mature group than in the immature group (P<0.05). In a flow cytometric analysis, patients with endometriosis showed a significantly lower incidence of CD44 expression in cumulus cells compared to the infertility of unknown origin group (P<0.05), and compared to both the male infertility group and the unknown origin group in mural granulosa cells (P<0.01). These findings suggest that the standard form of CD44 is expressed in human membrana granulosa with polarity and may play an important role in oocyte maturation.  (+info)

We report here that joint inflammation in collagen-induced arthritis is more aggravated in CD44-knockout mice than in WT mice, and we provide evidence for molecular redundancy as a causal factor. Furthermore, we show that under the inflammatory cascade, RHAMM (receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility), a hyaluronan receptor distinct from CD44, compensates for the loss of CD44 in binding hyaluronic acid, supporting cell migration, up-regulating genes involved with inflammation (as assessed by microarrays containing 13,000 cDNA clones), and exacerbating collagen-induced arthritis. Interestingly, we further found that the compensation for loss of the CD44 gene does not occur because of enhanced expression of the redundant gene (RHAMM), but rather because the loss of CD44 allows increased accumulation of the hyaluronic acid substrate, with which both CD44 and RHAMM engage, thus enabling augmented signaling through RHAMM. This model enlightens several aspects of molecular redundancy, which is widely
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cancer stem cell marker CD90 inhibits ovarian cancer formation via β3 integrin. AU - Chen, Wei Ching. AU - Hsu, Hui Ping. AU - Li, Chung Yen. AU - Yang, Ya Ju. AU - Hung, Yu Hsuan. AU - Cho, Chien Yu. AU - Wang, Chih Yang. AU - Weng, Tzu Yang. AU - Lai, Ming Derg. PY - 2016/11/1. Y1 - 2016/11/1. N2 - Cancer stem cell (CSC) markers have been identified for CSC isolation and proposed as therapeutic targets in various types of cancers. CD90, one of the characterized markers in liver and gastric cancer, is shown to promote cancer formation. However, the underexpression level of CD90 in ovarian cancer cells and the evidence supporting the cellular mechanism have not been investigated. In the present study, we found that the DNA copy number of CD90 is correlated with mRNA expression in ovarian cancer tissue and the ovarian cancer patients with higher CD90 have good prognosis compared to the patients with lower CD90. Although the expression of CD90 in human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells ...
Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that down-regulation of the standard CD44 isoform at the mRNA and protein level is associated with the acquisition of high metastatic ability within the Dunning R-3327 system of rat prostate cancers. Additional studies demonstrated that transfection-induced enhanced expression of the standard CD44 isoform suppresses the metastatic ability of the AT3.1 Dunning subline without suppressing tumorigenicity. The standard CD44 isoform is a major cell surface receptor for the extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronate. In this study, an investigation was made to resolve whether the ability of the standard CD44 isoform to suppress metastasis of the AT3.1 prostate cancer cells critically requires enhanced hyaluronate binding. Highly metastatic Dunning AT3.1 rat prostate cancer cells were transfected with expression plasmids encoding either the wild-type or mutant standard CD44 isoform. The mutant standard CD44 isoform construct encoded a ...
Fibroblasts transformed by Fos oncogenes display increased expression of a number of genes implicated in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. In contrast to normal 208F rat fibroblasts, Fos-transformed 208F fibroblasts are growth factor independent for invasion. We demonstrate that invasion of v-Fos- or epidermal growth factor (EGF)-transformed cells requires AP-1 activity. v-Fos-transformed cell invasion is inhibited by c-jun antisense oligonucleotides and by expression of a c-jun dominant negative mutant, TAM-67. EGF-induced invasion is inhibited by both c-fos and c-jun antisense oligonucleotides. CD44s, the standard form of a transmembrane receptor for hyaluronan, is implicated in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. We demonstrate that increased expression of CD44 in Fos- and EGF-transformed cells is dependent upon AP-1. CD44 antisense oligonucleotides reduce expression of CD44 in v-Fos- or EGF-transformed cells and inhibit invasion but not migration. Expression of a fusion protein between ...
Results RHAMM expression in the subgroup of large cell carcinomas (LCC) was associated with inferior survival (p=0.000223). Median overall survival was 92 versus 18 months for RHAMM-negative and positive patients, respectively. This survival difference remained significant in both nodal negative and positive patients (pN0: p=0.013 and pN≥1: p=0.007, respectively). P-gp expression was associated with inferior survival in adenocarcinomas (ACA; p=0.013) and appeared to be a postsurgical Union International Contre le Cancer (pUICC)- stage and gender-independent prognostic factor, irrespective of adjuvant chemotherapy, in the multivariable analysis; considering nodal status, this survival difference applied to pN0 cancers (p=0.026).. ...
CD44 is a cell surface proteoglycan homologous to cartilage link protein that serves as a receptor for hyaluronan (HA). CD44 isoforms include an unspliced 80- to 90-kDa standard form (CD44S) and isoforms derived from alternative splicing of nine CD44 variant exons (CD44V). Ligation of CD44 isoforms on monocytes induces the production of IL-1 and TNF-alpha. In addition, CD44 mAbs and HA inhibit HIV infection of monocytes by monocytotropic HIV, but do not inhibit T cell tropic HIV infectivity of T cells. To determine the ability of PB lymphocytes and monocytes to bind HA and to define and compare CD44 isoforms present on PB monocytes and lymphocytes, we studied PBMC using a panel of CD44 mAbs, HA-FITC, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis. We found that freshly isolated PB monocytes and lymphocytes did not bind soluble HA. However, in vitro culture of PBMC for 8 to 16 h resulted in CD44-dependent HA-FITC binding to monocytes, but not to lymphocytes. Western blot and flow cytometry analyses ...
CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which can exist in a multitude of isoforms due to alternative splicing of the pre-mRNA. We have generated monoclonal antibodies to several of these variant regions, which are encoded by 10 additional exons in the extracellular part of the molecule. CD44 variant isoforms have been reported to be involved in the malignant progression of rat and human tumours. The precise localization of CD44 variant isoforms in normal developmental and morphogenetic processes is essential for diagnostic studies of human tumorigenesis. Therefore, we have analysed a large number of different human tissues by immunohistochemistry for the expression of CD44 isoforms containing either exons 4v, 6v or 9v. Expression of exon 9v-isoforms was detected in almost all epithelia analysed, with a few exceptions. Exon 6v isoforms are expressed only in squamous and glandular epithelial, e.g. skin epidermis, sweat and sebaceous glands, oesophagus, ducts of the mammary gland, salivary and ...
Do you know what to do if an equation doesnt look like y=mx+b?! If not, then this video is for you. Chances are the equation is in standard form,...
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Overexpression of the RHAMM gene by transfection into fibroblasts is transforming and causes spontaneous metastases in the lung. H-ras-transformed fibrosarcomas transfected with a dominant suppressor mutant of RHAMM exhibit a so-called revertant phenotype and are completely nontumorigenic and nonmet …
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Mouse Monoclonal. Reactivity: Hu, Ms. Application: IHC-P. Specificity: Recognizes a cell surface glycoprotein of 80-95kDa (CD44) on lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes (Leucocyte Typing Workshop V). Its epitope is resistant to digestion by trypsin and chymotrypsin. The CD44 family of glycoproteins exists in a number of variant isoforms, the most common being the standard 85-95kDa or hematopoietic variant (CD44s). Higher molecular weight isoforms are described in epithelial cells (CD44v), which are believed to function in intercellular adhesion and stromal binding. CD44 immunostaining is commonly used for the discrimination of urothelial transitional cell carcinoma in-situ from non-neoplastic changes in the urothelium.. Package: 100μg. ...
Some default settings in toolbar drawing/Zeichnen are not chosen well: (1) The default for standard forms/Standardformen is a rectangle, which already has another default entry in the drawing toolbar with the name rectangle/Rechteck. It would make more sense to choose in standard forms another default setting such as rounded rectangle or something else. (2) The tool tip for insert image/Bild einfügen is Aus Datei, which is much worse than Bild einfügen, so why? (3) Why is the icon/selection lines and arrows/Linien und Pfeile hidden by default in the drawing toolbar? It would make sense to add it to the toolbar by default or to replace the icon Linie mit Pfeilende/line with arrowhead with the selection Linien und Pfeile (which also includes the Linie mit Pfeilende). (4) Why is there an entire independent toolbar called Kreise und Ovale/Circles and ovals? These elements should be by default in the drawing toolbar and not separated ...
The degree of a monomial is found by adding the exponents together! ... Standard form: Polynomials are usually written in standard form, beginning with the nonzero term of highest degree and continuing with terms in descending order according to degree.
SiR-Kaufmann and colleagues (March 11, p 615) assessthe expression of CD44 isoforms in breast cancer andcorrelate the data with outlook. With antibodies againsthuman CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v), they showsignificant correlations between presence of v6 epitopes andoverall survival. Reactivity against DIII, a polyclonal serum,emerged as an independent prognostic factor in multivariateanalyses, surpassing in risk even such established factors aslymph-node status, tumour size, and histological grading.These workers claim the necessity for further studiesincluding more patients ...
Number Routine use of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, using integers, decimals and fractions, including order of operations.. Simple positive exponents.. Simplification of expressions involving roots (surds or radicals).. Prime numbers and factors, including greatest common divisors and least common multiples.. Simple applications of ratio, percentage and proportion, linked to similarity.. Definition and elementary treatment of absolute value (modulus), ǀ a ǀ .. Rounding, decimal approximations and significant figures, including appreciation of errors.. Expression of numbers in standard form (scientific notation), that is, a ×10k , 1≤ a ,10.. Sets and numbers Concept and notation of sets, elements, universal (reference) set, empty (null) set, complement, subset, equality of sets, disjoint sets.. Operations on sets: union and intersection.. Commutative, associative and distributive properties.. Venn diagrams.. Number systems: natural numbers; integers; rationals and ...
Files an error against a form element.. When a validation error is detected, the validator calls form_set_error() to indicate which element needs to be changed and provide an error message. This causes the Form API to not execute the form submit handlers, and instead to re-display the form to the user with the corresponding elements rendered with an error CSS class (shown as red by default).. The standard form_set_error() behavior can be changed if a button provides the #limit_validation_errors property. Multistep forms not wanting to validate the whole form can set #limit_validation_errors on buttons to limit validation errors to only certain elements. For example, pressing the Previous button in a multistep form should not fire validation errors just because the current step has invalid values. If #limit_validation_errors is set on a clicked button, the button must also define a #submit property (may be set to an empty array). Any #submit handlers will be executed even if there is invalid ...
Ettekande slaidid. [pdf]. Abstract: Designing a viable language for total (as in type theory) functional programming is remarkably difficult: it takes a term calculus for a type language with inductive and coinductive types that is satisfactory both metatheoretically and practically. Basic structured (co)recursion schemes in their standard form are not an option, they are far too cumbersome to program with.. The alternatives include what are known as guarded and Mendler-style (co)recursion primitives. These are general-recursor like combinators. Guarded combinators are governed by syntactic side-conditions enforcing conformance of an a priori general-recursive definition to a structured (co)recursion scheme. Mendler-style combinators are cleaner: here the same effect is achieved by more restrictive typing employing universal quantification. But a problem with both is that the choice of the structured (co)recursion scheme to support is non-canonical.. We argue that one meaningful canonical ...
Given a tanru which expresses an idea to be used frequently, it can be turned into a lujvo by following the lujvo-making algorithm which is given in Section 4.11.. In building a lujvo, the first step is to replace each gismu with a rafsi that uniquely represents that gismu. These rafsi are then attached together by fixed rules that allow the resulting compound to be recognized as a single word and to be analyzed in only one way.. There are three other complications; only one is serious.. The first is that there is usually more than one rafsi that can be used for each gismu. The one to be used is simply whichever one sounds or looks best to the speaker or writer. There are usually many valid combinations of possible rafsi. They all are equally valid, and all of them mean exactly the same thing. (The scoring algorithm given in Section 4.12 is used to choose the standard form of the lujvo - the version which would be entered into a dictionary.). The second complication is the serious one. Remember ...
D. Berfau - Verbs 1. The Present Tense All verb -nouns are added to various persons of the verb to be - linked by yn. There is no mutation after this linking yn. (a) The Affirmative forms Standard forms
We applied our factoring skills to convert quadratic equations in Standard Form ($latex y=ax^2+bx+c $) to Factored Form ($latex y=a(x-r)(x-s) $). Its the same process as weve been using for factoring expressions, but theres an extra step at the end to factor out any coefficients on the linear terms. For example, if you factor an…
If you spend $1,000 for something you could have bought for $800, youll need to produce an extra $200 to make up for it. Make this easy on yourself by using a standard form to solicit bids on purchase over a certain amount. E-mail it to at least three vendors, with a tight deadline for their bid. Youll be surprised how well this works. I once saved more than $4,000 on a car purchase with just this method. Even better, I saved hours of time I would have spent driving to each dealership and dealing with the whole sales pitch hassle. ...
In this section, you will: Graph parabolas with vertices at the origin. Write equations of parabolas in standard form. Graph parabolas with vertices not at the origin. Solve applied
Write the standard form of the ellipse x^2+4y^2+6x-8y+9=0 Im not sure how to start it, I think I need to set it equal to one because eventually it needs to end up equal to one but Im not certain. I know the answer is (x+3)^2/4 + (y-1)^2/1=1 but have no idea how to get there... ...
If you record wma or mp3 files directly to the CD without choosing AUDIO CD, your CD will be recorded as a Data CD, and only players capable of decoding those files will be able to play your talks, and the CD that you make will not be playable in a standard CD player ...
If you record wma or mp3 files directly to the CD without choosing AUDIO CD, your CD will be recorded as a Data CD, and only players capable of decoding those files will be able to play your talks, and the CD that you make will not be playable in a standard CD player ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The hyaluronan receptors CD44 and Rhamm (CD168) form complexes with ERK1,2 that sustain high basal motility in breast cancer cells. AU - Hamilton, Sara R.. AU - Fard, Shireen F.. AU - Paiwand, Frouz F.. AU - Tolg, Cornelia. AU - Veiseh, Mandana. AU - Wang, Chao. AU - McCarthy, James B.. AU - Bissell, Mina J.. AU - Koropatnick, James. AU - Turley, Eva A.. PY - 2007/6/1. Y1 - 2007/6/1. N2 - CD44 is an integral hyaluronan receptor that can promote or inhibit motogenic signaling in tumor cells. Rhamm is a nonintegral cell surface hyaluronan receptor (CD168) and intracellular protein that promotes cell motility in culture. Here we describe an autocrine mechanism utilizing cell surface Rhamm-CD44 interactions to sustain rapid basal motility in invasive breast cancer cell lines that requires endogenous hyaluronan synthesis and the formation of Rhamm-CD44-ERK1,2 complexes. Motile/invasive MDA-MB-231 and Ras-MCF10A cells produce more endogenous hyaluronan, cell surface CD44 and Rhamm, an ...
A number of reports have shown that CD44 is present in cholesterol-enriched lipid raft microdomains in various cell types including T cells (Ilangumaran et al., 1998; Gómez-Móuton et al., 2001; Oliferenko et al., 1999; Seveau et al., 2001; Pierini et al., 2003; Bourguignon et al., 2004). However, the functional significance of CD44 localization in the lipid rafts had been largely unknown. This study demonstrated the functional significance of this association in T cell adhesion properties. We demonstrated in the present study that cellular cholesterol modulates the HA-binding ability of CD44. Using BW5147 T cells, which express CD44 with HA-binding ability, we showed that cholesterol depletion induced with MβCD upregulates both the HA-binding ability of CD44 (Fig. 1) and the loss of CD44 from detergent-insoluble fractions (Fig. 3). We also found that cholesterol oxidation and sequestration upregulate CD44s HA-binding ability (Fig. 2), suggesting that the lipid rafts modulate CD44 function. ...
Cancer stem cells (CSC) play an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis and prognosis. The study aimed at examining the expression of CD24, CD44, and CD133 in human PDAC and CP in order to evaluate its clinicopathological correlations and the clinical significance. Surgical specimens from 23 patients with PDAC and 15 patients with chronic pancreatitis after pancreatic resection were stained with CD24, CD44, and CD133 antibodies. The intensity of staining was scored from 0 (negative) to 3 (strongly positive). Results. Mean CD24 staining score in PDAC was 1.38 ± 0.76 and was significantly higher than that in CP: 0.70 ± 0.53 (p | 0.01); CD44 score in PDAC was 2.23 ± 0.42 and was significantly higher than that in CP: 1.87 ± 0.55 (p | 0.05); CD133 score 0.93 ± 0.58 was not different from CP: 0.71 ± 0.43 (p | 0.05). CD44 immunoreactivity was significantly higher (p | 0.05) in pT1 and pT2 patients together as regards pT3: 2.45 ± 0.37 versus 2.06 ± 0.38 as well as in N0 patients compared to N1
Irish is recognised by the Constitution of Ireland as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland (English is the other official language). Despite this, almost all government debates and business are conducted in English.[21] In 1938, the founder of Conradh na Gaeilge (Gaelic League), Douglas Hyde, was inaugurated as the first President of Ireland. The record of his delivering his inaugural Declaration of Office in Roscommon Irish is one of only a few recordings of that dialect.[22][23][24][25] In the 2016 census, 10.5% of respondents stated that they spoke Irish, either daily or weekly,[26] while over 70,000 people speak it as a habitual daily means of communication. From the foundation of the Irish Free State in 1922 (see also History of the Republic of Ireland), a degree of proficiency in Irish was required of all those newly appointed to the Civil Service of the Republic of Ireland, including postal workers, tax collectors, agricultural inspectors, Garda Síochána, ...
Irish was spoken as a community language in Irish towns and cities down to the 19th century. In the 16th and 17th centuries it was widespread even in Dublin and the Pale.[56]. The Irish of Dublin, situated as it was between the east Ulster dialect of Meath and Louth to the north and the Leinster-Connacht dialect further south, may have reflected the characteristics of both in phonology and grammar. In County Dublin itself the general rule was to place the stress on the initial vowel of words. With time it appears that the forms of the dative case took over the other case endings in the plural (a tendency found to a lesser extent in other dialects). In a letter written in Dublin in 1691 we find such examples as the following: gnóthuimh (accusative case, the standard form being gnóthaí), tíorthuibh (accusative case, the standard form being tíortha) and leithscéalaibh (genitive case, the standard form being leithscéalta).[57]. English authorities of the Cromwellian period, aware that Irish ...
A study from the Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA; and Womens Guild Lung Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA shows that: Hyaluronan and TLR4 promote surfactant-protein-C-positive alveolar progenitor cell renewal and prevent severe pulmonary fibrosis in mice. This study was published in the 03 October 2016 issue of the journal Nature Medicine by Prof. Noble PW, Liang J and others.. On the foundation of this interesting finding, Dr L Boominathan PhD, Director-cum-chief Scientist of GBMD, reports that: Natural product therapy for Pulmonary Fibrosis: Onion Peel extract (OPE) increases Toll-like receptor 4 expression and extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan Hyaluronan levels, promotes alveolar progenitor cell renewal and repair of lung injury and prevents severe pulmonary fibrosis via down-regulation of its target gene. Significance:. Given that: (1) Pulmonary disease (PD)/Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a progressive ...
A major component of the extracellular matrix is hyaluronan, a regulator of cell migration/survival and differentiation during response-to-injury processes. The receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM) binds to HA and has limited constitutive expression but is upregulated during tissue injury. Blocking HA fragment:RHAMM interactions has therapeutic potential for treating cancer but truncation of RHAMM into peptides mimicking only the HA binding domains is predicted to lose their natural α-helical structure. The goal of this project is to explore the effects cyclizing each binding domain has on helicity and its biological effect. Eighteen peptides were synthesized and cyclized using lactam bridges. The peptides were analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy and one stapled peptide exhibited a 4-fold increase in helicity compared to the unstapled sequence and significantly decreased migration, inflammation, and fibrosis in vitro. This cyclic peptide is a novel protein-carbohydrate inhibitor
In this study we demonstrate that LC and DC during in vitro activation and during their in vivo migration to the peripheral LN differentially upregulate pan CD44 epitopes and sequences encoded by variant exons CD44v4, v5, v6, and v9. Thus LC and DC activation or migration is accompanied by increased synthesis of CD44 and by a change of either epitope accessibility or splicing. The mechanisms underlying this change remain to be elucidated: granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β, secreted by keratinocytes in response to antigen application to the skin, play a role in LC-maturation, emigration, and accumulation in LN (9, 11, 16). Furthermore, the generation of activated DC from peripheral blood precursors depends upon the presence of GM-CSF (35). However, at present we have no evidence that GM-CSF and tumor necrosis factorα are involved in CD44 modulation by LC or DC, since biologically active mAbs neutralizing these cytokines added ...
Having crossed from chimpanzees to humans in only the past century, HIV-1 has rapidly evolved a daunting degree of diversity, posing a considerable challenge for vaccine development. The definition of naturally occurring broadly neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) has proven elusive, and the ability to target conserved determinants of the viral envelope (Env) has proven difficult (1, 2). During HIV-1 infection, almost all individuals produce antibodies to Env, but only a small fraction can neutralize the virus (1, 2). Recently, several groups have shown that the sera of 10 to 25% of infected participants contain broadly reactive NAbs (3-6), including some sera that neutralize the majority of viruses from diverse genetic subtypes (5-7). NAbs react with the HIV-1 Env spike, which is composed of three heavily glycosylated glycoprotein (gp)120 molecules, each noncovalently associated with a transmembrane gp41 molecule. To initiate viral entry into cells, the gp120 binds to the cell surface receptor CD4 ...
Compare hyaluronic acid binding protein 2 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
The CD44 antigens are transmembrane glycoproteins and members of the hyaladherin family of hyaluronan-binding proteins. Multiple CD44 isoforms have been described, the predominant form being CD44S, a glycoprotein of 85 kDa. CD44 is present on most cells or tissues, but not on platelets, hepatocytes, cardiac muscle, kidney tubular epithelium, testis and skin portions. The human blood group antigens Ina/b reside on CD44. *Alexa Fluor and Pacific Blue are registered trademarks of Molecular Probes, Inc.
Equations for the probability functions are given for the standard form of the distribution. Formulas exist for defining the functions with location and scale parameters in terms of the standard form of the distribution. The sections on parameter estimation are restricted to the method of moments and maximum likelihood. This is because the least squares and PPCC and probability plot estimation procedures are generic. The maximum likelihood equations are not listed if they involve solving simultaneous equations. This is because these methods require sophisticated computer software to solve. Except where the maximum likelihood estimates are trivial, you should depend on a statistical software program to compute them. References are given for those who are interested. Be aware that different sources may give formulas that are different from those shown here. In some cases, these are simply mathematically equivalent formulations. In other cases, a different parameterization may be used ...
Textbook solution for Multivariable Calculus 8th Edition James Stewart Chapter 12.6 Problem 31E. We have step-by-step solutions for your textbooks written by Bartleby experts!
Interactions of stromal hyaluronic acid (HA) with its binding protein RHAMM (receptor for HA-mediated motility) (CD168) have been reported to affect tumor extension and the migration of crucial molecules to promote tumor progression and metastases. Cancerous CD168 expression is correlated with aggressive biological features in several cancers. However, the clinical implications of CD168 positivity in gastric cancer have remained unclear. We examined the CD168 expression of 196 consecutive gastric cancer patients by immunohistochemistry. According to CD168 positivity, the 196 gastric cancer patients were divided into two groups (57 CD168-positive and 139 CD168-negative patients). The correlation between CD168 expression and clinicopathological factors (age, sex, histology, tumor depth, lymph node status, and vessel invasion) was evaluated according to the Japanese Classification of Gastric Carcinoma. Cancerous CD168 expression was detectable in 57 of the 196 tumors (29%). CD168 positivity was
The CD45 antigen is essential for normal antigen receptor-mediated signalling in lymphocytes, and different patterns of splicing of CD45 are associated with distinct functions in lymphocytes. Abnormal CD45 splicing has been recognized in humans, caused by a C77G transversion in the gene encoding CD45 (PTPRC). Recently the C77G polymorphism has been associated with multiple sclerosis and increased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. These studies suggest that the regulation of CD45 splicing may be critical for the proper function of the immune system. Because of these data we examined the frequency of the C77G allele in African and Asian populations from countries with high or low prevalence of HIV infection. Here we report that the variant CD45 C77G allele is absent in African populations. We further show that populations living in the Pamir mountains of Central Asia have a very high prevalence of the C77G variant.
Su, J., and J. Forman. CD8 T cells in MHC class Ia-deficient mice. AAI, Denver, CO, 2003. Su, J., R. E. Berg, S. Murry, and J. Forman. Thymus dependent MHC non class Ia selected memory phenotype CD8 T cells from naïve mice provide rapid protection against infection. AAI, San Diego, CA, 2005. xiii List of Figures 1. An elevated percentage of CD8 T cells in DKO are CD8?+CD8?-………………………….50 2. There are less CD8??CD44hi cells and similar CD8?? cells in DKO mice compared to B6 mice…………………………………………………………………………………………..52 3. A significant portion of CD8?? T cells in DKO mice is CD44hiCD122+Ly6C+ and CD62Llo……………………………………………………………………………...............53 4. Expression of NK cell markers by CD8??CD44hi cells from naïve B6 and DKO mice ………………………………………………………………………………………………..55 5. ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
We urgently need patient advocates to be involved in clinical studies, not as researchers, but as patient representatives who are well acquainted with the reality of the patients situation.. Clinical Studies From A Patient Perspective - Interview with Markus Wartenberg, Co-Chair of SPAEN. Clinical studies are an essential step in the development of novel treatment methods for cancer and other diseases. They show researchers what works for the welfare of patients and what does not. In addition to safety and effectiveness they also determine whether the side effects of a new treatment are acceptable and, increasingly, what quality of life for patients is associated with a new therapy. Clinical studies are an important component of treatment concepts for rare forms of cancer because here the standard forms of therapy are often limited. Nevertheless, only up to 5 % of cancer patients actually participate in clinical studies. Recent studies show that 3 out of 5 phase III studies are not able to ...
Natural Factors Quercetin LipoMicel Matrix contains an enhanced source of the antioxidant quercetin that is used in herbal medicine to protect blood vessels, protect against oxidative stress, and provide immune support.. The unique patent-pending technology creates a liquid micelle matrix that disperses quercetin into tiny micro-droplets, resulting in 10 times higher absorption than standard forms.. ...
G43a1 modified to contain SEP (phosphoserine), TPO (phosphothreonine), and PTR (phosphotyrosine) (all PO4^{2-} forms), and SEPH, TPOH, PTRH (PO4H^{-} forms). The charges and vdw parameters come from Hansson, Nordlund and Aqvist jmb 265 118-27 1997. They worked mostly with gromos 87 but I generally use gromos 96 so I\ve made the files in that format (there seem to be no differences in the amino acid charges between 87 and 96). Hansson et al don\t report bond angle or dihedral parameters, and I don\t know how to do QM calculations, so I\ve used the standard forms from the *bon.itp file. For the dihedrals, I\ve used the 3-fold gd_11. Because of their symmetry, the PO4^{2-} forms at least cannot have the 2-fold + 3-fold symmetry used in the gmx DNA bases. The OP-X LJ-14 parameters are the same as for OA. I\ve checked that I can build simple 1-molecule topologies and tprs for the PO4H forms, and for the PO4 forms have done 100 ps solvated MD of the isolated am acs and the am acs in proteins ...
Dutch, along with German, English, Frisian, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, and Afrikaans, is a Germanic language. It is very closely related to the dialects of northern Germany known as Low German. Indeed, the traditional dialects along the Dutch-German border are virtually the same. You may want to read about the linguistic situation in the lower Rhine area or about spelling variations there. Dutch words for nouns (persons, places, and things) are classified as either common or neuter. Variant Forms of Words In Dutch, as in English, the forms of some words will vary according to how they are used in a sentence. Who-whose-whom, or marry-marries-married are examples of words in English with variant forms. This word list gives the standard form of each Dutch word. As you read Dutch records, you will need to be aware that some words vary with usage. The prefix tis equal to the Dutch word het, which means the. The prefixs- is a part of many place-names and means des (of the). All prefixes are ...
The evidence at trial establishes that the application of the Act has been in compliance with its statutory framework, and that CIRM and the ICOC are operating in the same fashion as other state agencies. Each ICOC member, and each alternate, has taken the oath of office and publicly filed Form 700, the standard form California public officials file to disclose financial holdings. The ICOC developed and adopted incompatible activities statements, the conflict of interest code required by the Political Reform Act, and conflict of interest policies for ICOC members, CIRM staff, and members of each of the ICOC advisory groups. Between January 2005 and the date of the trial, the ICOC, its subcommittees, and its working groups held over 40 noticed, public meetings, in cities across the state, held pursuant to the Bagley-Keene Open Meeting Act. CIRM has responded to numerous Public Records Act requests. The selection of the site for the CIRMs facilities was run by the Department of General Services, ...
A Modular Operating Topology Element (MOTE) is provided within a software-latticed networked topology for implementing ultra-concurrent operation of a plurality of such elements, as a single miniaturized package having a prevailing standard form, e.g., Compact Flash, with an embedded a full function processor (CPU), a unique resident operating system, and dedicated applications. The external interface projects a virtual mass storage volume. A MOTE selectively acts as an ultra-modular processor, operating with ultra-concurrency, with the CPU internally bus connected to non-volatile RAM, dedicated non-volatile ROM (firmware), a dedicated battery-backed real-time clock-calendar unit, and a dedicated interrupt monitor unit. Internally accessed data and internal applications stored in ROM or in non-volatile RAM are invisible to the outside. Optional input/output devices may be connected to the internal hardware bus. A host external bus connection is provided for mass storage volumes, which support file-level
I can get part of the answer then I get stumped. find the center and radius of the circle, Write the standard form of the equation. (4,3)(1,3) to get center: (1+4/2, 3+3/2)=5/2,3 answer:5/2,3 for center radius: then i am stuck ...
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For pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications, the ALU-LOOK™ blister films offer a versatile, high-speed packaging option compared with cold-form foil and aluminum strip packaging. Metallic look helps ensure shelf life and protect contents. Runs on all standard form/fill/seal blister machinery with no processing parameter changes necessary ...
So you are wanting to do 6 total sets for your back? In that case how about 3 bent over rows, 2 pulldowns/pullups/chins, and 1 rear delt row. The thing with bent over rows is if you bend more and lift the bar further up like just below the pecs, it doesnt get the lats much, but it hits the rear delts pretty hard. If you stand up a little higher then normal and go just above the waist, it is more of a lat exercise, doesnt get the rear delts much, and does a bit less for the traps. It is a versatile exercise that can be done different ways for different goals. In my example I suggest the standard form ...
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Hyaluronan is a negatively charged polydisperse polysaccharide where both its size and tissue concentration play an important role in many physiological and pathological processes. The various functions of hyaluronan depend on its molecular size. Up to now, it has been difficult to study the role of hyaluronan in diseases with pathological changes in the extracellular matrix where availability is low or tissue samples are small. Difficulty to obtain large enough biopsies from human diseased tissue or tissue from animal models has also restricted the study of hyaluronan. In this paper, we demonstrate that gas-phase electrophoretic molecular mobility analyzer (GEMMA) can be used to estimate the distribution of hyaluronan molecular sizes in biological samples with a limited amount of hyaluronan. The low detection level of the GEMMA method allows for estimation of hyaluronan molecular sizes from different parts of small organs. Hence, the GEMMA method opens opportunity to attain a profile over the ...
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Buy anti-HMMR antibody, Rabbit HMMR / CD168 / RHAMM Polyclonal Antibody-NP_036616.2 (MBS243539) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: Immunohistochemistry (IHC - Paraffin), Western Blot (WB)
Complete information for FKBPL gene (Protein Coding), FK506 Binding Protein Like, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
As the glorious release date of March 29 inches closer and closer, the anticipation of hearing Becks upcoming album Guero in its entirety is driving me crazy. Mr. Hanson is releasing not one, not two, but three versions of the new record. According to Billboard there will be a standard CD, a double-disc package featuring two videos and a surround sound mix and a third version which includes four remixes. The two videos featured on the double-disc set will be for E-Pro and Black Tambourine. The remix artists on the third version of the release will include Boards Of Canada, Octet, Dizzee Rascall and Royksopp.. ...
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|p|Short reach stem, not just for flatland.|/p| |ul| |li|Weight: TBA|/li| |li|Colours: Black or Rainbow|/li| |/ul| |p||/p| |p||/p|
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CD44 antigen, the main cell surface receptor for HA. Hyaladherin "Link domain signature and profile". PROSITE. December 2004. ... aggrecan and CD44 is similar to that of the C-type lectin superfamily". FEBS Lett. 388 (2-3): 211-6. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(96) ...
Antigen-naive T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... Note- CD44 expression is usually used to distinguish murine naive from memory T cells). Effector memory T cells (TEM cells and ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help. Antigen ... If the pre-TCR forms, then the cell downregulates CD25 and is termed a DN4 cell (CD25−CD44−). These cells then undergo a round ...
There are typically a differentiation of CD73, CD90, CD105, CD44 as well as others that cover the cells surface. They also lack ... Low levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR) make MSC's hypoimmunogenic. MSC's have trilineage differentiation where they are ...
Most individuals express the Inb antigen that results from an arginine residue at position 46 of CD44 . The Ina blood type ... is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigens that reside within the CD44 molecule that ... "Red Cell Antigens - Fun Facts, Questions, Answers, Information". Fun Trivia. Archived from the original on 2015-03-12. ... Telen MJ, Udani M, Washington MK, Levesque MC, Lloyd E, Rao N (March 1996). "A blood group-related polymorphism of CD44 ...
In breast cancer cells expressing CD44 and CD24, DHRS7B expression was observed to be down regulated. CD44 is an antigen found ...
... stage-specific embryonic antigen-1), EGFR and CD44. The use of CD133 for identification of brain tumor stem-like cells may be ... Both CD44+CD24− and CD44+CD24+ cell populations are tumor initiating cells; however, CSC are most highly enriched using the ... In breast cancer CD44+CD24−/low cells are detectable in metastatic pleural effusions. By contrast, an increased number of CD24+ ... CD44 (PGP1) is an adhesion molecule that has pleiotropic roles in cell signaling, migration and homing. It has multiple ...
When a recognized antigen binds to the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) located in the cell membrane of Th0 cells, these cells are ... CD44 or CD69; and the absence of memory CD45RO isoform. They also express functional IL-7 receptors, consisting of subunits IL- ... Recognition by a naive T cell clone of its cognate antigen results in the initiation of an immune response. In turn, this ... von Essen MR, Kongsbak M, Schjerling P, Olgaard K, Odum N, Geisler C (April 2010). "Vitamin D controls T cell antigen receptor ...
A group of diencephalic cells that express the cell surface antigen stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-1 and CD44 will ... Sretavan DW, Feng L, Puré E, Reichardt LF (May 1994). "Embryonic neurons of the developing optic chiasm express L1 and CD44, ...
It is officially described as "immunoglobulin G1 (human-mouse monoclonal BIWA4 γ1-chain anti-human antigen CD44v6), disulfide ... Bivatuzumab (previously BIWA 4) is a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD44 v6. ... with human-mouse monoclonal BIWA4 κ-chain, dimer". Prior to 2002 it was described as targeting CD44 v8. It has been chemically ...
That leads to maturation of DCs and also to the presentation of intracellular antigens of late apoptotic or secondary necrotic ... Monocytes isolated from whole blood of people with SLE show reduced expression of CD44 surface molecules involved in the uptake ... In close proximity to TBM, follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are localised in GC, which attach antigen material to their surface ... When apoptotic material is not removed correctly by phagocytes, they are captured instead by antigen-presenting cells, which ...
CD44), Duffy (Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor or Fy), Scianna (ERMAP), MN (glycophorin A), Diego(band 3), P1, i, AnWj (CD44) ... Antigens on RBC membrane, and some of which might overlap with KLF1 mutations causing the fraction of hereditary persistence of ... Permissive nature of the role of KLF1 on expression of several RBC antigens are evidenced by a series of known KLF1 mutations ... but there is an apparent dominant negative effect on expression of Lutheran Antigen (Basal cell adhesion Molecule) after which ...
By modifying CD44 antigens using glycosyltransferase-programmed stereosubstitution (GPS), the HCELL expression on the surfaces ...
... antigens, cd44 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.625.347 - integrin alpha4beta1 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.625.550 - lymphocyte function- ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.098 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776.395.550 ... antigens, cd43 MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.650.264 - antigens, cd164 The list continues at List of MeSH codes (D12.776) § MeSH ... antigens, cd146 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.175 - antigens, cd164 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.200 - cadherins MeSH D12.776.395.550. ...
CD44 Carcinoembryonic antigens CEACAM1 CEACAM3 CEACAM4 CEACAM5 CEACAM6 CEACAM7 CEACAM8 CEACAM16 CEACAM18 CEACAM19 CEACAM20 ... Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... CD18 Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Integrin alphaXbeta2 (CR4) - Heterodimer: CD11c / CD18 Very late ...
... antigens, cd44 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.850.347 - integrin alpha4beta1 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.850.550 - lymphocyte function- ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.900.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 - antigens, ly MeSH D23.101.100.930 - antigens, ... forssman antigen MeSH D23.050.285.018 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.285.025 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.285.040 - antigens, ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 - hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 - hla-a2 antigen MeSH D23.050 ...
... antigens, cd44 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.625.347 - integrin alpha4beta1 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.625.550 - lymphocyte function- ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 - receptors, antigen, t- ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776.543.550 ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 - antigens, cd40 MeSH ...
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11. CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH Articles at IHOP. Human CD44 genome ... CD44, along with CD25, is used to track early T cell development in the thymus. CD44 expression is an indicative marker for ...
Thomas SN, Zhu F, Schnaar RL, Alves CS, Konstantopoulos K (June 2008). "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms ... Carcinoembryonic+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CEA at Lab Tests Online CEA: ... Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. CEA is normally ... Asad-Ur-Rahman F, Saif MW (June 2016). "Elevated Level of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Search for a Malignancy: A ...
... +antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human SPN genome location and SPN gene ... proteins bind to a positively charged amino acid cluster in the juxta-membrane cytoplasmic domain of CD44, CD43, and ICAM-2". J ... Fukuda M, Carlsson SR (1987). "Leukosialin, a major sialoglycoprotein on human leukocytes as differentiation antigens". Med. ... it is generally less effective at demonstrating this condition than is CD3 antigen. However, it may be useful as part of a ...
... in colon cancer is predominantly carried on high molecular weight splice variants of CD44". ... First described by Thomsen as a red blood cell's antigen, later research have determined it to be an oncofetal antigen. it is ... Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr) is a disaccharide that serves as a core 1 structure in O-linked ... Dippold, W.; Steinborn, A.; Büschenfelde, K. H. M. z. (1990). "The Role of the Thomsen-Friedenreich Antigen As a Tumor- ...
Antigen-presenting cells accumulate near high endothelial venules to process soluble antigens. Antigens are also presented on ... a homologue of CD44. These molecules allow the entry of hematopoietic cells into the lymphatic vessels. During an inflammatory ... Via the reticular network, the MRCs bring antigens from the sub-capsular sinuses to the B cell follicles. MRCs express the ... Naive lymphocytes (those with no history of contact with antigens) travel from the bone marrow or high endothelial venules of ...
Double negative (DN) T cells, as a progenitors with CD44 and CD25 expression but lack of CD4 and CD8 coreceptor expression, are ... So if TCR exhibit high or inappropriate affinity for the self antigen expressed on mTEC, the thymocyte will be destroyed. mTEC ... Aire mediates negative selection of auto-reactive T-cells and organ-specific antigens' expression on mTECs. The outcome of a ... During the mTEC maturation are expressed high levels of MHCII, CD80, autoimmune regulator Aire and tissue restricted antigens ( ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain also known as HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain or CD74 (Cluster ... "The chondroitin sulfate form of invariant chain can enhance stimulation of T cell responses through interaction with CD44". ... The invariant chain (Abbreviated Ii) is a polypeptide which plays a critical role in antigen presentation. It is involved in ... The stable MHC class II + antigen complex is then presented on the cell surface. Without CLIP, MHC class II aggregates ...
Antigen-specific memory T cells specific to viruses or other microbial molecules can be found in both TCM and TEM subsets. ... They also have intermediate to high expression of CD44. These memory T cells lack lymph node-homing receptors and are thus ... After antigen clearance, some of these effector cells form memory T cells, either in a randomly determined manner or are ... Through frequent antigen exposure, the population of memory T cells accumulates. This is the memory generation stage, which ...
"Striking similarities between antigen receptor J pieces and sequence in the second chain of the murine CD8 antigen". Nature. ... PMID 1314815.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Maiti, A., Maki, G. & Johnson P. (1998). "TNF-α induction of CD44- ... PMID 1314815.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Maiti, A., Maki, G. & Johnson P. (1998). "TNF-α induction of CD44- ... J., & Johnson, P. (2011). "Differential use of chondroitin sulfate to regulate hyaluronan binding by CD44 in inflammatory and ...
... has been shown to interact with: ADD2, BCAR1, C-Raf, CBLC, CD36, CD44, CDH1, CHRNA7, CTNND1, CBL, CSF1R, DLG4, Dystroglycan ... "Src-related protein tyrosine kinases are physically associated with the surface antigen CD36 in human dermal microvascular ... Ilangumaran S, Briol A, Hoessli DC (May 1998). "CD44 selectively associates with active Src family protein tyrosine kinases Lck ...
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) stimulates cancer development by increasing folate levels, helping the cancer cells ... Relative frequency of loss of E-cadherin and CD44 has also been observed. Loss of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein induces ... Yao V, Berkman CE, Choi JK, O'Keefe DS, Bacich DJ (February 2010). "Expression of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), ... Cabarkapa S, Perera M, McGrath S, Lawrentschuk N (December 2016). "Prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen: A ...
Boyse EA, Old LJ, Stockert E. An approach to the mapping of antigens on the cell surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1968;60:886. ... Weber GF, Ashkar S, Glimcher MJ, Cantor H. Receptor-ligand interaction between Osteopontin (Eta-1) and CD44. Science 271: 509- ... J Exp Med 145: 1-9. Rao A, Ko WW, Faas SJ, Cantor H. Binding of antigen in the absence of histocompatibility proteins by ... Glimcher L, Shen F-W, Cantor H. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell. J. ...
在DN2阶段(CD44+CD25+),细胞上调RAG1/2并重排TCR(T细胞受体)-β基因座,V-D-J序列和恒定区序列,目的是产生一个有功能的TCR-β链。当细胞经过DN3阶段(CD44-CD25+)时,细胞将会和TCRβ一起表达一个未经重排的α-链 ... MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. Proceedings of the National ... An induced rebinding model of antigen discrimination. Trends Immunol. 2014, 35 (4): 153-8. PMC 3989030
2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Lymphocyte homing receptor: CD44. *L-selectin. *integrin (VLA-4, LFA-1). *Carcinoembryonic antigen ...
Prostate specific membrane antigen is a transmembrane carboxypeptidase and exhibits folate hydrolase activity.[75] This protein ... Relative frequency of loss of E-cadherin and CD44 has also been observed. ... Prostate cancer screening is controversial.[1][3] Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing increases cancer detection but does ... Although the widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the US has resulted in diagnosis at earlier age and ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
Lymphocyte homing receptor: CD44. *L-selectin. *integrin (VLA-4, LFA-1). *Carcinoembryonic antigen ... "Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
... antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
嵌合抗原受體T細胞免疫療法(Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Immunotherapy)乃是先取得患者自身的T細胞後,在體
Monocytes isolated from whole blood of people with SLE show reduced expression of CD44 surface molecules involved in the uptake ... In close proximity to TBM, follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are localised in GC, which attach antigen material to their surface ... Antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing and anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA) form the mainstay of serologic testing for ... That leads to maturation of DCs and also to the presentation of intracellular antigens of late apoptotic or secondary necrotic ...
"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)".. *^ May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; ... CD61+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... The newly arrived CLP cells are CD4-CD8-CD44+CD25-ckit+ cells, and are termed early thymic progenitors (ETP) cells.[3] These ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help.[51] Antigen ... Antigen discriminationEdit. A unique feature of T cells is their ability to discriminate between healthy and abnormal (e.g. ...
Za Src gen je bilo pokazano da interaguje sa GRIN2A,[3][4] C-Raf,[5] CD44,[6] Jedreni translokator arilnog ugljovodoničnog ... "The c-Src tyrosine kinase regulates signaling of the human DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen with GSK3 beta and beta- ... Bourguignon, L Y; Zhu H, Shao L, Chen Y W (March 2001). "CD44 interaction with c-Src kinase promotes cortactin-mediated ... "The epidermal growth factor receptor regulates interaction of the human DF3/MUC1 carcinoma antigen with c-Src and beta-catenin ...
"Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26". Science. 261 (5120): 466-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet degranulation. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling ...
Lymphocyte homing receptor: CD44. *L-selectin. *integrin (VLA-4, LFA-1). *Carcinoembryonic antigen ... Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of ...
... uveitis antigens induce CXCR3- and CXCR5-expressing lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells to migrate (англ.) // Blood (англ ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
antigen binding. • virus receptor activity. • protein binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • identical protein ...
CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... 1996). "CD88 antibodies specifically bind to C5aR on dermal CD117+ and CD14+ cells and react with a desmosomal antigen in human ...
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... The chondroitin sulfate form of invariant chain can enhance stimulation of T cell responses through interaction with CD44 (англ ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ...
Antigen karsinoembrionik. *Arginase. *Aril-alkohol dehidrogenase. *Aril-alkohol dehidrogenase (NADP+). *Asam 2,4- ...
Recently, Heneberg[17] proposed that basophils may be defined as the cellular population positive for CD13, CD44, CD54, CD63, ... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ...
CD44 antigen. CD44 antigen (CDw44) (Epican) (Extracellular matrix receptor III, ECMR-III) (GP90 lymphocyte homing/adhesion ... CD44 antigen. CD44 antigen (Extracellular matrix receptor III) (GP90 lymphocyte homing/adhesion receptor) (HUTCH-I) (Hermes ... CD44 antigen. CD44 antigen (Extracellular matrix receptor III) (GP90 lymphocyte homing/adhesion receptor) (HUTCH-I) (Hermes ... CD44 antigen. CD44 antigen (Extracellular matrix receptor III) (GP90 lymphocyte homing/adhesion receptor) (HUTCH-I) (Hermes ...
tr,Q80X37,Q80X37_MOUSE CD44 antigen OS=Mus musculus GN=Cd44 PE=1 SV=1 ... CD44 antigenImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href ... Name:Cd44Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href="/ ... Cd44 proteinImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href ...
Abgent offer the CD44 Antibody ( CD44 Antigen ) & many other monoclonal antibodies from our labs. Get this hyaluronic acid ... Hermes antigen, Hyaluronate receptor, Phagocytic glycoprotein 1, PGP-1, Phagocytic glycoprotein I, PGP-I, CD44, CD44, LHR, MDU2 ... CD44 antigen, CDw44, Epican, Extracellular matrix receptor III, ECMR-III, GP90 lymphocyte homing/adhesion receptor, HUTCH-I, ... This CD44 monoclonal antibody is against human Peyers patch endothelial cells (CD44) .. ...
Signaling through the leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) molecule has previously been shown to induce homotypic ... 0/Alkaloids; 0/Antigens, CD2; 0/Antigens, CD3; 0/Antigens, CD44; 0/Enzyme Inhibitors; 0/Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen- ... Antigens, CD2 / metabolism. Antigens, CD3 / physiology. Antigens, CD44 / physiology*. Cell Membrane / ultrastructure. Cell Size ... Leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and CD44 are signalling molecules for cytoskeleton-dependent morphological ...
Role of CD44 in the differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cells: CD44-deficiency enhances the development of Th2 effectors in response ... suggesting that CD44 may play an important role in breast cancer development. In this study, we examined whether CD44 exon 2 ... as well as examined Th1-Th2 differentiation in vivo and in vitro from CD44-sufficient and CD44-deficient naive CD4 T cells. ... CD44 is a marker of T cell activation and a property of long-lived memory cells and implicated in cell migration, activation, ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T ... Hyaluronan binding to its principal receptor CD44 is essential for such interactions. Hyaluronan-CD44 interactions are required ... CD44 and hyaluronan promote the bmp7 signaling response in chondrocytes  Luo, Na (East Carolina University, 2011) ...
Ϊ???? Recombinant Human CD44 antigen(CD44),partial (Active) ???? ?? ... LHR; BA-1; CD 44; CD44; CD44 antigen; CD44 molecule (Indian blood group); CD44 molecule; CD44_HUMAN; CDw44; CDW44 antigen; Cell ... Immobilized CD44 at 2 g/ml can bind Anti-CD44 mouse monoclonal antibody(CSB-MA004938A0m, antigen from E.coli), the EC50 of the ... Immobilized CD44 at 2 g/ml can bind Anti-CD44 mouse monoclonal antibody(CSB-MA004938A0m, antigen from E.coli), the EC50 of the ...
CD44 is a 80-95 kD glycoprotein also known as Hermes, Pgp1, H-CAM, or HUTCH. ... Antigen Details Structure Variable splicing of CD44 gene generates many CD44 isoforms, 80-95 kD Distribution All leukocytes, ... Antigen References 1. Barclay AN, et al. 1997. The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook Academic Press.. 2. Haynes BF, et al. 1991. ... Thus, CD44 has been reported to be a valuable marker for memory cell subsets. High CD44 expression on Treg cells has been ...
CD4+ T cells can be divided into naïve and memory cells based on expression of adhesion molecules CD44 and CD62L. ... Antigen References 1. Barclay AN, et al. 1997. The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook Academic Press.. 2. Haynes BF, et al. 1991. ... CD62L APC and CD44 PE. Top dot plot depicts CD3+CD4+ T cells. Bottom plot shows CD44loCD62Lhi naïve cells and CD44hiCD62Llo ... CD62L APC and CD44 PE. Top dot plot depicts CD3+CD4+ T cells. Bottom plot shows CD44loCD62Lhi naïve cells and CD44hiCD62Llo ...
Compare and order CD44 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products ... Bezeichner auf Proteinebene für CD44 CD44 antigen , GP90 lymphocyte homing/adhesion receptor , Hermes antigen , cell surface ... CD44-like protein , extracellular matrix receptor-III , lymphocyte surface antigen precursor CD44 , CD44 molecule (Indian blood ... CD44 Antigen Profile Beschreibung des Gens The protein encoded by this gene is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell- ...
The co-location of Lewis y antigen and CD44 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. The co-expression of CD44 and Lewis y ... The mRNA level of CD44 in both cell lines was similar (P > 0.05). Lewis y antigen strengthens CD44-mediated adhesion and ... the expression of Lewis y antigen and CD44 was detected by Western Blot. The structural relationship between Lewis y antigen ... effects of Lewis y antigen on CD44-mediated adhesion and spreading of ovarian cancer cell line RMG-I and the Lewis y antigen- ...
CD44 antigen. A. 159. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CD44, LHR, MDU2, MDU3, MIC4. ... Site-specific de-N-glycosylation of CD44 can activate hyaluronan binding, and CD44 activation states show distinct threshold ... CD44 is the principal cell surface receptor for hyaluronate.. Aruffo, A., Stamenkovic, I., Melnick, M., Underhill, ... Identification of CD44 residues important for hyaluronan binding and delineation of the binding site. Bajorath, J.,& ...
Rabbit Polyclonal CD44 antibody [N1N2], N-term. Validated in WB, IHC-P. Tested in Human, Rat. Cited in 1 reference(s). - ... Antigen Species Human Immunogen Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the N-terminus region of human CD44. The ... CD44 antibody [N1N2], N-term (GTX112893) diluted at 1:500.. Antigen Retrieval: Trilogy™ (EDTA based, pH 8.0) buffer, 15min. ... CD44 antibody [N1N2], N-term (GTX112893) diluted at 1:500.. Antigen Retrieval: Trilogy™ (EDTA based, pH 8.0) buffer, 15min. ...
Novus Biologicals CD44 Antibody; Alexa Fluor 750; 0.1 mL ... CD44 Mouse anti-Human, Baboon, Primate, Alexa Fluor 750, Clone ... CD44 antigen, CD44 molecule (Indian blood group), CD44R, CDw44, cell surface glycoprotein CD44, chondroitin sulfate ... CD44 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects CD44 in Human,Baboon,Primate samples. It is validated for Western Blot,Flow ... Hermes antigen, homing function and Indian blood group system, HUTCH-I, Hyaluronate receptor, IN, LHR, MC56, MDU2CD44 antigen ( ...
... products and learn more about CD44 Rat anti-Mouse, BB515, Clone: IM7 , BD Horizon 25µg; BB515:Life 25µg; BB515. ... CD44 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects CD44 in Mouse samples. It is validated for Flow cytometry. ... Antigen. CD44. Clone. IM7 Conjugate. BB515. Format. Purified. Host Species. Rat. Isotype. Rat IgG2b, κ. ...
Since the CD44 variant 6(v6) molecule has been noted as a marker for tumor metastasis and prognosis in several tumors, we ... Expression of CD44 variants and its association with survival in pancreatic cancer Jpn J Cancer Res. 1998 Oct;89(10):1033-40. ... Since the CD44 variant 6(v6) molecule has been noted as a marker for tumor metastasis and prognosis in several tumors, we ... On the other hand, expression of total CD44 (including CD44v, as well as CD44s) was observed in both tumors and adjacent normal ...
CD44 Isoforms Serve a Functional Role in Antigen Presentation by LC. The ultimate test of LC function addresses their role in ... HLADR+ freshly isolated LC expressed an NH2-terminal epitope of CD44 (termed pan CD44) and an epitope formed jointly by CD44 ... In Vitro-activated LC and DC Upregulate pan CD44 and CD44 Variant Isoforms. To determine whether LC express CD44 and whether ... We next used anti-CD44 mAbs to determine the functional relevance of CD44 protein expression. To check for CD44 function during ...
... immunoassay suitable for the quantification of CD44 in Cell culture supernatant, Serum, Cell Lysate, Hep Plasma, EDTA Plasma ... Mouse CD44 ELISA Kit is a sensitive (, 10 pg/ml) ... In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on ... CD44 is an integral cell membrane glycoprotein with a postulated role in matrix adhesion lymphocyte activation and lymph node ... The Mouse CD44 Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit (ab213849) is designed for the quantitative measurement of Mouse ...
CD44 antigen (IPR001231). *C-type lectin-like (IPR001304). *Collagen IV, non-collagenous (IPR001442) ... Structure of the regulatory hyaluronan binding domain in the inflammatory leukocyte homing receptor CD44.. Mol. Cell 13 483-96 ... and the hyaluronan binding domain of CD44 (which contains extra N-terminal beta-strand and C-terminal beta-hairpin) [PMID: ...
CD44: %), leukocyte common antigen (CLA; CD45: %), and stem/progenitor (CD34: %; CD73: , and CD105: %) markers immediately ... Compared to the immunophenotype of freshly thawed cells, the expression of antigens associated with all of the lineages ... Throughout a one-week period, adipose-derived SVF cells within the ObaGel constructs continued to express surface antigens ... the expressions of antigens associated with myeloid (CD19), stem/progenitor (CD34), preadipocyte (CD36), hematopoietic (CLA; ...
CD44 antigen, the main cell surface receptor for HA. Hyaladherin "Link domain signature and profile". PROSITE. December 2004. ... aggrecan and CD44 is similar to that of the C-type lectin superfamily". FEBS Lett. 388 (2-3): 211-6. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(96) ...
Anti-CD44 antibody conjugated to Phycoerythrin [KM201] validated for WB, IP, Flow Cyt and tested in Mouse. Referenced in 1 ... CD44 antigen antibody. *CD44 molecule (Indian blood group) antibody. *CD44 molecule antibody ... References for Anti-CD44 antibody [KM201] (Phycoerythrin) (ab25224). This product has been referenced in: *Wu L et al. The CD44 ... Anti-CD44 antibody [KM201] (Phycoerythrin) images. * Flow Cytometry - Anti-CD44 antibody [KM201] (Phycoerythrin) (ab25224) ...
CD44 molecule (Indian blood group) [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:1681]. Mouse Orthologue:. Cd44. Mouse Description:. CD44 antigen ...
Browse our CD44, variant 7/8 product catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... MDU2CD44 antigen (homing function and Indian blood group system). *CD44R. *CD44 molecule (Indian blood group) ... PTMs for CD44, variant 7/8. Learn more about PTMs related to CD44, variant 7/8.. Phosphorylation. Cleavage. Glycosylation. ... CD44 is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein also known as Phagocytic Glycoprotein 1 (pgp 1) and HCAM. CD44 is the receptor for ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD44, variant 7/8 Antibody (VFF-17) [DyLight 488]. Cell Membrane Marker. Validated: WB, Flow, IHC-Fr, IHC ... Alternate Names for CD44, variant 7/8 Antibody (VFF-17) [DyLight 488]. *CD44 antigen ... Additional CD44, variant 7/8 Products. CD44, variant 7/8 NB100-65535G * CD44, variant 7/8 Antibodies ... Home » CD44, variant 7/8 » CD44, variant 7/8 Antibodies » CD44, variant 7/8 Antibody (VFF-17) [DyLight 488] ...
CD44 (Ly-24) is a transmembrane glycoprotein involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. IM7 antibody is used in cell ... CD44 IM7,CD44 antibody clone IM7 ,CD44 antibody IM7,CD44,mouse CD44 antibody,anti-CD44,anti-mouse CD44,mouse CD44 IM7,rat CD44, ... Internal Search Keywords: 60068,mouse antibody CD44,mouse antibody CD44 IM7,mouse antibody CD44 clone IM7 ,clone IM7,IM7,CD44 ... Numerous disorders are associated with altered expression or dysfunction of CD44. Many CD44 isoforms have been identified, with ...
View Canine/Equine CD44 Antibody 69-S5 (MAB5449) datasheet. Validated in CyTOF-ready, Flow ... CD44 antigen; CD44 molecule (Indian blood group); CD44; CD44R; CDw44; cell surface glycoprotein CD44; chondroitin sulfate ... Detection of CD44 in Canine Monocytes by Flow Cytometry. Canine blood‑derived monocytes were stained with Mouse Anti-Canine/ ... Detection of CD44 in Equine PBMCs by Flow Cytometry. Equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stained with Mouse ...
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11.[5] CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... Monoclonal antibodies against CD44 variants include bivatuzumab for v6. CD44 in cancer[edit]. CD44 is a multistructural and ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... CD44, CDW44, CSPG8, ECMR-III, HCELL, HUTCH-I, IN, LHR, MC56, MDU2, MDU3, MIC4, Pgp1, CD44 molecule (Indian blood group). ...
Paraffin embedded sections underwent antigen retrieval. Specimens were blocked and then incubated with primary antibodies for 1 ... CD44 luciferase plasmids utilized were the basal CD44 promoter (CD44 -97+109; gray), the full-length CD44 promoter (CD44 -1,262 ... in the CD44high versus CD44low S-SCC-7133 tumor cells. E, MFI of p-ERK1/2 expression in CD44high and CD44low tumor populations ... FACS analysis of cell surface CD44 expression in MOC10 after shRNA knockdown of CD44 with 3 distinct shRNAs (CD44-6, CD44-7, ...
  • Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (
  • However, a monoclonal antibody to CD44 induced a similar phenotype in activated lymphocytes. (
  • Immobilized CD44 at 2 g/ml can bind Anti-CD44 mouse monoclonal antibody(CSB-MA004938A0m, antigen from E.coli), the EC50 of the CD44 protein is 11.89-14.94 ng/ml. (
  • This product consists of four antibody vials: CD3 APC/Cy7, CD4 PerCP/Cy5.5, CD62L APC, and CD44 PE. (
  • CD44 monoclonal antibody from Santa Cruz Co. and Wuhan Boster Co. (
  • Wild-type (WT) and CD44 knockout (KO) HeLa cell extracts (30 µg) were separated by 7.5% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with CD44 antibody [N1N2], N-term (GTX112893) diluted at 1:1000. (
  • CD44 antibody [N1N2], N-term detects CD44 protein at cell membrane on human ovarian carcinoma by immunohistochemical analysis. (
  • CD44 antibody [N1N2], N-term (GTX112893) diluted at 1:500. (
  • CD44 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects CD44 in Human,Baboon,Primate samples. (
  • CD44 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects CD44 in Mouse samples. (
  • A polyclonal antibody from sheep specific for CD44 has been pre-coated onto 96-well plates. (
  • Immunogen sequence: Q25-T224) and test samples are added to the wells, a biotinylated detection polyclonal antibody from sheep specific for CD44 is added subsequently and then followed by washing with PBS or TBS buffer. (
  • There are currently no images for CD44, variant 7/8 Antibody (NB100-65535G). (
  • The IM7 antibody reacts with CD44 (Ly-24), an ~80 - 95 kDa type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. (
  • The IM7 monoclonal antibody reacts with an extracellular epitope found on all isoforms of CD44 and both murine allotypes. (
  • Canine blood‑derived monocytes were stained with Mouse Anti-Canine/Equine CD44 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB5449, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # MAB002 , open histogram), followed by Allophycocyanin-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG F(ab') 2 Secondary Antibody (Catalog # F0101B ). (
  • Equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stained with Mouse Anti-Canine/Equine CD44 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB5449, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # MAB002 , open histogram), followed by Phycoerythrin-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # F0102B ). (
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: CD44 Monoclonal Antibody (KM81) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA1-70080, RRID AB_1072376. (
  • This antibody reacts with both cell surface-expressed and soluble form of CD44 antigen. (
  • Rat monoclonal antibody raised against mouse Cd44. (
  • CAR is an artificial antigen receptor that mediates antibody-targeted recognition. (
  • Description: The IM7 monoclonal antibody reacts with all isoforms of mouse CD44 (Pgp-1). (
  • CD44 functions as an adhesion molecule through its binding to hyaluronate, an extracellular matrix component.Applications Reported: The IM7 antibody has been reported for use in flow cytometric analysis.Applications Tested: The IM7 antibody has been tested by flow cytometric analysis of mouse bone marrow cells and splenocytes. (
  • The antibody MEM-85 reacts with an extracellular antigen of both cell surface-expressed and soluble form of CD44 antigen (Phagocyte glycoprotein 1), a 80-95 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein (hyaladherin family) present on the most of cells and tissues (leukocytes, endothelial cells, mesenchymal cells, etc. (
  • The T cells are genetically modified through transduction with a lentiviral vector expressing scFv of anti-CD44 antibody linked to CD28 and CD3ζ signaling domains. (
  • 1X10^6 HeLa cells were stained with 0.2ug CD44 antibody (15675-1-AP, red) and control antibody (blue). (
  • CD44 + cells are subsequently isolated from the CD24 low/- population by positive selection using a biotinylated human CD44 antibody, streptavidin-conjugated magnetic beads, and a MagCellect magnet (Catalog # MAG997 , or equivalent). (
  • In this study, we demonstrate that targeted deletion of CD44 attenuated myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide-induced experimental autoimmune encephalitomyelitis (EAE) through novel regulatory mechanisms affecting Th differentiation. (
  • CD44 is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in many cellular functions including lymphocyte activation, recirculation and homing, hematopoiesis and tumor metastasis, suggesting that CD44 may play an important role in breast cancer development. (
  • CD44 is a 80-95 kD glycoprotein also known as Hermes, Pgp1, H-CAM, or HUTCH. (
  • Recognizes a cell surface glycoprotein of 80-95kDa (CD44) on lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes (Leucocyte Typing Workshop V). Its epitope is resistant to digestion by trypsin and chymotrypsin. (
  • CD44 is an integral cell membrane glycoprotein with a postulated role in matrix adhesion lymphocyte activation and lymph node homing. (
  • CD44 is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein also known as Phagocytic Glycoprotein 1 (pgp 1) and HCAM. (
  • Canine CD44 is a ubiquitously expressed 85‑90 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein that binds to hyaluronan and is involved in matrix adhesion, lymphocyte activation, and lymph node homing. (
  • The CD44 antigen is a cell -surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. (
  • [5] CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell adhesion molecule ), Pgp-1 (phagocytic glycoprotein -1), Hermes antigen, lymphocyte homing receptor, ECM-III, and HUTCH-1. (
  • CD44 cell surface antigen is a 100 kDa type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein widely expressed on human leucocytes, white matter of the brain and by some epithelial cells of the intestine and breast. (
  • CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on the surface of most cells, which serves as a receptor for hyaluronan. (
  • Specifically, we compared the role of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and CD43, known E-selectin ligands, to CD44, a ligand that has not previously been characterized as an E-selectin ligand on activated human T-cells. (
  • CD44 is a structurally variable cell surface glycoprotein that ranges in size from 85 to 250 kDa. (
  • Lymphocyte interactions with high endothelial venules (HEV) during extravasation into lymphoid tissues involve an 85-95 kd class of lymphocyte surface glycoprotein(s), gp90Hermes (CD44). (
  • CD44 is a cell-surface glycoprotein that plays a role in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. (
  • Early indices of both peripheral CD4 and CD8 T cell activation, including IFN-γ production and increases in CD44 and CD11a expression, are attenuated in mast cell-deficient (W/W v ) mice after myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 priming when compared to WT animals. (
  • CD44 is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions through its affinity for hyaluronic acid (HA) and possibly also through its affinity for other ligands. (
  • The CD44 antigen, a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein, is the main receptor for hyaluronan. (
  • Hyaluronan binding to its principal receptor CD44 is essential for such interactions. (
  • Molecular cloning of CD44R1 and CD44R2, two novel isoforms of the human CD44 lymphocyte 'homing' receptor expressed by hemopoietic cells. (
  • Adhesive interactions involving CD44, the cell surface receptor for hyaluronan, underlie fundamental processes such as inflammatory leukocyte homing and tumor metastasis. (
  • Regulation of such events is critical and appears to be effected by changes in CD44 N-glycosylation that switch the receptor "on" or "off" under appropriate circumstances. (
  • A human lymphocyte homing receptor, the hermes antigen, is related to cartilage proteoglycan core and link proteins. (
  • CD44 is the principal cell surface receptor for hyaluronate. (
  • As a major cell surface receptor for the extracellular matrix (ECM)-component hyaluronate (HA), CD44 has been shown to regulate cell migration on HA-coated substrates ( 2 , 48 , 49 ). (
  • CD44 antigen, the main cell surface receptor for HA. (
  • CD44 is the receptor for hyaluronate and exists as a large number of different isoforms due to alternative RNA splicing. (
  • CD44 is a receptor for hyaluronic acid and can also interact with other ligands , such as osteopontin , collagens , and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). (
  • CD44 functions as a transmembrane protein that, along with RHAMM, is the principal receptor for hyaluronan and also is a coreceptor for several receptor tyrosine kinases, including c-MET and EGFR ( 14, 15 ). (
  • Analysis of antigen-specific effector CD4 T cells revealed that programmed death-1 (PD-1) and the killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1) delineated subpopulations of T cells. (
  • CD44 is a receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA) and is involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. (
  • We addressed this issue using BDC2.5 T cell receptor transgenic mice, which express a receptor recognizing a natural islet beta cell antigen. (
  • Mammosphere formation frequency and CD44 high /CD24 low /ESA+ and/or ALDH1+ populations in cultured MCF-7 (estrogen receptor-positive) and SUM159 (triple-negative) human breast cancer cells were decreased significantly in the presence of plasma achievable concentrations of BITC. (
  • Structure of the regulatory hyaluronan binding domain in the inflamatory leukocyte homing receptor CD44" Mol. (
  • CD44 is a multifunctional receptor which plays a role in cell adhesion (cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions), cell traffic, lymph node homing, presentation of chemokines and growth factors, transmission of growth signals and signals mediating haematopoiesis and apoptosis. (
  • In this minireview, we discuss several single-cell immune profiling technologies for gene and protein expression, including cytometry by time-of-flight, RNA sequencing, and antigen receptor sequencing, as well as key considerations for analysis that apply to each. (
  • The vector of anti-CD44 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is constructed for the engineering of T cells to target CD44. (
  • CD28 is the receptor for CD80 (B7.1) and CD86 (B7.2) proteins which are expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APC). (
  • CD44, a cell hyaluronate receptor, is implicated in the metastatic behavior of some cancer cells. (
  • CD34, CD44, human nerve growth factor receptor have been reported in some cases. (
  • Signaling through the leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) molecule has previously been shown to induce homotypic aggregation in T cells and to induce cytoskeletal changes in T lymphoma cells. (
  • CD44 is an adhesion molecule involved in leukocyte attachment to and rolling on endothelial cells, homing to peripheral lymphoid organs and to the sites of inflammation, and leukocyte aggregation. (
  • This study aimed to investigate the molecular structural relationship between cell adhesive molecule CD44 and Lewis y antigen, and determine the effects of Lewis y antigen on CD44-mediated adhesion and spreading of ovarian cancer cell line RMG-I and the Lewis y antigen-overexpressed cell line RMG-I-H. (
  • Since the CD44 variant 6(v6) molecule has been noted as a marker for tumor metastasis and prognosis in several tumors, we examined whether or not v6 is a useful marker for evaluating the prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients. (
  • CD44 is a heterogeneous multifunctional molecule expressed by cells of different origin including immunocompetent cells ( 15 ). (
  • CD44 is a multistructural and multifunctional cell surface molecule involved in cell proliferation , cell differentiation , cell migration , angiogenesis , presentation of cytokines , chemokines , and growth factors to the corresponding receptors , and docking of proteases at the cell membrane , as well as in signaling for cell survival . (
  • High levels of the adhesion molecule CD44 on leukemic cells are essential to generate leukemia. (
  • Standard CD44 (CD44s), which is the smallest CD44 molecule (85-95kDa), lacks the entire variable region. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies against CD44 variants include bivatuzumab for v6. (
  • Monoclonal Antibodies to CD44 and Their Influence on Hyaluronan Recognition. (
  • Activation of T Lymphocytes via Monoclonal Antibodies Against Rat Cell Surface Antigens With Particular Reference to CD2 Antigen. (
  • Clone IM7 has been reported to recognize an epitope common to alloantigens and all isoforms of CD44 17,18 that is located between amino acids 145 and 186 20 . (
  • The CD44 family of glycoproteins exists in a number of variant isoforms, the most common being the standard 85-95kDa or hematopoietic variant (CD44s). (
  • Furthermore, CD44 isoforms containing variant exon v6 play a crucial role during the early phases of metastasis of rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells to peripheral lymph nodes (LN) ( 14 , 38 ). (
  • It remains unknown which CD44 isoforms are expressed on LC and which functional properties are attributed to their expression. (
  • In this study we show that CD44 isoforms are differentially modulated during the activation and migration of LC, and participate in their migration out of skin, their adhesion to the paracortical T cell zones of peripheral LN, and the LC-dependent sensitization phase of contact hypersensitivity. (
  • Many CD44 isoforms have been identified, with alternative splicing, differential N- and O- glycosylation, and sulfation mediating the functional role(s) played by the protein in a specific cell. (
  • The CD44 protein is expressed as a family of molecular isoforms generated by alternate splicing and variable posttranslational modification. (
  • CD44 variant isoforms are also relevant to the progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma . (
  • Several isoforms of CD44 exist, including the predominant CD44H isoform detected in many normal tissues. (
  • Transcripts for the CD44 gene undergo complex alternative splicing that results in many functionally distinct isoforms, however, the full-length nature of some of these variants have not been determined. (
  • Of the CD44 isoforms characterized, the v6 variant has been shown to confer metastatic potential in animal models and its expression has been correlated with aggressive behavior in some human malignancies. (
  • CD44 comprises a family of isoforms that, in certain tumors, are alternatively spliced and overexpressed in tissues and circulation. (
  • CD44 comprises a family of isoforms expressed in many cell types ( 15 -17 ). (
  • These isoforms arise from alternative splicing of a variable exon region present in CD44 mRNA ( 18 ). (
  • Some isoforms such as CD44 standard exist in normal cells, whereas others termed CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v), are primarily expressed in tumors ( 19 , 20 ). (
  • CD44: a multitude of isoforms with diverse functions. (
  • Apart from alternative splicing, further diversity arises from post-translational modifications with N- and O-glycosylation and glycosaminoglycanation by heparan sulphate or chondroitin sulphate to generate multiple CD44 isoforms (at least 20 are known) of different molecular sizes (85-230 kDa). (
  • High interspecies homology among CD44 isoforms is exhibited through these basic domains (with the exception of the membrane-proximal region). (
  • The CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v) are identified by the presence of variant exon(s). (
  • These CD44 variant isoforms can be upregulated by T lymphocytes and other leukocytes after immunological activation. (
  • Molecular Isoforms of Murine CD44 and Evidence That the Membrane Proximal Domain Is Not Critical for Hyaluronate Recognition. (
  • C57BL/6 mouse splenocytes were stained with CD44 (clone IM7) Brilliant Violet 711™ (filled histogram) or rat IgG2b, κ Brilliant Violet 711™ isotype control (open histogram). (
  • This reagent contains one vial each of APC/Cy7 conjugated anti-CD3 (clone 17A2), PerCP/Cy5.5 conjugated anti-CD4 (clone RM4-5), APC conjugated anti-CD62L (clone MEL-14), and PE conjugated anti-CD44 (clone IM7) at optimal concentration for four-color flow cytometric analysis. (
  • Blockade of PD-1-programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1) interactions in vivo during chronic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) clone 13 has been shown to increase the frequencies and numbers of antigen-specific CD8 T cells for LCMV epitopes, and to decrease viral titers ( 5 ). (
  • Clone DB105 recognizes the CD44 antigen. (
  • This panel includes antibodies against CD3, CD4, CD62L and CD44, which can be used together to identify naïve and memory T cell subsets in mice. (
  • Antibodies against CD44 epitopes inhibit the emigration of LC from the epidermis, prevent binding of activated LC and DC to the T cell zones of lymph nodes, and severely inhibit their capacity to induce a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to a skin hapten in vivo. (
  • Experiments in animals have shown that targeting of CD44 by antibodies , antisense oligonucleotides, and CD44-soluble proteins markedly reduces the malignant activities of various neoplasms , stressing the therapeutic potential of anti-CD44 agents. (
  • Specificity of 6th Workshop CD44 panel antibodies for alternatively spliced exons and their effects on lymphocyte activation and hyaluronan binding. (
  • The efficiency of enrichment can be assessed by staining the recovered cells with fluorochrome-conjugated anti-human CD24 and CD44 detection antibodies which are also provided in the kit. (
  • Includes fluorochrome-conjugated CD24 and CD44 antibodies for analysis of recovered cells. (
  • CD24 low/- CD44 + cells (upper left quadrant), before ( A ) and after ( B ) enrichment, were detected by double-staining with APC-conjugated Mouse Anti-Human CD24 and PE-conjugated Mouse Anti-Human CD44 Detection Antibodies (both provided in the kit). (
  • The present study aimed to determine the impact of α1, 2-FT gene transfection on the expression of CD44 on cells and the effects of Lewis y antigen on CD44-mediated cell adhesion and spreading. (
  • In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11. (
  • CD44 gene transcription is at least in part activated by beta-catenin and Wnt signalling (also linked to tumour development). (
  • PCBP-1 regulates alternative splicing of the CD44 gene and inhibits invasion in human hepatoma cell line HepG2 cells. (
  • This study aimed to evaluate the association of CD44 gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms with susceptibility to breast cancer. (
  • The single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the CD44 gene in the 2 groups were genotyped by PCR-LDR method. (
  • The PR status interacts with CD44 gene SNP. (
  • Gene expression analysis by MT-PCR indicated that ST repressed many genes which were induced by EGF (EGFR, CAV1, CTGF, CYR61, CD44, S100A4) and induced genes which alter the actin cytoskeleton (NLF1, NLF2, EPHB4). (
  • CD44 gene is located at chromosome 11 on the short arm (p13). (
  • A) CD44 gene consists of 20 exons. (
  • Thompson JA, Grunert F, Zimmermann W. Carcinoembryonic antigen gene family: molecular biology and clinical perspectives. (
  • In gene expression analysis, a gene for cancer testis antigen, CT45 , was generally overexpressed in IK-YBX2 cells. (
  • Recently developed single-cell profiling technologies hold promise to provide new insights including analysis of population heterogeneity and linkage of antigen receptors with gene expression. (
  • Based on the SEQUEST from database of Mammalian Cell host and target protein, the LC-MS/MS Analysis result of CSB-MP004938HU1 could indicate that this peptide derived from Mammalian Cell-expressed Homo sapiens (Human) CD44. (
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the N-terminus region of human CD44. (
  • Alternative splicing is the basis for the structural and functional diversity of the CD44 protein. (
  • CD44 is a transmembrane protein that plays a role in cell-cell interactions and motility in a number of cell types such as for myoblast differentiation and fusion. (
  • A variant of signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa) that antagonizes the human cell surface antigen CD47, with potential phagocytosis-inducing, immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. (
  • CD47, also called integrin-associated protein (IAP), is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on normal, healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and overexpressed on the surface of a variety of cancer cells. (
  • Moreover, the CD44 protein carries a binding epitope identifying it as hematopoietic cell E- and/or L-selectin ligand (HCELL). (
  • Ilangumaran S, Briol A, Hoessli DC: CD44 selectively associates with active Src family protein tyrosine kinases Lck and Fyn in glycosphingolipid-rich plasma membrane domains of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. (
  • We also show that cell surface Rhamm, restricted to the extracellular compartment by linking recombinant protein to beads, and expression of mutant active mitogen-activated kinase kinase 1 (Mek1) are sufficient to rescue aberrant signaling through CD44-ERK1,2 complexes in Rh −/− fibroblasts. (
  • We show that upon antigen contact, LC and DC upregulate pan CD44 epitopes and epitopes encoded by variant exons v4, v5, v6, and v9. (
  • Our results demonstrate that CD44 splice variant expression is obligatory for the migration and function of LC and DC. (
  • Specifically recognizes an epitope encoded by exons v7-v8 on the variant portion of human CD44. (
  • Synovial fluid cells from joints of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients express a novel variant of CD44 (designated CD44vRA), encoding an extra trinucleotide (CAG) transcribed from intronic sequences flanking a variant exon. (
  • C) CD44v6 is one example of a CD44 variant isoform which contains the variant Exon 6. (
  • Immunohistochemical localization of the core CD44 and the v6 splice variant domains was examined by use of paraffin-fixed sections from 133 stage II or IIi colorectal cancers that previously had been evaluated for other diagnostic markers. (
  • This study shows that core CD44 and v6 splice variant antigens are differentially expressed in the epithelium and stroma of colorectal cancers. (
  • The Role of CD44 and Cancer Stem Cells. (
  • Role of CD44 in the Reaction of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells to Arterial Wall Injury. (
  • Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has yet to be used as a prognostic or adjuvant chemotherapy factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). (
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen in the staging and follow-up of patients with colorectal cancer. (
  • Hammarstrom S. The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family: structures, suggested functions and expression in normal and malignant tissues. (
  • Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level as a prognostic indicator in colorectal cancer. (
  • The prognostic significance of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen levels in colorectal cancer. (
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. (
  • In humans, the carcinoembryonic antigen family consists of 29 genes, 18 of which are normally expressed. (
  • Carcinoembryonic Antigen as a Marker for Colorectal Cancer: Is It Clinically Useful? (
  • Immunohistochemical studies show that these eccrine glands stain positively for S-100 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). (
  • Leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and CD44 are signalling molecules for cytoskeleton-dependent morphological changes in activated T cells. (
  • Expression of leukocyte differentiation antigens during the differentiation of HL-60 cells induced b. (
  • CD44 is a marker of T cell activation and a property of long-lived memory cells and implicated in cell migration, activation, and differentiation. (
  • In this study, we compared Th1 and Th2 responses in wild-type and CD44-deficient mice in response to sheep RBC and chicken OVA, as well as examined Th1-Th2 differentiation in vivo and in vitro from CD44-sufficient and CD44-deficient naive CD4 T cells. (
  • CD44 is expressed by a variety of cells, including glial and T cells. (
  • As B and T cells become activated or progress to the memory stage, CD44 expression increases from low or mid levels to high levels. (
  • High CD44 expression on Treg cells has been associated with potent suppressive function via high production of IL-10. (
  • Bottom plot shows CD44 lo CD62L hi naïve cells and CD44 hi CD62L lo memory T cells (in gated CD3 + CD4 + cell population). (
  • In mice, CD4 + T cells can be divided into naïve and memory cells based on expression of adhesion molecules CD44 and CD62L. (
  • Naïve T cells exhibit high levels of CD62L and low expression of CD44, whereas memory T cells are identified by high CD44 and low CD62L expression. (
  • The expression of CD44 mRNA in RMG-I and RMG-I-H cells was detected by real-time RT-PCR. (
  • Western Blot confirmed that the content of CD44 in RMG-I-H cells was 1.46 times of that in RMG-I cells. (
  • The co-expression of CD44 and Lewis y antigen in RMG-I-H cells was 2.24 times of that in RMG-I cells. (
  • Lewis y antigen strengthens CD44-mediated adhesion and spreading of ovarian cancer cells. (
  • CD44, one of important adhesive molecules on cells, is involved in the adhesion and metastasis of tumor cells and plays an important role in tumor development [ 7 - 10 ], but the regulatory mechanism is unclear yet. (
  • Upon antigen contact, epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) and dendritic cells (DC) leave peripheral organs and home to lymph nodes via the afferent lymphatic vessels and then assemble in the paracortical T cell zone and present antigen to T lymphocytes. (
  • Epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) 1 belong to the dendritic cell (DC) family and are potent antigen-presenting cells located in the suprabasal layers of the epidermis ( 3 , 30 , 36 ). (
  • After antigen uptake, LC leave the epidermis and migrate into dermis, where they travel via afferent lymphatics into the regional lymph nodes to present antigen to T cells ( 9 , 26 ). (
  • CD44 is involved in adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells, stromal cells, and the extracellular matrix. (
  • CD44 is expressed on the surface of many cells, including leukocytes and hepatocytes, as well as endothelial, epithelial, and mesenchymal cells. (
  • Splice variants of CD44 on colon cancer cells display sialofucosylated HCELL glycoforms that serve as P-, L-, and E-selectin ligands and fibrin, but not fibrinogen, receptors under hemodynamic flow conditions pertinent to the process of cancer metastasis. (
  • [11] Ex vivo glycan engineering of the surface of live cells has been used to enforce HCELL expression on any cell that expresses CD44. (
  • CD44 expression is an indicative marker for effector-memory T-cells. (
  • Endometrial cells in women with endometriosis demonstrate increased expression of splice variants of CD44, and increased adherence to peritoneal cells. (
  • Aggressively growing cell lines displayed ERK1/2 activation, which stimulated expression of CD44, a marker associated with epithelial to mesenchymal transition and putative cancer stem cells. (
  • Whether these properties are due to a functional contribution of CD44 or whether CD44 is simply a marker of cells with more aggressive behavior has not been fully explored in OSCC ( 21 ). (
  • How CD4 T-cell responses are maintained throughout infection is not well understood, and evidence from other infection models has suggested that, under conditions of chronic antigen stimulation, T cells can undergo replicative exhaustion. (
  • Thus, proliferating PD-1-positive cells are not exhausted, but appear to be central to maintaining antigen-specific effector T cells during chronic Mtb infection. (
  • Our findings suggest that antigen-specific T-cell responses are maintained during chronic mycobacterial infection through the continual production of terminal effector cells from a proliferating precursor population. (
  • Although the numbers of antigen-specific T cells are relatively stable during chronic Mtb infection, CD4 T cells proliferate extensively, suggesting that a high turnover of effector CD4 T cells occurs. (
  • Other studies of KLRG1-positive effector T cells during acute and chronic infections found the antigen-specific cells to be terminally differentiated, as they exhibited decreased multicytokine potential and were relatively short-lived ( 6 ). (
  • CD44 is expressed by hematopoietic, non-hematopoietic cells, epithelial tissues, and to filopodia in cultured keratinocytes. (
  • Further, bone marrow myeloid cells and memory T cells express CD44 at high levels, and peripheral B and T cells can upregulate the expression of CD44 in response to certain stimulatory events. (
  • Although CD44 functions are essential for physiological activities of normal cells, elevated CD44 expression correlates with poor prognosis in many carcinomas, facilitating tumour growth and metastasis, antiapoptosis and directional motility of cancer cells. (
  • We found that enforced PCBP1 expression inhibited CD44 variants expression including v3, v5, v6, v8, and v10 in HepG2 cells, and knockdown of endogenous PCBP1 induced these variants splicing. (
  • We first characterized PCBP1 as a negative regulator of CD44 variants splicing in HepG2 cells, and loss of PCBP1 in human hepatic tumor contributes to the formation of a metastatic phenotype. (
  • Cells were harvested 24 hours later and total RNA were extracted for semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Real-time PCR analysis (B) to determine the relative amounts of CD44 v6. (
  • CD44 is a marker for many types of cancer stem cells (CSC), including breast CSCs that possess higher tumorigenicity and metastatic potential, colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate CSCs. (
  • CD44 is also expressed on mesodermal cells, such as hematopoietic, fibroblastic, and glial cells. (
  • Abnormal numbers of cells expressing this antigen or aberrant expression levels of the antigen can be expected in some disease states. (
  • CD44 is a marker for many types of cancer stem cells (CSCs), including breast CSCs that possess higher tumorigenicity and metastatic potential, colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate CSCs. (
  • In patients with osteoarthritis both immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to note a higher number of CD44 positive satellite muscle cells forming syncytium. (
  • For example, where islet-reactive T cells first encounter antigen has not been identified. (
  • This age-dependent dichotomy was reproduced in a second transfer system based on an unrelated antigen artificially expressed on beta cells. (
  • We conclude that beta cell antigens are transported specifically to pancreatic lymph nodes, where they trigger reactive T cells to invade the islets. (
  • In addition, variations in CD44 are reported as cell surface markers for some breast and prostate cancer stem cells. (
  • The role of CTLA-4 in regulating homeostasis and antigen reactivity of CD8 + T cells has been examined in three different MHC class I-restricted TCR transgenic mouse strains ( 21 - 23 ). (
  • Although the mechanism of action has not been elucidated, following subcutaneous administration, CD44 targeted agent SPL-108 binds to CD44 and prevents the activation of various CD44-mediated signal transduction pathways, which may lead to reduced proliferation of CD44-expressing tumor stem cells. (
  • Recently, another group of TAAs was described that include antigens overexpressed by neoplastic and fetal cells, and was weakly expressed in a phase-specific way in a few normal cells ( 14 , 15 ). (
  • Our prediction is that at least some of the CSC antigens will match proteins already known to serve as TAAs and expressed by embryo-fetal tissues (e.g., survivin, telomerase, cancer/testis antigens) reflecting common functions between embryonic stem cells and CSCs, i.e., multipotent differentiation, plasticity, and self-renewal. (
  • However, because these TAAs are expressed even by the majority of cancer cells of a given tumor, while CSCs encompass a small subpopulation of the tumor mass, CSCc may represent a better target if specifically enriched in cancer/testis, IAP-derived and/or mutated (unique) antigens in parallel with stem cell markers (e.g. (
  • CD44, CD133), in comparison with other tumor cells showing a more disperse concentration of such TAAs ( 17 ). (
  • We showed that CD44 acts as a functional E-selectin ligand when expressed on both CD4 + and CD8 + T-cells. (
  • Furthermore, by knocking down these ligands individually or together in primary activated human T-cells, we demonstrated that CD44/HCELL, and not CD43, cooperates with PSGL-1 as a major E-selectin ligand. (
  • Additionally, we demonstrated the relevance of our findings to chronic autoimmune disease, by showing that CD44/HCELL and PSGL-1, but not CD43, from T-cells isolated from psoriasis patients, bind E-selectin. (
  • In addition to the previously described ligands, PSGL-1 and CD43, we also identified CD44 on activated human T-cells. (
  • As CD44s is mostly expressed on cells of lymphohaematopoietic origin, it is also known as haematopoietic CD44 (CD44H). (
  • Their expression patterns are tissue specific: CD44 lacking v2-v10 is the most common form on haematopoietic cells while larger CD44 splice variants dominate on certain normal and neoplastic epithelia, activated lymphocytes and malignant lymphomas. (
  • A CD44 isoform consisting of the last three exon products of the variable region (CD44V8-10) is preferentially expressed on epithelial cells, hence it is also called epithelial CD44 or CD44E. (
  • A basal phenotype (CD44+CD49f+CK5+p63+CK8-AR-PSA-) was observed among sphere-forming cells. (
  • Subpopulations of prostate cells expressing tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (Trop2), CD44, and CD49f preferentially formed spheres. (
  • To compare identification of circulating breast cancer cells (CBCCs) in blood or pleural or peritoneal fluid by a novel technique using stem cell marker retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and surface antigen expression (CD44+, CD24-) to the standard technique using the CellSearch® system in women with metastatic breast cancer. (
  • OUTLINE: Patients undergo sample collection to help develop a new technique using stem cell marker retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and surface antigen expression (CD44+, CD24-) in isolating circulating breast cancer cells (CBCCs) from blood and pleural or peritoneal fluid. (
  • Cells are stained against surface antigens that provide specific expression patterns for CBCCs (CD44, CD24). (
  • CD44 is expressed by hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. (
  • Bone marrow myeloid cells and memory T cells highly express this antigen and peripheral B and T cells can upregulate the expression of CD44. (
  • Liu J, Bi G, Wen P, Yang W, Ren X, Tang T, Xie C, Dong W, Jiang G. Down-regulation of CD44 contributes to the differentiation of HL-60 cells induced by ATRA or HMBA. (
  • Subramaniam V, Gardner H, Jothy S: Soluble CD44 secretion contributes to the acquisition of aggressive tumor phenotype in human colon cancer cells. (
  • Subramaniam V, Vincent IR, Gardner H, Chan E, Dhamko H, Jothy S: CD44 regulates cell migration in human colon cancer cells via Lyn kinase and AKT phosphorylation. (
  • Sestrin proteins dampen TCR signaling and induce antigen-independent natural killer-like cytotoxicity in highly differentiated CD8 T cells. (
  • Several techniques have been proposed to isolate or enrich for tumorigenic breast cancer stem cells, including (a) culture of cells in non-adherent non-differentiating conditions to form mammospheres and (b) sorting of the cells by their surface phenotype (expression of CD24 and CD44). (
  • Expression of CD24 and CD44 on uncultured cells and mammospheres derived from the pleural effusions was documented. (
  • Analysis of surface expression of CD24 and CD44 on uncultured cells from 21 of the samples showed that the cells from some samples separated into two populations, but some did not. (
  • Uncultured cells from a highly tumorigenic sample (PE14) were uniformly negative for surface expression of both CD24 and CD44. (
  • In these experiments, cells were sometimes gated for epithelial specific antigen-positive (ESA+) cells, and there was a suggestion that the ESA+ subset of CD44+/CD24low/- cells were more tumorigenic. (
  • In order to broad- en the array of tools for cell-based autologous therapies, we iso- lated a novel renewable stem cell population from the adult testes that has characteristics of MSCs, termed gonadal stem cells (GSCs). (
  • CD44 enriched mouse LN T cells. (
  • Why use Both Positive (CD44) and Negative (CD24) Selection to Isolate Breast Cancer Stem Cells? (
  • R&D Systems MagCellect CD24 - CD44 + Breast Cancer Stem Cell Isolation Kit (Catalog # MAGH111) enriches for a small population of human breast cancer cells, which can form new tumors in mice. (
  • Isolates CD24 low/- CD44 + cells which have been shown to form tumors in mice. (
  • A small population of CD24 low/- CD44 + cells was isolated from MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells using the MagCellect CD24 - CD44 + Breast Cancer Stem Cell Isolation Kit (Catalog # MAGH111). (
  • Conclusions These data demonstrate that B cells autoreactive to RBC antigens survive in healthy mice with normal immune systems. (
  • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) consists of loss of tolerance to self-antigens on red blood cells (RBCs) in the humoral compartment. (
  • We present here a method to develop functional antigen (Ag)-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs) from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for immunotherapy of autoimmune arthritis in a murine model. (
  • Since splice variants of CD44 promote metastasis of certain tumors to lymph nodes, we explored the expression of CD44 proteins on migrating LC and DC. (
  • Immune responses targeting these proteins could thus result in a limited or no generation of antigen-loss variants and, therefore, they may efficiently control in vivo tumor growth, thus meeting the requirements for an ideal TAA set forth above. (
  • CD44 proteins are also released in soluble form (solCD44) via proteases ( 21 ) and are detectable in normal circulation ( 22 -28 ). (
  • In OSCC, increased CD44 expression has been associated with decreased survival and increased recurrence, metastasis, and resistance to chemo/radiation therapy ( 11 , 21 , 22 ). (
  • CD44 participates in a wide variety of cellular functions including lymphocyte activation, recirculation and homing, hematopoiesis , and tumor metastasis . (
  • CD44 also may be related to tumor metastasis formation. (
  • We investigated the amount of CD109 antigen in serum in four patients who developed distant metastasis and compared the amount of CD109 between the preoperative and the distant metastasis phase. (
  • The expression of CD44 variants was evaluated immunohistochemically in paraffin-embedded pancreatic cancer tissues from 42 patients who were confirmed surgically and histologically to have received curative resection. (
  • CD44 splice variants containing variable exons are designated CD44v. (
  • However, the role of PCBP1 in CD44 variants splicing still remains elusive. (
  • Exons 5a-14 (v1 to v10) generate CD44 variants through alternative splicing. (
  • The ten exons (Exons 5a-14) located between these regions are, however, subjected to alternative splicing, resulting in the generation of CD44 variants. (
  • As both LFA-1 and CD44 are involved in the migration of lymphocytes through high endothelial venules, these data could suggest that these molecules transduce signals resulting in cytoskeletal modification necessary for lymphocyte transmigration. (
  • A population of CD3-positive lymphocytes expressing the CD56 surface antigen, with potential immunomodulating activity. (
  • bCSC), characterized by expression of different markers [CD44 high /CD24 low /epithelial-specific antigen (ESA)+], aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) activity, and ability to form mammospheres under ultra-low attachment culture conditions, are suspected to evade conventional therapies leading to disease recurrence. (
  • CD44 + /CD24 - / low /epithelial-specific antigen + BCSCs were isolated by flow cytometry. (
  • Here we examine salivary soluble CD44 (solCD44) expression in HNSCC patients and normal controls to determine its potential as a screening tool. (
  • A Role in Transmembrane Signaling for the Cytoplasmic Domain of the CD2 T Lymphocyte Surface Antigen. (
  • One critical modification involves discrete sialofucosylations rendering the selectin-binding glycoform of CD44 called HCELL (for Hematopoietic Cell E-selectin/L-selectin Ligand). (
  • Detects canine and equine CD44 in Flow Cytometry. (
  • Detection of CD44 in Canine Monocytes by Flow Cytometry. (
  • Flow cytometry analysis (surface staining) of human peripheral blood with anti-human CD44 (MEM-85) purified / GAM-APC. (
  • Link domain, which includes the Link module of TSG-6 [ PMID: 12972412 ] (a hyaladherin with important roles in inflammation and ovulation) and the hyaluronan binding domain of CD44 (which contains extra N-terminal beta-strand and C-terminal beta-hairpin) [ PMID: 14992719 ]. (
  • To date, whether CD44 has a role in regulating Th1-Th2 differentiation has not been determined. (
  • Knock out CD44 in reprogrammed liver cancer cell C3A increases CSCs stemness and promotes differentiation. (
  • The recommended ELISA Kit will likely detect the antigen in question with higher specificity in approved samples than the available alternatives. (
  • The highest AUC 0.937 was attributed to the 3-marker panel of CD44/TGM2/EpCAM (84% sensitivity, 100% specificity), FIGO IA samples were discriminated from more advanced stages of EC with the mesothelin/grade 1 model featuring AUC of 0.911 (95.24% sensitivity, 78.26% specificity). (
  • In this study, we examined whether CD44 exon 2 polymorphisms are associated with increased susceptibility to breast cancer. (
  • Direct nucleotide sequencing analysis showed that multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms were present in the CD44 exon 2 coding region in female patients with breast cancer. (
  • Within the N‑terminal invariant portion of the ECD (aa 14‑191), canine CD44 shares 90%, 83%, and 82% identity with human, mouse, and rat CD44, respectively. (
  • Extending these findings to freshly resected human OSCC, we confirmed a strict relationship between ERK1/2 phosphorylation and CD44 expression. (
  • Bazil V, Strominger JL: Metalloprotease and serine protease are involved in cleavage of CD43, CD44, and CD16 from stimulated human granulocytes. (
  • CD44 is a family of transmembrane glycoproteins involved in cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions. (
  • CD44 is encoded by a total of 20 exons, seven of which form the invariant extracellular region of the so-called standard form (CD44s). (
  • Exons 1-5 and Exons 15-19 encode the N-terminal (extracellular) and C-terminal (extracellular, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic) domains respectively, and share homologous domains among all the CD44 family members. (
  • In contrast, CD44V3-10, the longest CD44 isoform that expresses eight exons of the variable region, has been observed in keratinocytes. (
  • Expression of CD44 may be used as aid to diagnostic in the characterization of samples from individuals suspected with hematologic neoplasia. (
  • On the other hand, expression of total CD44 (including CD44v, as well as CD44s) was observed in both tumors and adjacent normal sites. (
  • Given the aberrant expression of specific genes in a variety of cancer types, restricted in testis or selected in normal tissue, cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) have emerged as efficient specific tumor targets which spare normal tissue from incurring damage during treatment 3 . (
  • This study analyzed CD44 expression in topographic tissue sites of colorectal cancers to determine its association with patient survival and clinicopathological characteristics. (
  • After a decade of cancer immunotherapy (both active and adoptive), based on the use of well-defined tumor-associated antigens (TAA), and despite the large amount of new information that has been collected both in preclinical and clinical settings, the clinical outcome of immunotherapy trials has been altogether disappointing ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Design and Methods In order to study the pathogenesis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, we developed a murine model with RBC-specific expression of a model antigen carrying epitopes from hen egg lysozyme and ovalbumin. (
  • Identification of hyaluronic acid binding sites in the extracellular domain of CD44. (
  • Requirements for Hyaluronic Acid Binding by CD44. (
  • Initial work on its regulation focused on alternative splicing and showed that the v6 CD44 isoform promoted metastatic activity ( 16 ). (
  • CD44 expression may be up-regulated upon some carcinomas, and it has been speculated that this may be related to metastatic potential. (
  • Thus, CD44 has been reported to be a valuable marker for memory cell subsets. (