Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Core 2-containing O-glycans on CD43 are preferentially expressed in the memory subset of human CD4 T cells. (1/292)

Human CD4 T cells can be divided into two functionally distinct subsets: a CD45RO+ memory subset and a CD45RA+ naive subset. In an attempt to identify novel cell surface molecules on these cells, we have developed a mAb, anti-1D4. The antigen defined by anti-1D4 was preferentially expressed on the memory subset of freshly isolated peripheral CD4 T cells and 1D4+ CD4 T cells functionally corresponded to memory T cells. Retrovirus-mediated expression cloning revealed that the 1 D4 antigen is human CD43. Transfection of CHO-leu cells, which stably express human CD43, with core 2 beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (C2GnT) conferred expression of the 1D4 antigen and mRNA of C2GnT was detected by RT-PCR only in 1D4+ T cells but not in 1D4- T cells, implying that the 1 D4 antigen is composed of core 2-containing O-glycans on CD43. Reactivity with anti-1 D4 was completely abolished when cells were treated with neuraminidase, while them remained weak binding of anti-T305, a previously described mAb which also reacts with CD43 modified with core 2-containing O-glycans. Moreover, anti-1D4 markedly reacted with NIH-3T3 cells expressing human CD43 and low levels of endogenous C2GnT, whereas anti-T305 reacted slightly. These results indicate that the 1D4 antigen is distinct from the epitope defined by anti-T305 and anti-1D4 is a more sensitive probe to detect core 2-containing O-glycans than anti-T305. Taken together, our results indicate that core 2-containing O-glycans, whose expression can easily be detected with anti-1D4, are preferentially expressed in the CD45RO+ memory subset of CD4 T cells.  (+info)

B cell response after MMTV infection: extrafollicular plasmablasts represent the main infected population and can transmit viral infection. (2/292)

The immune response to mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) relies on the presentation of an MMTV-encoded superantigen by infected B cells to superantigen-specific T cells. The initial extrafollicular B cell differentiation involved the generation of B cells expressing low levels of B220. These B220low B cells corresponded to plasmablasts that expressed high levels of CD43 and syndecan-1 and were CD62 ligand- and IgD-. Viral DNA was detected nearly exclusively in these B220low B cells by PCR, and retroviral type-A particles were observed in their cytoplasm by electron microscopy. An MMTV transmission to the offspring was also achieved after transfer of B220low CD62 ligand- CD43+ plasmablasts into noninfected females. These data suggest that B220low plasmablasts, representing the bulk of infected B cells, are capable of sustaining viral replication and may be involved in the transmission of MMTV.  (+info)

Probing cell-surface architecture through synthesis: an NMR-determined structural motif for tumor-associated mucins. (3/292)

Cell-surface mucin glycoproteins are altered with the onset of oncogenesis. Knowledge of mucin structure could be used in vaccine strategies that target tumor-associated mucin motifs. Thus far, however, mucins have resisted detailed molecular analysis. Reported herein is the solution conformation of a highly complex segment of the mucin CD43. The elongated secondary structure of the isolated mucin strand approaches the stability of motifs found in folded proteins. The features required for the mucin motif to emerge are also described. Immunocharacterization of related constructs strongly suggests that the observed epitopes represent distinguishing features of tumor cell-surface architecture.  (+info)

Structural requirements for CD43 function. (4/292)

The regulation of T cell activation and adhesion by CD43 (leukosialin, sialophorin) has been thought to be mainly a function of the large size and negative charge of the extracellular domain of the protein. In this work, we demonstrate that the cytoplasmic tail is both necessary and sufficient for the negative regulatory effect of CD43 on cell-cell adhesion. Expression of mutant CD43 proteins in primary T cells from CD43-deficient mice demonstrated that the antiproliferative effect of CD43 is also dependent upon the cytoplasmic tail. In contrast, Ab-mediated costimulation through CD43 does not require the intracellular domain of CD43. These data demonstrate that CD43 primarily serves as a negative regulator of T cell activation and adhesion, and that this is mediated not exclusively by passive effects of the extracellular domain, but requires participation of the cytoplasmic tail, perhaps through interactions with the cytoskeleton, or alternatively, active regulation of intracellular signaling pathways.  (+info)

An antiserum raised against the recombinant cytoplasmic tail of the human CD43 glycoprotein identifies CD43 in many mammalian species. (5/292)

Leukosialin or CD43 is a heavily O-glycosylated transmembrane protein expressed on all cells of the haematopoietic cell lineage with the exception of red blood cells and mature B cells. This antigen has been identified in human, mouse and rat with monoclonal antibodies. Although orthologues of many human and rodent leucocyte cell surface antigens have been described in recent years, CD43, despite its abundance on human and rodent cells, remained uncharacterized in other vertebrate species. The comparison of CD43 amino acid sequences from human, mouse and rat indicated a high level of homology in the cytoplasmic domain. A serum, (p.aCD43cp) raised against the recombinant cytoplasmic tail of the human CD43, was shown not only to recognize human CD43, but it bound to putative CD43 orthologues in many mammalian species. CD43 was found to be expressed in the same leucocyte subpopulations and circumstantial evidence suggested that CD43 is also regulated similarly during leucocyte ontogeny in all species investigated. As CD43+ cells were readily observed in fixed tissues, the p.aCD43cp serum may be used as a reliable reagent for the verification of the haematopoietic origin of infiltrations and, used together with other reagents, for the serological characterization of normal and pathological lymphoid tissues and lymphoid infiltrations in experimental work and in animal disease.  (+info)

Modulation of integrin function in hematopoietic progenitor cells by CD43 engagement: possible involvement of protein tyrosine kinase and phospholipase C-gamma. (6/292)

Attachment of cells to extracellular matrix components is critical for the regulation of hematopoiesis. CD43 is a mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein expressed on the surface of almost all hematopoietic cells. A highly extended structure of extracellular mucin with negative charge may function as a repulsive barrier to hematopoietic cells. However, some investigators have shown that CD43 has proadhesive properties, and engagement of CD43 has been reported to upregulate integrin-mediated cell adhesion in T cells. We found that cross-linking of CD43 with monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) enhanced integrin alpha4beta1 (very late antigen [VLA]-4) and alpha5 beta1 (VLA-5)-dependent adhesion of human cord blood CD34(+) cells to fibronectin. CD34(+) CD38(hi), but not CD34(+)CD38(-/low) cells responded significantly to the stimulus, suggesting that committed, but not stem and more immature progenitors are sensitive to CD43-mediated activation of integrin. To elucidate the molecular mechanism leading to integrin activation, we used the growth factor-dependent cell line MO7e. Cross-linking of CD43 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of several intracellular molecules including the protein tyrosine kinase Syk, the proto-oncogene product Cbl, and phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma2 in MO7e cells. Moreover, protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A and PLC inhibitor U73122 both blocked CD43-induced enhancement of adhesion to fibronectin. These results indicate that signals mediated through CD43 may increase integrin affinity to fibronectin via a pathway dependent on protein tyrosine kinase and PLC-gamma activation in hematopoietic progenitors.  (+info)

Characterization of anergic anti-DNA B cells: B cell anergy is a T cell-independent and potentially reversible process. (7/292)

Anti-single stranded DNA (ssDNA) and anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) B cells are regulated in non-autoimmune mice. In this report we show that while both anti-ssDNA and anti-dsDNA B cells are blocked in their ability to differentiate into antibody-secreting cells, other phenotypic and functional characteristics distinguish them from one another. Splenic anti-ssDNA B cells are found distributed throughout the B cell follicle, and are phenotypically mature and long-lived. On the other hand, splenic anti-dsDNA B cells are short-lived, exhibit an immature and antigen-experienced phenotype, and localize to the T-B interface of the splenic follicle. Functionally, anti-ssDNA B cells proliferate, albeit suboptimally, in response to anti-IgM, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and CD40L/IL-4 + anti-IgM stimulation, and tyrosine phosphorylate intracellular proteins upon mIgM cross-linking. Anti-dsDNA B cells, on the other hand, are functionally unresponsive to anti-IgM and LPS stimulation, and do not phosphorylate intracellular proteins, including Syk, upon mIg stimulation. Importantly, anti-DNA B cell anergy is maintained in the absence of T cells since both anti-ssDNA and anti-dsDNA B cells are as efficiently regulated in RAG2(-/-) mice as in their RAG2(+/+) counterparts. Interestingly, the severely anergic state of anti-dsDNA B cells is partially reversible upon stimulation with CD40 ligand and IL-4. In response to these signals, anti-dsDNA B cells remain viable, up-regulate cell surface expression of B7-2 and IgM, and restore their ability to proliferate and phosphorylate Syk upon mIg cross-linking. Collectively, these data suggest that anti-DNA B cell anergy encompasses distinct phenotypes which, even in its most severe form, may be reversible upon stimulation with T cell-derived factors.  (+info)

A common signaling pathway via Syk and Lyn tyrosine kinases generated from capping of the sialomucins CD34 and CD43 in immature hematopoietic cells. (8/292)

The sialomucin CD34 is a useful marker for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. However, the role of CD34 remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the functions of CD34 and another sialomucin CD43 coexpressed on hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Stimulation of undifferentiated hematopoietic KG1a cells with anti-CD34 or anti-CD43 induced homotypic cytoadhesion, accompanied by formation of a long-lived cap of CD34 and CD43 respectively, which colocalized with F-actin. Stimulation with either antibody specifically increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the identical set of proteins of Lyn, Syk, pp60, pp69, and pp77 at the capping site. These events were similar to those observed in monocytic U937 cells ectopically expressing CD34. After stimulation of KG1a cells, coimmunoprecipitation of Lyn with pp69 and pp77 and of Syk with pp37 was detected in the membrane fraction. Blockade of antibody-induced cap formation by treatment with cytochalasin D leads to inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk and pp77 and homotypic cytoadhesion. Moreover, normal human CD34(+) bone marrow cells showed cap formation of CD34 or CD43 after stimulation. These results suggest that crosslinking of either CD34 or CD43 activates the same signaling pathway for cytoadhesion through Lyn, Syk, and the novel tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins within hematopoiesis.  (+info)

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Leukosialin also known as sialophorin or CD43 (cluster of differentiation 43) is a transmembrane cell surface protein that in humans is encoded by the SPN (sialophorin) gene. Sialophorin (leukosialin) is a major sialoglycoprotein on the surface of human T lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, and some B lymphocytes, which appears to be important for immune function and may be part of a physiologic ligand-receptor complex involved in T-cell activation. Defects in the CD43 molecule are associated with the development of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. It also appears in about 25% of intestinal MALTomas.[citation needed] Using immunohistochemistry, CD43 can be demonstrated in the paracortical T-cells of healthy lymph nodes and tonsils; it is also positive in a range of lymphoid and myeloid tumours. Although it is present in over 90% of T-cell lymphomas, it is generally less effective at demonstrating this condition than is CD3 antigen. However, it may be useful as part of a panel to demonstrate B-cell ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD43/Sialophorin Antibody (W3/13) [DyLight 488]. Validated: Flow, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Rat. 100% Guaranteed.
Promab CD106 - This gene is a member of the Ig superfamily and encodes a cell surface sialoglycoprotein expressed by cytokine-activated endothelium. This type I membrane protein mediates leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and signal transduction, and may play a role in the development of artherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Three alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different
Promab CD106 - This gene is a member of the Ig superfamily and encodes a cell surface sialoglycoprotein expressed by cytokine-activated endothelium. This type I membrane protein mediates leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and signal transduction, and may play a role in the development of artherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Three alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different
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generating the core 1 O-glycan Gal-beta1-3GalNAc-alpha1-Ser/Thr (T antigen), which is a precursor for many extended O-glycans in ...
Glycophorins are the major sialoglycoprotein component of erythrocyte cell membranes. They are heavily glycosylated and rich in sialic, making the erythrocytes membranes very hydrophilic. This property enables them to circulate without adhering to other cells or the walls of blood vessels. Glycophorins are classified based on the quantity present in the cell membrane. Glycophorin A is the most abundant. The N-terminal glycosylated segment of glycophorin A, which lies outside the erythrocyte membrane, bears MN blood group receptors. It is encoded by the GYPA gene in humans, and many variants exist due to recombination between the GYPA and GYPB genes. Glycophorin A contains a receptor for binding the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum; it also binds several viruses. Glycophorin A is also known as sialoglycoprotein alpha, MN sialoglycoprotein, CD235a antigen, MN, GPA, MNS, GPSAT, PAS-2, CD235a, GPErik, HGpMiV, HGpMiXI, and HGpSta(C).. ...
Glycophorins are the major sialoglycoprotein component of erythrocyte cell membranes. They are heavily glycosylated and rich in sialic, making the erythrocytes membranes very hydrophilic. This property enables them to circulate without adhering to other cells or the walls of blood vessels. Glycophorins are classified based on the quantity present in the cell membrane. Glycophorin A is the most abundant. The N-terminal glycosylated segment of glycophorin A, which lies outside the erythrocyte membrane, bears MN blood group receptors. It is encoded by the GYPA gene in humans, and many variants exist due to recombination between the GYPA and GYPB genes. Glycophorin A contains a receptor for binding the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum; it also binds several viruses. Glycophorin A is also known as sialoglycoprotein alpha, MN sialoglycoprotein, CD235a antigen, MN, GPA, MNS, GPSAT, PAS-2, CD235a, GPErik, HGpMiV, HGpMiXI, and HGpSta(C).. ...
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Principal Investigator:WATANABE Kenji,渡辺 乾二, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Zootechnical science/Grassland science
Rabbit polyclonal Ezrin / Radixin / Moesin antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC and tested in Human and Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
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An integral sialoglycoprotein with Mr approximately 130,000 (Sgp 130) and highest expression in adult chicken gizzard smooth muscle has been recently identified as an excellent candidate for classification as a plasma membrane protein natively associated (directly or indirectly) with actin microfilaments (Rogalski, A.A., and S.J. Singer, 1985, J. Cell Biol., 101:785-801). In this study, the relative in situ distributions of the Sgp 130 integral species (a designation that also includes non-smooth muscle molecular forms) and the peripheral protein, vinculin, have been simultaneously revealed for the first time in selected cultured cells and tissues abundant in microfilament-membrane attachment sites, particularly, smooth and cardiac muscle. Specific antibody probes against Sgp 130 (mouse mAb 30B6) and vinculin (affinity-purified rabbit antibody) were used in double indirect immunofluorescent and immunoelectron microscopic experiments. In contrast to the widespread distributions of vinculin at ...
What is Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome? Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome results in greater susceptibility to infections and abnormal bleeding. The latter occurs due to unusually small, dysfunctional platelets. What is the treatment for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome? This condition is often cured by stem transplantation from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or cord blood.
The process of formation begins when the T-cell receptor (TCR) binds to the peptide:MHC complex on the antigen-presenting cell ... d-SMAC (distal-SMAC) enriched in CD43 and CD45 molecules. New investigations, however, have shown that a "bull's eye" is not ... Play media In immunology, an immunological synapse (or immune synapse) is the interface between an antigen-presenting cell or ... p-SMAC (peripheral-SMAC) within which the lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and the cytoskeletal protein talin ...
He also found the novel antigen JL1 expressed in thymocytes (J Exp Med. 178:1447-51, 1993). JL1 is a unique epitope of CD43 ... Besides, he found the novel antigen JL1 on thymocytes, which has been developed as a therapeutic target for leukemia. Now he is ... JL1, a novel differentiation antigen of human cortical thymocyte. J Exp Med. 178:1447-51, 1993 Choi EY, Park WS, Jung KC, Chung ... His another important achievement is the induction of antigen-specific T cell tolerance, which has been a distant dream of ...
... the hematopoietic mucin-like family of molecules that includes leukosialin/CD43 and stem cell antigen CD34; the lysosomal/ ... "MACROPHAGE ANTIGEN CD68; CD68". omim.org. Retrieved 16 September 2017. Leong, Anthony S-Y; Cooper, Kumarason; Leong, F Joel W-M ... Other names or aliases for this gene in humans and other animals include: CD68 Molecule, CD68 Antigen, GP110, Macrosialin, ... Damoiseaux, JG; Döpp, EA; Calame, W; Chao, D; MacPherson, GG; Dijkstra, CD (1994). "Rat macrophage lysosomal membrane antigen ...
... antigens, cd43 MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.650.264 -- antigens, cd164. ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.098 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... 395.550.200.170 -- antigens, cd146 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.175 -- antigens, cd164 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.200 -- cadherins ... ca-15-3 antigen MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.300 -- gastric mucin MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.650 -- sialomucins MeSH D12.776.395.560. ...
... antigens, cd38 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.140 --- antigens, cd40 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.143 --- antigens, cd43 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd38 MeSH D23.101.100.110.140 --- antigens, cd40 MeSH D23.101.100.110.143 --- antigens, cd43 MeSH D23.101.100.110.145 ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...
... antigens, cd43 MeSH D12.644.233.800.350 --- glycophorin MeSH D12.644.233.900 --- teicoplanin MeSH D12.644.233.925 --- ...
This process prevents the circulation of T cells that are self-reactive and recognise self antigen. Both galectin-1 and ... CD43 and CD45 are involved in apoptosis. Galectin-7 is expressed under the p53 promoter and may have a key role in regulating ...
... antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human SPN genome location and SPN gene ... Defects in the CD43 molecule are associated with the development of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. It also appears in about 25% of ... 1998). "CD43 interacts with moesin and ezrin and regulates its redistribution to the uropods of T lymphocytes at the cell-cell ... 2000). "CD43-mediated signals induce DNA binding activity of AP-1, NF-AT, and NFkappa B transcription factors in human T ...
... that have previously encountered and responded to their cognate antigen; thus, the term antigen-experienced T cell is often ... For example, in the mouse, Sendai virus specific CD8+ T-cells low on CD43 expression mounted a higher memory recall response ... Antigen-specific memory T cells against viruses or other microbial molecules can be found in both TCM and TEM subsets. Although ... White JT, Cross EW, Kedl RM (2017). "Antigen-inexperienced memory CD8+ T cells: where they come from and why we need them". ...
... making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen presenting cells. Notably, most B1 cells do not develop into memory B ... In January 2011, human B1 cells were found to have marker profile of CD20+CD27+CD43+CD70- and could either be CD5+ or CD5-, ... Hence, there appears to be a role for self or foreign antigen in shaping the repertoire of the B-1 B cell compartment. B1 B ... These studies indicate preexisting subset differences in B cell receptor (BCR) specificity and antigen-driven B cell fate that ...
Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... Exhausted T cells typically indicate higher levels of CD43, CD69 and inhibitory receptors combined with lower expression of ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help.[57] Antigen ... Antigen discrimination[edit]. A unique feature of T cells is their ability to discriminate between healthy and abnormal (e.g. ...
Antigens, CD34 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... Drew E, Merzaban JS, Seo W, Ziltener HJ, McNagny KM (Jan 2005). "CD34 and CD43 inhibit mast cell adhesion and are required for ... Hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34 also known as CD34 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD34 gene. ... A hematopoietic progenitor cell surface antigen defined by a monoclonal antibody raised against KG-1a cells". Journal of ...
Sialyl Lewis X is also one of the most important blood group antigens and is displayed on the terminus of glycolipids that are ... CD43 or CD44. This sialyl-Lewisx mediated binding to selectins allows circulating leukocytes to stick to and roll along ... Sialyl Lewis x is an inflammation-associated antigen on liver cells. It becomes over expressed on diseased liver cells and can ... Defective synthesis of the sialyl Lewis X antigen results in immunodeficiency (leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 2). Defective ...
4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ...
The organization of the SELPLG gene closely resembles that of CD43 and the human platelet glycoprotein GpIb-alpha both of which ... Fuhlbrigge RC, Kieffer JD, Armerding D, Kupper TS (1997). "Cutaneous lymphocyte antigen is a specialized form of PSGL-1 ... Tissue Antigens. 54 (5): 499-507. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.1999.540507.x. PMID 10599889. Epperson TK, Patel KD, McEver RP, ...
Tissue Antigens (англ.)русск. : journal. - 2007. - Vol. 68, no. 6. - P. 509-517. - DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00726.x. - PMID ...
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11.[5] CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ... "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms cooperate to mediate colon carcinoma cell adhesion to E- and L-selectin in ...
CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... 2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
It mediates adhesive interactions important for antigen-specific immune response, NK-cell mediated clearance, lymphocyte ... CD43, and ICAM-2". The Journal of Cell Biology. 140 (4): 885-95. doi:10.1083/jcb.140.4.885. PMC 2141743 . PMID 9472040. ...
"Regulation of Cbl molecular interactions by the co-receptor molecule CD43 in human T cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (1): 729-37. ... of the c-cbl protooncogene is the 120-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein in Jurkat cells activated via the T cell antigen ...
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
1991). „Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID ... CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... 2003). „Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". Int. J. Hematol. 75 ...
... is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Leucocyte typing: human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... 1996). "CD88 antibodies specifically bind to C5aR on dermal CD117+ and CD14+ cells and react with a desmosomal antigen in human ...
CD43 - CD164 - MUC1 - MUC2 - MUC3A - MUC3B - MUC4 - MUC5AC - MUC5B - MUC6 - MUC7 - MUC8 - MUC12 - MUC13 - MUC15 - MUC16 - MUC17 ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... CD43, Glikoforin, Glikoforin C) • Trombopoetin • Tiroglobulin • Tiroksin-vezujući proteini • Transkortin • Faktor nekroze ...
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
CD43, also known as Ly-48, Leukosialin, Sialophorin, Leukocyte Sialoglycoprotein, and gp115, is a large single chain of type I ... APC/Cy7 anti-mouse CD43 Activation-Associated Glycoform Antibody - ... Antigen References 1. van den Berg TK, et al. 2001. J. Immunol. 166:3637.. 2. Moore T, et al. 1994. J. Immunol. 153:4978.. 3. ... It has been reported that CD43 binds to CD54 and Siglec-1. CD43 plays dual roles in cell adhesion and anti-adhesion, as well as ...
Signal transduction via leukocyte antigen CD43 (sialophorin) Feedback regulation by protein kinase C. In: Journal of Immunology ... Signal transduction via leukocyte antigen CD43 (sialophorin) Feedback regulation by protein kinase C. Journal of Immunology. ... Signal transduction via leukocyte antigen CD43 (sialophorin) Feedback regulation by protein kinase C. / Wong, Richard C K; ... The inhibition of CD43-mediated signaling by PMA was due, in part, to uncoupling of CD43 from the signal-transducing G protein ...
Mouse monoclonal CD43 antibody [MT1] validated for WB, IHC and tested in Human. Referenced in 2 publications. Immunogen ... antigen-presenting cell) contact site thus suggesting a negative regulatory role in adaptive immune response. ... ab89691 at 1/20 dilution staining CD43 in Human mantle cell lymphoma by Immunohistochemistry, Paraffin-embedded tissue. Note ...
CD43 plays a regulatory role in cell adhesion, activation, and survival. ... R2/60 antibody reacts with mouse CD43, expressed by most hematopoietic cells. ... CD43 antibody,CD43 R2/60,CD43 antibody clone R2/60 ,CD43 antibody R2/60,CD43,mouse CD43,anti CD43,anti-mouse CD43,CD43 antib, ... Internal Search Keywords: 60042,mouse antibody CD43,mouse antibody CD43 R2/60,mouse antibody CD43 clone R2/60 ,clone R2/60,R2/ ...
Rat Monoclonal Anti-CD43/Sialophorin Antibody (R2/60) [Alexa Fluor® 488]. Validated: WB, Flow. Tested Reactivity: Mouse. 100% ... Alternate Names for CD43/Sialophorin Antibody (R2/60) [Alexa Fluor® 488]. *CD43 antigen ... Home » CD43/Sialophorin » CD43/Sialophorin Antibodies » CD43/Sialophorin Antibody (R2/60) [Alexa Fluor® 488] ... CD43/Sialophorin Antibody (R2/60) [Alexa Fluor® 488] Summary. Immunogen. The immunogen for this antibody was CD43. ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD43/Sialophorin Antibody (W3/13) [DyLight 488]. Validated: Flow, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Rat. ... Alternate Names for CD43/Sialophorin Antibody (W3/13) [DyLight 488]. *CD43 antigen ... Home » CD43/Sialophorin » CD43/Sialophorin Antibodies » CD43/Sialophorin Antibody (W3/13) [DyLight 488] ... Blogs on CD43/Sialophorin. There are no specific blogs for CD43/Sialophorin, but you can read our latest blog posts. ...
Mouse Monoclonal CD43 antibody for IHC. Order anti-CD43 antibody ABIN6297681. ... Antigen CD43 (SPN) Alternative Name Leukosialin (SPN Antibody Abstract) Background Target Description: It recognizes a cell ... Mouse anti-Human CD43 Antibody [IHC only] Immunogen Stimulated human leukocytes were used as the immunogen for the CD43 ... Product Details anti-CD43 Antibody Handling Application Details Target Details back to top ...
2, B220+ CD43− pre-B cells are present in wild-type and in the various single and double IgH tg mice and represent ∼8% of the ... B Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity and Surface Density Together Determine B-1 versus B-2 Cell Development. Kong-Peng Lam, ... To determine the developmental potential of B cells bearing two distinct B cell antigen receptors (BCRs), one favoring B-1 and ... B Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity and Surface Density Together Determine B-1 versus B-2 Cell Development ...
Human Cancer Antigen CA19-9 (Gastrointestinal Cancer) Antigen Grade. Known contaminants: 65 Units/ml (, 1%) Centocor CA125 RIA ... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg), ad subtype.. Inactivation: Heat Inactivated at 60°C for 15 hours.. ... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg), ay subtype.. Inactivation: Heat Inactivated at 60°C for 15 hours.. ... Cyfra-21-1 Antigen Cyfra-21-1, Cytokeratin 19 Fragment, Low Cross-reactivity (LCR) Calibrator grade.. Known contaminants:. ...
CD43 is not expressed on resting conventional peripheral B cells. Thus, resting B cells are easily identified by the lack of ... CD43 expression. Additional information: Clone REA840 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Österreich ... Clone REA840 recognizes the mouse CD43 antigen, a glycosylated protein also known as leukosialin or sialophorin, which is ... Clone REA840 recognizes the mouse CD43 antigen, a glycosylated protein also known as leukosialin or sialophorin, which is ...
CD43 antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human SPN genome location and SPN gene ... Defects in the CD43 molecule are associated with the development of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. It also appears in about 25% of ... 1998). "CD43 interacts with moesin and ezrin and regulates its redistribution to the uropods of T lymphocytes at the cell-cell ... 2000). "CD43-mediated signals induce DNA binding activity of AP-1, NF-AT, and NFkappa B transcription factors in human T ...
CD43 (S7) expression identifies peripheral B cell subsets. J. Immunol. 153: 5503. ... CD1.1 Expression by Mouse Antigen-Presenting Cells and Marginal Zone B Cells. Jessica H. Roark, Se-Ho Park, Jayanthi ... The crystal structure of murine CD1: an MHC-like fold with a large hydrophobic antigen binding groove. Science 277: 339. ... I. Immature peripheral B cells in adults are heat-stable antigenhigh and exhibit unique signaling characteristics. J. Immunol. ...
CD43+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Defects in the CD43 molecule are associated with the development of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.[4] It also appears in about 25% ... CD43 has been shown to interact with EZR[6] and Moesin.[6][7] ... 1998). "CD43 interacts with moesin and ezrin and regulates its ... Leukosialin also known as sialophorin or CD43 (cluster of differentiation 43) is a transmembrane cell surface protein that in ...
CD43, CD45, CD52, CD56, CD68, CD7, CD72, CD9, CD95, CD99 ... ProSpecs CD Antigens include: CD4, CD40, CD10, CD11B, CD14, ...
CD15, CD20, CD30, CD43, CD45, ALK, CD57 and EMA. Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. CD45, EMA, ALK1, CD3, CD45RO, CD4, CD8, CD20, ... CD3, CD5, CD10, CD43, CD23, BCL-2, Cyclin D1, CD10, CD21 and CD35. ... CD45, CD20, CD3, CD43, MIB1, BCL-2, MUM1, CD10 and BCL-6. ... TdT, CD79a, CD43, CD10, CD3 and CD34. Immunoglobulin ... TdT, CD1, CD3, CD4/CD8, CD5, CD10, CD20, CD34, CD43, CD79a, cyclin D1 and MIB1. ...
CD15, CD20, CD30, CD43, CD45, ALK, CD57 and EMA. Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. CD45, EMA, ALK1, CD3, CD45RO, CD4, CD8, CD20, ... When a primary lymphoid follicle is stimulated by an antigen, a secondary lymphoid follicle is formed. The latter is composed ... CD3, CD5, CD10, CD43, CD23, BCL-2, Cyclin D1, CD10, CD21 and CD35. ... CD45, CD20, CD3, CD43, MIB1, BCL-2, MUM1, CD10 and BCL-6. ... TdT, CD79a, CD43, CD10, CD3 and CD34. Immunoglobulin ...
Bottom Line: In agreement with these earlier results, we show by a molecular single cell analysis that 4-7% of CD43(+) B cell ... Antigens, CD*. *B-Lymphocytes/immunology*. *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/genetics*. *Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/ ... Bottom Line: In agreement with these earlier results, we show by a molecular single cell analysis that 4-7% of CD43(+) B cell ... In agreement with these earlier results, we show by a molecular single cell analysis that 4-7% of CD43(+) B cell progenitors in ...
Exbio - Research products - Antibodies - CD and related antigens - Anti-Hu CD43 Alexa Fluor® 700 ... CD43 is expressed by platelets and at high levels on the surface of all leukocytes; it is negative on resting B lymphocytes and ... Kadaja-Saarepuu L, Laos S, Jääger K, Viil J, Balikova A, Lõoke M, Hansson GC, Maimets T: CD43 promotes cell growth and helps to ... Mody PD, Cannon JL, Bandukwala HS, Blaine KM, Schilling AB, Swier K, Sperling AI: Signaling through CD43 regulates CD4 T-cell ...
CD43: For subclassifying lymphomas (it lights up most leukocytes). CD45 (LCA, leukocyte commmon antigen): Marker for white ... Recoverable antigens involve cross-linking of a tyrosine and an amino-sidechain (usually arginine). Am. J. Clin. Path. 121: 190 ... PSA (prostate specific antigen): Demonstrates that a metastatic cancer is of prostatic origin. RCC-Ma: Pretty specific for ... antigen: Infectious agent. S-100: Helps with the hard calls. Famously lights up melanomas. Also cartilage, melanocytes, sweat ...
TCR signaling induces selective exclusion of CD43 from the T cell-antigen-presenting cell contact site. J. Immunol. 161: 6459. ... Dependence of T cell antigen recognition on the dimensions of an accessory receptor-ligand complex. J. Exp. Med. 190: 31. ... A comparison of the interaction of Shc and the tyrosine kinase ZAP-70 with the T cell antigen receptor ζ chain tyrosine-based ... Normal T cells express two T cell antigen receptor populations, one of which is linked to the cytoskeleton via ζ chain and ...
A and B) Sera were collected from 10-wk-old WT or Cry DKO mice and analyzed for autoantibodies using an auto-antigen microarray ... F) Peritoneal cavity cells were stained with anti-CD19, anti-B220, anti-CD5, and anti-CD43. Shown in the gates are the ... B cell responses to antigen stimulation in vivo. (A) T-dependent antibody responses to NP-KLH in Cry DKO mice. Sera were ... The sera from Cry DKO mice and Cry chimeras reacted strongly to most glomerular and nuclear antigens, suggesting that loss of ...
B-cells were negative for CD43. Histiocytes were positive for CD68 (Figure 4). Rare cells were positive for CD30 and appeared ... TB antigen were all negative. Repeat blood and urine cultures remained negative. CT scan of neck showed persistent ... was prepared and incubated with a panel of antibodies that identified lymphocyte maturation and differentiation antigens and ...
Cellular immune responses to the vaccine antigen by FACS [ Time Frame: 63 days ]. CD19, IgD, CD27, CD38, CD24 and CD43 B ... Variation in humoral immune response to the vaccine antigen assessed by ELISA [ Time Frame: 3 months ]. The level (g/l) of the ... To explore the quality of the cellular immune response induced by the vaccine antigen by the quantitation of a large panel of ... Will be assessed by measuring the capability of the specific vaccine antigen plasma IgGs to:. *Cross-react with different ...
Expression cloning of the R2/60 antigen identified the ligand as murine CD43. Together, these data demonstrate that CD43 can ... CD43 is a murine T cell costimulatory receptor that functions independently of CD28. J Exp Med. 1995;182:139-46 pubmed ...
Initial views of antigen-specific T cell junctions have revealed the formation of a specialized contact, termed the ... Large, abundant glycoproteins like CD43 and CD45 impose a steric barrier to the interaction of TCR and MHC (3). Second, the TCR ... Relative strength of antigens to interactions in solution and T cell contacts. The relative activities and classifications are ... We used two different Ek-restricted model antigen systems, moth cytochrome c (MCC) and hemoglobin (Hb). Using two independent ...
  • In summary, our data suggest that Tn antigen-Ab binding capacity is determined by the peptide context of the Tn antigen, antigenic specificity of the Ab and class of the immunoglobulin. (nih.gov)
  • The newly generated anti- Tn IgG mAbs with the strong specificity to glycoprotein CD43 can be particularly interesting for the application in leukemia diagnostics and therapy. (nih.gov)
  • The recommended ELISA Kit will likely detect the antigen in question with higher specificity in approved samples than the available alternatives. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • The inhibition of CD43-mediated signaling by PMA was due, in part, to uncoupling of CD43 from the signal-transducing G protein. (elsevier.com)
  • Leukosialin also known as sialophorin or CD43 (cluster of differentiation 43) is a transmembrane cell surface protein that in humans is encoded by the SPN (sialophorin) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • 0.05) and tumour cell expression for Ki-67 antigen and p53 protein. (bmj.com)
  • CD43 (leukosialin, sialophorin) is a transmembrane mucin-like protein with high negative charge, expressed on the surface of most hematopoietic cells. (sysmex-flowcytometry.com)
  • Expression of CD43 causes induction of functionally active tumor suppressor p53 protein, but in case of p53 and ARF defficiency CD43 promotes tumour proliferation and viability. (sysmex-flowcytometry.com)
  • Cross-linking of CD43 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of several intracellular molecules including the protein tyrosine kinase Syk, the proto-oncogene product Cbl, and phospholipase C (PLC)-γ2 in MO7e cells. (ashpublications.org)
  • Moreover, protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A and PLC inhibitor U73122 both blocked CD43-induced enhancement of adhesion to fibronectin. (ashpublications.org)
  • These results indicate that signals mediated through CD43 may increase integrin affinity to fibronectin via a pathway dependent on protein tyrosine kinase and PLC-γ activation in hematopoietic progenitors. (ashpublications.org)
  • Using one such system, the AND mouse, whose CD4+ V3-TCR+ (Trg+) identify amino acids 88 to 103 of the pigeon cytochrome C (PCC) protein, we have demonstrated in vitro age-related problems in immunosynapse (Garcia & Miller 2001), exclusion of CD43 from the site of synapse formation (Garcia & Miller 2003), TCR signaling (Miller 2005), and the appearance of CD69 and CD25 guns (Garcia & Miller 2003). (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • The 115 kD glycoform of CD43 is expressed on most hematopietic cells including T lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, granulocytes, platelets, and CD5 + B cells. (biolegend.com)
  • CD43 plays dual roles in cell adhesion and anti-adhesion, as well as costimulation of T cell activation and survival, and induction of apoptosis of T cells and hematopoietic progenitors. (biolegend.com)
  • Staurosporine, a potent inhibitor of PKC, abrogated the hyperphosphorylation of CD43 and normalized CD43-mediated signaling in PMA-treated cells. (elsevier.com)
  • CD43 is not expressed on resting conventional peripheral B cells. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Thus, resting B cells are easily identified by the lack of CD43 expression. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • [ 2 , 3 ] This zone contains postfollicular memory B cells derived after stimulation of recirculating cells by T-cell-dependent antigen. (medscape.com)
  • Kadaja-Saarepuu L, Laos S, Jääger K, Viil J, Balikova A, Lõoke M, Hansson GC, Maimets T: CD43 promotes cell growth and helps to evade FAS-mediated apoptosis in non-hematopoietic cancer cells lacking the tumor suppressors p53 or ARF. (exbio.cz)
  • Lastly, the movement of T cells works against sustained recognition of antigen ( 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • To further investigate the nature and complexity of the Tn antigen, we generated seven different anti- Tn mAbs of IgM and IgG classes raised against human Jurkat T cells , which are Tn -positive due to the low activity of T-synthase and mutation in specific chaperone Cosmc. (nih.gov)
  • Active-specific immunotherapy with dendritic cells loaded with peptide derived from the melanoma antigen, gp100, failed to mediate regression of established B16F10 melanoma in normal mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • One of the most promising approaches to immunotherapy for cancer is based on the recognition of tumor antigens by T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When naive T cells are transferred into lymphodepleted mice (rendered lymphopenic by genetic manipulation, sublethal irradiation, or chemotherapy), they undergo "lymphopenia-driven homeostatic proliferation" in the absence of foreign antigens or inflammatory signals. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The therapeutic benefit of homeostatic proliferation-induced expansion of T cells against tumor antigens was subsequently shown in an animal tumor model ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using a melanoma antigen gp100-specific TCR transgenic T-cell transfer model ( 15 ), our current study is aimed to determine whether vaccination during lymphopenia would drive a rapid and preferential expansion of naive tumor-specific CD8 + T cells and whether the lymphopenic conditions would allow a large fraction of the activated T cells to survive, persist, and mediate tumor regression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Various imaging studies have established that T cells that engage antigen-presenting cells (APCs) bearing stimulatory MHC-peptide complexes undergo macromolecular rearrangements that result in the formation of an immune synapse. (rupress.org)
  • The CD43 antigen is expressed on the membrane and in the cytoplasm of T cells and cells of myeloid lineage. (neuromics.com)
  • Cells expressing the CD43 antigen are reported to include normal and neoplastic T cells. (neuromics.com)
  • To identify the intracellular signals which increase the adhesiveness of leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1), we established an assay system for activation-dependent adhesion through LFA-1/intercellular adhesion molecule 1 ICAM-1 using mouse lymphoid cells reconstituted with human LFA-1 and then introduced constitutively active forms of signaling molecules. (asm.org)
  • We have resolved B220+ IgM- B-lineage cells in mouse bone marrow into four fractions based on differential cell surface expression of determinants recognized by S7 (leukosialin, CD43), BP-1, and 30F1 (heat stable antigen). (nih.gov)
  • Despite the conventional association of CD40L expression with CD4 + T cells, other data suggest that CD8 + T cells are also capable of expressing CD40L ( 8 , 12 - 15 ) and this may confer on CD8 + T cells the ability to regulate antigen-specific immune responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have previously demonstrated that CD40-CD40L interaction is necessary for activated CD8 + T cells to prime DCs for IL-12 production in an antigen-specific manner ( 13 , 17 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • CD43 signals prepare human T cells to receive cytokine differentiation signals. (uniprot.org)
  • CD43 cytoplasmic tail: Protects cells from apoptotic signals, promoting cell survival. (uniprot.org)
  • The CD antigens are protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells. (sinobiological.com)
  • 4) In our case, we observed membranous positivity for leukocyte common antigen in the histiocytes that infiltrated the salivary gland, which in our opinion can be regarded as additional evidence that these cells originate from bone marrow-derived monocytes or macrophages. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma tumor cells are immunoreactive to cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen and are negative for leukocyte common antigen , confirming their epithelial nature. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In situ staining demonstrated virus capsid antigen in koilocytotic cells and surrounding cells in the hyperplastic epithelial layer. (iospress.com)
  • Cermák L, Símová S, Pintzas A, Horejsí V, Andera L: Molecular mechanisms involved in CD43‑mediated apoptosis of TF‑1 cells: Roles of transcription Daxx expression, and adhesion molecules. (sysmex-flowcytometry.com)
  • However, some investigators have shown that CD43 has proadhesive properties, and engagement of CD43 has been reported to upregulate integrin-mediated cell adhesion in T cells. (ashpublications.org)
  • CD34 + CD38 hi , but not CD34 + CD38 −/low cells responded significantly to the stimulus, suggesting that committed, but not stem and more immature progenitors are sensitive to CD43-mediated activation of integrin. (ashpublications.org)
  • 1-3 Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells have been reported to express CD43 molecule. (ashpublications.org)
  • The present invention also provides a method of immunizing a mammal against an antigen using the vaccine, and a method of inducing antigen -presenting mammalian cells to present specific antigens via the MHC class I processing pathway. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To make sure that foreign antigens are identified, some B cells serve as antigen -presenting cells (or APCs), scooping up these fragments all over the body, and sailing around offering them on stick-like projections to the cells they pass. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Immunohistochemical assays for orthopoxviruses demonstrated abundant viral antigens in surface epithelial cells of lesions in conjunctivae and tongue, with lower amounts in adjacent macrophages, fibroblasts, and connective tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the case of influenza and parainfluenza virus infections, it has been established that antigen-specific CD8 + T cells elicited during a primary infection persist at high frequencies for years after clearance of the virus ( 2 - 4 ). (rupress.org)
  • The enhanced responsiveness of antigen-specific memory CD8 + T cells as compared with naive CD8 + T cells is due to increased cell numbers, higher activation status, reduced stimulatory requirements, more rapid acquisition of effector functions, and altered homing patterns ( 1 , 7 , 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • Optimal activation of anti-leishmanial Th1 responses requires costimulatory signals triggered by the interaction of surface molecules on T cells and antigen-presenting cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, studies using antigen-specific TCR transgenic mice, in which most of the CD4 cells remain in na?ve state throughout existence, possess pointed to intrinsic age-related defects in the function of na?ve CD4 Capital t cells (Linton 1996). (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Here we statement tests designed to test whether a related approach could improve the function of Capital t cells in vivo after adoptive transfer of CD4 cells to antigen-primed sponsor. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Normal B-cells don't express CD43. (exalpha.com)
  • These findings reveal a novel role for antigen in maintaining virus-specific CD8 T cells during persistent infection and provide insight toward understanding T cell differentiation in chronic infection. (labome.org)
  • Wherry E, Barber D, Kaech S, Blattman J, Ahmed R. Antigen-independent memory CD8 T cells do not develop during chronic viral infection. (labome.org)
  • Estimating the precursor frequency of naive antigen-specific CD8 T cells. (labome.org)
  • In agreement with these earlier results, we show by a molecular single cell analysis that 4-7% of CD43(+) B cell progenitors in wild-type mice rearrange immunoglobulin (Ig)kappa genes before the assembly of a productive VHDHJH joint. (nih.gov)
  • The unglycosylated form of CD43 migrates on SDS-PAGE with a molecular weight of 54 kDa (PMID: 2943740), whereas CD43 from different haematopoietic cell lines displays increased molecular weights since it is glycosylated with O-linked chains that differ in core structure and sialylation. (ptglab.com)
  • A CD19(+) IgM(-) CD43(+) immunophenotype was seen both in primary tumors and two cell lines derived from these tumors. (nih.gov)
  • In all primary tumors, subpopulations of these CD19(+) IgM(-) CD43(+) were also either B220(+) or B220(-), suggesting a block in differentiation at the pro-B cell stage. (nih.gov)
  • Expression cloning of the R2/60 antigen identified the ligand as murine CD43. (labome.org)
  • LFA-1 is not constitutively adhesive, and upregulation of the adhesive activity (avidity) of LFA-1 by external stimuli such as cytokines, chemokines, or antigens is a prerequisite for ligand binding ( 34 , 58 ). (asm.org)
  • PMA treatment did not affect the surface expression of CD43. (elsevier.com)
  • 5-7 Altered expression of CD43 has been reported in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome 8 and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (ashpublications.org)
  • We further showed that expression of CD43 defines a major intrahepatic CD4 + and CD8 + T cell subsets with pro-inflammatory phenotypes and leads to increased levels of IFN-γ secretion by activated splenocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Significantly, in the absence of PMA, Staurosporine enhanced the rise in [Ca 2+ ]i triggered by L10, suggesting that engagement of CD43 by activating ligands results in feedback inhibition by PKC. (elsevier.com)
  • CD43 binds ligands such as CD54 and CD169 (siglec-1) and plays regulatory roles in cell adhesion, activation, and survival. (stemcell.com)
  • CD antigens can act in lot of ways, like as recepters or ligands in terms of physiology. (sinobiological.com)
  • During T-cell activation is actively removed from the T-cell-APC (antigen-presenting cell) contact site thus suggesting a negative regulatory role in adaptive immune response. (abcam.com)
  • The primary obstacle to the success of active-specific immunotherapy has been the inability of the current vaccines to elicit a strong and persistent immune response to tumor antigens, which for most tumors, particularly melanoma, are primarily self-antigens ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The SMZ appears especially well equipped for rapid humoral immune responses to blood-borne antigens. (springer.com)
  • The company focuses on developing proprietary technology in immune enhancers, carriers and antigens - new therapeutic agents aimed at enabling physicians to modulate the body's immune system by providing protection and treatment against an array of diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • FLT3 (show FLT3 ELISA Kits ) and CD43 (show SPN ELISA Kits ) signaling pathways involve STAT5A (show STAT5A ELISA Kits ) via Fiz1 and Hipk2 (show HIPK2 ELISA Kits ) in B lymphoblastic lymphomas. (antibodies-online.com)
  • We and others have shown that tumor rejection was enhanced by presentation of tumor antigens during homeostatic proliferation in lymphodepleted mice ( 5 - 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)