Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation. (1/2281)

It is not known whether subsets of dendritic cells provide different cytokine microenvironments that determine the differentiation of either type-1 T helper (TH1) or TH2 cells. Human monocyte (pDC1)-derived dendritic cells (DC1) were found to induce TH1 differentiation, whereas dendritic cells (DC2) derived from CD4+CD3-CD11c- plasmacytoid cells (pDC2) induced TH2 differentiation by use of a mechanism unaffected by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-12. The TH2 cytokine IL-4 enhanced DC1 maturation and killed pDC2, an effect potentiated by IL-10 but blocked by CD40 ligand and interferon-gamma. Thus, a negative feedback loop from the mature T helper cells may selectively inhibit prolonged TH1 or TH2 responses by regulating survival of the appropriate dendritic cell subset.  (+info)

CD40 signaling of monocyte inflammatory cytokine synthesis through an ERK1/2-dependent pathway. A target of interleukin (il)-4 and il-10 anti-inflammatory action. (2/2281)

Ligation of CD40 on monocytes through its interaction with CD40 ligand (CD154) present on activated T helper cells, results in activation of monocyte inflammatory cytokine synthesis and rescue of monocytes from apoptosis induced through serum deprivation. Both of these consequences of CD40 stimulation have been shown to be dependent on the induction of protein tyrosine kinase activity. CD40-mediated activation of protein tyrosine kinase activity and subsequent inflammatory cytokine production are abrogated by treatment of monocytes with the T helper type 2 cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). In the current study we demonstrate that stimulation of monocytes through CD40 resulted in the phosphorylation and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinases, whereas phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases family members p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase was not observed in response to this stimuli over the time course examined. PD98059, an inhibitor of the upstream activator of ERK1/2, the MAP/ERK kinase MEK1/2, suppressed IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in a dose-dependent fashion. Pretreatment of monocytes with IL-4 and IL-10 inhibited CD40-mediated activation of ERK1/2 kinase activity when used individually, and are enhanced in effectiveness when used in combination. Together, the data demonstrate that CD40-mediated induction of IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha synthesis is dependent on a MEK/ERK pathway which is obstructed by signals generated through the action of IL-4 and IL-10.  (+info)

Control of apoptosis in Epstein Barr virus-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells: opposite effects of CD95 and CD40 stimulation. (3/2281)

The expression and function of CD95 and CD40 were investigated in malignant cells from EBV-positive undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs). Large amounts of CD95 and CD40 expression were detected in 15 of 16 EBV-positive NPC specimens. In contrast, CD95 was not detected in two biopsies from patients with EBV-negative differentiated NPCs. We tested whether the CD95 apoptotic pathway was functional in NPC cells by treating two EBV-positive NPC tumor lines in vitro with a CD95 agonist. In both cases, NPC cells were extremely susceptible to CD95-mediated apoptosis, despite strong constitutive expression of Bcl-x. Combined CD40 and CD95 stimulation was used to investigate the possible anti-apoptotic activity mediated by CD40. The CD40 receptor was activated by incubating NPC cells with murine L cells producing CD154, the CD40 ligand. This treatment resulted in a strong inhibition of CD95-related cytotoxicity. Such an anti-apoptotic effect of CD40 is well known for B lymphocytes, but has not previously been reported for epithelial cells. These data suggest that NPC tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, which often produce the CD40 ligand in situ, may increase the survival of malignant cells, thereby enhancing tumor growth in patients.  (+info)

Expression of stromelysin-3 in atherosclerotic lesions: regulation via CD40-CD40 ligand signaling in vitro and in vivo. (4/2281)

Stromelysin-3 is an unusual matrix metalloproteinase, being released in the active rather than zymogen form and having a distinct substrate specificity, targeting serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins), which regulate cellular functions involved in atherosclerosis. We report here that human atherosclerotic plaques (n = 7) express stromelysin-3 in situ, whereas fatty streaks (n = 5) and normal arterial specimens (n = 5) contain little or no stromelysin-3. Stromelysin-3 mRNA and protein colocalized with endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages within the lesion. In vitro, usual inducers of matrix metalloproteinases such as interleukin-1, interferon-gamma, or tumor necrosis factor alpha did not augment stromelysin-3 in vascular wall cells. However, T cell-derived as well as recombinant CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154), an inflammatory mediator recently localized in atheroma, induced de novo synthesis of stromelysin-3. In addition, stromelysin-3 mRNA and protein colocalized with CD40L and CD40 within atheroma. In accordance with the in situ and in vitro data obtained with human material, interruption of the CD40-CD40L signaling pathway in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient hyperlipidemic mice substantially decreased expression of the enzyme within atherosclerotic plaques. These observations establish the expression of the unusual matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-3 in human atherosclerotic lesions and implicate CD40-CD40L signaling in its regulation, thus providing a possible new pathway that triggers complications within atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

Minimal cross-linking and epitope requirements for CD40-dependent suppression of apoptosis contrast with those for promotion of the cell cycle and homotypic adhesions in human B cells. (5/2281)

Eight different CD40 mAb shared with soluble trimeric CD40 ligand (sCD40LT) the capacity to rescue germinal center (GC) B cells from spontaneous apoptosis and to suppress antigen receptor-driven apoptosis in group I Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Three mAb (G28-5, M2 and M3) mimicked sCD40LT in its ability to promote strong homotypic adhesion in resting B cells, whereas others (EA5, BL-OGY/C4 and 5C3) failed to stimulate strong clustering. Binding studies revealed that only those mAb that promoted strong B cell clustering bound at, or near to, the CD40L binding site. While all eight mAb and sCD40LT were capable of synergizing with IL-4 or phorbol ester for promoting DNA synthesis in resting B cells, co-stimulus-independent activation of the cells into cycle through CD40 related directly to the extent of receptor cross-linking. Thus, mAb which bound outside the CD40L binding site synergized with sCD40LT for promoting DNA synthesis; maximal levels of stimulation were achieved by presenting any of the mAb on CD32 transfectants in the absence of sCD40LT or by cross-linking bound sCD40LT with a second antibody. Monomeric sCD40L, which was able to promote rescue of GC B cells from apoptosis, was unable to drive resting B cells into cycle. These studies demonstrate that CD40-dependent rescue of human B cells from apoptosis requires minimal cross-linking and is essentially epitope independent, whereas the requirements for promoting cell cycle progression and homotypic adhesion are more stringent. Possible mechanisms underlying these differences and their physiological significance are discussed.  (+info)

Interaction of B cells with activated T cells reduces the threshold for CD40-mediated B cell activation. (6/2281)

CD154-CD40 interactions are of central importance for the induction of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens. Since most anti-CD40 mAb are only weak B cell mitogens, it is believed that under physiological conditions, signals through CD40 synergize with those from other receptors on B cells to induce B cell activation. We show here that the interaction of either normal B cells, or those from CBA/N (xid) mice, with CD3-activated primary T cells in whole spleen cell cultures markedly reduces the threshold for B cell activation via CD40. Hence, these pre-activated cells undergo vigorous proliferation when stimulated with either optimal or suboptimal concentrations of weakly mitogenic anti-CD40 mAb, or with soluble CD40 ligand. Blocking experiments indicate that the establishment of this priming effect requires stimulation via CD40 itself, plus T cell-derived IL-2. In support of this concept, only CD3/CD28-pre-activated, but not CD3-pre-activated T cells induce this effect, unless the co-cultures of B cells with the latter T cells are supplemented with IL-2. Although B cells activated in this fashion do express higher levels of CD40 than naive cells, we believe that this is insufficient to explain the observed dramatic effects on their proliferative capacity. Rather we propose that T cell-dependent B cell activation induces fundamental changes in the signalling machinery invoked by ligation of CD40. It is likely that this amplification loop could play an important role during the initiation of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens, when activated CD4 T cells only express low levels of CD154.  (+info)

Fas-induced B cell apoptosis requires an increase in free cytosolic magnesium as an early event. (7/2281)

Ligation of the Fas molecule expressed on the surface of a cell initiates multiple signaling pathways that result in the apoptotic death of that cell. We have examined Mg2+ mobilization as well as Ca2+ mobilization in B cells undergoing Fas-initiated apoptosis. Our results indicate that cytosolic levels of free (non-complexed) Mg2+ ([Mg2+]i) and Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) increase in cells undergoing apoptosis. Furthermore, the percentages of cells mobilizing Mg2+, fragmenting DNA, or externalizing phosphatidylserine (PS) increase in parallel as the concentration of anti-Fas monoclonal antibody is raised. Kinetic analysis suggests that Mg2+ mobilization is an early event in apoptosis, clearly preceding DNA fragmentation and probably occurring prior to externalization of PS as well. The source of Mg2+ that produces the increases in [Mg2+]i is intracellular and most likely is the mitochondria. Extended pretreatment of B cells with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, produces proportional decreases in the percentage of cells mobilizing Mg2+, fragmenting DNA, and externalizing PS in response to anti-Fas monoclonal antibody treatment. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated [Mg2+]i is required for apoptosis. Furthermore, we propose that the increases in [Mg2+]i function not only as cofactors for Mg2+-dependent endonucleases, but also to facilitate the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria, which drives many of the post-mitochondrial, caspase-mediated events in apoptotic cells.  (+info)

CD40-activated B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells for tumor immunotherapy: stimulation of allogeneic versus autologous T cells generates different types of effector cells. (8/2281)

Although spontaneous remissions may rarely occur in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), T cells do generally not develop a clinically significant response against B-CLL cells. Because this T-cell anergy against B-CLL cells may be caused by the inability of B-CLL cells to present tumor-antigens efficiently, we examined the possibility of upregulating critical costimulatory (B7-1 and B7-2) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and LFA-3) on B-CLL cells to improve antigen presentation. The stimulation of B-CLL cells via CD40 by culture on CD40L expressing feeder cells induced a strong upregulation of costimulatory and adhesion molecules and turned the B-CLL cells into efficient antigen-presenting cells (APCs). CD40-activated B-CLL (CD40-CLL) cells stimulated the proliferation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Interestingly, stimulation of allogeneic versus autologous T cells resulted in the expansion of different effector populations. Allogeneic CD40-CLL cells allowed for the expansion of specific CD8(+) cytolytic T cells (CTL). In marked contrast, autologous CD40-CLL cells did not induce a relevant CTL response, but rather stimulated a CD4(+), Th1-like T-cell population that expressed high levels of CD40L and released interferon-gamma in response to stimulation by CD40-CLL cells. Together, these results support the view that CD40 activation of B-CLL cells might reverse T-cell anergy against the neoplastic cell clone, although the character of the immune response depends on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) background on which the CLL or tumor antigens are presented. These findings may have important implications for the design of cellular immunotherapies for B-CLL.  (+info)

The data presented here demonstrate that C3 tumor eradication after administration of the E7 peptide and agonistic CD137 mAb, a method effectively breaking immunological ignorance in tumor-specific CTL (15) , is entirely dependent on IFN-γ. This was shown both in mice given an IFN-γ neutralizing mAb and in IFN-γ deficient mice. On closer examination, we found that in the absence of IFN-γ, the total number of tumor-specific CD8+ CTLs infiltrating the tumor was significantly reduced, whereas the generation of these CTLs in lymphoid organs was unaffected. Because IFN-γ was not required to bind its receptor expressed on tumor cells, our results reveal a selective role for IFN-γ in promoting the infiltration of tumor-specific CTLs within the tumor.. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that CD137 costimulates the production of IFN-γ by CD8+ T cells (4, 5, 6) . CD8+ T cells stimulated by anti-CD137 mAb produced significantly higher levels of IFN-γ than those that were ...
Allergic asthma severity may be associated with IgE levels. We have shown that beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) engagement on CD40L/IL-4-primed B cells increases the level of IgE produced per cell, without affecting class switch recombination. β2AR agonists alleviate bronchoconstriction by targeting the β2AR expressed on bronchiolar smooth muscle cells to trigger airway relaxation, but these drugs also target the β2AR on primed B cells, potentially producing an IgE effect that may be counterproductive to the drugs intended use. We reported that surface CD23 expression remained constant on primed B cells exposed to a β2AR agonist, while CD23 mRNA, total CD23 protein, and soluble CD23 (sCD23) increased. Thus, if sCD23 positively regulates IgE production, an increase due to β2AR engagement may worsen bronchoconstriction, albeit relieving it in the short term. We hypothesized that the primary sheddase of CD23, ADAM10, is regulated by β2AR engagement on a primed B cell. Although we found that ...
Composition of the CD95 DISC in freshly isolated and cultured GC B cells. (A) CD95 or (B) FADD was immunoprecipitated (IP) from 107 freshly isolated GC B cells
In this video, we demonstrate the procedure of CD40-activation and expansion of murine B cells from splenocytes of C57BL/6 mice, which...
CD180 (RP105), expressed on dendritic cells and B cells, is a receptor closely related to TLR4. CD180 signaling does not require adaptor proteins like MyD88, instead it resembles B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, including the activation of PI3K and Akt. Recently, others and we have found αCD180 also induces the Pim-1 kinase, but much of the CD180 signaling pathway remains ill defined. We previously found that targeting antigen (Ag) to B cells via CD180, by coupling the Ag to an anti-CD180 antibody (Ag-αCD180), induces a rapid and strong Ag-specific IgG antibody (Ab) response in mice. Furthermore, IgG Ab responses were maintained in immunodeficient mice that lack mature B cells (BAFFR−/−). These studies led us to investigate the signaling events that occur within B cells upon coincident activation of the BCR and CD180. For this study we have employed B1-8hi transgenic mice, which have a BCR that binds to NP-hapten on some splenic B cells, and the K46μm17 murine B cell line, that expresses ...
Clone LG.3A10 recognizes the human and murine CD27 antigen, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family. CD27 is expressed on subsets of B, T, and NK cells. CD27 binds to CD70. This interaction regulates cell activation. | Ísland
CD40L / CD154 antibody [YMF323.6.2] (CD40 ligand) for FACS, WB. Anti-CD40L / CD154 mAb (GTX42386) is tested in Human, Rhesus Monkey, Cynomolgus monkey samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
We describe the construction of a novel soluble dodecameric form of CD154 (CD40 ligand) that is more effective than trimeric tCD154 in triggering B cell activation. Dodecameric surfactant protein (SP)-D-CD154 was more potent than tCD154 in inducing B cell proliferation over a wide range of concentra …
Immunotherapy with an agonistic anti-CD40 antibody limits adipose tissue inflammation and protects from pre-established metabolic disease in mice Conference Paper ...
The CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction is a key event in the initiation of an adaptive immune response, and as such the therapeutic value of CD40L blockade has been studied in many experimental models of tissue transplantation and autoimmune disease. In rodents, transplantation of allogeneic tissues under the cover of anti-CD40L Abs has resulted in prolonged graft survival but not tolerance. In this report, we show that failure to induce tolerance probably results from the inability of anti-CD40L Abs to prevent graft rejection elicited by the CD8+ T cell subset. When the CD8+ T cell population is controlled independently, using anti-CD8 Abs, then tolerance is possible. Transplantation tolerance induced by anti-CD4 mAbs can often be associated with dominant regulation, manifested as infectious tolerance and linked suppression, both of which are mediated by CD4+ T cells. We show here that CD4+ T cells rendered tolerant using anti-CD40L therapy exhibit the same regulatory property of linked suppression,
Expressed immune markers combinations for CD4+/CD8+ T cells included CD40-L, IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-13, as follows: M15=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(+)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); M16=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(+)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(-); M17=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(+); M18=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(-); M19=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); M20=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(-); M21=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(+); M22=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(-); M23=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); M24=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(-); M25=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(+); M26=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(-); M27=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); ...
To rule out the possibility that the altered LC migration in the mutant mice was due to some intrinsic defect rather than the aberrant regulation of TNF-α production, we next had to address whether LC migration could be restored in CD40 ligand −/− mice if an exogenous source of TNF-α was provided. In fact, by administering rTNF-α intradermally into the skin of CD40 ligand −/− mice, LCs were induced to migrate out of the epidermis (Fig. 5 c) to the same extent as observed in C57BL/6 mice treated in the same manner (Fig. 5 b). Likewise, LC mobilization was also induced when the missing CD40 ligand signal was re-established by injecting agonistic anti-CD40 mAb (26)(27) into CD40 ligand −/− (Fig. 5 e) and control (Fig. 5 d) mice, thus ruling out an intrinsic LC migratory defect and indicating an essential role for CD40 signaling and TNF-α in LC migration.. It is intriguing that unsensitized CD40 ligand −/− mice produced significantly higher amounts of TNF-α in their epidermis ...
Human mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) CD8 + and Tc17 cells are important tissue-homing cell populations, characterized by high expression of CD161 ( ++) and type-17 differentiation, but their origins and relationships remain poorly defined. By transcriptional and functional analyses, we demonstrate that a pool of polyclonal, precommitted type-17CD161 ++CD8αβ + T cells exist in cord blood, from which a prominent MAIT cell(TCR Vα7.2 +) population emerges postnatally. During this expansion, CD8αα T cells appear exclusively within aCD161 ++CD8 +/MAIT subset, sharing cytokine production, chemokine-receptor expression, TCR-usage, and transcriptional profiles with their CD161 ++CD8αβ + counterparts. Our data demonstrate the origin and differentiation pathway of MAIT-cells from a naive type-17 precommitted CD161 ++CD8 +T-cell pool and the distinct phenotype and function of CD8αα cells in man. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.
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CD25− CD45RBlow as well as CD25+ CD45RBlow CD4+ cells from infected WT mice protect RAG KO mice against colitis. Infected RAG KO mice were given either no cel
Resumo: CD80 e CD86, também denominados B7.1 e B7.2, são genes proximamente ligados no cromossomo 3 que codificam glicoproteinas da superfamília das imunoglobulinas, expressas na superfície das células apresentadoras de antígeno. Essas moléculas participam na ativação e inibição das células T através da ligação aos receptores CD28 e CTLA-4. Nesse estudo foram analizados polimorfismos dos genes CD80 e CD86 com o objetivo de investigar a diversidade genética, microevolução e relevância funcional. Foram genotipados 1.124 indivíduos, incluindo brasileiros de ancestralidade predominantemente européia, mista africana e européia e japonesa, 5 populações ameríndias e africanos. As regiões promotoras de CD80 e CD86 foram sequenciadas e utilizadas em ensaios de gene repórter com luciferase em células HEK293T. As proteínas foram quantificadas por citometria de fluxo em monócitos, estimulados com quatro ligantes de TLR, de indivíduos com diferentes genótipos. Sítios de ...
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Dear Ralph, I appreciate your questions and I think thay are valid and worth exploring. However, I think that I must clarify my point a bit. I am not implying that the CD8 cells are the worst hit by the virus. (Forgive the sensationalism of my first posting... this was meant to call attention to my article) Of course the CD4 cells are the worst hit because they carry the CD4 antigen constantly, thus their name. What I _am_ implying is that the CD8 cells must also be effected by the virus due to their positivity for CD4 during their development. Since CTL (the cells responsible for killing virally infected cells) are CD8 cells, any effects (quantitative or qualitative) on this compartment must be important in the pathogenisis of a viral disease. McMichael et al have reported that CTL response to viral peptide epitopes in the MHC class molecule dissipate at the end stage of HIV disease. This could be explained by the slow and steady exhaustion of CD8 precursers via infection by HIV when these ...
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CD84 (Cluster of Differentiation 84) is a human protein encoded by the CD84 gene.. Members of the CD2 (see MIM 186990) subgroup of the Ig superfamily, such as CD84, have similar patterns of conserved disulfide bonds and function in adhesion interactions between T lymphocytes and accessory cells. ...
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购买重组CD32B兔单克隆抗体[EP888Y](ab45143),CD32B抗体经WB验证,可与人样本反应。12篇文献引用,产品出库一年都在质保范围内。中国现货速达。
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2001 05 22.20858 16 06 45.68 -20 01 22.4 22.0R 01KG76 807 Cd1817 2001 05 22.28897 16 06 45.29 -20 01 21.3 01KG76 807 Cd1817 2001 06 10.02875 16 05 16.38 -19 57 27.3 22.9R 01KG76 304 Cd1817 2001 06 10.10380 16 05 16.05 -19 57 26.3 01KG76 304 Cd1817 2001 08 19.03454 16 02 18.80 -19 50 35.3 21.4R 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2001 08 20.03188 16 02 19.15 -19 50 37.8 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2001 08 21.03938 16 02 19.58 -19 50 40.7 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2002 04 07.29240 16 15 09.97 -20 25 16.3 21.6R 01KG76 807 Cf4617 2002 04 07.38861 16 15 09.68 -20 25 15.6 01KG76 807 Cf4617 2002 05 12.03950 16 12 54.85 -20 19 22.5 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 12.08513 16 12 54.63 -20 19 21.8 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 12.13062 16 12 54.41 -20 19 21.3 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 13.04812 16 12 50.15 -20 19 10.5 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 13.11749 16 12 49.83 -20 19 09.6 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 07 10.99718 16 08 34.27 -20 08 36.4 22.2R 01KG76 304 Cf9823 2002 07 11.20921 16 08 33.59 -20 08 35.0 01KG76 304 Cf9823 2002 07 13.10322 16 08 27.82 -20 08 ...
SCD1小鼠单克隆抗体[CD.E10](ab19862)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被13篇文献引用并得到6个独立的用户反馈。
CD4 cells protect the body from infection by circulating in the blood to identify bacteria and viruses then produce antibodies to destroy them. CD4 cells also trigger the body to respond to infection...
CD8 T 세포는 바이러스나 박테리아와 같은 병원체 및 종양, 이식된 장기 등에서 발현되는 외부 항원을 인지하고 이 외부항원을 발현하는 세포를 제거하는 기능을 갖는 세포독성 T 세포이다. 외부항원들에 대한 CD8 T 세포 기억의 형성은 차 후 이 항원들에 재노출되었을 때 강하고 빠른 면역 반응을 일으켜, 감염 병원체나 종양을 퇴치하는데 기여하기 때문에 면역력 향상에 중요한 요인이다. 감염 병원체 항원에 대한 백신을 접종하는 이유는 바로 이와 같은 T 세포 기억을 형성하기 위함이다. 반대로, 특정 항원에 대한 CD8 T 세포의 관용 (tolerance)이 형성하게 되면 그 항원들이 제거되지 않고 받아들여지게 되는데, 이식거부 반응이나 자가면역질환이 억제되기 위해서는 이식 항원이나 자가 항원에 대한 관용의 형성이 중요하다 ...
ഒരുപോലെയിരിക്കുന്ന ശരാശരി വലിപ്പമുള്ള ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകളാണ് സൂക്ഷ്മദർശിനിയിലൂടെ ദൃശ്യമാവുക. നക്ഷത്രപൂരിതമായ ആകാശം എന്നാണ് ഈ സൂക്ഷ്മദർശിനി ദൃശ്യത്തെ വിശേഷിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്.[4] ഈ ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകൾക്ക് ക്ഷാരാഭിമുഖ്യമുള്ള കോശദ്രവ്യം ഉണ്ടാകും. ചെറിയ മുറിയാത്ത കോശങ്ങൾ എന്നാണ് ബർക്കിറ്റ് ലിംഫോമയിലെ ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകളെ വിശേഷിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്. ബി-കോശ വ്യതിരക്ത മാർക്കറുകളായ CD20, CD22, CD19 എന്നിവ ...
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Pill with imprint cardizem CD 300 mg is Blue & Gray, Capsule-shape and has been identified as Cardizem CD 300 mg. It is supplied by BTA Pharmaceuticals.
|jats:p|CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction is required for the generation of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens as well as for the development of germinal centers and memory B cells. The role of the CD40-CD40L interaction in the induction of antigen-specific. Th cells and in mediating Th cell effector functions other than cognate help for B cells is less well understood. Using CD40- and CD40L-deficient mice together with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus as viral model antigens, this study corroborates earlier findings that no lg isotype switching of virus-specific antibodies was measurable upon infection of CD40- or CD40L-deficient mice. In contrast, in vivo induction of virus-specific CD4+ T cells measured by proliferation and cytokine secretion of primed virus-specific Th cells in vitro was not crucially dependent on the CD40-CD40L interaction. In addition, virus-specific Th cells primed in a CD40-deficient environment, adoptively transferred into CD40
CD1c-dependent self-reactive T cells are abundant in the blood of healthy neonates and adults (17, 18), but the endogenous lipid antigens that are presented by CD1c to these T cells have remained unknown. Guided by the new CD1c-SL structure presented here, we now find that CD1c can bind CE and ASG, and that both these ligand classes enable the binding of self-reactive T-cell receptors to CD1c. Two previous CD1c structures, CD1c-PM and CD1c-MPM, had revealed how CD1c binds and presents methylated monoalkyl chain ligands such as mycobacterial mycoketides (7, 12). In both CD1c-PM and CD1c-MPM a single mycoketide molecule was bound to the A′ channel, in analogy to the arrangement seen for the stearic acid in CD1c-SL. Together CD1c-SL, CD1c-PM, and CD1c-MPM thus illustrate a certain promiscuity of the A′ channel, which is the most conserved region of the CD1 groove for ligand binding.. CD1c-PM and CD1c-MPM complexes are exclusively recognized by mycoketide-specific human T cells, but not by CD1c ...
Like most mammalian species, humans express several structurally distinct CD1 antigen-presenting molecules. The conservation of large CD1 gene families among most mammals suggests that each type of CD1 protein has distinct functions that confer selective advantage. Cellular studies of CD1 proteins increasingly explain how each CD1 protein differs from the others. CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, and CD1d have distinct antigen groove structures, patterns of expression in tissues, intracellular trafficking, and trigger T cells expressing diverse TCRs (Kasmar et al., 2009). CD1d (group 2) diverges most clearly from CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c (group 1) with regard to protein sequence. Also, group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins show differing transcriptional responses to pathogens, suggesting that they function at different stages of the immune response (Roura-Mir et al., 2005b). Collectively, these cellular studies suggest that group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins likely have differing roles in immune responses.. The majority ...
Results Cultured cells started to express CD14 on the day 12 and more than 90% of the cells expressed CD14 on the day 21 in the monocyte differentiation induction course. According to the expression levels of CD14, the cell population was divided into three groups: CD14 (−), CD14 (+) and CD14 (++). CD15 (+) cells were observed in CD14 (−) and CD14 (+) population but not in CD14 (++) population. The CD15+ cells in CD14 (+) transiently appeared in RA-iPS derived cells at 11.9±2.8% (mean ± SE) on day15. However these cell proportion in NOF was1.7±2.0%. Meanwhile, CD15+ cells in CD14 (−) proportion decreased during monocyte differentiation in RA-iPS cells, but remained in NOF-iPS cells (representative data, RA 31.5, 20.6, 15.6%, NOF 47.3, 46.1, 47.3%, on day15, 18 and 21).. ...
Clone FGK45.5 recognizes the mouse CD40 antigen, a 40-50 kDa glycoprotein and member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. CD40 is expressed on B lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells and is an important costimulatory molecule for B cells as well as dendritic cells, monocytes, and other antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The interaction of CD40 on B cells with its ligand CD154 is involved in B cell activation and differentiation; engagement of CD40 on dendritic cells leads to maturation. Clone FGK45 can be used for blocking of CD40/CD154 interaction and for in vitro and in vivo activation of CD40-expressing APCs. - USA
|span style=font-family:Times,serif;font-size:9pt;>The L293 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD28 which is also known as Tp44 or T44. The CD28 antigen is a 44 kDa homodimeric type I transmembrane glycoprotein which is present on most mature T cells, thymocytes, and plasma cells. CD28 is a cell-adhesion molecule (CAM) that functions as a receptor for CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) antigens, which are present on activated B lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells. Interaction of the CD28 antigen with CD80 or CD86 antigens, or both, co-stimulates CD2 and CD3 antigen/T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-dependent T-cell-mediated proliferation and cytotoxicity. The L293 antibody has been demonstrated to bind to the same molecule as clone CD28.2, another CD28-specific antibody.|/span>
Despite improvements in antimicrobial therapy and supportive care, sepsis is still a major public health issue. Recently, CD100 and its receptor in the immune system CD72 were shown to play a major role in immune regulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression and clinical correlations of CD72 and CD100 on circulating lymphocytes of septic patients. In total, 24 healthy controls and 54 septic patients were enrolled in this study. Considering the focus of the current study was on the immunosuppressive phase of sepsis, blood samples of patients were collected at days 3-4 after the onset of sepsis. The levels of CD72 and CD100 expression on circulating lymphocytes were measured by flow cytometry and serum IL-6, IL-10, and immunoglobulin M levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results showed that the levels of CD100 expression on T cells and CD72 expression on B cells were significantly lower in septic patients. Similarly, a significant decrease in the
CD4+/CD8+/CD3+ cells are 1-4% range of the lymphocyte population from our HIV+ patients. Most of the cells are brightCD4+/dimCD8+ but all combinations of bright and dim are possible. We include these dual positive cells in both the CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+ counts. What do other labs do with these cells and why? -----Original Message----- From: Kenneth Ault [mailto:aultk at mmc.org] Sent: Wednesday, October 31, 2001 7:32 PM To: cyto-inbox Subject: Re: cd4 cd8 coexpression A phenomenon frequently forgotten is coincidence. If two cells enter the observation volume at the same time they will be seen as one event with the properties of both cells. This is a very common problem in my world (platelets) and should be considered as a possible explanation for any kind of unexpected dual expression of markers. It would be interesting to know if the frequency of CD4/CD8 doubles changes as the particle flow rate changes (i.e change the sample pressure or dilute the specimen.) Ken Ault ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparable impact of mutational and selective influences in shaping the expressed repertoire of peripheral IgM+/CD5- and IgM+/CD5+ B cells. AU - Dörner, Thomas. AU - Brezinschek, Hans Peter. AU - Foster, Sandra J.. AU - Brezinschek, Ruth I.. AU - Farner, Nancy L.. AU - Lipsky, Peter E.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - Somatic hypermutation and subsequent selection play a significant role in shaping the peripheral B cell repertoire. This repertoire is composed of CD5+ (5%) and CD5- B cells (95%) which are known to traffic through different lymphoid compartments. Previous studies have shown that V(H) gene usage by CD5+ and CD5- B cells is similar, although mutations are more frequent in the latter. However, the effect of mutation and subsequent selection on the expressed V(H) repertoire of CD5+ and CD5- B cells has not been delineated in detail. This study, therefore, analyzed the mutational pattern of individual IgM+/CD5+ and IgM+/CD5- B cells. In both populations, mutations can ...
CD137 (4-1BB, Tnsfr9) is a member of the TNF-receptor (TNFR) superfamily without known intrinsic enzymatic activity in its cytoplasmic domain. Hence, akin to other members of the TNFR family, it relies on the TNFR-Associated-Factor (TRAF) family of adaptor proteins to build the CD137 signalosome for transducing signals into the cell. Thus, upon CD137 activation by binding of CD137L trimers or by crosslinking with agonist monoclonal antibodies, TRAF1, TRAF2, and TRAF3 are readily recruited to the cytoplasmic domain of CD137, likely as homo- and/or heterotrimers with different configurations, initiating the construction of the CD137 signalosome. The formation of TRAF2-RING dimers between TRAF2 molecules from contiguous trimers would help to establish a multimeric structure of TRAF-trimers that is probably essential for CD137 signaling. In addition, available studies have identified a large number of proteins that are recruited to CD137:TRAF complexes including ubiquitin ligases and proteases, kinases, and
CD200 (OX2) is a broadly distributed cell surface glycoprotein that interacts with a structurally related receptor (CD200R) expressed on rodent myeloid cells and is involved in regulation of macrophage function. We report the first characterization of human CD200R (hCD200R) and define its binding characteristics to hCD200. We also report the identification of a closely related gene to hCD200R, designated hCD200RLa, and four mouse CD200R-related genes (termed mCD200RLa-d). CD200, CD200R, and CD200R-related genes were closely linked in humans and mice, suggesting that these genes arose by gene duplication. The distributions of the receptor genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR, and protein expression was confirmed by a set of novel mAbs. The distribution of mouse and human CD200R was similar, with strongest labeling of macrophages and neutrophils, but also other leukocytes, including monocytes, mast cells, and T lymphocytes. Two mCD200 receptor-like family members, designated mCD200RLa and
CD154 (CD40 Ligand), APC, clone: MR1, eBioscience™ 100μg; APC CD154 (CD40 Ligand), APC, clone: MR1, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD151 to CD200
Research in the past few years has documented significant advances in our understanding of the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD154) system in diverse immune functions. This system influences many T cell mediated inflammatory immune responses and effector functions, unmasking a previously unexpected role for CD40-CD154 in cell mediated immunity. Manipulation of CD154 in animal models of infection by the use of CD154-deficient mice or anti-CD154 antibodies has shown the importance of this system in the initiation of the inflammatory response, in the activation of antigen-presenting cells and in resistance to infections ...
CD154 (CD40 Ligand), FITC, clone: 24-31, eBioscience™ 100 Tests; FITC CD154 (CD40 Ligand), FITC, clone: 24-31, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD151 to CD200
As with any breakthrough, new questions arise and new experiments become feasible.....One problem, however, is that CD32a is a marker for only 50% of the reservoir, whereas the eradication of latent HIV would require a much greater reduction in the number of latently infected cells in the body. Moreover, targeting CD32a would also make the antigen-presenting cells that normally express CD32a vulnerable to destruction, which might well cause unwanted or harmful side effects.....Second, the authors studied CD4 lymphocytes from the blood, but these circulating cells account for 2%, at most, of the CD4 T cells in the body2. It remains to be seen whether CD32a is as good a marker for latently infected cells in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, gut and other tissues. Perhaps more markers could be identified from the 103 differentially expressed genes found in the researchers screen - analysis of these proteins in combination with CD32a might increase the total proportion of identifiable latent ...
Results Activated B cells restrained the development of monocytes into immature DCs and their differentiation into mature DCs. They decreased the density of HLA-DR from mature DCs, the expression of CD80 and CD86 co-activation molecules, the production of IL-12p70 required for antigen presentation and Th1 differentiation. They also inhibited the DC-induced T cell proliferation. These modulations were mediated by CD19+IgDlowCD38+CD24lowCD27- B cells and needed CD62L interaction for the control of CD80 and CD86 expression, and a soluble factor for the control of IL-12 production. Finally, mature DCs from SLE patients displayed insensitivity to the regulation of IL-12 by both normal and SLE B cells.. ...
Cell Density Cell densities in the 31, 63, 130, 250, 500 and 1000 mg a.i./L treatment levels averaged 83, 136, 137, 89, 11 and 0 x 10E4 cells/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis based on Williams Test determined a significant reduction in cell density in all treatment level tested as compared to the pooled control. Based on Williams Test the NOEC was determined to be ,31 mg a.i./L. Additional statistical analysis (Bonferronis Test) determined a significant reduction in cell density in the 31, 250, 500 and 1000 mg a.i./L treatments. The effect on the 31 mg a.i./L treatment level is not considered treatment-related since the two higher concentrations (63 and 130 mg a.i./L) were not affected and were less than 10% inhibited. Therefore, the NOEC was determined to be 130 mg a.i./L. The 96 hour EC50 for cell density was calculated to be 260 mg a.i./L, with 95% confidence intervals of 190 and 360 mg a.i./L. Biomass Biomass in the 31, 63, 130, 250, 500 and 1000 mg a.i./L treatment levels averaged ...
CD to MP3 Maker is an extremely easy to use cd ripper and MP3 to WAV decoder and WAV to MP3 encoder for Windows 9X/NT/Me/2000/XP/Vista/7 . Rip CD to MP3,OGG,WMA,WAV,AAC,APE,FLAC,TTA,SPX,AC-3,MP2,WV(wavepack) and MPC(musepack) CD to MP3 Maker is an extremely easy to use cd ripper and audio converter for Windows OS. It may rip CD to MP3,OGG,WMA,WAV,AAC,APE,FLAC,TTA,SPX,AC-3,MP2,WV(wavepack) and MPC(musepack) .And convert audio formats MP3, WAV, WMA, OGG, AAC ...
Creative Biolabs provides Anti-CD276 (CD276.1) h(CD28-CD3ζ) CAR, pCDCAR1 product for Biopharmaceutical research,preclinical and clinical trials.
CD4 (helper cells) 43% (30-61) Absolute CD4 + cells 527 (490-1740) CD8 (supressor T cells) 28% (12-42) Absolute CD8+ cells 340 (180-1170)...
CD284 (TLR4), PE, clone: HTA125, eBioscience™ 25 Tests; PE CD284 (TLR4), PE, clone: HTA125, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD251 to CD400
... chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy using CD19-directed CAR-T cells; and lenalidomide, a drug with multiple anti-tumor ... a monoclonal antibody that binds CD40; Siglec-3 a monoclonal antibody that binds CD33; blinatumomab, a monoclonal antibody that ...
It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. CD154 acts ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... For example, when an antigen-presenting cell displays a peptide antigen on MHC class II proteins, a CD4+ cell will aid those ... During an immune response, professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) endocytose antigens (typically bacteria or viruses), ...
Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ... van Kooten C, Banchereau J (January 2000). "CD40-CD40 ligand". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 67 (1): 2-17. PMID 10647992.. ...
Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the mammalian immune system. In cancer treatment they aid cancer antigen ... Dendritic cell receptors such as TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 or CD40 have been used as antibody targets. Dendritic cell-NK cell interface ... Antigens can be added to the antibody and can induce the dendritic cells to mature and provide immunity to the tumor. ... Carbohydrate antigens on the surface of cells can be used as targets for immunotherapy. GD2 is a ganglioside found on the ...
CD40: This molecule, found on a variety of immune system cells including antigen presenting cells has CD40L, otherwise known as ... CD40 signaling is known to 'license' dendritic cells to mature and thereby trigger T-cell activation and differentiation. A now ... CD27: This molecule supports antigen-specific expansion of naïve T cells and is vital for the generation of T cell memory. CD27 ... The ligand for GITR is mainly expressed on antigen presenting cells. Antibodies to GITR have been shown to promote an anti- ...
July 2002). "Anti-lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 monoclonal antibody inhibits CD40 ligand-independent immune ... It is a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha chain of the protein lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 ... responses and prevents chronic vasculopathy in CD40 ligand-deficient mice". Transplantation. 74 (1): 35-41. doi:10.1097/ ...
"The linkage of innate to adaptive immunity via maturing dendritic cells in vivo requires CD40 ligation in addition to antigen ... If the interaction between an antigen-presenting cell and a T-cell is stable enough, the T-cell can remove the CD80 from the ... Nolan A, Weiden M, Kelly A, Hoshino Y, Hoshino S, Mehta N, Gold JA (February 2008). "CD40 and CD80/86 act synergistically to ... Pinchuk LM, Polacino PS, Agy MB, Klaus SJ, Clark EA (July 1994). "The role of CD40 and CD80 accessory cell molecules in ...
In these cells, a small amount of LYN is associated with cell surface receptor proteins, including the B cell antigen receptor ... Ren CL, Morio T, Fu SM, Geha RS (Feb 1994). "Signal transduction via CD40 involves activation of lyn kinase and ... Brown VK, Ogle EW, Burkhardt AL, Rowley RB, Bolen JB, Justement LB (Jun 1994). "Multiple components of the B cell antigen ... Yamamoto T, Yamanashi Y, Toyoshima K (Apr 1993). "Association of Src-family kinase Lyn with B-cell antigen receptor". ...
... genetically engineered adenovirus vector targeted to CD40 mediates transduction of canine dendritic cells and promotes antigen- ... Adenovirus dodecahedron can qualify as a potent delivery platform for foreign antigens to human myeloid dendritic cells (MDC), ... can deliver DNA coding for specific antigens. Adenovirus have been used to produce viral vector COVID-19 vaccines. "In four ... adenovirus can be identified with antigen detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), virus isolation and serology. Even if ...
... s are capable of expressing MHC Class II, a type of MHC expressed only by certain antigen presenting cells of the ... Importantly, melanocytes stimulated by cytokines express surface proteins such as CD40 and ICAM1 in addition to MHC class II, ... In addition to presenting antigen, one of the roles of melanocytes in the immune response is cytokine production. Melanocytes ... presentation of antigens to T-cells; and production and release of cytokines. Although melanocytes are dendritic in form and ...
... which binds and stimulates the B cell surface receptor CD40. TFH cell-dependent paracrine activation of B cell CD40 results in ... Therefore, in the absence of TFH cells, similar to B cell activation by T-cell independent antigens, a quick burst of low ... Follicular helper T cells (also known as follicular B helper T cells and abbreviated as TFH), are antigen-experienced CD4+ T ... May 2009). "T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens". J Exp Med. 206 (5): 991-9 ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. HLA-DOB ... 1995). "HIV gp120 inhibits T cell activation by interfering with expression of costimulatory molecules CD40 ligand and CD80 ( ... 1992). "DNA sequence analysis of 66 kb of the human MHC class II region encoding a cluster of genes for antigen processing". J ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ...
The costimulatory signal necessary to continue the immune response can come from B7-CD28 and CD40-CD40L interactions. When CD40 ... This is also called "Signal 1" and its main purpose is to guarantee antigen specificity of the T cell activation. However, MHC ... B7 is a type of peripheral membrane protein found on activated antigen-presenting cells (APC) that, when paired with either a ...
... antigens to T cells, facilitating antigen-specific immune responses. Professional APCs express MHC class II and CD40 molecules ... APC Activators (or Antigen-presenting cell activators) are a type of immunotherapy which leverages antigen-presenting cells ( ... Hughes, Catherine E.; Benson, Robert A.; Bedaj, Marija; Maffia, Pasquale (2016). "Antigen-Presenting Cells and Antigen ... Professional antigen-presenting cells - including dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells - serve an indispensable role in ...
... class switching does not affect antigen specificity. Instead, the antibody retains affinity for the same antigens, but can ... If these activated B cells encounter specific signaling molecules via their CD40 and cytokine receptors (both modulated by T ... After activation by antigen, these B cells proliferate. ... immunoglobulin G isotype switch recombination in human CD40- ...
... surface receptors like CD91 and CD40 and also facilitate crosspresentation of antigens derived from tumour cells on MHC class I ... On the cell surface they have an immunostimulatory effect, based on their interaction with number of antigen-presenting cell ( ... The immunogenicity of a specific cell death is determined by antigens and adjuvant released during the process. Accidental cell ... a marker of late ICD and its release to the extracellular space seems to be required for the optimal presentation of antigens ...
... regulates B cell activation by increasing the BCR activation threshold and suppressing B cell mediated antigen ... but is also functional on other B-cell activation pathways mediated by CD40 and IL-4. FCGR2B expression on follicular dendritic ... "Recruitment and activation of PTP1C in negative regulation of antigen receptor signaling by Fc gamma RIIB1". Science. 268 (5208 ... cells (FDCs) is important for capturing the antigen-containing immune complexes which are essential for the germinal centre ...
... antigens, cd36 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.138 - antigens, cd38 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.140 - antigens, cd40 MeSH D23.050.301.264 ... antigens, cd19 MeSH D23.050.301.264.051.120 - antigens, cd20 MeSH D23.050.301.264.051.140 - antigens, cd40 MeSH D23.050.301.264 ... antigens, cd36 MeSH D23.101.100.110.138 - antigens, cd38 MeSH D23.101.100.110.140 - antigens, cd40 MeSH D23.101.100.110.143 - ... antigens, cd19 MeSH D23.101.100.150.120 - antigens, cd20 MeSH D23.101.100.150.140 - antigens, cd40 MeSH D23.101.100.894 - ...
T cells that express the T cell receptor which recognizes the antigen-MHCII complex (with co-stimulatory factors- CD40 and ... Eventually, the antigen presentation results in the production of antibodies that attach to the antigens of pathogens, making ... the antigen is endocytosed and processed. The processed antigen is then presented in MHCII on the surface of the B-cell. ... The antigen presentation on the surface of infected macrophages (in the context of MHC class II) in a lymph node stimulates TH1 ...
... anti-CD40) that are conjugated with antigen of interest. Future approach may target DC subsets based on their specifically ... Dendritic cells (DC) can be stimulated to activate a cytotoxic response towards an antigen. Dendritic cells, a type of antigen- ... causing them to display the antigen. Upon transfusion into the person, these activated cells present the antigen to the ... March 2005). "CD8+ T cell immunity against a tumor/self-antigen is augmented by CD4+ T helper cells and hindered by naturally ...
... activation of NKT cell and upregulation of CD40 and CD40L mediated by M. leprae antigen(s) combined with Murabutide and Trat ...
Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. CD154 acts ... For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ...
An antigen is a molecule capable of stimulating an immune response and is often produced by cancer cells or viruses. Antigens ... Once the naïve CD8+ T cell is bound to the infected cell, the infected cell is triggered to release CD40. This CD40 release, ... If the TCR is specific for that antigen, it binds to the complex of the class I MHC molecule and the antigen, and the T cell ... depending on whether their TCR recognizes an MHC class I-presented antigen (CD8) or an MHC class II-presented antigen (CD4). It ...
The co-stimulatory molecule CD40/CD40L along with the danger presence of an exogenous antigen are catalysts for dendritic cell ... Cross-presentation is the ability of certain antigen-presenting cells to take up, process and present extracellular antigens ... Similarly to the vacuolar pathway, antigens are taken into the cell through endocytosis. Antigen proteins are transported out ... in vivo dendritic cells have been found to be the most efficient and common antigen presenting cells to cross present antigens ...
... endocytosis of antigen bound to the BCR and its routing to late endosomes to facilitate loading of antigen-derived peptides ... Their functions include signaling by BCR, modulation of that signaling by co-receptors, signaling by CD40, ... T cell antigen receptor signalling, B cell antigen receptor signalling, EGF receptor signalling, insulin receptor signalling ... The process of B cell antigen receptor signalling is similar to Immunoglobulin E signalling and T-cell antigen receptor ...
The following signalling pathways have been implicated: CD154/CD40 Akt ubiquitination, p53 activation, cytochrome c release NF- ... histone deacetylases and histone-modifying genes are de-regulated.Bone marrow tumour cells express the following antigen ... "Expression of serotherapy target antigens in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia: therapeutic applications and considerations". ... targets CD20 (98.3%), CD22 (88.3%), CD40 (83.3%), CD52 (77.4%), IgM (83.3%), MUC1 core protein (57.8%), and 1D10 (50%). ...
Nishikawa M, Takemoto S, Takakura Y (April 2008). "Heat shock protein derivatives for delivery of antigens to antigen ... CD40), MHC molecules and pro-inflammatory and Th1 cytokines. Heat-shock proteins can signal also through scavenger receptors, ... "Human heat shock protein 70 enhances tumor antigen presentation through complex formation and intracellular antigen delivery ... Tumor cells usually express only a few neo-antigens, which can be targeted by immune system and also not all tumor cells ...
Interaction between CD40 ligand on an activated T helper cell and the B cell CD40 receptor induces centroblasts to express ... Centroblasts do not express immunoglobulins and are unable to respond to the follicular dendritic cell antigens present in the ... allowing the B cell receptor to potentially gain stronger affinity for an antigen. In the absence of FDC and helper T cell ...
... (CD94) is an antigen preferentially expressed on NK cells and is classified as a type II membrane protein because it has ... "Differential involvement of CD40, CD80, and major histocompatibility complex class I molecules in cytotoxicity induction and ... Ding Y, Sumitran S, Holgersson J (May 1999). "Direct binding of purified HLA class I antigens by soluble NKG2/CD94 C-type ... Ding Y, Sumitran S, Holgersson J (May 1999). "Direct binding of purified HLA class I antigens by soluble NKG2/CD94 C-type ...
CD40 • CD41 • CD42 (a, b, c, d) • CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
... reticular dysgenesis Omenn syndrome DNA ligase type IV deficiency Cernunnos deficiency CD40 ligand deficiency CD40 deficiency ... This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
CD40 (Teneliksimab, Toralizumab) • CD62L/L-selektin (Aselizumab) • CD80 (Galiksimab) • CD147/Basigin (Gavilimomab) • CD154 ( ... Induction of Potent and Long-Lasting T-Cell Responses against Cancer Antigens". Cancer Research 62: 1477-1480. ... "A divalent major histocompatibility complex/IgG1 fusion protein induces antigen-specific T cell activation in vitro and in ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
The protein also carries the Jr(a) antigen, which defines the Junior blood group system.[9] ...
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
"Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
"Guiding the selection of human antibodies from phage display repertoires to a single epitope of an antigen". Bio/Technology. 12 ... drug were found by guiding the selection of human antibodies from phage display repertoires to a single epitope of an antigen ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
CD40 • CD41 • CD42 (a, b, c, d) • CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
CD40 (Teneliksimab, Toralizumab) • CD62L/L-selektin (Aselizumab) • CD80 (Galiksimab) • CD147/Basigin (Gavilimomab) • CD154 ( ... ćelije bile identifikovane kao najpotentniji proizvođači tipa I interferona u odgovoru na antigen, i bile su nazvani prirodne ...
"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)".. *^ May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; ... CD61+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
In a secondary response, the memory B cells specific to the antigen or similar antigens will respond.[2] When memory B cells ... The B cells that develop into memory B cells independently from germinal centers likely experience CD40 and cytokine signaling ... When reintroduced to antigen, some of these B1 cells can differentiate into memory B cells without interacting with a T cell.[7 ... If the memory B cell later encounters the same antigen, it triggers an accelerated and robust secondary immune response.[1][2] ...
... oleh pengenal antigen.[59] Respons imun adaptif bersifat spesifik terhadap antigen tertentu dan membutuhkan pengenalan antigen ... Grewal I, Flavell R. "CD40 and CD154 in cell-mediated immunity". Annu Rev Immunol. 16: 111-35. PMID 9597126.. ... Oleh sistem imun, antigen tersebut dianggap sebagai antigen asing dan keberadaannya mendorong sel imun untuk menyerang sel ... Sel T pembantu mengekspresikan reseptor sel T yang mengenali antigen terikat pada molekul MHC kelas II. MHC:antigen juga ...
CD40 (Teneliksimab, Toralizumab) • CD62L/L-selektin (Aselizumab) • CD80 (Galiksimab) • CD147/Basigin (Gavilimomab) • CD154 ( ... Nakon presađivanja (transplantacije) organa, telo skoro uvek „odbaci" novi organ usled razlike ljudskih leukocit antigen ...
The axis inhibits bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (i.e. antigen-presenting cells that process antigen material, present it ... CD40, and MHC class II molecules) that are critical for developing adaptive immune responses. IL receptor-activated bone marrow ...
"Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26". Science. 261 (5120): 466-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
Past this period CD3 blocks the TCR-antigen binding and causes conformational change or the removal of the entire TCR3/CD3 ... The IL-2a (CD25, T-cell activation antigen, TAC) is expressed only by the already-activated T lymphocytes. Therefore, it is of ... The antilymphocyte (ALG) and antithymocyte antigens (ATG) are being used. They are part of the steroid-resistant acute ... Monoclonal antibodies are directed towards exactly defined antigens. Therefore, they cause fewer side-effects. Especially ...
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet degranulation. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling ...
Hyper IgM syndrome: X-linked disorder that causes a deficiency in the production of CD40 ligand on activated T-cells. This ... An allergy is an abnormal immune reaction to a harmless antigen. *Seasonal allergy ...
... uveitis antigens induce CXCR3- and CXCR5-expressing lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells to migrate (англ.) // Blood (англ ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
Antigens, CD40. A member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 Ligand. It is found on ... Mutations of the Gene for CD40 Antigen result in Hyper-IgM Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Type 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs ... Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-Cells is important for Generation of Memory B-Cells within the Germinal ...
... we show here that high-dose antigen induced Th1 development by up-regulation of CD40 ligand (CD40L), whereas low-dose antigen ... The antigen dose determines T helper subset development by regulation of CD40 ligand.. Ruedl C1, Bachmann MF, Kopf M. ... CD40-CD40L interaction was essential for IL-12 production by DC. In the absence, de novo IL-4 production by T cells and ... Th2 polarization, it remains unclear how the antigen dose and the strength of signal is detected by the T cell and translated ...
CD40-activated human B cells: an alternative source of highly efficient antigen presenting cells to generate autologous antigen ... for repetitive stimulations of antigen-specific T cells in vitro. We show that autologous CD40-activated B cells represent a ... contend that CD40-activated B cells are an alternative source of highly efficient APCs with which to generate antigen-specific ... In contrast, the therapeutic potential of autologous antigen-specific T cells has yet to be established since it has been ...
Colitis Induced by Enteric Bacterial Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells Requires CD40-CD40 Ligand Interactions for a Sustained ... Colitis Induced by Enteric Bacterial Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells Requires CD40-CD40 Ligand Interactions for a Sustained ... Colitis Induced by Enteric Bacterial Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells Requires CD40-CD40 Ligand Interactions for a Sustained ... Colitis Induced by Enteric Bacterial Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells Requires CD40-CD40 Ligand Interactions for a Sustained ...
... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen.. P ... PGE2 (10(-9) to 10(-6) M) enhanced proliferation of B cells activated through their CD40 Ag, but not their Ig secretion. PGE2 ... In addition, PGE2 inhibited IgE production by naive surface IgD+ B cells cultured in the CD40 system, suggesting that PGE2 may ... PGE2 displayed similar effects on cytokine-induced proliferation and Ig secretion of B cells activated by anti-CD40 Abs used in ...
In contrast, the therapeutic potential of autologous antigen-specific T cells has yet to be established since it … ... Multiple clinical trials have shown the efficacy of adoptively transferred allogeneic antigen-specific T cells for the ... CD40-activated human B cells: an alternative source of highly efficient antigen presenting cells to generate autologous antigen ... for repetitive stimulations of antigen-specific T cells in vitro. We show that autologous CD40-activated B cells represent a ...
... and CD40 ligand −/− (c) mice. To reconstitute CD40 signaling in wild-type (d) and CD40 ligand −/− (e) mice, anti-murine CD40 (d ... Thus, CD40-CD40 ligand interactions in vivo regulate the migration of antigen-bearing DCs from the skin to DLNs via TNF-α ... Cd40-Cd40 Ligand Interactions in Vivo Regulate Migration of Antigen-Bearing Dendritic Cells from the Skin to Draining Lymph ... Cd40-Cd40 Ligand Interactions in Vivo Regulate Migration of Antigen-Bearing Dendritic Cells from the Skin to Draining Lymph ...
T Cell Antigen Gp39 or TNF Related Activation Protein or Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 5 or CD154 or CD40LG ... The latest report CD40 Ligand - Pipeline Review, H2 2, outlays comprehensive information on the CD40 Ligand (T Cell Antigen ... B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) - Pipeline Review, H2 2018. * Drug ... B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) - Pipeline Review, H1 2019. * Drug ...
CD40-activated human B cells: an alternative source of highly efficient antigen presenting cells to generate autologous antigen ... Banchereau J, Bazan F, Blanchard D, Brière F, Galizzi JP, van Kooten C, Liu YJ, Rousset F, Saeland S. The CD40 antigen and its ... Dendritic cells pulsed with protein antigens in vitro can prime antigen-specific, MHC-restricted T cells in situ. J Exp Med. ... Rock KL, Rothstein L, Gamble S, Fleischacker C. Characterization of antigen-presenting cells that present exogenous antigens in ...
We found that dendritic cells triggered through CD40 and TLR-4 showed increased secretion of IL-12, IL-6 and TNF-α. It also ... Interestingly, CD40 and TLR-4 stimulation along with the suboptimal dose of anti-TB drugs significantly fortified their ... We found that dendritic cells triggered through CD40 and TLR-4 showed increased secretion of IL-12, IL-6 and TNF-α. It also ... Interestingly, CD40 and TLR-4 stimulation along with the suboptimal dose of anti-TB drugs significantly fortified their ...
Thus, CD40-CD40 ligand interactions in vivo regulate the migration of antigen-bearing DCs from the skin to DLNs via TNF-alpha ... in unsensitized CD40 ligand -/- mice as compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice. However, after contact sensitization of CD40 ... We analyzed the DC status of CD40 ligand -/- mice using a contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model system that enables multiple ... very few antigen-bearing DCs could be detected in the paracortical region of lymph nodes draining sensitized skin. This defect ...
This antigen is found on B cell lines, is strongly expressed by interdigitating cells (IDC), basal epithelial cells, and is ... The CD40 antigen is a 44-48 kDa type I integral membrane protein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. ... CD40 Antigen. The CD40 antigen is a 44-48 kDa type I integral membrane protein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) ... Activated B cells via CD40 antigen in the presence of IL-10 differentiate into plasma cells and secrete large amounts of ...
Cd40tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi KO first allele (reporter-tagged insertion with conditional potential) Vector. ... Cd40tm1(KOMP)Vlcg Reporter-tagged deletion allele (with selection cassette) Vector. ... Click on icons to go to all Cd40 data for that phenotype. ... Cd40tm1b(KOMP)Wtsi HOM. postnatal 3.47E-5. Download data as: ...
... wherein the binding of the antibody to the CD40 antigen prevents the growth or differentiation of the B cell. Monoclonal ... the methods comprising administration of a monoclonal antibody capable of binding to a human CD40 antigen located on the ... The CD40 Antigen, the CD40 Antigen Ligand, and Anti-CD40 Antibodies. The CD40 antigen is a glycoprotein expressed on the cell ... CD40 Antigen Epitopes. The CD40 antigen epitopes of this invention are molecules that are immunoreactive with anti-CD40 ...
Engagement of CD40 on antigen presenting cells (APC) is central to the initiation of cell-mediated immune response. Here, we ... N2 - Engagement of CD40 on antigen presenting cells (APC) is central to the initiation of cell-mediated immune response. Here, ... AB - Engagement of CD40 on antigen presenting cells (APC) is central to the initiation of cell-mediated immune response. Here, ... abstract = "Engagement of CD40 on antigen presenting cells (APC) is central to the initiation of cell-mediated immune response ...
We studied the effectiveness of monoclonal anti-CD40 + cytosine-phosphate-guanosine-containing oligodeoxynucleotide 1826 (CpG- ... CD40 Antigens * CPG-oligonucleotide * Oligodeoxyribonucleotides Grant support * R01 CA032685/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States ... Together, the results show that CT and anti-CD40 + CpG-ODN IT synergize in the induction of anti-tumour effects which are ... CT + IT treatment up-regulated molecules associated with the M1 effector Mφ phenotype [CD40, CD80, CD86, major ...
In particular, soluble CD40 targeted antigen induced the strongest IgG2a responses, suggesting a Th1 bias compared to ... In particular, soluble CD40 targeted antigen induced the strongest IgG2a responses, suggesting a Th1 bias compared to ... In particular, soluble CD40 targeted antigen induced the strongest IgG2a responses, suggesting a Th1 bias compared to ... In particular, soluble CD40 targeted antigen induced the strongest IgG2a responses, suggesting a Th1 bias compared to ...
CD40 Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... The encoded protein is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells of the immune system and is essential for mediating a broad ... GeneCards Summary for CD40 Gene CD40 (CD40 Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CD40 include ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CD40 Gene Domains & Families for CD40 Gene Gene Families for CD40 Gene. HGNC:. ...
CD40 has been reported to be involved in B cell differentiation, ... CD40 is a 48 kD type I glycoprotein also known as BP50. It is a ... Antigen References 1. Banchereau J, et al. 1994. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 12:881.. 2. Foy T, et al. 1996. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 14:591 ... Additionally, CD40 is important for T cell-B cell interactions. The ligand of CD40 is CD154 (CD40 ligand). The HB14 antibody ... Antigen Details Structure TNFR superfamily, type I glycoprotein, 48 kD Distribution B cells, macrophages, follicular dendritic ...
Clin Sci (Lond). The signalling pathway CD40/CD40L (CD40 ligand) plays an important role in atherosclerotic plaque formation ... Antigens, CD40/*biosynthesis/genetics. *Antioxidants/pharmacology. *CD40 Ligand/metabolism. *Cells, Cultured. *Coronary Vessels ... The signalling pathway CD40/CD40L (CD40 ligand) plays an important role in atherosclerotic plaque formation and rupture. AngII ... Increased CD40 expression led to enhanced activity of the pathway, as AngII-treated cells stimulated with recombinant CD40L ...
Compare and order CD40 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products ... B cell surface antigen CD40 , B cell-associated molecule , B-cell surface antigen CD40 , CD40 antigen (TNF receptor superfamily ... CD40 Molecule, TNF Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (CD40) ELISA Kit CD40 Molecule, TNF Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (CD40) ELISA ... CD40 Molecule, TNF Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (CD40) ELISA Kit CD40 Molecule, TNF Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (CD40) ELISA ...
Abbreviations: EBV, Epstein-Barr virus; EBNA, EBV nuclear antigen; CD40L, CD40 ligand; LCL, lymphoblastoid cell line; hpi, ... EBV DNA Assay. Copy numbers of EBV DNA per cellular DNA (μg) in CD3+/CD40- or CD3+/CD40+/- chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV ... Its ligand, CD40 ligand (CD40L), is a member of the TNF family and expressed mainly on activated T cells. CD40-CD40L ... 2 A (EBV). EBV with an UV-inactivated genome induced neither CD40 nor EBNA1 mRNA (EBV+UV). (F) Flow cytometry with mAb to CD40 ...
Compare CD40 Ligand ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com. ... Order CD40 Ligand ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Chicken, Cow, Dog and more. ... CD40 ligand , TNF superfamily member 5 , CD40 antigen ligand , CD40-L , T-B cell-activating molecule , T-cell antigen Gp39 , ... CD40 Ligand (CD40LG) Antigen Profile Protein Summary The protein encoded by this gene is expressed on the surface of T cells. ...
Mouse Monoclonal Antibody Shop CD40/TNFRSF5 Mouse anti-Human, Alexa Fluor 700, Clone: ... CD40/TNFRSF5 Mouse anti-Human, Alexa Fluor 700, Clone: LOB7/6, Novus Biologicals™- ... B cell surface antigen CD40, B-cell surface antigen CD40, Bp50B cell-associated molecule, CD40 antigen, CD40 molecule, TNF ... CD40. Immunogen. Recognizes human CD40 cell surface antigen, a 48kD glycoprotein expressed by B lymphocytes and weakly by some ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Human anti-Human, DyLight 405, Clone: hu5c8 ( ... CD154, CD154 antigen, CD40 antigen ligand, CD40 ligand, CD40-L, CD40LIGM, gp39, hCD40L, HIGM1, T-B cell-activating molecule, T- ... CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 in Human samples. It is validated for Western ... CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Human anti-Human, DyLight 405, Clone: hu5c8 (Ruplizumab), Novus Biologicals ...
In vitro activation of CD40 present on B cel ... Antigen-driven B-cell proliferation and maturation occur in ... Antigens, CD / immunology*. Antigens, CD40. Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte / immunology*. B-Lymphocytes / immunology ... 0/Antigens, CD; 0/Antigens, CD40; 0/Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte; 0/DNA, Viral; 9007-49-2/DNA ... RESULTS: EBV-negative, CD40-activated human B lymphocytes were directly infected by HIV-1. The infection significantly reduced ...
INVOLVEMENT OF GP39 AND CD40 INTERACTIONS IN THE GENERATION OF IMMUNE RESPONSES TO ALLOGENEIC ANTIGENS A Thesis Submitted to ... Antigen presenting cells. CD antigens. Ligands (Biochemistry). Cell interaction. Immune response -- Regulation. ... Involvement GP39 and CD40 interactions in the generation of immune responses to allogeneic antigens. ... Involvement GP39 and CD40 interactions in the generation of immune responses to allogeneic antigens.. ...
CD40L is a type two transmembrane TNF superfamily cytokine made by T cells that engages CD40 on antigen-presenting cells, ... Transfer is much more efficient to antigen-bearing than to bystander B cells, a finding that may explain the phenomenon of ... In the germinal center reaction, rare somatic mutant B cells with higher affinity for antigen are selected for survival and ... Transfer of CD40L proportional to the amount of antigen presented by individual B cells may allow T cells to selectively ...
... this invention provides isolated human and murine CD40-L polypeptides that bind to the extracellular binding region of a CD40 ... Also disclosed are methods of simulating hybridoma cells to increase monoclonal antibody production by administering a CD40 ... vectors and transformed host cells useful in providing CD40-L polypeptides. More particularly, ... B cell antigen CD40 (Stamenkovic et al., EMBO J. 8:1403, 1989), T cell antigen OX40 (Mallett et al., EMBO J. 9:1063, 1990), ...
The CD40 antigen and its ligand. Annu Rev Immunol. 1994; 12: 881-922.. *CrossRef, ... Thyroid cancers express CD-40 and CD-40 ligand: cancers that express CD-40 ligand may have a greater risk of recurrence in ... CD40-CD40 ligand (CD154) engagement is required but not sufficient for modulating MHC class I, ICAM-1 and Fas expression and ... CD40 is a prognostic marker in primary cutaneous malignant melanoma. Am J Pathol. 1996; 149: 1953-1961.. *PubMed, ...
  • CD40 Ligand (T Cell Antigen Gp39 or TNF Related Activation Protein or Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 5 or CD154 or CD40LG) pipeline Target constitutes close to 18 molecules. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The latest report CD40 Ligand - Pipeline Review, H2 2, outlays comprehensive information on the CD40 Ligand (T Cell Antigen Gp39 or TNF Related Activation Protein or Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 5 or CD154 or CD40LG) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • CD40 Ligand (T Cell Antigen Gp39 or TNF Related Activation Protein or Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 5 or CD154 or CD40LG) - CD40 ligand or CD40L is a protein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells and is a member of the TNF superfamily. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Furthermore, this report also reviews key players involved in CD40 Ligand (T Cell Antigen Gp39 or TNF Related Activation Protein or Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 5 or CD154 or CD40LG) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Hyperexpression of CD40 ligand (CD154) in inflammatory bowel disease and its contribution to pathogenic cytokine production. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The CD154, (CD40 ligand) is a membrane glycoprotein on activated T cells that induces B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin secretion. (beckman.com)
  • The ligand of CD40 is CD154 (CD40 ligand). (biolegend.com)
  • This dissertation presents my studies investigating the delivery of CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154) from helper T lymphocytes to antigen-presenting B lymphocytes. (ohsu.edu)
  • TRAP1.3.6 recognises the human CD154 cell surface antigen, a 32kD glycoprotein also known as CD40 ligand. (novusbio.com)
  • TRAP1.3.6 binds to CD154 at an epitope distinct from the CD40 binding site. (novusbio.com)
  • CD40 Ligand, also known as TNFSF5, CD154, TRAP, and gp39, is a trimeric protein that is expressed in transmembrane and soluble forms. (rndsystems.com)
  • The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of chimeric (Ch5c8) and humanized (Hu5c8) 5c8, a monoclonal antibody that binds CD154 (CD40 ligand), thus blocking the interaction between CD40 and CD154, were investigated in cynomolgus monkeys. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The monoclonal antibody 5c8 blocks the CD40 and CD154 interaction, producing consistent and substantive reduction in antibody formation after administration of tetanus toxoid, which can be characterized with PK/PD modeling. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the present study, using baboon recipients of GTKO.hCD46.hTBM porcine hearts, we evaluated an iterative modification of our previous immunomodulation strategy, one that primarily targets the anti-CD154-CD40 co-stimulation pathway. (nature.com)
  • We now show that the CD40-CD40L (CD154) interaction is involved in the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression during adoptive immunotherapy (ADI). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: CD154 (CD40 Ligand) Monoclonal Antibody (24-31), APC, eBioscience™ from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 17-1548-42, RRID AB_1582215. (thermofisher.com)
  • Description: The 24-31 monoclonal antibody reacts with human CD154, a 39 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein also known as gp39 and CD40 ligand (CD40L). (thermofisher.com)
  • Through its binding to CD40 on antigen presenting cells including B cells, monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells, CD154 serves a crucial function in T-APC cognate interaction. (thermofisher.com)
  • CD154 interaction with CD40 transduces signals for T-dependent B-cell activation and induces B cell cycle entry. (thermofisher.com)
  • CD40 Ligand (CD40-L), or CD154, is a membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • Interaction of CD40 with CD154 (gp39), its ligand on T cells, is important in T-B cell crosstalk and plays a role in costimulation and immune regulation. (thermofisher.com)
  • CD154 , also called CD40 ligand or CD40L , is a protein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells [5] and is a member of the TNF superfamily of molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] On T FH cells, CD154 promotes B cell maturation and function by engaging CD40 on the B cell surface and therefore facilitating cell-cell communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • [9] Richard Armitage at Immunex cloned a cDNA encoding CD154 by screening an expression library with CD40-Ig. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early evidence for these effects were that in CD40 or CD154 deficient mice, there is little class switching or germinal centre formation, and immune responses are severely inhibited. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of CD154 (CD40L) on TH cells to CD40 activates antigen presenting cells and induces a variety of downstream effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD40 is also expressed on B cell precursors in the bone marrow, and there is some evidence that CD40-CD154 interactions may play a role in the control of B cell haematopoiesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD154/CD40 interactions play a pivotal role both in humoral and cellular immune responses. (bmj.com)
  • Their involvement in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been revealed by increased expression of CD40 and CD154 in the inflamed mucosa of patients and the therapeutic effects of anti-CD154 antibodies in experimental colitis. (bmj.com)
  • An alternative approach to blocking CD154/CD40 interactions by employing a CD40 antisense oligonucleotide (ODN) was explored. (bmj.com)
  • These results suggest that CD40 antisense ODNs effectively interfere with CD154/CD40 interactions in vivo and, therefore, may provide a novel approach to the treatment of patients with chronic IBD. (bmj.com)
  • The pivotal role of CD154/CD40 interactions in the regulation of immune responses has been demonstrated by the severe immunodeficiency caused through deletion or mutation of either the CD40 or CD154 gene. (bmj.com)
  • Clone HB14 blocks the binding of CD40 to CD154. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • This prevents down-regulation of CD154 expression induced by interaction with CD40 expressed on antigen-presenting cells. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The CD40 antigen is constitutively expressed on mature B cells ( 2 ), and its ligand, CD154, is transiently expressed on activated T helper cells ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Blocking the CD40-CD154 interaction is reported to be effective for transplantation management and autoimmune disease models in rodents and nonhuman primates. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thus, we generated and characterized a fully human anti-CD40 mAb ASKP1240, as an alternative to anti-CD154 mAb. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Blocking the CD40-CD154 interaction has shown therapeutic effects in several experimental disease models, including organ rejection after transplantation 2 , atherosclerosis 3 and autoimmune diseases 4 - 7 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The mechanism is not fully understood 16 - 19 , but recent studies have suggested that CD154 functions to stabilize arterial thrombi in a CD40-independent manner through its integrin binding KGD (Lys-Gly-Asp) sequence 20 , 21 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It is assumed that targeting the CD40-CD154 pathway via CD40 rather than CD154 might allow an immunosuppressive effect, while leaving the CD154-integrin interactions necessary to regulate thrombus stability unaltered. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Several chimeric mAbs against CD40 (chi220 and ch5D12) have been developed as alternatives to anti-CD154 mAbs and were also found to be effective in renal allograft models 22 - 24 as well as autoimmune disease models in nonhuman primates 25 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CD40/CD154 signaling plays a key role in initiating Th1 responses and may direct Th1 effector responses. (asnjournals.org)
  • CD40 is expressed in nephritic glomeruli, suggesting a potential role for intrarenal CD40-CD154 interactions in injurious effector responses. (asnjournals.org)
  • Immune neutralization of the CD40 ligand (CD154) at the time of challenge significantly reduced accumulation of Th1 effectors and injury. (asnjournals.org)
  • Therefore, CD40-CD154 interactions are a potential therapeutic target in GN. (asnjournals.org)
  • CD40/CD154 is one such costimulatory pair whose regulatory role in the initiation of adaptive immune responses has been clearly defined ( 3 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The importance of CD40/CD154 signaling in the mediation of effector responses has also been highlighted. (asnjournals.org)
  • Our fundamental research on the CD40-Ligand (CD154) elucidated the molecular basis of T cell helper function and led to the development of therapeutic candidates for autoimmune diseases and organ transplant rejection in collaboration with Biogen-IDEC and CellTech/UCB. (columbia.edu)
  • Using co-cultures of dendritic cells (DC) and ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4+ T cells obtained from RAG-2)(-/-) DO11.10 mice, we show here that high-dose antigen induced Th1 development by up-regulation of CD40 ligand (CD40L), whereas low-dose antigen stimulation failed to induce CD40L and promoted Th2 development. (nih.gov)
  • CD40-CD40L interaction was essential for IL-12 production by DC. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, our results demonstrate that LFA-1/ ICAM interaction promotes Th1 differentiation by lowering the antigen dose required for CD40L up-regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Pathogenic Bir T cell lines expressed CD40 ligand (CD40L) when cultured with Ag-pulsed APCs in vitro. (jimmunol.org)
  • Microglial activation resulting from CD40-CD40L interaction after beta-amyloid stimulation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The HB14 antibody has been reported to promote B cell proliferation in the presence of anti-IgM, IL-4 or PMA, partially block CD40 binding to CD40L and rescue B cells from apoptosis. (biolegend.com)
  • Additional reported applications (for the relevant formats) include: costimulation of B cell proliferation, partial inhibition of CD40 binding to CD40L, and prevention of B cell apoptosis. (biolegend.com)
  • The signalling pathway CD40/CD40L (CD40 ligand) plays an important role in atherosclerotic plaque formation and rupture. (mendeley.com)
  • In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that AngII increases CD40/CD40L activity in vascular cells and that ROS (reactive oxygen species) are part of the signalling cascade that controls CD40/CD40L expression. (mendeley.com)
  • Increased CD40 expression led to enhanced activity of the pathway, as AngII-treated cells stimulated with recombinant CD40L released higher amounts of IL-8 and had increased COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2) expression. (mendeley.com)
  • We conclude that AngII stimulation of vascular cells leads to a ROS-dependent increase in CD40/CD40L signalling pathway activity. (mendeley.com)
  • however, it hardly transformed X-linked hyper IgM syndrome B cells, because of the dysfunctional gene of CD40 ligand (CD40L) of the patients. (pnas.org)
  • Unlike CD40, CD40L is not usually expressed on B cells. (pnas.org)
  • These results suggest that EBV infection induces CD40L/CD40 signaling in host cells, which appears to play an essential role in its persistent infection and malignancies of lymphocytes. (pnas.org)
  • Its ligand, CD40 ligand (CD40L), is a member of the TNF family and expressed mainly on activated T cells. (pnas.org)
  • CD40-CD40L interaction is crucial to B cells for their proliferation, survival, Ig istotype switching, and germinal center reaction upon stimulation by activated T cells ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mice null for CD40 or CD40L had severe defects not only in their Ig isotype switching, but also in germinal center formation and establishment of B cell memory ( 4 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • That we had very few LCLs from XHIM B cells upon EBV infection led us to investigate whether CD40L and CD40 play a role in EBV infection and/or subsequent B cell transformation. (pnas.org)
  • For CD40L blocking, CD40Ig, a fusion protein of mouse CD40 (amino acids 1-193) and the Fc region of mouse IgG 2a , was used. (pnas.org)
  • CD40L is a type two transmembrane TNF superfamily cytokine made by T cells that engages CD40 on antigen-presenting cells, including B cells, initiating downstream signaling resulting in B cell proliferation, differentiation, and antibody formation. (ohsu.edu)
  • Helper T cells can produce CD40L de novo upon antigen-specific interactions, but they also have an intracellular secretory compartment containing a small amount of preformed CD40L that is brought to the T cell surface rapidly upon antigen recognition. (ohsu.edu)
  • Preformed CD40L is capable of fulfilling some functions previously assumed to require de novo CD40L, including upregulation of costimulatory molecules, production of cytokines by DCs, and antigen-specific proliferation of B cells. (ohsu.edu)
  • In Chapter 3 of this dissertation, I describe my novel finding that CD40L does not remain on the T cell surface but is actually transferred to antigen-presenting B cells. (ohsu.edu)
  • Transfer of CD40L proportional to the amount of antigen presented by individual B cells may allow T cells to selectively deliver a sustained signal required for survival of higher affinity mutant B cells. (ohsu.edu)
  • I found that despite distinct immunological synapse structures, preformed CD40L is delivered in an antigen-specific manner by both Th1 and Th2 helper T cells. (ohsu.edu)
  • CD40:CD40L interactions in X-linked and non-X-linked hyper-IgM syndromes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Full scale B-cell activation requires not only B-cell receptor (BCR) engagement with antigen, but also costimulatory signals provided by T helper cells through the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction. (elsevier.com)
  • It is hypothesized that a fusion protein of an antigen and soluble CD40L (CD40LT) would selectively target the costimulation to antigen-specific B cells, leading to synergy in the antibody response. (elsevier.com)
  • We demonstrate selective enrichment of CD40L and ICOS in SE in response to addition of CD40 and ICOSL, respectively, to SLB presenting TCR ligands and ICAM-1. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD40 ligation on MM by CD40L-transfected murine L-cells or by a soluble CD40L fusion protein up-regulated their expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and MHC class I and class II molecules and their secretion of IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and also induced a rapid activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor κB. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Finally, CD40 ligation induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in MM. These results indicate that CD40-CD40L interactions may play an important role in augmenting antitumor immunity and inducing apoptosis in some CD40-positive immunogenic human MMs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate in some CD40-positive immunogenic human MM that CD40/CD40L-mediated signals activate transcription factor NF-κB, enhance the production of proinflammatory cytokines as well as of immunorelevant surface molecules, and augment their specific CTL-mediated lysis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) pipeline Target constitutes close to 25 molecules. (grandresearchstore.com)
  • The latest report Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 - Pipeline Review, H1 2019, outlays comprehensive information on the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (grandresearchstore.com)
  • Furthermore, this report also reviews key players involved in Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (grandresearchstore.com)
  • MarketResearchReports.biz has recently announced the addition of a market study " Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016 ", is a comparative analysis of the global market. (bizpr.ca)
  • Global Markets Directs, Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides in depth analysis on Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) targeted pipeline therapeutics. (bizpr.ca)
  • Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects. (bizpr.ca)
  • To improve the efficacy of tumor cell-based and dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccines, this study explored the potential of a new cancer vaccine strategy, that is, the use of CD40 ligand-transfected tumor (CD40L-tumor) cells to simultaneously deliver both tumor-derived antigens (Ag) and maturation stimuli to DCs. (elsevier.com)
  • Blocking of CD40L in vivo at days 5 and 20, when all iNOS+ cells express CD40, leads to significantly reduced CD40 and iNOS expression as well as to a marked inhibition of the therapeutic effect. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our data provide evidence that autoantigen as well as the CD40L expressed by activated nonneoplastic T cells may drive the evolution of low-grade MALT-type lymphomas either directly or by paracrine mechanisms and that antigen may contribute to lymphoma pathogenesis. (hindawi.com)
  • In total CD40L has three binding partners: CD40, α5β1 integrin and αIIbβ3. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD40L plays a central role in costimulation and regulation of the immune response via T cell priming and activation of CD40-expressing immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The secondary signal is CD40L on the T cell, which binds CD40 on the macrophage cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • If an activated T FH cell recognizes the peptide presented by the B cell, the CD40L on the T cell binds to the B cell's CD40, causing B cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early studies on the CD40/CD40L pathway revealed specific roles in B cell biology ( 19 ) promoting B cell activation, proliferation, survival, isotype switching, germinal center formation, and generation of memory B cells ( 20 ). (rupress.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that the role of the CD40/CD40L pathway in disease is not solely directed towards B cell regulation, but extends to many other cell types ( 20 ). (rupress.org)
  • Jr Peptide-pulsed dendritic cells induce antigen-specific CTL-mediated protective tumor immunity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Murine dendritic cells loaded in vitro with soluble protein prime cytotoxic T lymphocytes against tumor antigen in vivo. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A. Efficient presentation of soluble antigen by cultured human dendritic cells is maintained by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus interleukin 4 and downregulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Steinman RM, Witmer-Pack M, Inaba K. Dendritic cells: antigen presentation, accessory function and clinical relevance. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Dendritic cells as antigen presenting cells in vivo. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Dendritic cells pulsed with protein antigens in vitro can prime antigen-specific, MHC-restricted T cells in situ. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Control of the immune response at the level of antigen-presenting cells: a comparison of the function of dendritic cells and B lymphocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Presentation of exogenous protein antigens by dendritic cells to T cell clones. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) ( 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • CD40 ligation counteracts Fas-induced apoptosis of human dendritic cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This antigen is found on B cell lines, is strongly expressed by interdigitating cells (IDC), basal epithelial cells, and is also present on macrophages, some endothelial cells, and follicular dendritic cells. (beckman.com)
  • In dendritic cells (DCs), which are currently used for vaccination therapies for malignant diseases, IL-10 inhibits IL-12 production and induces a state of antigen-specific anergy in CD4- and CD8-positive T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several reports show that the expression of CD40 is not restricted to cells of the B lineage because CD40 is functionally expressed on dendritic cells, monocytes, vascular endothelial cells, keratinocytes, and fibroblasts (reviewed in Refs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD40 is expressed on the surface of B cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, monocytes and platelets, as well as endothelial and epithelial cells (1, 2). (rndsystems.com)
  • In cell subsets in which CD40 is most highly expressed, B lymphocytes and dendritic cells, the MS-associated risk variant is associated with reduced CD40 cell-surface protein expression. (edu.au)
  • In monocytes and dendritic cells, the risk allele additionally reduces the ratio of expression of full-length versus truncated CD40 mRNA, the latter encoding secreted CD40. (edu.au)
  • CD40 expression is found mostly on SER+ macrophages and to a lesser extent on dendritic cells (DCs). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Previous studies using purified toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands plus agonistic anti-CD40 antibodies showed that TLRs and CD40 can act synergistically on dendritic cells (DCs) to optimize T cell activation and Th1 differentiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are sentinels of the host, spread throughout the tissues to scan for antigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • CD40 is a member of the TNFR family and is expressed by mouse B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, thymic epithelium, and a subset of peripheral T cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • CD40 is present on all B cells except plasma cells and is also found on some epithelial cells, carcinomas and lymphoid dendritic cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • CD40 is constitutively expressed by antigen presenting cells, including dendritic cells, B cells and macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are number of completed and ongoing clinical trials where agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies are employed to activate an anti-tumor T cell response via activation of dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3- 5 Moreover, activation of CD40 in dendritic cells and macrophages appears to augment their antigen presenting functions through upregulation of expression of costimulatory molecules on their surface and release of proinflammatory cytokines. (bmj.com)
  • CD40 is expressed on B lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells and is an important costimulatory molecule for B cells as well as dendritic cells, monocytes, and other antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • engagement of CD40 on dendritic cells leads to maturation. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Mouse dendritic cells (DCs) were specifically activated in C57/Bl6 mice by subcutaneous injection of 50 μL of CD40 (1 mg/0.5 mL) or an isotype control (left images) into the left and right footpad. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous population of innate immune cells with unique capacity to process and present antigens to naïve T cells. (intechopen.com)
  • CD4+ T cells recognize peptides that are derived from protein antigens and presented by dendritic cells in peripheral lymphoid organs. (brainscape.com)
  • Dendritic cells process antigens and present peptides associated with MHC class II to CD4 T cells and present peptides associated with MHC class I to CD8 T cells. (brainscape.com)
  • The CD40 molecule is mainly expressed on antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) as well as on B lymphocytes and appears to play an important role in immunological responses 1 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) serve a crucial function in the immune system as the major antigen presenting cells with the unique ability to activate naive T cells, 1 a capacity that has made them the major target of therapeutic manipulation in vaccination and cancer immunotherapy protocols. (bloodjournal.org)
  • CD40, a cell surface receptor and member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), is expressed on various immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages and B cells, and plays a key role in the activation of the immune system. (cancer.gov)
  • This defect in DC migration after hapten sensitization was associated with defective CHS responses and decreased cutaneous tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production and was corrected by injecting recombinant TNF-α or an agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody. (rupress.org)
  • Methods for preventing or treating an antibody-mediated diease in a patient are presented, the methods comprising administration of a monoclonal antibody capable of binding to a human CD40 antigen located on the surface of a human B cell, wherein the binding of the antibody to the CD40 antigen prevents the growth or differentiation of the B cell. (justia.com)
  • Whereas particulate presentation of streptavidin enhanced total IgG1 and IgG2a levels, overall antigen specific antibody production increased in the case of targeted soluble antigen only, as assessed by reverse protein arrays and ELISPOT. (elsevier.com)
  • Combined targeting to these receptors did not further increase immunogenicity.Thus, in our model, affinity targeting of soluble antigen to CD40 proved to be superior to particle-mediated delivery both in terms of antibody quantity and quality. (elsevier.com)
  • CD40/TNFRSF5 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Antigen in Human samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Also disclosed are methods of simulating hybridoma cells to increase monoclonal antibody production by administering a CD40 ligand polypeptide that stimulates B cell proliferation. (google.com.au)
  • Transfer is much more efficient to antigen-bearing than to bystander B cells, a finding that may explain the phenomenon of affinity maturation of the antibody response, a process that is required for generation of the high affinity antibodies that protect us from infectious agents and their toxins. (ohsu.edu)
  • In the germinal center reaction, rare somatic mutant B cells with higher affinity for antigen are selected for survival and eventually exported as long-lived memory B cells and antibody secreting cells. (ohsu.edu)
  • These results suggest that GFP-CD40LT fusion protein induces a GFP-specific B-cell activation and antibody response in an antigen-guided fashion. (elsevier.com)
  • Li, W 2005, ' Synergistic antibody induction by antigen-CD40 ligand fusion protein as improved immunogen ', Immunology , vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 215-222. (elsevier.com)
  • Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: CD40/TNFRSF5 Antibody (mAb89) [DDX0131P-100] - CD40-transfected L cells stained. (novusbio.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry: CD40/TNFRSF5 Antibody (mAb89) [DDX0131P-100] - IHC staining on Bouin paraffinlymph node section. (novusbio.com)
  • The primary ATT response consisted of a latent phase of ∼10 days, during which the immune system was processing antigen but not yet producing antibody, a rise to an antibody maximum titer at ∼18 days and a decline toward baseline by ∼40 days in controls. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Description: The 1C10 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD40, a 45-50 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein. (thermofisher.com)
  • The HB14 monoclonal antibody reacts with human CD40, a 45-50 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein and member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • CD40 antibody detects CD40 protein at cytoplasm by immunofluorescent analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Green: CD40 protein stained by CD40 antibody (GTX101447) diluted at 1:500. (genetex.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human breast cancer, using CD40(GTX101447) antibody at 1:250 dilution. (genetex.com)
  • This antibody recognizes the human CD40. (genetex.com)
  • Previous work in our laboratory showed that the coinjection of an agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (MAb) with a TI-2 antigen (pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide) successfully mimicked T-cell help, leading to enhanced antibody production, isotype switching, and protection against infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Five mice per group were immunized intraperitoneally with 500 μg of anti-CD40 MAb, either 1C10 ( 6 ) or an antibody with similar properties, 10C8 ( 1a ), and 10 μg of LPS. (asm.org)
  • Enhanced IgG2a and IgG2b or IgG3 antibody production was also observed in mice immunized with either S. typhi or S. typhimurium LPS and anti-CD40 (Fig. 2 and 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Splenic B-cells play a necessary role in diabetes pathogenesis in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes ( 1 - 3 ) by secreting an antibody that is required for diabetes initiation ( 4 ) but also by presenting self-antigens including insulin to autoreactive T-cells ( 5 - 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • MZBs are located within the marginal sinus of the spleen ( 9 , 13 ) and exhibit an activated effector phenotype, as indicated by their ability to generate rapid antibody responses to antigens and blood-borne pathogens ( 14 - 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To ask whether B1 cells could respond to CD40‐mediated stimulation for proliferation and differentiation, and whether CD40‐mediated signals are involved in the production of autoantibodies by B1 cells, we compared responses to our newly established agonistic anti‐mouse CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) between B1 and B2 cells from autoimmune‐prone (NZB X NZW) F1 mice. (deepdyve.com)
  • Both groups developed strong antigen-specific immune responses (antibody and IFN-γ production). (asnjournals.org)
  • The monoclonal antibody portion of the F16-IL2 fusion protein binds to tumor cells expressing the tumor associated antigen (TAA) tenascin-C. In turn, the IL-2 moiety of the fusion protein stimulates natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and neutrophils and induces T-cell antitumor cellular immune responses thereby selectively killing tenascin-C-expressing tumor cells. (cancer.gov)
  • A fully human immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) agonistic monoclonal antibody targeting the B-cell surface antigen CD40, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. (cancer.gov)
  • Studies demonstrated that CD40 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) induce strong homotypic adhesions in resting B cells and, together with interleukin-4 (IL-4) maintain the cell cycle of blasts of the B lineage. (beckman.com)
  • Crosslinking of the CD40 molecules with anti-CD40 antibodies mediates a variety of effects on B cells. (justia.com)
  • We showed that APC (consisting in adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells) (PBMC), pre-stimulated with anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies and co-cultured with autologous non-adherent PBMC for 5-9 days, induced CD3-/CD56+ NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity as well as CD3+/CD56+ T cell-mediated unrestricted cytotoxic activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results provide an insight into the mechanism by which NK cells are activated in peripheral blood and useful informations for therapeutic application of anti-CD40 antibodies. (elsevier.com)
  • 49 CD40 Ligand (CD40LG) ELISA Kits from 16 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • In order for B cells to mature into the cells that produce antibodies of a different class, the CD40 receptor must interact with CD40 ligand. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If CD40 ligand does not attach to its receptor on B cells, these cells cannot produce IgG, IgA, or IgE antibodies. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Methods: T cells were activated with anti-CD3/28 antibodies and subsequently transduced with a bicistronic retrovirus encoding tandem Rim-binding domains (FKBP12v36),cloned in-frame with MyD88 and CD40 cytoplasmic signaling molecules, and first generation CAR targeting CD123 (SFG-iMC-CD123.ζ). (mcmaster.ca)
  • In the work presented here we show how the exogenous stimulation of CD40 by monoclonal antibodies can mimic T-cell help, resulting in enhanced immune responses which are protective against bacterial infection. (asm.org)
  • Splenic B1, but not B2 cells from young (NZB X NZW) F1 mice spontaneously produced substantial amounts of IgM including IgM anti‐DNA antibodies, and the levels increased in case of stimulation with anti‐CD40 mAb alone, or to a greater extent with the mAb plus IL‐4 and IL‐5. (deepdyve.com)
  • Here, we review these three types of thyroid antibodies and their antigens and how they relate to pregnancy itself, obstetric and neonatal outcomes, and the postpartum. (hindawi.com)
  • A member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 Ligand . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Exogenous antigens gain access to the major histocompatibility complex class I processing pathway in B cells by receptor-mediated uptake. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The CD40 antigen is a 44-48 kDa type I integral membrane protein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. (beckman.com)
  • A specific T cell then binds to the B cell via T-cell receptor (TCR) recognition of processed antigen presented on the MHC-class II molecule. (justia.com)
  • The CD40 antigen is known to be related to the human nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-.alpha. (justia.com)
  • receptor, suggesting that CD40 is a receptor for a ligand with important functions in B-cell activation. (justia.com)
  • The encoded protein is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells of the immune system and is essential for mediating a broad variety of immune and inflammatory responses including T cell-dependent immunoglobulin class switching, memory B cell development, and germinal center formation. (genecards.org)
  • CD40 is a membrane-bound protein of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family and is expressed on many cell types including B cells. (pnas.org)
  • More particularly, this invention provides isolated human and murine CD40-L polypeptides that bind to the extracellular binding region of a CD40 receptor. (google.com.au)
  • CD40 ligand attaches like a key in a lock to its receptor protein, CD40, which is located on the surface of immune system cells known as B cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Composition and structure of synaptic ectosomes exporting antigen receptor linked to functional CD40 ligand from helper T cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD40, also known as TNFRSF5, is an approximately 32-35 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein member of the TNF receptor superfamily. (rndsystems.com)
  • Introduction: Promising clinical results with CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-directed T cells for the treatment of B cell leukemia and lymphoma suggest that CARs may be effective in other hematological malignancies, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML). (mcmaster.ca)
  • To investigate the mechanisms underlying the development of extranodal MALT-type lymphomas, the immunoglobulin receptor was sequenced and analyzed for antigen specificity using heterohybridoma technology. (hindawi.com)
  • Hypermutations were found in low-grade lymphomas throughout CDR1- CDR3 suggestive of positive selection through their antigen receptor. (hindawi.com)
  • CD40 is a cell surface receptor that belongs to the tumour necrosis factor receptor family. (bmj.com)
  • Clone FGK45.5 recognizes the mouse CD40 antigen, a 40-50 kDa glycoprotein and member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • TI-1 antigens have inherent mitogenic activity and include bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), whereas TI-2 antigens such as bacterial capsular polysaccharides activate via multiple epitopes which cross-link the B-cell receptor. (asm.org)
  • It is the interaction between this receptor-ligand pair which mediates specific T-cell help in response to T-dependent antigens, providing signals crucial for B-cell activation, proliferation, differentiation, and isotype switching (reviewed in references 5 and 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Activation of CD30, CD40, and receptor activator of nuclear kappaβ (RANK) receptors in HD cells by their respective ligands increased ERK phosphorylation above the basal level and promoted HD cell survival. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We are additionally studying the mechanisms by which CD72-deficiency leads to a partial abrogation of B cell anergic tolerance in mice in which all B cells express a transgenic B cell receptor specific for hen-egg lysozyme (HEL) and in which the antigen HEL is expressed in the serum. (stanford.edu)
  • Functionally, NOD MZBs are hyperresponsive to toll-like receptor 9 ligation and CD40 ligation, as well as sphingosine-1-phosphate-dependent chemotactic cues, suggesting an increased sensitivity to selective innate- and activation-induced stimuli. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The immunosuppressive effect was well correlated with the CD40 receptor saturation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The first type is the T cell receptor/MHC-mediated signal and the second type results from the binding of costimulatory/accessory receptor ligand pairs, which bidirectionally deliver signals to the T cells and antigen-presenting cells to confer functional activity ( 2 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • cDNA cloning of the CD40 ligand revealed a molecule with characteristics of a type-II transmembrane glycoprotein with homology to TNF-.alpha. (justia.com)
  • CD40 (CD40 Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Human genetic and animal studies have implicated the costimulatory molecule CD40 in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated the cell specific gene and protein expression variation controlled by the CD40 genetic variant(s) associated with MS, i.e. the T-allele at rs1883832. (edu.au)
  • CD40 molecule is a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1, 2 CD40 engagement also enhances expression of adhesion molecules (intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin) on the surface of endothelial cells which in turn facilitates the recruitment and activation of leucocytes at the site of inflammation. (bmj.com)
  • Ligation of CD40 expressed by macrophages leads to upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, MHC class II, and B7-2 ( 6 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • In collaboration with Prof. David Baltimore (then at Rockefeller University and later MIT), we identified and functionally characterized the CD40 signaling molecule, TRAF-3. (columbia.edu)
  • Yellin MJ, Sippel K, Inghirami G, Covey LR, Lee JJ, Sinning J, Clark EA, Chess L, Lederman S. CD40 molecules induce down-modulation and endocytosis of T cell surface T cell-B cell activating molecule/CD40-L. Potential role in regulating helper effector function. (columbia.edu)
  • Regulatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. (jimmunol.org)
  • We have studied the effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the growth and differentiation of human tonsillar B lymphocytes cultured in the CD40 system with or without IL-4 or IL-10. (jimmunol.org)
  • Altogether, the present data indicate that PGE2 stimulates human CD40-activated B cell growth, but differently modulates cytokine-induced differentiation. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD40 has been reported to be involved in B cell differentiation, costimulation, isotype class-switching, and protection of B cells from apoptosis. (biolegend.com)
  • CD40 ligand is also necessary for T cells to interact with other cells of the immune system, and it plays a key role in T cell differentiation (the process by which cells mature to carry out specific functions). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Our data suggest that CD30 critically regulates the CD40-mediated differentiation of non-antigen-selected human B cells. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Cluster of differentiation 40, CD40 is a costimulatory protein found on antigen-presenting cells and is required for their activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD40 is involved in B cell differentiation and proliferation, isotype class-switching, and protection of B cells from apoptosis. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • These may be either differentiation antigens such as tyrosinase, or gene products found in the testis and fetus such as melanoma-associated antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T - cells . (dictionary.net)
  • Recombinant Rat CD40/TNFRSF5 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 8229-CD) inhibits CD40 Ligand-induced proliferation of mouse B cells. (rndsystems.com)
  • Involvement GP39 and CD40 interactions in the generation of immune responses to allogeneic antigens. (dartmouth.edu)
  • PGE2 displayed similar effects on cytokine-induced proliferation and Ig secretion of B cells activated by anti-CD40 Abs used in a soluble form. (jimmunol.org)
  • The B cell is then stimulated by the CD40 ligand through the CD40 antigen on the B-cell surface, and also by soluble cytokines, causing the B cell to mature into a plasma cell secreting high levels of soluble immunoglobulin. (justia.com)
  • We compared the efficiency of targeting a model antigen, streptavidin, to CD40 and low affinity Fc gamma receptors II and III, either in a soluble or in a particulate form. (elsevier.com)
  • In particular, soluble CD40 targeted antigen induced the strongest IgG2a responses, suggesting a Th1 bias compared to FcgammaRII/III targeting. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast, the simultaneous incubation of monocytes with IL-10 and TNF-α or soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) resulted in the generation of CD83-positive DCs, induction of nuclear localized RelB, and inhibition of IL-10R up-regulation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Multiple rat CD40 splice variants have been reported including soluble isoforms. (rndsystems.com)
  • Soluble CD40 ligand, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor-1-antigen in normotensive type 2 diabetic subjects without diabetic complications. (bvsalud.org)
  • recombinant human soluble CD40 Ligand/ TRAP Analog conjugates with BSA. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • CD40 ligand is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ T lymphocytes but is also found in a soluble form. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CD40 signal enhances effector functions in concert with the production of soluble factors and other costimulatory signals. (asnjournals.org)
  • Rock KL, Rothstein L, Gamble S, Fleischacker C. Characterization of antigen-presenting cells that present exogenous antigens in association with class I MHC molecules. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, we have devised an approach of bolstering DCs efficacy against Mtb by delivering signals through CD40 and TLR-4 molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • A foreign antigen will bind to surface immunoglobulins on specific B cells, triggering a chain of events including endocytosis, processing, presentation of processed peptides on MHC-class II molecules, and up-regulation of the B7 antigen on the B-cell surface. (justia.com)
  • CT + IT treatment up-regulated molecules associated with the M1 effector Mφ phenotype [CD40, CD80, CD86, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-12] and down-regulated molecules associated with the M2 inhibitory Mφ phenotype (IL-4Rα, B7-H1, IL-4 and IL-10) on the tumour-associated Mφ compared with untreated controls. (nih.gov)
  • CD40 ligation induces functional changes in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells, including the up-regulation of MHC, costimulatory, and adhesion molecules and the secretion of cytokines, which all participate in T cell-mediated immune responses (reviewed in Refs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interaction of CD40 with its ligand, CD40 Ligand, leads to the aggregation of CD40 molecules resulting in the initiation of intracellular signaling in both CD40 and CD40 Ligand expressing cells (3). (rndsystems.com)
  • This alters gene expression, induces cytokine production, and influences the maturation status of the DC by upregulating co-stimulatory molecules, such as CD80, CD86, and CD40, among other effects ( 1 , 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In this second article in the present series, current understanding regarding the involvement of T-cells and antigen-presenting cells is summarised, with emphasis on the interaction between these two types of immune regulatory cells by means of co-stimulatory molecules. (ersjournals.com)
  • CD40 is a member of the TNFR family that binds to several different TRAF proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • The CD40 fragment binds as a hairpin loop across the surface of the TRAF domain. (rcsb.org)
  • It binds to CD40 on antigen presenting cells, platelets, and endothelial and epithelial cells, leading to enhanced B cell activation and T cell dependent humoral immune responses. (rndsystems.com)
  • It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ig (binds antigen) -- IgM and IgD are 1st. (brainscape.com)
  • Upon administration, CDX-1140 targets and binds to CD40 on a variety of immune cell types. (cancer.gov)
  • A major obstacle to the success of this objective derives from our inability to simply and rapidly isolate and/or expand large numbers of highly efficient antigen presenting cells (APCs) for repetitive stimulations of antigen-specific T cells in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • We, therefore, contend that CD40-activated B cells are an alternative source of highly efficient APCs with which to generate antigen-specific T cells ex vivo for autologous adoptive immunotherapy. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, Ag-specific responses are intact in MBP-TCR CD40 ligand −/− T cells in vitro, and the inability to induce EAE in these mice is corrected by reconstituting them with B7.1-transgenic APCs. (rupress.org)
  • In addition to classic antigen presenting cells (APCs), CD40 expression is also found in endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells. (bmj.com)
  • In addition, MZBs are able to act as efficient antigen-presenting cells (APCs), providing cognate help to naïve CD4 + T-cells ( 18 ) and, in this way, may connect innate with adaptive immune responses ( 9 , 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This induces CD40-dependent signaling pathways, triggers the proliferation and activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and activates T cells. (cancer.gov)
  • Upon stimulation with bacterial products, cytokines, or CD40 ligation, DCs undergo characteristic modulations of the phenotype, antigen-presenting function, and the ability to migrate to the secondary lymphoid organs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The in vitro proliferation response of all low-grade MALT-type lymphomas was dependent on anti-CD40- mediated signals and cytokines. (hindawi.com)
  • The CD40 Ligand stimulates B cell proliferation and secretion of all immunoglobulin isotypes in the presence of cytokines. (thermofisher.com)
  • A, CD4+ T cells (Th1, Th17) recognize antigens of phagocytosed and extracellular microbes and produce cytokines that recruit and activate the phagocytes to kill the microbes. (brainscape.com)
  • In the tissues, effector T cells recognize the antigen and respond by secreting cytokines that recruit more leukocytes and activate phagocytes to eradicate the infection. (brainscape.com)
  • Whereas CD40-CD40 ligand interactions are important for various dendritic cell (DC) functions in vitro, their in vivo relevance is unknown. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, CD40-CD40 ligand interactions in vivo regulate the migration of antigen-bearing DCs from the skin to DLNs via TNF-α production and play a vital role in the initiation of acquired T cell-mediated immunity. (rupress.org)
  • One of the most dramatic influences on DCs is provided by CD40 stimulation in vitro ( 3 )( 4 ), raising the possibility that in vivo, some DC functions might be dependent on CD40-CD40 ligand interactions. (rupress.org)
  • The clinical relevance of CD40-CD40 ligand interactions is highlighted in the life-threatening manifestations of Hyper IgM syndrome (HIM), where accumulation of IgM and the inability of B cells to isotype switch has been attributed to mutated CD40 ligand on helper T cells ( 5 )( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • Indeed, cellular immunity has been shown to be impaired when CD40-CD40 ligand interactions are disrupted ( 5 ), though the precise mechanisms remain unclear. (rupress.org)
  • Additionally, CD40 is important for T cell-B cell interactions. (biolegend.com)
  • In addition to molecular targeting based on affinity interactions, particle-based antigen targeting to myeloid cells is also an efficient means to enhance immune responses. (elsevier.com)
  • CD40 is involved in the process of B cell selection in germinal centers and is vital in T cell-B cell interactions. (fishersci.com)
  • In vitro activation of CD40 present on B cells mimics B cell-T interactions and allows the proliferation of normal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative B lymphocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Comparison of the interactions of CD40 with TRAF3 vs. TRAF2 suggests that CD40 may assume different conformations when bound to different TRAF family members. (rcsb.org)
  • Dysregulation of CD40/CD40 Ligand expression and interactions contributes to the immune deficiency associated with HIV infection and AIDS (8, 9). (rndsystems.com)
  • AT-hook transcription factor AKNA is reported to coordinately regulate the expression of CD40, which may be important for homotypic cell interactions. (thermofisher.com)
  • Likewise, development of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in myelin basic protein (MBP)-TCR-transgenic mice is also blocked when these animals lack CD40 ligand ( 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • Differential modulation of CXCR4 and CD40 protein levels by skin sensitizers and irritants in the FSDC cell line. (semanticscholar.org)
  • AngII (50-200 nmol/l) induced an early and sustained increase in CD40 mRNA and protein expression in CASMCs, which was blocked by treatment with antioxidants. (mendeley.com)
  • The CD40LG gene provides instructions for making a protein called CD40 ligand, which is found on the surface of immune system cells known as T cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These mutations lead to the production of an abnormal CD40 ligand or prevent production of this protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This hypothesis was investigated by fusing green fluorescence protein (GFP), a generic antigen, with mouse CD40LT. (elsevier.com)
  • Previously we had shown that the risk allele is expressed at a lower level in whole blood, especially in people with MS. Here, we have defined the immune cell subsets responsible for genotype and disease effects on CD40 expression at the mRNA and protein level. (edu.au)
  • We additionally show that MS patients, regardless of genotype, express significantly lower levels of CD40 cell-surface protein compared to unaffected controls in B lymphocytes. (edu.au)
  • A synergistic effect of TLRs and CD40 was revealed in co-culture experiments where OT-II T cell proliferation was compromised when DKO DCs were pulsed with OVA protein and OVA 323-339 peptide, but not with heat-killed Salmonella expressing OVA (HKS OVA ), relative to MyD88 −/− DCs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adaptor protein TNFR2 interacts with CD40 and serves as a mediator of the signal transduction. (thermofisher.com)
  • CD40 (protein) has been shown to interact with TRAF2, TRAF3, TRAF6, TRAF5 and TTRAP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human CD40. (genetex.com)
  • CD40 Ig(Fc) fusion protein containing the EC region of human CD40 and Fc region of human IgG. (genetex.com)
  • However, WT→CD40−/− chimeras demonstrated reduced renal monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and IFN-inducible protein 10 mRNA levels and minimal T cell and macrophage influx and were protected from renal injury. (asnjournals.org)
  • CD40 is a 48 kD type I glycoprotein also known as BP50. (biolegend.com)
  • Although the amount of antigen and the strength of T cell stimulation have been suggested to regulate Th1 vs. Th2 polarization, it remains unclear how the antigen dose and the strength of signal is detected by the T cell and translated into differential cytokine production. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, CD40 and TLR-4 stimulation along with the suboptimal dose of anti-TB drugs significantly fortified their efficacy to kill Mtb . (frontiersin.org)
  • For CD40 stimulation in LCL analysis, an agonistic mAb to CD40 (mAb89, Immunotech, Luminy, France) was used ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • CD40 expression could be enhanced in CD40-positive MM by stimulation with IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α but not by interleukin (IL)-1β or CD40 triggering. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, consequences of CD40 stimulation are not limited to the induction of T cell- or B cell-mediated immune responses because cross-linking of CD40 has also profound effects on cell proliferation and viability. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, in coculture assays both CAR antigen recognition and Rim-dependent iMC costimulation were required for IL-2 production (285±41 versus 2,541±255 pg/ml for control and 1 nM Rim, respectively), robust CAR-T cell proliferation (87-fold increase with Rim stimulation) and enhanced tumor cell killing. (mcmaster.ca)
  • After sequencing of the rat CD40 gene, five antisense ODNs were designed, of which one (rAS3) effectively downregulated CD40 expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells as well as the subsequent changes in gene expression in response to CD40 stimulation. (bmj.com)
  • The aim of the work presented here was to determine whether the exogenous stimulation of CD40 by MAbs could also mimic T-cell help in a TI-1 (LPS) antigen murine model and, if so, whether this could protect against bacterial infection. (asm.org)
  • CD40 stimulation with the 1C10 MAb enhances IgG2a and IgG3 responses to E. coli LPS. (asm.org)
  • Collectively, these results indicate that splenic B1 cells from autoimmune (NZB X NZW) F1 mice have a comparable responsiveness to the CD40‐mediated stimulation to that of B2 cells, which would be a potent regulatory mechanism involved in the spontaneous production of autoantibodies by B1 cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • The CD40 antigen is a single chain glycoprotein that is known to be a member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor superfamily and shows a significant homology to the Hodgkin's disease associated antigen, CD30. (thermofisher.com)
  • The CD40 antigen is a glycoprotein expressed on the cell surface of B cells. (justia.com)
  • Recognizes human CD40 cell surface antigen, a 48kD glycoprotein expressed by B lymphocytes and weakly by some monocytes. (fishersci.com)
  • Boon T, Cerottini JC, Van den Eynde B, van der Bruggen P, Van Pel A. Tumor antigens recognized by T lymphocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Productive infection of normal CD40-activated human B lymphocytes by HIV-1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effect of HIV-1 viral exposure on CD40-activated B lymphocytes was therefore examined. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS: Freshly isolated B lymphocytes were cultured in vitro through activation of CD40. (biomedsearch.com)
  • RESULTS: EBV-negative, CD40-activated human B lymphocytes were directly infected by HIV-1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These data provide functional and in situ evidence that the increased CD40 and iNOS expression observed during ADI contribute to the eradication of liver metastases and to the clearance of donor lymphocytes from the liver. (aacrjournals.org)
  • B, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) recognize antigens of microbes residing in the cytoplasm of infected cells and kill the cells. (brainscape.com)
  • Lederman S, Yellin MJ, Cleary AM, Pernis A, Inghirami G, Cohn LE, Covey LR, Lee JJ, Rothman P, Chess L. T-BAM/CD40-L on helper T lymphocytes augments lymphokine-induced B cell Ig isotype switch recombination and rescues B cells from programmed cell death. (columbia.edu)
  • PGE2 (10(-9) to 10(-6) M) enhanced proliferation of B cells activated through their CD40 Ag, but not their Ig secretion. (jimmunol.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: Antigen-driven B-cell proliferation and maturation occur in germinal centres present in lymphoid tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Activity: The ED 50 of ab83917 is typically 1.0-1.5 ug/ml as measured by its ability to neutralize CD40 ligand mediated proliferation of T47-D cells. (abcam.com)
  • Ligation of CD40 results in enhanced proliferation of fibroblasts and B cells (reviewed in Refs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Measured by its ability to inhibit CD40 Ligand-induced proliferation of mouse B cells. (rndsystems.com)
  • Here, we describe a CAR platform, "GoCAR-T", which uses a proliferation-deficient, first generation, CD123-specific CAR together with a ligand (rimiducid (Rim))-dependent costimulatory switch (inducible MyD88/CD40 (iMC)) to provide physician-controlled eradication of CD123+ tumor cells and regulate long-term CAR-T cell engraftment. (mcmaster.ca)
  • However, synergistic effects of MyD88 and CD40 may be apparent on some (IL-10 production) but not all (OT-II proliferation and IFN-γ production) DC functions and depend on the complexity of the antigen. (frontiersin.org)
  • CD40 regulates B cell development/maturation by inducing Ig isotype switching and in combination with other signals such as IL-4, protects B cells from surface Ig-induced apoptosis and promotes proliferation. (thermofisher.com)
  • ANTIGENS, CD40) on B - cells , inducing B - cell proliferation . (dictionary.net)
  • 2 When exiting the blood stream, monocytes can give rise to inflammatory macrophages or to antigen presenting DCs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-Cells is important for Gene ration of Memory B-Cells within the Germinal Centers . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Mutations of the Gene for CD40 Antigen result in Hyper-IgM Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Type 3 . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • To investigate the association of SNP of CD40 gene and its serum levels with ischemic stroke (IS). (cdc.gov)
  • The single nucleotide polymorphisms of CD40 gene rs1883832 C/T, rs13040307 C/T, rs752118 C/T and rs3765459 G/A were analyzed using a Snapshot SNP genotyping assays, and the serum levels of CD40 were tested by ELISA. (cdc.gov)
  • The second category of antigens are self antigens altered by genetic changes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 4 ), are unaltered self-antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The fact that most of the antigens have been defined using T-cell clones derived from tumor-bearing patients shows that tolerance to these self-antigens is not the result of clonal deletion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They are, therefore, responsible for the orchestration of the adaptive immune responses, promoting either immunity or tolerance to self-antigens [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • In this video, we demonstrate the procedure of CD40-activation and expansion of murine B cells from splenocytes of C57BL/6 mice, which can be used as a model antigen-presenting cell (APC) to study induction of immunity. (jove.com)
  • The role of CD40 in the development of GN was assessed in murine experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane GN. (asnjournals.org)
  • Here, we investigated the ability of CD40 ligation on APC to induce NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the human system and the mechanism(s) underlying this process. (elsevier.com)
  • By contrast, MyD88 −/− or DKO DCs pulsed with any of the antigens had a similar ability to induce IFN-γ that was lower than WT or CD40 −/− DCs. (frontiersin.org)
  • CD40 Ligand has been shown to induce cytokine production and tumoricidal activity in peripheral blood monocytes. (thermofisher.com)
  • T-dependent antigens, including most proteins, induce secondary immune responses characterized by immunoglobulin G (IgG) production due to specific T-cell help. (asm.org)
  • TI antigens, however, lack this specific T-cell help and thus induce weak, predominantly IgM-mediated responses, with an inefficient induction of isotype switching, affinity maturation, and little or no booster effect after the second exposure to the antigen. (asm.org)
  • Human CASMCs (coronary artery smooth muscle cells) in culture exposed to IL (interleukin)-1beta or TNF-alpha (tumour necrosis factor-alpha) had increased superoxide generation and enhanced CD40 expression, detected by EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) and immunoblotting respectively. (mendeley.com)
  • CD40 has been found to be essential in mediating a broad variety of immune and inflammatory responses including T cell-dependent immunoglobulin class switching, memory B cell development, and germinal center formation. (thermofisher.com)
  • The lack of specific T-cell help in immune responses to thymus-independent antigens results in weak, predominantly immunoglobulin M-mediated immunity with little or no memory. (asm.org)
  • The recommended ELISA Kit will likely detect the antigen in question with higher specificity in approved samples than the available alternatives. (antibodies-online.com)
  • We analyzed the DC status of CD40 ligand −/− mice using a contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model system that enables multiple functions of DCs to be assessed in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry of skin sections revealed no differences in terms of numbers and morphology of dendritic epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) in unsensitized CD40 ligand −/− mice as compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice. (rupress.org)
  • However, after contact sensitization of CD40 ligand −/− mice, LCs failed to migrate out of the skin and substantially fewer DCs accumulated in draining lymph nodes (DLNs). (rupress.org)
  • We studied the effectiveness of monoclonal anti-CD40 + cytosine-phosphate-guanosine-containing oligodeoxynucleotide 1826 (CpG-ODN) immunotherapy (IT) in mice treated with multidrug chemotherapy (CT) consisting of vincristine, cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that mice lacking the TLR adaptor MyD88 alone, or lacking both MyD88 and CD40 [double knockout (DKO) mice], are compromised in survival to Salmonella infection but have intact recruitment of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes as well as unaltered abundance of DC subsets and DC activation in infected tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast to infected wildtype and CD40 −/− mice, both MyD88 −/− mice and DKO mice lack detectable serum IFN-γ and have elevated IL-10. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, we generated a fully human anti-CD40 antagonistic mAb (ASKP1240) from trans-chromosome mice 26 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CD40−/− mice do not develop immunity in response to sheep globulin and thus fail to develop effector responses or significant GN. (asnjournals.org)
  • The role of CD40 expression by renal cells was assessed by comparing GN in WT→CD40−/− chimeras (absent renal but intact bone marrow CD40) and sham chimeric mice (WT→WT). (asnjournals.org)
  • We found that DCs triggered through CD40 and TLR-4 showed increased secretion of IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-α. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interaction between the CD28 antigen on T cells and the B7 antigen on B cells can provide a second signal further activating the T cell, resulting in high level cytokine secretion. (justia.com)
  • Blocking CD40-CD40 ligand interplay dramatically prolongs cardiac and skin allograft survival and inhibits T cell-proliferative responses both in vitro and in vivo ( 7 ). (rupress.org)
  • Recently, it has been described that MM cells express CD40 both in vivo and in vitro (17 , 18) , but little is known about its function. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The antigen dose determines T helper subset development by regulation of CD40 ligand. (nih.gov)
  • B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called T FH cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • The B cell can present antigens to helper T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interaction of CD40 and its ligand is found to be necessary for amyloid-beta-induced microglial activation, and thus is thought to be an early event in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. (thermofisher.com)
  • This activation was found to be antigen-independent and not MHC restricted. (justia.com)
  • We therefore analyzed the effects of different activation stimuli including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and CD40 ligation on IL-10 mediated inhibition of DC development and stimulatory capacity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our results show that TNF-α or CD40 ligation can antagonize the IL-10-mediated inhibition on DC function, suggesting that depending on activation stimuli, the presence of IL-10 does not necessarily result in T-cell anergy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD40 ligation by CD40 Ligand promotes B cell activation and T cell-dependent humoral responses (4, 5). (rndsystems.com)
  • Thus, both genotype-dependent and independent down-regulation of cell-surface CD40 is a feature of MS. Lower expression of a co-stimulator of T cell activation, CD40, is therefore associated with increased MS risk despite the same CD40 variant being associated with reduced risk of other inflammatory autoimmune diseases. (edu.au)
  • Switching is hampered by CD30 coengagement, possibly through interference with the CD40-mediated NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activation of downstream C(H) genes. (uthscsa.edu)
  • The crosstalk between antigen-presenting DCs and antigen-specific T cells results not only in activation of the T cell but also in reciprocal DC activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • As a result, the macrophage expresses more CD40 and TNF receptors on its surface, which helps increase the level of activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with its widespread expression on normal cells, CD40 is also expressed on a wide range of tumor cells, including non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphomas, myeloma and some carcinomas including nasopharynx, bladder, cervix, kidney and ovary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, the overexpression of MUC1 by tumor cells and evidence for the generation of MUC1-specific T cells ( 3 ) in response to vaccination with MUC1 suggests that this may be a good target antigen for vaccine immunotherapy of MUC1-expressing cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • abstract = "Targeted delivery of antigen improves immunogenicity and can obviate the use of adjuvants. (elsevier.com)
  • These antigens can be used for the immunization of patients, and epitopes from them can be used in one of the recently developed and very sensitive assays for the detection of antigen-specific T-cell activity, such as ELISpot, intracellular cytokine induction, and tetramer analysis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD40 ligand on activated platelets triggers an inflammatory reaction of endothelial cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Additionally, the CD40 ligand, which is not expressed on resting human T cells, is up-regulated on the T-cell surface when the above-mentioned signals are received. (justia.com)
  • In contrast, the therapeutic potential of autologous antigen-specific T cells has yet to be established since it has been technically difficult to generate sufficient numbers of these T cells, ex vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, CD40 ligation of a HLA-A2 + , MelanA/MART1 + MM cell line enhanced its susceptibility to specific lysis by a HLA-A2-restricted, MelanA/MART-1-specific CTL clone. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The remaining member of TRAF4 family, namely TRAF4, positively regulates CD40 signalling, but interacts with CD40 indirectly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental observations suggest that antigen and CD40 Ligand act during cognate T/B cell interaction and are crucial for germinal center B-cell maturation generating marginal-zone B cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Production of IL-12 was also increased in such cultures, an effect that was Ag- and T cell-dependent and required costimulation by CD40, but not by B7. (jimmunol.org)
  • The extracellular domain of rat CD40 shares 81% and 56% aa sequence identity with mouse and human CD40, respectively. (rndsystems.com)
  • Karpusas M, Hsu YM, Wang JH, Thompson J, Lederman S, Chess L, Thomas D. 2 A crystal structure of an extracellular fragment of human CD40 ligand. (columbia.edu)
  • In conclusion, the expression of CD40 by nonimmune renal cells plays a major role in Th1 effector responses by inducing Th1 chemokine production. (asnjournals.org)
  • This raises the possibility that the immunological abnormalities seen as a result of mutated CD40 or CD40 ligand are in fact due to defective upstream events in the initiation of acquired immunity, i.e., during the presentation of Ag and priming of naive T cells. (rupress.org)
  • Importantly, animals treated with the agonists of CD40 and TLR-4 boosted Th1 and Th17 immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • By virtue of their efficient antigen presentation and elicitation of T cell response, several vaccination approaches have been developed to explore potency of DCs in enhancing the host immunity, particularly in the case of tumors ( 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Evidence suggests that human and experimental crescentic GN results from Th1-predominant immunity to glomerular antigens. (asnjournals.org)
  • Engagement of CD40 on antigen presenting cells (APC) is central to the initiation of cell-mediated immune response. (elsevier.com)