Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation. (1/2281)

It is not known whether subsets of dendritic cells provide different cytokine microenvironments that determine the differentiation of either type-1 T helper (TH1) or TH2 cells. Human monocyte (pDC1)-derived dendritic cells (DC1) were found to induce TH1 differentiation, whereas dendritic cells (DC2) derived from CD4+CD3-CD11c- plasmacytoid cells (pDC2) induced TH2 differentiation by use of a mechanism unaffected by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-12. The TH2 cytokine IL-4 enhanced DC1 maturation and killed pDC2, an effect potentiated by IL-10 but blocked by CD40 ligand and interferon-gamma. Thus, a negative feedback loop from the mature T helper cells may selectively inhibit prolonged TH1 or TH2 responses by regulating survival of the appropriate dendritic cell subset.  (+info)

CD40 signaling of monocyte inflammatory cytokine synthesis through an ERK1/2-dependent pathway. A target of interleukin (il)-4 and il-10 anti-inflammatory action. (2/2281)

Ligation of CD40 on monocytes through its interaction with CD40 ligand (CD154) present on activated T helper cells, results in activation of monocyte inflammatory cytokine synthesis and rescue of monocytes from apoptosis induced through serum deprivation. Both of these consequences of CD40 stimulation have been shown to be dependent on the induction of protein tyrosine kinase activity. CD40-mediated activation of protein tyrosine kinase activity and subsequent inflammatory cytokine production are abrogated by treatment of monocytes with the T helper type 2 cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). In the current study we demonstrate that stimulation of monocytes through CD40 resulted in the phosphorylation and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinases, whereas phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases family members p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase was not observed in response to this stimuli over the time course examined. PD98059, an inhibitor of the upstream activator of ERK1/2, the MAP/ERK kinase MEK1/2, suppressed IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in a dose-dependent fashion. Pretreatment of monocytes with IL-4 and IL-10 inhibited CD40-mediated activation of ERK1/2 kinase activity when used individually, and are enhanced in effectiveness when used in combination. Together, the data demonstrate that CD40-mediated induction of IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha synthesis is dependent on a MEK/ERK pathway which is obstructed by signals generated through the action of IL-4 and IL-10.  (+info)

Control of apoptosis in Epstein Barr virus-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells: opposite effects of CD95 and CD40 stimulation. (3/2281)

The expression and function of CD95 and CD40 were investigated in malignant cells from EBV-positive undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs). Large amounts of CD95 and CD40 expression were detected in 15 of 16 EBV-positive NPC specimens. In contrast, CD95 was not detected in two biopsies from patients with EBV-negative differentiated NPCs. We tested whether the CD95 apoptotic pathway was functional in NPC cells by treating two EBV-positive NPC tumor lines in vitro with a CD95 agonist. In both cases, NPC cells were extremely susceptible to CD95-mediated apoptosis, despite strong constitutive expression of Bcl-x. Combined CD40 and CD95 stimulation was used to investigate the possible anti-apoptotic activity mediated by CD40. The CD40 receptor was activated by incubating NPC cells with murine L cells producing CD154, the CD40 ligand. This treatment resulted in a strong inhibition of CD95-related cytotoxicity. Such an anti-apoptotic effect of CD40 is well known for B lymphocytes, but has not previously been reported for epithelial cells. These data suggest that NPC tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, which often produce the CD40 ligand in situ, may increase the survival of malignant cells, thereby enhancing tumor growth in patients.  (+info)

Expression of stromelysin-3 in atherosclerotic lesions: regulation via CD40-CD40 ligand signaling in vitro and in vivo. (4/2281)

Stromelysin-3 is an unusual matrix metalloproteinase, being released in the active rather than zymogen form and having a distinct substrate specificity, targeting serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins), which regulate cellular functions involved in atherosclerosis. We report here that human atherosclerotic plaques (n = 7) express stromelysin-3 in situ, whereas fatty streaks (n = 5) and normal arterial specimens (n = 5) contain little or no stromelysin-3. Stromelysin-3 mRNA and protein colocalized with endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages within the lesion. In vitro, usual inducers of matrix metalloproteinases such as interleukin-1, interferon-gamma, or tumor necrosis factor alpha did not augment stromelysin-3 in vascular wall cells. However, T cell-derived as well as recombinant CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154), an inflammatory mediator recently localized in atheroma, induced de novo synthesis of stromelysin-3. In addition, stromelysin-3 mRNA and protein colocalized with CD40L and CD40 within atheroma. In accordance with the in situ and in vitro data obtained with human material, interruption of the CD40-CD40L signaling pathway in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient hyperlipidemic mice substantially decreased expression of the enzyme within atherosclerotic plaques. These observations establish the expression of the unusual matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-3 in human atherosclerotic lesions and implicate CD40-CD40L signaling in its regulation, thus providing a possible new pathway that triggers complications within atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

Minimal cross-linking and epitope requirements for CD40-dependent suppression of apoptosis contrast with those for promotion of the cell cycle and homotypic adhesions in human B cells. (5/2281)

Eight different CD40 mAb shared with soluble trimeric CD40 ligand (sCD40LT) the capacity to rescue germinal center (GC) B cells from spontaneous apoptosis and to suppress antigen receptor-driven apoptosis in group I Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Three mAb (G28-5, M2 and M3) mimicked sCD40LT in its ability to promote strong homotypic adhesion in resting B cells, whereas others (EA5, BL-OGY/C4 and 5C3) failed to stimulate strong clustering. Binding studies revealed that only those mAb that promoted strong B cell clustering bound at, or near to, the CD40L binding site. While all eight mAb and sCD40LT were capable of synergizing with IL-4 or phorbol ester for promoting DNA synthesis in resting B cells, co-stimulus-independent activation of the cells into cycle through CD40 related directly to the extent of receptor cross-linking. Thus, mAb which bound outside the CD40L binding site synergized with sCD40LT for promoting DNA synthesis; maximal levels of stimulation were achieved by presenting any of the mAb on CD32 transfectants in the absence of sCD40LT or by cross-linking bound sCD40LT with a second antibody. Monomeric sCD40L, which was able to promote rescue of GC B cells from apoptosis, was unable to drive resting B cells into cycle. These studies demonstrate that CD40-dependent rescue of human B cells from apoptosis requires minimal cross-linking and is essentially epitope independent, whereas the requirements for promoting cell cycle progression and homotypic adhesion are more stringent. Possible mechanisms underlying these differences and their physiological significance are discussed.  (+info)

Interaction of B cells with activated T cells reduces the threshold for CD40-mediated B cell activation. (6/2281)

CD154-CD40 interactions are of central importance for the induction of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens. Since most anti-CD40 mAb are only weak B cell mitogens, it is believed that under physiological conditions, signals through CD40 synergize with those from other receptors on B cells to induce B cell activation. We show here that the interaction of either normal B cells, or those from CBA/N (xid) mice, with CD3-activated primary T cells in whole spleen cell cultures markedly reduces the threshold for B cell activation via CD40. Hence, these pre-activated cells undergo vigorous proliferation when stimulated with either optimal or suboptimal concentrations of weakly mitogenic anti-CD40 mAb, or with soluble CD40 ligand. Blocking experiments indicate that the establishment of this priming effect requires stimulation via CD40 itself, plus T cell-derived IL-2. In support of this concept, only CD3/CD28-pre-activated, but not CD3-pre-activated T cells induce this effect, unless the co-cultures of B cells with the latter T cells are supplemented with IL-2. Although B cells activated in this fashion do express higher levels of CD40 than naive cells, we believe that this is insufficient to explain the observed dramatic effects on their proliferative capacity. Rather we propose that T cell-dependent B cell activation induces fundamental changes in the signalling machinery invoked by ligation of CD40. It is likely that this amplification loop could play an important role during the initiation of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens, when activated CD4 T cells only express low levels of CD154.  (+info)

Fas-induced B cell apoptosis requires an increase in free cytosolic magnesium as an early event. (7/2281)

Ligation of the Fas molecule expressed on the surface of a cell initiates multiple signaling pathways that result in the apoptotic death of that cell. We have examined Mg2+ mobilization as well as Ca2+ mobilization in B cells undergoing Fas-initiated apoptosis. Our results indicate that cytosolic levels of free (non-complexed) Mg2+ ([Mg2+]i) and Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) increase in cells undergoing apoptosis. Furthermore, the percentages of cells mobilizing Mg2+, fragmenting DNA, or externalizing phosphatidylserine (PS) increase in parallel as the concentration of anti-Fas monoclonal antibody is raised. Kinetic analysis suggests that Mg2+ mobilization is an early event in apoptosis, clearly preceding DNA fragmentation and probably occurring prior to externalization of PS as well. The source of Mg2+ that produces the increases in [Mg2+]i is intracellular and most likely is the mitochondria. Extended pretreatment of B cells with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, produces proportional decreases in the percentage of cells mobilizing Mg2+, fragmenting DNA, and externalizing PS in response to anti-Fas monoclonal antibody treatment. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated [Mg2+]i is required for apoptosis. Furthermore, we propose that the increases in [Mg2+]i function not only as cofactors for Mg2+-dependent endonucleases, but also to facilitate the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria, which drives many of the post-mitochondrial, caspase-mediated events in apoptotic cells.  (+info)

CD40-activated B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells for tumor immunotherapy: stimulation of allogeneic versus autologous T cells generates different types of effector cells. (8/2281)

Although spontaneous remissions may rarely occur in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), T cells do generally not develop a clinically significant response against B-CLL cells. Because this T-cell anergy against B-CLL cells may be caused by the inability of B-CLL cells to present tumor-antigens efficiently, we examined the possibility of upregulating critical costimulatory (B7-1 and B7-2) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and LFA-3) on B-CLL cells to improve antigen presentation. The stimulation of B-CLL cells via CD40 by culture on CD40L expressing feeder cells induced a strong upregulation of costimulatory and adhesion molecules and turned the B-CLL cells into efficient antigen-presenting cells (APCs). CD40-activated B-CLL (CD40-CLL) cells stimulated the proliferation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Interestingly, stimulation of allogeneic versus autologous T cells resulted in the expansion of different effector populations. Allogeneic CD40-CLL cells allowed for the expansion of specific CD8(+) cytolytic T cells (CTL). In marked contrast, autologous CD40-CLL cells did not induce a relevant CTL response, but rather stimulated a CD4(+), Th1-like T-cell population that expressed high levels of CD40L and released interferon-gamma in response to stimulation by CD40-CLL cells. Together, these results support the view that CD40 activation of B-CLL cells might reverse T-cell anergy against the neoplastic cell clone, although the character of the immune response depends on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) background on which the CLL or tumor antigens are presented. These findings may have important implications for the design of cellular immunotherapies for B-CLL.  (+info)

*Seth Lederman

Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". J. Immunol. 149 (12): 3817-26. ... January 1994). "CD40 molecules induce down-modulation and endocytosis of T cell surface T cell-B cell activating molecule/CD40- ... January 1996). "The central role of the CD40-ligand and CD40 pathway in T-lymphocyte-mediated differentiation of B lymphocytes ... Lederman discovered the CD40-Ligand (CD154) and elucidated the molecular basis of T cell helper function. Dr. Lederman's work ...

*T helper cell

It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. CD154 acts ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd36 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.138 --- antigens, cd38 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.140 --- antigens, cd40 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd19 MeSH D23.050.301.264.051.120 --- antigens, cd20 MeSH D23.050.301.264.051.140 --- antigens, cd40 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd36 MeSH D23.101.100.110.138 --- antigens, cd38 MeSH D23.101.100.110.140 --- antigens, cd40 MeSH D23.101.100.110.143 ... antigens, cd19 MeSH D23.101.100.150.120 --- antigens, cd20 MeSH D23.101.100.150.140 --- antigens, cd40 MeSH D23.101.100.894 ...

*CD154

It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In total ... "CD40-CD40 ligand". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 67 (1): 2-17. PMID 10647992. Schattner EJ (May 2000). "CD40 ligand in CLL ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...

*CD40 (protein)

The expression of CD40 is diverse. CD40 is constitutively expressed by antigen presenting cells, including dendritic cells, B ... "CD40-CD40 ligand". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 67 (1): 2-17. PMID 10647992. Schattner EJ (May 2000). "CD40 ligand in CLL ... Banchereau J, Bazan F, Blanchard D, Brière F, Galizzi JP, van Kooten C, Liu YJ, Rousset F, Saeland S (1994). "The CD40 antigen ... The binding of CD154 (CD40L) on TH cells to CD40 activates antigen presenting cells and induces a variety of downstream effects ...

*LYN

In these cells, a small amount of LYN is associated with cell surface receptor proteins, including the B cell antigen receptor ... Ren CL, Morio T, Fu SM, Geha RS (Feb 1994). "Signal transduction via CD40 involves activation of lyn kinase and ... Brown VK, Ogle EW, Burkhardt AL, Rowley RB, Bolen JB, Justement LB (Jun 1994). "Multiple components of the B cell antigen ... Yamamoto T, Yamanashi Y, Toyoshima K (Apr 1993). "Association of Src-family kinase Lyn with B-cell antigen receptor". ...

*Odulimomab

... antigen-1 monoclonal antibody inhibits CD40 ligand-independent immune responses and prevents chronic vasculopathy in CD40 ... It is a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha chain of the protein lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 ...

*Lipid raft

... endocytosis of antigen bound to the BCR and its routing to late endosomes to facilitate loading of antigen-derived peptides ... Their functions include signaling by BCR, modulation of that signaling by co-receptors, signaling by CD40, ... T cell antigen receptor signalling, B cell antigen receptor signalling, EGF receptor signalling, insulin receptor signalling ... The process of B cell antigen receptor signalling is similar to Immunoglobulin E signalling and T-cell antigen receptor ...

*Adenoviridae

... genetically engineered adenovirus vector targeted to CD40 mediates transduction of canine dendritic cells and promotes antigen- ... Adenovirus dodecahedron can qualify as a potent delivery platform for foreign antigens to human myeloid dendritic cells (MDC), ...

*Waldenström's macroglobulinemia

Bone marrow tumour cells express the following antigen targets CD20 (98.3%), CD22 (88.3%), CD40 (83.3%), CD52 (77.4%), IgM ( ... The following signalling pathways have been implicated: CD154/CD40 Akt ubiquitination, p53 activation, cytochrome c release NF- ... "Expression of serotherapy target antigens in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia: therapeutic applications and considerations". ...

*Immunogenic cell death

... surface receptors like CD91 and CD40 and also facilitate crosspresentation of antigens derived from tumour cells on MHC class I ... On the cell surface they have an immunostimulatory effect, based on their interaction with number of antigen-presenting cell ( ... and its release to the extracellular space seems to be required for the optimal release and presentation of tumour antigens to ...

*Lipoarabinomannan

2008). "Inhibition of apoptosis, activation of NKT cell and upregulation of CD40 and CD40L mediated by M. leprae antigen(s) ...

*Antigen-presenting cell

This occurs through the interaction of co-stimulatory molecules including B7 and CD40 on the dendritic cell, with CD28 and CD40 ... An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility ... Antigen: protease degradation on YouTube - PMAP animation Antigen-Presenting Cells at the US National Library of Medicine ... Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T ...

*Macrophage

T cells that express the T cell receptor which recognizes the antigen-MHCII complex (with co-stimulatory factors- CD40 and ... Eventually, the antigen presentation results in the production of antibodies that attach to the antigens of pathogens, making ... the antigen is endocytosed and processed. The processed antigen is then presented in MHCII on the surface of the B-cell. ... The antigen presentation on the surface of infected macrophages (in the context of MHC class II) in a lymph node stimulates TH1 ...

*Follicular B helper T cells

... which binds and stimulates the B cell surface receptor CD40. TFH cell-dependent paracrine activation of B cell CD40 results in ... Follicular B helper T cells (also known as just follicular helper T cells or TFH), are antigen-experienced CD4+ T cells found ... Therefore, in the absence of TFH cells, similar to B cell activation by T-cell independent antigens, a quick burst of low ... May 2009). "T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens". J Exp Med. 206 (5): 991-9 ...

*Immune checkpoint

CD40 - This molecule, found on a variety of immune system cells including antigen presenting cells has CD40L, otherwise known ... CD40 signaling is known to 'license' dendritic cells to mature and thereby trigger T-cell activation and differentiation. A now ... CD27 - This molecule supports antigen-specific expansion of naïve T cells and is vital for the generation of T cell memory. ... The ligand for GITR is mainly expressed on antigen presenting cells. Antibodies to GITR have been shown to promote an anti- ...

*Immunoglobulin class switching

... class switching does not affect antigen specificity. Instead, the antibody retains affinity for the same antigens, but can ... If these activated B cells encounter specific signaling molecules via their CD40 and cytokine receptors (both modulated by T ... "Interleukin-10 induces immunoglobulin G isotype switch recombination in human CD40-activated naive B lymphocytes". The Journal ... After activation by antigen, these B cells proliferate. ...

*Index of oncology articles

CD34 antigen - CD40-ligand - CEA - CEA assay - cecum - cefalexin - cefepime - cefixime - ceftriaxone - celecoxib - celiac ... antigen - antigen-presenting cell - antigen-presenting cell vaccine - antiglobulin test - antihormone therapy - antimetabolite ... human leukocyte antigen - human lymphocyte antigen - human papillomavirus - human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 - Hürthle cell ... prostate-specific antigen - prostate-specific antigen test - prostatectomy - prostatic acid phosphatase - prostatic ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 -- antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 -- antigens, cd40 ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 -- receptors, antigen, ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... antigens, cd11a MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.150 -- antigens, cd11b MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.200 -- antigens, cd11c ...

*Cancer immunotherapy

Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the mammalian immune system. In cancer treatment they aid cancer antigen ... Dendritic cell receptors such as TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 or CD40 have been used as antibody targets. Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is the ... Cancer vaccine Antigen 5T4 Chimeric antigen receptor Coley's Toxins Combinatorial ablation and immunotherapy Cryoimmunotherapy ... Antigens can be added to the antibody and can induce the dendritic cells to mature and provide immunity to the tumor. ...

*Centroblasts

... and BAFF and stimulation from helper T cell interactions between their CD40 ligand and the B cell CD40 induces centroblasts to ... Centroblasts do not express immunoglobulins and are unable to respond to the follicular dendritic cell antigens present in the ...

*Federica Sallusto

A flavonoid sulfate antigen activates human ab CD8+ Th2 lymphocytes in pollen allergy. Eur J Immunol 2000, 30:964-968. ... Chemoattractants MDC and TARC are secreted by malignant B-cell precursors following CD40 ligation and support the migration of ... Sallusto F, Nicolò C, De Maria R, Corinti S, Testi R. Ceramide inhibits antigen uptake and presentation by dendritic cells. J ... Cella M, Salio M, Scheidegger D, Engering A, Pieters J, Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A. Regulation of antigen capture, MHC ...

*B7 (protein)

This is also called "Signal 1" and its main purpose is to guarantee antigen specificity of the T cell activation. However, MHC ... The costimulatory signal necessary to continue the immune response can come from B7-CD28 and CD40-CD40L interactions. There are ... B7 is a type of peripheral membrane protein found on activated antigen presenting cells (APC) that, when paired with either a ...

*KLRD1

... (CD94) is an antigen preferentially expressed on NK cells and is classified as a type II membrane protein because it has ... "Differential involvement of CD40, CD80, and major histocompatibility complex class I molecules in cytotoxicity induction and ... Ding Y, Sumitran S, Holgersson J (May 1999). "Direct binding of purified HLA class I antigens by soluble NKG2/CD94 C-type ... Ding Y, Sumitran S, Holgersson J (May 1999). "Direct binding of purified HLA class I antigens by soluble NKG2/CD94 C-type ...

*Chang Yi Wang

Human lymphocyte bearing 1a-like antigens [now termed HLA-DK or class 1 MHC antigen]: Absence in patients with infantile ... now termed CD40] preferentially expressed on certain human B cells. J Exp Med 1979; 149:1434. 65. Fu SM, Chiorazzi N, Wang, CY ... An antigen characteristic of hairy cell leukemia cells is expressed on certain activated B cells. J immunol 1984; 133:1635. 48 ... Induction of Leu 10 (HLA-DC/DS) antigen expression by human precurso B cell lines. J Exp Med 1983; 158:1757. 52. Rinnooy Kan EA ...

*Dendritic cell

Every helper T-cell is specific to one particular antigen. Only professional antigen-presenting cells (macrophages, B ... 1997). "In Vivo Microbial Stimulation Induces Rapid CD40 Ligand-independent Production of Interleukin 12 by Dendritic Cells and ... Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. They ... Here they act as antigen-presenting cells: they activate helper T-cells and killer T-cells as well as B-cells by presenting ...
The data presented here demonstrate that C3 tumor eradication after administration of the E7 peptide and agonistic CD137 mAb, a method effectively breaking immunological ignorance in tumor-specific CTL (15) , is entirely dependent on IFN-γ. This was shown both in mice given an IFN-γ neutralizing mAb and in IFN-γ deficient mice. On closer examination, we found that in the absence of IFN-γ, the total number of tumor-specific CD8+ CTLs infiltrating the tumor was significantly reduced, whereas the generation of these CTLs in lymphoid organs was unaffected. Because IFN-γ was not required to bind its receptor expressed on tumor cells, our results reveal a selective role for IFN-γ in promoting the infiltration of tumor-specific CTLs within the tumor.. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that CD137 costimulates the production of IFN-γ by CD8+ T cells (4, 5, 6) . CD8+ T cells stimulated by anti-CD137 mAb produced significantly higher levels of IFN-γ than those that were ...
Allergic asthma severity may be associated with IgE levels. We have shown that beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) engagement on CD40L/IL-4-primed B cells increases the level of IgE produced per cell, without affecting class switch recombination. β2AR agonists alleviate bronchoconstriction by targeting the β2AR expressed on bronchiolar smooth muscle cells to trigger airway relaxation, but these drugs also target the β2AR on primed B cells, potentially producing an IgE effect that may be counterproductive to the drugs intended use. We reported that surface CD23 expression remained constant on primed B cells exposed to a β2AR agonist, while CD23 mRNA, total CD23 protein, and soluble CD23 (sCD23) increased. Thus, if sCD23 positively regulates IgE production, an increase due to β2AR engagement may worsen bronchoconstriction, albeit relieving it in the short term. We hypothesized that the primary sheddase of CD23, ADAM10, is regulated by β2AR engagement on a primed B cell. Although we found that ...
Composition of the CD95 DISC in freshly isolated and cultured GC B cells. (A) CD95 or (B) FADD was immunoprecipitated (IP) from 107 freshly isolated GC B cells
In this study, we demonstrated that, despite the reported absence of CD137 on murine B cells, CD137 is expressed on human B cells. Our studies revealed that CD137 is expressed on activated B cells following BCR stimulation. Cognate help from T cells through CD40-CD40L interaction and/or cytokines are important for the regulation of CD137 expression on human B cells. Among the cytokines tested, only the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ enhanced CD137 expression, whereas IL-4, -10, and -21 inhibited CD137 expression. Importantly, neither anti-CD40 stimulation nor cytokine alone were capable of inducing B cell expression of CD137 in the absence of BCR stimulation. In addition, polyclonal stimulation of human B cells with CpG, which stimulates TLR9-mediated B cell proliferation and differentiation in the absence of Ag, failed to upregulate CD137 (data not shown). These data suggest that CD137 expression on human B cells is tightly controlled and strictly dependent upon Ag encounter and the BCR serves as the ...
CD180 (RP105), expressed on dendritic cells and B cells, is a receptor closely related to TLR4. CD180 signaling does not require adaptor proteins like MyD88, instead it resembles B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, including the activation of PI3K and Akt. Recently, others and we have found αCD180 also induces the Pim-1 kinase, but much of the CD180 signaling pathway remains ill defined. We previously found that targeting antigen (Ag) to B cells via CD180, by coupling the Ag to an anti-CD180 antibody (Ag-αCD180), induces a rapid and strong Ag-specific IgG antibody (Ab) response in mice. Furthermore, IgG Ab responses were maintained in immunodeficient mice that lack mature B cells (BAFFR−/−). These studies led us to investigate the signaling events that occur within B cells upon coincident activation of the BCR and CD180. For this study we have employed B1-8hi transgenic mice, which have a BCR that binds to NP-hapten on some splenic B cells, and the K46μm17 murine B cell line, that expresses ...
Lupus nephritis (LN) is characterized by an increased upregulation of Th1. This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of CD134 in cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from subjects with LN. Percentages of IFN-γ- (Th1), IL-4-, and IL-10- (Th2) producing cells within the PBMC CD4+ T cell population of LN subjects were found to be higher than those of healthy subjects. Stimulation of PBMC from LN subjects with anti-CD3 ε mAb/rIL-2 resulted in further increases in cytokine production. Stimulation in the presence of anti-CD134 mAb resulted in reduced IL-4 and IL-10 production; however, it also resulted in increased IFN-γ production. Stimulation in the presence of the fusion protein rhCD134:Fc resulted in decreased production of all three cytokines. The possibilities that anti-CD134 therapy may control the extent of IL-4- and IL-10-mediated damage in active LN and that rhCD134:Fc therapy may prevent occurrence of LN are discussed. ...
CD40L / CD154 antibody [YMF323.6.2] (CD40 ligand) for FACS, WB. Anti-CD40L / CD154 mAb (GTX42386) is tested in Human, Rhesus Monkey, Cynomolgus monkey samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Given the genetic diversity of B-cell lymphomas and differential antigen expression patterns across lymphoma subtypes, it is unlikely that a single small molecule or antibody-based therapeutic will effectively treat all categories of NHL. Therefore, the use of therapeutic antibody combinations targeting different tumor antigens is expected to produce a more robust antitumor response. Simultaneously targeting CD20 and the TNFR family member CD40 may be productive, because both are expressed on the majority of B-cell lymphomas and mediate differential signaling events through their cytoplasmic domains. We evaluated the potential of improving rituximab-based therapies in NHL by targeting CD40 with dacetuzumab. In vivo analysis of the dacetuzumab-rituximab combination in the Ramos NHL xenograft model showed the capacity of dacetuzumab to augment rituximab activity. Potential mechanisms of action behind the ability of dacetuzumab to enhance rituximab activity in vivo include improved recruitment of ...
Immunotherapy with an agonistic anti-CD40 antibody limits adipose tissue inflammation and protects from pre-established metabolic disease in mice Conference Paper ...
To rule out the possibility that the altered LC migration in the mutant mice was due to some intrinsic defect rather than the aberrant regulation of TNF-α production, we next had to address whether LC migration could be restored in CD40 ligand −/− mice if an exogenous source of TNF-α was provided. In fact, by administering rTNF-α intradermally into the skin of CD40 ligand −/− mice, LCs were induced to migrate out of the epidermis (Fig. 5 c) to the same extent as observed in C57BL/6 mice treated in the same manner (Fig. 5 b). Likewise, LC mobilization was also induced when the missing CD40 ligand signal was re-established by injecting agonistic anti-CD40 mAb (26)(27) into CD40 ligand −/− (Fig. 5 e) and control (Fig. 5 d) mice, thus ruling out an intrinsic LC migratory defect and indicating an essential role for CD40 signaling and TNF-α in LC migration.. It is intriguing that unsensitized CD40 ligand −/− mice produced significantly higher amounts of TNF-α in their epidermis ...
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CD25− CD45RBlow as well as CD25+ CD45RBlow CD4+ cells from infected WT mice protect RAG KO mice against colitis. Infected RAG KO mice were given either no cel
Dear Ralph, I appreciate your questions and I think thay are valid and worth exploring. However, I think that I must clarify my point a bit. I am not implying that the CD8 cells are the worst hit by the virus. (Forgive the sensationalism of my first posting... this was meant to call attention to my article) Of course the CD4 cells are the worst hit because they carry the CD4 antigen constantly, thus their name. What I _am_ implying is that the CD8 cells must also be effected by the virus due to their positivity for CD4 during their development. Since CTL (the cells responsible for killing virally infected cells) are CD8 cells, any effects (quantitative or qualitative) on this compartment must be important in the pathogenisis of a viral disease. McMichael et al have reported that CTL response to viral peptide epitopes in the MHC class molecule dissipate at the end stage of HIV disease. This could be explained by the slow and steady exhaustion of CD8 precursers via infection by HIV when these ...
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CD84 (Cluster of Differentiation 84) is a human protein encoded by the CD84 gene.. Members of the CD2 (see MIM 186990) subgroup of the Ig superfamily, such as CD84, have similar patterns of conserved disulfide bonds and function in adhesion interactions between T lymphocytes and accessory cells. ...
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2001 05 22.20858 16 06 45.68 -20 01 22.4 22.0R 01KG76 807 Cd1817 2001 05 22.28897 16 06 45.29 -20 01 21.3 01KG76 807 Cd1817 2001 06 10.02875 16 05 16.38 -19 57 27.3 22.9R 01KG76 304 Cd1817 2001 06 10.10380 16 05 16.05 -19 57 26.3 01KG76 304 Cd1817 2001 08 19.03454 16 02 18.80 -19 50 35.3 21.4R 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2001 08 20.03188 16 02 19.15 -19 50 37.8 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2001 08 21.03938 16 02 19.58 -19 50 40.7 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2002 04 07.29240 16 15 09.97 -20 25 16.3 21.6R 01KG76 807 Cf4617 2002 04 07.38861 16 15 09.68 -20 25 15.6 01KG76 807 Cf4617 2002 05 12.03950 16 12 54.85 -20 19 22.5 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 12.08513 16 12 54.63 -20 19 21.8 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 12.13062 16 12 54.41 -20 19 21.3 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 13.04812 16 12 50.15 -20 19 10.5 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 13.11749 16 12 49.83 -20 19 09.6 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 07 10.99718 16 08 34.27 -20 08 36.4 22.2R 01KG76 304 Cf9823 2002 07 11.20921 16 08 33.59 -20 08 35.0 01KG76 304 Cf9823 2002 07 13.10322 16 08 27.82 -20 08 ...
2B4 belongs to the CD2 family of molecules and is expressed on all NK, gammadelta, and memory CD8(+) (alphabeta) T cells. The murine NK receptor 2B4 exhibits both inhibitory and activating functions, whereas human 2B4 has been reported to be an activ
SCD1小鼠单克隆抗体[CD.E10](ab19862)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被13篇文献引用并得到6个独立的用户反馈。
CD4 cells protect the body from infection by circulating in the blood to identify bacteria and viruses then produce antibodies to destroy them. CD4 cells also trigger the body to respond to infection...
CD8 T 세포는 바이러스나 박테리아와 같은 병원체 및 종양, 이식된 장기 등에서 발현되는 외부 항원을 인지하고 이 외부항원을 발현하는 세포를 제거하는 기능을 갖는 세포독성 T 세포이다. 외부항원들에 대한 CD8 T 세포 기억의 형성은 차 후 이 항원들에 재노출되었을 때 강하고 빠른 면역 반응을 일으켜, 감염 병원체나 종양을 퇴치하는데 기여하기 때문에 면역력 향상에 중요한 요인이다. 감염 병원체 항원에 대한 백신을 접종하는 이유는 바로 이와 같은 T 세포 기억을 형성하기 위함이다. 반대로, 특정 항원에 대한 CD8 T 세포의 관용 (tolerance)이 형성하게 되면 그 항원들이 제거되지 않고 받아들여지게 되는데, 이식거부 반응이나 자가면역질환이 억제되기 위해서는 이식 항원이나 자가 항원에 대한 관용의 형성이 중요하다 ...
I am having problems with my FIRESTORM 36x cd rom, it will not read CDs anymore. I upgraded to win98 about 2 weeks ago, since then the performence of my CD ROM has degraded to the point that it will not even read the route dir. It worked fine under win95 osr2, is this coinsidence or is it a win98 problem ...
ഒരുപോലെയിരിക്കുന്ന ശരാശരി വലിപ്പമുള്ള ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകളാണ് സൂക്ഷ്മദർശിനിയിലൂടെ ദൃശ്യമാവുക. നക്ഷത്രപൂരിതമായ ആകാശം എന്നാണ് ഈ സൂക്ഷ്മദർശിനി ദൃശ്യത്തെ വിശേഷിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്.[4] ഈ ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകൾക്ക് ക്ഷാരാഭിമുഖ്യമുള്ള കോശദ്രവ്യം ഉണ്ടാകും. ചെറിയ മുറിയാത്ത കോശങ്ങൾ എന്നാണ് ബർക്കിറ്റ് ലിംഫോമയിലെ ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകളെ വിശേഷിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്. ബി-കോശ വ്യതിരക്ത മാർക്കറുകളായ CD20, CD22, CD19 എന്നിവ ...
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Im a bit unsettled today because my cycle was supposed to start and it didnt. And I am super-regular. AF arrives every 28 days like clockwork. The FET schedule is built upon today being Day One, not Day Twenty-nine. (Actually, to make matters worse, I miscounted and the FET schedule is built upon yesterday being CD One.) Now Im going to be at least two days behind on the path to an April 22 transfer . . . Or ...
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Page 3 - Hello everyone So I took the AANP in March 2011 after taking the Fitz course, and failed (personally I didnt think I was ready), but I thought I would try. Then I purchased the Barkley Assoc CD
هدف: پلاکت‏ها قطعات سلولی بدون هسته و مشتق از مگاکاریوسیت‏ها هستند که علاوه بر ایفای نقش در هموستاز و ایمنی ذاتی به واسطه داشتن شاخص‏های مهم نظیر CD40L (یک شاخص مولکولی مهم در تحریک سلول‏های ایمنی) می‏توانند در ایمنی اکتسابی نیز نقش داشته باشند؛ از جمله تأثیر آن‏ها بر لنفوسیت‏های B و فعال‏سازی آن‏ها مشخص شده است. اکنون در پاسخ به این سؤال که آیا میکروذرات مشتق از غشای پلاکت نیز می‏تواند این تأثیر‏گذاری را داشته باشد، تأثیر آن‏ها بر فعال‏سازی لنفوسیت‏های B بررسی شد. مواد و روش‏ها: در ابتدا پلاکت کنسانتره از پایگاه انتقال خون منطقه‌ای و آموزشی استان
Like most mammalian species, humans express several structurally distinct CD1 antigen-presenting molecules. The conservation of large CD1 gene families among most mammals suggests that each type of CD1 protein has distinct functions that confer selective advantage. Cellular studies of CD1 proteins increasingly explain how each CD1 protein differs from the others. CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, and CD1d have distinct antigen groove structures, patterns of expression in tissues, intracellular trafficking, and trigger T cells expressing diverse TCRs (Kasmar et al., 2009). CD1d (group 2) diverges most clearly from CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c (group 1) with regard to protein sequence. Also, group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins show differing transcriptional responses to pathogens, suggesting that they function at different stages of the immune response (Roura-Mir et al., 2005b). Collectively, these cellular studies suggest that group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins likely have differing roles in immune responses.. The majority ...
Results Cultured cells started to express CD14 on the day 12 and more than 90% of the cells expressed CD14 on the day 21 in the monocyte differentiation induction course. According to the expression levels of CD14, the cell population was divided into three groups: CD14 (−), CD14 (+) and CD14 (++). CD15 (+) cells were observed in CD14 (−) and CD14 (+) population but not in CD14 (++) population. The CD15+ cells in CD14 (+) transiently appeared in RA-iPS derived cells at 11.9±2.8% (mean ± SE) on day15. However these cell proportion in NOF was1.7±2.0%. Meanwhile, CD15+ cells in CD14 (−) proportion decreased during monocyte differentiation in RA-iPS cells, but remained in NOF-iPS cells (representative data, RA 31.5, 20.6, 15.6%, NOF 47.3, 46.1, 47.3%, on day15, 18 and 21).. ...
We explored targeted delivery of CD40 ligand to the cancer cell-surface as a therapeutic option for treatment of malignancies. To this end, we generated EpCAM- and CD20-targeted fusion proteins, anti-EpCAM:CD40L and anti-CD20:CD40L, respectively, and analyzed functional immune parameters. Based on our findings, CD40L remains biologically active in scFv fusion proteins, with an activity profile similar to soluble CD40L. However, binding of CD40L fusion proteins to target antigens on the cancer cell surface promotes oligomerization and augmented activation of CD40 on neighboring immature DC. As a result, maturation of iDC occurred at approximately 20 fold lower concentrations as in the case of stimulation with "unbound" CD40L. In addition, we describe how targeted delivery of CD40L to CD20+ leukemic B cells can induce simultaneous B cell death and paracrine maturation of iDC. Importantly, B cell lines did not undergo additional proliferation as a result of treatment with anti-CD20:CD40L. These ...
Clone FGK45.5 recognizes the mouse CD40 antigen, a 40-50 kDa glycoprotein and member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. CD40 is expressed on B lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells and is an important costimulatory molecule for B cells as well as dendritic cells, monocytes, and other antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The interaction of CD40 on B cells with its ligand CD154 is involved in B cell activation and differentiation; engagement of CD40 on dendritic cells leads to maturation. Clone FGK45 can be used for blocking of CD40/CD154 interaction and for in vitro and in vivo activation of CD40-expressing APCs. - USA
Clone REA1226 recognizes the murine CD18 antigen, a 95 kDa glycoprotein also known as integrin beta-2 (ITGB2). CD18 associates non-covalently with CD11a, CD11b, and CD11c to form LFA-1, Mac-1, and gp150/95, respectively and plays an important role in leukocytes adhesion. It is expressed on all leukocytes with NK and T cells showing higher density of surface expression. The CD18 integrin complexes bind CD54 (ICAM-1), CD102 (ICAM-2), CD50 (ICAM-3), iC3b, and fibrinogen. Heterodimers of CD18 with α subunits show different expression patterns on different leucocytes. Mice leucocytes lacking CD18 or expressing dysfunctional CD18 are defective in chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and homotypic aggregation. Additional information: Clone REA1226 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Schweiz
CD4+/CD8+/CD3+ cells are 1-4% range of the lymphocyte population from our HIV+ patients. Most of the cells are brightCD4+/dimCD8+ but all combinations of bright and dim are possible. We include these dual positive cells in both the CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+ counts. What do other labs do with these cells and why? -----Original Message----- From: Kenneth Ault [mailto:aultk at mmc.org] Sent: Wednesday, October 31, 2001 7:32 PM To: cyto-inbox Subject: Re: cd4 cd8 coexpression A phenomenon frequently forgotten is coincidence. If two cells enter the observation volume at the same time they will be seen as one event with the properties of both cells. This is a very common problem in my world (platelets) and should be considered as a possible explanation for any kind of unexpected dual expression of markers. It would be interesting to know if the frequency of CD4/CD8 doubles changes as the particle flow rate changes (i.e change the sample pressure or dilute the specimen.) Ken Ault ...
CD137 (4-1BB, Tnsfr9) is a member of the TNF-receptor (TNFR) superfamily without known intrinsic enzymatic activity in its cytoplasmic domain. Hence, akin to other members of the TNFR family, it relies on the TNFR-Associated-Factor (TRAF) family of adaptor proteins to build the CD137 signalosome for transducing signals into the cell. Thus, upon CD137 activation by binding of CD137L trimers or by crosslinking with agonist monoclonal antibodies, TRAF1, TRAF2, and TRAF3 are readily recruited to the cytoplasmic domain of CD137, likely as homo- and/or heterotrimers with different configurations, initiating the construction of the CD137 signalosome. The formation of TRAF2-RING dimers between TRAF2 molecules from contiguous trimers would help to establish a multimeric structure of TRAF-trimers that is probably essential for CD137 signaling. In addition, available studies have identified a large number of proteins that are recruited to CD137:TRAF complexes including ubiquitin ligases and proteases, kinases, and
CD200 (OX2) is a broadly distributed cell surface glycoprotein that interacts with a structurally related receptor (CD200R) expressed on rodent myeloid cells and is involved in regulation of macrophage function. We report the first characterization of human CD200R (hCD200R) and define its binding characteristics to hCD200. We also report the identification of a closely related gene to hCD200R, designated hCD200RLa, and four mouse CD200R-related genes (termed mCD200RLa-d). CD200, CD200R, and CD200R-related genes were closely linked in humans and mice, suggesting that these genes arose by gene duplication. The distributions of the receptor genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR, and protein expression was confirmed by a set of novel mAbs. The distribution of mouse and human CD200R was similar, with strongest labeling of macrophages and neutrophils, but also other leukocytes, including monocytes, mast cells, and T lymphocytes. Two mCD200 receptor-like family members, designated mCD200RLa and
Research in the past few years has documented significant advances in our understanding of the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD154) system in diverse immune functions. This system influences many T cell mediated inflammatory immune responses and effector functions, unmasking a previously unexpected role for CD40-CD154 in cell mediated immunity. Manipulation of CD154 in animal models of infection by the use of CD154-deficient mice or anti-CD154 antibodies has shown the importance of this system in the initiation of the inflammatory response, in the activation of antigen-presenting cells and in resistance to infections ...
As with any breakthrough, new questions arise and new experiments become feasible.....One problem, however, is that CD32a is a marker for only 50% of the reservoir, whereas the eradication of latent HIV would require a much greater reduction in the number of latently infected cells in the body. Moreover, targeting CD32a would also make the antigen-presenting cells that normally express CD32a vulnerable to destruction, which might well cause unwanted or harmful side effects.....Second, the authors studied CD4 lymphocytes from the blood, but these circulating cells account for 2%, at most, of the CD4 T cells in the body2. It remains to be seen whether CD32a is as good a marker for latently infected cells in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, gut and other tissues. Perhaps more markers could be identified from the 103 differentially expressed genes found in the researchers screen - analysis of these proteins in combination with CD32a might increase the total proportion of identifiable latent ...
Results Activated B cells restrained the development of monocytes into immature DCs and their differentiation into mature DCs. They decreased the density of HLA-DR from mature DCs, the expression of CD80 and CD86 co-activation molecules, the production of IL-12p70 required for antigen presentation and Th1 differentiation. They also inhibited the DC-induced T cell proliferation. These modulations were mediated by CD19+IgDlowCD38+CD24lowCD27- B cells and needed CD62L interaction for the control of CD80 and CD86 expression, and a soluble factor for the control of IL-12 production. Finally, mature DCs from SLE patients displayed insensitivity to the regulation of IL-12 by both normal and SLE B cells.. ...
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Creative Biolabs provides Anti-CD276 (CD276.1) h(CD28-CD3ζ) CAR, pCDCAR1 product for Biopharmaceutical research,preclinical and clinical trials.
CD4 (helper cells) 43% (30-61) Absolute CD4 + cells 527 (490-1740) CD8 (supressor T cells) 28% (12-42) Absolute CD8+ cells 340 (180-1170)...
The human group 1 CD1 molecules CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c have been shown to present both endogenous and mycobacterial-derived lipid antigens to various subsets of T...
Das vom CD40LG Gen kodierte Protein ist der Ligand des CD40 auf den T-Lyphozyten. Die kopplung des CD40 auf den B-Lymphozyten mit dem CD40LG ist für eine reife Immunantwort insbesondere dem Klassenwechsel unerlässlich. Deshalb produzieren Patienten exzessiv das Immunglobulin IgM und zeigen eine erhöhte Infektanfälligkeit.. ...
The normal CD4 count range is 500-1500 and the normal CD4 percentage is 35-50%. The lower the CD4 percent and count, the worse off the immune system...
Creative Biolabs provides Anti-CD19 (BA0185) h(CD28-CD3ζ) mRNA CAR, pcDCAR1 product for Biopharmaceutical research,preclinical and clinical trials.
1. I am concerned about the trend in CD4% decline. If it truly is approaching 20%, then regardless of the absolute number, you are losing CD4 cells. Despite your viral load being detectable and low,...
This clinical study is designed to evaluate the safety of oral administration of the study drug muromonab CD3 (anti CD3; OKT3) in combination with β-D
View mouse Cd79b Chr11:106311341-106314762 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
IAXO-101 (CD14/TLR4 Antagonist) (synthetic), high purity and active compound. Synthetic. CD14/TLR4 antagonist. Used for Inflammation, Innate Immunity and Adjuvant Research.
IAXO-103 (CD14/TLR4 Antagonist) (synthetic), high purity and active compound. Synthetic. CD14/TLR4 antagonist. Used for Inflammation, Innate Immunity and Adjuvant Research.
CD45, 100 Tests. CD45 is a family of single chain transmembraneous glycoproteins consisting of at least four isoforms (220, 205, 190, 180 kDa) which share a common large intracellular domain.
CD45, 100 Tests. CD45 is a family of single chain transmembraneous glycoproteins consisting of at least four isoforms (220, 205, 190, 180 kDa) which share a common large intracellular domain.
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Plasmid CD4d3+4-blac from Dr. Gavin Wrights lab is published in Genome Res. 2008 Apr;18(4):622-30. Epub 2008 Feb 22. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Are people with HIV getting their blood taken for CD4 testing more often than they need? Paul Sax, M.D., makes the case for less frequent measurements -- ...
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The CD40 ligand (CD40L) expressed by activated T cells is a 33 kDa type II membrane glycoprotein with sequence homology to tumor necrosis factor. T cells activated through TCR ligation transiently express on their surface CD40L, which interacts with CD40 expressed on B cells to deliver signals for B cell activation and proliferation. Signaling through CD40 in combination with T cell-derived cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-5 in mice leads to B cell differentiation accompanied by antibody secretion and Ig isotype switching. The CD40-CD40L interaction is also important for other B cell functions including the formation of germinal centers and the induction of memory B cells. The physiological significance of the CD40-CD40L interaction in vivo has become evident from the observation of patients with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, who have mutations in the gene encoding CD40L and are therefore unable to express functional CD40L on their T cells. These patients fail to produce Ig of isotypes other than ...
The CD4+/CD8+ ratio measures the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood of healthy adults and mice is about 2:1, and an altered ratio can indicate diseases relating to immunodeficiency or autoimmunity. An inverted CD4+/CD8+ ratio (namely, less than 1/1) indicates an impaired immune system. A reduced CD4+/CD8+ ratio is associated with reduced resistance to infection. Patients with tuberculosis show a reduced CD4+/CD8+ ratio. A declining CD4+/CD8+ ratio is associated with ageing, and is an indicator of immunosenescence. A study of elderly humans showed the highest expansion of cytotoxic T cells among those with cytomegalovirus. In obese adipose tissue, pro-inflammatory CD8+ cells increase and recruit macrophages, predominating over anti-inflammatory CD4+ cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells (lowering the CD4+/CD8+ ratio) through a number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis of abortively infected CD4 T cells, apoptosis of ...
Peripheral blood lymphocytes expressing CD8 and CD57 determinants are a small (1-15%) subset in healthy humans. CD8+, CD57+ peripheral blood lymphocytes may be divided by the level of CD8 expression, into CD8+high (CD57+) T-cells and CD8+low (CD57+) natural killer (NK) cells. CD8+high (CD57+) T-cell numbers are increased in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-seropositive subjects, and there is substantial evidence that HCMV is integral in the development of this subset in health and disease. Furthermore, the CD8+high (CD57+) subset is clonally derived, expressing a limited range of T-cell receptors, and are therefore likely to have restricted antigen specificity. Functionally, CD8+low(CD57+) cells exhibit NK activity, while CD8+high(CD57+) T-cells from healthy subjects mediate contact-dependent suppression in several in vitro systems including: (i) pokeweed mitogen-induced proliferation and immunoglobulin synthesis, and (ii) generation of antiviral MHC-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. This is ...
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) stimulates both activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to proliferate. IL-2 signals through an identical receptor complex and promotes the same dose-dependent phosphorylation of the canonical transcription factor STAT5 in both cell types. Despite this, CD8+ T cells enter the S phase earlier and proliferate to a greater extent than do CD4+ T cells in response to IL-2. We identified distinct IL-2 signaling dynamics in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In IL-2-stimulated CD8+ T cells, STAT5 phosphorylation increased rapidly and was sustained for 6 hours. In contrast, CD4+ T cells had a biphasic response, with maxima at 15 min and 2 to 4 hours after stimulation. Both cell types required vesicular trafficking, but only CD4+ T cells required new protein synthesis to maintain high phosphorylation of STAT5. Two subunits of the IL-2 receptor, IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγ, were twice as abundant in CD8+ T cells than in CD4+ T cells. Reduction of IL-2Rβ abundance by 50% was sufficient to convert CD8+ T cells to ...
Asthma affects approximately 300 million people worldwide and is the most common chronic lung disease, which usually is associated with bronchial inflammation. Most research has focused upon the role of CD4+ T cells and relatively few studies have addressed the phenotypic and functional roles of CD8+ T cell types and subtypes.Human NK-like CD8+ T cells may involve cells that have been described as CD8+CD28-, CD8+CD28-CD57+, CD8+CD27-, or CD8+ effector-memory (TEM) cells, among other. However, most of the data which is available regarding these various cell types were obtained in murine models, did not thoroughly characterize these cells with phenotypically or functionally or did not involve asthma-related settings.Nevertheless, one may conceptualize three principal roles for human NK-like CD8+ T cells in asthma: disease-promoting, regulatory and/or tissue repair. Although evidence for some of these roles is scarce, it is possible to extrapolate some data from overlapping or related CD8+ T cell
ARABIDOPSIS BIOLOGICAL RESOURCE CENTER AT OHIO STATE DNA STOCK LIST MEYEROWITZ LAB RFLP PHAGE These clones have been tested against all three crosses among Columbia, Landsberg erecta and Niederzenz. The map positions are taken from Chang et al. (1988) PNAS v. 85 p.6859. Updated and more detailed information will be included in the catalog and database. Stocks are listed by map location. CalTech Stock # Number Chrom. # Map Position ---------------------------------------------------------- CD1-10 488 1 11.3 CD1-9 322 1 14.2 CD1-8 241 1 19.9 CD1-7 333 1 23.2 CD1-6 219 1 26.5 CD1-5 235 1 36.4 CD1-4 215 1 51.6 CD1-3 310 1 51.6 CD1-2 271 1 56.5 CD1-1 201 1 58.8 CD1-19 402 1 60.8 CD1-18 254 1 60.8 CD1-17 335 1 65.1 CD1-16 253 1 68.9 CD1-15 299 1 68.9 CD1-14 281a 1 84.8 CD1-13 213 1 87.9 CD1-12 280 1 99.0 CD1-11 305 1 107.1 CD1-29 421 1 109. CD1-28 315 1 113. CD1-27 252 1 123.4 CD1-26 453 1 125.5 CD1-25 532 1 134.7 CD1-24 237 1 136.3 CD1-36 132 1 144.4 CD1-22 336 2 0 CD1-21 429 2 0.02 CD1-20 551 2 16.3 ...
CD154 é uma proteína que é expressa primeiramente em células T activadas e é membro da superfamília TNF. Liga-se à CD40 em células apresentadoras de antigénios, o que leva a muitos efeitos dependendo do tipo de célula-alvo. A proteína é expressa na superfície das células T. Parham, Peter (2004). The Immune System 2nd ed. [S.l.]: Garland Science. pp. 169-173. ISBN 0-8153-4093-1 Tong AW, Stone MJ (1997). «CD40 and the effect of anti-CD40-binding on human multiple myeloma clonogenicity.». Leuk. Lymphoma. 21 (1-2): 1-8. PMID 8907262. doi:10.3109/10428199609067572 van Kooten C, Banchereau J (2000). «CD40-CD40 ligand.». J. Leukoc. Biol. 67 (1): 2-17. PMID 10647992 Schattner EJ (2003). «CD40 ligand in CLL pathogenesis and therapy.». Leuk. Lymphoma. 37 (5-6): 461-72. PMID 11042507 Bhushan A, Covey LR (2002). «CD40:CD40L interactions in X-linked and non-X-linked hyper-IgM syndromes.». Immunol. Res. 24 (3): 311-24. PMID 11817328. doi:10.1385/IR:24:3:311 Cheng G, Schoenberger SP ...
ClearLLab Control Cells Normal and ClearLLab Control Cells Abnormal are stabilized preparations of assayed, lysable whole blood intended as process controls for the verification of the ClearLLab 10C Panels on the Navios and Navios EX flow cytometers. Parameters assayed include: Kappa, Lambda, CD5, CD200, CD38, CD20, CD19, CD45, TCRγδ, CD4, CD2, CD56, CD3, CD7, CD8, CD16, CD10, CD13, CD64, CD14, HLA-DR, CD11b, CD15, CD33, CD34, CD117, and CD123 They provide positive cell controls that are processed in the same manner as a whole blood sample. This allows verification of reagent performance and the methods used for staining targeted cells, lysing erythrocytes, and analyzing samples with flow cytometry.
The hyaluronan (HA)-binding function (lectin function) of the leukocyte homing receptor, CD44, is tightly regulated. Herein we address possible mechanisms that regulate CD44 isoform-specific HA binding. Binding studies with melanoma transfectants expressing CD44H, CD44E, or with soluble immunoglobulin fusions of CD44H and CD44E (CD44H-Rg, CD44E-Rg) showed that although both CD44 isoforms can bind HA, CD44H binds HA more efficiently than CD44E. Using CD44-Rg fusion proteins we show that the variably spliced exons in CD44E, V8-V10, specifically reduce the lectin function of CD44, while replacement of V8-V10 by an ICAM-1 immunoglobulin domain restores binding to a level comparable to that of CD44H. Conversely, CD44 bound HA very weakly when exons V8-V10 were replaced with a CD34 mucin domain, which is heavily modified by O-linked glycans. Production of CD44E-Rg or incubation of CD44E-expressing transfectants in the presence of an O-linked glycosylation inhibitor restored HA binding to CD44H-Rg and ...
CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a protein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells[5] and is a member of the TNF superfamily of molecules. It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In total CD40L has three binding partners: CD40, α5β1 integrin and αIIbβ3. CD154 acts as a costimulatory molecule and is particularly important on a subset of T cells called T follicular helper cells (TFH cells).[6] On TFH cells, CD154 promotes B cell maturation and function by engaging CD40 on the B cell surface and therefore facilitating cell-cell communication.[7] A defect in this gene results in an inability to undergo immunoglobulin class switching and is associated with hyper IgM syndrome.[8] Absence of CD154 also stops the formation of germinal centers and therefore prohibiting antibody affinity maturation, an important process in the adaptive immune system. ...
In comparison to murine dendritic cells (DCs), less is known about the function of human DCs in tissues. Here, we analyzed, by using lung tissues from humans and humanized mice, the role of human CD1c(+) and CD141(+) DCs in determining the type of CD8(+) T cell immunity generated to live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine. We found that both lung DC subsets acquired influenza antigens in vivo and expanded specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, lung-tissue-resident CD1c(+) DCs, but not CD141(+) DCs, were able to drive CD103 expression on CD8(+) T cells and promoted CD8(+) T cell accumulation in lung epithelia in vitro and in vivo. CD1c(+) DCs induction of CD103 expression was dependent on membrane-bound cytokine TGF-β1. Thus, CD1c(+) and CD141(+) DCs generate CD8(+) T cells with different properties, and CD1c(+) DCs specialize in the regulation of mucosal CD8(+) T cells. Immunity 2013 Apr 18; 38(4):818-30.
Horses are particularly prone to allergic and autoimmune diseases, but little information about equine regulatory T cells (Treg) is currently available. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the existence of CD4(+) Treg cells in horses, determine their suppressive function as well as their mechanism of action. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy horses were examined for CD4, CD25 and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) expression. We show that equine FoxP3 is expressed constitutively by a population of CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells, mainly in the CD4(+) CD25(high) subpopulation. Proliferation of CD4(+) CD25(-) sorted cells stimulated with irradiated allogenic PBMC was significantly suppressed in co-culture with CD4(+) CD25(high) sorted cells in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism of suppression by the CD4(+) CD25(high) cell population is mediated by close contact as well as interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and probably other ...

Antigens, CD40 - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.orgAntigens, CD40 - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org

Antigens, CD40. A member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 Ligand. It is found on ... Mutations of the Gene for CD40 Antigen result in Hyper-IgM Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Type 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs ... Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-Cells is important for Generation of Memory B-Cells within the Germinal ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/antigens-cd40.html

Regulatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40...Regulatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40...

... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen.. P ... PGE2 (10(-9) to 10(-6) M) enhanced proliferation of B cells activated through their CD40 Ag, but not their Ig secretion. PGE2 ... In addition, PGE2 inhibited IgE production by naive surface IgD+ B cells cultured in the CD40 system, suggesting that PGE2 may ... PGE2 displayed similar effects on cytokine-induced proliferation and Ig secretion of B cells activated by anti-CD40 Abs used in ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/152/9/4282

Cd40 - CD40 antigen | International Mouse Phenotyping ConsortiumCd40 - CD40 antigen | International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium

Cd40tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi KO first allele (reporter-tagged insertion with conditional potential) Vector. ... Cd40tm1(KOMP)Vlcg Reporter-tagged deletion allele (with selection cassette) Vector. ... Click on icons to go to all Cd40 data for that phenotype. ... Cd40tm1b(KOMP)Wtsi HOM. postnatal 3.47E-5. Download data as: ...
more infohttp://www.mousephenotype.org/data/genes/MGI:88336

Association of SNP of leukocyte differentiation antigen-CD40 gene and its serum level with ischemic stroke].  - PubMed - NCBIAssociation of SNP of leukocyte differentiation antigen-CD40 gene and its serum level with ischemic stroke]. - PubMed - NCBI

Association of SNP of leukocyte differentiation antigen-CD40 gene and its serum level with ischemic stroke].. [Article in ... and the serum levels of CD40 were tested by ELISA. t-test was used to compare the serum levels of CD40 between the case and ... In the case group, the frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes in CD40 gene rs1883832 C/T were 21.78% (44/202), 49.51% (100/202) ... CD40 gene rs1883832 C/T polymorphism and its TCCA haplotype were possibly associated with ischemic stroke, and the ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=126186

Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5...Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5...

B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016 ", is a ... B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) , targeted therapeutics, complete with ... B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) targeted therapeutics development and ... B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) targeted pipeline therapeutics. ...
more infohttp://www.bizpr.ca/2016/11/28/tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-superfamily-member-5-b-cell-surface-antigen-cd40-bp50-cdw40-cd40l-receptor-tnfrsf5-cd40-pipeline-review-h2-2016/

Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5...Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5...

B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) - Pipeline Review, H1 2019. * Published On : ... B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) targeted therapeutics, complete with ... B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) targeted therapeutics development with ... B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) targeted therapeutics ...
more infohttps://www.grandresearchstore.com/life-sciences/tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-superfamily-member-pipeline-review-h-2019-725

US Patent for CD40 antigen antibody complex Patent (Patent #  6,056,959 issued May 2, 2000) - Justia Patents SearchUS Patent for CD40 antigen antibody complex Patent (Patent # 6,056,959 issued May 2, 2000) - Justia Patents Search

... wherein the binding of the antibody to the CD40 antigen prevents the growth or differentiation of the B cell. Monoclonal ... the methods comprising administration of a monoclonal antibody capable of binding to a human CD40 antigen located on the ... The CD40 Antigen, the CD40 Antigen Ligand, and Anti-CD40 Antibodies. The CD40 antigen is a glycoprotein expressed on the cell ... CD40 Antigen Epitopes. The CD40 antigen epitopes of this invention are molecules that are immunoreactive with anti-CD40 ...
more infohttps://patents.justia.com/patent/6056959

The antigen dose determines T helper subset development by regulation of CD40 ligand.  - PubMed - NCBIThe antigen dose determines T helper subset development by regulation of CD40 ligand. - PubMed - NCBI

... we show here that high-dose antigen induced Th1 development by up-regulation of CD40 ligand (CD40L), whereas low-dose antigen ... The antigen dose determines T helper subset development by regulation of CD40 ligand.. Ruedl C1, Bachmann MF, Kopf M. ... CD40-CD40L interaction was essential for IL-12 production by DC. In the absence, de novo IL-4 production by T cells and ... Th2 polarization, it remains unclear how the antigen dose and the strength of signal is detected by the T cell and translated ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10940895?dopt=Abstract

In Vivo Ligation of CD40 Enhances Priming Against the Endogenous Tumor Antigen and Promotes CD8+ T Cell Effector Function in...In Vivo Ligation of CD40 Enhances Priming Against the Endogenous Tumor Antigen and Promotes CD8+ T Cell Effector Function in...

One promising approach has been the engagement of CD40 on the APC via soluble CD40 ligand or agonist anti-CD40 Abs. CD40 on ... CD40-CD40 ligand interactions in vivo regulate migration of antigen-bearing dendritic cells from the skin to draining lymph ... CD40 stimulation accelerates deletion of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells in the absence of tumor-antigen vaccination. Proc. Natl. ... In Vivo Ligation of CD40 Enhances Priming Against the Endogenous Tumor Antigen and Promotes CD8+ T Cell Effector Function in ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/171/2/697?ijkey=a2bfad802b611f1ba4673bc7abf04d7f050216e4&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Cd40-Cd40 Ligand Interactions in Vivo Regulate Migration of Antigen-Bearing Dendritic Cells from the Skin to Draining Lymph...Cd40-Cd40 Ligand Interactions in Vivo Regulate Migration of Antigen-Bearing Dendritic Cells from the Skin to Draining Lymph...

... and CD40 ligand −/− (c) mice. To reconstitute CD40 signaling in wild-type (d) and CD40 ligand −/− (e) mice, anti-murine CD40 (d ... Thus, CD40-CD40 ligand interactions in vivo regulate the migration of antigen-bearing DCs from the skin to DLNs via TNF-α ... Cd40-Cd40 Ligand Interactions in Vivo Regulate Migration of Antigen-Bearing Dendritic Cells from the Skin to Draining Lymph ... Cd40-Cd40 Ligand Interactions in Vivo Regulate Migration of Antigen-Bearing Dendritic Cells from the Skin to Draining Lymph ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/191/11/2011

B-cell apoptosis induced by antigen receptor crosslinking is blocked by a T-cell signal through CD40.  - PubMed - NCBIB-cell apoptosis induced by antigen receptor crosslinking is blocked by a T-cell signal through CD40. - PubMed - NCBI

B-cell apoptosis induced by antigen receptor crosslinking is blocked by a T-cell signal through CD40.. Tsubata T1, Wu J, Honjo ... T-cell help through CD40 may thus determine whether B cells are eliminated or activated upon interaction with antigens. ... self-reactive B cells have been shown to be eliminated upon interaction with membrane-bound self-antigens in the periphery as ... Activation of mature B cells by antigens may thus require a second signal that inhibits sIg-mediated apoptosis. Such a second ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7688865?dopt=Abstract

JCI -
CD40-activated human B cells: an alternative source of highly efficient antigen presenting cells to generate autologous...JCI - CD40-activated human B cells: an alternative source of highly efficient antigen presenting cells to generate autologous...

CD40-activated human B cells: an alternative source of highly efficient antigen presenting cells to generate autologous antigen ... for repetitive stimulations of antigen-specific T cells in vitro. We show that autologous CD40-activated B cells represent a ... contend that CD40-activated B cells are an alternative source of highly efficient APCs with which to generate antigen-specific ... In contrast, the therapeutic potential of autologous antigen-specific T cells has yet to be established since it has been ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/119822

CD40 Gene - GeneCards | TNR5 Protein | TNR5 AntibodyCD40 Gene - GeneCards | TNR5 Protein | TNR5 Antibody

CD40 Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... The encoded protein is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells of the immune system and is essential for mediating a broad ... GeneCards Summary for CD40 Gene CD40 (CD40 Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CD40 include ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CD40 Gene Domains & Families for CD40 Gene Gene Families for CD40 Gene. HGNC:. ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CD40&rf=/home/genecards/current/website/carddisp.pl&bioalma_dis=93

CD40 Gene - GeneCards | TNR5 Protein | TNR5 AntibodyCD40 Gene - GeneCards | TNR5 Protein | TNR5 Antibody

CD40 Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... The encoded protein is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells of the immune system and is essential for mediating a broad ... GeneCards Summary for CD40 Gene CD40 (CD40 Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CD40 include ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CD40 Gene Domains & Families for CD40 Gene Gene Families for CD40 Gene. HGNC:. ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CD40&rf=/home/genecards/current/website/carddisp.pl&origene_myc_trans=7

CD40-activated human B cells: an alternative source of highly efficient antigen presenting cells to generate autologous antigen...CD40-activated human B cells: an alternative source of highly efficient antigen presenting cells to generate autologous antigen...

CD40-activated human B cells: an alternative source of highly efficient antigen presenting cells to generate autologous antigen ... Banchereau J, Bazan F, Blanchard D, Brière F, Galizzi JP, van Kooten C, Liu YJ, Rousset F, Saeland S. The CD40 antigen and its ... Dendritic cells pulsed with protein antigens in vitro can prime antigen-specific, MHC-restricted T cells in situ. J Exp Med. ... Rock KL, Rothstein L, Gamble S, Fleischacker C. Characterization of antigen-presenting cells that present exogenous antigens in ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC508480/?lang=en-ca

Patent US6391637 - Use of CD40 ligand, a cytokine that binds CD40, to stimulate hybridoma cells - Google PatentsPatent US6391637 - Use of CD40 ligand, a cytokine that binds CD40, to stimulate hybridoma cells - Google Patents

... this invention provides isolated human and murine CD40-L polypeptides that bind to the extracellular binding region of a CD40 ... Also disclosed are methods of simulating hybridoma cells to increase monoclonal antibody production by administering a CD40 ... vectors and transformed host cells useful in providing CD40-L polypeptides. More particularly, ... B cell antigen CD40 (Stamenkovic et al., EMBO J. 8:1403, 1989), T cell antigen OX40 (Mallett et al., EMBO J. 9:1063, 1990), ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US6391637

GTX101447 (25 ul) | CD40 Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody - Bio-ConnectGTX101447 (25 ul) | CD40 Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody - Bio-Connect

CD40 antibody (GTX101447) from GeneTex is validated for ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB and tested in Hu. Click for more product ... B cell surface antigen CD40; B cell-associated molecule; CD40 molecule, TNF receptor superfamily member 5; CD40L receptor ... CD40 antibody detects CD40 protein at cytoplasm by immunofluorescent analysis. Sample: THP-1 cells were fixed in 4% ... Green: CD40 protein stained by CD40 antibody (GTX101447) diluted at 1:500. Blue: Hoechst 33342 staining. ...
more infohttps://www.bio-connect.nl/antibodies/cd40-antibody/gtx101447_25ul/sfid/6710353

Angiotensin II modulates CD40 exp... preview & related info | MendeleyAngiotensin II modulates CD40 exp... preview & related info | Mendeley

Clin Sci (Lond). The signalling pathway CD40/CD40L (CD40 ligand) plays an important role in atherosclerotic plaque formation ... Antigens, CD40/*biosynthesis/genetics. *Antioxidants/pharmacology. *CD40 Ligand/metabolism. *Cells, Cultured. *Coronary Vessels ... The signalling pathway CD40/CD40L (CD40 ligand) plays an important role in atherosclerotic plaque formation and rupture. AngII ... Increased CD40 expression led to enhanced activity of the pathway, as AngII-treated cells stimulated with recombinant CD40L ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/angiotensin-ii-modulates-cd40-expression-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells/

Productive infection of normal CD40-activated human B lymphocytes by HIV-1.Productive infection of normal CD40-activated human B lymphocytes by HIV-1.

In vitro activation of CD40 present on B cel ... Antigen-driven B-cell proliferation and maturation occur in ... Antigens, CD / immunology*. Antigens, CD40. Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte / immunology*. B-Lymphocytes / immunology ... 0/Antigens, CD; 0/Antigens, CD40; 0/Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte; 0/DNA, Viral; 9007-49-2/DNA ... RESULTS: EBV-negative, CD40-activated human B lymphocytes were directly infected by HIV-1. The infection significantly reduced ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Productive-infection-normal-CD40-activated/7531456.html

Prostate cancer cells hyper-activate CXCR6 signaling by cleaving CXCL16 to overcome effect of docetaxel.Prostate cancer cells hyper-activate CXCR6 signaling by cleaving CXCL16 to overcome effect of docetaxel.

Antigens, Cd40. A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on ... Cd40 Antigens. Members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. They are found on ... Mutations in the CD40 antigen gene result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs ... Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2342179/Prostate-cancer-cells-hyper-activate-CXCR6-signaling-by-cleaving-CXCL16-to-overcome.html

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

0 (CD40 Antigens); 0 (FAS protein, human); 0 (OX40 Ligand); 0 (RNA, Messenger); 0 (Receptors, OX40); 0 (fas Receptor); 126547- ... Ant genos CD40/bioss ntese. Ligante de CD40/bioss ntese. Doen a das Coron rias/fisiopatologia. Ligante OX40/bioss ntese. ... The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential role of CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L) and CD134/CD134 ligand (CD134L) in the ... 0 (Antibodies); 0 (CD2 Antigens); 0 (CD3 Complex); 0 (CD4 Antigens); 0 (FAS protein, human); 0 (Glucocorticoids); 0 (HLA-DR ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=D12.776.543.750.690.500

CD4 downregulation by memory CD4+ T cells in vivo renders African green monkeys resistant to progressive SIVagm infection |...CD4 downregulation by memory CD4+ T cells in vivo renders African green monkeys resistant to progressive SIVagm infection |...

The CD40 antigen and its ligand. . Annu. Rev. Immunol. 12, 881-922 (1994). ... The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex. . Proc. Natl. ... expression of forkhead box P3 and expression of CD40 ligand; that loss of CD4 expression protects these T cells from infection ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/nm.1970?error=cookies_not_supported&code=944a839a-0cab-424f-b548-f80fc696ed6f

Cd40-Cd40 Ligand Interactions in Vivo Regulate Migration of Antigen-Bearing Dendritic Cells from the Skin to Draining Lymph...Cd40-Cd40 Ligand Interactions in Vivo Regulate Migration of Antigen-Bearing Dendritic Cells from the Skin to Draining Lymph...

Thus, CD40-CD40 ligand interactions in vivo regulate the migration of antigen-bearing DCs from the skin to DLNs via TNF-alpha ... in unsensitized CD40 ligand -/- mice as compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice. However, after contact sensitization of CD40 ... We analyzed the DC status of CD40 ligand -/- mice using a contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model system that enables multiple ... very few antigen-bearing DCs could be detected in the paracortical region of lymph nodes draining sensitized skin. This defect ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Cd40%E2%80%93Cd40-Ligand-Interactions-in-Vivo-Regulate-Mig-Moodycliffe-Shreedhar/bf1fdfa33235568639233fc305f44ccf6aa66b16

Balance of MafB and PU.1 specifies alternative macrophage or dendritic cell fate | Blood JournalBalance of MafB and PU.1 specifies alternative macrophage or dendritic cell fate | Blood Journal

Expression of the activation antigens CD40 and CD83 was analyzed by FACS. The average percentage of positive cells of 6 ... as demonstrated by the up-regulation of the activation antigens CD40 and CD83 after LPS stimulation for 48 hours (Figure 4D). ... C) FACS analysis of surface antigens CD1a, CD11b, CD86, and Langerin on an HL-60 clone expressing PUERiGFP and cultured for 6 ... Antigen processing for amateurs and professionals. Trends Cell Biol. 1998;8: 231-237. ...
more infohttp://www.bloodjournal.org/content/105/7/2707?ijkey=18f06efd57d6b5be88cf4c54c173d05b240c0121&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha&sso-checked=true

Up-regulation of CD40 with juxtacrine activity in human nonsmall lung cancer cells correlates with poor prognosis - Ishikawa -...Up-regulation of CD40 with juxtacrine activity in human nonsmall lung cancer cells correlates with poor prognosis - Ishikawa -...

The CD40 antigen and its ligand. Annu Rev Immunol. 1994; 12: 881-922.. *CrossRef, ... Thyroid cancers express CD-40 and CD-40 ligand: cancers that express CD-40 ligand may have a greater risk of recurrence in ... CD40-CD40 ligand (CD154) engagement is required but not sufficient for modulating MHC class I, ICAM-1 and Fas expression and ... CD40 is a prognostic marker in primary cutaneous malignant melanoma. Am J Pathol. 1996; 149: 1953-1961.. *PubMed, ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cncr.23618/references
  • Although the amount of antigen and the strength of T cell stimulation have been suggested to regulate Th1 vs. Th2 polarization, it remains unclear how the antigen dose and the strength of signal is detected by the T cell and translated into differential cytokine production. (nih.gov)
  • Mutations of the Gene for CD40 Antigen result in Hyper-IgM Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Type 3 . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • To investigate the association of SNP of CD40 gene and its serum levels with ischemic stroke (IS). (cdc.gov)
  • The single nucleotide polymorphisms of CD40 gene rs1883832 C/T, rs13040307 C/T, rs752118 C/T and rs3765459 G/A were analyzed using a Snapshot SNP genotyping assays, and the serum levels of CD40 were tested by ELISA. (cdc.gov)
  • CD40 gene rs1883832 C/T polymorphism and its TCCA haplotype were possibly associated with ischemic stroke, and the susceptibility gene for ischemic stroke may be rs1883832 T allele. (cdc.gov)
  • This defect in DC migration after hapten sensitization was associated with defective CHS responses and decreased cutaneous tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production and was corrected by injecting recombinant TNF-α or an agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody. (rupress.org)
  • More particularly, this invention provides isolated human and murine CD40-L polypeptides that bind to the extracellular binding region of a CD40 receptor. (google.com.au)
  • Analysis of Pneumocystis carinii organism burden, viability and antigens in bronchoalveolar lavage f. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The antigens that bind to MHC proteins are always short peptides, 8-10 amino acids long for MHC Class I, and up to 25 or so for MHC Class II. (wikipedia.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: Antigen-driven B-cell proliferation and maturation occur in germinal centres present in lymphoid tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This activation was found to be antigen-independent and not MHC restricted. (justia.com)