Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Adenoviral gene transfer into the normal and injured spinal cord: enhanced transgene stability by combined administration of temperature-sensitive virus and transient immune blockade. (1/4917)

This study characterized gene transfer into both normal and injured adult rat dorsal spinal cord using first (E1-/E3-) or second (E1-/E2A125/E3-, temperature-sensitive; ts) generation of replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors. A novel immunosuppressive regimen aimed at blocking CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors was tested for improving transgene persistence. In addition, the effect of gene transfer on nociception was also evaluated. Seven days after treatment, numerous LacZ-positive cells were observed after transfection with either viral vector. By 21 days after transfection, beta-galactosidase staining was reduced and suggestive of ongoing cytopathology in both Ad-treated groups, despite the fact that the immunogenicity of LacZ/Adts appeared less when compared with that elicited by the LacZ/Ad vector. In contrast, immunosuppressed animals showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in the number of LacZ-positive cells not displaying cytopathology. In these animals, a concomitant reduction in numbers of macrophages/microglia and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes was observed. Only animals that received LacZ/Adts and immunosuppression showed transgene expression after 60 days. Similar results were observed in animals in which the L4-L5 dorsal roots were lesioned before transfection. Gene transfer into the dorsal spinal cord did not affect nociception, independent of the adenovirus vector. These results indicate that immune blockade of the CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors enhanced transgene stability in adult animals with normal or injured spinal cords and that persistent transgene expression in the spinal cord does not interfere with normal neural function.  (+info)

The human F box protein beta-Trcp associates with the Cul1/Skp1 complex and regulates the stability of beta-catenin. (2/4917)

Ubiquitin-conjugation targets numerous cellular regulators for proteasome-mediated degradation. Thus, the identification of ubiquitin ligases and their physiological substrates is crucially important, especially for those cases in which aberrant levels of regulatory proteins (e.g., beta-catenin, p27) result from a deregulated ubiquitination pathway. In yeast, the proteolysis of several G1 regulators is controlled by ubiquitin ligases (or SCFs) formed by three subunits: Skp1, Cul A (Cdc53), and one of many F-box proteins. Specific F-box proteins (Fbps) recruit different substrates to the SCF. Although many Fbps have been identified in mammals, their specific substrates and the existence of multiple SCFs have not yet been reported. We have found that one human Fbp, beta-Trcp (beta-Transducin repeat containing protein), does indeed form a novel SCF with human Skp1 and Cul1. Consistent with recent reports indicating that Xenopus and Drosophila beta-Trcp homologs act as negative regulators of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, we report here that human beta-Trcp interacts with beta-catenin in vivo. Furthermore, beta-catenin is specifically stabilized in vivo by the expression of a dominant negative beta-Trcp. These results indicate that the Cul1/Skp1/beta-Trcp complex forms a ubiquitin ligase that mediates the degradation of beta-catenin.  (+info)

Elevated expression of the CD4 receptor and cell cycle arrest are induced in Jurkat cells by treatment with the novel cyclic dinucleotide 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid. (3/4917)

The effect of the novel, naturally occurring nucleotide cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) on the lymphoblastoid CD4+ Jurkat cell line was studied. When exposed to 50 microM c-di-GMP, Jurkat cells exhibited a markedly elevated expression of the CD4 receptor of up to 6.3-fold over controls. C-di-GMP also causes blockage of the cell cycle at the S-phase, characterized by increased cellular thymidine uptake, reduction in G2/M-phase cells, increase in S-phase cells and decreased cell division. Additionally c-di-GMP naturally enters these cells and binds irreversibly to the P21ras protein. The effects described appear to be unique for c-di-GMP.  (+info)

Interactions between Tat and TAR and human immunodeficiency virus replication are facilitated by human cyclin T1 but not cyclins T2a or T2b. (4/4917)

The transcriptional transactivator (Tat) from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) does not function efficiently in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Only somatic cell hybrids between CHO and human cells and CHO cells containing human chromosome 12 (CHO12) support high levels of Tat transactivation. This restriction was mapped to interactions between Tat and TAR. Recently, human cyclin T1 was found to increase the binding of Tat to TAR and levels of Tat transactivation in rodent cells. By combining individually with CDK9, cyclin T1 or related cyclins T2a and T2b form distinct positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complexes. In this report, we found that of these three cyclins, only cyclin T1 is encoded on human chromosome 12 and is responsible for its effects in CHO cells. Moreover, only human cyclin T1, not mouse cyclin T1 or human cyclins T2a or T2b, supported interactions between Tat and TAR in vitro. Finally, after introducing appropriate receptors and human cyclin T1 into CHO cells, they became permissive for infection by and replication of HIV.  (+info)

A functional, discontinuous HIV-1 gp120 C3/C4 domain-derived, branched, synthetic peptide that binds to CD4 and inhibits MIP-1alpha chemokine binding. (5/4917)

This paper describes a branched synthetic peptide [3.7] that incorporates sequence discontinuous residues of HIV-1 gp120 constant regions. The approach was to bring together residues of gp120 known to interact with human cell membranes such that the peptide could fold to mimic the native molecule. The peptide incorporates elements of both the conserved CD4 and CCR5 binding sites. The 3.7 peptide, which cannot be produced by conventional genetic engineering methods, is recognized by antiserum raised to native gp120. The peptide also binds to CD4 and competitively inhibits binding of QS4120 an antibody directed against the CDR2 region of CD4. When preincubated with the CD4+ve MM6 macrophage cell line, which expresses mRNA for the CCR3 and CCR5 chemokine receptors, both 3.7 and gp120 inhibit binding of the chemokine MIP-1alpha. The peptide also inhibits infection of primary macrophages by M-tropic HIV-1. Thus, 3.7 is a prototype candidate peptide for a vaccine against HIV-1 and represents a novel approach to the rational design of peptides that can mimic complex sequence discontinuous ligand binding sites of clinically relevant proteins.  (+info)

Cluster of differentiation antigen 4 (CD4) endocytosis and adaptor complex binding require activation of the CD4 endocytosis signal by serine phosphorylation. (6/4917)

Cluster of differentiation antigen 4 (CD4), the T lymphocyte antigen receptor component and human immunodeficiency virus coreceptor, is down-modulated when cells are activated by antigen or phorbol esters. During down-modulation CD4 dissociates from p56(lck), undergoes endocytosis through clathrin-coated pits, and is then sorted in early endosomes to late endocytic organelles where it is degraded. Previous studies have suggested that phosphorylation and a dileucine sequence are required for down-modulation. Using transfected HeLa cells, in which CD4 endocytosis can be studied in the absence of p56(lck), we show that the dileucine sequence in the cytoplasmic domain is essential for clathrin-mediated CD4 endocytosis. However, this sequence is only functional as an endocytosis signal when neighboring serine residues are phosphorylated. Phosphoserine is required for rapid endocytosis because CD4 molecules in which the cytoplasmic domain serine residues are substituted with glutamic acid residues are not internalized efficiently. Using surface plasmon resonance, we show that CD4 peptides containing the dileucine sequence bind weakly to clathrin adaptor protein complexes 2 and 1. The affinity of this interaction is increased 350- to 700-fold when the peptides also contain phosphoserine residues.  (+info)

Potent inhibition of CD4/TCR-mediated T cell apoptosis by a CD4-binding glycoprotein secreted from breast tumor and seminal vesicle cells. (7/4917)

We previously isolated a CD4 ligand glycoprotein, gp17, from human seminal plasma; this glycoprotein is identical with gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), a factor specifically secreted from primary and secondary breast tumors. The function of gp17/GCDFP-15 in physiological as well as in pathological conditions has remained elusive thus far. As a follow up to our previous findings that gp17 binds to CD4 with high affinity and interferes with both HIV-1 gp120 binding to CD4 and syncytium formation, we investigated whether gp17 could affect the T lymphocyte apoptosis induced by a separate ligation of CD4 and TCR. We show here that gp17/GCDFP-15 is in fact a strong and specific inhibitor of the T lymphocyte programmed cell death induced by CD4 cross-linking and subsequent TCR activation. The antiapoptotic effect observed in the presence of gp17 correlates with a moderate up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression in treated cells. The presence of gp17 also prevents the down-modulation of Bcl-2 expression in Bcl-2bright CD4+ T cells that is caused by the triggering of apoptosis. Our results suggest that gp17 may represent a new immunomodulatory CD4 binding factor playing a role in host defense against infections and tumors.  (+info)

Oligoclonality of rat intestinal intraepithelial T lymphocytes: overlapping TCR beta-chain repertoires in the CD4 single-positive and CD4/CD8 double-positive subsets. (8/4917)

Previous studies in humans and mice have shown that gut intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) express oligoclonal TCR beta-chain repertoires. These studies have either employed unseparated IEL preparations or focused on the CD8+ subsets. Here, we have analyzed the TCR beta-chain repertoire of small intestinal IELs in PVG rats, in sorted CD4+ as well as CD8+ subpopulations, and important differences were noted. CD8alphaalpha and CD8alphabeta single-positive (SP) IELs used most Vbeta genes, but relative Vbeta usage as determined by quantitative PCR analysis differed markedly between the two subsets and among individual rats. By contrast, CD4+ IELs showed consistent skewing toward Vbeta17 and Vbeta19; these two genes accounted collectively for more than half the Vbeta repertoire in the CD4/CD8 double-positive (DP) subset and were likewise predominant in CD4 SP IELs. Complementarity-determining region 3 length displays and TCR sequencing demonstrated oligoclonal expansions in both the CD4+ and CD8+ IEL subpopulations. These studies also revealed that the CD4 SP and CD4/CD8 DP IEL subsets expressed overlapping beta-chain repertoires. In conclusion, our results show that rat TCR-alphabeta+ IELs of both the CD8+ and CD4+ subpopulations are oligoclonal. The limited Vbeta usage and overlapping TCR repertoire expressed by CD4 SP and CD4/CD8 DP cells suggest that these two IEL populations recognize restricted intestinal ligands and are developmentally and functionally related.  (+info)

Inhibition of HIV-1 progeny virion release by cell-surface CD4 is relieved by expression of the viral Nef protein.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
When Leptospira swims, PF rotations transform the cell ends into a left-handed spiral-shape (Spiral-end) or half-circle hook-shape (Hook-end) and gyrate them counterclockwise (CCW; defined by viewing a swimming cell from the anterior side to the posterior side) (movie S1). Meanwhile, PC rotates clockwise (CW), and because PFs are attached to PC via basal rotary motors (flagellar motors), PC is believed to be rotated by counter-torques of PF rotations. Both ends of the Leptospira cell body frequently change their shape between spiral and hook shapes with a switching of rotational direction, and cell configuration is associated with the motility form; when displaying the spiral shape at one end and the hook shape at the other end, the cell swims in the direction of the Spiral-end, and when displaying symmetric configurations (for example, both cell ends exhibit the spiral shape), the cell rotates without net displacement (6, 11, 12). Figure 1B shows a kymograph of a cell swimming in a motility ...
Atomic structure of the antibody VRC01 (blue and green) binding to HIV (grey and red). The precise site of VRC01-HIV binding (red) is a subset of the area ...
1RZ7: Structural basis of tyrosine sulfation and VH-gene usage in antibodies that recognize the HIV type 1 coreceptor-binding site on gp120
1RZ8: Structural basis of tyrosine sulfation and VH-gene usage in antibodies that recognize the HIV type 1 coreceptor-binding site on gp120
TY - JOUR. T1 - CD4+/CD56+ hematodermic neoplasmの1例.. AU - Iwatsuki, Keiji. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Article. VL - 21. SP - 125. EP - 131. JO - Skin Cancer. JF - Skin Cancer. IS - 2. ER - ...
In vitro experiments using purified rat CD4+ T cells in primary and secondary mixed leukocyte cultures (MLC) have been carried out to explore the mechanism of inhibition of cell-mediated autoimmune disease in the rat by a nondepleting monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CD4. Previous work has shown that W3/25, a mouse anti-rat CD4 mAb of immunoglobulin G1 isotype, completely prevents the development of the paralysis associated with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats, but does so without eliminating the encephalitogenic T cells. The in vitro experiments described in this study have shown that when CD4+ T cells were activated in the presence of the anti-CD4 mAb in a primary MLC, the synthesis of interferon (IFN) gamma, but not interleukin (IL) 2, was completely inhibited. After secondary stimulation, now in the absence of the mAb, the synthesis of IL-4 and IL-13 mRNA was greatly enhanced compared with that observed from CD4+ T cells derived from primary cultures in which the mAb ...
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attachment to host cells is a multi-step process that involves interaction of the viral envelope gp120 with the primary receptor CD4 and coreceptors. HIV gp120 also binds to other cell surface components, including heparan sulfate (HS), a sulfated polysaccharide whose wide interactive properties are exploited by many pathogens for attachment and concentration at the cell surface. To analyze the structural features of gp120 binding to HS, we used soluble CD4 to constrain gp120 in a specific conformation. We first found that CD4 induced conformational change of gp120, dramatically increasing binding to HS. We then showed that HS binding interface on gp120 comprised, in addition to the well characterized V3 loop, a CD4-induced epitope. This epitope is efficiently targeted by nanomolar concentrations of size-defined heparin/HS-derived oligosaccharides. Because this domain of the protein also constitutes the binding site for the viral coreceptors, these results support an
T cell (TC) activation requires the coordinated signaling of the T cell receptor (TCR) and coreceptor molecules, allowing TCs to respond to lower degrees of TCR occupancy. Coreceptor molecules set the threshold for TC activation by controlling different regulatory signaling loops. The Cbl family members prevent undesired activation of T cells by regulating TCR signals. In this report, we show that TC prestimulation by the CD43 coreceptor molecule before TCR engagement inhibits TCR-dependent c-Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation, c-Cbl interaction with the adapter molecule Crk-L and promotes Cbl-b degradation in a PKCθ-dependent manner. Consequently, the prolonged tyrosine phosphorylation and delayed degradation of ZAP-70 and of the ζ chain lead to enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and robust TC response. These data indicates that CD43-mediated signals lower the threshold for TC activation by restricting the c-Cbl and Cbl-b inhibitory effects on TCR signaling. In addition to the strength
Post-Doctoral Fellow, *Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, *Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mt. Sinai Hospital, Toronto, *Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathobiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto ...
In this study, we have investigated the effect of specific mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) on antibody production in an effort to improve humoral immune responses to this glycoprotein by DNA vaccination. Mice were injected with plasmid expression vectors encoding HIV Env with modifications in regions that might affect this response. Elimination of conserved glycosylation sites did not substantially enhance humoral or cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) immunity. In contrast, a modified gp140 with different COOH-terminal mutations intended to mimic a fusion intermediate and stabilize trimer formation enhanced humoral immunity without reducing the efficacy of the CTL response. This mutant, with deletions in the cleavage site, fusogenic domain, and spacing of heptad repeats 1 and 2, retained native antigenic conformational determinants as defined by binding to known monoclonal antibodies or CD4, oligomer formation, and virus neutralization in vitro. Importantly, ...
1rzf: Structural basis of tyrosine sulfation and VH-gene usage in antibodies that recognize the HIV type 1 coreceptor-binding site on gp120.
Rabbit polyclonal Bid Cleavage Site antibody validated for WB and tested in Human and Mouse. Referenced in 2 publications and 1 independent review. Immunogen…
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寻找FOXP2的工作始于对KE(或称K)家族的研究。该家族的一些成员患有遗传性的言语障碍,且有三代在世的家族成员受其害。进一步的研究显示,该基因为常染色体显性。通过对患病与无病的家族成员的染色体的扫描,研究人员将该基因定位在第7号染色体上。这个基因最初被称为SPCH1。接下来又通过细菌人工染色体手段对该染色体上的相关区域进行了测序。在基因测序开展期间,他们又找到了另一位患有这种先天性言语障碍,但不属于KE家族的病人。对这个新样本的染色体扫描显示,第7对染色体一处有断裂。 ...
One thing about my old horse, Calico, you can fall asleep in the saddle and he keeps on traveling. Well, this afternoon, I did just that. I woke up near the town of Crittermill to the sounds of singing and shouting! There was a big tent in the distance with hundreds of people jumping and hollering at the top of their voices. Seems there was a self-proclaimed miracle-workin, preacher man by the name of Willy Poppit. He had a hand painted sign outside the tent which read, Man, I Cure! The Willy Poppit Power-on-High Heaven-Sent Anointed Revival and Mobile Library. Another sign read, Snake Handling 101 and on the tent itself, someone had written in bold red letters, Name Your Poison…and Ill Drink it! Baskets for money were being passed around as the white haired figure behind the pulpit was barking like a wounded dog on a trail drive. I think he knew who I was, for he made his way down, looked me in the face with his wild-eyed stare, and said…Yabba Dabba Doo and YOU CAN TOO! Then he ...
immunoglobulin G1-kappa, anti-[human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp120 third variable loop V3], humanized monoclonal antibody
Two negatives used together in a sentence constitute a double negative. The use of a double negative to express a positive is acceptable, although it yields a weaker affirmative than the simpler positive and may be confusing: Our results are not inconsistent with the prior hypothesis. More direct incentives have produced substantial changes in behavior in the past, although not without adverse consequences. Rheumatologic symptoms were not uncommon in both groups. However, it is not grammatically acceptable to use a double negative to emphasize the negative. In the following example, the double negative conveys the opposite of what is intended.The
Two negatives used together in a sentence constitute a double negative. The use of a double negative to express a positive is acceptable, although it yields a weaker affirmative than the simpler positive and may be confusing: Our results are not inconsistent with the prior hypothesis. More direct incentives have produced substantial changes in behavior in the past, although not without adverse consequences. Rheumatologic symptoms were not uncommon in both groups. However, it is not grammatically acceptable to use a double negative to emphasize the negative. In the following example, the double negative conveys the opposite of what is intended.The
Laboratory testing that includes routine HIV-1 viral load and CD4+ cell counts will be completed to assess the continued benefit of ibalizumab to the patient's HIV treatment ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. ibalizumab ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
The Sisters are two small rock islands in San Pablo Bay, located 500 meters (1,600 ft) northeast of Point San Pedro in Marin County, California. The Sisters, along with The Brothers on the opposite side of the San Pablo Strait, were originally reserved for military purposes by order of President Andrew Johnson in 1867. After many a court battle the plans were scrapped.[1] ...
Knockdown of transmembrane protein 209 (TMEM209) by siRNA enhances the early stages of HIV-1 replication in HeLa-CD4 cells infected with viral pseudotypes HIV89.6R and HIV8.2 ...
The high-affinity in vivo interaction between soluble HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) immunogens and primate CD4 results in conformational changes that alter the immunogenicity of the gp120 subunit. Because the conserved binding site on gp120 that directly interacts with CD4 is a major vaccine target, we sought to better understand the impact of in vivo Env-CD4 interactions during vaccination. Rhesus macaques were immunized with soluble wild-type (WT) Env trimers, and two trimer immunogens rendered CD4 binding defective through distinct mechanisms. In one variant, we introduced a mutation that directly disrupts CD4 binding (368D/R). In the second variant, we introduced three mutations (423I/M, 425N/K, and 431G/E) that disrupt CD4 binding indirectly by altering a gp120 subdomain known as the bridging sheet, which is required for locking Env into a stable interaction with CD4. Following immunization, Env-specific binding antibody titers and frequencies of Env-specific memory B cells were ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The main aim of this project involves characterizing the role of the HIV envelope protein (gp120/41) in the pathogenesis of HIV disease. This effort has include...
Paraf, A; Taylor, D W.; Mage, M; and Mathieson, B J., Analysis of membrane proteins from lyt 2+ positive thymocytes. Abstr. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2005 ...
BOUVIN-PLEY M, MORGAND M, MEYER L, GOUJARD C, MOREAU A, MOUQUET H, NUSSENZWEIG M, PACE C, HO D, BJORKMAN PJ, BATY D, CHAMES P, PANCERA M, KWONG PD, POIGNARD P, BARIN F, BRAIBANT M. Drift of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 toward increased neutralization resistance over the course of the epidemic: a comprehensive study using the most potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Braibant M. J Virol 2014, 88, 13910-13917 ...
We previously reported that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 NL4-3 Nef is necessary and sufficient to induce a severe AIDS-like disease in transgenic (Tg) mice when the protein is expressed under the regulatory sequences of the human CD4 gene. We have now assayed additional Nef alleles (SF2, JR-CSF, YU10x, and NL4-3 [T71R] Nef alleles), including some from long-term nonprogressors (AD-93, 032an, and 039nm alleles) in the same Tg system and compared their pathogenicities. All these Nef alleles downregulated cell surface CD4 in human cells in vitro and also, with the exception of NefYU10x, in Tg CD4+ T cells. Depletion of double-positive and single-positive thymocytes occurred with all alleles but was less pronounced in NefYU10x Tg mice. A loss of peripheral CD4+ T cells was observed with all alleles but was minimal in NefYU10x Tg mice. In Nef032an and NefSF2 Tg mice, T-cell loss was severe despite lower levels of Tg expression, suggesting a higher virulence of these alleles. All Nef ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human immunodeficiency virus envelope protein Gp120 induces proliferation but not apoptosis in osteoblasts at physiologic concentrations. AU - Cummins, Nathan W.. AU - Klicpera, Anna. AU - Sainski, Amy M.. AU - Bren, Gary D.. AU - Khosla, Sundeep. AU - Westendorf, Jennifer J.. AU - Badley, Andrew D.. PY - 2011/9/12. Y1 - 2011/9/12. N2 - Patients with HIV infection have decreased numbers of osteoblasts, decreased bone mineral density and increased risk of fracture compared to uninfected patients; however, the molecular mechanisms behind these associations remain unclear. We questioned whether Gp120, a component of the envelope protein of HIV capable of inducing apoptosis in many cell types, is able to induce cell death in bone-forming osteoblasts. We show that treatment of immortalized osteoblast-like cells and primary human osteoblasts with exogenous Gp120 in vitro at physiologic concentrations does not result in apoptosis. Instead, in the osteoblast-like U2OS cell line, cells ...
Seven diverse primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were examined and found to be refractory to neutralization by antisera to recombinant gp120 (rgp120) protein from HIV-1 MN. This stands in marked contrast to the sensitivity exhibited by certain laboratory-adapted viruses. To understand the difference between primary and laboratory-adapted viruses, we adapted the primary virus ACH 168.10 to growth in the FDA/H9 cell line. ACH 168.10 was chosen because the V3 region of gp120 closely matches that of MN. After 4 weeks, infection became evident. The virus (168A) replicated in FDA/H9 cells with extensive cytopathic effect but was unchanged in sensitivity to antibody-mediated neutralization. Thus, growth in cell lines is not sufficient to render primary virus sensitive to neutralization. The 168A virus was, however, partially sensitive to CD4 immunoadhesin (CD4-Ig). Adaptation was continued to produce a persistently infected FDA/H9 culture that displayed minimal cytopathic ...
Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), a pharmaceutical excipient used for enteric film coating of capsules and tablets, was shown to inhibit infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and several herpesviruses. CAP formulations inactivated HIV-1, herpesvirus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) and the major nonviral sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens and were effective in animal models for vaginal infection by HSV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus. Enzyme-linked immunoassays and flow cytometry were used to demonstrate CAP binding to HIV-1 and to define the binding site on the virus envelope. 1) CAP binds to HIV-1 virus particles and to the envelope glycoprotein gp120; 2) this leads to blockade of the gp120 V3 loop and other gp120 sites resulting in diminished reactivity with HIV-1 coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5; 3) CAP binding to HIV-1 virions impairs their infectivity; 4) these findings apply to both HIV-1 IIIB, an X4 virus, and HIV-1 BaL, an R5 virus. These results provide support for
It means protection from hepatitis B. Either you had a vaccine in the past or you had natural infection and recovered. A core antibody would help to tell the...
Falkowska E, Ramos A, Feng Y, Zhou T, Moquin S, Walker LM, Wu X, Seaman MS, Wrin T, Kwong PD et al.. 2012. PGV04, an HIV-1 gp120 CD4 binding site antibody, is broad and potent in neutralization but does not induce conformational changes characteristic of CD4.. J Virol. 86(8):4394-403. ...
a href=http://www.uni-protokolle.de/nachrichten/id/292387/,Scientists at Mainz University identify a new population of regulatory T-cells ,/a, ...
HIV gp160山羊多克隆抗体(ab117122)经WB, ELISA实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
TY - JOUR. T1 - CD4-Independent Infection of Astrocytes by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1. T2 - Requirement for the Human Mannose Receptor. AU - Liu, Ying. AU - Liu, Hao. AU - Kim, Byung Oh. AU - Gattone, Vincent H.. AU - Li, Jinliang. AU - Nath, Avindra. AU - Blum, Janice. AU - He, Johnny J.. PY - 2004/4/1. Y1 - 2004/4/1. N2 - Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection occurs in the central nervous system and causes a variety of neurobehavioral and neuropathological disorders. Both microglia, the residential macrophages in the brain, and astrocytes are susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Unlike microglia that express and utilize CD4 and chemokine coreceptors CCR5 and CCR3 for HIV-1 infection, astrocytes fail to express CD4. Astrocytes express several chemokine coreceptors; however, the involvement of these receptors in astrocyte HIV-1 infection appears to be insignificant. In the present study using an expression cloning strategy, the cDNA for the human mannose receptor (hMR) was ...
The coexpression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins and receptors leads to the lysis of single cells by a process that is dependent upon membrane fusion. This cell lysis was inhibited by low-molecular-weight compounds that interfere with receptor binding or with receptor-induced conformational transitions in the envelope glycoproteins. A peptide, T20, potently inhibited cell-cell fusion but had no effect on single cell lysis mediated by the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. Thus, critical events in the lysis of single cells by the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins occur in intracellular compartments accessible only to small inhibitory compounds.
Differentiation of immature CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes into mature CD4+ or CD8+ T cells occurs within the thymus and is dependent upon expression of antigen receptor complexes (T cell receptor [TCR]) containing clonotypic alpha/beta proteins. We have recently found that CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes express low levels of surface TCR because of limitations placed on TCR assembly by the instability of nascent TCR-alpha proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of immature thymocytes. Because TCR-alpha/beta expression increases during development, a molecular mechanism must exist for increasing the number of assembled TCR complexes present in immature CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes that have been signaled to differentiate into mature T cells, although no such mechanism has yet been described. In the current report we have examined the molecular consequences of intracellular signals generated by engagement of surface TCR complexes on immature CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes. Isolated TCR engagement generated signals that ...
Looking for online definition of regulatory T cells in the Medical Dictionary? regulatory T cells explanation free. What is regulatory T cells? Meaning of regulatory T cells medical term. What does regulatory T cells mean?
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Strategies for the Improvement of HIV Envelope Protein Expression and Yield (R41/R42) PA-16-182. NIAID
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1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. HLA-DOB ... 1992). "DNA sequence analysis of 66 kb of the human MHC class II region encoding a cluster of genes for antigen processing". J ...
Macrophages and T lymphocytes demonstrated a marked expression of HLA-DR antigen. A delayed type hypersensitivity reaction of ... in xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis). Many T lymphocytes were identified by these authors positive to CD4 and CD8. ...
Dalgleish AG, Beverley PC, Clapham PR, Crawford DH, Greaves MF, Weiss RA (1984). "The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential ... Binding to CD4 induces the start of a cascade of conformational changes in gp120 and gp41 that lead to the fusion of the viral ... Since CD4 receptor binding is the most obvious step in HIV infection, gp120 was among the first targets of HIV vaccine research ... Binding to CD4 is mainly electrostatic although there are van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds[citation needed]. Gp120 ...
MHC:antigen juga dikenali oleh protein CD4 yang penting dalam pengaktifan sel T. Sel T pembantu memiliki ikatan yang lebih ... oleh pengenal antigen.[59] Respons imun adaptif bersifat spesifik terhadap antigen tertentu dan membutuhkan pengenalan antigen ... Oleh sistem imun, antigen tersebut dianggap sebagai antigen asing dan keberadaannya mendorong sel imun untuk menyerang sel ... Kompleks MHC dan antigen ini menarik sel T pembantu yang memiliki kesesuaian dengan antigen, yang selanjutnya melepaskan ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... "CD4/major histocompatibility complex class II interaction analyzed with CD4- and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3)-Ig fusion ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ...
Indirect xenorecognition involves the presentation of antigens from the xenograft by recipient antigen presenting cells to CD4+ ... In direct xenorecognition, antigen presenting cells from the xenograft present peptides to recipient CD4+ T cells via ... Antigens of phagocytosed graft cells can also be presented by the host's class I MHC molecules to CD8+ T cells.[1][29] ... These antigens (foreign objects) are often treated with powerful immunosuppressive drugs that could, in turn, make the patient ...
... exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help.[57] Antigen ... Double-positive thymocytes (CD4+/CD8+) move deep into the thymic cortex, where they are presented with self-antigens. These ... These cells are also known as CD4+ T cells because they express the CD4 glycoprotein on their surfaces. Helper T cells become ... Double-positive cells (CD4+/CD8+) that interact well with MHC class II molecules will eventually become CD4+ cells, whereas ...
1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... Clayton LK, Sieh M, Pious DA, Reinherz EL (1989). "Identification of human CD4 residues affecting class II MHC versus HIV-1 ... Rosenstein Y, Burakoff SJ, Herrmann SH (1990). "HIV-gp120 can block CD4-class II MHC-mediated adhesion". J. Immunol. 144 (2): ... Marsh SG, Bodmer JG (1993). "HLA class II nucleotide sequences, 1992". Tissue Antigens. 40 (5): 229-43. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ...
Rajasingham, R; Boulware, DR (Dec 2012). "Reconsidering cryptococcal antigen screening in the U.S. among persons with CD4 ... The World Health Organization recommends cryptococcal antigen screening in HIV-infected persons entering care with CD4. < or = ... in persons with CD4 counts lower than 100 cells/mcL. Cryptococcal antigen screen and preemptive treatment with fluconazole is ... Cryptococcal antigen from cerebrospinal fluid is the best test for diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis in terms of sensitivity ...
1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP(W2) beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DPB1 gene. HLA-DPB ... 1991). "Modulation of the HLA class II antigen at a molecular level by maternal serum among cord blood cells and unrelated ... Eiermann TH, Uhl S, Fakler J, Goldmann SF (1992). "A novel HLA-DPB1 sequence, DPB1*2301". Tissue Antigens. 40 (2): 108-10. doi: ...
1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... Gorski J, Mach B (1986). "Polymorphism of human Ia antigens: gene conversion between two DR beta loci results in a new HLA-D/DR ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB3-1 beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRB3 gene. The ... Clayton LK, Sieh M, Pious DA, Reinherz EL (1989). "Identification of human CD4 residues affecting class II MHC versus HIV-1 ...
1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DM beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DMB gene. HLA-DMB ... Clayton LK, Sieh M, Pious DA, Reinherz EL (1989). "Identification of human CD4 residues affecting class II MHC versus HIV-1 ...
... giant cell formation and involvement of CD4 antigen". Science. 232 (4754): 1123-7. Bibcode:1986Sci...232.1123L. doi:10.1126/ ...
1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... Identification of these antigens has led to greater success and longevity in organ transplant. Antigens most responsible for ... human leukocyte antigens) were originally defined as cell surface antigens that mediate graft-versus-host disease. ... cell responses that eventually lead to the production of antibodies against the same peptide antigen. Antigen-presenting cells ...
1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... Also known as HLA-DXA or DAAP-381D23.2, it is part of the human leucocyte antigen system. The protein encoded by this gene is ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ(6) alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DQA2 gene. ...
1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB5 beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRB5 gene. The ... Clayton LK, Sieh M, Pious DA, Reinherz EL (1989). "Identification of human CD4 residues affecting class II MHC versus HIV-1 ... Rosenstein Y, Burakoff SJ, Herrmann SH (1990). "HIV-gp120 can block CD4-class II MHC-mediated adhesion". J. Immunol. 144 (2): ...
1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... Clayton LK, Sieh M, Pious DA, Reinherz EL (1989). "Identification of human CD4 residues affecting class II MHC versus HIV-1 ... Rosenstein Y, Burakoff SJ, Herrmann SH (1990). "HIV-gp120 can block CD4-class II MHC-mediated adhesion". J. Immunol. 144 (2): ... Wu S, Saunders TL, Bach FH (1987). "Polymorphism of human Ia antigens generated by reciprocal intergenic exchange between two ...
Isolation and characterization of human antigen-specific TCR alpha beta+ CD4(-)CD8- double-negative regulatory T cells. „Blood ... Komórki te są słabiej zbadane od komórek CD4+Foxp3+;. *limfocyty T regulatorowe typu 1 (Tr1)[13] - komórki o fenotypie CD4+ ... Rapid suppression of cytokine transcription in human CD4+CD25 T cells by CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells: independence of IL-2 ... T regulatory and primed uncommitted CD4 T cells express CD73, which suppresses effector CD4 T cells by converting 5'-adenosine ...
"Antigen-specific T-T interactions regulate CD4 T-cell expansion". Blood. 112 (4): 1249-1258. doi:10.1182/blood-2007-09-114389. ... on B cells interacts with the antigen recognized on antigen-presenting cells. Like in lymphocytes, trogocytosis occurs with PMN ... The notion that membrane fragments, and not isolated molecules, could be captured by T cells on antigen-presenting cells was ... It is likely that trogocytosis does not involve the capture of vesicles such as exosomes secreted by antigen-presenting cells. ...
"Recognition of cluster of differentiation 1 antigens by human CD4-CD8-cytolytic T lymphocytes". Nature. 341 (6241): 447-50. ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. This often remains true in neoplastic cells from ... They are related to the class I MHC molecules, and are involved in the presentation of lipid antigens to T cells. However their ...
Maccalli C, Li YF, El-Gamil M, Rosenberg SA, Robbins PF (2003). "Identification of a colorectal tumor-associated antigen (COA-1 ... recognized by CD4(+) T lymphocytes". Cancer Res. 63 (20): 6735-43. PMC 2275323. PMID 14583468. Colland F, Jacq X, Trouplin V, ...
"The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus". Nature. 312 (5996): 763-767. Bibcode: ... In particular he identified CD4 as a major receptive for HIV in humans, produced the first report of a link between Slim ... where he helped identify CD4 as the major cellular receptor for HIV. In 1986, he was appointed to a consulting position at ...
All patients had stable or decreased viral load; four of the five patients had stable or increased CD4 T cell counts. All five ... Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy) are the FDA's first approved gene therapies to enter the market. Since that time, ... March 2014). "Gene editing of CCR5 in autologous CD4 T cells of persons infected with HIV". The New England Journal of Medicine ... A single intravenous infusion of autologous CD4 T cells genetically modified with VRX496 was well tolerated. ...
HIV infects T cells that carry the CD4 antigen on their surface. When HIV infects its target cell it requires fusion of the ... CD4 receptor) on the target cell. Then the virus binds to the chemokine coreceptors CXCR4 or CCR5, resulting in conformational ...
Exogenous antigens are usually displayed on MHC class II molecules, which activate CD4+T helper cells. Endogenous antigens are ... A critical difference between B cells and T cells is how each cell "sees" an antigen. T cells recognize their cognate antigen ... The host's cells express "self" antigens. These antigens are different from those on the surface of bacteria or on the surface ... Most large molecules, including virtually all proteins and many polysaccharides, can serve as antigens. The parts of an antigen ...
The lymphocytes present in VUE are predominantly CD8+ T-cells then CD4. There is usually a ratio of 0.1 to 0.5 for CD4/CD8. The ... Majority of the antigen-presenting cells were Hofbauer cells (macrophages) were of foetal origin. Perivillous monocyte- ... Foetal macrophages in VUE proliferate and are activated as a result of the up-regulation of MHC class 2 antigen expression. ... The trafficking of maternal lymphocytes responding to an antigen in the chronic deciduitis could activate and enter via the ...
In the example of CD4 & CD8, these molecules are critical in antigen recognition. Others (e.g., CD135) act as cell surface ... binds CD4 and a chemokine receptor on the surface of a T helper cell to gain entry. The number of CD4 and CD8 T cells in blood ... Two commonly used CD molecules are CD4 and CD8, which are, in general, used as markers for helper and cytotoxic T cells, ... White Cell Differentiation Antigens. Oxford University Press. Knapp, W; et al. (1989). Leucocyte Typing IV. Oxford University ...
Bunce, Campbell; Bell, Eric B. (1997-02-17). "CD45RC Isoforms Define Two Types of CD4 Memory T Cells, One of which Depends on ... Marshall's work has investigated how mast cells are involved in the early immune response to infection and antigen. She is best ... Persisting Antigen". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 185 (4): 767-776. doi:10.1084/jem.185.4.767. ISSN 0022-1007. PMC ... roles of mast cells and their ability to mobilize dendritic cells during the early immune response to infection or antigen. Her ...
"Psoriatic arthritis joint fluids are characterized by CD8 and CD4 T cell clonal expansions appear antigen driven". Journal of ...
They express LCAs (leucocyte common antigens) CD45, CD14, CD33, and CD4 (also expressed by T helper cells). These histiocytes ... Their main activity is antigen presentation; they express Factor XIIIa, CD1c, and Class II Human leukocyte antigens. A subset ... Langerhans cells are antigen-presenting cells but have undergone further differentiation. Skin Langerhans cells express CD1a, ... Phagocytosis is the main process of macrophages and antigen presentation the main property of dendritic cells (so called ...
Surface antigens[edit]. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... Helper CD4+ / TFH / Th3 / Th17 / Regulatory). *γδ ... Pieces of the antigen (which are now known as antigenic ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ...
一个T细胞的命运就在阳性选择的过程中被决定。在双阳性(CD4+/CD8+)T细胞中,能够与MHC-II分子结合得较好的将成为CD4+细胞,而和MHC-I分子有更高亲和力的将成为CD8+细胞。将成为CD4+细胞的细胞将会逐渐下调自己的CD8,最终成为
... for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching (see PGD for HLA matching) in order to donate to an ill sibling requiring HSCT. ... during which neither showed traces of HIV in their blood plasma and purified CD4 T cells using a sensitive culture method (less ... the donor should preferably have the same human leukocyte antigens (HLA) as the recipient. About 25 to 30 percent of allogeneic ...
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ... "The aged microenvironment contributes to the age-related functional defects of CD4 T cells in mice". Aging Cell. 11 (5): 732-40 ... The age-associated impairment of dendritic Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) has profound implications as this translates into a ... Hakim, F.T.; R.E. Gress (2007). "Immunosenescence: deficits in adaptive immunity in elderly". Tissue Antigens. 70 (3): 179-189 ...
... antigen - antigen presentation - antigen-presenting cell (APC) - antineoplastic - antiprotozoal - antiretroviral drugs - ... CD4 (T4) or CD4 + cells - CDC National Prevention Information Network (CDC-NPIN) - cell lines - cell-mediated immunity (CMI) - ... human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell ...
CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors and CD4 ... These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing the dilation of ... CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T and B cells ... class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. Helper T cells ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
APCs then present the fragments to T helper cells (CD4+) by the use of class II histocompatibility molecules on their surface. ... Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens[edit]. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... Tumor antigens[edit]. Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the ...
showed that TNFα causes an IL-10-dependent inhibition of CD4 T-cell expansion and function by up-regulating PD-1 levels on ... "Cytotoxicity mediated by soluble antigen and lymphocytes in delayed hypersensitivity. 3. Analysis of mechanism". J. Exp. Med ...
T-cell sensitivity to antigen could be increased via avidity-based mechanism. The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen- ... On helper T cells and regulatory T cells, this co-receptor is CD4 that is specific for MHC class II. ... Each recombined TCR possess unique antigen specificity, determined by the structure of the antigen-binding site formed by the α ... many TCRs recognize the same antigen peptide and many antigen peptides are recognized by the same TCR.[2] ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
The ability of T cells to recognize foreign antigens is mediated by the T-cell receptor. The T-cell receptor undergoes genetic ... most of which express CD4. Autoimmune diseases are caused by a hyperactive immune system that instead of attacking pathogens ... Each T cell attacks a different antigen. T cells that attack the body's own proteins are eliminated in the thymus. Thymic ... This expression in the thymus, allows for the deletion of autoreactive thymocytes by exposing them to self-antigens during ...
Human Antibodies Against Cell Surface Tumor Antigens Selected From Repertoires Displayed on T Cell Chimeric Antigen Receptors" ... CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7, CD8 - + TdT + + CytogeneticsEdit. Cytogenetic analysis has shown different proportions and frequencies ... TdT is a protein expressed early in the development of pre-T and pre-B cells, whereas CALLA is an antigen found in 80% of ALL ... Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been developed as a promising immunotherapy for ALL. This technology uses a single chain ...
... expression affects at least two stages in the HIV life cycle inside CD4 T cells, significantly limiting production of new ... p21 interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in ... Podust VN, Podust LM, Goubin F, Ducommun B, Huebscher U (1995). "Mechanism of inhibition of proliferating cell nuclear antigen- ... with proliferating cell nuclear antigen impedes negative growth control". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (4): 2766-74. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
CD3 (Muromonab-CD3, Oteliksizumab, Teplizumab, Visilizumab) • CD4 (Klenoliksimab, Keliksimab, Zanolimumab) • CD11a (Efalizumab) ... Induction of Potent and Long-Lasting T-Cell Responses against Cancer Antigens". Cancer Research 62: 1477-1480. ... "A divalent major histocompatibility complex/IgG1 fusion protein induces antigen-specific T cell activation in vitro and in ...
It occurs when the lymphocyte is activated by an antigen (from antigen-presenting cells) and increased in volume by nucleus and ... Helper CD4+ / TFH / Th3 / Th17 / Regulatory). *γδ ... with each sharing the originally unique antigen specificity. ... "A lymphocyte that has become larger after being stimulated by an antigen. Lymphoblasts look like immature lymphocytes, and were ...
... any antibody produced against this antigen (which mimics the self-antigens) can also, in theory, bind to the host antigens, and ... Suppressor population or Regulatory T cell theory, wherein regulatory T-lymphocytes (commonly CD4+FoxP3+ cells, among others) ... Molecular Mimicry - An exogenous antigen may share structural similarities with certain host antigens; thus, ... T-Cell-B-Cell discordance - A normal immune response is assumed to involve B and T cell responses to the same antigen, even if ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
mostraron que o TNFα causa unha inhibición dependente de IL-10 da expansión e funcionamento das células T CD4 ao regular á alza ... "Cytotoxicity mediated by soluble antigen and lymphocytes in delayed hypersensitivity. 3. Analysis of mechanism". J. Exp. Med. ...
Antigen mixtures. Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans hsp60, as peptide transporter and adjuvant for antigen presentation. ... CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells). In some cases, it occurs in a heterodimer (combination molecule), e.g., paired with TLR-1 or TLR ... Rather, they infiltrate the spleen and lymph nodes, and each presents components of an antigen there, as the result of which ... specific antibodies are formed that recognize precisely that antigen. These newly formed antibodies would arrive too late in an ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
Exogenous antigens are usually displayed on MHC class II molecules, which activate CD4+T helper cells.[2] ... Exogenous antigensEdit. Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells or "helper" CD4+ cells. ... Antigen presentationEdit. Main article: Antigen presentation. Acquired immunity relies on the capacity of immune cells to ... Endogenous antigensEdit. Endogenous antigens are produced by intracellular bacteria and viruses replicating within a host cell ...
"Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
"Guiding the selection of human antibodies from phage display repertoires to a single epitope of an antigen". Bio/Technology. 12 ... drug were found by guiding the selection of human antibodies from phage display repertoires to a single epitope of an antigen ...
... anti soluble liver antigen (SLA), liver-pancreas antigen (LP), and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA)) are of use, as is finding ... The most numerous cell in the infiltrate is the CD4-positive T cell. ... Positive antibodies against soluble liver antigen[14] (this group behaves like group 1)[15] (anti-SLA, anti-LP) ... "Expression of class I and class II major histocompatibility complex antigens on human hepatocytes". Hepatology. 8 (3): 449-54. ...
KLRG1 and PD-1 Identify Subpopulations of Effector CD4 T Cells.. Although antigen-specific CD4 T cells undergo continual ... and CD4 T cells were enriched using a CD4+ T cell-isolation kit (Miltenyi Biotec). Enriched CD4 T cells were stained with anti- ... C) The dot plots are representative of the CD69 and PD-1 or CD69 and KLRG1 expression on ESAT64-17/I-Ab antigen-specific CD4 T ... A) Flow cytometric gating strategy used to analyze KLRG1 and PD-1 expression on ESAT64-17/I-Ab antigen-specific CD4 T cells. (B ...
CD1b restricts the response of human CD4-8- T lymphocytes to a microbial antigen.. Porcelli S1, Morita CT, Brenner MB. ... 33) are recognized by selected CD4-8- T-cell clones expressing either alpha beta or gamma delta T-cell antigen receptors. The ... antigen-presenting cell and involved an antigen processing requirement similar to that seen in MHC class II-restricted antigen ... Here we report that the proliferative and cytotoxic responses of human CD4-8- alpha beta TCR+ T cells specific for ...
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of ... CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN ... CD4 Antigen; Receptors, CD4; Antigens, CD4; Receptors, Surface CD4; Surface CD4 Receptor; Antigen, CD4; Antigens, T-Cell T4; ... CD4 Antigens (CD4 Antigen). Subscribe to New Research on CD4 Antigens 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and ...
As in the case of the CD4 antigen, the CD8 antigen appears to serve as a receptor for nonpolymorphic regions of products of the ... The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex. E K Barber, J D ... The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex ... The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex ...
A subset of T lymphocytes positive for the CD4 antigen (also termed T4 antigen), is depleted in AIDS and PGL patients. A ... Receptors were present only on cells expressing CD4 antigen; among 155 monoclonal antibodies tested, each of the 14 anti-CD4 ... cells productively infected with HTLV-I and HTLV-II expressed surface CD4. Hence, we conclude that the CD4 antigen is an ... The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus.. Dalgleish AG, Beverley PC, Clapham PR ...
Ozone exposure impairs antigen-specific immunity but activates IL-7-induced proliferation of CD4(-)CD8(-) thymocytes in balb/c ... It was also found that O3 exposure dramatically enhanced the proliferation of CD4-CD8- thymocytes stimulated by recombinant ... cell activity and the proliferation potential of spleen T cells to a specific antigen stimulus. Immunological function assays ...
Heat-stable antigen is a costimulatory molecule for CD4 T cell growth.. Y Liu, B Jones, A Aruffo, K M Sullivan, P S Linsley, C ... Heat-stable antigen is a costimulatory molecule for CD4 T cell growth. ... Optimal induction of clonal expansion by normal CD4 T cells requires a ligand that can engage the T cell receptor as well as ... Treatment with this antibody not only blocks the proliferation of CD4 T cells to a T cell receptor ligand, but also induces T ...
Distinct Pathways of Antigen Uptake and Intracellular Routing in CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation ... Distinct Pathways of Antigen Uptake and Intracellular Routing in CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation ... Distinct Pathways of Antigen Uptake and Intracellular Routing in CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation ... Distinct Pathways of Antigen Uptake and Intracellular Routing in CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation ...
CD4+ T cells depleted of CD4+CD25++CD127−, termed CD4+ Teff (E) and Tregs (F). Immediately following sorting, the CD4+ Teff (G ... PBMCs were enriched for T cells and the viable CD4+T cells were sorted in a Teff (CD4+ Teff/CD3+CD4+CD25−/dimCD127+/−) and Treg ... The kinetics of CD4+Foxp3+ T cell accumulation during a human cutaneous antigen-specific memory response in vivo. J. Clin. ... A live-cell assay to detect antigen-specific CD4+ T cells with diverse cytokine profiles. Nat. Med. 11: 1113-1117. ...
Using a murine model of tolerance induced by repeated exposure to a low dose of aerosolized antigen, we show an important ... contribution by CD4(+) T cells in the establishment and … ... maintains immune tolerance in the face of constant antigen ... Tolerance induced by inhaled antigen involves CD4(+) T cells expressing membrane-bound TGF-beta and FOXP3 J Clin Invest. 2004 ... We propose a model of antigen-induced tolerance that involves cell-cell contact with regulatory CD4(+) T cells that coexpress ...
Ab, CD4+CD25− cells with APC. A,) CD4+CD25− cultured with APC and CD4+CD25+ cells. B, CD4+CD25− cells (5 × 104) were cultured ... A, Freshly isolated CD4+CD25− and CD4+CD25+ cells or activated CD4+CD25− and CD4+CD25+ cells (5 × 104) were incubated with APC ... The CD4+CD25+ population does not contain conventional activated/memory T cells. Because the CD4+CD25+ comprise 10% of the CD4+ ... A, CD4+CD25− cells (5 × 104) were cultured with APC (5 × 104) and anti-CD3 in the presence or absence of CD4+CD25+ cells (2.5 ...
Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo ... Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo ... Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo ... Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo ...
The aim of this work was to elucidate the functional characteristics of human antigen-experienced CD4 T cells according to the ... antigen-experienced CD4 cells were analyzed in vitro after priming with the superantigen TSST. The signal strength of TCR- ... Correspondingly, IL7RlowCCR7-CD4 T cells showed low survival rates, impaired proliferation in the presence of homeostatic ... In summary, despite some differences observed between in vitro and ex vivo CD4 T cell subsets, the combination of the markers ...
gp120-CD4 antigen interactions. The CD4 antigen on the cell surface and the gp120 of the virus interact via a depression in the ... Besides interacting with CD4 antigen on the surface of the T4 cell, gp120 must also interact with a co-receptor. There are many ... HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein complexed with CD4 antigen and an antibody Note: this page requires Java; if you do not have ... The binding site for the chemokine is induced after the CD4 antigen is bound. This site overlaps with the heavy chain of the ...
Conversely, the response to the same antigen, presented in different immunisation regimens, elicited a response typically ... Conversely, the response to the same antigen, presented in different immunisation regimens, elicited a response typically ... differentiation of CD4+ T cells reactive with a retroviral envelope glycoprotein model antigen, presented in its natural ... differentiation of CD4+ T cells reactive with a retroviral envelope glycoprotein model antigen, presented in its natural ...
... illustrating the dominant role of CD4 T-cells in the immune responses. We identified 9 minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHA ... Of the alloreactive T-cell clones, 96% were CD4 positive, illustrating the dominant role of CD4 T-cells in the immune responses ... In vivo activated T-cells were clonally isolated after CD4 DLI. Of the alloreactive T-cell clones, 96% were CD4 positive, ... In conclusion, purified CD4 DLI from HLA-identical sibling donors can induce conversion from mixed to full donor chimerism with ...
Acquisition of an additional antigen specificity after mouse CD4 gene transfer into a T helper hybridoma.. W G Ballhausen, A B ... These experiments suggest that CD4 may be important in determining the antigen fine specificity and, therefore, may also play a ... Acquisition of an additional antigen specificity after mouse CD4 gene transfer into a T helper hybridoma. ... We have transfected the mouse CD4 gene into a beef insulin (BI)-specific murine T helper hybridoma that lacks CD4 surface ...
Human antigen-specific CD4⁺ CD25⁺ CD134⁺ CD39⁺ T cells are enriched for regulatory T cells and comprise a substantial ... Human Ag-specific CD4(+) Txa0cells can be detected by their dual expression of CD134 (OX40) and CD25 after a 44 hours ... We show that surface expression of CD39 on Ag-specific cells consistently identifies a substantial population of CD4(+) CD25 ... Collectively, our data show that Ag-specific CD4(+) CD25(+) CD134(+) CD39(+) Txa0cells are highly enriched for Treg cells, form ...
p101-111 is the first CTA-derived peptide which induces CD4(+), CD8(+), and B-cell responses in vitro. This triple-immunogenic ... A peptide epitope derived from the cancer testis antigen HOM-MEL-40/SSX2 capable of inducing CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cell as well as B- ... Background: Antigen-derived HLA class I-restricted peptides can generate specific CD8(+) T-cell responses in vivo and are ... The SSX2 gene encodes the cancer testis antigen (CTA) HOM-MEL-40/SSX2, which is frequently expressed in a wide spectrum of ...
Alveolar type II epithelial cells present antigen to CD4(1) T cells and induce Foxp3(1) regula-tory T cells. American Journal ... Gereke, M., Jung, S., Buer, J. and Bruder, D. (2009) Alveolar type II epithelial cells present antigen to CD4(1) T cells and ... Human CD4- CD8- Invariant Natural Killer T Cells Promote IgG Secretion from B Cells Stimulated by Cross-Linking of Their ... Innate-like CD4 T cells selected by thymocytes suppress adaptive immune responses against bacterial infections ...
... haplotypes and the incidence rates of CD4 decline to , 20% and to AIDS. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of 95 HIV-1-infected ... To assess the association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ... Concordance of human leukocyte antigen haplotype-sharing, CD4 ... OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes and the incidence rates of CD4 decline to ... Concordance of human leukocyte antigen haplotype-sharing, CD4 decline and AIDS in hemophilic siblings. Multicenter Hemophilia ...
In this regard, we failed to ex vivo detect CD4 T cells specific for other tumor (e.g., NY-ESO-1) or viral (e.g., HA) antigens ... The decline in antigen-specific FOXP3+ CD4 T cells is accompanied by a concomitant restoration of their peptide-specific ... Tumor Antigen-Specific FOXP3+ CD4 T Cells Identified in Human Metastatic Melanoma: Peptide Vaccination Results in Selective ... However, due to the low frequencies of circulating antigen-specific CD4 T cells, this tool has not yet found the same wide ...
The Tumor Antigen Cyclin B1 Hosts Multiple CD4 T Cell Epitopes Differently Recognized by Pre-Existing Naive and Memory Cells in ... The Tumor Antigen Cyclin B1 Hosts Multiple CD4 T Cell Epitopes Differently Recognized by Pre-Existing Naive and Memory Cells in ...
Thymic Immunophenotype, and Expression of CD4 and Myeloid Antigens is Associated with Outcome in Adult Patients with T�Cell ... 2015) Thymic Immunophenotype, and Expression of CD4 and Myeloid Antigens is Associated with Outcome in Adult Patients with Tâ€" ...
Antigen-bearing MHC Class II :TCR complex:CD4: Lck phosphorylated at Tyr394 [plasma membrane] (Mus musculus) ... Antigen-bearing MHC Class II :TCR complex:CD4: Lck phosphorylated at Tyr394 [plasma membrane] (Mus musculus) ... Antigen-bearing MHC Class II :TCR complex:CD4: Lck phosphorylated at Tyr394 [plasma membrane] (Mus musculus) ... Antigen-bearing MHC Class II :TCR complex:CD4: Lck phosphorylated at Tyr394 [plasma membrane] (Mus musculus) ...
Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Impairs CD4 T Cell Responses by Reducing Antigen Availability. Shaikh M. Atif, Sebastian E. ... Typhimurium suppressed antigen presentation of dendritic cells to flagellin-specific CD4 T cells in vitro. Furthermore, TviA- ... Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Impairs CD4 T Cell Responses by Reducing Antigen Availability ... Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Impairs CD4 T Cell Responses by Reducing Antigen Availability ...
Antigen recognition by autoreactive CD4⁺ thymocytes drives homeostasis of the thymic medulla. ... This process exhibits strict dependence on TCR-reactivity with self-antigens expressed by mTECs, as well as engagement of the ... We demonstrate here that conventional SP CD4⁺ thymocytes bearing autoreactive TCRs drive a homeostatic process that fine-tunes ... These interactions induce the expression of lymphotoxin α in autoreactive CD4⁺ thymocytes and RANK in mTECs. Lymphotoxin in ...
Assessment of Vaccine-Induced CD4 T Cell Responses to the 119-143 Immunodominant Region of the Tumor-Specific Antigen NY-ESO-1 ... Assessment of Vaccine-Induced CD4 T Cell Responses to the 119-143 Immunodominant Region of the Tumor-Specific Antigen NY-ESO-1 ... Assessment of Vaccine-Induced CD4 T Cell Responses to the 119-143 Immunodominant Region of the Tumor-Specific Antigen NY-ESO-1 ... Assessment of Vaccine-Induced CD4 T Cell Responses to the 119-143 Immunodominant Region of the Tumor-Specific Antigen NY-ESO-1 ...
Analysis of antigen-specific T cell responses has contribu ... Antigen-specific CD4 T cell responses in humans: SARS-CoV-2 and ... Analysis of antigen-specific T cell responses has contributed to our understanding of the induced immune reaction, and is ... Which technologies enable efficient, gentle, and safe isolation of antigen-specific T cells for subsequent deep profiling by, e ... Scheffold and his colleagues used a sensitive technology to characterize antigen-reactive T cells directly ex vivo, in ...
NTR-CD4)", only recognizes the exogenous tumor antigen protein after processing by antigen-presenting cells. ... CD4) are considered to play different roles at the local tumor site, i.e., TR-CD4 efficiently provide CD4-help by direct ... A part of tumor antigen-specific CD4+ T cells, that we named "tumor-recognizing CD4+ T cells (TR-CD4)", directly recognizes MHC ... Combinations & Methods of Use for Recombinant CD4 T Cell Receptors for Direct Tumor Recognition of Antigen. ...
  • The immune response elicited after Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is critically dependent on CD4 T cells during both acute and chronic infection. (pnas.org)
  • How CD4 T-cell responses are maintained throughout infection is not well understood, and evidence from other infection models has suggested that, under conditions of chronic antigen stimulation, T cells can undergo replicative exhaustion. (pnas.org)
  • These findings led us to determine whether subpopulations of CD4 T cells existed that displayed markers of terminal differentiation or exhaustion during murine Mtb infection. (pnas.org)
  • Analysis of antigen-specific effector CD4 T cells revealed that programmed death-1 (PD-1) and the killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1) delineated subpopulations of T cells. (pnas.org)
  • PD-1-expressing CD4 T cells were highly proliferative, whereas KLRG1 cells exhibited a short lifespan and secreted the cytokines IFNγ and TNFα. (pnas.org)
  • Adoptive transfer studies demonstrated that proliferating PD-1-positive CD4 T cells differentiated into cytokine-secreting KLRG1-positive T cells, but not vice versa. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, proliferating PD-1-positive cells are not exhausted, but appear to be central to maintaining antigen-specific effector T cells during chronic Mtb infection. (pnas.org)
  • Our findings suggest that antigen-specific T-cell responses are maintained during chronic mycobacterial infection through the continual production of terminal effector cells from a proliferating precursor population. (pnas.org)
  • Although the numbers of antigen-specific T cells are relatively stable during chronic Mtb infection, CD4 T cells proliferate extensively, suggesting that a high turnover of effector CD4 T cells occurs. (pnas.org)
  • Blockade of PD-1-programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1) interactions in vivo during chronic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) clone 13 has been shown to increase the frequencies and numbers of antigen-specific CD8 T cells for LCMV epitopes, and to decrease viral titers ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Other studies of KLRG1-positive effector T cells during acute and chronic infections found the antigen-specific cells to be terminally differentiated, as they exhibited decreased multicytokine potential and were relatively short-lived ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we have addressed whether KLRG1 and PD-1 expression by CD4 T cells identifies functionally exhausted CD4 T cells during Mtb infection. (pnas.org)
  • Here we report that the proliferative and cytotoxic responses of human CD4-8- alpha beta TCR+ T cells specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be restricted by CD1b, one of the four identified protein products of the CD1 locus. (nih.gov)
  • The responses of these T cells to M. tuberculosis seemed not to involve MHC encoded molecules, but were absolutely dependent on the expression of CD1b by the antigen-presenting cell and involved an antigen processing requirement similar to that seen in MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation. (nih.gov)
  • Major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC-II) on antigen presenting cells (APCs) engage the TCR on antigen-specific CD4 T cells, thereby providing the specificity required for T cell priming and the induction of an effective immune response. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we have asked whether antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) that have been in contact with antigen-specific CD4 T cells retain the ability to stimulate additional naïve T cells. (pnas.org)
  • We show that encounter with antigen-specific primed CD4 T cells induces the degradation of surface MHC-II in antigen-loaded DCs and inhibits the ability of these DCs to stimulate additional naïve CD4 T cells. (pnas.org)
  • Encounter of DCs with antigen-specific primed T cells or engagement of MHC-II with antibodies promotes the degradation of both immunologically relevant and irrelevant MHC-II molecules. (pnas.org)
  • These data demonstrate that engagement of MHC-II on DCs after encounter with antigen-specific primed CD4 T cells promotes the down-regulation of cell surface MHC-II in DCs, thereby attenuating additional activation of naïve CD4 T cells by these APCs. (pnas.org)
  • Here we have detected cell-surface receptors for the AIDS retrovirus (human T-cell leukaemia virus-III (HTLV-III) and lymphadenopathy-associated virus-1 (LAV-1) isolates) by testing the susceptibility of cells to infection with pseudotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus bearing retroviral envelope antigens, and by the formation of multinucleated syncytia on mixing virus-producing cells with receptor-bearing cells. (nih.gov)
  • Productive infection of CD4+ cells with HTLV-III or LAV-1 markedly reduced cell-surface expression of CD4. (nih.gov)
  • cells productively infected with HTLV-I and HTLV-II expressed surface CD4. (nih.gov)
  • A soluble, recombinant CD4 molecule (rCD4), produced by expression of a truncated CD4 gene in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells [Smith et al. (curehunter.com)
  • In the present study, data showed that O3 exposure could impair both the natural killer (NK) cell activity and the proliferation potential of spleen T cells to a specific antigen stimulus. (cdc.gov)
  • Optimal induction of clonal expansion by normal CD4 T cells requires a ligand that can engage the T cell receptor as well as functionally defined costimulatory activity on the same antigen-presenting cell surface. (rupress.org)
  • Treatment with this antibody not only blocks the proliferation of CD4 T cells to a T cell receptor ligand, but also induces T cell nonresponsiveness to subsequent stimulation. (rupress.org)
  • The mechanisms that allow antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to selectively present extracellular antigen to CD8 + effector T cells (cross-presentation) or to CD4 + T helper cells are not fully resolved. (sciencemag.org)
  • We demonstrated that APCs use distinct endocytosis mechanisms to simultaneously introduce soluble antigen into separate intracellular compartments, which were dedicated to presentation to CD8 + or CD4 + T cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • When immune cells process foreign antigen via the endosomes, effector T cells are stimulated, whereas antigen processed by lysosomes activates helper T cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Circulating human CD4 + CD25 ++ CD127 − FOXP3 + T cells with a persistent demethylated regulatory T cell (Treg)-specific demethylated region Foxp3 gene are considered natural Tregs (nTregs). (jimmunol.org)
  • The frequency of these Ag-reactive nTregs within the nTreg population is strikingly similar to the frequency of Ag-reactive T effector cells within the CD4 + T cell population. (jimmunol.org)
  • Regulatory CD4 + T cells (Tregs) are considered to be crucial for the suppression of excessive T cell responses that may cause damage to the organism. (jimmunol.org)
  • These FOXP3 + cells express high levels of CD25 and low levels of CD127 (FOXP3 + CD25 ++ CD127 − CD4 + T cells) ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The memory Tregs behave similar to memory cells of effector CD4 + T cells (Teff), as they have short telomeres and a remarkably high turnover rate ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Alternatively, Ag-reactive Tregs could stem from conversion of naive FOXP3 + nTregs into memory nTregs, in a similar fashion as the Ag-reactive memory CD4 + Teff develop from FOXP3 − naive CD4 + T cells ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Using a murine model of tolerance induced by repeated exposure to a low dose of aerosolized antigen, we show an important contribution by CD4(+) T cells in the establishment and maintenance of tolerance. (nih.gov)
  • The CD4(+) T cells expressed both cell surface and soluble TGF-beta and inhibited the development of an allergic phenotype when adoptively transferred to naive recipient mice. (nih.gov)
  • Strikingly, separation of the TGF-beta(+) cells from the rest of the cells allowed the TGF-beta(-) cells to proliferate in response to antigen. (nih.gov)
  • We propose a model of antigen-induced tolerance that involves cell-cell contact with regulatory CD4(+) T cells that coexpress membrane-bound TGF-beta and FOXP3. (nih.gov)
  • CD4 + CD25 + T cells represent a unique population of "professional" suppressor T cells that prevent induction of organ-specific autoimmune disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • In vitro, CD4 + CD25 + cells were anergic to simulation via the TCR and when cultured with CD4 + CD25 − cells, markedly suppressed polyclonal T cell proliferation by specifically inhibiting the production of IL-2. (jimmunol.org)
  • Further characterization of the CD4 + CD25 + population demonstrated that they do not contain memory or activated T cells and that they act through an APC-independent mechanism. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD4 + CD25 + T cells isolated from TCR transgenic (Tg) mice inhibited responses of CD4 + CD25 − Tg T cells to the same Ag, but also inhibited the Ag-specific responses of Tg cells specific for a distinct Ag. (jimmunol.org)
  • When CD4 + CD25 + T cells were cultured with anti-CD3 and IL-2, they expanded, remained anergic, and in the absence of restimulation via their TCR, suppressed Ag-specific responses of CD4 + CD25 − T cells from multiple TCR transgenics. (jimmunol.org)
  • Collectively, these data demonstrate that CD4 + CD25 + T cells require activation via their TCR to become suppressive, but once activated, their suppressor effector function is completely nonspecific. (jimmunol.org)
  • 7 ) have shown that colitis can be induced in immunodeficient SCID mice by transfer of the CD45RB high subset of CD4 + T cells from normal mice, but not by the CD45RB low population. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD4 + T cells that express TCRs encoded by endogenous α/β-chain genes are also likely to be responsible for the relative disease resistance of mice that express a transgenic (Tg) 2 TCR specific for a peptide from myelin basic protein ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In order to examine the mechanisms by which clonal deletion of autoreactive T cells occurs, a peptide antigen was used to induce deletion of antigen-reactive thymocytes in vivo. (sciencemag.org)
  • The aim of this work was to elucidate the functional characteristics of human antigen-experienced CD4 T cells according to the expression of IL7RAlpha and CCR7. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Two different approaches were used: in order to analyze the subsets occurring during a primary response, antigen-experienced CD4 cells were analyzed in vitro after priming with the superantigen TSST. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The second approach was to isolate circulating CD4 T cells expressing different combinations of CCR7 and IL7R in order to analyze the heterogeneous pool of antigen-experienced cells found under steady state conditions ex vivo. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Correspondingly, IL7RlowCCR7-CD4 T cells showed low survival rates, impaired proliferation in the presence of homeostatic cytokines and a low IL-2 production, IL7RhiCCR7+ CD4 T cells survived well, responded to homeostatic cytokines, secreted IL-2 and expanded upon antigenic stimulation. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Notably, ex vivo isolated IL7Rlow T cells preferentially recognized under steady state conditions persistent antigens, suggesting that these cells are chronically activated. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In summary, despite some differences observed between in vitro and ex vivo CD4 T cell subsets, the combination of the markers CCR7 and IL7R is useful to distinguish memory- from effector-like CD4 T cells. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Here, we report an uncommonly strong bias toward follicular helper (Tfh) differentiation of CD4 + T cells reactive with a retroviral envelope glycoprotein model antigen, presented in its natural context during retroviral infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Conversely, the response to the same antigen, presented in different immunization regimens, elicited a response typically balanced between Tfh and T helper 1 cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, stunted Th1 differentiation, correlating with limited IL-2 availability in retroviral infection, provided permissive conditions for Tfh development, suggesting that Tfh differentiation is the default program of envelope-reactive CD4 + T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several divergent and often competing programmes of CD4 + T cell differentiation are now well recognized, leading to the development of distinct functional subsets, including T helper (Th) 1, 2, or 17 cells, follicular helper (Tfh) cells, and regulatory T (Treg) cells ( 1 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The relative balance of CD4 + T cell differentiation to one or more of these functional subsets largely depends on a multitude of T cell-extrinsic factors, with the cytokine milieu naïve T cells encounter during the priming phase playing a major role ( 1 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Acute viral infections typically induce a CD4 + T cell response that is almost exclusively composed of Tfh and Th1 cells, in approximately equal proportion. (frontiersin.org)
  • Indeed, the ratio of Tfh to Th1 cells in the CD4 + T cell response to acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) has been amply reported close to 1 and 2 for LCMV Armstrong ( 9 - 14 ) and clone 13 (Cl13) ( 15 - 19 ), respectively, and similar results were also reported for influenza A virus infection ( 20 - 23 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • One of these is the availability of IL-2, determined both by the rate of production by effector CD4 + T cells and the rate of consumption by Treg cells or dendritic cells ( 20 , 24 - 26 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, donor CD4 T-cells after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) may mediate graft-vs.-leukemia reactivity without graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD). (frontiersin.org)
  • In vivo activated T-cells were clonally isolated after CD4 DLI. (frontiersin.org)
  • Of the alloreactive T-cell clones, 96% were CD4 positive, illustrating the dominant role of CD4 T-cells in the immune responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • In all patients, MiHA specific CD4 T-cells were found that were capable to lyse hematopoietic cells and to recognize normal and malignant cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Human antigen-specific CD4⁺ CD25⁺ CD134⁺ CD39⁺ T cells are enriched for regulatory T cells and comprise a substantial proportion of recall responses. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We show that surface expression of CD39 on Ag-specific cells consistently identifies a substantial population of CD4(+) CD25(+) CD134(+) CD39(+) Txa0cells that have a Treg-cell-like phenotype and mostly originate from bulk memory CD4(+) CD45RO(+) CD127(low) CD25(high) CD39(+) Treg cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Interestingly, we found that the percentage of CD39(-) cells within baseline CD4(+) T-cell responses to HIV-Gag was negatively correlated with HIV viral load pre-ART and positively correlated with CD4(+) T-cell recovery over 96 weeks of ART. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Collectively, our data show that Ag-specific CD4(+) CD25(+) CD134(+) CD39(+) Txa0cells are highly enriched for Treg cells, form a large component of recall responses and maintain a Treg-cell-like phenotype upon in vitro expansion. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Using peripheral blood cells of 13 cancer patients and 5 healthy controls, the HOM-MEL-40/SSX2-derived peptide p101-111 was identified as an epitope with dual immunogenicity for both CD4(+) helper and cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Gereke, M., Jung, S., Buer, J. and Bruder, D. (2009) Alveolar type II epithelial cells present antigen to CD4(1) T cells and induce Foxp3(1) regula-tory T cells. (scirp.org)
  • Interestingly, the same peptide can be efficiently recognized by HLA-DQ6-restricted CD4 T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We report that the majority of melanoma patients carry high frequencies of naturally circulating HLA-DQ6-restricted Melan-A-specific CD4 T cells, a high proportion of which express FOXP3 and proliferate poorly in response to the cognate peptide. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Upon vaccination, the relative frequency of multimer+ CD4 T cells did not change significantly. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, we found a marked shift to FOXP3-negative CD4 T cells, accompanied by robust CD4 T-cell proliferation upon in vitro stimulation with cognate peptide. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This is the first report on direct ex vivo identification of antigen-specific FOXP3+ T cells by multimer labeling in cancer patients and on the direct assessment of the impact of peptide vaccination on immunoregulatory T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The discovery of tumor-associated antigens recognized by conventional αβ T cells provided the foundation for the design of defined antigen-based cancer vaccines ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, the 25 to 36 dodecapeptide is recognized by HLA-DQ6-, HLA-DQ3-, and HLA-DR3-restricted CD4 T cells ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Introduction of the S . Typhi tviA gene into S . Typhimurium suppressed antigen presentation of dendritic cells to flagellin-specific CD4 T cells in vitro . (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, TviA-mediated repression of flagellin expression impaired the activation and proliferation of naive flagellin-specific CD4 T cells in Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes, which was accompanied by increased bacterial dissemination to the spleen. (asm.org)
  • Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) play a pivotal role in this process because they express numerous peripheral tissue-restricted self-antigens. (kuleuven.be)
  • We assessed ESO 119-143 -specific CD4 T cells in peptide-stimulated postvaccine cultures using the tetramers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We assessed vaccine-induced CD4 + DR1/ESO 119-143 tetramer + T cells ex vivo and characterized them phenotypically. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Staining of cultures from vaccinated patients with DR1/ESO 119-143 tetramers identified vaccine-induced CD4 T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We identified ESO 123-137 as the minimal optimal epitope recognized by DR1-restricted ESO-specific CD4 T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Finally, direct ex vivo staining of patients' CD4 T cells with tetramers allowed the direct quantification and phenotyping of vaccine-induced ESO-specific CD4 T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Prof. Scheffold and his colleagues used a sensitive technology to characterize antigen-reactive T cells directly ex vivo, in combination with closed-system cell sorting on the MACSQuant® Tyto® to enrich and purify antigen-reactive T cells. (labroots.com)
  • In addition to antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, many human cancer cells express MHC class II constitutively or in an IFN-γ-inducible manner although the role of MHC class II expression on human cancer cells is largely unknown. (roswellpark.org)
  • However, because of the frequent lack of functional antigen-presenting cells at the local tumor sites, activation of the CD4+ T cells and therefore the provision of CD4+ T help at the local tumor site is severely limited. (roswellpark.org)
  • Roswell researchers have discovered that there are two distinct types of tumor antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. (roswellpark.org)
  • A part of tumor antigen-specific CD4+ T cells, that we named "tumor-recognizing CD4+ T cells (TR-CD4)", directly recognizes MHC class II-expressing cancer cells in antigen-specific and MHC class II-restricted manners. (roswellpark.org)
  • In contrast, other part of the same antigen-specific CD4+ T cells, "non-tumor-recognizing CD4+ T cells (NTR-CD4)", only recognizes the exogenous tumor antigen protein after processing by antigen-presenting cells. (roswellpark.org)
  • Because of their different abilities in direct recognition of cancer cells, these two types of CD4+ T cells (TR-CD4 and NTR- CD4) are considered to play different roles at the local tumor site, i.e. (roswellpark.org)
  • TR-CD4 efficiently provide CD4-help by direct recognition of cancer cells. (roswellpark.org)
  • This invention takes advantage of the fact that TR-CD4 cells provide CD4 help by direct recognition of cancer cells by using this function to provide TCR polypeptides and recombinant polynucleotides encoding them for use in novel prophylactic and/or therapeutic treatment modalities and compositions. (roswellpark.org)
  • By engineering T cells to express the TCRs researchers can endow any CD4+ cell with the capability to directly recognize tumor antigen-expressing cancer cells, without requiring presentation of the antigen by an antigen presenting cell. (roswellpark.org)
  • Thus, the present invention includes compositions and methods that are useful for creating and using TR-CD4 cells for improved care of cancer patients. (roswellpark.org)
  • Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center is seeking partners to help co-develop compositions and methods for prophylaxis and/or therapy of cancers using T cells that have been engineered to be capable of direct recognition of tumor antigen and MHC class II expressing cancer cells. (roswellpark.org)
  • Technology could be useful for development of immunotherapy against cancer cells that lost MHC class I or MHC class I antigen presentation machinery. (roswellpark.org)
  • New method especially important to generate CD4+ T cells that provide efficient "CD4 help" at the local tumor site without the requirement of antigen presenting cells via direct recognition of cancer cells. (roswellpark.org)
  • Provision of "CD4 help" by current gene-engineered CD4+ T cells is expected to enhance the anti-tumor immune responses and overcome immunosuppression at the local tumor sites. (roswellpark.org)
  • During a median follow-up of 504 days, CD4 counts increased by a median of 62 cells per year. (uzh.ch)
  • Autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells of cancer patients were incubated with recombinant NY-ESO-1 protein and used in enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays to detect NY-ESO-1-specific CD4(+) T lymphocyte responses. (uzh.ch)
  • High throughput sequencing of TCRs expressed by antigen‐stimulated CD 4 T cells demonstrates that Tregs control both the magnitude and the breadth of an immune response. (embopress.org)
  • We have previously demonstrated that the presence of specific gp120/V3 peptides during antigen presentation can modify the activation of normal T-cells leading to altered immune function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to map the specific transcriptional profile invoked by an HIV-1/V3 epitope in uninfected T cells during antigen presentation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multifunctional CD4 + T cells are essential to activate, control and maintain immune responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD4 + T cells recognize antigen-derived peptides presented by HLA class II molecules, thereby HLA class II tumor antigen-positive cells may also be efficiently eliminated by direct CD4 + cytotoxic mechanisms. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recently it has been shown that adoptive transfer of tumor antigen-specific CD4 + T cells alone can lead to substantial regression of epithelial tumors (Science. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To appropriately employ CD4 + T cells in tumor defense, detailed molecular knowledge regarding the antigens and corresponding epitopes they recognize is essential. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We recently expanded our TCR platform by introducing a fast and efficient method for direct identification of antigens and respective epitopes recognized by CD4 + T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Antigen-reactive CD4 + T cells were isolated and expanded. (aacrjournals.org)
  • HLA restriction was determined by testing responses against antigen-positive HLA allogenic cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This technology enables the generation and molecular characterization of TCRs originating from tumor-specific CD4 + helper T cells, complementing our already established approach for isolation of high affinity TCRs derived from cytotoxic CD8 + T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, it is currently unknown how this costimulatory receptor influences CD4 effector T (Teff) cells in inflamed tissues. (pubfacts.com)
  • In the current study, we used a murine model of inducible self-antigen expression in the epidermis to elucidate the functional role of CD27 on autoreactive Teff cells. (pubfacts.com)
  • We have previously shown that expression of mouse CD4 results in a marked enhancement of IL-2 release by BI-141 cells in response to beef insulin or, in a cross-reactive response, to pork insulin, on the appropriate mouse APCs. (rupress.org)
  • Murine clonal CD4 and CD8 T cells were stimulated with cognate peptide antigen and antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the absence or presence of human MSCs, different aspects of T cell activation were monitored and analyzed using flow cytometery, real time RT-PCR and cytokine measurement. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Murine dendritic cells transfected with human GP100 elicit both antigen-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell responses and are more effective than DNA vaccines at generating anti-tumor immunity. (duke.edu)
  • Antigen-specific, MHC-restricted CTLs were generated when DC/gps were used to prime T cells both in vitro and in vivo. (duke.edu)
  • Antibody-mediated T-cell subset depletion experiments demonstrate that induction of CTLs in vivo is dependent on both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. (duke.edu)
  • Furthermore, DC/gp immunization elicits an antigen-specific CD4(+) T-cell response, suggesting that DC/gps present MHC class II epitopes to CD4(+) T cells. (duke.edu)
  • In 227 of 495 (45.9%) Japanese adult patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), leukemic cells expressed CD4. (nature.com)
  • These data collectively indicate that CD4 expression in AML cells is associated with monocytic characteristics. (nature.com)
  • We speculate that these leukemia subsets originate from CD4 + hematopoietic precursor cells, therefore then should be considered separately from most of the CD4 + AML as represented by CD34 low CD33 high CD11b high GM-CSFR high . (nature.com)
  • VS/IS and VF/IS groups displayed similar sustained increases in CD4 T cells, although viral levels rebounded by 48 and 96 weeks posttherapy to pretherapy levels in the discordant group. (aappublications.org)
  • CD4 T cells reactive with beta-cell antigens play a key role in the pathogenesis and regulation of type 1 diabetes (T1D). (cam.ac.uk)
  • With the exception of insulin, however, little is known of the antigens that drive CD4 T cells. (cam.ac.uk)
  • We have recently described two new autoantigens for diabetogenic CD4 T cells. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Detailed characterization of the protective T-cell response in salmonellosis is a pressing unmet need in light of the global burden of human Salmonella infections and the likely contribution of CD4 T cells to immunity against this intracellular infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The high frequency of SseB-reactive CD4 T cells and the broad applicability to diverse HLA genotypes coupled with previous observations of serodominance and protective vaccination in mouse challenge experiments, make SseB a plausible candidate for next-generation Salmonella vaccines. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP-1) is a variant antigen on the surface of malaria-infected red blood cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, the specificity of CD4 T cells required for a protective variant-specific antibody response is not known. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The CD4 T cell response to the exon 2 and duffy binding-like domain proteins was significantly greater in malaria-exposed donors than in unexposed Europeans, which suggests that these regions contain peptides recognized by T cells, which thus may be useful as components of a vaccine. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Importantly, large adipocytes from obese mice stimulated CD4 + T cells to secrete more interferon (IFN)-γ. (elsevier.com)
  • In vitro FFA treatment promoted adipocyte hypertrophy and expression of MHCII-associated genes.Conclusions:This study demonstrates that large adipocytes highly express MHCII and function as APC to stimulate IFN-γ-expressing CD4 + T cells, in which FFA may have important roles before IFN-γ elevated. (elsevier.com)
  • Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells derived from defined CD8(+) and CD4(+) subsets confer superior antitumor reactivity in vivo. (fredhutch.org)
  • Adoptive T-cell therapy with gene-modified T-cells expressing a tumor-reactive T-cell receptor (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is a rapidly growing field of translational medicine and has shown success in the treatment of B-cell malignancies and solid tumors. (fredhutch.org)
  • In all reported trials, patients have received T-cell products comprised of random compositions of CD4(+) and CD8(+) naïve and memory T-cells, meaning that each patient received a different therapeutic agent. (fredhutch.org)
  • We analyzed CD19 CAR-expressing effector T-cells derived from different subsets (CD4(+)/CD8(+) naïve, central memory, effector memory). (fredhutch.org)
  • 50 cells/ µ L were less likely to be CrAg-positive compared with persons with a CD4 count ≤50 cells/ µ L (1.7% [CI = 1.1%-2.7%] and 4.3% [CI = 3.2%-5.9%], respectively). (cdc.gov)
  • We are presently attempting to determine the genes that code tumor rejection antigens recognized by HLA-A24- and A26-restricted T cells, including those of pulmonary and pancreatic carcinomas. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Here, we sought to identify blood-based host biomarker associated with ATB and hypothesized that the frequencies of Mtb -specific CD4 + T cells expressing active caspase-3 would be associated with Mtb load in vivo and could thus provide a gauge of Mtb infection. (confex.com)
  • Caspase-3, a member of the caspase family of cysteine proteases, is highly expressed in CD4 effector T cells downstream of anti-CD3 mediated T cell receptor (TCR) activation and has been shown to regulate T cell activation, cell cycle entry, proliferation and apoptosis. (confex.com)
  • Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we evaluated the expression of active caspase-3 on Mtb -specific CD4 + T cells from individuals with asymptomatic latent Mtb infection (LTBI) (n=22), ATB (n=18), and from ATB patients undergoing anti-TB treatment (n=7). (confex.com)
  • Frequencies of Mtb-specific IFN- g + CD4 + T cells that expressed active caspase-3 were substantially higher in subjects with ATB compared to those with LTBI (Figure 1) suggesting that apoptotic pathways are operant during pulmonary active. (confex.com)
  • We have identified a host blood-based biomarker on Mtb-specific CD4 + T cells that discriminate between ATB and LTBI and provide a tool for monitoring treatment response and cure. (confex.com)
  • The lack of transporter-for-antigen-presentation (TAP)-1 expression by tumor cells prevents the processing and presentation of MHC class I-restricted tumor antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In mixed tumor/lymphocyte culture, TAP1 expression by tumor cells significantly increased the IFN-γ production of antigen-specific spleen cells from immunized, but not from naive, mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • TAP-deficient cells lack peptide transport, which results in a reduced supply of peptides for binding to MHC class I antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The priming phase includes the processing and presentation of tumor-associated antigens by antigen-presenting cells, the activation and proliferation of antigen-specific T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that antigen-specific T cells are generated by infection or vaccination and they can be activated by ex vivo restimulation, but they are not activated effectively at the site of infection. (ucsf.edu)
  • We have discovered that M. tuberculosis-infected cells activate CD4 T cells poorly because multiple secreted bacterial antigens are shunted away from the MHC class II antigen processing and presentation pathway and are exported from the infected cells. (ucsf.edu)
  • When we deplete M. tuberculosis-infected cells of kinesin 2 and thus block antigen export, we find increased MHC class II antigen presentation and CD4 T cell activation by infected cells, resulting in improved control of intracellular M. tuberculosis. (ucsf.edu)
  • This indicates that CD4 T cells have the potential to exert effective antimycobacterial activity, but their activation is limited by poor antigen presentation by infected cells, and poor antigen presentation is secondary to antigen export. (ucsf.edu)
  • Our goal is to identify host molecules that can be targeted with drugs to block antigen export and make antigen-specific CD4 T cells more effective in TB. (ucsf.edu)
  • To inform TB vaccine design, we hypothesize that nonsecreted (and nonexported) antigens are more desirable than secreted antigens in TB vaccines, since secreted antigens are exported from infected cells, making the infected cells poor targets for recognition by CD4 T cells specific for those antigens. (ucsf.edu)
  • To test the hypothesis that CD4 T cells directed against a nonsecreted antigen are more efficacious than those directed against a secreted antigen, we have modified an immunodominant secreted M. tuberculosis antigen (Ag85B) so that it is not secreted, and we will determine whether bacteria that express nonsecreted-nonexported Ag85B are better controlled by CD4 T cells in vivo. (ucsf.edu)
  • Together, our proposed studies will guide efforts to make naturally-occurring and vaccine-induced CD4 T cells more effective in TB, and contribute to solving the problem of global tuberculosis. (ucsf.edu)
  • CD4 T cells support a variety of cells required for protective immunity, and perturbations to the CD4 T cell compartment can decrease overall immune system fitness. (umn.edu)
  • Using the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) mouse model of sepsis, we investigated the impact of sepsis on endogenous Ag-specific memory CD4 T cells generated in C57BL/6 (B6) mice infected with attenuated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) expressing the I-A b -restricted 2W1S epitope (Lm-2W). (umn.edu)
  • The number of 2W1S-specific memory CD4 T cells was significantly reduced on day 2 after sepsis induction, but recovered by day 14. (umn.edu)
  • In contrast to the transient numerical change, the 2W1S-specific memory CD4 T cells displayed prolonged functional impairment after sepsis, evidenced by a reduced recall response (proliferation and effector cytokine production) after restimulation with cognate Ag. (umn.edu)
  • To define the extent to which the observed functional impairments in the memory CD4 T cells impacts protection to secondary infection, B6 mice were infected with attenuated Salmonella enterica-2W (Se-2W) 30 days before sham or CLP surgery, and then challenged with virulent Se-2W after surgery. (umn.edu)
  • Our data collectively show CLP-induced sepsis alters the number and function of Ag-specific memory CD4 T cells, which contributes (in part) to the characteristic long-lasting immunoparalysis seen after sepsis. (umn.edu)
  • For autoimmune conditions like type 1 diabetes to progress, self-reactive CD8 + T cells would need to interact with peptide-antigen cross-presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted fashion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Absent B-cell MHC class I, or B-cell receptor restriction to an irrelevant specificity, blunted the expansion of self-reactive CD8 + T cells, suggesting B-cell antigen capture and presentation are critical in vivo events for CD8 activation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Indeed, the singular loss of B-cell MHC class I subverted the conversion to clinical diabetes in NOD mice, despite the presence of a pool of activated, and B cell-dependent, interleukin-21-expressing Vβ4 + CD4 + T cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In molecular biology , CD4 ( cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells , monocytes , macrophages , and dendritic cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • They are often referred to as CD4 cells, T-helper cells or T4 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • If CD4 cells become depleted, for example in untreated HIV infection, or following immune suppression prior to a transplant, the body is left vulnerable to a wide range of infections that it would otherwise have been able to fight. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8 ) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and not by MHC class I (they are MHC class II-restricted ). (wikipedia.org)
  • CD4 is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV-1 uses CD4 to gain entry into host T-cells and achieves this through its viral envelope protein known as gp120 . (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV infection leads to a progressive reduction in the number of T cells expressing CD4 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The lines, enriched for CD4 + T cells, lysed DR-matched EBV-transformed B cells, suggesting participation in immune surveillance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In summary, EBNA1 peptides can be presented to CD4 + T cells by MHC class II molecules in healthy, EBV + donors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The responding CD4 + T cells lyse EBV-transformed B cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CD4 T cells differentiate into multiple effector subsets that mediate pathogen clearance. (umassmed.edu)
  • Vong, AM. Late Antigen Regulates the Differentiation of Cytotoxic CD4 T Cells in Influenza Infection. (umassmed.edu)
  • These formulations generally comprise hybridoma of at least one antigen presenting cell fused to either at least one tumor cell or at least one virally infected cell, or the products of co-cultures of antigen presenting cells and either tumor cells or virally infected cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • wherein said first cells are antigen presenting cells selected from the group consisting of macrophages, B-cells and dendritic cells, and said second cells are selected from the group consisting of tumor cells and virally infected cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • CEF peptides (comprising CMV, EBV and flu antigens) were used to stimulate CD8 cells and mumps antigen to stimulate CD4 cells. (mdpi.com)
  • The ELISPOT technology permits enumeration of individual antigen-specific T cells through the detection of their secretory products such as the antigen-triggered release of interferon gamma (IFN-γ). (mdpi.com)
  • We previously reported that a subset of CD4 T-cells secreting high levels of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) is significantly associated with late onset of type 1 diabetes and is constitutively present in a majority of nondiabetic individuals. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We isolated and cloned islet-specific IL-10-secreting CD4 + T-cells from nondiabetic individuals after brief ex vivo exposure to islet autoantigens using cytokine capture technology and examined their phenotype and regulatory potential. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESULTS Islet-specific IL-10 + CD4 T-cells are potent suppressors of Th1 effector cells, operating through a linked suppression mechanism in which there is an absolute requirement for the cognate antigen of both the regulatory and effector T-cells to be presented by the same antigen-presenting cell (APC). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The regulatory T-cells secrete perforin and granzymes, and suppression is associated with the specific killing of APCs presenting antigen to effector T-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In a previous study, we reported the existence of a population of islet autoreactive CD4 T-cells that produce the signature immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) after brief coculture with naturally processed and presented epitopes of proinsulin and IA-2 ( 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Human PBMCs were prepared to isolate CD4 + Memory T cells using the MojoSort™ Human CD4 Memory T Cell Isolation Kit. (biolegend.com)
  • The top plot shows CD4 + T cells after isolation. (biolegend.com)
  • The middle plot shows CD4 + memory T cells after isolation, defined by CD4 (clone RPA-T4) Brilliant Violet 785™ and CD45RO (clone UCHL1) PE. (biolegend.com)
  • Events shown were not previously gated on CD4 + cells. (biolegend.com)
  • Non-CD4 + Memory T cells are depleted by incubating the sample with the biotin antibody cocktail followed by incubation with magnetic Streptavidin Nanobeads. (biolegend.com)
  • The untouched CD4 + Memory T cells are collected by decanting the liquid in a clean tube. (biolegend.com)
  • This kit is designed for the isolation of untouched memory CD4 + T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). (biolegend.com)
  • Dot plots depict CD3 + CD4 + T cells (top) and CD45RA + CCR7 + naïve T cells (T N ), CD45RA - CCR7 + central memory T cells (T CM ) and CD45RA - CCR7 - effector memory T cells (T EM ) (bottom, gated on CD4 + T cells). (biolegend.com)
  • CD4 + T cells can be subdivided into naïve, memory, and effector subsets based on their expression of CD45RA and CCR7. (biolegend.com)
  • While memory CD4 T cells are critical for effective immunity to pathogens, the mechanisms underlying their generation are poorly defined. (umassmed.edu)
  • Little is known about whether or not Ag re-encounter by effector T cells (late Ag) alters CD4 memory T cell formation. (umassmed.edu)
  • In the experiments presented in this thesis, I demonstrate that late Ag is required to rescue responding CD4 T cells from default apoptosis and to program the transition to long-lived memory. (umassmed.edu)
  • A deficiency of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (CD25+ Tregs) in lymphopenic mice can result in the onset of autoimmune gastritis. (edu.au)
  • HIV enters macrophages and CD4 T- cells by the adsorption of glycoprotein on its surface to receptors on the target cell followed by fusion of the viral envelope with cell membrane and the release of the HIV capsid into the cell. (uniprojectsearch.com)
  • Antigen-dependent and antigen-independent pathways modulate CD4+CD28null T-cells during atherosclerosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • T helper cells recognize processed antigen (Ag) in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens present on the surface of B cells and other Ag-presenting cells. (duke.edu)
  • In this study, the binding of a soluble recombinant CD4/Ig heavy chain fusion protein (CD4-gamma 3) or monoclonal antibody (mAb) to class II antigens on human B cells was shown to induce rapid and specific homotypic adhesion of B cells and most B lymphoblastoid cell lines. (duke.edu)
  • Due to the intracellular nature of the parasite, cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses involving CD4 +ve , CD8 +ve , γ/δ TCR +ve T cells and NK cells, as well as production of IFN-γ, are thought to be important for protective immunity. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This approach allows the screening of biologically reactive antigenic fractions by the immune cells responsible for protection (such as bovine CD4 +ve cells) and the subsequent identification of the stimulating components using tandem mass spectrometry. (beds.ac.uk)
  • It appears that immunisation with live attenuated organisms is more effective than killed organisms, presumably as a reflection of more efficient antigen processing and presentation to T cells. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells mediate vaccine-induced protection from experimental aspergillosis, but the molecular mechanisms leading to the generation of protective immunity and whether these mechanisms are dysregulated in individuals with CGD have not been determined. (pasteur.fr)
  • However, long-lasting antifungal protection and disease control were successfully achieved upon vaccination with purified fungal antigens that activated CD4(+) T cells through the endosome/lysosome pathway. (pasteur.fr)
  • Our study thus indicates that distinct intracellular pathways are exploited for the priming of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells to A. fumigatus and suggests that CD4(+) T cell vaccination may be able to overcome defective antifungal CD8(+) T cell memory in individuals with CGD. (pasteur.fr)
  • Here we challenge this view and show that the binding of identical TCRs to the same ubiquitously expressed MHC/peptide complex often directs thymocytes to both CD4 + lineages, indicating that the TCR affinity does not play the instructive role, and that restricted presentation of peptides in thymic niches is not necessary for selection of CD4 + Foxp3 + T cells. (elsevier.com)
  • However, depending on whether immature thymocytes bound the ligand predominantly with low or high affinity, the repertoires of regulatory and conventional CD4 + T cells were correspondingly similar or mostly different, suggesting that negative rather than positive selection sets them apart. (elsevier.com)
  • Suppression by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells is dependent on expression of heme oxygenase-1 in antigen-presenting cells. (uab.edu)
  • HO-1(-/-) mice exhibited a significantly higher proportion of Foxp3-expressing cells among total CD4(+) and CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in comparison to HO-1(+/+) mice, and HO-1(-/-) Treg cells were at least as effective as HO-1(+/+) Treg cells in suppressing proliferation of effector T cells in vitro from either HO-1(+/+) or HO-1(-/-) mice. (uab.edu)
  • However, the absence of HO-1 in antigen-presenting cells abolished the suppressive activity of Treg cells on effector T cells. (uab.edu)
  • These findings demonstrate that HO-1 activity in antigen-presenting cells is important for Treg-mediated suppression, providing an explanation for the apparent defect in immune regulation in HO-1(-/-) mice. (uab.edu)
  • Mice transferred with IL-10 KO cells received diets with or without food antigens, and the development of colitis was evaluated. (springer.com)
  • Because T helper 1 cells (Th1) and T helper 17 cells (Th17) play an important role in CD inflammation [ 3 ], we hypothesized the food antigens to which IgG antibodies are produced in CD would induce an immune response and that elimination of these antigens might improve CD intestinal inflammation. (springer.com)
  • Second, we identified the antigenic food components and investigated the response of colitogenic T cells to food antigens using interleukin (IL)-10 knockout (KO) mice, which exhibit several characteristics of CD [ 8 ]. (springer.com)
  • Finally, we investigated whether eliminating food antigens ameliorated colitis in mice transferred with IL-10 KO CD4 + T cells. (springer.com)
  • What form of antigen do T cells recognize? (brainscape.com)
  • Do T cells recognize free antigens? (brainscape.com)
  • Stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) strikingly increased the proportion of CD4+CD8+ cells. (mendeley.com)
  • When purified preparations of either CD4+ or CD8+ cells were activated separately for 3 days and incubated together for an additional 5 h, a considerable proportion of CD4+CD8+ cells was found in the mixture. (mendeley.com)
  • Cycloheximide treatment did nor prevent the appearance of the CD8 marker on CD4 cells. (mendeley.com)
  • CD4+CD8+ cells isolated from PBL exposed for 3 days to PHA lost their CD8 antigenicity within 24-48 h in the absence of PHA. (mendeley.com)
  • Increased levels of soluble CD4 and CD8 antigens were found in supernatant fluids of PHA-stimulated cells T cells failed, however, to bind soluble markers even after prolonged incubation in the presence of supernatant fluids. (mendeley.com)
  • Our studies show that activation of CD4+ cells per se does not elicit the CD4+CD8+ phenotype and that soluble T cell markers do not bind to T cells. (mendeley.com)
  • Rather, it seems that direct cell-cell contact is required for the transfer of CD8 molecules from CD8 + cells to the membrane of CD4 + cells. (mendeley.com)
  • Several variables have been found to affect the Th1/Th2 differentiation of newly activated CD4 T cells. (usask.ca)
  • Experiments in this thesis were undertaken to better define the in-vivo cellular interactions involved in determining the Th1/Th2 phenotype of newly activated CD4 T cells.Lethally irradiated BALB/c mice reconstituted with a constant number of syngeneic, naive spleen cells were challenged with xenogeneic red blood cells (XRBC) conjugated to ovalbumin (OVA) and the Th1/Th2 phenotype of the anti-XRBC response assessed. (usask.ca)
  • This adoptive transfer system was employed to explore further the relationships between quantitative changes in the dose of immunizing antigen and the number of responding antigen-specific CD4 T cells, and the Th1/Th2 phenotype of immune responses generated. (usask.ca)
  • Unprimed transgenic CD4 T cells specific for OVA can modulate the Th1/Th2 phenotype of the anti-XRBC response upon immunization with XRBC-OVA. (usask.ca)
  • Transgenic cells only impact the Th1/Th2 phenotype of CD4 T cells specific for XRBC when OVA is linked to the XRBC. (usask.ca)
  • That CD4 T cells specific for different antigens cooperate only through the recognition of linked antigenic determinants has important implications for many aspects of immune regulation. (usask.ca)
  • Tumor antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that directly recognize cancer cells are important for orchestrating antitumor immune responses at the local tumor sites. (elsevier.com)
  • However, the mechanisms of direct MHC class II (MHC-II) presentation of intracellular tumor antigen by cancer cells are poorly understood. (elsevier.com)
  • We found that two functionally distinct subsets of CD4(+) T cells were expanded after HLA-DPB1*04 (DP04)-binding NY-ESO-1157-170 peptide vaccination in patients with ovarian cancer. (elsevier.com)
  • The tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells more efficiently recognized the short 8-9-mer peptides than the non-tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Together, our data demonstrate that cancer cells selectively present peptides from intracellular tumor antigens on MHC-II by multiple nonclassical antigen-processing pathways. (elsevier.com)
  • Harnessing the direct tumor-recognizing ability of CD4(+) T cells could be a promising strategy to enhance antitumor immune responses in the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. (elsevier.com)
  • CD4 − CD8 − (double negative [DN]) α/β T cells are a largely uncharacterized subpopulation of unknown function. (elsevier.com)
  • To investigate whether these cells are selected to recognize particular antigens or antigen-presenting molecules, DN α/β T ceils were purified from the peripheral blood of five normal donors and their T cell receptor (TCR) α and β chains were examined. (elsevier.com)
  • The expression of particular TCRs by DN α/β T cells from multiple donors indicates that these ceils, or at least a subpopulation of cells with this phenotype, recognize a limited spectrum of antigens and suggests that they may use nonpolymorphic antigen-presenting molecules. (elsevier.com)
  • Direct ex vivo analysis of antigen-specific IFN-gamma-secreting CD4 T cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected individuals: associations with clinical disease state and effect of treatment. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To quantitate M. tuberculosis-specific T cells directly ex vivo, we enumerated IFN-gamma-secreting CD4 T cells specific for ESAT-6, a secreted Ag that is highly specific for M. tuberculosis, and a target of protective immune responses in animal models. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We found that frequencies of circulating ESAT-6 peptide-specific IFN-gamma-secreting CD4 T cells were higher in latently infected healthy contacts and subjects with minimal disease and low bacterial burdens than in patients with culture-positive active pulmonary tuberculosis (p = 0.009 and p = 0.002, respectively). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Importantly, the frequency of these Ag-specific CD4 T cells fell progressively in all groups with treatment (p = 0.005), suggesting that the lower responses in patients with more extensive disease were not due to tuberculosis-induced immune suppression. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD4 Th cells are critical to the development of coordinated immune responses to infections and tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • The nesting approach was epitope and species independent and specifically excluded expansion of CD4 regulatory T cells. (elsevier.com)
  • However, the induction and expansion of T(regs) at sites of mucosal inflammation are not yet fully understood and may involve antigen presentation by local dendritic cells (DCs) and/or intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). (fu-berlin.de)
  • Although gut-associated DCs can induce antigen-specific CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cell proliferation, in vivo depletion of DCs did not preclude proliferation of these cells. (fu-berlin.de)
  • APCs process antigens and present them to T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T cells, while virus-infected cells (or cancer cells) can present antigens originating inside the cell to cytotoxic T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the MHC family of proteins, antigen presentation relies on other specialized signaling molecules on the surfaces of both APCs and T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen-presenting cells are vital for effective adaptive immune response, as the functioning of both cytotoxic and helper T cells is dependent on APCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen-presenting cells fall into two categories: professional and non-professional. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those that express MHC class II molecules along with co-stimulatory molecules and pattern recognition receptors are often called professional antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells cannot recognize (and therefore cannot respond to) "free" or soluble antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can only recognize and respond to antigen that has been processed and presented by cells via carrier molecules like MHC molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Professional APCs specialize in presenting antigens to T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are very efficient at internalizing antigens, either by phagocytosis (e.g. macrophages), or by receptor-mediated endocytosis (B cells), processing the antigen into peptide fragments and then displaying those peptides (bound to a class II MHC molecule) on their membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main types of professional antigen-presenting cells are dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendritic cells have the broadest range of antigen presentation and are necessary for activation of naive T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • DCs present antigen to both helper and cytotoxic T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can also perform cross-presentation, a process by which they present exogenous antigen on MHC class I molecules to cytotoxic T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to encountering foreign antigen, dendritic cells express very low levels of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules on their cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • These immature dendritic cells are ineffective at presenting antigen to T helper cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecules encoded by the human CD1 locus on chromosome 1 (ref. 33) are recognized by selected CD4-8- T-cell clones expressing either alpha beta or gamma delta T-cell antigen receptors. (nih.gov)
  • CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120. (curehunter.com)
  • T lymphocytes expressing highly diverse, antigen‐specific receptors represent essential components of the adaptive immune system. (embopress.org)
  • The main effector functions can be provided by genetically engineered lymphocytes expressing T cell receptors (TCR) isolated from tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8 + lymphocytes, which recognize tumor-associated antigens presented on HLA class I molecules. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The typical expression pattern of myelomonocytic differentiation antigens and cytokine receptors in CD4 + AML was CD34 low CD33 high CD11b high GM-CSFR high . (nature.com)
  • Like many cell surface receptors/markers, CD4 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily . (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a dendritic cell's pattern-recognition receptors recognize a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, antigen is phagocytosed and the dendritic cell becomes activated, upregulating the expression of MHC class II molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have previously demonstrated that CD4 T-cell responses are associated with extensive proliferation throughout Mtb infection ( 3 ), suggesting that proliferation is a major mechanism required for the maintenance of T-cell responses. (pnas.org)
  • CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. (curehunter.com)
  • We analyzed immune responses in four patients converting from mixed to full donor chimerism without developing GVHD upon purified CD4 donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) from their HLA-identical sibling donor after T-cell depleted alloSCT. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antigen-derived HLA class I-restricted peptides can generate specific CD8(+) T-cell responses in vivo and are therefore often used as vaccines for patients with cancer. (nih.gov)
  • However, only occasional objective clinical responses have been reported suggesting the necessity of CD4(+) T-cell help and possibly antibodies for the induction of an effective anti-tumor immunity in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Most remarkably, SSX2/p101-111 simultaneously induced specific CD8, CD4, and antibody responses in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • p101-111 is the first CTA-derived peptide which induces CD4(+), CD8(+), and B-cell responses in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Important to the process of rational vaccine development, monitoring of antigen-specific T-cell responses helps guiding vaccine optimization. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This pronounced bias in processing and presentation of the Melan-A antigens is reminiscent of immunodominant protein regions and lends itself to detailed analysis of melanoma-specific CD8 and CD4 T-cell responses in defined clinical situations such as tumor progression, tumor cell death provoked by chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and in the course of immunotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we investigated the consequences of TviA-mediated flagellum gene regulation on flagellin-specific CD4 T cell responses in a mouse model of S . Typhimurium infection. (asm.org)
  • We conclude that TviA-mediated repression of flagellin expression reduces antigen availability, thereby weakening flagellin-specific CD4 T cell responses. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we generated DRB1*0101/ESO 119-143 tetramers and used them to assess CD4 T-cell responses in vaccinated patients expressing DRB1*0101 (DR1). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Analysis of antigen-specific T cell responses has contributed to our understanding of the induced immune reaction, and is important in characterizing and potentially predicting the success of vaccination and clinical outcome. (labroots.com)
  • NY-ESO-1 is a member of the cancer-testis family of tumor antigens that elicits strong humoral and cellular immune responses in patients with NY-ESO-1-expressing cancers. (uzh.ch)
  • Since CD4(+) T lymphocytes play a critical role in generating antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte and antibody responses, we searched for NY-ESO-1 epitopes presented by histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules. (uzh.ch)
  • The characterization of HLA class II-restricted epitopes will be useful for the assessment of spontaneous and vaccine-induced immune responses of cancer patients against defined tumor antigens. (uzh.ch)
  • Treg depletion before immunization leads to enhanced antigen specific immune responses in a TCR Vβ transgenic mouse model. (embopress.org)
  • Nevertheless, for efficient and sustained cytotoxic and memory CD8 + T cell responses, T cell help delivered by CD4 + T lymphocytes plays a critical role. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Equivalence of human and mouse CD4 in enhancing antigen responses by a mouse class II-restricted T cell hybridoma. (rupress.org)
  • We now demonstrate that expression of hCD4 results in an equivalent stimulation of antigen responses by this mouse T cell hybridoma. (rupress.org)
  • In this report, we have used liposome-mediated gene transfer to examine the ability of plasmid DNA encoding the human melanoma-associated antigen gp100 to elicit CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell responses. (duke.edu)
  • After treatment, antigen-specific responses after tetanus immunization were similar in the VF/IS and VS/IS groups. (aappublications.org)
  • In previous studies screening patient sera against antigen arrays, SseB was noteworthy as a serodominant target of adaptive immunity, inducing significantly raised antibody responses in HIV-seronegative compared with seropositive patients. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD4 T cell responses to a variant antigen of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, erythrocyte membrane protein-1, in individuals living in malaria-endemic areas. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The response to the cysteine-rich interdomain region was unusual in that the majority of donors, whether malaria exposed or not, had positive CD4 T cell, interleukin-10, and interferon-gamma responses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We have discovered a mechanism, termed antigen export, that can explain why T cell responses develop but are unable to control TB. (ucsf.edu)
  • MHC class II-restricted CD4 + T cell responses to EBV antigens have not been well studied, but they might contribute to immune surveillance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study set out to measure the frequency of CD4 + T cell responses to a panel of latent-phase EBV protein in healthy, EBV + donors, to characterize the effector functions of such responses, and to examine the relevant antigen presentation pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The data show that resting significantly increased antigen-elicited T cell responses only for CEF high responder PBMC. (mdpi.com)
  • In Crohn's disease (CD), the involvement of food antigens in immune responses remains unclear. (springer.com)
  • The objective of this study was to detect immune responses against food antigens in CD patients and examine the mechanism in a mouse model of colitis. (springer.com)
  • A breakdown in tolerance, such as the hyperactivation of mucosal T cell responses against exogenous antigens, leads to disease development [ 3 ]. (springer.com)
  • Antigen presentation allows for specificity of adaptive immunity and can contribute to immune responses against both intracellular and extracellular pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • An HIV-1 p24 antigen test involving signal amplification-boosted ELISA of heat-denatured plasma was evaluated prospectively in 55 patients whose viral RNA in plasma had previously been suppressed for at least 6 months under antiretroviral combination therapy. (uzh.ch)
  • Comparison of p24 antigen and HIV-1 RNA concentrations indicate that the p24 antigen detected in these samples is not associated with viral RNA-containing particles and may originate from other compartments of virus expression. (uzh.ch)
  • During method development, elucidated viral antigens allowed rapid clinical application, and the methodology was also applied for rapid identification of epitopes of CD4 + T cell clones recognizing multiple cancer-testis antigens (CT). (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD4 T-cell counts may be a better predictor of disease progression and improvement in growth than viral burden in HIV-infected children who receive a protease inhibitor as part of a highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen. (aappublications.org)
  • 1 - 3 A major therapeutic challenge for the management of HIV-infected children and adults is to optimize complex and toxic drug combinations to control viral replication and at the same time improve CD4 T-cell counts. (aappublications.org)
  • The parameters of viral load and CD4 T-cell counts are the most universally used intermediate prognostic measures of long-term therapy outcome. (aappublications.org)
  • As a result, measurements of plasma viral load and CD4 T-cell counts form the basis of the current principles and guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-infected adults and children. (aappublications.org)
  • 7 Paradoxically, a significant proportion of treated individuals who fail to suppress virus experience CD4 T-cell reconstitution, although viral burdens would predict disease progression. (aappublications.org)
  • Information about both the tests that are used to diagnose HIV and those used to monitor the health of people living with HIV, including viral load and CD4 counts. (aidsmap.com)
  • This panel of antibodies is designed for characterizing these three CD4 + T cell subsets, which may exhibit variations following antigenic stimulation such as viral infection or vaccination. (biolegend.com)
  • The HIV accessory protein Nef downregulates the viral entry receptor CD4, the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-A and -B molecules, the Serine incorporator 5 (SERINC5) protein and other molecules from the infected cell surface, thereby promoting viral infectivity, replication and immune evasion. (springer.com)
  • To identify possible epitopes presented by distinct HLA class II alleles, overlapping 18-mer peptides derived from NY-ESO-1 were synthetized and tested for recognition by CD4(+) T lymphocytes in autologous settings. (uzh.ch)
  • We identified three NY-ESO-1-derived peptides presented by DRB4*0101-0103 and recognized by CD4(+) T lymphocytes of two melanoma patients sharing these HLA class II alleles. (uzh.ch)
  • In a second step, the single bacterial colonies of a positive pool were re-tested individually and the antigen fragments recognized were identified by DNA sequencing, and confirmed by testing of synthetic peptides. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Under conditions of cellular stress, which are common to inflammatory states, peptides secreted from the beta granules may undergo modification, a process that can lead to neo-antigens. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The search for these antigenic peptides may lead to the identification of immunogenic peptide antigens that would be suitable for clinical use in commonly occurring epithelial cancers. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus. (nih.gov)
  • Hence, we conclude that the CD4 antigen is an essential and specific component of the receptor for the causative agent of AIDS. (nih.gov)
  • Besides interacting with CD4 antigen on the surface of the T4 cell, gp120 must also interact with a co-receptor. (uah.es)
  • However, CD4 + T cell differentiation can also be shaped by T cell-intrinsic properties, such as the relative affinity of the T cell receptor (TCR), favoring development of particular subsets ( 6 - 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Quantitative contribution of CD4 and CD8 to T cell antigen receptor serial triggering. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD4 and CD8 are thought to function as coreceptors by binding to the cognate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules recognized by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and initiating the signal transduction cascade. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The CD4 (or T4) surface antigen of human T lymphocytes is an important part of the receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (ox.ac.uk)
  • In an attempt to identify the receptor site more closely, monoclonal antibodies (Mab's) to CD4 were tested for their ability to block HIV infection in a syncytium formation assay, and the CD4 epitopes so identified were mapped by antibody cross-blocking. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Image of CD4 co-receptor binding to MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) non-polymorphic region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schematic representation of CD4 receptor . (wikipedia.org)
  • [16] The binding to CD4 creates a shift in the conformation of gp120 allowing HIV-1 to bind to a co-receptor expressed on the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV binds to the CD4 receptor on the target T4 lymphocyte and the envelope glycoprotein of the virus (gp120) is capable of high affinity binding to CD4. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Any agent that prevents the attachment of gp120 to the CD4 receptor should be able to block virus transmission and spread. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This interaction is mediated through the T cell receptor complex with associate recognition of class II molecules by the CD4 molecule. (duke.edu)
  • Here, we show that activation of either T cell subset in a mouse model of CGD is contingent upon the nature of the fungal vaccine, the involvement of distinct innate receptor signaling pathways, and the mode of antigen routing and presentation in DCs. (pasteur.fr)
  • The role of the T-cell receptor (TCR) in commitment of thymocytes to regulatory CD4 + Foxp3 + and conventional CD4 + Foxp3 - T-cell lineages remains controversial. (elsevier.com)
  • CD4 serves as a T cell coreceptor for MHC class II antigen recognition and as a receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (fishersci.com)
  • This is achieved by interacting with a professional APC which presents an antigen recognized by their T cell receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epitopes described in Understanding the focused CD4 T cell response to antigen and pathogenic organisms. (iedb.org)
  • We have shown previously that antigen presentation can be deregulated by the presence of V3 epitopes on the surface of macrophages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Epitopes of the CD4 antigen and HIV infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The data indicate that only some epitopes of CD4 are important for virus binding and imply that the virus-binding site for CD4 is conserved in different isolates of HIV with substantially divergent env gene sequences. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Very recently, CD4 T cell antigenic epitopes were also determined in certain melanoma tumors. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Ikeda, H. / Human CD8 and CD4 T cell epitopes of epithelial cancer antigens . (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The known structural resemblance of CD1 molecules to antigen-presenting molecules encoded by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes on human chromosome 6 (refs 3, 4, 34, 35), suggested that CD1 may represent a family of antigen-presenting molecules separate from those encoded in the MHC. (nih.gov)
  • These results provide, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence for the proposed antigen-presenting function of CD1 molecules and suggest that the CD1 family plays a role in cell-mediated immunity to microbial pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • We list all the CD antigens according to the specific name of CD molecules. (sinobiological.com)
  • CD4 interacts with the β 2 -domain of MHC class II molecules through its D 1 domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD1b restricts the response of human CD4-8- T lymphocytes to a microbial antigen. (nih.gov)
  • A subset of T lymphocytes positive for the CD4 antigen (also termed T4 antigen), is depleted in AIDS and PGL patients. (nih.gov)
  • 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. (curehunter.com)
  • Analysis of TCR Vα chain expressed by antigen‐specific, conventional CD 4 + T lymphocytes reveals that Treg depletion allows the emergence of a wider repertoire comprising novel, mostly private, antigen‐specific clonotypes. (embopress.org)
  • Munz C, Bickham KL, Subklewe M, Tsang ML, Chahroudi A, Kurilla MG, Zhang D, O'Donnell M, Steinman RM: Human CD4 + T lymphocytes consistently respond to the latent Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen EBNA1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were stained using the Human Naïve/Memory T cell ID Panel consisting of CD3 APC/Cy7, CD4 PerCP/Cy5.5, CD45RA FITC and CD197 APC. (biolegend.com)
  • CD4 binding to major histocompatibility complex class II antigens induces LFA-1-dependent and -independent homotypic adhesion of B lymphocytes. (duke.edu)
  • These results provide direct evidence for the in vivo role of apoptosis in the development of antigen-induced tolerance. (sciencemag.org)
  • Combining the most potent CD4(+) and CD8(+) CAR-expressing subsets resulted in synergistic antitumor effects in vivo. (fredhutch.org)
  • This presents a substantial challenge to translating advances in our understanding of Treg biology into immunotherapy for human type 1 diabetes, because the literature on the natural repertoire of human islet antigen-specific Tregs that may contribute to the tolerant state in vivo is scant. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Within the peripheral blood of healthy humans a relative stable population of Tregs can be recognized that comprise ∼5-10% of the total CD4 + T cell population. (jimmunol.org)
  • Allergens are antigens that induce allergic states in humans or animals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • [5] In humans, the CD4 protein is encoded by the CD4 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, different classes of pathogens may induce a distinct balance of CD4 + T cell differentiation programmes. (frontiersin.org)
  • In conclusion, purified CD4 DLI from HLA-identical sibling donors can induce conversion from mixed to full donor chimerism with graft-vs.-malignancy reactivity, but without GVHD, by targeting HLA class II restricted MiHA. (frontiersin.org)
  • These interactions induce the expression of lymphotoxin α in autoreactive CD4⁺ thymocytes and RANK in mTECs. (kuleuven.be)
  • Microbial antigens prepared to induce protective antibodies are termed vaccines. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Anti-class II mAb and CD4-gamma 3 were able to induce adhesion at concentrations as low as 10 ng/ml and 100 ng/ml, respectively. (duke.edu)
  • Studies using two different model systems have demonstrated that a potent CD4 + immunoregulatory T cell population can be defined by expression of the IL-2R α-chain (CD25). (jimmunol.org)
  • Human Ag-specific CD4(+) Txa0cells can be detected by their dual expression of CD134 (OX40) and CD25 after a 44 hours stimulation with cognate Ag. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Human MSCs (hMSCs) can alter multiple aspects of murine T cell activation induced by stimulation with specific antigen, including: reduced proliferation, inhibited or stimulated cell surface marker expression (CD25, CD69, CD44 and CD62L), inhibited mRNA expression of transcription factors (T-bet and GATA-3) and decreased cytokine expression (interferon-gamma, interleukin-10). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ozone exposure impairs antigen-specific immunity but activates IL-7-induced proliferation of CD4(-)CD8(-) thymocytes in balb/c mice. (cdc.gov)
  • It was also found that O3 exposure dramatically enhanced the proliferation of CD4-CD8- thymocytes stimulated by recombinant mouse interleukin-7 (rmIL-7), which is usually observed during the mammal aging process. (cdc.gov)
  • The most statistically significant enriched categories and networks identified by IPA were associated with cell cycle, gene expression, immune response, infection mechanisms, cellular growth, proliferation and antigen presentation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This structure shows the extracellular part of HIV gp120 (dark blue) bound to the extracellular part of CD4 antigen (light blue) which is located on the surface of a T lymphocyte or macrophage. (uah.es)
  • CD4-IgG is capable of binding to HIV envelope protein (gp120) and inhibiting HIV infectivity in test tube studies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Im Rahmen dessen wurden zwei verschiedene experimentelle Ansätze wurden gewählt: Zur Analyse von Populationen, die während einer Primärantwort auftreten, wurden antigenerfahrene CD4-T-Zellen in vitro mit TSST-beladenen dendritischen Zellen stimuliert. (hu-berlin.de)
  • For this, PBL from a healthy donor were stimulated with a mixture of autologous APCs transfected with in vitro transcribed RNA encoding various CT antigens fused to targeting signals for directed HLA class II cross-presentation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Previously, we have used membrane-bound CD154 (CD40L) expression in a live cell assay to detect and isolate human Ag-reactive CD4 + Teff with high sensitivity and specificity ( 13 , 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Acquisition of an additional antigen specificity after mouse CD4 gene transfer into a T helper hybridoma. (rupress.org)
  • These experiments suggest that CD4 may be important in determining the antigen fine specificity and, therefore, may also play a role in altering the T cell repertoire. (rupress.org)
  • In order to identify the antigen and epitope specificity of each T cell clone, DNA sequences of each CT antigen were randomly digested and DNA fragments introduced in a vector mixture that allows expression of the fragments in all possible reading frames fused to a bacterial selection marker. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Critically, these studies highlighted the importance of antigen specificity: islet-specific Tregs have far greater potency than those derived from polyclonal populations. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CD4 + T cell differentiation is influenced by a plethora of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, providing the immune system with the ability to tailor its response according to specific stimuli. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast, strong TCR signaling leading to TCR downregulation and induction of LAG3 expression in high TCR avidity clonotypes restrained CD4 + T cell commitment and further differentiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, CD4 + CD34 high AML cases appear to have unique immature characteristics including low expression of myelomonocytic differentiation antigens (ie CD33 and CD11b), and accumulation of chromosome abnormalities (ie t(8;21) in CD4 low CD34 high AML and chromosome 7 abnormalities in CD4 high CD34 high AML). (nature.com)
  • ThCTL require Blimp-1 for their differentiation, suggesting a unique effector CD4 population. (umassmed.edu)
  • Late antigen was necessary and sufficient for the differentiation of ThCTL. (umassmed.edu)
  • In the context of late antigen encounter, ThCTL surprisingly do not require CD80 and CD86 costimulation for their differentiation. (umassmed.edu)
  • To study the safety and pharmacokinetics (blood levels) of recombinant human CD4 immunoglobulin (rCd4-IgG) in patients with AIDS or AIDS related complex (ARC) who have failed or declined therapy with zidovudine (AZT). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Recently, scientists have succeeded in producing highly purified recombinant soluble human CD4. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The CD4 antigen is a 55 kDa type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. (fishersci.com)
  • among 155 monoclonal antibodies tested, each of the 14 anti-CD4 antibodies inhibited formation of syncytia and blocked pseudotypes. (nih.gov)
  • The transfectants' response to PI can be completely abrogated by anti-CD4 antibodies. (rupress.org)
  • Antigens can also react with formed antibodies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To elucidate the effect of foods as antigenic stimuli on the exacerbation of CD inflammation, we first compared the prevalence of IgG antibodies against food antigens in CD patients, UC patients, and healthy controls (HC). (springer.com)
  • DQ1 is a serotype, rare among serotypes for human class II antigens, in that the antibodies to DQ1 react to the alpha chain of HLA DQ, these DQA1 allele gene products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intraperitoneal administration of the peptide antigen to transgenic mice results in a rapid deletion of the immature CD4+ CD8+ TCRlo thymocytes. (sciencemag.org)
  • We demonstrate here that conventional SP CD4⁺ thymocytes bearing autoreactive TCRs drive a homeostatic process that fine-tunes medullary plasticity in adult mice by governing the expansion and patterning of the medulla. (kuleuven.be)
  • Our results show that Ag-dependent interactions between autoreactive CD4⁺ thymocytes and mTECs fine-tune homeostasis of the medulla by completing the signaling axes implicated in mTEC expansion and medullary organization. (kuleuven.be)
  • CD4 is also expressed on 80% to 95% of normal thymocytes. (fishersci.com)
  • We have transfected the mouse CD4 gene into a beef insulin (BI)-specific murine T helper hybridoma that lacks CD4 surface expression. (rupress.org)
  • The SSX2 gene encodes the cancer testis antigen (CTA) HOM-MEL-40/SSX2, which is frequently expressed in a wide spectrum of cancers. (nih.gov)
  • NY-ESO-1 (ESO), a tumor-specific antigen of the cancer/testis group, is presently viewed as an important model antigen for the development of generic anticancer vaccines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Initially, N. caninum tachyzoite Water Soluble Antigens (NcWSA) were fractionated by size-exclusion HPLC and then screened for immune-potency using CD4 +ve T cell lines. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These findings imply that antigen does not require intracellular diversion to access the cross-presentation pathway, because it can enter the pathway already during endocytosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • This novel mechanism, which we term antigen export, involves intracellular vesicular transport, and requires the microtubule-directed molecular motor, kinesin-2. (ucsf.edu)
  • This project will extend these findings and characterize the other cellular mechanisms required for antigen export, including budding of antigen export vesicles (AEV) from phagosomes, intracellular targeting of AEV, and fusion of AEV membranes with the plasma membrane for release of antigens to the extracellular space. (ucsf.edu)
  • The short cytoplasmic / intracellular tail (C) of CD4 contains a special sequence of amino acids that allow it to recruit and interact with the tyrosine kinase Lck . (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting close proximity between the TCR complex and CD4 (extracellular and intracellular) allows the tyrosine kinase Lck bound to the cytoplasmic tail of CD4 to tyrosine-phosphorylate the Immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motifs (ITAM) on the cytoplasmic domains of CD3 to amplify the signal generated by the TCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to endosomal/lysosomal proteases that are typically involved in MHC-II antigen presentation, several pathways in the MHC class I presentation pathways, such as the proteasomal degradation and transporter-associated with antigen-processing-mediated peptide transport, were also involved in the presentation of intracellular NY-ESO-1 on MHC-II. (elsevier.com)
  • Intestinal self-antigen expression leads to peripheral expansion of antigen-specific CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T(regs). (fu-berlin.de)
  • Interestingly, antigen presentation by primary IECs is sufficient to expand antigen-specific CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T(regs) efficiently. (fu-berlin.de)
  • We demonstrate here that SseB is also a target of CD4 T-cell immunity, generating a substantial response after experimental infection in human volunteers, with around 0.1% of the peripheral repertoire responding to it. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The high burden of CM globally comes despite the fact that cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) is detectable weeks before the onset of symptoms, allowing screening for cryptococcal infection and early treatment to prevent CM and CM-related mortality ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Medical professionals refer to the CD4 count to decide when to begin treatment during HIV infection, although recent medical guidelines have changed to recommend treatment at all CD4 counts as soon as HIV is diagnosed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of the CD4 antigen in HIV infection and immune pathogenesis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Potential therapeutic benefit in patients with HIV infection may be derived from CD4-IgG. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As ThCTL are highly activated, they also require antigen signaling post priming during IAV infection. (umassmed.edu)
  • Since influenza infection produces a large, heterogeneous, protective CD4 memory T cell population, I used this model to examine the role of late Ag in promoting CD4 memory T cell formation. (umassmed.edu)
  • Thus, the direct engagement of B cell class II antigens by CD4 is likely to generate transmembrane signals which trigger both LFA-1-dependent and LFA-1-independent adhesion pathways. (duke.edu)
  • We report that during T cell-antigen-presenting cell interaction, triggered TCRs and coreceptors are downregulated and degraded with identical kinetics. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war, die funktionellen Charkteristika von humanen antigenerfahrenen CD4-T-Zellen in Relation zur Expression von IL-7Ra und CCR7 zu untersuchen. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Der zweite Ansatz bestand darin, zirkulierende antigenerfahrene CD4-T-Zellen entsprechend ihrer CCR7- und IL7R-Expression zu isolieren, um die heterogenen zirkulierenden T-Zellen zu untersuchen. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Thus these data suggest ThCTL are marked by the expression of NKG2C/E and represent a unique CD4 effector population specialized for cytotoxicity. (umassmed.edu)
  • Consistent with this, homotypic adhesion induced by engagement of MHC class II antigens was observed with LFA-1-deficient B cell lines, and was independent of CD49d or CD18 expression. (duke.edu)
  • Sequence analysis of the antigen recognized by this antibody indicates that it recognizes a protein that is identical to heat-stable antigen. (rupress.org)
  • Antigen-antibody reactions serve as host defenses against microorganisms and other foreign bodies, or are used in laboratory tests for detecting the presence of either antigen or antibody. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • With a few exceptions, such as the autoantigens and the isoantigens of the blood groups, antigens produce antibody only in species other than the ones from which they are derived. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The presence of antibody to one of these constituent antigens in human or animal sera is presumptive evidence of past or present contact with specific microorganisms, and this finds application in clinical diagnosis and epidemiological surveys. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since whole microorganisms are complex structures, vaccines may contain 10 or more distinct antigens, of which generally not more than one or two engender a protective antibody. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It was discovered in the late 1970s and was originally known as leu-3 and T4 (after the OKT4 monoclonal antibody that reacted with it) before being named CD4 in 1984. (wikipedia.org)
  • This product consists of four antibody vials: CD3 APC/Cy7, CD4 PerCP/Cy5.5, CD45RA FITC, and CD197 APC. (biolegend.com)
  • The SK3 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD4. (fishersci.com)
  • CD4 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects CD4 in Human samples. (fishersci.com)
  • We exposed primary human peripheral blood monocytes to V3 lipopeptides using a liposome delivery system followed by a superantigen-mediated antigen presentation system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Presentation by EBV-transformed B cell lines probably did not reflect antigen shedding and re-endocytosis, but a distinct endogenous presentation pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is unknown whether similar dual modes of presentation exist for self antigens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Beta-conglycinin, identified as an antigenic food proteins in IL-10 KO mice, induced CD4 + T cell production of interferon-γ and IL-17 through dendritic cell antigen presentation. (springer.com)
  • The presentation was inhibited significantly by primaquine, a small molecule that inhibits endosomal recycling, consistent with findings that pharmacologic inhibition of new protein synthesis enhances antigen presentation. (elsevier.com)
  • this process is known as antigen presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In CD4 the interaction involves its extracellular D 1 domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, these pool-loaded APCs were tested with CT-antigen-specific CD4 + T cell clones. (aacrjournals.org)
  • however, the term "antigen-presenting cell" is often used specifically to describe professional APCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CD4 antigen is present in low density on the cell surface of monocytes and in the cytoplasm of monocytes and macrophages (CD3-CD4+). (fishersci.com)
  • Using this approach, TCR sequences, epitope sequences and respective MHC-restriction elements were identified for multiple antigens in a single round procedure. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The serodominant secreted effector protein of Salmonella, SseB, is a strong CD4 antigen containing an immunodominant epitope presented by diverse HLA class II alleles. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Of these, peptide 11 (p11) was shown in priming of both HLA-DR1 and HLA-DR4 transgenic mice to contain an immunodominant CD4 epitope. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The TCR complex and CD4 each bind to distinct regions of the antigen-presenting MHCII molecule - α1/β1 and β2, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Control and Treg‐depleted EF 4.1 mice were immunized, and the extent of the Vα2‐bearing, antigen‐specific TCR repertoire was characterized by high‐throughput sequencing and spectratyping analysis. (embopress.org)
  • The presence of serum IgGs against foods was also examined in interleukin (IL)-10 knockout (KO) mice in which CD4 + T cell activation by antigenic food protein was assessed. (springer.com)
  • Elimination of the food antigens ameliorated the development of colitis in mice without altering the composition of their intestinal microbiota. (springer.com)
  • In CD colitis mice, intestinal inflammation via CD4 + T cell hyperactivation was induced by food antigens associated with high serum IgG levels and was ameliorated by the elimination of food antigens. (springer.com)
  • These may be proteins or polysaccharides derived from the outer surfaces of the cell (capsular antigens), from the cell interior (the somatic or O antigens), or from the flagella (the flagellar or H antigens). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • T-cell surface antigen T4_Leu-3 Monoclonal detects proteins from variouse species most likely human. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Ligands from these two proteins are also being tested in antigen-specific tolerance induction strategies. (cam.ac.uk)
  • mAb reactive with CD4 inhibited CD4-gamma 3-induced adhesion and a mutant B lymphoblastoid cell line deficient in class II antigens failed to respond. (duke.edu)
  • Similar reductions in functional capacity and protection were noted for the endogenous OVA 323 -specific memory CD4 T cell population in sepsis survivors upon Lm-OVA challenge. (umn.edu)
  • Finally, I find that memory CD4 T cell formation following cold-adapted influenza vaccination is boosted when Ag is administered at this stage. (umassmed.edu)
  • Skin fibroblasts forced to express HLA class II, were recognized by only two MiHA specific CD4 T-cell clones. (frontiersin.org)
  • We used HLA-DQ6 multimers to assess the specific CD4 T-cell response in both healthy individuals and melanoma patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Highly purified CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte populations cultured in the presence of PHA consistently failed to coexpress the CD8 and CD4 markers. (mendeley.com)
  • This study provides experimental evidence for a new concept in mucosal immunity: in contrast to current thinking, expansion of T(regs) can be achieved independently of local DCs through antigen-specific IEC-T cell interactions. (fu-berlin.de)
  • It has been suggested that resting of PBMC after thawing, that is, culturing them overnight in test medium, produces higher antigen-induced spot counts in ELISPOT assays. (mdpi.com)
  • Because resting invariably leads to losing about half of the PBMC available for testing, and because doubling the PBMC numbers plated into the assay reliably doubles the antigen-induced spot counts, we suggest the latter approach as a simple and reliable alternative to resting for enhancing the performance of ELISPOT assays. (mdpi.com)
  • This prospective observational study aimed to evaluate the burden of cryptococcal disease among approximately 200 HIV-infected adults with low CD4 cell counts in Pune, India to determine whether a Cryptococcal screening strategy should be the standard of care among patients with advanced HIV disease who are admitted to medicine wards or seen as new patients in the Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) center. (ccghe.net)
  • Suboptimal stimulation of B cell lines through HLA-D antigens induced homotypic adhesion that was dependent on the activation of LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18), and which could be blocked by specific mAb. (duke.edu)
  • The CD4-expressing transfectants have acquired an additional reactivity for pork insulin (PI), which was not detectable in the original recipient cell. (rupress.org)
  • This process exhibits strict dependence on TCR-reactivity with self-antigens expressed by mTECs, as well as engagement of the CD28-CD80/CD86 costimulatory axis. (kuleuven.be)
  • Concordance of human leukocyte antigen haplotype-sharing, CD4 decline and AIDS in hemophilic siblings. (rti.org)
  • The Role of Late Antigen in CD4 Memory T Cell Formation during Influena [i.e. (umassmed.edu)
  • Although the putative effects of nutritional therapies appear to be a result of bowel rest, provision of nutrients, alteration of bowel flora, or alteration of antigenic stimuli, the mechanism by which food antigens stimulate intestinal inflammation in CD remains unclear. (springer.com)