Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Adenoviral gene transfer into the normal and injured spinal cord: enhanced transgene stability by combined administration of temperature-sensitive virus and transient immune blockade. (1/4917)

This study characterized gene transfer into both normal and injured adult rat dorsal spinal cord using first (E1-/E3-) or second (E1-/E2A125/E3-, temperature-sensitive; ts) generation of replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors. A novel immunosuppressive regimen aimed at blocking CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors was tested for improving transgene persistence. In addition, the effect of gene transfer on nociception was also evaluated. Seven days after treatment, numerous LacZ-positive cells were observed after transfection with either viral vector. By 21 days after transfection, beta-galactosidase staining was reduced and suggestive of ongoing cytopathology in both Ad-treated groups, despite the fact that the immunogenicity of LacZ/Adts appeared less when compared with that elicited by the LacZ/Ad vector. In contrast, immunosuppressed animals showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in the number of LacZ-positive cells not displaying cytopathology. In these animals, a concomitant reduction in numbers of macrophages/microglia and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes was observed. Only animals that received LacZ/Adts and immunosuppression showed transgene expression after 60 days. Similar results were observed in animals in which the L4-L5 dorsal roots were lesioned before transfection. Gene transfer into the dorsal spinal cord did not affect nociception, independent of the adenovirus vector. These results indicate that immune blockade of the CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors enhanced transgene stability in adult animals with normal or injured spinal cords and that persistent transgene expression in the spinal cord does not interfere with normal neural function.  (+info)

The human F box protein beta-Trcp associates with the Cul1/Skp1 complex and regulates the stability of beta-catenin. (2/4917)

Ubiquitin-conjugation targets numerous cellular regulators for proteasome-mediated degradation. Thus, the identification of ubiquitin ligases and their physiological substrates is crucially important, especially for those cases in which aberrant levels of regulatory proteins (e.g., beta-catenin, p27) result from a deregulated ubiquitination pathway. In yeast, the proteolysis of several G1 regulators is controlled by ubiquitin ligases (or SCFs) formed by three subunits: Skp1, Cul A (Cdc53), and one of many F-box proteins. Specific F-box proteins (Fbps) recruit different substrates to the SCF. Although many Fbps have been identified in mammals, their specific substrates and the existence of multiple SCFs have not yet been reported. We have found that one human Fbp, beta-Trcp (beta-Transducin repeat containing protein), does indeed form a novel SCF with human Skp1 and Cul1. Consistent with recent reports indicating that Xenopus and Drosophila beta-Trcp homologs act as negative regulators of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, we report here that human beta-Trcp interacts with beta-catenin in vivo. Furthermore, beta-catenin is specifically stabilized in vivo by the expression of a dominant negative beta-Trcp. These results indicate that the Cul1/Skp1/beta-Trcp complex forms a ubiquitin ligase that mediates the degradation of beta-catenin.  (+info)

Elevated expression of the CD4 receptor and cell cycle arrest are induced in Jurkat cells by treatment with the novel cyclic dinucleotide 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid. (3/4917)

The effect of the novel, naturally occurring nucleotide cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) on the lymphoblastoid CD4+ Jurkat cell line was studied. When exposed to 50 microM c-di-GMP, Jurkat cells exhibited a markedly elevated expression of the CD4 receptor of up to 6.3-fold over controls. C-di-GMP also causes blockage of the cell cycle at the S-phase, characterized by increased cellular thymidine uptake, reduction in G2/M-phase cells, increase in S-phase cells and decreased cell division. Additionally c-di-GMP naturally enters these cells and binds irreversibly to the P21ras protein. The effects described appear to be unique for c-di-GMP.  (+info)

Interactions between Tat and TAR and human immunodeficiency virus replication are facilitated by human cyclin T1 but not cyclins T2a or T2b. (4/4917)

The transcriptional transactivator (Tat) from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) does not function efficiently in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Only somatic cell hybrids between CHO and human cells and CHO cells containing human chromosome 12 (CHO12) support high levels of Tat transactivation. This restriction was mapped to interactions between Tat and TAR. Recently, human cyclin T1 was found to increase the binding of Tat to TAR and levels of Tat transactivation in rodent cells. By combining individually with CDK9, cyclin T1 or related cyclins T2a and T2b form distinct positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complexes. In this report, we found that of these three cyclins, only cyclin T1 is encoded on human chromosome 12 and is responsible for its effects in CHO cells. Moreover, only human cyclin T1, not mouse cyclin T1 or human cyclins T2a or T2b, supported interactions between Tat and TAR in vitro. Finally, after introducing appropriate receptors and human cyclin T1 into CHO cells, they became permissive for infection by and replication of HIV.  (+info)

A functional, discontinuous HIV-1 gp120 C3/C4 domain-derived, branched, synthetic peptide that binds to CD4 and inhibits MIP-1alpha chemokine binding. (5/4917)

This paper describes a branched synthetic peptide [3.7] that incorporates sequence discontinuous residues of HIV-1 gp120 constant regions. The approach was to bring together residues of gp120 known to interact with human cell membranes such that the peptide could fold to mimic the native molecule. The peptide incorporates elements of both the conserved CD4 and CCR5 binding sites. The 3.7 peptide, which cannot be produced by conventional genetic engineering methods, is recognized by antiserum raised to native gp120. The peptide also binds to CD4 and competitively inhibits binding of QS4120 an antibody directed against the CDR2 region of CD4. When preincubated with the CD4+ve MM6 macrophage cell line, which expresses mRNA for the CCR3 and CCR5 chemokine receptors, both 3.7 and gp120 inhibit binding of the chemokine MIP-1alpha. The peptide also inhibits infection of primary macrophages by M-tropic HIV-1. Thus, 3.7 is a prototype candidate peptide for a vaccine against HIV-1 and represents a novel approach to the rational design of peptides that can mimic complex sequence discontinuous ligand binding sites of clinically relevant proteins.  (+info)

Cluster of differentiation antigen 4 (CD4) endocytosis and adaptor complex binding require activation of the CD4 endocytosis signal by serine phosphorylation. (6/4917)

Cluster of differentiation antigen 4 (CD4), the T lymphocyte antigen receptor component and human immunodeficiency virus coreceptor, is down-modulated when cells are activated by antigen or phorbol esters. During down-modulation CD4 dissociates from p56(lck), undergoes endocytosis through clathrin-coated pits, and is then sorted in early endosomes to late endocytic organelles where it is degraded. Previous studies have suggested that phosphorylation and a dileucine sequence are required for down-modulation. Using transfected HeLa cells, in which CD4 endocytosis can be studied in the absence of p56(lck), we show that the dileucine sequence in the cytoplasmic domain is essential for clathrin-mediated CD4 endocytosis. However, this sequence is only functional as an endocytosis signal when neighboring serine residues are phosphorylated. Phosphoserine is required for rapid endocytosis because CD4 molecules in which the cytoplasmic domain serine residues are substituted with glutamic acid residues are not internalized efficiently. Using surface plasmon resonance, we show that CD4 peptides containing the dileucine sequence bind weakly to clathrin adaptor protein complexes 2 and 1. The affinity of this interaction is increased 350- to 700-fold when the peptides also contain phosphoserine residues.  (+info)

Potent inhibition of CD4/TCR-mediated T cell apoptosis by a CD4-binding glycoprotein secreted from breast tumor and seminal vesicle cells. (7/4917)

We previously isolated a CD4 ligand glycoprotein, gp17, from human seminal plasma; this glycoprotein is identical with gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), a factor specifically secreted from primary and secondary breast tumors. The function of gp17/GCDFP-15 in physiological as well as in pathological conditions has remained elusive thus far. As a follow up to our previous findings that gp17 binds to CD4 with high affinity and interferes with both HIV-1 gp120 binding to CD4 and syncytium formation, we investigated whether gp17 could affect the T lymphocyte apoptosis induced by a separate ligation of CD4 and TCR. We show here that gp17/GCDFP-15 is in fact a strong and specific inhibitor of the T lymphocyte programmed cell death induced by CD4 cross-linking and subsequent TCR activation. The antiapoptotic effect observed in the presence of gp17 correlates with a moderate up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression in treated cells. The presence of gp17 also prevents the down-modulation of Bcl-2 expression in Bcl-2bright CD4+ T cells that is caused by the triggering of apoptosis. Our results suggest that gp17 may represent a new immunomodulatory CD4 binding factor playing a role in host defense against infections and tumors.  (+info)

Oligoclonality of rat intestinal intraepithelial T lymphocytes: overlapping TCR beta-chain repertoires in the CD4 single-positive and CD4/CD8 double-positive subsets. (8/4917)

Previous studies in humans and mice have shown that gut intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) express oligoclonal TCR beta-chain repertoires. These studies have either employed unseparated IEL preparations or focused on the CD8+ subsets. Here, we have analyzed the TCR beta-chain repertoire of small intestinal IELs in PVG rats, in sorted CD4+ as well as CD8+ subpopulations, and important differences were noted. CD8alphaalpha and CD8alphabeta single-positive (SP) IELs used most Vbeta genes, but relative Vbeta usage as determined by quantitative PCR analysis differed markedly between the two subsets and among individual rats. By contrast, CD4+ IELs showed consistent skewing toward Vbeta17 and Vbeta19; these two genes accounted collectively for more than half the Vbeta repertoire in the CD4/CD8 double-positive (DP) subset and were likewise predominant in CD4 SP IELs. Complementarity-determining region 3 length displays and TCR sequencing demonstrated oligoclonal expansions in both the CD4+ and CD8+ IEL subpopulations. These studies also revealed that the CD4 SP and CD4/CD8 DP IEL subsets expressed overlapping beta-chain repertoires. In conclusion, our results show that rat TCR-alphabeta+ IELs of both the CD8+ and CD4+ subpopulations are oligoclonal. The limited Vbeta usage and overlapping TCR repertoire expressed by CD4 SP and CD4/CD8 DP cells suggest that these two IEL populations recognize restricted intestinal ligands and are developmentally and functionally related.  (+info)

*Discovery and development of HIV-protease inhibitors

HIV infects T cells that carry the CD4 antigen on their surface. When HIV infects its target cell it requires fusion of the ... CD4 receptor) on the target cell. Then the virus binds to the chemokine coreceptors CXCR4 or CCR5, resulting in conformational ...

*IL17A

Antigen specific CD4 T cells also limit nasopharyngeal colonization of S. pneumoniae in mouse models. Furthermore, immunization ... Antigen specific Th17 cells were also shown to recognize conserved protein antigens among different K. pneumoniae strains and ... "Calnexin induces expansion of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that confer immunity to fungal ascomycetes via conserved epitopes ... Hayes CE, Hubler SL, Moore JR, Barta LE, Praska CE, Nashold FE (18 March 2015). "Vitamin D Actions on CD4(+) T Cells in ...

*CD1

"Recognition of cluster of differentiation 1 antigens by human CD4-CD8-cytolytic T lymphocytes". Nature. 341 (6241): 447-50. doi ... CD1 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. This often remains true in neoplastic cells from ... They are related to the class I MHC molecules, and are involved in the presentation of lipid antigens to T cells. However their ...

*Index of biochemistry articles

CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion molecule - Cell biology - cell cycle ... T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence - taste bud - TATA box - ... carcinoembryonic antigen - carrier - carrier protein - CAS registry number - casein - catabolism - catalyst - catalytic domain ... alpha-beta T-cell antigen receptor - alpha-fetoprotein - alpha-globulin - alpha-macroglobulin - alpha-MSH - Ames test - amide ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigen, t-cell MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.104 --- antigens, cd4 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.105 --- antigens, cd5 MeSH D23.050. ... antigen, t-cell MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.100 --- antigens, cd4 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.101 --- antigens, cd5 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.101.100.110.103.800 --- receptor-cd3 complex, antigen, t-cell MeSH D23.101.100.110.104 --- antigens, cd4 ... antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.101.100.894.095.800 --- receptor-cd3 complex, antigen, t-cell MeSH D23.101.100.894.100 --- antigens, cd4 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... antigens, cd4 MeSH D12.776.543.750.925.700.605 -- receptors, ccr5 MeSH D12.776.543.750.925.700.650 -- receptors, cxcr4 MeSH ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 -- receptors, antigen, ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 -- antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 -- antigens, cd40 ...

*Angus Dalgleish

"The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus". Nature. 312 (5996): 763-767. doi: ... where he helped identify CD4 as the major cellular receptor for HIV. In 1986, he was appointed to a consulting position at ...

*HLA-DQ1

1992). "Human leukocyte antigen serologic and DNA typing of Behçet's disease and its primary association with B51". Invest. ... CD4 decline and AIDS in hemophilic siblings. Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort and Hemophilia Growth and Development Studies". AIDS ... 1994). "Human leukocyte antigen class II polymorphisms and genetic susceptibility of IDDM in Egyptian children". Diabetes Care ... 1992). "Association of HLA-B51 and lack of association of class II alleles with Behçet's disease". Tissue Antigens. 40 (1): 22- ...

*Neuroinflammation

ED1 macrophage antigen, CD4, and leukocyte common antigen. These activated microglia decrease the ability for neurons to ... Additionally, T cells may enter through the blood-brain barrier, be activated by local antigen presenting cells, and attack the ...

*Envelope glycoprotein GP120

Dalgleish AG, Beverley PC, Clapham PR, Crawford DH, Greaves MF, Weiss RA (1984). "The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential ... Binding to CD4 induces the start of a cascade of conformational changes in gp120 and gp41 that lead to the fusion of the viral ... Since CD4 receptor binding is the most obvious step in HIV infection, gp120 was among the first targets of HIV vaccine research ... Binding to CD4 is mainly electrostatic although there are van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds[citation needed]. Gp120 ...

*Rheumatic fever

During a streptococcal infection, mature antigen-presenting cells such as B cells present the bacterial antigen to CD4+T cells ... Self-antigen-specific antibodies generated via molecular mimicry between human proteins and streptococcal antigens up-regulate ... Molecular mimicry occurs when epitopes are shared between host antigens and Streptococcus antigens. This causes an autoimmune ... Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II allele DR7 (HLA-DR7) is most often associated with RHD, and its combination with certain ...

*IL2RA

Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells gradually accumulate in gliomas during tumor growth ... Though IL2RA has been used as a marker to identify CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in mice, it has been found that a large ...

*CD8A

Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ... The CD8 antigen, acting as a coreceptor, and the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte recognize antigen displayed by an antigen ... "Physical associations between CD45 and CD4 or CD8 occur as late activation events in antigen receptor-stimulated human T cells ... The CD8 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediates efficient cell-cell ...

*Lck

Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (May 1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ... Thome M, Duplay P, Guttinger M, Acuto O (Jun 1995). "Syk and ZAP-70 mediate recruitment of p56lck/CD4 to the activated T cell ... It associates with the cytoplasmic tails of the CD4 and CD8 co-receptors on T helper cells and cytotoxic T cells, respectively ... Lck has been shown to interact with: ADAM15, CD2, CD44, CD4, COUP-TFII, DLG1, NOTCH1, PIK3CA, PTPN6, PTPRC, UNC119, SYK, UBE3A ...

*Lutzner cells

... but stimulates the over production of other antigens like CD4. This mutation is a clonal gene rearrangement at the TCR-γ gene. ... It binds to a specific antigen to initiate an immune response. T-cell antibodies bind to antigens such as virus infected cells ... Once this antigen is lost, the T-cell antibodies will never be able to detect the pathogen, allowing the pathogen to increase ... When a cutaneous lymphocyte antigen is expressed in the skin, the CD4+ Lutzner cell travels to the epidermis and dermis layers ...

*Christopher E. Rudd

1989) The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex. Proc. ... 1998) The CD4 receptor is complexed to a T-cell specific tyrosine kinase (pp58) in detergent lysates from human T lymphocytes. ... CD4, CD8 and the TcR/CD3 Complex: a novel class of protein tyrosine kinase receptor (1990) Immunology Today, 11, 400-406 ... In particular he made the seminal discovery that that CD4 and CD8 co-receptor molecules are linked to the p56 lck src family ...

*Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1

1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... Clayton LK, Sieh M, Pious DA, Reinherz EL (1989). "Identification of human CD4 residues affecting class II MHC versus HIV-1 ... Rosenstein Y, Burakoff SJ, Herrmann SH (1990). "HIV-gp120 can block CD4-class II MHC-mediated adhesion". J. Immunol. 144 (2): ... Marsh SG, Bodmer JG (1993). "HLA class II nucleotide sequences, 1992". Tissue Antigens. 40 (5): 229-43. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ...

*HLA-DPB1

1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP(W2) beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DPB1 gene. HLA-DPB ... 1991). "Modulation of the HLA class II antigen at a molecular level by maternal serum among cord blood cells and unrelated ... Eiermann TH, Uhl S, Fakler J, Goldmann SF (1992). "A novel HLA-DPB1 sequence, DPB1*2301". Tissue Antigens. 40 (2): 108-10. doi: ...

*HLA-DOB

1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. HLA-DOB ... 1992). "DNA sequence analysis of 66 kb of the human MHC class II region encoding a cluster of genes for antigen processing". J ...

*HLA-DMB

1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DM beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DMB gene. HLA-DMB ... Clayton LK, Sieh M, Pious DA, Reinherz EL (1989). "Identification of human CD4 residues affecting class II MHC versus HIV-1 ...

*HLA-DR

1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... Identification of these antigens has led to greater success and longevity in organ transplant. Antigens most responsible for ... The complex of HLA-DR (Human Leukocyte Antigen - antigen D Related) and its ligand, a peptide of 9 amino acids in length or ... cell responses that eventually lead to the production of antibodies against the same peptide antigen. Antigen presenting cells ...

*HLA-DQA2

1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... Also known as HLA-DXA or DAAP-381D23.2, it is part of the human leucocyte antigen system. The protein encoded by this gene is ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ(6) alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DQA2 gene. ...

*HLA-DRB3 (gene)

1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... Gorski J, Mach B (1986). "Polymorphism of human Ia antigens: gene conversion between two DR beta loci results in a new HLA-D/DR ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB3-1 beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRB3 gene. The ... Clayton LK, Sieh M, Pious DA, Reinherz EL (1989). "Identification of human CD4 residues affecting class II MHC versus HIV-1 ...

*HLA-DRB5

1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB5 beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRB5 gene. The ... Clayton LK, Sieh M, Pious DA, Reinherz EL (1989). "Identification of human CD4 residues affecting class II MHC versus HIV-1 ... Rosenstein Y, Burakoff SJ, Herrmann SH (1990). "HIV-gp120 can block CD4-class II MHC-mediated adhesion". J. Immunol. 144 (2): ...

*HLA-DRB4

1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... Clayton LK, Sieh M, Pious DA, Reinherz EL (1989). "Identification of human CD4 residues affecting class II MHC versus HIV-1 ... Rosenstein Y, Burakoff SJ, Herrmann SH (1990). "HIV-gp120 can block CD4-class II MHC-mediated adhesion". J. Immunol. 144 (2): ... Wu S, Saunders TL, Bach FH (1987). "Polymorphism of human Ia antigens generated by reciprocal intergenic exchange between two ...

*GNLY

Granulysin is a member of the saposin-like protein (SAPLIP) family and is released from cytotoxic T cells upon antigen ... 2003). "CD8 T cell-mediated killing of Cryptococcus neoformans requires granulysin and is dependent on CD4 T cells and IL-15". ... Krensky AM, Clayberger C (March 2009). "Biology and clinical relevance of granulysin". Tissue Antigens. 73 (3): 193-8. doi: ...
Inhibition of HIV-1 progeny virion release by cell-surface CD4 is relieved by expression of the viral Nef protein.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
When Leptospira swims, PF rotations transform the cell ends into a left-handed spiral-shape (Spiral-end) or half-circle hook-shape (Hook-end) and gyrate them counterclockwise (CCW; defined by viewing a swimming cell from the anterior side to the posterior side) (movie S1). Meanwhile, PC rotates clockwise (CW), and because PFs are attached to PC via basal rotary motors (flagellar motors), PC is believed to be rotated by counter-torques of PF rotations. Both ends of the Leptospira cell body frequently change their shape between spiral and hook shapes with a switching of rotational direction, and cell configuration is associated with the motility form; when displaying the spiral shape at one end and the hook shape at the other end, the cell swims in the direction of the Spiral-end, and when displaying symmetric configurations (for example, both cell ends exhibit the spiral shape), the cell rotates without net displacement (6, 11, 12). Figure 1B shows a kymograph of a cell swimming in a motility ...
Atomic structure of the antibody VRC01 (blue and green) binding to HIV (grey and red). The precise site of VRC01-HIV binding (red) is a subset of the area ...
1RZ7: Structural basis of tyrosine sulfation and VH-gene usage in antibodies that recognize the HIV type 1 coreceptor-binding site on gp120
1RZ8: Structural basis of tyrosine sulfation and VH-gene usage in antibodies that recognize the HIV type 1 coreceptor-binding site on gp120
In vitro experiments using purified rat CD4+ T cells in primary and secondary mixed leukocyte cultures (MLC) have been carried out to explore the mechanism of inhibition of cell-mediated autoimmune disease in the rat by a nondepleting monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CD4. Previous work has shown that W3/25, a mouse anti-rat CD4 mAb of immunoglobulin G1 isotype, completely prevents the development of the paralysis associated with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats, but does so without eliminating the encephalitogenic T cells. The in vitro experiments described in this study have shown that when CD4+ T cells were activated in the presence of the anti-CD4 mAb in a primary MLC, the synthesis of interferon (IFN) gamma, but not interleukin (IL) 2, was completely inhibited. After secondary stimulation, now in the absence of the mAb, the synthesis of IL-4 and IL-13 mRNA was greatly enhanced compared with that observed from CD4+ T cells derived from primary cultures in which the mAb ...
Hall, S. A., R. L. Allen, R. E. Baumber, L. A. Baxter, K. Fisher, P. D. Bittner-Eddy, L. E. Rose, E. B. Holub, and J. L. Beynon. 2009. Maintenance of genetic variation in plants and pathogens involves complex networks of gene-for-gene interactions. Mol. Plant Pathol. 10:449-457 ...
T cell (TC) activation requires the coordinated signaling of the T cell receptor (TCR) and coreceptor molecules, allowing TCs to respond to lower degrees of TCR occupancy. Coreceptor molecules set the threshold for TC activation by controlling different regulatory signaling loops. The Cbl family members prevent undesired activation of T cells by regulating TCR signals. In this report, we show that TC prestimulation by the CD43 coreceptor molecule before TCR engagement inhibits TCR-dependent c-Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation, c-Cbl interaction with the adapter molecule Crk-L and promotes Cbl-b degradation in a PKCθ-dependent manner. Consequently, the prolonged tyrosine phosphorylation and delayed degradation of ZAP-70 and of the ζ chain lead to enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and robust TC response. These data indicates that CD43-mediated signals lower the threshold for TC activation by restricting the c-Cbl and Cbl-b inhibitory effects on TCR signaling. In addition to the strength
T cell (TC) activation requires the coordinated signaling of the T cell receptor (TCR) and coreceptor molecules, allowing TCs to respond to lower degrees of TCR occupancy. Coreceptor molecules set the threshold for TC activation by controlling different regulatory signaling loops. The Cbl family members prevent undesired activation of T cells by regulating TCR signals. In this report, we show that TC prestimulation by the CD43 coreceptor molecule before TCR engagement inhibits TCR-dependent c-Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation, c-Cbl interaction with the adapter molecule Crk-L and promotes Cbl-b degradation in a PKCθ-dependent manner. Consequently, the prolonged tyrosine phosphorylation and delayed degradation of ZAP-70 and of the ζ chain lead to enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and robust TC response. These data indicates that CD43-mediated signals lower the threshold for TC activation by restricting the c-Cbl and Cbl-b inhibitory effects on TCR signaling. In addition to the ...
Post-Doctoral Fellow, *Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, *Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mt. Sinai Hospital, Toronto, *Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathobiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto ...
In this study, we have investigated the effect of specific mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) on antibody production in an effort to improve humoral immune responses to this glycoprotein by DNA vaccination. Mice were injected with plasmid expression vectors encoding HIV Env with modifications in regions that might affect this response. Elimination of conserved glycosylation sites did not substantially enhance humoral or cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) immunity. In contrast, a modified gp140 with different COOH-terminal mutations intended to mimic a fusion intermediate and stabilize trimer formation enhanced humoral immunity without reducing the efficacy of the CTL response. This mutant, with deletions in the cleavage site, fusogenic domain, and spacing of heptad repeats 1 and 2, retained native antigenic conformational determinants as defined by binding to known monoclonal antibodies or CD4, oligomer formation, and virus neutralization in vitro. Importantly, ...
Rabbit polyclonal Bid Cleavage Site antibody validated for WB and tested in Human and Mouse. Referenced in 2 publications and 1 independent review. Immunogen…
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寻找FOXP2的工作始于对"KE"(或称"K")家族的研究。该家族的一些成员患有遗传性的言语障碍,且有三代在世的家族成员受其害。进一步的研究显示,该基因为常染色体显性。通过对患病与无病的家族成员的染色体的扫描,研究人员将该基因定位在第7号染色体上。这个基因最初被称为SPCH1。接下来又通过细菌人工染色体手段对该染色体上的相关区域进行了测序。在基因测序开展期间,他们又找到了另一位患有这种先天性言语障碍,但不属于KE家族的病人。对这个新样本的染色体扫描显示,第7对染色体一处有断裂。 ...
One thing about my old horse, Calico, you can fall asleep in the saddle and he keeps on traveling. Well, this afternoon, I did just that. I woke up near the town of Crittermill to the sounds of singing and shouting! There was a big tent in the distance with hundreds of people jumping and hollering at the top of their voices. Seems there was a self-proclaimed "miracle-workin, preacher man" by the name of Willy Poppit. He had a hand painted sign outside the tent which read, "Man, I Cure! The Willy Poppit Power-on-High Heaven-Sent Anointed Revival and Mobile Library". Another sign read, "Snake Handling 101" and on the tent itself, someone had written in bold red letters, "Name Your Poison…and Ill Drink it!" Baskets for money were being passed around as the white haired figure behind the pulpit was barking like a wounded dog on a trail drive. I think he knew who I was, for he made his way down, looked me in the face with his wild-eyed stare, and said…"Yabba Dabba Doo and YOU CAN TOO!" Then he ...
Gp120 è una glicoproteina virale presente nel pericapside del virus HIV. Il nome deriva dal peso molecolare. Si tratta di una proteina essenziale per lingresso del virus nelle cellule, gioca un ruolo fondamentale nelladesione cellulare tramite recettori di tipo DC-SIGN, leparan solfato e uninterazione specifica con CD4 dei linfociti T helper. ^ Curtis BM, Scharnowske S, Watson AJ, Sequence and expression of a membrane-associated C-type lectin that exhibits CD4-independent binding of human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein gp120, in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., vol. 89, nº 17, settembre 1992, pp. 8356-60, DOI:10.1073/pnas.89.17.8356, PMC 49917, PMID 1518869. ^ de Witte L, Bobardt M, Chatterji U, Degeest G, David G, Geijtenbeek TB, Gallay P, Syndecan-3 is a dendritic cell-specific attachment receptor for HIV-1, in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., vol. 104, nº 49, dicembre 2007, pp. 19464-9, DOI:10.1073/pnas.0703747104, PMC 2148312, PMID 18040049. ^ Dalgleish AG, Beverley PC, ...
Abstract CD1d is an MHC class I-like surface molecule that presents endogenous glycoplipid antigens. The effect of HIV infection on CD1d surface expression has not yet been reporte..
immunoglobulin G1-kappa, anti-[human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp120 third variable loop V3], humanized monoclonal antibody
Two negatives used together in a sentence constitute a double negative. The use of a double negative to express a positive is acceptable, although it yields a weaker affirmative than the simpler positive and may be confusing: Our results are not inconsistent with the prior hypothesis. More direct incentives have produced substantial changes in behavior in the past, although not without adverse consequences. Rheumatologic symptoms were not uncommon in both groups. However, it is not grammatically acceptable to use a double negative to emphasize the negative. In the following example, the double negative conveys the opposite of what is intended.The
Two negatives used together in a sentence constitute a double negative. The use of a double negative to express a positive is acceptable, although it yields a weaker affirmative than the simpler positive and may be confusing: Our results are not inconsistent with the prior hypothesis. More direct incentives have produced substantial changes in behavior in the past, although not without adverse consequences. Rheumatologic symptoms were not uncommon in both groups. However, it is not grammatically acceptable to use a double negative to emphasize the negative. In the following example, the double negative conveys the opposite of what is intended.The
Laboratory testing that includes routine HIV-1 viral load and CD4+ cell counts will be completed to assess the continued benefit of ibalizumab to the patient's HIV treatment ...
Knockdown of transmembrane protein 209 (TMEM209) by siRNA enhances the early stages of HIV-1 replication in HeLa-CD4 cells infected with viral pseudotypes HIV89.6R and HIV8.2 ...
CD4 is the primary receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Early mutational studies implicated a number of residues of CD4, centered in the region 41-59, in binding to gp120. However, further mutational analyses, together with studies using inhibitory antibodies or CD4-derived peptides, have suggested that other regions of CD4 are also involved in binding or postbinding events during infection. To resolve these ambiguities, we used rat CD4 mutants in which particular regions were replaced with the corresponding sequence of human CD4. We have previously shown that some of these are able to bind HIV-1 gp120, and here we test their ability to act as functional receptors. We find that the presence of human CD4 residues 33-62 is enough to confer efficient receptor function to rat CD4, and we conclude that it is unlikely that regions of CD4 outside this sequence are involved in specific interactions with HIV-1 during either infection or syncytium formation. ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The main aim of this project involves characterizing the role of the HIV envelope protein (gp120/41) in the pathogenesis of HIV disease. This effort has include...
Paraf, A; Taylor, D W.; Mage, M; and Mathieson, B J., "Analysis of membrane proteins from lyt 2+ positive thymocytes. Abstr." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2005 ...
We previously reported that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 NL4-3 Nef is necessary and sufficient to induce a severe AIDS-like disease in transgenic (Tg) mice when the protein is expressed under the regulatory sequences of the human CD4 gene. We have now assayed additional Nef alleles (SF2, JR-CSF, YU10x, and NL4-3 [T71R] Nef alleles), including some from long-term nonprogressors (AD-93, 032an, and 039nm alleles) in the same Tg system and compared their pathogenicities. All these Nef alleles downregulated cell surface CD4 in human cells in vitro and also, with the exception of NefYU10x, in Tg CD4+ T cells. Depletion of double-positive and single-positive thymocytes occurred with all alleles but was less pronounced in NefYU10x Tg mice. A loss of peripheral CD4+ T cells was observed with all alleles but was minimal in NefYU10x Tg mice. In Nef032an and NefSF2 Tg mice, T-cell loss was severe despite lower levels of Tg expression, suggesting a higher virulence of these alleles. All Nef ...
Seven diverse primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were examined and found to be refractory to neutralization by antisera to recombinant gp120 (rgp120) protein from HIV-1 MN. This stands in marked contrast to the sensitivity exhibited by certain laboratory-adapted viruses. To understand the difference between primary and laboratory-adapted viruses, we adapted the primary virus ACH 168.10 to growth in the FDA/H9 cell line. ACH 168.10 was chosen because the V3 region of gp120 closely matches that of MN. After 4 weeks, infection became evident. The virus (168A) replicated in FDA/H9 cells with extensive cytopathic effect but was unchanged in sensitivity to antibody-mediated neutralization. Thus, growth in cell lines is not sufficient to render primary virus sensitive to neutralization. The 168A virus was, however, partially sensitive to CD4 immunoadhesin (CD4-Ig). Adaptation was continued to produce a persistently infected FDA/H9 culture that displayed minimal cytopathic ...
It means protection from hepatitis B. Either you had a vaccine in the past or you had natural infection and recovered. A core antibody would help to tell the...
Falkowska E, Ramos A, Feng Y, Zhou T, Moquin S, Walker LM, Wu X, Seaman MS, Wrin T, Kwong PD et al.. 2012. PGV04, an HIV-1 gp120 CD4 binding site antibody, is broad and potent in neutralization but does not induce conformational changes characteristic of CD4.. J Virol. 86(8):4394-403. ...
a href="http://www.uni-protokolle.de/nachrichten/id/292387/",Scientists at Mainz University identify a new population of regulatory T-cells ,/a, ...
HIV gp160山羊多克隆抗体(ab117122)经WB, ELISA实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
The coexpression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins and receptors leads to the lysis of single cells by a process that is dependent upon membrane fusion. This cell lysis was inhibited by low-molecular-weight compounds that interfere with receptor binding or with receptor-induced conformational transitions in the envelope glycoproteins. A peptide, T20, potently inhibited cell-cell fusion but had no effect on single cell lysis mediated by the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. Thus, critical events in the lysis of single cells by the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins occur in intracellular compartments accessible only to small inhibitory compounds.
Differentiation of immature CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes into mature CD4+ or CD8+ T cells occurs within the thymus and is dependent upon expression of antigen receptor complexes (T cell receptor [TCR]) containing clonotypic alpha/beta proteins. We have recently found that CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes express low levels of surface TCR because of limitations placed on TCR assembly by the instability of nascent TCR-alpha proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of immature thymocytes. Because TCR-alpha/beta expression increases during development, a molecular mechanism must exist for increasing the number of assembled TCR complexes present in immature CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes that have been signaled to differentiate into mature T cells, although no such mechanism has yet been described. In the current report we have examined the molecular consequences of intracellular signals generated by engagement of surface TCR complexes on immature CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes. Isolated TCR engagement generated signals that ...
Looking for online definition of regulatory T cells in the Medical Dictionary? regulatory T cells explanation free. What is regulatory T cells? Meaning of regulatory T cells medical term. What does regulatory T cells mean?
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Strategies for the Improvement of HIV Envelope Protein Expression and Yield (R41/R42) PA-16-182. NIAID
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CD4 Antigens
      - CD4 Antigen
     Summary Report | CureHunterCD4 Antigens - CD4 Antigen Summary Report | CureHunter

55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of ... CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN ... CD4 Antigen; Receptors, CD4; Antigens, CD4; Receptors, Surface CD4; Surface CD4 Receptor; Antigen, CD4; Antigens, T-Cell T4; ... CD4 Antigens (CD4 Antigen). Subscribe to New Research on CD4 Antigens 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD015704-CD4-Antigens-CD4-Antigen.do

HIV gp120 bound to CD4 antigenHIV gp120 bound to CD4 antigen

gp120-CD4 antigen interactions. The CD4 antigen on the cell surface and the gp120 of the virus interact via a depression in the ... Besides interacting with CD4 antigen on the surface of the T4 cell, gp120 must also interact with a co-receptor. There are many ... HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein complexed with CD4 antigen and an antibody Note: this page requires Java; if you do not have ... The binding site for the chemokine is induced after the CD4 antigen is bound. This site overlaps with the heavy chain of the ...
more infohttp://biomodel.uah.es/en/immuno/gp120-cd4-ab.htm

Distinct functions of antigen-specific CD4 T cells during murine Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection | PNASDistinct functions of antigen-specific CD4 T cells during murine Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection | PNAS

KLRG1 and PD-1 Identify Subpopulations of Effector CD4 T Cells.. Although antigen-specific CD4 T cells undergo continual ... and CD4 T cells were enriched using a CD4+ T cell-isolation kit (Miltenyi Biotec). Enriched CD4 T cells were stained with anti- ... C) The dot plots are representative of the CD69 and PD-1 or CD69 and KLRG1 expression on ESAT64-17/I-Ab antigen-specific CD4 T ... A) Flow cytometric gating strategy used to analyze KLRG1 and PD-1 expression on ESAT64-17/I-Ab antigen-specific CD4 T cells. (B ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/107/45/19408?ijkey=3934d863fb0cacbef7a02823268b380b22f7eaef&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Analysis of human antigen-experienced CD4 T cells according to IL7Ralpha and CCR7 expressionAnalysis of human antigen-experienced CD4 T cells according to IL7Ralpha and CCR7 expression

The aim of this work was to elucidate the functional characteristics of human antigen-experienced CD4 T cells according to the ... antigen-experienced CD4 cells were analyzed in vitro after priming with the superantigen TSST. The signal strength of TCR- ... Correspondingly, IL7RlowCCR7-CD4 T cells showed low survival rates, impaired proliferation in the presence of homeostatic ... In summary, despite some differences observed between in vitro and ex vivo CD4 T cell subsets, the combination of the markers ...
more infohttps://edoc.hu-berlin.de/handle/18452/16762

Identification of Circulating Human Antigen-Reactive CD4+FOXP3+ Natural Regulatory T Cells | The Journal of ImmunologyIdentification of Circulating Human Antigen-Reactive CD4+FOXP3+ Natural Regulatory T Cells | The Journal of Immunology

CD4+ T cells depleted of CD4+CD25++CD127−, termed CD4+ Teff (E) and Tregs (F). Immediately following sorting, the CD4+ Teff (G ... PBMCs were enriched for T cells and the viable CD4+T cells were sorted in a Teff (CD4+ Teff/CD3+CD4+CD25−/dimCD127+/−) and Treg ... The kinetics of CD4+Foxp3+ T cell accumulation during a human cutaneous antigen-specific memory response in vivo. J. Clin. ... A live-cell assay to detect antigen-specific CD4+ T cells with diverse cytokine profiles. Nat. Med. 11: 1113-1117. ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/188/3/1083

HAART in HIV-infected patients: restoration of antigen-specific CD4 T-cell responses in vitro is correlated with CD4 memory T...HAART in HIV-infected patients: restoration of antigen-specific CD4 T-cell responses in vitro is correlated with CD4 memory T...

HAART in HIV-infected patients: restoration of antigen-specific CD4 T-cell responses in vitro is correlated with CD4 memory T- ... HAART for 6 months restored antigen-specific CD4 T-cell response to several antigens. In vitro immune reconstitution was ... In vitro CD4 T-cell reactivity was analysed by stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with several antigens. In vivo ... Restoration of specific CD4 T-cell proliferation was observed in most patients. The in vitro T-cell response was restored more ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10513643?dopt=Abstract

Human antigen-specific CD4⁺ CD25⁺ CD134⁺ CD39⁺ T cells are enriched for regulatory T cells and comprise a substantial...Human antigen-specific CD4⁺ CD25⁺ CD134⁺ CD39⁺ T cells are enriched for regulatory T cells and comprise a substantial...

Human antigen-specific CD4⁺ CD25⁺ CD134⁺ CD39⁺ T cells are enriched for regulatory T cells and comprise a substantial ... Human Ag-specific CD4(+) Txa0cells can be detected by their dual expression of CD134 (OX40) and CD25 after a 44 hours ... We show that surface expression of CD39 on Ag-specific cells consistently identifies a substantial population of CD4(+) CD25 ... Collectively, our data show that Ag-specific CD4(+) CD25(+) CD134(+) CD39(+) Txa0cells are highly enriched for Treg cells, form ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/24752698

Gereke, M., Jung, S., Buer, J. and Bruder, D. (2009) Alveolar type II epithelial cells present antigen to CD4(1) T cells and...Gereke, M., Jung, S., Buer, J. and Bruder, D. (2009) Alveolar type II epithelial cells present antigen to CD4(1) T cells and...

Alveolar type II epithelial cells present antigen to CD4(1) T cells and induce Foxp3(1) regula-tory T cells. American Journal ... Gereke, M., Jung, S., Buer, J. and Bruder, D. (2009) Alveolar type II epithelial cells present antigen to CD4(1) T cells and ... Human CD4- CD8- Invariant Natural Killer T Cells Promote IgG Secretion from B Cells Stimulated by Cross-Linking of Their ... Innate-like CD4 T cells selected by thymocytes suppress adaptive immune responses against bacterial infections ...
more infohttp://www.scirp.org/reference/ReferencesPapers.aspx?ReferenceID=730672

Browsing  by Subject CD4 antigenBrowsing by Subject "CD4 antigen"

Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation has become an established treatment option for a range of malignant and inherited diseases. PBSCs are usually cryopreserved in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ...
more infohttp://earsiv.etu.edu.tr/xmlui/browse?value=CD4+antigen&type=subject

CD4 antigen | Article about CD4 antigen by The Free DictionaryCD4 antigen | Article about CD4 antigen by The Free Dictionary

Although all animals have... Explanation of CD4 antigen ... Find out information about CD4 antigen. see immunity immunity, ... redirected from CD4 antigen). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.. Related to CD4 antigen: CD4+ cell antigen:. see ... CD4 antigen , Article about CD4 antigen by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/CD4+antigen ... the somatic or O antigens), or from the flagella (the flagellar or H antigens). Other antigens either are excreted by the cell ...
more infohttp://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/CD4+antigen

Encounter with antigen-specific primed CD4 T cells promotes MHC class II degradation in dendritic cells | PNASEncounter with antigen-specific primed CD4 T cells promotes MHC class II degradation in dendritic cells | PNAS

In this study, we have asked whether antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) that have been in contact with antigen-specific CD4 T ... We show that encounter with antigen-specific primed CD4 T cells induces the degradation of surface MHC-II in antigen-loaded DCs ... Encounter with antigen-specific primed CD4 T cells promotes MHC class II degradation in dendritic cells. Kazuyuki Furuta, ... Encounter with antigen-specific primed CD4 T cells promotes MHC class II degradation in dendritic cells ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/early/2012/10/31/1213868109.abstract

The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus.  - PubMed - NCBIThe CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus. - PubMed - NCBI

A subset of T lymphocytes positive for the CD4 antigen (also termed T4 antigen), is depleted in AIDS and PGL patients. A ... Receptors were present only on cells expressing CD4 antigen; among 155 monoclonal antibodies tested, each of the 14 anti-CD4 ... cells productively infected with HTLV-I and HTLV-II expressed surface CD4. Hence, we conclude that the CD4 antigen is an ... The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus.. Dalgleish AG, Beverley PC, Clapham PR ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6096719?dopt=Abstract

WHO HQ Library catalog ›

    Results of search for su:{Antigens, CD4.}WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Antigens, CD4.}'

Book; Format: print Publisher: Amsterdam : [s.n.], 1995Dissertation note: Thesis (doctoral) - University of Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1995. Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ [Call number: WC 503.1 95JU] (1). ...
more infohttps://kohahq.searo.who.int/cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl?q=su:%7BAntigens,%20CD4.%7D

Concordance of human leukocyte antigen haplotype-sharing, CD4 decline and AIDS in hemophilic siblings. Multicenter Hemophilia...Concordance of human leukocyte antigen haplotype-sharing, CD4 decline and AIDS in hemophilic siblings. Multicenter Hemophilia...

... haplotypes and the incidence rates of CD4 decline to , 20% and to AIDS. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of 95 HIV-1-infected ... To assess the association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ... Concordance of human leukocyte antigen haplotype-sharing, CD4 ... OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes and the incidence rates of CD4 decline to ... Concordance of human leukocyte antigen haplotype-sharing, CD4 decline and AIDS in hemophilic siblings. Multicenter Hemophilia ...
more infohttps://www.rti.org/publication/concordance-human-leukocyte-antigen-haplotype-sharing-cd4-decline-and-aids-hemophilic-0

Acquisition of an additional antigen specificity after mouse CD4 gene transfer into a T helper hybridoma. | JEMAcquisition of an additional antigen specificity after mouse CD4 gene transfer into a T helper hybridoma. | JEM

Acquisition of an additional antigen specificity after mouse CD4 gene transfer into a T helper hybridoma.. W G Ballhausen, A B ... These experiments suggest that CD4 may be important in determining the antigen fine specificity and, therefore, may also play a ... Acquisition of an additional antigen specificity after mouse CD4 gene transfer into a T helper hybridoma. ... We have transfected the mouse CD4 gene into a beef insulin (BI)-specific murine T helper hybridoma that lacks CD4 surface ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/167/4/1493

Lirias: Antigen recognition by autoreactive CD4⁺ thymocytes drives homeostasis of the thymic medullaLirias: Antigen recognition by autoreactive CD4⁺ thymocytes drives homeostasis of the thymic medulla

Antigen recognition by autoreactive CD4⁺ thymocytes drives homeostasis of the thymic medulla. ... This process exhibits strict dependence on TCR-reactivity with self-antigens expressed by mTECs, as well as engagement of the ... We demonstrate here that conventional SP CD4⁺ thymocytes bearing autoreactive TCRs drive a homeostatic process that fine-tunes ... These interactions induce the expression of lymphotoxin α in autoreactive CD4⁺ thymocytes and RANK in mTECs. Lymphotoxin in ...
more infohttps://lirias.kuleuven.be/handle/123456789/432787

Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo | ScienceInduction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo | Science

Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo ... Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo ... Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo ... Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/250/4988/1720?ijkey=3e9085cbff5e0e142a628f4f6c824fe9b6a4df25&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Assessment of immunosuppressive activity of human mesenchymal stem cells using murine antigen specific CD4 and CD8 T cells in...Assessment of immunosuppressive activity of human mesenchymal stem cells using murine antigen specific CD4 and CD8 T cells in...

Murine clonal CD4 and CD8 T cells were stimulated with cognate peptide antigen and antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the ... Human MSCs (hMSCs) can alter multiple aspects of murine T cell activation induced by stimulation with specific antigen, ... hMSCs inhibit antigen-induced murine T-cell proliferation. A total of 2 × 106 purified antigen specific murine CD4+(A) and CD8+ ... Murine clonal CD4 and CD8 T cells were stimulated with cognate peptide antigen and antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the ...
more infohttps://stemcellres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/scrt339

Regulatory T cells constrain the TCR repertoire of antigen‐stimulated conventional CD4 T cells | The EMBO JournalRegulatory T cells constrain the TCR repertoire of antigen‐stimulated conventional CD4 T cells | The EMBO Journal

The antigen‐specific Vα2+ CD4+ T‐cell repertoire of Treg‐depleted mice. To evaluate the role of Treg in the control of the Vα2 ... Regulatory T cells constrain the TCR repertoire of antigen‐stimulated conventional CD4 T cells. Martina Fontaine, Isabel Vogel ... Using this model, we examined the extent of clonal diversity of conventional CD4 T cells responding to the antigen in vivo and ... HT sequencing analysis of the antigen‐reactive CD4+ T‐cell repertoire. We next analyzed the extent of the TCR repertoire in ...
more infohttp://emboj.embopress.org/content/early/2017/12/20/embj.201796881

Heat-stable antigen is a costimulatory molecule for CD4 T cell growth. | JEMHeat-stable antigen is a costimulatory molecule for CD4 T cell growth. | JEM

Heat-stable antigen is a costimulatory molecule for CD4 T cell growth.. Y Liu, B Jones, A Aruffo, K M Sullivan, P S Linsley, C ... Heat-stable antigen is a costimulatory molecule for CD4 T cell growth. ... Optimal induction of clonal expansion by normal CD4 T cells requires a ligand that can engage the T cell receptor as well as ... Treatment with this antibody not only blocks the proliferation of CD4 T cells to a T cell receptor ligand, but also induces T ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/175/2/437?ijkey=003b12e14ef97b0849351afc31d8d38299f6e0e1&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Distinct Pathways of Antigen Uptake and Intracellular Routing in CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation | ScienceDistinct Pathways of Antigen Uptake and Intracellular Routing in CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation | Science

Distinct Pathways of Antigen Uptake and Intracellular Routing in CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation ... Distinct Pathways of Antigen Uptake and Intracellular Routing in CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation ... Distinct Pathways of Antigen Uptake and Intracellular Routing in CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation ... Distinct Pathways of Antigen Uptake and Intracellular Routing in CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/316/5824/612

Direct Ex Vivo Analysis of Antigen-Specific IFN-γ-Secreting CD4 T Cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Individuals:...Direct Ex Vivo Analysis of Antigen-Specific IFN-γ-Secreting CD4 T Cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Individuals:...

CD4 and CD8 T cells were depleted from T cell lines by 30-min incubation with anti-CD4 or anti-CD8 mAbs conjugated to ferrous ... Direct Ex Vivo Analysis of Antigen-Specific IFN-γ-Secreting CD4 T Cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Individuals: ... Direct Ex Vivo Analysis of Antigen-Specific IFN-γ-Secreting CD4 T Cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Individuals: ... Direct Ex Vivo Analysis of Antigen-Specific IFN-γ-Secreting CD4 T Cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Individuals: ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/167/9/5217?ijkey=9013c25460a1a8d74622c286532ccf7bc88c3f5a&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

HAL-SHS - Sciences de lHomme et de la Société - The Tumor Antigen Cyclin B1 Hosts Multiple CD4 T Cell Epitopes Differently...HAL-SHS - Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société - The Tumor Antigen Cyclin B1 Hosts Multiple CD4 T Cell Epitopes Differently...

The Tumor Antigen Cyclin B1 Hosts Multiple CD4 T Cell Epitopes Differently Recognized by Pre-Existing Naive and Memory Cells in ... The Tumor Antigen Cyclin B1 Hosts Multiple CD4 T Cell Epitopes Differently Recognized by Pre-Existing Naive and Memory Cells in ...
more infohttps://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01457345

Abstract: Caspase-3 on patient antigen-specific CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells diagnose active tuberculosis and monitor treatment...Abstract: Caspase-3 on patient antigen-specific CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells diagnose active tuberculosis and monitor treatment...

Caspase-3 on patient antigen-specific CD4+ T cells diagnose active tuberculosis and monitor treatment response ... Methods: Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we evaluated the expression of active caspase-3 on Mtb-specific CD4+ T cells from ... Results: Frequencies of Mtb-specific IFN-g+CD4+ T cells that expressed active caspase-3 were substantially higher in subjects ... Conclusion: We have identified a host blood-based biomarker on Mtb-specific CD4+ T cells that discriminate between ATB and LTBI ...
more infohttps://idsa.confex.com/idsa/2015/webprogram/Paper53409.html
  • These findings led us to determine whether subpopulations of CD4 T cells existed that displayed markers of terminal differentiation or exhaustion during murine Mtb infection. (pnas.org)
  • We have transfected the mouse CD4 gene into a beef insulin (BI)-specific murine T helper hybridoma that lacks CD4 surface expression. (rupress.org)
  • Murine clonal CD4 and CD8 T cells were stimulated with cognate peptide antigen and antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the absence or presence of human MSCs, different aspects of T cell activation were monitored and analyzed using flow cytometery, real time RT-PCR and cytokine measurement. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human MSCs (hMSCs) can alter multiple aspects of murine T cell activation induced by stimulation with specific antigen, including: reduced proliferation, inhibited or stimulated cell surface marker expression (CD25, CD69, CD44 and CD62L), inhibited mRNA expression of transcription factors (T-bet and GATA-3) and decreased cytokine expression (interferon-gamma, interleukin-10). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In murine models, MHC class II-restricted CD4 T cells ( 1 ), MHC class I-restricted CD8 T cells ( 2 , 3 ), IFN-γ ( 4 ), and TNF-α ( 5 ) are essential for protection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Im Rahmen dessen wurden zwei verschiedene experimentelle Ansätze wurden gewählt: Zur Analyse von Populationen, die während einer Primärantwort auftreten, wurden antigenerfahrene CD4-T-Zellen in vitro mit TSST-beladenen dendritischen Zellen stimuliert. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Two different approaches were used: in order to analyze the subsets occurring during a primary response, antigen-experienced CD4 cells were analyzed in vitro after priming with the superantigen TSST. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In summary, despite some differences observed between in vitro and ex vivo CD4 T cell subsets, the combination of the markers CCR7 and IL7R is useful to distinguish memory- from effector-like CD4 T cells. (hu-berlin.de)
  • HAART in HIV-infected patients: restoration of antigen-specific CD4 T-cell responses in vitro is correlated with CD4 memory T-cell reconstitution, whereas improvement in delayed type hypersensitivity is related to a decrease in viraemia. (nih.gov)
  • To analyse prospectively the effect of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) on CD4 T-cell responses in vitro and in vivo in HIV-infected patients. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro CD4 T-cell reactivity was analysed by stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with several antigens. (nih.gov)
  • The in vitro T-cell response was restored more frequently against antigens to which the immune system is constantly exposed (Candida albicans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. avium) as compared with a low-exposure antigen (tetanus toxoid). (nih.gov)
  • In vitro immune reconstitution was closely correlated with an increase in memory CD4 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Collectively, our data show that Ag-specific CD4(+) CD25(+) CD134(+) CD39(+) Txa0cells are highly enriched for Treg cells, form a large component of recall responses and maintain a Treg-cell-like phenotype upon in vitro expansion. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Introduction of the S . Typhi tviA gene into S . Typhimurium suppressed antigen presentation of dendritic cells to flagellin-specific CD4 T cells in vitro . (asm.org)
  • We demonstrate here that conventional SP CD4thymocytes bearing autoreactive TCRs drive a homeostatic process that fine-tunes medullary plasticity in adult mice by governing the expansion and patterning of the medulla. (kuleuven.be)
  • Our results show that Ag-dependent interactions between autoreactive CD4thymocytes and mTECs fine-tune homeostasis of the medulla by completing the signaling axes implicated in mTEC expansion and medullary organization. (kuleuven.be)
  • Optimal induction of clonal expansion by normal CD4 T cells requires a ligand that can engage the T cell receptor as well as functionally defined costimulatory activity on the same antigen-presenting cell surface. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, heat-stable antigen meets the criteria for a costimulator of T cell clonal expansion. (rupress.org)
  • Previously, we have used membrane-bound CD154 (CD40L) expression in a live cell assay to detect and isolate human Ag-reactive CD4 + Teff with high sensitivity and specificity ( 13 , 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • These experiments suggest that CD4 may be important in determining the antigen fine specificity and, therefore, may also play a role in altering the T cell repertoire. (rupress.org)
  • Since whole microorganisms are complex structures, vaccines may contain 10 or more distinct antigens, of which generally not more than one or two engender a protective antibody. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We demonstrated that APCs use distinct endocytosis mechanisms to simultaneously introduce soluble antigen into separate intracellular compartments, which were dedicated to presentation to CD8 + or CD4 + T cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • These data demonstrate that engagement of MHC-II on DCs after encounter with antigen-specific primed CD4 T cells promotes the down-regulation of cell surface MHC-II in DCs, thereby attenuating additional activation of naïve CD4 T cells by these APCs. (pnas.org)
  • We have previously shown that expression of mouse CD4 results in a marked enhancement of IL-2 release by BI-141 cells in response to beef insulin or, in a cross-reactive response, to pork insulin, on the appropriate mouse APCs. (rupress.org)
  • Circulating human CD4 + CD25 ++ CD127 − FOXP3 + T cells with a persistent demethylated regulatory T cell (Treg)-specific demethylated region Foxp3 gene are considered natural Tregs (nTregs). (jimmunol.org)
  • These FOXP3 + cells express high levels of CD25 and low levels of CD127 (FOXP3 + CD25 ++ CD127 − CD4 + T cells) ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We show that surface expression of CD39 on Ag-specific cells consistently identifies a substantial population of CD4(+) CD25(+) CD134(+) CD39(+) Txa0cells that have a Treg-cell-like phenotype and mostly originate from bulk memory CD4(+) CD45RO(+) CD127(low) CD25(high) CD39(+) Treg cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Analysis of TCR Vα chain expressed by antigen‐specific, conventional CD 4 + T lymphocytes reveals that Treg depletion allows the emergence of a wider repertoire comprising novel, mostly private, antigen‐specific clonotypes. (embopress.org)
  • In contrast, strong TCR signaling leading to TCR downregulation and induction of LAG3 expression in high TCR avidity clonotypes restrained CD4 + T cell commitment and further differentiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Alternatively, Ag-reactive Tregs could stem from conversion of naive FOXP3 + nTregs into memory nTregs, in a similar fashion as the Ag-reactive memory CD4 + Teff develop from FOXP3 − naive CD4 + T cells ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Frequencies of Mtb-specific IFN- g + CD4 + T cells that expressed active caspase-3 were substantially higher in subjects with ATB compared to those with LTBI (Figure 1) suggesting that apoptotic pathways are operant during pulmonary active. (confex.com)
  • The transfected clone showed a 50-fold increased sensitivity towards BI in comparison to the same CD4- hybridoma. (rupress.org)
  • Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war, die funktionellen Charkteristika von humanen antigenerfahrenen CD4-T-Zellen in Relation zur Expression von IL-7Ra und CCR7 zu untersuchen. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Der zweite Ansatz bestand darin, zirkulierende antigenerfahrene CD4-T-Zellen entsprechend ihrer CCR7- und IL7R-Expression zu isolieren, um die heterogenen zirkulierenden T-Zellen zu untersuchen. (hu-berlin.de)
  • It has been postulated that these Ag-reactive Tregs may originate from activated CD4 + Teff and are in fact iTregs ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Control and Treg‐depleted EF 4.1 mice were immunized, and the extent of the Vα2‐bearing, antigen‐specific TCR repertoire was characterized by high‐throughput sequencing and spectratyping analysis. (embopress.org)
  • The binding site for the chemokine is induced after the CD4 antigen is bound. (uah.es)