Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Enhanced myocardial glucose use in patients with a deficiency in long-chain fatty acid transport (CD36 deficiency). (1/1441)CD36 is a multifunctional, 88 kDa glycoprotein that is expressed on platelets and monocytes/macrophages. CD36 also has high homology with the long-chain fatty acid (LFA) transporter in the myocardium. Although platelet and monocyte CD36 levels can indicate a CD36 deficiency, they cannot predict specific clinical manifestations in the myocardium of a given person. We examined the hypothesis that a deficiency in LFA transport augments myocardial glucose uptake in patients with a type I CD36 deficiency. METHODS: Seven fasting patients with a type I CD36 deficiency and 9 controls were assessed by cardiac radionuclide imaging using beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) as a LFA tracer and by PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). RESULTS: None of the patients with a CD36 deficiency showed myocardial uptake of BMIPP. The percentage dose uptake of BMIPP in these subjects was significantly lower than that in normal controls (1.31+/-0.24 versus 2.90+/-0.2; P < 0.005). PET studies revealed that myocardial FDG accumulation was substantially increased in patients with a CD36 deficiency. Quantitative analysis showed that the percentage dose uptake of FDG in patients with a CD36 deficiency was significantly higher than that in normal controls (1.28+/-0.35 versus 0.43+/-0.22; P< 0.01). CONCLUSION: CD36 functions as a major myocardial LFA transporter and its absence may cause a compensatory upregulation of myocardial glucose uptake. (+info)
Role of class B scavenger receptor type I in phagocytosis of apoptotic rat spermatogenic cells by Sertoli cells. (2/1441)Rat Sertoli cells phagocytose apoptotic spermatogenic cells, which consist mostly of spermatocytes, in primary culture by recognizing phosphatidylserine (PS) exposed on the surface of degenerating spermatogenic cells. We compared the mode of phagocytosis using spermatogenic cells at different stages of spermatogenesis. Spermatogenic cells were separated into several groups based on their ploidy, with purities of 60-90%. When the fractionated spermatogenic cell populations were subjected to a phagocytosis assay, cells with ploidies of 1n, 2n, and 4n were almost equally phagocytosed by Sertoli cells. All the cell populations exposed PS on the cell surface, and phagocytosis of all cell populations was similarly inhibited by the addition of PS-containing liposomes. Class B scavenger receptor type I (SR-BI), a candidate for the PS receptor, was detected in Sertoli cells. Overexpression of the rat SR-BI cDNA increased the PS-mediated phagocytic activity of Sertoli cell-derived cell lines. Moreover, phagocytosis of spermatogenic cells by Sertoli cells was inhibited in the presence of an anti-SR-BI antibody. Finally, the addition of high density lipoprotein, a ligand specific for SR-BI, decreased both phagocytosis of spermatogenic cells and incorporation of PS-containing liposomes by Sertoli cells. In conclusion, SR-BI functions at least partly as a PS receptor, enabling Sertoli cells to recognize and phagocytose apoptotic spermatogenic cells at all stages of differentiation. (+info)
Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) mediates free cholesterol flux independently of HDL tethering to the cell surface. (3/1441)In addition to its effect on high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesteryl ester (CE) uptake, scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) was recently reported to stimulate free cholesterol (FC) flux from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing mouse SR-BI, a novel function of SR-BI that may play a role in cholesterol removal from the vessel wall where the receptor can be found. It is possible that SR-BI stimulates flux simply by tethering acceptor HDL particles in close apposition to the cell surface thereby facilitating the movement of cholesterol between the plasma membrane and HDL. To test this, we used transiently transfected cells and compared the closely related class B scavenger receptors mouse SR-BI and rat CD36 for their ability to stimulate cholesterol efflux as both receptors bind HDL with high affinity. The results showed that, although acceptor binding to SR-BI may contribute to efflux to a modest extent, the major stimulation of FC efflux occurs independently of acceptor binding to cell surface receptors. Instead our data indicate that SR-BI mediates alterations to membrane FC domains which provoke enhanced bidirectional FC flux between cells and extracellular acceptors. (+info)
Lower plasma levels and accelerated clearance of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and non-HDL cholesterol in scavenger receptor class B type I transgenic mice. (4/1441)Recent studies have indicated that the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) may play an important role in the uptake of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesteryl ester in liver and steroidogenic tissues. To investigate the in vivo effects of liver-specific SR-BI overexpression on lipid metabolism, we created several lines of SR-BI transgenic mice with an SR-BI genomic construct where the SR-BI promoter region had been replaced by the apolipoprotein (apo)A-I promoter. The effect of constitutively increased SR-BI expression on plasma HDL and non-HDL lipoproteins and apolipoproteins was characterized. There was an inverse correlation between SR-BI expression and apoA-I and HDL cholesterol levels in transgenic mice fed either mouse chow or a diet high in fat and cholesterol. An unexpected finding in the SR-BI transgenic mice was the dramatic impact of the SR-BI transgene on non-HDL cholesterol and apoB whose levels were also inversely correlated with SR-BI expression. Consistent with the decrease in plasma HDL and non-HDL cholesterol was an accelerated clearance of HDL, non-HDL, and their major associated apolipoproteins in the transgenics compared with control animals. These in vivo studies of the effect of SR-BI overexpression on plasma lipoproteins support the previously proposed hypothesis that SR-BI accelerates the metabolism of HDL and also highlight the capacity of this receptor to participate in the metabolism of non-HDL lipoproteins. (+info)
Specific interaction of oxidized low-density lipoprotein with macrophage-derived foam cells isolated from rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. (5/1441)Interaction of oxidized LDL (OxLDL) with macrophage-derived foam cells is one of the key events in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. To study this interaction, macrophage-derived foam cells were isolated from rabbit atherosclerotic lesions and the expression of scavenger receptors for OxLDL was examined. Atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits by denudation of the large arteries, followed by a hypercholesteremic diet. Macrophage-derived foam cells, characterized by immunostaining with an RAM-11 antibody (a macrophage marker), contained a high content of intracellular lipid. Maximal binding of radiolabeled OxLDL to isolated macrophage-derived foam cells (1652+/-235 ng 125I-OxLDL/mg of cell protein) was 20-fold higher compared with Bmax values of monocytes. Levels of association of OxLDL to macrophage-derived foam cells isolated from atherosclerotic lesions 12 weeks after denudation were >3-fold higher compared with the levels expressed by macrophage-derived foam cells isolated after 6 weeks. Association of 125I-OxLDL could be completely blocked by OxLDL, and partially by acetylated LDL and polyinosinic acid, indicating the presence of a specific binding site for OxLDL on macrophage-derived foam cells. The induction of scavenger receptors for OxLDL on macrophage-derived foam cells during the development of atherosclerosis, as described in this study, may facilitate the lipid accumulation in macrophage-derived foam cells, as observed in advanced atherosclerotic lesions. (+info)
Scavenger receptor BI mediates the selective uptake of oxidized cholesterol esters by rat liver. (6/1441)High density lipoprotein (HDL) can protect low density lipoprotein (LDL) against oxidation. Oxidized cholesterol esters from LDL can be transferred to HDL and efficiently and selectively removed from the blood circulation by the liver and adrenal in vivo. In the present study, we investigated whether scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is responsible for this process. At 30 min after injection, the selective uptake of oxidized cholesterol esters from HDL for liver and adrenal was 2.3- and 2.6-fold higher, respectively, than for native cholesterol esters, whereas other tissues showed no significant difference. The selective uptake of oxidized cholesterol esters from HDL by isolated liver parenchymal cells could be blocked for 75% by oxidized LDL and for 50% by phosphatidylserine liposomes, both of which are known substrates of SR-BI. In vivo uptake of oxidized cholesterol esters from HDL by parenchymal cells decreased by 64 and 81% when rats were treated with estradiol and a high cholesterol diet, respectively, whereas Kupffer cells showed 660 and 475% increases, respectively. These contrasting changes in oxidized cholesterol ester uptake were accompanied by similar contrasting changes in SR-BI expression of parenchymal and Kupffer cells. The rates of SR-BI-mediated selective uptake of oxidized and native cholesterol esters were analyzed in SR-BI-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. SR-BI-mediated selective uptake was 3.4-fold higher for oxidized than for native cholesterol esters (30 min of incubation). It is concluded that in addition to the selective uptake of native cholesterol esters, SR-BI is responsible for the highly efficient selective uptake of oxidized cholesterol esters from HDL and thus forms an essential mediator in the HDL-associated protection system for atherogenic oxidized cholesterol esters. (+info)
Selection-dominant and nonaccessible epitopes on cell-surface receptors revealed by cell-panning with a large phage antibody library. (7/1441)To generate antibodies to defined cell-surface antigens, we used a large phage antibody fragment library to select on cell transfectants expressing one of three chosen receptors. First, in vitro panning procedures and phage antibody screening ELISAs were developed using whole live cells stably expressing the antigen of interest. When these methodologies were applied to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing one of the receptors for a neuropeptide, somatostatin, using either direct cell panning or a strategy of depletion or ligand-directed elution, many different pan-CHO-cell binders were selected, but none was receptor specific. However, when using direct panning on CHO-cells expressing the human membrane protein CD36, an extraordinary high frequency of antigen-specific phage antibodies was found. Panning on myoblasts expressing the rat homologue of CD36 revealed a similar selection dominance for anti-(CD36). Binding of all selected 20 different anti-(CD36) phage was surprisingly inhibited by one anti-(CD36) mAb CLB-IVC7, which recognizes a functional epitope that is also immunodominant in vivo. Similar inhibition was found for seven anti-(rat) CD36 that cross-reacted with human CD36. Our results show that, although cells can be used as antigen carriers to select and screen phage antibodies, the nature of the antigen target has a profound effect on the outcome of the selection. (+info)
Uptake and fate of class B scavenger receptor ligands in HepG2 cells. (8/1441)Class B scavenger receptors (SR-Bs) interact with native, acetylated and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL, AcLDL and OxLDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL3) and maleylated BSA (M-BSA). The aim of this study was to analyze the catabolism of CD36- and LIMPII-analogous-1 (CLA-1), the human orthologue for the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), and CD36 ligands in HepG2 (human hepatoma) cells. Saturation binding experiments revealed moderate-affinity binding sites for all the SR-B ligands tested with dissociation constants ranging from 20 to 30 microg.mL-1. Competition binding studies at 4 degrees C showed that HDL and modified and native LDL share common binding site(s), as OxLDL competed for the binding of 125I-LDL and 125I-HDL3 and vice versa, and that only M-BSA and LDL may have distinct binding sites. Degradation/association ratios for SR-B ligands show that LDL is very efficiently degraded, while M-BSA and HDL3 are poorly degraded. The modified LDL degradation/association ratio is equivalent to 60% of the LDL degradation ratio, but is three times higher than that of HDL3. All lipoproteins were good cholesteryl ester (CE) donors to HepG2 cells, as a 3.6-4.7-fold CE-selective uptake ([3H]CE association/125I-protein association) was measured. M-BSA efficiently competed for the CE-selective uptake of LDL-, OxLDL-, AcLDL- and HDL3-CE. All other lipoproteins tested were also good competitors with some minor variations. Hydrolysis of [3H]CE-lipoproteins in the presence of chloroquine demonstrated that modified and native LDL-CE were mainly hydrolyzed in lysosomes, whereas HDL3-CE was hydrolyzed in both lysosomal and extralysosomal compartments. Inhibition of the selective uptake of CE from HDL and native modified LDL by SR-B ligands clearly suggests that CLA-1 and/or CD36 are involved at least partially in this process in HepG2 cells. (+info)
Identification of CD36 as a new interaction partner of membrane NEU1: potential implication in the pro-atherogenic effects of...
Kawecki C., et al. Identification of CD36 as a new interaction partner of membrane NEU1: potential implication in the pro-atherogenic effects of the elastin receptor complex. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 1-17. 29/11/2018.. In addition to its critical role in lysosomes for catabolism of sialoglycoconjugates, NEU1 is expressed at the plasma membrane and regulates a myriad of receptors by desialylation, playing a key role in many pathophysiological processes. Here, we developed a proteomic approach dedicated to the purification and identification by LC-MS/MS of plasma membrane NEU1 interaction partners in human macrophages. Already known interaction partners were identified as well as several new candidates such as the class B scavenger receptor CD36. Interaction between NEU1 and CD36 was confirmed by complementary approaches. We showed that elastin-derived peptides (EDP) desialylate CD36 and that this effect was blocked by the V14 peptide, which blocks the interaction between bioactive ...
CD36 and Na/K-ATPase-α1 Form a Proinflammatory Signaling Loop in KidneyNovelty and Significance | Hypertension
Proatherogenic hyperlipidemic states not only increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population but also increase the risk of worsening renal function.1,2 Given the implications that accelerating both cardiovascular disease and renal dysfunction have on morbidity and mortality in this population, investigating the mechanisms of renal glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury observed in this setting is a topic of great interest.. Recently, the apolipoprotein E (apoE) null mouse has been used as a model of hyperlipidemic renal injury and offers a valuable tool to study such mechanisms.3 On this genetic background, we and others have demonstrated that the class B scavenger receptor CD36 is a key molecule in mediating the inflammation, insulin resistance, and atherogenesis involved in proatherogenic hyperlipidemic states.4-7 CD36 is expressed on a variety of cell types including monocytes and macrophages8 and proximal tubular cells (PTCs)9 and recognizes ...
Hepatic fatty acid translocase CD36 upregulation is associated with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and increased...
Results Compared with NL, hepatic mRNA and protein levels of FAT/CD36 were significantly higher in patients with NAS (median fold increase 0.84 (range 0.15-1.61) and 0.66 (range 0.33-1.06), respectively); NASH (0.91 (0.22-1.81) and 0.81 (0.38-0.92), respectively); HCV G1 without steatosis (0.30 (0.17-1.59) and 0.33 (0.29-0.52), respectively); and HCV G1 with steatosis (0.85 (0.15-1.98) and 0.87 (0.52-1.26), respectively). In contrast to NL, FAT/CD36 was predominantly located at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes in patients with NAFLD and HCV G1 with steatosis. A significant correlation was observed between hepatic FAT/CD36 expression index and plasma insulin levels, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and histological grade of steatosis in patients with NASH (r=0.663, r=0.735 and r=0.711, respectively) and those with HCV G1 with steatosis (r=0.723, r=0.769 and r=0.648, respectively). ...
Abstract 19071: A Mitochondrial-targeting Peptide (Bendavia) Regulates Glucose and Fatty Acid Oxidation Related Gene Expression...
Background: Bendavia, a cell-permeable and mitochondrial inner membrane-targeting peptide, is known to protect mitochondrial cristae structure, reduce oxidative stress and promote electron transport. Altered energy metabolism substrate utilization and myocardial remodeling have been implicated as important factors in heart failure. Our hypothesis was that Bendavia regulates glucose transporter 4 (GLU4) and fatty acid transporter (CD36) expression and prevents hypertrophy in the noninfarcted border zone.. Methods: Rats with left coronary artery ligation were treated with Bendavia (3 mg/kg/day), water or sham operation. At 6 weeks, heart samples were harvested from shams, MI/BZ=border zone (2 mm noninfarcted tissue) of water-treated infarcted hearts and MI/BZ+Bendavia = border zone of Bendavia-treated hearts.. Results: qRT-PCR analysis showed that GLU4 and CD36 gene expression were decreased by 51%, p=0.0003 and 44%, p=0.0011, respectively, in the MI/BZ group vs sham. Importantly, Bendavia ...
Gene: [07q112/CD36] antigen CD36 (collagen type I receptor, thrombospondin receptor); collagen type I receptor (CD36);...
CD36 as a Therapeutic Target for Endothelial Dysfunction in Stroke | Bentham Science
Title:CD36 as a Therapeutic Target for Endothelial Dysfunction in Stroke. VOLUME: 18 ISSUE: 25. Author(s):Sunghee Cho. Affiliation:Department of Neurology/ Neuroscience, Weill Cornell Medical College at Burke Medical Research Institute, 785 Mamaroneck Ave., White Plains, New York 10605.. Keywords:CD36, stroke, angiogenesis, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, pro-death responses, oxidative stress, vascular dysfunction, cerebrovascular diseases, scavenger receptor.. Abstract:Stroke pathology involves multifactorial pro-death responses, including inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular dysfunction, and activation of necrotic and apoptotic pathways. The interruption of a single specific pathway in defined stroke model systems has not been sufficient to address the multifactorial nature of stroke-induced injuries in the human population. CD36 is a class B scavenger receptor that functions in regulating normal physiological and pathological functions. CD36 pathways are activated by several ...
Prepublication Requirements - PDF
Scavenger receptor class B type I regulates cellular cholesterol metabolism and cell signaling associated with breast cancer...
Effects of Extracts from Tiaozhi Granule and Its Components on Expression of Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I
SR-BI | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Cholesterol accumulation in macrophages occurs independently of LDL receptors and results from the uptake of retained and modified apoB-containing lipoproteins by scavenger receptors,1 which are not under a cholesterol-feedback regulation. The scavenger receptor superfamily is composed of many members with diverse structures, expression patterns, and functions.2 Scavenger receptor class A types I and II, the class B scavenger receptors (CD36 and CD68), LOX-1, and possible others are implicated in the unrestrictive cholesteryl ester accumulation in macrophages, lipid droplet formation and ultimately, atherosclerosis.3 As intracellular cholesterol levels increase, endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis and LDL receptor expression are repressed through inhibition of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) pathway.4 This mechanism is insufficient to maintain cholesterol homeostasis in the face of continued cholesterol uptake by scavenger-receptor-dependent mechanisms. As mammalian cells ...
Scavenger Receptor Class B, Member 1 ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com
Abstract 147: Hepatic Scavenger Receptor BI Protects Against Polymicrobial-Induced Sepsis Through Promoting LPS Clearance in...
Recent studies revealed that scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI or Scarb1) plays a critical protective role in sepsis. However, the mechanisms underlying this protection remain largely unknown. In this study, using Scarb1I179N mice, a mouse model specifically deficient in hepatic SR-BI, we report that hepatic SR-BI protects against cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis as shown by 75% fatality in Scarb1I179N mice, but only 21% fatality in C57BL/6J control mice. The increase in fatality in Scarb1I179N mice was associated with an exacerbated inflammatory cytokine production. Further study demonstrated that hepatic SR-BI exerts its protection against sepsis through its role in promoting LPS clearance without affecting the inflammatory response in macrophages, the glucocorticoid production in adrenal glands, the leukocyte recruitment to peritoneum or the bacterial clearance in liver. Our findings reveal hepatic SR-BI as a critical protective factor in sepsis and point out that promoting hepatic ...
Over the past few years, growing evidences revealed that clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytosis can result in powerful anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. In vivo, apoptotic cells are cleared rapidly by neighboring cells, macrophages and related scavengers. Defective clearance of apoptotic cells has been linked closely to autoimmunity and persistent inflammatory disease. Several phagocytic receptors, bridging molecules produced by phagocytes and eat-me signals on apoptotic cells are coordinately involved in mediating clearance of apoptotic cells. Complement receptors (CR3, CR4), collection, CD14, CD36 (Class B scavenger receptor), class A scavenger receptor, asialoprotein receptor, Mer receptor kinase were reported to recognize apoptotic cells. The best characterized system for clearance of apoptotic cells is the recognition of phosphatidylserine (PS) on apoptotic cells by phosphatidylserine receptor (PSR). Milk fat globule- epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is an opsonin ...
Dr Stacy Robertson - The University of Sydney
Tan, J., Prosser, H., Dunn, L., Vanags, L., Ridiandries, A., Tsatralis, T., Leece, L., Clayton, Z., Yuen, S., Robertson, S., Lam, M., Celermajer, D., Ng, M., Bursill, C. (2016). High Density Lipoproteins Rescue Diabetes-Impaired Angiogenesis via Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I. Diabetes, 65(10), 3091-3103. [More Information] ...
Differential translocation of the fatty acid transporter, FAT/CD36, and the glucose transporter, GLUT4, coordinates changes in...
cd36 Protein, CD36 molecule (thrombospondin receptor) - Creative BioMart
The protein encoded by this gene is the fourth major glycoprotein of the platelet surface and serves as a receptor for thrombospondin in platelets and various cell lines. Since thrombospondins are widely distributed proteins involved in a variety of adhesive processes, this protein may have important functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It binds to collagen, thrombospondin, anionic phospholipids and oxidized LDL. It directly mediates cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes and it binds long chain fatty acids and may function in the transport and/or as a regulator of fatty acid transport. Mutations in this gene cause platelet glycoprotein deficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
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Chlordecone pretreatment promoted subcellular distribution of scavenger receptor class B type II to murine hepatic microsomes ;...
Chlordecone belongs to the class of persistent organochlorine pesticides that are remarkably resistant to environmental degradation. Even though their use was banned in the United States in 1978, these compounds can still be detected in both humans and wildlife throughout the world. Previous work has shown that the pretreatment of male C57BL/6 mice with low doses of the persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticide, chlordecone (CD) stimulated biliary excretion of exogenous CH up to 3-fold, and further, that increased biliary excretion was not associated with changes in ATP-binding cassette transporter G8 (ABCG8) or scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). In rodents, hepatic basolateral SR-BI is important in controlling plasma lipoprotein levels and cholesterol (CH) homeostasis, with major roles in reverse CH transport (RCT) and biliary excretion. The hepatic ABCG5/G8 heterodimer is a membrane transporter present on the apical surfaces of hepatocytes, and also plays a key role in biliary CH ...
Characterization of foam cell formation in human macrophage subsets (95.17) | The Journal of Immunology
The hallmark of the human atherosclerotic plaque is the presence of lipid-laden macrophages, or foam cells. However, many macrophage subsets are found within atherosclerotic lesions and it is not well understood how monocytes differentiate into these subsets. We focused on characterizing macrophages derived in vitro from human peripheral blood monocytes treated with IL-15, IL-4 or IL-10. We show these macrophages to have differing phenotypes: CD209+CD64+, CD209+CD23+, or CD209+CD163+ for macrophages derived from IL-15, IL-4, or IL-10 respectively. To characterize the macrophage subsets ability to become foam cells we measured their uptake of fluorescently-labeled oxidized LDL (oxLDL). IL-10 derived macrophages had the greatest amount of oxLDL uptake. We then investigated the mechanism of uptake and found that fucoidan, a class-A scavenger receptor competitor, significantly inhibited uptake of oxLDL in IL-10 cells. On the other hand a blocking antibody against the class B scavenger receptor, ...
JCI - Citations to FoxO transcription factors are required for hepatic HDL-cholesterol clearance
Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). The insulin-repressible FoxO transcription factors are potential mediators of insulins effect on HDL-C. FoxOs mediate a substantial portion of insulin-regulated transcription, and poor FoxO repression is thought to contribute to the excessive glucose production in diabetes. In this work, we show that mice with liver-specific triple FoxO knockout (L-FoxO1,3,4), which are known to have reduced hepatic glucose production, also have increased HDL-C. This was associated with decreased expression of HDL-C clearance factors, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and hepatic lipase, and defective selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl ester by the liver. The phenotype could be rescued by re-expression of SR-BI. These findings demonstrate that hepatic FoxOs are required for cholesterol homeostasis and HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport to the liver. ...
RCSB PDB - 3NGH: Molecular Analysis of the Interaction of the HDL Receptor SR-BI with the Adaptor Protein PDZK1...
Biomolecules | Free Full-Text | Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Platelet Glycoprotein 4 (CD36) | HTML
Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36) (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3]) is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53-100% identity as compared with 29-32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved
Biomolecules | Free Full-Text | Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Platelet Glycoprotein 4 (CD36)
Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36) (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3]) is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53-100% identity as compared with 29-32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved
LIMPII - What does LIMPII stand for? The Free Dictionary
Anti-Scavenger Receptor BI + BII antibody (ab36970)
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recpmid,pmid=14709891,ti=Phagocytic removal of apoptotic spermatogenic cells by Sertoli cells: mechanisms and consequences ,au=Nakanishi Y; Shiratsuchi A,so=Biol Pharm Bull 2004; 27 (1): 13-6,ab=More than half of differentiating spermatogenic cells undergo apoptosis before maturing into spermatozoa during mammalian spermatogenesis. These cells are selectively and rapidly eliminated through phagocytosis by Sertoli cells, a testicular somatic cell type possessing phagocytic activity. We have investigated the mechanism by which Sertoli cells specifically recognize and phagocytose apoptotic spermatogenic cells and the consequences of phagocytosis. We showed by in vitro as well as in vivo analyses that Sertoli cells recognize apoptotic spermatogenic cells through the binding of their surface receptor, class B scavenger receptor type I, to phosphatidylserine that is expressed on the surface of spermatogenic cells during apoptosis. The inhibition of phagocytosis in live animals resulted in a decrease ...
Regulation der Expression von Scavenger Receptor BI (SR-BI) und des bidirektionalen Cholesterolflux durch den Cholesterol- und...
Der Scavenger Receptor BI (SR-BI) vermittelt den selective lipid transfer von Cholesterol und Vitamin E aus HDL in die Leber. Die zelluläre Aufnahme verschiedener Lipide aus HDL über den selben Mechanismus, vermittelt durch den selben Rezeptor wirft die Frage auf, ob diese Aufnahmeprozesse einander beeinflussen. Aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse zeigen, daß die Aufnahme von neutralen Lipiden (Cholesterolester, Triacylglycerol) aus HDL in die Zelle von der Lipidzusammensetzung der Donorpartikel abhängen könnte. Wir untersuchten, ob der Vitamin-E-Gehalt von HDL die Aufnahme und den Efflux von Cholesterol in und aus HepG2-Zellen beeinflußt. Die Inkubation von HepG2-Zellen mit [3H]Cholesterol-markiertem HDL mit ansteigendem Vitamin-E-Gehalt ergab eine steigende Aufnahme von Vitamin E, während sich die Cholesterolaufnahme nicht veränderte. Der erhöhte zelluläre Gehalt an Vitamin E bewirkte eine Reduktion der PKC-Alpha- und SR-BI-Expression in Verbindung mit einem erniedrigten Cholesterolefflux ...
PE anti-mouse CD163 Antibody, CD163, S15049I
CD163 is a member of the group B scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily, also known as GHI/61, M130, RM3/1, p155, hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex receptor, or macrophage-associated antigen. It is a 134 kD (non-reduced)/155 kD (reduced) glycoprotein primarily expressed on macrophages, Kupffer ce
long-chain fatty acid transporter activity QuickView - Correlation Engine
Recombinant Human T-cell surface glycoprotein CD8 alpha chain(CD8A),partial - Cusabio
Gentaur Molecular :Cusabio \ Human T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1a(CD1A) ELISA kit \ CSB-EL004889HU
Adipose Modulation of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol | Circulation
Much evidence has pointed toward a potential contribution of adipose in mediating HDL lipidation. Adipose tissue is the major store for cholesterol within the body, and therefore represents a large pool of substrate to support HDL biogenesis. Adipose tissue expresses high levels of key cholesterol transporters ABCA1 and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI; but not ABCG1),14 providing a gateway for cholesterol to efflux onto HDL. Expression of both ABCA1 and SR-BI increases during adipogenesis and adipocytes support HDL lipidation in vitro.14 Furthermore, adipocytes promote HDL lipidation in vivo, and the absence of either adipocyte ABCA1 or SR-BI impairs this process.14 ABCA1−/− adipocytes exhibited impaired efflux to apoA-I in vitro, but unaltered efflux to HDL, whereas SR-BI−/− adipocytes effluxed normally to apoA-I but failed to efflux to HDL. ABCG1−/− adipocytes exhibited normal efflux to both HDL and apo-A1, and protein levels were negligible in wild-type adipocytes.14 ...
Human Scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain-containing protein SCART1 ELISA Kit | biobool.com
Burnet Institute - The Australasian Virology Society
Our laboratory focusses on understanding how enveloped viruses attach to and enter cells to initiate viral replication and immunological responses that prevent infection with a vision to develop the worlds first preventative HCV vaccine for HCV elimination. Hepatitis C Virus contains two envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2, that function as a heterodimer to mediate attachment and virus-cell membrane fusion. The viral glycoprotein E2 is primarily responsible for receptor binding to scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1) and CD81. Antibodies directed towards regions of E2 that interfere with SRB1 or CD81 binding, block virus entry and are neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, understanding the structure of E2, how it interacts with both cellular receptors and how antibodies prevent these interactions are pivotal for vaccine development. Through our studies, we have identified a leading HCV vaccine candidate (HepSeeVaxDelta3) that we are currently assessing in preclinical studies as a recombinant ...
Scavenger receptor class F member 2
The protein encoded by this gene is similar to SCARF1/SREC-I, a scavenger receptor protein that mediates the binding and degradation of acetylated low density lipoprotein (Ac-LDL). This protein has only little activity of internalizing modified low density lipoproteins (LDL), but it can interact with SCARF1 through its extracellular domain. The association of this protein with SCARF1 is suppressed by the presence of scavenger ligands. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
KEGG DISEASE: CD36 deficiency
Human genetic platelet glycoprotein IV (CD36) deficiency may be related to the phenotypic expression of the metabolic syndrome and is frequently associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. CD36 deficiency is relatively frequent in Asian and African populations. It also has been reported that CD36 deficiency might be linked with cardiomyopathy. This deficiency can be classified in two subgroups: the type I phenotype is characterized by platelets and monocytes/macrophages that exhibit CD36 deficiency; whereas in the type II phenotype, the surface expression of CD36 is lacking only in platelets, but expression is near normal in monocytes/macrophages ...
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"SR-B1 directed nanoparticles as a drug delivery system for the treatme" by Rebecca A. Johnson
The overall goal of this research was to determine the effectiveness of reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) nanoparticles as a drug delivery system against metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC patients have a less favorable prognosis than those with hormone positive breast cancers. TNBC does not respond to current endocrine treatment. Consequently, the five- year survival rate for patients with metastatic TNBC is | 30%. The studies performed here were intended to fill a void in the treatment of metastatic TNBC with the use of targeted reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) nanoparticles, an innovative approach. The rHDL nanoparticles are small, biocompatible, non-immunogenic complexes, targeted to the high-density lipoprotein receptor (scavenger receptor class B type 1 [SR-B1]). While most malignant cells and tumors overexpress the SR-B1 receptor, its expression levels are nearly undetectable in most normal tissues. These findings present the opportunity to exploit a
Platelet membrane glycoprotein IV (CD36) is involved in arachidonic acid induced-platelet aggregation<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Platelet membrane glycoprotein IV (CD36) is involved in arachidonic acid induced-platelet aggregation. AU - Dutta-Roy, Asim K. AU - Crosbie, Lynn. AU - Gordon, Margaret Jane. AU - Campbell, Fiona Margaret. PY - 1996/5/1. Y1 - 1996/5/1. KW - Antibodies, Monoclonal. KW - Antigens, CD. KW - Antigens, CD36. KW - Arachidonic Acid. KW - Blood Platelets. KW - Humans. KW - Platelet Aggregation. M3 - Article. C2 - 8736825. VL - 24. SP - 167S. JO - Biochemical Society Transactions. JF - Biochemical Society Transactions. SN - 0300-5127. IS - 2. ER - ...
Membrane glycoprotein IV (CD36) is physically associated with the Fyn, Lyn, and Yes protein-tyrosine kinases in human platelets...
Activation of platelets with thrombin and other agonists causes a rapid increase in the phosphorylation of multiple proteins on tyrosine. To identify candidate protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs; EC 22.214.171.124) that may be responsible for these phosphorylation events, we analyzed the expression of seven Src-family PTKs and examined the association of these kinases with known platelet membrane glycoproteins. Five Src-related PTKs were detected in platelets: pp60SRC, pp60FYN, pp62YES, pp61HCK, and two LYN products of Mr 54,000 and 58,000. The Fgr and Lck PTKs were not detected. Although strict comparative quantification of protein levels was not possible, pp60SRC was detected at higher levels than any of the other kinases. In addition, glycoprotein IV (GPIV, CD36), one of the major platelet membrane glycoproteins, was associated in a complex with the Fyn, Yes, and Lyn proteins in platelet lysates. Similar complexes were also found in two GPIV-expressing cell lines, C32 melanoma cells and HEL cells. ...
Expression of Reverse Cholesterol Transport Proteins SR-BI, SR-BII and ABCA1 in the Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium | IOVS |...
Abstract: : Purpose: To determine whether human RPE cells in culture express the following reverse cholesterol transport proteins: scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), scavenger receptor BII (SR-BII), and ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1); to confirm this expression in fixed human tissue sections. Methods: Primary cultures of human RPE cells were grown for at least one week at confluence prior to RNA isolation or immunofluorescent staining. RNA expression was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of total cellular RNA using primer sets specific to human SR-BI, SR-BII or ABCA1. Immunofluorescent staining was performed using a biotinylated secondary antibody and fluoresceinated avidin. Either affinity- purified antibodies specific to SR-BI and SR-BII peptides, or commercially available antiserum to ABCA1 were used as primary antibodies, with the appropriate controls. SR-BI, SR-BII and ABCA1 proteins were visualized in RPE cells by standard and confocal ...
T Cell Specific Surface Glycoprotein CD28 (TP44 or CD28) - Pipeline Review, H1 2017, Trends, Share, Size Research Report
GO:0015908 - wiki-pain
The table below shows the top 100 pain related interactions that have been reported for fatty acid transport. They are ordered first by their pain relevance and then by number of times they were reported for fatty acid transport. Please click on the INT link to display more detailed information on each interaction. ...
Properties of healthy fats
Fats are just one component of food, whose presence does not determine whether it is healthy or not. The benefits of healthy fats should be framed within the context of a healthy diet and a food of good nutritional quality.. For example, if snacks or cookies contain olive oil, this does not mean that they are healthy, but it should be evaluated if each food is processed, high in salt, sugar, etc. Fried nuts with salt are not healthy, although they contain omega fats, because the high temperatures deteriorate the healthy fats.. In short, whenever you talk about the properties of fats, this should be framed within foods of quality (nuts without salt and without frying, unheated oils, etc.).. ...
"Src-related protein tyrosine kinases are physically associated with the surface antigen CD36 in human dermal microvascular ... FYN has been shown to interact with: ADD2, BCAR1, C-Raf, CBLC, CD36, CD44, CDH1, CHRNA7, CTNND1, CBL, CSF1R, DLG4, Dystroglycan ... Huang MM, Bolen JB, Barnwell JW, Shattil SJ, Brugge JS (September 1991). "Membrane glycoprotein IV (CD36) is physically ...
A MAF can also alter the ability of macrophages to present MHC I antigen, participate in Th responses, and/or affect other ... Interferon-gamma Interleukin 4 TNF alpha CD36 It has been suggested that MAF can be formed by probiotic bacteria in a yoghurt ... Pathogenic antigens can bind to toll-like receptors that stimulate macrophage activation and response. Examples include heat ... July 2012). "CD36 repression activates a multicellular stromal program shared by high mammographic density and tumor tissues". ...
Human genetic resistance to malaria
Gerbich antigen receptor negativity. Main article: Gerbich antigen system. The Gerbich antigen system is an integral ... falciparum-infected red blood cells to CD36 is enhanced by the cerebral malaria-protective SAO trait . Higher efficiency of ... Human leucocyte antigen polymorphisms. Main article: Human leukocyte antigen. Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms ... Non-expression of Duffy antigen on red cells Miller, et al. 1976 P. vivax Non-expression of Duffy antigen on red cells Miller ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157)
... antigens, cd36 MeSH D12.776.157.530.400.150 -- calcium channels MeSH D12.776.157.530.400.150.400 -- calcium channels, l-type ... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750.500.625 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500 ... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.500.500.300 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500 ... leukocyte l1 antigen complex MeSH D12.7126.96.36.1990.500.100 -- calgranulin a MeSH D12.7188.8.131.520.500.200 -- calgranulin ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.395)
... antigens, cd36 MeSH D12.776.395.550.625.298 -- integrin alpha2beta1 MeSH D12.776.395.550.625.379 -- integrin alpha5beta1 MeSH ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.098 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... 395.550.200.170 -- antigens, cd146 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.175 -- antigens, cd164 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.200 -- cadherins ... antigens, cd43 MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.650.264 -- antigens, cd164. ...
List of MeSH codes (D23)
... antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.134 --- antigens, cd34 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.136 --- antigens, cd36 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd31 MeSH D184.108.40.206.134 --- antigens, cd34 MeSH D220.127.116.11.136 --- antigens, cd36 MeSH D18.104.22.168.138 ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD36 gene. The CD36 antigen is an integral membrane protein found on the surface ... CD36 is also known as glycoprotein IV (gpIV) or glycoprotein IIIb (gpIIIb) in platelets and gives rise to the Naka antigen. The ... In a group of 250 black American blood donors 6 (2.4%) were found to be Naka antigen negative. CD36 deficiency may be a cause ... Subsequent studies have shown that CD36 found on the surface of platelets. This antigen is recognized by the monoclonal ...
... is a transmembrane, highly glycosylated, glycoprotein expressed by monocytes, macrophages, platelets, ... CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. CD antigens nomenclature is updated at Protein Reviews On The Web (http ... mpr.nci.nih.gov/prow/). Adhesion molecule CD36 InterPro: IPR005428 Lysosome membrane protein II InterPro: IPR005429 CD36; ... CD36 recognises oxidized low density lipoprotein, long chain fatty acids, anionic phospholipids, collagen types I, IV and V, ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)
... antigens, cd36 MeSH D12.776.543.585.400.150 -- calcium channels MeSH D12.776.543.585.400.150.400 -- calcium channels, l-type ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 -- receptors, antigen, ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 -- antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 -- antigens, cd40 ...
Russell J. Howard
CD36 peptides enhance or inhibit CD36-Thrombospondin binding. A two-step process of ligand-receptor interaction. J. Biol. Chem ... At the NIH he patented discovery, characterisation and cloning of a novel gene encoding a soluble malarial antigen, called ... While working at Maxygen Inc., he and his colleagues developed three patents for the following technologies: antigen library ... Howard, R. J. and Pasloske, B.L. Target antigens for asexual malaria vaccine development. Parasitology Today, 9: 369-372, 1993 ...
Human genetic resistance to malaria
There are four alleles of the gene which encodes the antigen, Ge-1 to Ge-4. Three types of Ge antigen negativity are known: Ge- ... Adhesion of P. falciparum-infected red blood cells to CD36 is enhanced by the cerebral malaria-protective SAO trait . Higher ... elliptocytosis and loss of the Gerbich antigen and the Duffy antigen. These names refer to various proteins, enzymes, and the ... "Duffy Negative Antigen Is No Longer a Barrier to Plasmodium vivax - Molecular Evidences from the African West Coast (Angola and ...
CD36 - Википедия
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... CD36 ; BDPLT10; CHDS7; FAT; GP3B; GP4; GPIV; PASIV; SCARB3. Внешние ID. OMIM: 173510 MGI: 107899 HomoloGene: 73871 ChEMBL: ... CD36 - мембранный белок, экспрессированный на поверхности клеток нескольких типов, особенно макрофагах; относится к классу B ...
Bruce Beutler - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Outline of immunology
Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... SCARB1 SCARB2 CD36 (SCARB3) Others CD68 LOX-1 Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) FPR1 FPR2 FPR3 Cytoplasmic PRRs NOD-like ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... B cells Antigen receptor - B cell receptor (BCR) Subunits- Immunoglobulin heavy chain / Immunoglobulin light chain Co-receptors ...
Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1
The first human RBC antigen was reported in 1986. Howard's team found that the antigens from Gambian children, who were ... It binds with CD36 on endothelial cells. Only group B and C proteins are able to bind, and that too with only those having CIDR ... The antigen was large and appeared to be different in size in different strains of P. falciparum obtained from night monkey ( ... Both antigens bind to cultured skin cancer (melanoma) cells. But the researchers failed to confirm whether or not the protein ...
ATP1B3 - Википедия
... interacts directly with immunoglobulin superfamily member 8 (IGSF8, CD316) and CD36. It forms a signal transduction ... 1994). "Mouse homologue of C33 antigen (CD82), a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily: complementary DNA, genomic ... is associated on the cell surface with the Leu-13 antigen". J. Immunol. 145 (7): 2207-13. PMID 2398277. Matsumoto AK, Martin DR ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
CD97 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
CD36 • CD37 • CD38 • CD39 • CD40 • CD41 • CD42 (a, b, c, d) • CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom. ... 2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
CD74 - Википедия
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11. CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ... "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms cooperate to mediate colon carcinoma cell adhesion to E- and L-selectin in ...
Меланотрансферрин - Википедия
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
CD117 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
CD36 • CD37 • CD38 • CD39 • CD40 • CD41 • CD42 (a, b, c, d) • CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f ... 1991). „Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID ... 2003). „Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". Int. J. Hematol. 75 ...
Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija
CD36 • CD37 • CD38 • CD39 • CD40 • CD41 • CD42 (a, b, c, d) • CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
CLEC12A - Википедия
C-C chemokine receptor type 6
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
CD36 • CD37 • CD38 • CD39 • CD40 • CD41 • CD42 (a, b, c, d) • CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom. ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
Integrin beta 3
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
CXCR5 - Википедия
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
ICAM-1 - Википедия
... is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Leucocyte typing: human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... Hamann J, Wishaupt JO, van Lier RA, Smeets TJ, Breedveld FC, Tak PP (Apr 1999). "Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and ... Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004325.x. PMID 11380941.. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
CD36 antigen - Wikipedia
CD36 antigen is a transmembrane, highly glycosylated, glycoprotein expressed by monocytes, macrophages, platelets, ... CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. CD antigens nomenclature is updated at Protein Reviews On The Web (http ... mpr.nci.nih.gov/prow/). Adhesion molecule CD36 InterPro: IPR005428 Lysosome membrane protein II InterPro: IPR005429 CD36; ... CD36 recognises oxidized low density lipoprotein, long chain fatty acids, anionic phospholipids, collagen types I, IV and V, ...
CD36 Antigens - Semantic Scholar
CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS ... Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS ... CD36 Antigens. Known as: GPIIIb Platelet Glycoprotein, Scavenger Receptors, Class B, Type I, Glycoprotein IV, Platelet (More). ... CD36 ligands promote sterile inflammation through assembly of a Toll-like receptor 4 and 6 heterodimer ...
Produktübersicht anti-CD36 Antikörper
Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für CD36 Antikörper. Hier bestellen. ... Monoklonale und polyklonale CD36 Antikörper für viele Methoden. ... leukocyte differentiation antigen CD36 , scavenger receptor class B, member 3 , CD36 antigen like , CD36 antigen , GPIV , ... anti-CD36 (CD36) Antikörper. Bezeichnung:. anti-CD36 Molecule (thrombospondin Receptor) Antikörper (CD36). Auf www.antikoerper- ...
Identification of renal Cd36 as a determinant of blood pressure and risk for hypertension
CD36 Antigens Grant support * MC_U120061454/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom * MC_U120097112/Medical Research Council/ ... Identification of renal Cd36 as a determinant of blood pressure and risk for hypertension Nat Genet. 2008 Aug;40(8):952-4. doi ... identified deficient renal expression of Cd36 encoding fatty acid translocase as a genetically determined risk factor for ...
HPMR - rec CD36, CD36 antigen (collagen type I receptor, thrombospondin receptor)
CD36 - CD36 ANTIGEN (COLLAGEN TYPE I RECEPTOR, THROMBOSPONDIN RECEPTOR) Family:Other External links: Entrez Gene, Omim. ... Receptor CD36 interacts with: non-gene ligand: hexarelin_a_synthetic_peptide[read more..]. CD36 mediates the cardiovascular ... 1992) transfected the sense and antisense cDNA of CD36 (glycoprotein IV) into melanoma cells and found that CD36 is a ... Comparison of class B scavenger receptors, CD36 and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), shows that both receptors mediate high ...
Molecular Basis of the Cd36 Chromosomal Deletion Underlying SHR Defects in Insulin Action and Fatty Acid Metabolism
... Mamm Genome ... CD36 Antigens * Fatty Acids / genetics * Fatty Acids / metabolism* * Gene Deletion* * Hypertension / genetics* ... In the SHR/NCrlBR strain, a chromosomal deletion event that occurred at the Cd36 locus during the evolution of this SHR strain ... In this study, three copies of the Cd36 gene, one transcribed copy and two pseudogenes, were identified in normal rat strains, ...
Cd36 - Platelet glycoprotein 4 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cd36 gene & protein
... the resulting formation of CD36 clusters initiates signal transduction and internalization of receptor-ligand complexes. The ... R-MMU-1236973. Cross-presentation of particulate exogenous antigens (phagosomes). R-MMU-3000471. Scavenging by Class B ... sp,Q08857,CD36_MOUSE Platelet glycoprotein 4 OS=Mus musculus GN=Cd36 PE=1 SV=2 ... "CD36 is a sensor of diacylglycerides.". Hoebe K., Georgel P., Rutschmann S., Du X., Mudd S., Crozat K., Sovath S., Shamel L., ...
Recombinant Human CD36 protein (His tag) (ab167735) | Abcam
Recombinant Human CD36 protein (His tag) is a HEK 293 Protein fragment 30 to 439 aa range, , 95% purity, , 1.000 Eu/µg ... CD36 antigen. *CD36 antigen (collagen type I receptor, thrombospondin receptor). *CD36 molecule ... Recombinant Human CD36 protein (His tag). See all CD36 proteins and peptides. ... Protein - Recombinant Human CD36 protein (His tag) (ab167735) Functional Studies, SDS-PAGE ...
CD36 peptide (ab66772) | Abcam
Buy our CD36 peptide. Ab66772 is a Synthetic peptide. Abcam provides free protocols, tips and expert support for WB and a 12 ... CD36 antigen. *CD36 antigen (collagen type I receptor, thrombospondin receptor). *CD36 molecule ... They are generally multivalent and can therefore engage multiple receptors simultaneously, the resulting formation of CD36 ...
TCDB » SEARCH
CD36 antigen; plasma membrane fatty acid transporter (Schwenk et al. 2010). Also called the scavenger receptor protein as it ... Direct interaction of CD36 with glycerol phospholipids has been demonstrated (Tsuzuki et al. 2017). CD36 plays a role in the ... 1] "CD36 is a receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein." Endemann G.et.al. 7685021.  "The status, quality, and ...
The structural basis for CD36 binding by the malaria parasite | Nature Communications
Here we describe the structure of CD36 in complex with long chain fatty acids and a CD36-binding PfEMP1 protein domain. A ... This phenylalanine is also required for CD36 to interact with lipoprotein particles. By targeting a site on CD36 that is ... Targeting of the CD36 scavenger receptor by the malaria parasite effector PfEMP1 prevents splenic clearance of infected ... Here, the authors propose that diverse PfEMP1 achieve this by binding to a conserved phenylalanine residue in CD36 that is also ...
CD36/SR-B3 Antibody (1A7) (NBP2-45250): Novus Biologicals
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD36/SR-B3 Antibody (1A7). Platelet & Microvessel Marker. Validated: Flow, PAGE, ICC/IF. Tested ... Molecular weight of antigen: 80-90kDa. Functional Studies Order Ab without Azide. ... Home » CD36/SR-B3 » CD36/SR-B3 Antibodies » CD36/SR-B3 Antibody (1A7) ... Blogs on CD36/SR-B3. There are no specific blogs for CD36/SR-B3, but you can read our latest blog posts. ...
SCARB2 gene: MedlinePlus Genetics
CD36 Is Differentially Expressed on B Cell Subsets during Development and in Responses to Antigen - Nuffield Department of...
CD36 Is Differentially Expressed on B Cell Subsets during Development and in Responses to Antigen ... CD36 Is Differentially Expressed on B Cell Subsets during Development and in Responses to Antigen ... CD36 Is Differentially Expressed on B Cell Subsets during Development and in Responses to Antigen ...
Gene: [07q112/CD36] antigen CD36 (collagen type I receptor, thrombospondin receptor); collagen type I receptor (CD36);...
CD36. *Gene: [12^/CD36L1] antigen CD36 (collagen type I receptor, thrombospondin receptor)-like 1; CD36 and LIMPII analogous 1 ... Gene: [07q112/CD36] antigen CD36 (collagen type I receptor, thrombospondin receptor); collagen type I receptor (CD36); ... Gene: [04^/CD36L2] antigen CD36 (collagen type I receptor, thrombospondin receptor)-like 2; lysosomal integral membrane protein ... thrombospondin receptor (CD36); glycoprotein IIIb; glycoprotein IV (platelet); platelet glycoprotein IV deficiency; [THBSR ]. ...
CD36 Antibody (MA1-19407)
Invitrogen Anti-CD36 Monoclonal (TR9), Catalog # MA1-19407. Tested in Flow Cytometry (Flow) applications. This antibody reacts ... Protein Aliases: CD36; CD36 antigen (collagen type I receptor, thrombospondin receptor); CD36 molecule (thrombospondin receptor ... Cite CD36 Monoclonal Antibody (TR9). The following antibody was used in this experiment: CD36 Monoclonal Antibody (TR9) from ... In mouse, CD36 is responsible for gustatory perception of long-chain fatty acids. CD36 is preferentially found within lipid ...
CD36 Antibody, FITC (11-0369-42)
Invitrogen Anti-CD36 Monoclonal (eBioNL07 (NL07)), eBioscience™, Catalog # 11-0369-42. Tested in Flow Cytometry (Flow) ... Protein Aliases: CD36; CD36 antigen (collagen type I receptor, thrombospondin receptor); CD36 molecule (thrombospondin receptor ... Binding to TSP-1 is in the CLESH (CD36 LIMP-II Emp sequence homology) domain of CD36. CD36 expression is broad and includes ... Published figure using CD36 monoclonal antibody (Product # 11-0369-42). Figure 4 IRGM1 controls CD36 internalization by ...
CD36 Antibody, anti-human - Hybridomas - MACS Antibodies - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Italia
CD36 functions as a scavenger receptor for long chain fatty acids, oxidized LDL, collagen type I, IV, and V and thrombospondin ... CD36 is an early marker of erythroid differentiation. - Italia ... CD36 is expressed on various epithelial and endothelial cells ... Molecular mass of antigen [kDa]. 53. Distribution of antigen. B cells, red blood cells, dendritic cells, endothelial cells, ... Very Good CD36 Antibody from Miltenyi Biotec. CD36-FITC, human (130-120-064). Will buy and use it again. Recommendable! ...
CD36 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Österreich
CD36 functions as a scavenger receptor for long chain fatty acids, oxidized LDL, collagen type I, IV, and V, and thrombospondin ... CD36 is expressed on various epithelial and endothelial cells as well as erythrocytes, platelets, monocytes, and macrophages, ... CD36 is an early marker of erythroid differentiation. Additional information: Clone REA760 displays negligible binding to Fc ... Clone REA760 recognizes the human CD36 antigen, an integral membrane protein, which is a member of the class B scavenger ...
SR-BI Rabbit anti-Human, Mouse, Rat, Polyclonal, Invitrogen 100 µg; | Fisher Scientific
anti-CD36 antibody [C1C3] | GeneTex
CD36 molecule (thrombospondin receptor)) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-CD36 pAb (GTX100642) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. ... leukocyte differentiation antigen CD36 antibody, "CD36 antigen (collagen type I receptor, thrombospondin receptor) antibody", ... Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded Ca922 xenograft, using CD36(GTX100642) antibody at 1:500 dilution. Antigen ... Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded Ca922 xenograft, using CD36(GTX100642) antibody at 1:500 dilution. Antigen ...
SCARB2 Gene - GeneCards | SCRB2 Protein | SCRB2 Antibody
CD36 Antigen (Collagen Type I Receptor, Thrombospondin Receptor)-Like 2 (Lysosomal Integral Membrane Protein II) 2 3 ... Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SCARB2 Gene. GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:. *cDNA, FLJ93482, Homo sapiens ... The CD36, CLA-1 (CD36L1), and LIMPII (CD36L2) gene family: cellular distribution, chromosomal location, and genetic evolution. ... Structure of LIMP-2 provides functional insights with implications for SR-BI and CD36. (PMID: 24162852) Neculai D … Dhe-Paganon ...
GO Gene List
GO Gene List
rs3211938 - SNPedia
PMID 23844572] CD36 Gene Variants and Their Association with Type 2 Diabetes in an Indian Population ... Common CD36 SNPs reduce protein expression and may contribute to a protective atherogenic profile. ... rs3211938, previously shown to influence malaria susceptibility, is documented to result in CD36 deficiency in a homozygous ... Positive selection of a CD36 nonsense variant in sub-Saharan Africa, but no association with severe malaria phenotypes ...
Endothelial CD36 Contributes to Postischemic Brain Injury by Promoting Neutrophil Activation via CSF3 | Journal of Neuroscience
1988) Ly-6C is a monocyte/macrophage and endothelial cell differentiation antigen regulated by interferon-gamma. Eur J Immunol ... CD36−/− →CD36−/−; − 72%). Conversely, WT mice receiving CD36−/− BM (CD36−/− →WT) have infarcts similar to WT→WT mice, ... Ischemic injury and leukocyte infiltration are attenuated in CD36−/− mice. A, CD36−/− mice have smaller infarcts than CD36+/+ ( ... As anticipated, postischemic neutrophil infiltration in CD36−/− →CD36−/− mice was attenuated. Surprisingly, however, in WT→CD36 ...
KEGG BRITE: KEGG Orthology (KO) - Camelus ferus (Wild Bactrian camel)
K06259 CD36; CD36 antigen K06259 CD36; CD36 antigen K05459 IGF1; insulin-like growth factor 1 K05087 IGF1R; insulin-like growth ... member 6 K06259 CD36; CD36 antigen K06259 CD36; CD36 antigen K18052 PRKCQ; novel protein kinase C theta type [EC:22.214.171.124] ... 102523265 CD36; CD36 molecule 102524028 platelet glycoprotein 4 102506236 IGF1; insulin like growth factor 1 102524338 IGF1R; ... 102523265 CD36; CD36 molecule 102524028 platelet glycoprotein 4 102517668 PRKCQ; protein kinase C theta 102511255 PRKCD; ...
KEGG BRITE: KEGG Orthology (KO) - Equus caballus (horse)
K06259 CD36; CD36 antigen K05459 IGF1; insulin-like growth factor 1 K05087 IGF1R; insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor [EC:2.7 ... member 6 K06259 CD36; CD36 antigen K18052 PRKCQ; novel protein kinase C theta type [EC:126.96.36.199] K06068 PRKCD; novel protein ... 100049847 CD36; CD36 molecule 100070207 PRKCQ; protein kinase C theta 100051333 PRKCD; protein kinase C delta 100070047 PTPA; ... 100049847 CD36; CD36 molecule 100034198 IGF1; insulin like growth factor 1 100055698 IGF1R; insulin like growth factor 1 ...
TNO Repository search for: subject:'Body fat'
CD36 antigen · Glycerol · Heparin · Triacylglycerol · Very low density lipoprotein · Animal experiment · Animal tissue · Body ... CD36 is involved in high-affinity peripheral FFA uptake. CD36-deficient (cd36-/-) mice exhibit increased plasma FFA and ... The aim of the present study was to elucidate the cause of the increased plasma TG levels in cd36-/- mice. cd36-/- mice showed ... Antigens, CD36 · Eating · Fatty Acids, Nonesterified · Female · Intestinal Absorption · Lipoprotein Lipase · Lipoproteins, VLDL ...
Article abstract | Medical Science Monitor
This study investigated whether CD36 activates the nucleotide-binding domain leucine-ric... ... CD36 plays a critical role in many sterile inflammatory diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, and ... Keywords: Antigens, CD36, Inflammasomes, Inflammation, nephrotic syndrome, Podocytes. Full Text Order reprints Export Article. ... both of which were inhibited by co-treatment with an anti-CD36 antibody.. CONCLUSIONS: CD36 might play an important role in ...
- transfected the sense and antisense cDNA of CD36 (glycoprotein IV) into melanoma cells and found that CD36 is a thrombospondin receptor. (receptome.org)
- Mutations in the CD36 gene cause platelet glycoprotein deficiency. (thermofisher.com)
- 1989) Isolation and characterization of platelet glycoprotein IV (CD36). (miltenyibiotec.com)
- 1994) Structural organization of the gene for human CD36 glycoprotein. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36), also known as platelet glycoprotein 4, fatty acid translocase (FAT), scavenger receptor class B member 3 (SCARB3), and glycoproteins 88 (GP88), IIIb (GPIIIB), or IV (GPIV) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD36 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- 1-6 This platelet antibody profile is designed to detect antibodies to HLA class I and platelet glycoprotein IV (CD36) antigens, and to polymorphic epitopes on the platelet GPs IIb/IIIa, Ib/IX, and Ia/IIa. (labcorp.com)
- The antibody TR9 reacts with an extracellular epitope of CD36 (GPIIIb), a 85 kDa integral membrane glycoprotein expressed on platelets, macrophages, endothelial cells, early erythroid cells and megakaryocytes. (exbio.cz)
- Yamamoto N, Akamatsu N, Sakuraba H, Yamazaki H, Tanoue K. Platelet glycoprotein IV (CD36) deficiency is associated with the absence (type I) or the presence (type II) of glycoprotein IV on monocytes. (springer.com)
- Here we use both native TSP-1 and small antiangiogenic peptides derived from it to show that this inhibition is mediated by CD36, a transmembrane glycoprotein found on microvascular endothelial cells. (rupress.org)
- The monoclonal antibody VM58 is directed against the CD36 antigen, a 90kD glycoprotein, also called GP IIIb expressed on human platelets. (genetex.com)
- Patients with leukemias that express the progenitor cell antigen CD34 and/or the P-glycoprotein (MDR1 gene product) have an inferior outcome. (rexhealth.com)
- 1991). "Membrane glycoprotein IV (CD36) is physically associated with the Fyn, Lyn, and Yes protein-tyrosine kinases in human platelets" . (wikidoc.org)
- CD36/scavenger receptor class B member 1 (IPR005428) This entry includes platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36) and scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SCARB1, also known as CD36 antigen-like 1) from humans, and sensory neuron membrane pro. (ebi.ac.uk)
- CD36 is an integral membrane protein found on the surface of many cell types in vertebrate animals and is also known as FAT, SCARB3, GP88, glycoprotein IV (gpIV) and glycoprotein IIIb (gpIIIb). (mybiosource.com)
- CD36 is an 88-kD transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on monocytes/macrophages, platelets, and microvascular endothelium that has been implicated as a putative receptor for Ox-LDL. (ahajournals.org)
- CD36 is an 85 kD integral membrane glycoprotein, also known as GPIIIb, or GPIV. (srgroupchemical.com)
- Murine malaria parasite sequestration: CD36 is the major receptor, but cerebral pathology is unlinked to sequestration. (semanticscholar.org)
- Expression cloning of SR-BI, a CD36-related class B scavenger receptor. (semanticscholar.org)
- Thrombospondin cooperates with CD36 and the vitronectin receptor in macrophage recognition of neutrophils undergoing apoptosis. (semanticscholar.org)
- Comparison of class B scavenger receptors, CD36 and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), shows that both receptors mediate high density lipoprotein-cholesteryl ester selective uptake but SR-BI exhibits a unique enhancement of cholesteryl ester uptake. (receptome.org)
- "CD36 is a receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein. (tcdb.org)
- Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 434 CD36 Molecule (thrombospondin Receptor) (CD36) Antikörper von 32 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Fadok, Warner, Bratton, Henson: CD36 is required for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by human macrophages that use either a phosphatidylserine receptor or the vitronectin receptor (alpha v beta 3). (antikoerper-online.de)
- 7685021 ). They are generally multivalent and can therefore engage multiple receptors simultaneously, the resulting formation of CD36 clusters initiates signal transduction and internalization of receptor-ligand complexes. (uniprot.org)
- CD36 is a scavenger receptor involved in fatty acid metabolism, innate immunity and angiogenesis. (nature.com)
- CD36 acts as a receptor for thrombospondin (TSP), collagen types I, IV and V, P. falciparum malaria-infected erythrocytes, and sickle erythrocytes. (novusbio.com)
- CD36 functions as a scavenger receptor for long chain fatty acids, oxidized LDL, collagen type I, IV, and V and thrombospondin, as well as for apoptotic cells. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- Clone REA760 recognizes the human CD36 antigen, an integral membrane protein, which is a member of the class B scavenger receptor family of cell surface proteins. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- The scavenger receptor CD36 is a critical factor initiating ischemic brain injury, but the cell type(s) expressing CD36 and responsible for its harmful effects remain unknown. (jneurosci.org)
- Here we report that CD36, an innate immunity receptor involved in the initiation of postischemic inflammation, is a previously unrecognized regulator of neutrophil cytotoxicity. (jneurosci.org)
- In an on-going forward genetic screen, we identify the Drosophila melanogaster scavenger receptor Croquemort as a receptor for Staphylococcus aureus , implicating for the first time the CD36 family as phagocytic receptors for bacteria. (rupress.org)
- By mutational analysis, we show that internalization of S. aureus and its component lipoteichoic acid requires the COOH-terminal cytoplasmic portion of CD36, specifically Y463 and C464, which activates Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/6 signaling. (rupress.org)
- We show that the class B scavenger receptor CD36 plays an essential role in macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells in vivo. (rupress.org)
- Multiple receptors are implicated in macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells including CD36, a prototypic member of the class B scavenger receptor family ( 5 - 11 ). (rupress.org)
- In vitro studies suggest a role for the CD36 scavenger receptor in the recognition of apoptotic cells because both endogenous (e.g., macrophages and dendritic cells) and ectopic (e.g., melanoma cells and fibroblasts) expression of CD36 on the surface of cells confers phagocytic activity for engulfment of apoptotic cells ( 8 , 12 , 13 ). (rupress.org)
- A heavily glycosylated mutiligand receptor belonging to the class B scavenger receptor group, CD36 is reported to mediate uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL), as well as to play a role in diverse cellular processes including foam cell formation, fatty acid transport, engulfment and removal of senescent cells, suppression of angiogenesis, and cell-matrix interactions ( 7 , 8 , 10 , 14 - 17 ). (rupress.org)
- CD36 interaction with oxLDL is supported via recognition by the N-terminal region of the receptor ( 18 - 20 ). (rupress.org)
- CD36 is a receptor/transporter that binds fatty acids of lipoproteins. (diabetesjournals.org)
- This study demonstrates that VLDL binds to the platelet receptor CD36, enhances platelet thromboxane A2 production, and causes increased collagen-mediated platelet aggregation. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Moreover, the release of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) during late apoptosis and secondary necrosis contributes to efficient antigen presentation and cytotoxic T-cell activation because HMGB1 can bind to Toll like receptor 4 on dendritic cells, thereby stimulating optimal antigen processing. (springer.com)
- CD36 is a member of the class B scavenger receptor family of cell surface proteins. (mybiosource.com)
- Acquired antibody responses against Plasmodium vivax infection vary with host genotype for duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC)," PLoS ONE , vol. 5, no. 7, Article ID e11437, 2010. (hindawi.com)
- dsRNA is recognized by Toll-like receptor 3 on antigen-presenting cells and induces production of alpha interferon (IFN-α), IFN-β, IFN-α/β, interleukin 6, interleukin 12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha ( 2 ). (asm.org)
- These data demonstrate that CD36 functions as an Ox-LDL receptor and suggest that CD36 may play a functional role in lipid accumulation by human macrophages and subsequent foam cell development during atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
- Triggering of the CD36 receptor on platelets and monocytes activates these cells in vitro, and stimulation of endothelial cells with cytokines that upregulate ICAM-1 expression can increase the binding of infected erythrocytes to endothelial cells. (ajtmh.org)
- CD36 is a scavenger receptor that functions in high affinity tissue uptake of long chain fatty acids (FA). (beckman.com.au)
- This was not associated with alterations in cell surface receptor expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure, cluster of differentiation (CD)163, CD36 or mannose receptor. (ersjournals.com)
- Tagliani, Guermonprez, Sepúlveda, López-Bravo, Ardavín, Amigorena, Benvenuti, Burrone: Selection of an antibody library identifies a pathway to induce immunity by targeting CD36 on steady-state CD8 alpha+ dendritic cells. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Moreover, this treatment increased expression of NLRP3 and the percentage of apoptotic cells, both of which were inhibited by co-treatment with an anti-CD36 antibody. (medscimonit.com)
- The following antibody was used in this experiment: CD36 Monoclonal Antibody (TR9) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA1-19407, RRID AB_1072218. (thermofisher.com)
- CD36 does not affect the development of B cells, but modulates both primary and secondary antibody response. (thermofisher.com)
- Mouse tissue extract (50 μg) was separated by 7.5% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with CD36 antibody [C1C(GTX100642) diluted at 1:1000. (genetex.com)
- Immunofluorescence analysis of paraformaldehyde-fixed mouse ESC D3, using CD36(GTX100642) antibody at 1:200 dilution. (genetex.com)
- Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded Ca922 xenograft, using CD36(GTX100642) antibody at 1:500 dilution. (genetex.com)
- Additional molecules known to bind CD36, including the IgM anti-CD36 antibody SM∅, oxidized (but not unoxidized) low density lipoprotein, and human collagen 1, mimicked TSP-1 by inhibiting the migration of human microvascular endothelial cells. (rupress.org)
- Expression of cys2 genes was associated with parasites from young children, those with severe malaria, and those with a poorly developed antibody response to parasite-infected erythrocyte surface antigens. (pnas.org)
- 7. A process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the tumor cells are from breast carcinoma, lung carcinoma, or neuroblastoma, and the antibody composition contains antibodies specific for antigens expressed on the surface of cells from breast carcinoma, lung carcinoma, or neuroblastoma. (google.com)
- CD36 antibody was purified by affinity chromatography. (mybiosource.com)
- CD36 antibody was raised in mouse using a full length recombinant protein of human CD36 (NP_000063) produced in HEK293T cells, as the immunogen. (mybiosource.com)
- Small volumes of anti-CD36 antibody vial(s) may occasionally become entrapped in the seal of the product vial during shipment and storage. (mybiosource.com)
- We demonstrate that an anti-CD36 monoclonal antibody inhibited 50% of the specific binding and 26% of the specific degradation of Ox-LDL by human monocyte-derived macrophages. (ahajournals.org)
- The FA6-152 monoclonal antibody, raised against fetal erythrocytes, recognizes the CD36 family of antigens on platelets and certain hematopoietic cells. (beckman.com.au)
- Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stained with CD36 antibodies or with the corresponding REA Control (S) antibodies (left peak) as well as with Anti-HLA-DR antibodies. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- Antibodies to HLA class I antigens and platelet-specific glycoproteins IIb/IIIa, Ib/IX, Ia/IIa, and GP-IV. (labcorp.com)
- Platelet antibodies can be autoimmune (directed against endogenous, i.e., the patient's own platelet antigens) or alloimmune (directed against antigens on exogenous platelets encountered through pregnancy or transfusion). (labcorp.com)
- Anti-CD36 antibodies inhibit adhesive functions (e.g. adherence of infected erythrocytes to target cells). (exbio.cz)
- Bertrand G, Renac V, Lefaix MC, Nivet C, Trudel E, Richard L: Neonatal Intracranial Hemorrhage with a Dramatic Outcome Due to Maternal Anti CD36 Antibodies. (exbio.cz)
- Berre S, Gaudin R, Cunha de Alencar B, Desdouits M, Chabaud M, Naffakh N, Rabaza-Gairi M, Gobert FX, Jouve M, Benaroch P: CD36-specific antibodies block release of HIV-1 from infected primary macrophages and its transmission to T cells. (exbio.cz)
- Cases of CD36 deficiency are not rare in Asian populations, foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) caused by anti-CD36 iso antibodies appears more frequent than other HPA alloantibodies. (springer.com)
- Anti-CD36 and anti-HLA class I antibodies were detected in the maternal serum, whereas only anti-CD36 iso antibodies were detectable in the foetal blood sample. (springer.com)
- Two cases of platelet transfusion refractoriness and one case of possible FNAIT caused by antibodies against CD36 in China. (springer.com)
- Both IgG antibodies against CD36 and glutathione-S-transferase-CD36 fusion proteins that contain the TSP-1 binding site blocked the ability of intact TSP-1 and its active peptides to inhibit the migration of cultured microvascular endothelial cells. (rupress.org)
- These multidomain variant antigens are encoded in a mutually exclusive fashion by about 60 var genes per parasite genome and exported to the infected erythrocyte surface where they are exposed to host antibodies ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
- After repeated exposure to infection, a repertoire of variant-specific antibodies that can recognize the variant surface antigens expressed by most parasite isolates builds up. (pnas.org)
- The notion of malaria 'tolerance' has long been invoked to explain the common finding of low-level, asymptomatic blood-stage infection in endemic areas , particularly among children, as antibodies that reliably protect against febrile malaria are only acquired after many years of exposure to genetically diverse and clonally variant P. falciparum antigens . (prolekare.cz)
- Binding of Ox-LDL to CD36-transfected 3T3 cells was inhibited by a panel of anti-CD36 antibodies and by soluble CD36 but not by thrombospondin. (ahajournals.org)
- To evaluate the ability of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (Pf155/RESA) epitopes to discriminate between individuals well protected or poorly protected against malaria, a receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed in two populations living in Madagascar and Malawi. (ajtmh.org)
- Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen CD36 Kits (40) und CD36 Proteine (29) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Here we describe the structure of CD36 in complex with long chain fatty acids and a CD36-binding PfEMP1 protein domain. (nature.com)
- A conserved hydrophobic pocket allows the hugely diverse PfEMP1 protein family to bind to a conserved phenylalanine residue at the membrane distal tip of CD36. (nature.com)
- Recognizes a protein of 80kDa-90kDa, identified as CD36. (novusbio.com)
- Common CD36 SNPs reduce protein expression and may contribute to a protective atherogenic profile. (snpedia.com)
- mRNA and protein expression of CD36 and NLRP3 was quantified by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. (medscimonit.com)
- CD36 (fatty acid translocase, FAT) is an 88 kDa, ditopic glycosylated protein that belongs to the class B family of scavenger receptors. (thermofisher.com)
- Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the CD36 protein have been found. (thermofisher.com)
- The CD36 antigen is an integral membrane protein found on the surface of many cell types in vertebrate animals. (wikipedia.org)
- Using Kyte-Doolittle analysis, the amino acid sequence of CD36 predicts a hydrophobic region near each end of the protein large enough to span cellular membranes. (wikipedia.org)
- It is not clear what role these linkages play on the function of the mature CD36 protein on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
- CD36 interacts with a number of ligands, including collagen types I and IV, thrombospondin, erythrocytes parasitized with Plasmodium falciparum, platelet-agglutinating protein p37, oxidized low density lipoprotein and long-chain fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
- Carrier-protein conjugated synthetic peptide encompassing a sequence within the C-terminus region of human CD36. (genetex.com)
- Here we examine the immunogenicity of the same model antigen secreted by live tumors either in association with membrane vesicles (exosomes) or as a soluble protein. (aacrjournals.org)
- To test this hypothesis, we have analyzed the immune response induced in vivo by tumors secreting an antigen either specifically coupled to membrane vesicles or freely as a soluble protein. (aacrjournals.org)
- The clonally variant surface antigens called Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) are strong candidate targets for this immunity. (pnas.org)
- Three such receptors have been identified: the extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin, the leukocyte differentiation antigen CD36, and the intercellular adhesion molecule ICAM-I. Infected erythrocytes can bind in vitro to each of these proteins. (ajtmh.org)
- Protein molecules such as CD36, thrombospondin, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, which are present on the membrane of endothelial cells, may act as receptors for the attachment of knobs of P. falciparum -infected erythrocytes. (ajtmh.org)
- Beside these proteins, we recently observed that blood group A antigen was also expressed on some other uncharacterized platelet proteins (70-90 kDa) having electrophoretic mobilities closely resembling those of GPIV and GPV. (gu.se)
- neither GPIV nor GPV derived from A2-, B- or O-platelets bound anti-A. In a Western blot assay using immunoprecipitated GPIV and GPV as antigens, mAb anti-A immunostained GPIV and GPV precipitated from A1, but not from A2 and O platelets. (gu.se)
- These results conclusively demonstrate that blood group A antigen is expressed on platelet GPIV and GPV. (gu.se)
- The CD36 antigen (platelet GPIV, or GPIIIb) is a generic term for a family of glycoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 78 to 88 kDa. (beckman.com.au)
- In this study, three copies of the Cd36 gene, one transcribed copy and two pseudogenes, were identified in normal rat strains, but only a single gene in SHR/NCrlBR. (nih.gov)
- The deletion led to the creation of a single chimeric Cd36 gene in SHR/NCrlBR. (nih.gov)
- Immunological analysis revealed total absence of CD36 on platelets and monocytes from mother, caused by a 329-330 del AC mutation of the CD36 gene. (springer.com)
- This structuring of the genomic var gene repertoire has been linked to the serological properties of the expressed variant surface antigens. (pnas.org)
- NCBI/Uniprot data below describe general gene information for CD36 . (mybiosource.com)
- Further, CD36 may function as a cell adhesion molecule and directly mediates cyto-adherence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes. (thermofisher.com)
- In this issue, Dzionek and coworkers report on the molecular cloning and characterization of BDCA-2 and show that this molecule represents a unique endocytic type II single-CRD C-type lectin, able to target ligands into the antigen processing and peptide-loading compartment ( 19 ). (rupress.org)
- The molecule expressed on the surface of the infected erythrocyte which mediates adherence to endothelium belongs to a large family of clonally variable antigens encoded by the var genes. (nih.gov)
- Similar to glucose transporter GLUT4, CD36 is translocated from intracellular pools to the plasma membrane following cell stimulation by insulin. (thermofisher.com)
- Based on this notion and the observation that CD36 is found on the surface of cells, CD36 is thought to have a 'hairpin-like' structure with α-helices at the C- and N- termini projecting through the membrane and a larger extracellular loop (Fig. 1). (wikipedia.org)
- Disulfide linkages between 4 of the 6 cysteine residues in the extracellular loop are required for efficient intracellular processing and transport of CD36 to the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
- The function of these lipid modifications is currently unknown but they likely promote the association of CD36 with the membrane and possibly lipid rafts which appear to be important for some CD36 functions. (wikipedia.org)
- In the absence of ligand, membrane bound CD36 exists primarily in a monomeric state. (wikipedia.org)
- Further, macrophage recognition of apoptotic cells via CD36 is shown to occur via interactions with membrane-associated oxidized PS (oxPS) and, to a lesser extent, oxidized phosphatidylcholine, but not nonoxidized PS molecular species. (rupress.org)
- van Oort MM, van Doorn JM, Bonen A, Glatz JF, van der Horst DJ, Rodenburg KW, Luiken JJ: Insulin-induced translocation of CD36 to the plasma membrane is reversible and shows similarity to that of GLUT4. (exbio.cz)
- Mass spectrometry analyses of oxPS species identify structures of candidate ligands for CD36 in apoptotic membranes that may facilitate macrophage recognition. (rupress.org)
- Collectively, these results identify oxPS-CD36 interactions on macrophages as potential participants in a broad range of physiologic processes where macrophage-mediated engulfment of apoptotic cells is involved. (rupress.org)
- Despite the many demonstrations of CD36 recognition of apoptotic cells using in vitro model systems, direct demonstration of CD36 involvement in apoptotic cell clearance in vivo is lacking. (rupress.org)
- The mechanisms through which CD36 recognizes apoptotic cells have not been clearly defined. (rupress.org)
- When injected in vivo , apoptotic and necrotic tumor cells, heat shock proteins, soluble proteins, and exosomes also induce antigen-specific CD8 + T-cell activation ( 7 - 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Immature dendritic cells phagocytose apoptotic cells via alphavbeta5 and CD36 , and cross-present antigens to cytotoxic T lymphocytes . (springer.com)
- In the context of this environment, which would likely support dendritic cell maturation ( 6 ), uptake of apoptotic transfected cells could lead to an immunogenic signal ( 9 ) and could facilitate antigen processing on presentation on major histocompatibility complex class I ( 1 ). (asm.org)
- Dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to present antigen from apoptotic cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Atherogenic lipids and lipoproteins trigger CD36-TLR2-dependent apoptosis in macrophages undergoing endoplasmic reticulum stress. (semanticscholar.org)
- CD36 is expressed on various epithelial and endothelial cells as well as erythrocytes, platelets, monocytes, macrophages, and some macrophage-derived dendritic cells. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- At the same time, sublethal infection of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, yields potent, sustained type I interferon-dominant activation in an immunosuppressed microenvironment and promotes the development of tumor antigen-specific T cell responses in vitro and antitumor immunity in vivo. (sciencemag.org)
- Macrophages lacking CD36 demonstrate reduced internalization of S. aureus and its component lipoteichoic acid, accompanied by a marked defect in tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-12 production. (rupress.org)
- CD36 is widely expressed on the surface of multiple cell types including macrophages, adipocytes, platelets, microvascular endothelial cells, and specialized epithelial cells. (rupress.org)
- Recent data strengthen this suggestion since decreased expression of CD36 on macrophages was associated with lower uptake of hypertriglyceridemic VLDL remnants ( 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- CD36 expression occurs in different types of cells, including mammary epithelial cells, endothelial cells monocytes, macrophages, platelets, megakaryocytes and early erythroid cells. (beckman.com.au)
- We noted that these cells do not appear to express markers associated with monocytes and macrophages during the course of development, but do express CD68 and CD204 antigens in the adult. (open.ac.uk)
- We conclude that in SHR/NCrlBR, the complex trait of insulin resistance and defective fatty acid metabolism is caused by Cd36 deficiency, resulting from a chromosomal deletion caused by unequal recombination. (nih.gov)
- rs3211938, previously shown to influence malaria susceptibility, is documented to result in CD36 deficiency in a homozygous subject. (snpedia.com)
- CD36 deficiency has been linked with insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
- However, the mechanism by which CD36 participates in the response to pathogens and their ligands and the consequences of CD36 mutations on the host defense have not been defined. (rupress.org)
- Recent studies using a combination of cell binding assays, mass spectrometry, and both analytical and synthetic chemistry successfully isolated and structurally defined a novel oxidized phosphatidylcholine (oxPC) species possessing an sn-2 acyl group that incorporates a terminal γ-hydroxy(or oxo)-α,β-unsaturated carbonyl (oxPC CD36 ) that serves as high affinity ligands for CD36 via the oxLDL site ( 23 , 24 ). (rupress.org)
- Only trace levels (a few molecules per particle) of the oxPC CD36 were required to support CD36 binding, and the enrichment of these ligands was shown in multiple oxLDL preparations and within atherosclerotic lesions ( 23 , 24 ). (rupress.org)
- As a result of its multiple ligands and signal transduction capabilities, CD36 has also a number of functions related to immune responses, inflammation and blood disorders. (beckman.com.au)
- 72%). Conversely, WT mice receiving CD36 −/− BM (CD36 −/− →WT) have infarcts similar to WT→WT mice, suggesting that CD36 in the host brain (i.e., in microglia and endothelial cells), and not in hematogenous cells is involved in the damage. (jneurosci.org)
- Postischemic neutrophil free radical production was attenuated in WT→CD36 −/− mice compared with CD36 −/− →WT mice, whereas expression of the neutrophil activator colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF3) was suppressed in CD36 −/− cerebral endothelial cells, but not microglia. (jneurosci.org)
- In CD36 −/− cerebral endothelial cultures exposed to extracts from stroke brains, the upregulation of CSF3, but not neutrophil attractant chemokines, was suppressed. (jneurosci.org)
- The findings identify endothelial cells as a key player in the deleterious effects of CD36 in stroke, and unveil a novel role of endothelial CD36 in enabling neutrophil neurotoxicity through CSF3. (jneurosci.org)
- The effect is mediated by endothelial CD36 via upregulation of the neutrophil activator CSF3 in cerebral endothelial cells. (jneurosci.org)
- Therefore, approaches to modulate cerebral endothelial CD36 signaling or to neutralize CSF3 may provide novel therapeutic opportunities to ameliorate postischemic inflammatory injury. (jneurosci.org)
- Transfection of CD36-deficient human umbilical vein endothelial cells with a CD36 expression plasmid caused them to become sensitive to TSP-1 inhibition of their migration and tube formation. (rupress.org)
- This work demonstrates that endothelial CD36, previously thought to be involved only in adhesion and scavenging activities, may be essential for the inhibition of angiogenesis by thrombospondin-1. (rupress.org)
- Treatment with interleukin-1b increased expression of CD36 and total cholesterol in MPC5 cells. (medscimonit.com)
- CD36 is expressed by most resting marginal zone B cells but not by follicular and B1 B cells, and is rapidly induced on Follicular B cells in vitro upon TLR and CD40 stimulation. (thermofisher.com)
- This topology is supported by transfection experiments in cultured cells using deletion mutants of CD36. (wikipedia.org)
- determined that PVSRIPO stimulates anticancer immunity by two mechanisms: lysing tumor cells to release a mix of tumor and viral antigens, as well as sublethally infecting antigen-presenting cells and thereby stimulating an interferon-driven immune response in the tumor microenvironment. (sciencemag.org)
- Maturing Human CD127+ CCR7+ PDL1+ Dendritic Cells Express AIRE in the Absence of Tissue Restricted Antigens. (nih.gov)
- Type I IFN can also cause maturation of efficiently antigen-presenting monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and stimulate B lymphocytes ( 4 , 5 ). (rupress.org)
- These cells lacked lineage specific surface antigens, but expressed MHC class II (for a review, see reference 6 ). (rupress.org)
- These antigens seem to be unique for PDCs in peripheral blood, although BDCA-2 is lost as the cells mature and BDCA-4 also appears on differentiating monocyte-derived and CD34 + cell-derived DCs ( 18 ). (rupress.org)
- CD36 is a fatty acid transporter ( 8 ) that binds native and oxidized lipoproteins in transfected cells ( 9 - 13 ) and facilitates supply of fatty acids for platelet thromboxane production ( 14 ), suggesting that CD36 may be capable of mediating interaction between triglyceride-rich VLDL and platelets. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Serial intrauterine transfusions with red blood cells (RBC) and platelets from a CD36 null donor were performed to improve the severe anaemia and thrombocytopenia. (springer.com)
- In addition, antiangiogenic TSP-1 peptides inhibited the binding of native TSP-1 to solid phase CD36 and its fusion proteins, as well as to CD36-expressing cells. (rupress.org)
- Expression of non-self antigens by tumors can induce activation of T cells in vivo , although this activation can lead to either immunity or tolerance. (aacrjournals.org)
- CD8 + T-cell activation can be direct (if the tumor expresses MHC class I molecules) or indirect (after the capture and cross-presentation of tumor antigens by dendritic cells). (aacrjournals.org)
- The modes of tumor antigen capture by dendritic cells in vivo remain unclear. (aacrjournals.org)
- We show that murine fibrosarcoma tumor cells that secrete vesicle-bound antigen grow slower than tumors that secrete soluble antigen in immunocompetent, but not in immunodeficient, host mice. (aacrjournals.org)
- Because only professional antigen-presenting cells, especially dendritic cells, are able to prime immune responses, activation of T cells specific for tumor antigens must involve an indirect pathway of antigen presentation: antigen-presenting cells acquire antigens from tumors and present them as MHC class I-peptide and MHC class II-peptide complexes to CD8 + and CD4 + T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Dendritic cells are highly adapted to their role of presenting antigen and directing immune responses. (biomedsearch.com)
- Through interactions with host molecules such as ICAM1, CD36, CR1, and CD31, PfEMP1 plays a central role in mediating cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes to host cells. (pnas.org)
- Pubmed ID: 19752754 Murine CD4 T cells cultured under type 1 polarizing conditions selectively express significantly higher levels of the very late antigen (VLA)-4 and VLA-6 integrins when compared with T cells cultured under type 2 or nonpolarizing (type 0) conditions. (jove.com)
- In addition, EPC-derived cells were weakly positive for thrombomodulin and CD143 and failed to express CD36. (nih.gov)
- Unlike EPC-derived cells, HDLEC abundantly expressed CD36, while CD36 was absent on HUVEC. (nih.gov)
- In addition to producing antigen, cells transfected with the plasmid DNA replicon produce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which may provide immunostimulatory adjuvant effects ( 18 ). (asm.org)
- Circulating mononuclear cells from B. pertussis -infected and from pertussis-vaccinated infants secrete high amounts of IFN-γ after in vitro stimulation by B. pertussis antigens, but with a large variation in the secreted IFN-γ levels between individuals. (asm.org)
- To characterize more completely this binding we evaluated interactions between CD36 and Ox-LDL in murine NIH-3T3 cells stably transfected with human CD36 cDNA. (ahajournals.org)
- Ox-LDL bound to CD36-transfected 3T3 cells in a saturable manner. (ahajournals.org)
- Specific binding, internalization, and degradation of Ox-LDL were increased fourfold in CD36-transfected cell lines compared with 3T3 cells transfected with vector alone. (ahajournals.org)
- Specificity of binding was demonstrated by the equivalent binding of LDL and acetylated LDL to control and CD36-transfected 3T3 cells. (ahajournals.org)
- The first is that the increased binding of Ox-LDL to CD36-transfected 3T3 cells is abrogated by delipidation of the lipoprotein, and the second is that oleic acid competes for the binding of Ox-LDL to CD36-transfected 3T3 cells. (ahajournals.org)
- Dendritic cells (DCs) and Foxp3-expressing CD4 + regulatory T (Treg) cells play non-redundant roles in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance to self-antigens, thereby preventing fatal autoimmunity. (soc-bdr.org)
- In this context, the ability of steady-state DCs to promote the extrathymic conversion of initially naïve CD4 + Foxp3 - T cells into Foxp3 + Treg cells is of particular interest as it provides novel perspectives to enhance antigen-specific Treg cell function in clinical settings of unwanted immunity, such as β-cell autoimmunity. (soc-bdr.org)
- In this review we discuss the concept and implications of CNS immune surveillance and introduce the CNS antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that potentially regulate neuroinflammation and autoimmunity. (scirp.org)
- We hypothesized that Flt3-ligand (Flt3L) therapy, which expands DCs in vivo , in combination with local tumor radiotherapy (RT), should improve antigen presentation from dying, irradiated tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- 2 Inadequate antigen presentation by the tumor cells and impaired host recognition further accelerate this process. (aacrjournals.org)
- We further investigated whether these cells express two well-characterized phenotypic markers of dendritic cells: CD205 (DEC-205/NLDC-145) and MIDC-8 antigen. (open.ac.uk)
- Unexpectedly, we also noted the transient expression of MIDC-8 antigen on cells within the medial ganglionic eminence and by neuroepithelial cells lining the lateral ventricles and in the medial lemniscus between E15 and E19. (open.ac.uk)
- CD36 recognises oxidized low density lipoprotein, long chain fatty acids, anionic phospholipids, collagen types I, IV and V, thrombospondin and Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- In mouse, CD36 is responsible for gustatory perception of long-chain fatty acids. (thermofisher.com)
- Gaillard D, Laugerette F, Darcel N, El-Yassimi A, Passilly-Degrace P, Hichami A, Akhtar Khan N, Montmayeur JP, Besnard P: The gustatory pathway is involved in CD36-mediated orosensory perception of long-chain fatty acids in the mouse. (exbio.cz)
- CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
- CD36 is preferentially found within lipid rafts, which facilitates its association with receptors, signaling and adapter molecules. (thermofisher.com)
- After PS-liposomes phagocytosis, the expression pattern of molecules involved in efferocytosis, antigen presentation, immunoregulation, and activation in DCs concurred with a tolerogenic functionality, both in patients and control subjects. (frontiersin.org)
- After immunization, host cellular machinery facilitates the expression of plasmid-encoded genes, which leads to the generation of foreign antigens that can be processed and presented on both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules. (frontiersin.org)
- For example, recombinant domains from PfEMP1 molecules carrying an UpsA promoter have been shown to have low affinity for CD36 binding relative to equivalent domains from var genes with UpsB or UpsC promoters ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
- In the SHR/NCrlBR strain, a chromosomal deletion event that occurred at the Cd36 locus during the evolution of this SHR strain has been proposed as a cause of defective insulin action and fatty acid metabolism. (nih.gov)
- Work in genetically modified rodents suggest a role for CD36 in fatty acid metabolism, heart disease, taste, and dietary fat processing in the intestine. (wikipedia.org)
- Multiple distinct binding sites on CD36 are reported to facilitate its broad ligand specificity and functions. (rupress.org)
- DCs are equipped with molecular sensors and antigen-processing machinery to recognize pathogens, integrate chemical information and guide the specificity, magnitude and polarity of immune responses. (biomedsearch.com)
- Our findings provide mechanistic evidence that PVSRIPO functions as a potent intratumor immune adjuvant that generates tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. (sciencemag.org)
- We conclude that the mode of secretion can determine the immunogenicity of tumor antigens and that manipulation of the mode of antigen secretion may be used to optimize antitumor vaccination protocols. (aacrjournals.org)
- An ineffective tumor-specific immune response from inadequate/incompetent antigen presentation could contribute to the failure in tumor control and its dissemination. (aacrjournals.org)
- These results support an attractive strategy of sequential RT and immunotherapy with Flt3L to enhance tumor antigen presentation, which may produce therapeutic responses against disseminated cancer and improvement in survival. (aacrjournals.org)
- However, the occurrences of natural immunovariation as well as the emergence of antigen-loss variants limit vaccination with DCs presenting defined tumor antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
- As an alternative, we considered localized RT as a strategy for obtaining total tumor-derived material for efficient antigen presentation. (aacrjournals.org)
- CD36 plays a role in platelet aggregation, macrophage foam cell development, inflammation, and the tissue ischemia observed in sickle cell disease and cerebral malaria. (novusbio.com)
- This is supported by the fact that immunity to malaria is accompanied by changes in the serological properties of the variant surface antigens. (pnas.org)
- WHO-World Health Organization," http://www.who.int/malaria/en/ . (hindawi.com)
- Fy(a)/Fy(b) antigen polymorphism in human erythrocyte Duffy antigen affects susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax malaria," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 108, no. 50, pp. 20113-20118, 2011. (hindawi.com)
- The fundamental idea behind DNA vaccines (also known as genetic vaccines) is to induce immune responses against recombinant antigens encoded by genetically engineered DNA plasmids expressed in vivo . (frontiersin.org)
- These host-synthesized foreign antigens can be recognized by the immune system, inducing a complete and effective immunization. (frontiersin.org)
- While mature PDCs were originally shown to induce Th2 cell development, they can efficiently promote Th1 immune responses in vitro to antigens associated with type I IFN induction ( 14 , 15 ). (rupress.org)
- This growth difference is due to the induction of a more potent antigen-specific antitumor immune response in vivo by the vesicle-bound than by the soluble antigen. (aacrjournals.org)
- Further, antigen drainage is another means by which the adaptive arm of the immune system can gain information about the health of the CNS. (scirp.org)
- Two such improvements are the use of genetically engineered cytokine adjuvants and plasmid delivery via in vivo electroporation (EP), the latter of which has been shown to increase antigen delivery by nearly 1000-fold compared to naked DNA plasmid delivery alone. (frontiersin.org)
- As a result, Cd36 −/− mice fail to efficiently clear S. aureus in vivo resulting in profound bacteraemia. (rupress.org)
- Pharmacological reduction of Cd36 expression was associated with less atherosclerosis in vivo ( 22 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Finally, in vivo secretion of the vesicle-bound antigen either by tumors or by vaccination with naked DNA protects against soluble antigen-secreting tumors. (aacrjournals.org)