Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Angiosarcomas express mixed endothelial phenotypes of blood and lymphatic capillaries: podoplanin as a specific marker for lymphatic endothelium. (1/1660)

Angiosarcomas apparently derive from blood vessel endothelial cells; however, occasionally their histological features suggest mixed origin from blood and lymphatic endothelia. In the absence of specific positive markers for lymphatic endothelia the precise distinction between these components has not been possible. Here we provide evidence by light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry that podoplanin, a approximately 38-kd membrane glycoprotein of podocytes, is specifically expressed in the endothelium of lymphatic capillaries, but not in the blood vasculature. In normal skin and kidney, podoplanin colocalized with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3, the only other lymphatic marker presently available. Complementary immunostaining of blood vessels was obtained with established endothelial markers (CD31, CD34, factor VIII-related antigen, and Ulex europaeus I lectin) as well as podocalyxin, another podocytic protein that is also localized in endothelia of blood vessels. Podoplanin specifically immunolabeled endothelia of benign tumorous lesions of undisputed lymphatic origin (lymphangiomas, hygromas) and was detected there as a 38-kd protein by immunoblotting. As paradigms of malignant vascular tumors, poorly differentiated (G3) common angiosarcomas (n = 8), epitheloid angiosarcomas (n = 3), and intestinal Kaposi's sarcomas (n = 5) were examined for their podoplanin content in relation to conventional endothelial markers. The relative number of tumor cells expressing podoplanin was estimated and, although the number of cases in this preliminary study was limited to 16, an apparent spectrum of podoplanin expression emerged that can be divided into a low-expression group in which 0-10% of tumor cells contained podoplanin, a moderate-expression group with 30-60% and a high-expression group with 70-100%. Ten of eleven angiosarcomas and all Kaposi's sarcomas showed mixed expression of both lymphatic and blood vascular endothelial phenotypes. By double labeling, most podoplanin-positive tumor cells coexpressed endothelial markers of blood vessels, whereas few tumor cells were positive for individual markers only. From these results we conclude that (1) podoplanin is a selective marker of lymphatic endothelium; (2) G3 angiosarcomas display a quantitative spectrum of podoplanin-expressing tumor cells; (3) in most angiosarcomas, a varying subset of tumor cells coexpresses podoplanin and endothelial markers of blood vessels; and (4) all endothelial cells of Kaposi's sarcomas expressed the lymphatic marker podoplanin.  (+info)

In vitro hematopoietic and endothelial cell development from cells expressing TEK receptor in murine aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. (2/1660)

Recent studies have shown that long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) first appear in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region. Our immunohistochemistry study showed that TEK+ cells existed in the AGM region. Approximately 5% of AGM cells were TEK+, and most of these were CD34(+) and c-Kit+. We then established a coculture system of AGM cells using a stromal cell line, OP9, which is deficient in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). With this system, we showed that AGM cells at 10.5 days postcoitum (dpc) differentiated and proliferated into both hematopoietic and endothelial cells. Proliferating hematopoietic cells contained a significant number of colony-forming cells in culture (CFU-C) and in spleen (CFU-S). Among primary AGM cells at 10.5 dpc, sorted TEK+ AGM cells generated hematopoietic cells and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1(+) endothelial cells on the OP9 stromal layer, while TEK- cells did not. When a ligand for TEK, angiopoietin-1, was added to the single-cell culture of AGM, endothelial cell growth was detected in the wells where hematopoietic colonies grew. Although the incidence was still low (1/135), we showed that single TEK+ cells generated hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells simultaneously, using a single-cell deposition system. This in vitro coculture system shows that the TEK+ fraction of primary AGM cells is a candidate for hemangioblasts, which can differentiate into both hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells.  (+info)

Streptavidin facilitates internalization and pulmonary targeting of an anti-endothelial cell antibody (platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1): a strategy for vascular immunotargeting of drugs. (3/1660)

Conjugation of drugs with antibodies to surface endothelial antigens is a potential strategy for drug delivery to endothelium. We studied antibodies to platelet-endothelial adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, a stably expressed endothelial antigen) as carriers for vascular immunotargeting. Although 125I-labeled anti-PECAM bound to endothelial cells in culture, the antibody was poorly internalized by the cells and accumulated poorly after intravenous administration in mice and rats. However, conjugation of biotinylated anti-PECAM (b-anti-PECAM) with streptavidin (SA) markedly stimulated uptake and internalization of anti-PECAM by endothelial cells and by cells expressing PECAM. In addition, conjugation with streptavidin markedly stimulated uptake of 125I-labeled b-anti-PECAM in perfused rat lungs and in the lungs of intact animals after either intravenous or intraarterial injection. The antioxidant enzyme catalase conjugated with b-anti-PECAM/SA bound to endothelial cells in culture, entered the cells, escaped intracellular degradation, and protected the cells against H2O2-induced injury. Anti-PECAM/SA/125I-catalase accumulated in the lungs after intravenous injection or in the perfused rat lungs and protected these lungs against H2O2-induced injury. Thus, modification of a poor carrier antibody with biotin and SA provides an approach for facilitation of antibody-mediated drug targeting. Anti-PECAM/SA is a promising candidate for vascular immunotargeting of bioactive drugs.  (+info)

Neutrophils sense flow-generated stress and direct their migration through alphaVbeta3-integrin. (4/1660)

During inflammation neutrophils are recruited from the blood onto the surface of microvascular endothelial cells. In this milieu the presence of soluble chemotactic gradients is disallowed by blood flow. However, directional cues are still required for neutrophils to migrate to the junctions of endothelial cells where extravasation occurs. Shear forces generated by flowing blood provide a potential alternative guide. In our flow-based adhesion assay neutrophils preferentially migrated in the direction of flow when activated after attachment to platelet monolayers. Neutralizing alphaVbeta3-integrin with monoclonal antibodies or turning the flow off randomized the direction of migration without affecting migration velocity. Purified, immobilized alphaVbeta3-integrin ligands, CD31 and fibronectin, could both support flow-directed neutrophil migration in a concentration-dependent manner. Migration could be randomized by neutralizing alphaVbeta3-integrin interactions with the substrate using antibodies or Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptide. These results exemplify mechanical signal transduction through integrin-ligand interactions and reveal a guidance system that was hitherto unknown in neutrophils. In more general terms, it demonstrates that cells can use integrin molecules to "sample" their physical microenvironment through adhesion and use this information to modulate their behavior.  (+info)

Vaginal epithelioid angiosarcoma. (5/1660)

A case of epithelioid angiosarcoma of the vagina is described. Only five cases of angiosarcoma at this site have been reported, three of which followed radiotherapy for other gynaecological malignancies. None is described as an epithelioid angiosarcoma, an unusual and recently described variant which is readily confused with carcinoma. This is thought to be the first reported epithelioid angiosarcoma at this site and highlights the difficulties in diagnosis.  (+info)

Genetic evidence for functional redundancy of Platelet/Endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1): CD31-deficient mice reveal PECAM-1-dependent and PECAM-1-independent functions. (6/1660)

Platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1; CD31), a member of the Ig superfamily, is expressed strongly at endothelial cell-cell junctions, on platelets, and on most leukocytes. CD31 has been postulated to play a role in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, and has been implicated as a key mediator of the transendothelial migration of leukocytes. To further define the physiologic role of CD31, we used targeted gene disruption of the CD31 gene in embryonic stem cells to generate CD31-deficient mice. CD31-deficient mice (CD31KO) are viable and born at the expected Mendelian frequency, remain healthy, and exhibit no obvious vascular developmental defects. In response to inflammatory challenge, polymorphonuclear leukocytes of CD31KO mice are arrested between the vascular endothelium and the basement membrane of inflammatory site mesenteric microvessels, confirming a role for CD31 in the migration of neutrophils through the subendothelial extracellular matrix. Normal numbers of leukocytes are recovered from inflammatory sites in CD31KO mice, however, suggesting that the defect in leukocyte migration across basal lamina observed in the absence of CD31 may be compensated for by the use of other adhesion molecules, or possibly an increased rate of migration. Homing of T lymphocytes in vivo is normal, and CD31KO mice are able to mount a cutaneous hypersensitivity response normally. In addition, CD31-mediated homophilic adhesion does not appear to play a role in platelet aggregation in vitro. This study provides genetic evidence that CD31 is involved in transbasement membrane migration, but does not play an obligatory role in either vascular development or leukocyte migration.  (+info)

Analysis of macrophage scavenger receptor (SR-A) expression in human aortic atherosclerotic lesions. (7/1660)

The class A scavenger receptors (SR-As) are trimeric, integral membrane glycoproteins that exhibit unusually broad ligand-binding properties. A number of studies have suggested that these receptors may play an important role in host defense and in many macrophage-associated pathological processes, including atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. The study of the expression and function of these receptors in human disease has been hampered by the lack of suitable antibodies recognizing human SR-A. This has generated questions regarding the nature of receptors responsible for scavenger receptor activity detected in a variety of cell types, including monocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. To address these questions, we have produced high-titer antisera recognizing human SR-A by using mice deficient for SR-A (SR-A -/-). We show that SR-A -/- mice produce a significantly higher-titer immune response than do wild-type (SR-A +/+) littermates, with antisera of the former having a broad species reactivity and recognizing SR-A from humans, mice, and rabbits. The antisera recognize both type I and II SR-A in a wide range of immunological techniques. Using these antisera we show that the expression of SR-A protein is induced during monocyte to macrophage differentiation and that SR-A mediates 80% of the uptake of acetylated low density lipoprotein by human monocyte-derived macrophages. We also establish that human SR-A is expressed by tissue macrophages in liver and lung and by macrophage-derived foam cells within aortic atherosclerotic lesions, with little detectable expression by smooth muscle cells or aortic endothelium.  (+info)

Irradiation induces upregulation of CD31 in human endothelial cells. (8/1660)

Radiation-induced vascular injury is believed to be a major factor contributing to parenchymal atrophy, fibrosis and necrosis in normal tissue after radiotherapy. In this study irradiation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) significantly increased adherence of U-937 cells in a time-dependent manner. Given the potential multifunctional role of CD31 in the vasculature we have examined the possible effects of irradiation on levels of CD31 expression in HUVECs. Irradiation upregulated CD31 expression on HUVECs, independently of initial plating density and radiation-induced changes such as cell number, cell cycle stage, or cell size. CD31 mRNA levels were raised in irradiated HUVECs relative to controls. Both CD31 mRNA and surface protein showed similar changes, suggesting that the increase in mRNA in irradiated HUVECs is responsible for the elevation in cell surface protein. A semi-quantitative study of tissue specimens from patients who had received radiotherapy indicated that CD31 staining in the blood vessels from irradiated tissues was increased compared with controls. Endothelial CD31 is important in the transmigration of leukocytes. We have demonstrated that the incorporation of monoclonal antibody to CD31 significantly inhibited the transmigration of human peripheral blood leukocytes through a monolayer of irradiated HUVECs. Taken together these data strongly suggest that irradiation induces a marked increase in CD31 expression on endothelial cells as part of a general response to irradiation. Its upregulation may play an important role in the development of radiation-induced normal tissue damage and thus is a possible target for therapeutic intervention.  (+info)

During inflammation, neutrophils migrate from the vascular lumen into extravascular sites. In vitro assays have suggested that platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 [PECAM-1 (CD31)], a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is required for the transmigration of neutrophils across endothelial monolayers. Antibody to human PECAM-1, which cross-reacts with rat PECAM-1, was found to block not only in vivo accumulation of rat neutrophils into the peritoneal cavity and the alveolar compartment of the lung but also neutrophil accumulation in human skin grafts transplanted onto immunodeficient mice. On the basis of these findings in three different models of inflammation, it appears that PECAM-1 is required for neutrophil transmigration in vivo and may thus be a potential therapeutic target. ...
Purchase Recombinant Human Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule(PECAM1),partial. It is produced in Yeast. High purity. Good price.
PECAM-1 is a well-studied cellular adhesion and signaling receptor that plays an important role in supporting leukocyte diapedesis during the leukocyte adhesion cascade (4, 21). In contrast to this proinflammatory effect, PECAM-1 was shown in a number of situations to function as an ITIM-containing inhibitory receptor capable of dampening cellular activation events in lymphocytes (9, 22, 23), mast cells (24), and platelets (25-28). Numerous reports also demonstrated an anti-inflammatory role for PECAM-1 in well-established acute and chronic inflammatory disease models. For example, mice expressing PECAM-1 produce lower levels of inflammatory cytokines (7, 11-13), exhibit enhanced vascular barrier protection (10-12), and paradoxically, accumulate fewer leukocytes at sites of inflammation (10-13). However, the mechanisms by which PECAM-1 serves to confer protection in inflammation and how it regulates these aspects of the inflammatory response are still poorly understood.. One intriguing ...
Results Thrombin (0.08 to 0.2 U/ml) increased platelet adhesion in a dose-dependent manner from 2.7 ± 0.3% to 6.4 ± 0.6% (mean value ± SEM). Preincubation of platelets resulted in a dose-dependent down-regulation of 3H-iloprost binding up to 58.8 ± 6.7% of control platelets with 100 nmol/liter of iloprost. Co-incubation of prostacyclin receptor-desensitized platelets with endothelial cells resulted in a marked augmentation of thrombin-induced adhesion up to 28.6 ± 4.5%. Approximately the same increase in platelet adhesion was seen after complete abrogation of endothelial cell prostacyclin synthesis by pretreatment with aspirin. Comparison of iloprost-induced receptor desensitization and increased platelet-endothelial cell adhesion indicated a positive correlation. ...
Cell adhesion molecule which is required for leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) under most inflammatory conditions. Tyr-660 plays a critical role in TEM and is required for efficient trafficking of PECAM1 to and from the lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC) and is also essential for the LBRC membrane to be targeted around migrating leukocytes. Prevents phagocyte ingestion of closely apposed viable cells by transmitting detachment signals, and changes function on apoptosis, promoting tethering of dying cells to phagocytes (the encounter of a viable cell with a phagocyte via the homophilic interaction of PECAM1 on both cell surfaces leads to the viable cells active repulsion from the phagocyte. During apoptosis, the inside-out signaling of PECAM1 is somehow disabled so that the apoptotic cell does not actively reject the phagocyte anymore. The lack of this repulsion signal together with the interaction of the eat-me signals and their respective receptors causes the attachment of the
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
Methods. Animals. Male C57BL/6 mice weighing between 19 and 21 g were obtained from Charles River (Wilmington, MA). All animals were treated in accordance with the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. Mice were anesthetized with intramuscular ketamine hydrochloride (25 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg) and their pupils dilated with 1% tropicamide. The mice were euthanized by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a ketamine and xylazine overdose.. Antibodies and Reagents. H8 humanized IgG antibody and mouse monoclonal HUIV26 raised against denatured collagen type IV were supplied by Cancer Vax (Carlsbad, CA). Both triple-helical and denatured collagen type IV was detected using the polyclonal antibody AB769 (Chemicon, Temecula, CA). Endothelial cells were visualized with an antibody for platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, clone MEC13.3; BD Biosciences Pharmingen, San Diego, CA) or biotinylated Griffonia simplicifolia lectin B4 (Vector ...
Horst Posthauss group in the Institute of Animal Pathology at the University of Bern is researching an intestinal infection in pigs which is caused by Clostridium perfringens. 10 years ago, they were already able to demonstrate that the toxin produced by the bacteria, the so-called beta toxin, kills vascular cells and thus causes bleeding in the piglets intestine. Until now, however, it was unclear why the toxin attacked specifically these cells and not others. Julia Bruggisser, biochemist and doctoral student at the Institute of Animal Pathology, has now succeeded in solving the puzzle of this mechanism in an interdisciplinary collaboration between three faculties. The findings from the study have been published in the specialist journal Cell Host & Microbe.. A key molecule. Around five years ago, lab technician Marianne Wyder from the Institute of Animal Pathology came across a molecule called Platelet-Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (PECAM-1 or even CD31 for short). It is located on ...
CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, PECAM-1) is an inhibitory coreceptor involved in regulation of T cell and B cell signaling by a dual immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) that upon associated kinases-mediated phosphorylation provide docking sites for protein-tyrosine phosphatases. CD31 is expressed ubiquitously within the vascular compartment and is located mainly at junctions between adjacent cells. N-terminal Ig-like domain of CD31 is responsible for its homophilic binding, which plays an important role in cell-cell interactions. CD31 is a multifunctional molecule with diverse roles in modulation of integrin-mediated cell adhesion, transendothelial migration, angiogenesis, apoptosis, negative regulation of immunoreceptor signaling, autoimmunity, macrophage phagocytosis, IgE-mediated anaphylaxis and thrombosis. It is one of key regulatory molecules in vascular system ...
CD31, also known as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) or endoCAM, binds CD38 and plays a role in wound healing, angiogenesis, and cellular migration.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of monocytes/macrophages to compensatory neovascularization. T2 - The drilling of metalloelastase-positive tunnels in ischemic myocardium. AU - Moldovan, Nicanor I.. AU - Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal. AU - Parker-Thornburg, Jan. AU - Shapiro, Steven D.. AU - Kolattukudy, Pappachan E.. PY - 2000/9/1. Y1 - 2000/9/1. N2 - In a transgenic model of ischemic cardiomyopathy in which monocytes are attracted to the myocardium by the targeted overexpression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), we have observed the presence of endothelial NO synthase and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1-negative tunnels, occasionally containing blood-derived cells, that probe the cardiac tissue. Immunohistochemical data show that monocytes/macrophages (MCs/Mphs) drill tunnels using the broad-spectrum mouse macrophage metalloelastase. 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation and neo-endothelial markers present in the microvasculature of MCP-1 mouse hearts suggest an active ...
Antibodies and reagents. The following antibodies were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA): anti-ERK-2, anti-phospho-ERK, anti-p38, anti-Src, anti-VEGF, and anti-phosphotyrosine. Monoclonal antibodies to phospho-p38 (Thr180/Tyr182) and phospho-Src (Tyr416) were purchased from Cell Signaling (Beverly, MA), antiactin antibody was purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO), and anti-p120cat was purchased from Becton Dickinson (Palo Alto, CA). Antiheparanase 1453 and 733 antibodies have previously been characterized ( 27). Antimouse platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1; CD31) polyclonal antibody was kindly provided by Dr. Joseph A. Madri (Yale University, New Haven, CT). The selective p38 (SB 203580) and Src (PP1, PP2, and Src inhibitor I) inhibitors were purchased from Calbiochem (San Diego, CA) and were dissolved in DMSO as stock solutions. DMSO was added to the cell culture as a control. Matrigel was kindly provided by Dr. Hynda Kleinmann (NIDR, NIH, Bethesda, MD) ...
The specific association of multiple adhesion molecules with hHpSCs and hepatoblasts suggests that they play important regulatory functions in modulating interactions with cells that comprise local inductive environments and/or stem cell niches. A critical, enabling event, required for formation of the liver, is that angioblasts from the septum transversum induce the hepatic bud to form (7). Such key interactions are now amenable to study in vitro using hHpSCs. We observed that colony expansion and cell outgrowth of hHpSCs depends on the mesenchymal companion cells that are prominent at the periphery of hHpSC colonies and identified by antigenic profiles as angioblasts (positive for VEGFr, CD31 or platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule, CD117, and CD133) or hepatic stellate cell precursors (positive for CD146 [MEL-CAM and MCAM], desmin, and α-smooth muscle actin). These findings parallel our prior work defining hepatic stellate cell precursors as supportive of rodent hepatic progenitors ...
In this work we have evaluated the capacity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and fibrin-binding platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) to support cell growth and induce bone regeneration using two different imaging technologies to improve the understanding of structural and organizational processes participating in tissue repair. Human mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (hAMSCs) expressing two luciferase genes, one under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter and the other under the control of a tissue-specific promoter (osteocalcin or platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule), were seeded in fibrin matrices containing BMP-2 and fibrin-binding PDGF-BB, and further implanted intramuscularly or in a mouse calvarial defect. Then, cell growth and bone regeneration were monitored by bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to analyze the evolution of target gene expression, indicative of cell differentiation towards the osteoblastic and endothelial lineages. Non-invasive ...
CD31 antibody [B493 (158-2B3)] (platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule) for FACS, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, IP. Anti-CD31 mAb (GTX72197) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules in the development of atherosclerosis. AU - Berman, Joan W.. AU - Calderon, Tina M.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - The vascular endothelium serves as a dynamic interface between circulating blood elements and the interstitial tissues. As such, it communicates to cells within the vessel wall as well as to the surrounding tissue, sensing its environment and responding accordingly. The vasculature must maintain a delicate balance when initiating a functional response by producing both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory mediators, vasoconstrictors and vasodilators, growth stimulators and inhibitors, and prothrombogenic and antithrombogenic factors. Any response to injurious agents could lead to pathology. Confounding this complex interplay is the fact that the very response to injury that may have developed to undo the damage may itself be even more deleterious. One response to injury by the endothelium is the new or increased ...
Antibodies. The following primary antibodies were used for immunostaining of mouse tissues: rabbit anti-mouse PROX1 (diluted 1:200; ref. 43), goat anti-human PROX1 (diluted 1:500; AF2727, R&D Systems), polyclonal goat anti-mouse VEGFR-3 (diluted 1:100; AF743, R&D Systems), goat anti-mouse VEGFR-2 (diluted 1:100; AF644, R&D Systems), unconjugated rat anti-PECAM-1 (diluted 1:500; clone MEC 13.3, 553370, BD Biosciences - Pharmingen), hamster anti-PECAM-1 (diluted 1:500; clone 2H8, MAB1398Z, Chemicon), Cy3-conjugated mouse anti-SMA (clone 1A4, C6189, Sigma-Aldrich), polyclonal rabbit anti-LYVE-1 (diluted 1:1,000; ref. 24), goat anti-CCL21 (diluted 1:100; AF457, R&D Systems), VE-cadherin (diluted 1:100; clone 11D4.1, BD Biosciences - Pharmingen), rabbit anti-mouse collagen IV (diluted 1:1,000; LB-1403, Cosmo Bio), rabbit polyclonal anti-GFP (diluted 1:1,000; TP401, Torrey Pines Biolabs), rabbit anti-NG2 (diluted 1:500; AB5320, Millipore), IgG fraction of rabbit polyclonal anti-mouse podoplanin ...
Introduction: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease that develops preferentially in regions of disturbed hemodynamic shear stress. The extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN) is deposited in the sub-endothelial layer of pre-atherosclerotic and advanced lesions. Atheroprone shear stress promotes FN deposition and inflammatory signaling pathways in endothelial cells (ECs). Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), a mechanosensory protein, is necessary for the production, secretion, and assembly of FN matrix by ECs. Similar to ECs, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) also display a pro-inflammatory phenotype in regions of atherogenesis, and this phenotype is key to the progression of atherosclerosis.. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that endothelial PECAM and FN signaling promotes a pro-inflammatory smooth muscle cell phenotype in response to atheroprone shear stress patterns.. Methods: An in vitro cone-and-plate viscometer model was used to apply human-derived atheroprone or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Forkhead Box m1 transcription factor is essential for embryonic development of pulmonary vasculature. AU - Kim, Il-man. AU - Ramakrishna, Sneha. AU - Gusarova, Galina A.. AU - Yoder, Helena M.. AU - Costa, Robert H.. AU - Kalinichenko, Vladimir V.. PY - 2005/6/10. Y1 - 2005/6/10. N2 - Transgenic and gene knock-out studies demonstrated that the mouse Forkhead Box m1 (Foxm1 or Foxm1b) transcription factor (previously called HFH-11B, Trident, Win, or MPP2) is essential for hepatocyte entry into mitosis during liver development, regeneration, and liver cancer. Targeted deletion of Foxm1 gene in mice produces an embryonic lethal phenotype due to severe abnormalities in the development of liver and heart. In this study, we show for the first time that Foxm1-/- lungs exhibit severe hypertrophy of arteriolar smooth muscle cells and defects in the formation of peripheral pulmonary capillaries as evidenced by significant reduction in platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 ...
Although there is now increasing in vitro and in vivo evidence illustrating the involvement of individual endothelial cell junctional molecules in the process of leukocyte transendothelial cell migration, very few studies have addressed the potential additive/synergistic effects of multiple molecules. One such study is by Schenkel and colleagues in which an anti-PECAM-1 mAb was found to act in an additive manner with a CD99 blocker to inhibit monocyte transendothelial cell migration in vitro.31 Because in numerous inflammatory models PECAM-1 blockade/deletion results in partial suppression of leukocyte transmigration, in a final series of experiments we aimed to investigate the possibility that ICAM-2 may mediate PECAM-1-independent leukocyte transmigration. For this purpose the effect of the anti-ICAM-2 mAb, 3C4, on leukocyte transmigration in WT and PECAM-1-deficient mice was directly compared using both the cremaster muscle and peritonitis models. In line with data discussed above, ...
CD31 / PECAM-1 (Endothelial Cell Marker) Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone SPM122 ] validated in WB, IHC, IF, FC (AH12065-7), Abgent
PECAM and CD99 have been known to be critical for leukocyte extravasation in vivo for some time (reviewed in Ref. 17); however, this is a complicated, multistep process that involves transmigration across not only the endothelium, but also the basement membrane. There have been discrepancies between studies demonstrating the exact level of function of PECAM and CD99 in relation to the endothelium and basement membrane. In this report we harnessed the technology of 4D IVM to study the step in TEM at which PECAM and CD99 function in vivo in real time. We demonstrate that the role of PECAM and CD99 in leukocyte transmigration is dependent on the murine strain being studied.. The results of these studies explain the apparent inconsistencies among previous studies and largely confirm all previous conclusions. In the commonly used C57BL/6 strain, blocking PECAM or CD99 inhibits migration through the basement membrane, not the endothelium. In contrast, FVB/n mice more accurately replicate results ...
Gene target information for ESAM - endothelial cell adhesion molecule (human). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full length recombinant PECAM1. PECAM1 (AAH22512, 29 a.a. ~ 738 a.a) full-length recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (H00005175-M01) - Products - Abnova
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD31/PECAM-1 Antibody (SPM122) [DyLight 405]. Endothelial Cell Marker. Validated: WB, ELISA, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, IP. Tested Reactivity: Human, Cynomolgus Monkey, Rabbit, and more. 100% Guaranteed.
https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.8787 Bo-Gen Ye, Hui-Chuan Sun, Xiao-Dong Zhu, Zong-Tao Chai, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Jian-Yang Ao, Hao Cai, De-Ning Ma, Cheng-Hao Wang, Cheng-Dong Qin, Dong-Mei Gao,...
Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) also known as cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PECAM1 gene found on chromosome 17. PECAM-1 plays a key role in removing aged neutrophils from the body. PECAM-1 is found on the surface of platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and some types of T-cells, and makes up a large portion of endothelial cell intercellular junctions. The encoded protein is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is likely involved in leukocyte transmigration, angiogenesis, and integrin activation. CD31 is normally found on endothelial cells, platelets, macrophages and Kupffer cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes (T cells, B cells, and NK cells), megakaryocytes, and osteoclasts. CD31 is also expressed in certain tumors, including epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, epithelioid sarcoma-like hemangioendothelioma, other vascular tumors, histiocytic malignancies, and plasmacytomas. It is rarely found in some sarcomas, such as ...
Magnolol, a neolignan from the traditional medicinal plant Magnolia obovata, has been shown to possess neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and anti-angiogenic activities. However, the precise mechanism of the anti-angiogenic activity of magnolol remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the anti-angiogenic effect of magnolol was evaluated in mouse embryonic stem (mES)/embryoid body (EB)-derived endothelial-like cells. The endothelial-like cells were obtained by differentiation from mES/EB cells. Magnolol (20 µM) significantly suppressed the transcriptional and translational expression of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), an endothelial biomarker, in mES/EB-derived endothelial-like cells. To further understand the molecular mechanism of the suppression of PECAM expression, signaling pathways were analyzed in the mES/EB-derived endothelial-like cells. Magnolol induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria, a process that was associated with
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of A dietary pattern derived using B-vitamins and its relationship with vascular markers over the life course. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
3.0.CO;2-X. PMID 10741407. Berditchevski F (2002). Complexes of tetraspanins with integrins: more than meets the eye. J. Cell Sci. 114 (Pt 23): 4143-51. PMID 11739647. Ashman LK (2003). CD151. J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents. 16 (3): 223-6. PMID 12456024. Ashman LK, Aylett GW, Mehrabani PA, Bendall LJ, Niutta S, Cambareri AC, Cole SR, Berndt MC (1992). The murine monoclonal antibody, 14A2.H1, identifies a novel platelet surface antigen. Br. J. Haematol. 79 (2): 263-70. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.1991.tb04531.x. PMID 1958484. Fitter S, Tetaz TJ, Berndt MC, Ashman LK (1995). Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding a novel platelet-endothelial cell tetra-span antigen, PETA-3. Blood. 86 (4): 1348-55. PMID 7632941. Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene. 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Hasegawa H, Utsunomiya Y, Kishimoto K, Yanagisawa K, Fujita S (1996). SFA-1, a ...
Boespflug, G., Maire, M., De Crescenzo, G., Lerouge, S. et Wertheimer, Michael R.. 2016. « Chemical aspects of endothelial cell adhesion and growth for vascular grafts ». Communication lors de la conférence : 6th International Conference on Plasma Medicine (Bratislava, Slovakia, Sept. 04-09, 2016). The full text of this document is not available here ...
Human Prostate Tumor-Associated Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray display typical cobblestone with large dark nuclei appearance under light microscopy. Cells are tested for expression of endothelial cell marker using antibody, CD31 (Catalog No. 550389, BD; CD31/PECAM-1 PE-conjugated Antibody, Catalog No. FAB3567P, R&D) or VE-Cadherin (FITC-VE-cadherin Catalog No. 560411, BD) by immunofluorescence staining or FACS. All cells test negative for mycoplasma, bacteria, yeast, and fungi. HIV-1, hepatitis B and hepatitis C are not detected for all donors and/or cell lots. Per request, a Certificate of Analysis will be provided for each cell lot purchased. Cells can be expanded for 3-5 passages under the cell culture conditions specified by Creative Bioarray. Repeated freezing and thawing of cells is not recommended ...
CD31 (PECAM-1), PE, clone: WM-59 (WM59), eBioscience™ 25 Tests; PE CD31 (PECAM-1), PE, clone: WM-59 (WM59), eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD31 to CD35
CD31 (PECAM-1), PE-Cyanine7, clone: WM-59 (WM59), eBioscience™ 25 Tests; PE-Cyanine7 CD31 (PECAM-1), PE-Cyanine7, clone: WM-59 (WM59), eBioscience™ Primary...
Anti-CD31 / PECAM-1 Antibody. Reactivity Hu, Rb, Rt(-) and Pig(-). Tested In FC, IF, WB, IHC. Formats Unconjugated. Isotype Ms IgG1, κ. From: $329.
Having demonstrated that PEMF has a potent effect on endothelial cells in vitro, we examined whether PEMF was able to stimulate angiogenesis in vivo. Matrigel is a soluble basement membrane preparation, and when implanted s.c. supports vascular ingrowth. Matrigel was injected s.c. into tie2/lacZ transgenic mice that were housed in cages emitting PEMF for 8 h a day or control cages. After 3, 10, and 14 days, there was significantly greater vascular ingrowth into the matrix in PEMF-treated animals, confirmed by staining specific for endothelial markers CD31 and Tie-2. PEMF increased the vascular ingrowth more than twofold by day 3 (13.3±0.41 vs. 5.8±0.28 cells/hpf; P,0.01). This increase in vascular ingrowth persisted through days 10 and 14 (16.6±0.49 vs 12.6±0.43 cells/hpf; P,0.01, and 19.4±0.55 vs. 14.8±0.40 cells/hpf; P,0.01, respectivelLISA confirmed a twofold increase in FGF-2 in PEMF-treated matrigel, but demfactors TPO, Ang-2, and EGF (data not shown). In this study, we demonstrate ...
The ICAM-1-positive vessels in the hippocampal CA1 in the control, 2VO, HL and HL + 2VO groups at 1, 2 and 4 months post-surgery. Scale bar: 20 µm.Values are e
https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.7136 Federico Galvagni, Federica Nardi, Marco Maida, Giulia Bernardini, Silvia Vannuccini, Felice Petraglia, Annalisa Santucci, Maurizio Orlandini
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
File gems/aws-sdk-autoscaling/lib/aws-sdk-autoscaling/instance.rb, line 202 def wait_until(options = {}, &block) self_copy = self.dup attempts = 0 options[:max_attempts] = 10 unless options.key?(:max_attempts) options[:delay] ,,= 10 options[:poller] = Proc.new do attempts += 1 if block.call(self_copy) [:success, self_copy] else self_copy.reload unless attempts == options[:max_attempts] :retry end end Aws::Waiters::Waiter.new(options).wait({}) end ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An equilibrium model of endothelial cell adhesion via integrin-dependent and integrin-independent ligands. AU - Chan, Bernard P.. AU - Bhat, Vinayak D.. AU - Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan. AU - Reichert, William M.. AU - Truskey, George A.. PY - 1999/12/1. Y1 - 1999/12/1. N2 - Endothelial cell adhesion can be enhanced by supplementing integrin-mediated adhesion via fibronectin with the high-affinity avidin-biotin system in which biotin is covalently linked to membrane proteins and avidin binds to biotinylated surfaces (Bhat et al. J Biomed Mater Res 1998;41:377-85). An equilibrium model was extended to explain detachment of spreading cells following exposure to flow for this two ligand system. The two different receptor-ligand systems were treated as springs in parallel in which the equilibrium dissociation constant was a function of the separation distance of the cell from the surface. Flow experiments were performed to measure the endothelial cell adhesion strength as a function ...
CD106 / VCAM1 (Activated Endothelial Cell Marker) Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone VCAM1/843 ] validated in IHC, IF, FC (AH12504-7), Abgent
Aims Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by autoimmune depletion of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. and T cells of NOD mice. In macrophages, 12/15-LO deletion leads to decreased proinflammatory cytokine mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, splenocytes from NOD-mice are unable Pecam1 to transfer diabetes in an adoptive transfer model. In islets, expression of 12/15-LO in …Read More. ...
BAMBI (BMP and Activin Membrane Bound Inhibitor) is considered to influence TGFβ and Wnt signaling, and thereby fibrosis. Recent basic science studies have shown that this molecule might be important in the role of fibrosis and how can manipulate fibrosis. In zebrafish a role for BAMBI was identified in platelet-endothelial interaction and thrombus formation after endothelial injury. Prior studies in liver cirrhosis and connection with TGF-B, studies have shown that BAMBI downregulation leads to enhanced profibrotic effects of TGF-B. So in other words, BAMBI is a check point and perhaps a gatekeeper for TGF-Bd pro fibrosis ...
Rat Monoclonal Anti-CD31/PECAM-1 Antibody (MEC 7.46) [PerCP]. Validated: Flow, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IP. Tested Reactivity: Mouse. 100% Guaranteed.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cdc42 is required for cytoskeletal support of endothelial cell adhesion during blood vessel formation in mice. AU - Barry, David M.. AU - Xu, Ke. AU - Meadows, Stryder M.. AU - Zheng, Yi. AU - Norden, Pieter R.. AU - Davis, George E.. AU - Cleaver, Ondine. PY - 2015/9/1. Y1 - 2015/9/1. N2 - The Rho family of small GTPases has been shown to be required in endothelial cells (ECs) during blood vessel formation. However, the underlying cellular events controlled by different GTPases remain unclear. Here, we assess the cellular mechanisms by which Cdc42 regulates mammalian vascular morphogenesis and maintenance. In vivo deletion of Cdc42 in embryonic ECs (Cdc42Tie2KO) results in blocked lumen formation and endothelial tearing, leading to lethality of mutant embryos by E9-10 due to failed blood circulation. Similarly, inducible deletion of Cdc42 (Cdc42Cad5KO) at mid-gestation blocks angiogenic tubulogenesis. By contrast, deletion of Cdc42 in postnatal retinal vessels leads to aberrant ...
My research efforts have concentrated on delineating the molecular basis of vascular development in the mammalian embryo as an approach to understanding the etiology of congenital heart diseases. My laborotory efforts are based on the hypothesis that the developing vasculature provides important patterning information that directs subsequent cardiac and pulmonary morphogenetic events. We have focused our investigation on two areas: 1) the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules, particularly PECAM-1 in regulating vascular ontogeny and 2) the role of NFATc-1, in specification of endocardial development during early organogenesis. PECAM-1/CD31 is the earliest endothelial specific adhesion molecule expressed in the developing embryo. In addition, it is expressed as multiple alternatively spliced isoforms which demonstrate dramatically different adhesion profiles. We are using in vitro cell culture, in situ whole mouse embryo culture, and transgenic approaches to define the specific role of PECAM-1
My research efforts have concentrated on delineating the molecular basis of vascular development in the mammalian embryo as an approach to understanding the etiology of congenital heart diseases. My laborotory efforts are based on the hypothesis that the developing vasculature provides important patterning information that directs subsequent cardiac and pulmonary morphogenetic events. We have focused our investigation on two areas: 1) the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules, particularly PECAM-1 in regulating vascular ontogeny and 2) the role of NFATc-1, in specification of endocardial development during early organogenesis. PECAM-1/CD31 is the earliest endothelial specific adhesion molecule expressed in the developing embryo. In addition, it is expressed as multiple alternatively spliced isoforms which demonstrate dramatically different adhesion profiles. We are using in vitro cell culture, in situ whole mouse embryo culture, and transgenic approaches to define the specific role of PECAM-1
Altered fluid flow, which is found in branches and curvatures of arteries, results in abnormal forces on the endothelial cells (EC). These forces have been shown to alter EC gene expression and phenotype and to activate several cellular structures including G-proteins, ion channels, adhesion molecules, and caveolae. Recently, PECAM-1 has been implicated as the primary sensor of hemodynamic forces in EC. Shear stress rapidly induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1 and the recruitment of SHP-2. These events appear to contribute to shear-activation of ERK1/2. Additionally, PECAM-1 has been shown to form a mechanosensory signaling complex with VE-cadherin, VEGFR2, and βcatenin which plays a role in adhesion molecule expression and regulation of NF-κB. Past work has shown that caveolae membrane domains also serve as mechanotransduction sites that regulate many of these same second messengers. Based on these novel observations, we hypothesize that the PECAM-1 mediated mechanotransduction ...
Background Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between IPF and vascular disease. The recognised role of platelets in vascular disease and their profibrotic potential led us to investigate platelet reactivity in IPF. We previously reported increased platelet reactivity due to a plasma factor in IPF. In this study we investigate platelet-endothelial adhesion.. Method. Blood was collected from 10 IPF patients and 10 controls to prepare platelet poor plasma. Washed control platelets were suspended in autologous plasma, allogeneic control plasma or IPF patient plasma and labelled with antiCD42b, stimulated with ADP and incubated with HUVEC. The percentage of endothelial cells with one or more adherent platelet(s) were identified by flow cytometry.. Results. Platelet-endothelial adhesion was significantly greater following incubation in IPF plasma compared with autologous and allogeneic control plasma at basal levels (0.86±0.03%, 0.09±0.03% and 0.15±0.03% respectively. P ,0.05) ...
A growing body of evidence suggests that transiently activated NF-κB in noninflammatory states and persistently activated NF-κB during inflammation play different pathophysiological roles in vivo. During the initial phase of inflammation, proinflammatory cytokines and mediators induce prolonged NF-κB activation in various inflammatory cells and endothelium. The activated NF-κB further upregulates the expression of several proinflammatory molecules, such as endothelial cell adhesion molecules and macrophage inflammatory protein-2, which triggers neutrophilic infiltration and tissue injury (1, 27, 34). Thus persistent NF-κB activation during the early phase of inflammation amplifies inflammatory response in vivo.. In contrast, transient activation of NF-κB before inflammatory stimulation results in the anti-inflammatory response. For example, several investigators (41, 54, 56) have found that transient activation of NF-κB is required for the heart to tolerate ischemia-reperfusion-induced ...
Plasmid PECAM-eGFP from Dr. Victoria Bautchs lab contains the insert PECAM promoter/enhancer and is published in Blood. 2004 Jun 15. 103(12):4527-35. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
1972 and developing with aerospace malicious view Sheaves in 1980. 1974, left by the splanchnic Design Review of the PECAM-1 Advertisement( 102) in March 1975. Palmdale, California, were view in September 1976.
T-cells can be made non-responsive to antigens presented if the T-cell engages an MHC molecule on an antigen presenting cell ( ... and CD31 surface markers. Among those, only fibroblastic reticular cells and lymph node stromal cells were shown to play a role ... Antigens, which are present in generally low numbers can be ignored by the immune system without any further mechanism, since T ... Some antigens are at a too low concentration to cause an immune response - a subthreshold stimulation will lead to apoptosis of ...
... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.098 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776.395.550 ... antigens, cd43 MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.650.264 - antigens, cd164 The list continues at List of MeSH codes (D12.776) § MeSH ... antigens, cd146 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.175 - antigens, cd164 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.200 - cadherins MeSH D12.776.395.550. ... antigens, cd56 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.520.578 - neural cell adhesion molecule l1 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.275 - integrin ...
... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.900.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 - antigens, ly MeSH D23.101.100.930 - antigens, ... antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.050.301.264.920 - antigens, ly MeSH D23.050.301.264.930 - antigens, thy-1 MeSH D23.050.301.264.965 - ... antigens, cd29 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.130 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.050.301.264 ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D23.050.301.350.098 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.301.350.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.050.301.350.150 - ...
... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776.543.550 ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 - receptors, antigen, t- ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 - antigens, cd40 MeSH ... antigens, cd11a MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.150 - antigens, cd11b MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.200 - antigens, cd11c ...
The vascular markers CD31, von Willebrand factor (vWF), and smooth muscle actin (pericyte marker) are present during the ... During the early proliferative phase (0-12 months) the tumors express proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pericytesna), ...
Wang, X; Hu, Q; Nakamura, Y; Lee, J; Zhang, G; From, AH; Zhang, J (2006). "The role of the sca-1+/CD31- cardiac progenitor cell ... Sca-1 stands for "Stem cells antigen-1" (official gene symbol: Ly6a). It consist of 18-kDa mouse glycosyl phosphatidylinositol- ... Sca-1 has a regenerative role in cardiac repair: Host cells with specific Sca-1+CD31− markers arise upon myocardial infarction ... Holmes, Christina; Stanford, William L. (2007). "Concise Review: Stem Cell Antigen-1: Expression, Function, and Enigma". Stem ...
Malignant endothelial cells also commonly retain the antigen, so that CD31 immunohistochemistry can also be used to demonstrate ... Human CD Antigen Chart (eBioscience) Mouse CD Antigen Chart (eBioscience) Human PECAM1 genome location and PECAM1 gene details ... CD31 on endothelial cells binds to the CD38 receptor on natural killer cells for those cells to attach to the endothelium. ... CD31 is normally found on endothelial cells, platelets, macrophages and Kupffer cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes (T cells, B ...
Lewin's laboratory has also described the role of myeloid dendritic cells and other antigen-presenting cells in establishing ... "Both CD31+ and CD31- Naive CD4+ T Cells Are Persistent HIV Type 1-Infected Reservoirs in Individuals Receiving Antiretroviral ... "The role of antigen presenting cells in the induction of HIV-1 latency in resting CD4+ T-cells". Retrovirology. 12: 76. doi: ... where longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have shown that both CD31+ and CD31- naive CD4 T cells contribute to the ongoing ...
For example, a "CD34+, CD31−" cell is one that expresses CD34, but not CD31. This CD combination typically corresponds to a ... White Cell Differentiation Antigens. Oxford University Press. Knapp, W; et al. (1989). Leucocyte Typing IV. Oxford University ... "CD Antigens" (PDF). abcam. 2009. Retrieved 2014-11-22. Passlick B, Flieger D, Ziegler-Heitbrock HW (1989). "Identification and ... In the example of CD4 & CD8, these molecules are critical in antigen recognition. Others (e.g., CD135) act as cell surface ...
Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines, von Willebrand factor, CD31, CD34, CD105 and CD146". J. Pathol. 206 (3): 260-8. doi: ... The Fy4 antigen, originally described on Fy (a-b-) RBCs, is now thought to be a distinct, unrelated antigen and is no longer ... Because the Duffy antigen is uncommon in those of Black African descent, the presence of this antigen has been used to detect ... This antigen along with other blood group antigens was used to identify the Basque people as a genetically separate group. Its ...
Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... CD31) L1 family L1-CAM CHL1 Neurofascin NrCAM SIGLEC family - Sialic acid binding lectins SIGLEC1 (Sialoadhesin) SIGLEC2 (CD22 ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... CD18 Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Integrin alphaXbeta2 (CR4) - Heterodimer: CD11c / CD18 Very late ...
Antigen-presenting cells accumulate near high endothelial venules to process soluble antigens. Antigens are also presented on ... glycoprotein CD31 and glycoprotein podoplanin GP38. The different sub-populations are also known by their production of small ... Via the reticular network, the MRCs bring antigens from the sub-capsular sinuses to the B cell follicles. MRCs express the ... Naive lymphocytes (those with no history of contact with antigens) travel from the bone marrow or high endothelial venules of ...
... has been shown to interact with: BCR gene, CD117, CD22, CD31, CTNND1, EGFR, EPOR, FCRL3, Grb2, HOXA10, JAK2, LAIR1, ... "SHP-1 requires inhibitory co-receptors to down-modulate B cell antigen receptor-mediated phosphorylation of cellular substrates ... SHIP and phospholipase C-gamma1 with PECAM-1/CD31". FEBS Lett. 450 (1-2): 77-83. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(99)00446-9. PMID ...
CD31 on endothelial cells binds to the CD38 receptor on natural killer cells for those cells to attach to the endothelium. CD38 ... CD38+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD38 genome location and CD38 gene ... As a receptor, CD38 can attach to CD31 on the surface of T cells, thereby activating those cells to produce a variety of ... Thus, a screening assay for irregular antibodies against red blood cell antigens or a direct immunoglobulin test can produce ...
... +Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... is a counter-receptor of CD31, an Ig superfamily member". Journal of Immunology. 160 (1): 395-402. PMID 9551996.. ... Thus, a screening assay for irregular antibodies against red blood cell antigens or a direct immunoglobulin test can produce ... "Similarities in amino acid sequences of Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase and human lymphocyte antigen CD38". Trends in Biochemical ...
For example, when an antigen-presenting cell displays a peptide antigen on MHC class II proteins, a CD4+ cell will aid those ... such as CD31, PTK7, Complement Receptor 1 and 2 (CR1, CR2) and the production of interleukin 8 (IL-8). Like all T cells, they ... During an immune response, professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) endocytose antigens (typically bacteria or viruses), ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ...
CK19, Cytokeratin 19, K19) Kit L-selectin (CD62L) Lamin A/C Lewis X antigen (Le(X)) LeX Lgr5 Lrp4 MCM2 MCSP Metallothionein (MT ... CD31) Siglec-3 (CD33) CD34 CD44 NCAM (CD56) CD73 CD9 CD90 CDCP1 Circulating anticoagulants protein C (PC) CK19 CLV3 cyclic CMP ... May 2006). "Lack of expression of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan neuron-glial antigen 2 on candidate stem cell ... Muramatsu T, Muramatsu H (2004). "Carbohydrate antigens expressed on stem cells and early embryonic cells". Glycoconjugate ...
... has been shown to interact with DOK2, LYN, CD22, Grb2, CRKL, CD31, DOK1 and SHC1. Poor regulation of the SHIP1 function ... A pathway for regulation of B lymphocyte antigen receptor-induced calcium flux". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (23 ... A pathway for regulation of B lymphocyte antigen receptor-induced calcium flux". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (23 ... SHIP and phospholipase C-gamma1 with PECAM-1/CD31". FEBS Letters. 450 (1-2): 77-83. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99)00446-9. PMID ...
CD31-CD34- mesenchymal stem cells: feasibility and safety from monkey to human", published in Stem Cells Dev. 2006 Kinetic ... tumor antigen 1-specific T lymphocyte generation soon after nonmyeloablative allergenic stem-cell transplantation in acute and ...
CD31 could be used as a marker of new generated Treg cells as same as other T lymphocytes. Mature and peripheral Treg cells ... Antigen-activated T cells produce IL-2 which then acts on IL-2 receptors on regulatory T cells alerting them to the fact that ... The Tregs within the gut are differentiated from naïve T cells after antigen is introduced. An important question in the field ... Most tumors elicit an immune response in the host that is mediated by tumor antigens, thus distinguishing the tumor from other ...
For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a ... such as CD31, PTK7, Complement Receptor 1 and 2 (CR1, CR2) and the production of interleukin 8 (IL-8).[5][6] Like all T cells, ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ... but unprocessed antigens do not interact with T cells and are not involved in their activation. The antigens that bind to MHC ...
Eventually, the antigen presentation results in the production of antibodies that attach to the antigens of pathogens, making ... see CD31 for a description of this process). The neutrophils are at first attracted to a site, where they perform their ... the antigen is endocytosed and processed. The processed antigen is then presented in MHCII on the surface of the B-cell. T ... The antigen presentation on the surface of infected macrophages (in the context of MHC class II) in a lymph node stimulates TH1 ...
Nel AE, Gupta S, Lee L, Ledbetter JA, Kanner SB (August 1995). "Ligation of the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) induces ... SHIP and phospholipase C-gamma1 with PECAM-1/CD31". FEBS Letters. 450 (1-2): 77-83. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(99)00446-9. PMID ... Scholler JK, Perez-Villar JJ, O'Day K, Kanner SB (August 2000). "Engagement of the T lymphocyte antigen receptor regulates ... on the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR).[10] The phosphorylated ITAMs recruit ZAP-70, which phosphorylates tyrosines in LAT and ...
CD64+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Nel AE, Gupta S, Lee L, Ledbetter JA, Kanner SB (August 1995). "Ligation of the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) induces ... PLCG1 has been shown to interact with: FGFR1, CD117, CD31, Cbl gene CISH Epidermal growth factor receptor, Eukaryotic ... Scholler JK, Perez-Villar JJ, O'Day K, Kanner SB (August 2000). "Engagement of the T lymphocyte antigen receptor regulates ... SHIP and phospholipase C-gamma1 with PECAM-1/CD31". FEBS Lett. 450 (1-2): 77-83. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(99)00446-9. PMID ...
Tissue Antigens (англ.)русск. : journal. - 2007. - Vol. 68, no. 6. - P. 509-517. - DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00726.x. - PMID ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... CD31 • CD32 (A, B) • CD33 • CD34 • CD35 • CD36 • CD37 • CD38 • CD39 • CD40 • CD41 • CD42 (a, b, c, d) • CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • ... 2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
CD31 • CD32 (A, B) • CD33 • CD34 • CD35 • CD36 • CD37 • CD38 • CD39 • CD40 • CD41 • CD42 (a, b, c, d) • CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
The protein also carries the Jr(a) antigen, which defines the Junior blood group system.[9] ...
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
"Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
CD31 • CD32 (A, B) • CD33 • CD34 • CD35 • CD36 • CD37 • CD38 • CD39 • CD40 • CD41 • CD42 (a, b, c, d) • CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)".. *^ May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; ... CD61+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
"Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26". Science. 261 (5120): 466-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet degranulation. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling ...
Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of ...
... uveitis antigens induce CXCR3- and CXCR5-expressing lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells to migrate (англ.) // Blood (англ ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
antigen binding. • virus receptor activity. • protein binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • identical protein ...
CD31 • CD32 (A, B) • CD33 • CD34 • CD35 • CD36 • CD37 • CD38 • CD39 • CD40 • CD41 • CD42 (a, b, c, d) • CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • ... 1996). "CD88 antibodies specifically bind to C5aR on dermal CD117+ and CD14+ cells and react with a desmosomal antigen in human ...
Eventually, the antigen presentation results in the production of antibodies that attach to the antigens of pathogens, making ... see CD31 for a description of this process).[15] ... the antigen is endocytosed and processed. The processed antigen ... The antigen presentation on the surface of infected macrophages (in the context of MHC class II) in a lymph node stimulates TH1 ... After digesting a pathogen, a macrophage will present the antigen (a molecule, most often a protein found on the surface of the ...
CD31 • CD32 (A, B) • CD33 • CD34 • CD35 • CD36 • CD37 • CD38 • CD39 • CD40 • CD41 • CD42 (a, b, c, d) • CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • ... 1991). „Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID ... 2003). „Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". Int. J. Hematol. 75 ...
T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell. • T cell antigen ... CD31 · CD32 (A, B) · CD33 · CD34 · CD35 · CD36 · CD37 · CD38 · CD39 · CD40 · CD41 · CD42 (a, b, c, d) · CD43 · CD44 · CD45 · ...
Antigens, CD31. Cell Adhesion Molecules present on virtually all Monocytes, Platelets, and Granulocytes. CD31 is highly ...
... one of which was CD31, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Gene knockdown of CD31 enhanced the ability of VitD-CD11c+ ... Gene knockdown of CD31 enhanced the ability of VitD-CD11c+BMDC to prime naïve CD4+ T cells in vitro; conversely, increased ... Time-lapse imaging of BMDC and CD4+ T cells during in vitro priming revealed that CD31 reduced the BMDC-T cell interaction time ... Time-lapse imaging of BMDC and CD4+ T cells during in vitro priming revealed that CD31 reduced the BMDC-T cell interaction time ...
The expression levels of CD26 and CD31 surface antigens, two adhesion/activation molecules ... CD26 and CD31 surface antigen expression on human colostral T cells.: ... CD26 and CD31 surface antigen expression on human colostral T cells.. Authors * Bertotto, A ... The expression levels of CD26 and CD31 surface antigens, two adhesion/activation molecules with helper and suppressor ...
CD31 is a 130-140 kD type I transmembrane glycoprotein also known as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) or ... Antigen Details Structure Ig superfamily, type I transmembrane glycoprotein, 130-140 kD Distribution Monocytes, platelets, ... CD31 has been reported to bind CD38 and be involved in wound healing, angiogenesis, and cellular migration in an inflammatory ... CD31 is a 130-140 kD type I transmembrane glycoprotein also known as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) or ...
Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / genetics * Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism* * Blood ... CD31 was also involved in the adhesion of LAK cells to endothelium. Since CD31 can initiate integrin activation by inside-out ... We developed a novel mAb, EA-3, which recognizes the murine homologue of the human adhesion molecule CD31. It is present on a ... These results suggest that expression of CD31 might confer adhesive advantages for LAK cells prone to tumor infiltration. ...
CD31 signal. CD31 is expressed by stem cells. Search. Main menu. Skip to primary content ... 2D). However, antigen-specific Parvulin cells from the dLN of mice treated with CpG and peptide were readily detected by IFN-γ ... 2A) However, the number of antigen-specific cells recovered at d. Posted on November 8, 2018. by admin ... Curiously, antigen-specific IFN-γ secreting T cells were not detected in the spleen when immunizing mice with either peptide ...
The CD31 is purified by proprietary technologyary technonlogyary chromatographic techniques. ... CD31 Human Recombinant (aa 625-739) expressed in E.coli, shows a 38 kDa band on SDS-PAGE. ... Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule, PECAM-1, EndoCAM, GPIIA, CD31 antigen, PECAM1, CD31. ... CD31 Human Recombinant (aa 625-739) expressed in E.coli, shows a 38 kDa band on SDS-PAGE. The CD31 is purified by proprietary ...
Mouse Monoclonal CD31 antibody [SPM122]. Validated in WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P. Tested in Human, Rabbit, Cynomolgus monkey. - ... Antigen Species Human Immunogen Membrane preparation of a spleen from a patient with hairy cell leukemia ... The level of CD31 expression can help to determine the degree of tumor angiogenesis, and a high level of CD31 expression may ... CD31 (PECAM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein member of the immunoglobulin supergene family of adhesion molecules. CD31 is ...
Mouse Monoclonal CD31 antibody [HEC7]. Validated in WB, ICC/IF, FACS, IP, ELISA, IHC, Neut. Tested in Human, Rat, Bovine. - ... Antigen Species Human Immunogen Human PECAM-1 Purification Protein G purified Conjugation Unconjugated. ... Platelet And Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule 1,Cd31,Cd31/Endocam,Gpiia,Peca1,Pecam-1,Endocam,Pecam1 ... ICC/IF analysis of THP-1 cells using GTX15842 CD31 antibody [HEC7]. Cells were probed without (left) or with(right) an antibody ...
anti-CD31/PECAM-1, DyLight 405, Clone: C31.3, Novus Biologicals 100 Tests; DyLight 405 Life Sciences:Antibodies:Primary ... adhesion molecule, CD31, CD31 antigen, CD31/EndoCAM, EndoCAM, FLJ34100, FLJ58394, GPIIA, PECA1, PECAM-1, PECAM-1, CD31/EndoCAM ... The level of CD31 expression can help to determine the degree of tumor angiogenesis, and a high level of CD31 expression may ... CD31/PECAM-1 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects CD31/PECAM-1 in Human samples. It is validated for Western Blot, Flow ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about CD31 (PECAM-1) Rat anti-Mouse, PE-Cyanine5, Clone: 390, Invitrogen 25 ... BOS_19340; C85791; CD31; CD31 antigen; CD31/EndoCAM; EndoCAM; GPIIA′; I79_008304; PECA1; Pecam; PECAM1; Pecam-1; platelet and ... It has been reported that CD38 binds to CD31. Homotypic interaction of CD31 is important in adhesion, cell-cell and cell-matrix ... CD31 antigen); platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1; type I transmembrane endothelial adhesion molecule. ...
... www.abbiotec.com/antibodies/cd31-antibody请您点击此链接查看产品说明书 CD31 AntibodyRabbit PolyclonalCatalog Number… ... Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule; PECAM-1; EndoCAM; CPIIA; CD31 antigen; PECAM1 ... CD31 staining in mouse melanoma: Paraffin-embedded mouse melanoma cells are stained with CD31 Antibody (Cat. No. 250590) used ... CD31 is also a major constituent of the endothelial cell intercellular junction, where up to an estimated 1 million molecules
Rabbit polyclonal CD31 antibody. Validated in IHC and tested in Human. Cited in 1173 publication(s). Independently reviewed in ... Heat mediated antigen retrieval was performed at 95°C for 20 minutes. Blocking performed using 2.5% serum for 20 minutes at 23° ... Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval before commencing with IHC staining protocol. The ideal fixation time will depend on ... Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval before commencing with IHC staining protocol. The ideal fixation time will depend on ...
Mouse monoclonal CD31 antibody [JC/70A]. Validated in WB, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Human, Cynomolgus monkey. ... Perform enzymatic antigen retrieval (pepsin or 0.1% trypsin solution at 37°C for 60 min (see reference by Moriyama M et al) ... Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) abreview for Anti-CD31 antibody [JC/70A]. Average ... Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) abreview for Anti-CD31 antibody [JC/70A]. Good ...
CD_antigen: CD31. ,p>This subsection of the Names and taxonomy section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the ...
Rabbit Monoclonal Anti-CD31/PECAM-1 Antibody (SP164). Validated: IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed. ... Alternate Names for CD31/PECAM-1 Antibody (SP164). *adhesion molecule. *CD31 antigen ... Check out the latest blog posts on CD31/PECAM-1.. The application of CD31/Pecam-1 (MEC 7.46) in breast cancer research CD31/ ... Additional CD31/PECAM-1 Products. CD31/PECAM-1 NBP2-21757 * CD31/PECAM-1 Antibodies ...
Rat Monoclonal Anti-CD31/PECAM-1 Antibody (MEC13.3) [DyLight 550]. Validated: Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: ... CD31/PECAM-1 Recombinant Protein Antigen NBP2-54655PEP. View Datasheet. CD31/PECAM-1 Antibody (MEC13.3) [DyLight 488] NB600- ... Check out the latest blog posts on CD31/PECAM-1.. The application of CD31/Pecam-1 (MEC 7.46) in breast cancer research CD31/ ... Home » CD31/PECAM-1 » CD31/PECAM-1 Antibodies » CD31/PECAM-1 Antibody (MEC13.3) [DyLight 550] ...
Immunohistochemical analysis of CD31, CD36, and CD44 antigens in human omentum Immunohistochemical analysis of CD31, CD36, and ... We used CD31 as an endothelial cell marker, CD36 which is known to react with microvascular endothelium and adipocytes, and ... We observed that CD31 was mainly reactive with vascular endothelial cells and platelets, CD36 was reactive with microvascular ... Index: IMEMR (Eastern Mediterranean) Main subject: Immunohistochemistry / Hyaluronan Receptors / CD36 Antigens / Platelet ...
CD31; catalog #5502741:200; BD Biosciences) were used without antigen retrieval on cryosections. Hamster anti-T1α (clone 8.1.1 ... After antigen retrieval (10 mM sodium citrate, pH 6, in a 2100 Retriever followed by 2M HCl at 37° for 20 min and 0.05% Trypsin ... In the pre- and postcapillary vessels of the lung, we found cells that express aSMA, Pdgfrb, and NG2 (nerve/glial antigen 2, ... Rabbit anti-RFP (catalog #600-4013791:250; Rockland) was used with antigen retrieval on paraffin sections (boiling for 5 min in ...
Antigen Expression CD31 and CD90 Oncogene may contain viral sequences Comments For details regarding Angio-Ready Angiogenesis ...
Jetzt diesen anti-CD31 Antikörper bestellen. , Produkt ABIN4260514 ... Kaninchen Polyklonal CD31 Antikörper AA 100-300, Internal Region für IHC, IHC (p), WB. ... Antigen Platelet/endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (PECAM1) Synonyme für dieses Antigen anzeigen * CD31 ... Produktdetails anti-CD31 Antikörper Handhabung Anwendungsinformationen Antigendetails zurück nach oben Produktdetails anti-CD31 ...
CD31, cluster of differentiation 31; PSA, prostate-specific antigen. ... Interestingly the staining of vessels is in part similar to what is found using the endothelial marker CD31. CD31 recognizes a ... The corresponding protein belongs to the melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) family and is referred to as melanoma antigen ... toward the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) precursor protein encoded by the KLK3 gene. A specific expression of this antigen is ...
... using an antibody against CD31, which specifically reacts with endothelium. In the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter ... Antigens, CD31 / analysis. Blood Vessels / embryology*, growth & development*. Brain / blood supply*, embryology, growth & ... We demonstrated the developmental characteristics of vessel density in the human brain, using an antibody against CD31, which ...
Antigens, CD31 / metabolism. Capillaries / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / blood supply, diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential ... 0/Antigens, CD31; 0/FLII protein, human; 0/Microfilament Proteins; 0/Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0/Tumor Markers, ... All tumours stained positively for CD31 and FLI-1, but none expressed pankeratin (KL-1), podoplanin/D2-40, HHV8 or GLUT-1. ...
CD31 is also expressed by lymphocyte subsets. During maturation of CD4+ T cells, the expression of CD31 changes: CD4+ recent ... CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells, especially at their juncture, and is also known EndoCAM. - USA ... CD31, a 120-140 kDa single-chain transmembrane glycoprotein, is present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes ... thymic emigrants (RTEs) express CD31 in contrast to central naive T cells. ...
CD31 has been shown to inhibit antigen receptor signaling in T and B cells through the action of protein-tyrosine-phosphatases ... The homophilic nature of CD31 facilitates its engagement with other CD31-expressing cells, and this includes leukocyte- ... The presence of CD31 is also crucial in establishing interactions of lymphocytes with the endothelium or with platelets to ... For instance, T and B cells need to interact with each other and with antigen-presenting cells to mature or become activated. ...
CD31 is also expressed by lymphocyte subsets. During maturation of CD4+ T cells, the expression of CD31 changes: CD4+ recent ... CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells, especially at their juncture, and is also known EndoCAM. Additional information ... Clone REA1028 recognizes the human CD31 antigen, a 120-140 kDa single-chain transmembrane glycoprotein, which is present on ... thymic emigrants (RTEs) express CD31 in contrast to central naive T cells. ...
Involvement of endothelial PECAM-1/CD31 in angiogenesis. Am. J. Pathol. 151:671-677. View this article via: PubMed Google ... Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 modulates vascular remodeling in vitro and in vivo. Andrea Kristina ... Angiogenic properties of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1. Exp. Cell Res. 261:19-24. View this ... Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), a cellular adhesion molecule of the Ig superfamily, is ...
Platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (CD31 antigen). PECAM1. 37398_at. −14.7. Cell motility. ... CD86 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 2, B7-2 antigen). CD86. 36270_at. −3.4. ... CD80 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 1, B7-1 antigen). CD80. 35015_at. 4.7. ... CD209 antigen-like. CD209L. 39270_at. nc. CD36 antigen (collagen type I receptor, thrombospondin receptor). CD36. 36656_at. nc ...
... ameliorated renal dysfunction by attenuating tubular endothelial apoptosis determined by immunofluorescence staining of CD31 ... Since CD31 was recognized to be a specific marker of endothelial cells [26], we performed immunofluorescence staining of CD31 ... Antigen was retrieved by microwave-citrate buffer antigen retrieval method. The slides were blocked with 5% goat serum ( ... whereas endothelial CD31 staining remained relatively apparent. The specific costaining for CD31 and lessened TUNEL+ cells in ...
  • FACS analysis of BAEC cells using GTX15842 CD31 antibody [HEC7] compared to an isotype control (blue). (genetex.com)
  • ICC/IF analysis of THP-1 cells using GTX15842 CD31 antibody [HEC7]. (genetex.com)
  • CD31/PECAM-1 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects CD31/PECAM-1 in Human samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Description: The 390 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD31, also known as platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and gpIIa. (fishersci.com)
  • Paraffin-embedded mouse melanoma cells are stained with CD31 Antibody (Cat. (labbase.net)
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: CD31/PECAM1 Antibody (SP164) [NBP2-21757] - Human tonsil. (novusbio.com)
  • There are no publications for CD31/PECAM-1 Antibody (NBP2-21757). (novusbio.com)
  • There are currently no images for CD31/PECAM-1 Antibody (NB600-1475R). (novusbio.com)
  • This CD31/PECAM1 Antibody (MEC13.3) is useful for Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Immunohistochemical staining of acetone-fixed frozen sections and zinc-fixed paraffin-embedded sections, and in vitro and in vivo blocking of CD31-mediated cell-cell interactions. (novusbio.com)
  • We demonstrated the developmental characteristics of vessel density in the human brain, using an antibody against CD31, which specifically reacts with endothelium. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Apoptotic cells and vessels were evaluated by fluorescent in situ TUNEL assay and by immunohistochemistry with an antibody reactive to CD31 respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Vessel density was determined by counting per high-power field in the sections stained with an antibody reactive to CD31, as described in Materials and Methods. (nih.gov)
  • The antibody MEM-05 reacts with an extracellular epitope of CD31 (PECAM-1), a 130-140 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on monocytes, platelets, granulocytes, endothelial cells and stem cells of the myeloid lineage. (exbio.cz)
  • The MEM-166 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD177 which is also known as NB1 (Neutrophil-specific antigen), HNA-2a (Human neutrophil alloantigen 2a), and PRV1 (Polycythemia rubra vera 1). (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Because these tumors arise from endothelial cells, they usually express factor VIII-related antigen and/or ulex europaeus agglutinin-binding protein. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The vascular origin of the neoplasm is confirmed by positive factor VIII-related antigen , CD34, or CD31 immunohistochemical reactions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2-4) Essential to the diagnosis is the positivity of the epithelioid and dendritic cells to at least one of the endothelial markers, such as factor VIII-related antigen (FVIII-RAg), CD34, and/or CD31, with FVIII-RAg being the most frequent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • CD31 is a 130-140 kD type I transmembrane glycoprotein also known as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) or Endocam. (biolegend.com)
  • CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells, especially at their juncture, and is also known EndoCAM. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Finally, we confirmed a similar effect of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 on human CD34 + cell-derived CD11c + DC, whereby DC generated in the presence of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 had increased CD31 expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • CD34 + KDR + cells cultured on fibronectin for seven days express high levels of endothelial antigens such as CD31, Tie-2, and E selectin, and when injected into a mouse in a model of hindlimb ischemia are able to migrate to sites of vascular injury and to target vessels. (stemcell.com)
  • Moreover, both hACL-SCs and hMCL-SCs expressed CD surface markers for mesenchymal stem cells, including CD44 and CD90, but not those markers for vascular cells, CD31, CD34, CD45, and CD146. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Technical challenges involve both the antigen production and the subsequent generation and characterization of the antibodies. (mcponline.org)
  • Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stained with CD31 antibodies or with the corresponding REA Control (S) antibodies (left images) as well as with CD4 antibodies. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Cârţână T, Săftoiu A, Gruionu LG, Gheonea DI, Pirici D, Georgescu CV, Ciocâlteu A, Gruionu G: Confocal laser endomicroscopy for the morphometric evaluation of microvessels in human colorectal cancer using targeted anti-CD31 antibodies. (exbio.cz)
  • Anti-CD31 has shown to be highly specific and sensitive for vascular endothelial cells. (genetex.com)
  • Twenty multiple myelomas (12 bone marrow and eight extramedullary deposits), 10 extramedullary plasmacytomas, and 30 biopsies with reactive plasma cells (10 bone marrow, 20 extramedullary biopsies) were stained with anti-CD31 (JC70) using the streptavidin-biotin detection system with diaminobenzidine as a chromogen. (bmj.com)
  • CD31 (PECAM1) is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily that is expressed on the surface of circulating platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and particular T-cell subsets. (labbase.net)
  • We observed that CD31 was mainly reactive with vascular endothelial cells and platelets , CD36 was reactive with microvascular endothelium and adipocytes and CD44 was mainly expressed by the endothelial cells of high endothelial venules , fibroblasts in stromal compartments and by large mononuclear cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) also known as cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) is a glycoprotein mainly expressed by endothelial cells and platelets. (novusbio.com)
  • CD31, a 120-140 kDa single-chain transmembrane glycoprotein, is present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The presence of CD31 is also crucial in establishing interactions of lymphocytes with the endothelium or with platelets to modulate immune responses at the vascular wall and for the recruitment or extravasation of immune cells in inflamed tissues. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Biochemical characterization of PECAM-1 (CD31 antigen) on human platelets. (springermedizin.at)
  • The CD31 adhesion molecule, also known as PECAM-1, is expressed in large amounts on endothelial cells at intercellular junctions, on T cell subsets, and to a lesser extent, on platelets and most leukocytes. (reliatech.de)
  • Among different MRD techniques, flow cytometry provides additional information about antigen expression on tumor cells, which could potentially contribute to stratify MRD-positive patients. (nature.com)
  • Flow cytometry analysis (surface staining) of human peripheral blood with anti-human CD31 (MEM-05) PE-DyLight® 594. (exbio.cz)
  • The expression levels of CD26 and CD31 surface antigens, two adhesion/activation molecules with helper and suppressor activities, respectively, were found to be significantly higher on human colostral T cells (CD3+) than in autologous peripheral blood samples. (mysciencework.com)
  • We developed a novel mAb, EA-3, which recognizes the murine homologue of the human adhesion molecule CD31. (nih.gov)
  • CD31 was also involved in the adhesion of LAK cells to endothelium. (nih.gov)
  • Since CD31 can initiate integrin activation by inside-out signaling after binding to its ligand, EA-3 was used to minimic this in adhesion assays. (nih.gov)
  • CD31 (PECAM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein member of the immunoglobulin supergene family of adhesion molecules. (genetex.com)
  • Homotypic interaction of CD31 is important in adhesion, cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction, and signal transduction. (fishersci.com)
  • CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, PECAM-1) is an inhibitory coreceptor involved in regulation of T cell and B cell signaling by a dual immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) that upon associated kinases-mediated phosphorylation provide docking sites for protein-tyrosine phosphatases. (fishersci.com)
  • CD31 is a multifunctional molecule with diverse roles in modulation of integrin-mediated cell adhesion, transendothelial migration, angiogenesis, apoptosis, negative regulation of immunoreceptor signaling, autoimmunity, macrophage phagocytosis, IgE-mediated anaphylaxis and thrombosis. (fishersci.com)
  • Ig superfamily members are known to mediate cell adhesion, or antigen recognition, e.g. immunoglobulins, T-cell receptors, and MHC molecules. (labbase.net)
  • Clone REA396 recognizes the rat CD31 antigen, a 130 kDa single-pass type I membrane protein also known as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1). (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • 1990) PECAM-1 (CD31) cloning and relation to adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) also known as cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PECAM1 gene found on chromosome17q23.3. (wikipedia.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: CD31, a member of the immunoglobulin supergene family of cell adhesion molecules, is strongly expressed in extramedullary reactive plasma cells, focally in bone marrow reactive plasma cells, and occasionally in extramedullary plasmacytomas. (bmj.com)
  • Wilkinson R, Lyons AB, Roberts D, Wong MX, Bartley PA, Jackson DE: Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) acts as a regulator of B-cell development, B-cell antigen receptor (BCR)-mediated activation, and autoimmune disease. (exbio.cz)
  • Newman DK, Hamilton C, Newman PJ: Inhibition of antigen-receptor signaling by Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (CD31) requires functional ITIMs, SHP-2, and p56(lck). (exbio.cz)
  • Inhibition of antigen-receptor signaling by Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (CD31) requires functional ITIMs, SHP-2, and p56(lck). (nih.gov)
  • Human peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes were stained with CD31 (clone WM59) PE/Cy7. (biolegend.com)
  • Clone WM59 has been reported to recognize the D2 extracellular portion of CD31. (biolegend.com)
  • CD31 has been reported to bind CD38 and be involved in wound healing, angiogenesis, and cellular migration in an inflammatory situation. (biolegend.com)
  • The level of CD31 expression can help to determine the degree of tumor angiogenesis, and a high level of CD31 expression may imply a rapidly growing tumor and potentially a predictor of tumor recurrence. (genetex.com)
  • Because of this cellular expression pattern, CD31 is implicated in several functions, including transendothelial migration of leukocytes, angiogenesis, and integrin activation. (labbase.net)
  • CD31/PECAM1 is commonly used as an endothelial marker, particularly in angiogenesis. (novusbio.com)
  • In all, CD31 is a great marker for normal and disease-induced angiogenesis. (novusbio.com)
  • The GTPs+UVB group also had reduced expressions of CD31 and vascular endothelial growth factor, which are essential for angiogenesis, and inhibited expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the tumors compared with the UVB group. (herbs.org)
  • Having witnessed apparent antitumor activity in A549 human lung cancer model, we further quantified vessel density as measures of angiogenesis by immunolabeling of CD31 in tissue sections. (nih.gov)
  • Although IHC is not commonly necessary in differentiation, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) highlights most mature sebocytes in sebaceoma, whereas its expression is uncommon in BCC. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Immunohistochemically, yolk sac tumors stain negative for epithelial membrane antigen and CK 7, and are only focally positive for Leu-M1 in 60% of cases. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Choriocarcinomas stain positive for IHC markers cytokeratin, CD10, human placental lactogen, and epithelial membrane antigen, and negative for CD 31 and CD 34. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Seven genes were significantly increased in expression in both immature and LPS-matured VitD-CD11c + BMDC, one of which was CD31, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (frontiersin.org)
  • conversely, increased expression of CD31 on vehicle treated CD11c + BMDC restrained their T cell priming abilities. (frontiersin.org)
  • In summary, we show that both mouse and human DC generated in the presence of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 upregulate CD31 expression, resulting in a reduced ability to prime CD4 + T cells by impairing a stable cell-cell contact. (frontiersin.org)
  • CD26 and CD31 surface antigen expression on human colostral T. (mysciencework.com)
  • These results suggest that expression of CD31 might confer adhesive advantages for LAK cells prone to tumor infiltration. (nih.gov)
  • Irradiation induced expression of CD31, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in human microvascular endothelial cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CD31 (JC70) expression in plasma cells: an immunohistochemical analysis of reactive and neoplastic plasma cells. (bmj.com)
  • AIMS: To investigate the immunohistochemical expression of CD31 (JC70) in normal and neoplastic plasma cells. (bmj.com)
  • LNSCs are generally divided into several sub-populations based on the expression of gp38 (PDPN) and CD31 surface markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood vessels were visualized via immunohistochemical staining specific to two endothelial markers: von Willebrand factor and CD31 antigen. (springer.com)
  • CD31 is highly expressed on Endothelial Cells and concentrated at the junctions between them. (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Time-lapse imaging of BMDC and CD4 + T cells during in vitro priming revealed that CD31 reduced the BMDC-T cell interaction time. (frontiersin.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells which play a crucial role in shaping the adaptive immune response ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the number of antigen-specific cells recovered at day 5 was not different between CpG-treated and control mice. (cd31-signal.com)
  • However, antigen-specific Parvulin cells from the dLN of mice treated with CpG and peptide were readily detected by IFN-γ ELISPOT. (cd31-signal.com)
  • Curiously, antigen-specific IFN-γ secreting T cells were not detected in the spleen when immunizing mice with either peptide alone or CpG with peptide. (cd31-signal.com)
  • CD31 is expressed by stem cells of the hematopoietic system and is primarily used to identify and concentrate these cells for experimental studies as well as for bone marrow transplantation. (genetex.com)
  • CD31 MAb reacts with normal, benign, and malignant endothelial cells which make up blood vessel lining. (genetex.com)
  • CD31 is expressed ubiquitously within the vascular compartment and is located mainly at junctions between adjacent cells. (fishersci.com)
  • In prostate tumor cells, CD31 is upregulated and associated with increased levels of HIF1a, VEGF, and other hypoxic markers. (novusbio.com)
  • recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) express CD31 in contrast to central naive T cells. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The homophilic nature of CD31 facilitates its engagement with other CD31-expressing cells, and this includes leukocyte-leukocyte interactions. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • For instance, T and B cells need to interact with each other and with antigen-presenting cells to mature or become activated. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • CD31 has been shown to inhibit antigen receptor signaling in T and B cells through the action of protein-tyrosine-phosphatases. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and CD31 are membrane proteins of endothelial cells, mediate this process when the vasculature is exposed to other inflammatory stimuli. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Notably, GVHD caused irreversible damage to a population of tolerogenic stromal cells that display peripheral tissue-restricted antigens in lymph nodes, which impaired their capacity to purge and suppress autoreactive T cells. (jci.org)
  • In immunohistochemistry, CD31 is used primarily to demonstrate the presence of endothelial cells in histological tissue sections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignant endothelial cells also commonly retain the antigen, so that CD31 immunohistochemistry can also be used to demonstrate both angiomas and angiosarcomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD31 on endothelial cells binds to the CD38 receptor on natural killer cells for those cells to attach to the endothelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was shown that von Willebrand factor and CD31 were present in the endothelial cells of dermal blood vessels at all examined ages, from gestation week 20 to 85 years. (springer.com)
  • Prager E, Staffler G, Majdic O, Saemann M, Godar S, Zlabinger G, Stockinger H: Induction of hyporesponsiveness and impaired T lymphocyte activation by the CD31 receptor:ligand pathway in T cells. (exbio.cz)
  • Human Cells transfected lysate in which Human CD31 / PECAM1 has been over-expressed. (creativebiomart.net)
  • There is some agreement that the cell surface antigens CD133 and vascular-endothelial growth factor receptor 2, along with LDL uptake and lectin binding, may be used to identify these cells. (asahq.org)
  • Flow cytometric analysis revealed that pMSC expressed surface antigens also found on hMSC, including CD90, MSCA-1 (TNAP/W8B2 antigen), CD44, CD29 and SLA class I. Clonogenic outgrowth was significantly enriched following selection of CD271+ cells from BM of human and pig (129 ± 29 and 1961 ± 485 fold, respectively). (wiley.com)
  • CD31 is required for the transendothelial migration of leukocytes through the intercellular spaces between vascular endothelial cells. (reliatech.de)
  • Antigen-specific mechanisms of peripheral tolerance include direct inactivation of effector T cells by either clonal deletion, conversion to regulatory T cells (Tregs) or induction of anergy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens, which are present in generally low numbers can be ignored by the immune system without any further mechanism, since T cells have to be activated, prior to their migration to non-lymphoid tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potentially self-reactive T-cells are not activated at immunoprivileged sites, where antigens are expressed in non-surveillanced areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • These immature DCs acquire the antigen from the peripheral tissues (by endocytosis of apoptotic cells) and present it to the naive T cells in the secondary lymphoid organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • BTLA+ DCs were identified as a specialized population of antigen presenting cells (APCs), responsible for Treg conversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from dendritic cells, additional cell populations were identified that are able to induce antigen-specific T cell tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • T-cells can be made non-responsive to antigens presented if the T-cell engages an MHC molecule on an antigen presenting cell (signal 1) without engagement of costimulatory molecules (signal 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the fact these two antigens have continued to be used as markers for circulating cells with vascular reparative properties, it was not demonstrated that the infused cells directly formed new blood vessels. (stemcell.com)
  • Also, iNKT cells recognize lipid antigens loaded on CD1d molecules ( 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Marine sponge-derived α-galactosylceramide (α-GC) is a potent CD1d-binding lipid antigen that activates iNKT cells ( 20 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In iNKT cells, determination of cytokine characters into Th1 type or Th2 type is influenced by antigen-presenting cell (APC) types, environmental cytokine milieu, and lipid antigen species ( 18 , 21 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We found that both hACL stem cells (hACL-SCs) and hMCL stem cells (hMCL-SCs) formed colonies in culture and expressed stem cell markers nucleostemin and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The animal had multiple oral tumors characterized by proliferation of latent nuclear antigen 1-positive spindle cells and was not co-infected with immunosuppressive simian viruses, suggesting that it had Kaposi sarcoma caused by this novel rhadinovirus. (cdc.gov)
  • The tumors are highly vascularized and characterized by proliferation of spindle cells that contain KSHV DNA and antigen ( 2 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In the presence of co-stimulatory molecules, antigen presentation by DC results in T cell activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • CD31 is also a major constituent of the endothelial cell intercellular junction, where up to an estimated 1 million molecules are concentrated. (labbase.net)
  • Both of those populations are able to induce CD8 T cell tolerance by presentation of the endogenous antigens on MHCI molecules and even the CD4 T cell tolerance by the presentation of the peptide-MHCII complexes, which they acquired from the DCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD31 is also expressed by lymphocyte subsets. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • CD31 exhibits multiple roles in regulating T lymphocyte trafficking in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. (cancerindex.org)
  • We used CD31 as an endothelial cell marker, CD36 which is known to react with microvascular endothelium and adipocytes , and CD44 which is a hyaluronic acid receptor using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique . (bvsalud.org)
  • HucMSCs were isolated from fetal umbilical cord tissue and characterized by surface antigen analysis and pluripotent differentiation in vitro . (frontiersin.org)
  • Progressive differentiation of MSCs to endothelioid progeny was assessed by CD31 immunostaining. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In MS, plasma microparticules carry CD31 and are important in the formation of brain lesions associated with MS. In cardiac angiosarcoma, CD31 presence is indicative of the severity of the disease. (novusbio.com)
  • Antigen retrieval in bone marrow biopsies was achieved by pressure cooking. (bmj.com)
  • It has been reported that CD38 binds to CD31. (fishersci.com)
  • In addition to its well-known homophilic interaction, a number of putative heterotypic ligands for CD31 have also been identified, including the neutrophil-specific antigen CD177 and the ADP-ribosyl cyclase CD38. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • If the T cell recognizes the antigen, it is either deleted or converted to Treg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note: For testing human CD31 in cell culture supernatant, serum, plasma, other biological fluids, BioLegend's LEGEND MAX™ Kits (Cat. (biolegend.com)
  • CD31 Human Recombinant (aa 625-739) expressed in E.coli, shows a 38 kDa band on SDS-PAGE. (promab.com)
  • There are several spliced variants of CD31 - expressed in a cell-type- and species-specific manner in human, mouse, and rat - that arise as a result of alternative splicing of either the transmembrane, or one of the cytoplasmic tail exons. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Tested positive against native human antigen. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Tumors treated with GSK2256098 had lower microvessel density (CD31), less cellular proliferation (Ki67), and higher apoptosis (TUNEL) rates in the Ishikawa model when compared with the Hec1a model. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, sRAGE ameliorated renal dysfunction by attenuating tubular endothelial apoptosis determined by immunofluorescence staining of CD31 and TUNEL. (hindawi.com)
  • Dependence of a particular antigen on either central or peripheral tolerance is determined by its abundance in the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen was primarily associated with infiltration of T-lymphocytes around vessels in the anterior uvea and with new vessel formation at the peripheral cornea. (cdc.gov)
  • Some antigens are at a too low concentration to cause an immune response - a subthreshold stimulation will lead to apoptosis of a T cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microvessel density (MVD) was measured on slides stained immunohistochemically for CD31 antigen for histological assessment. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Histological analysis and CD31 immunostaining to quantify microvessel density (MVD) was performed on the explanted lung tissue of 13 transplanted patients. (ersjournals.com)
  • Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval before commencing with IHC staining protocol. (abcam.com)
  • Perform enzymatic antigen retrieval (pepsin or 0.1% trypsin solution at 37°C for 60 min (see reference by Moriyama M et al) before commencing with IHC staining protocol. (abcam.com)
  • In all other biopsies, antigen retrieval was achieved by microwave pretreatment. (bmj.com)
  • In the absence of activation, antigen presentation by steady-state DC can lead to T cell unresponsiveness and tolerance ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • N-terminal Ig-like domain of CD31 is responsible for its homophilic binding, which plays an important role in cell-cell interactions. (fishersci.com)
  • To evaluate endothelial cell permeability after metformin treatment, we conducted occludin/CD31, ZO-1/CD31 and claudin-5/CD31 double staining to observe tight junction distribution in situ at 3 days after tMCAO. (nih.gov)
  • In 2D culture, UC-MSCs were able to acquire CD31 + endothelial cell-like phenotype when stimulated by EA.hy926-conditioned media supplemented with VEGF-A165. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The number of dermal blood vessels positively stained either for von Willebrand factor or for CD31 in the dermis gradually decreased with age. (springer.com)
  • Anatomical barriers can separate the lymphocytes from the antigen, an example is the central nervous system (the blood-brain-barrier). (wikipedia.org)