Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Angiosarcomas express mixed endothelial phenotypes of blood and lymphatic capillaries: podoplanin as a specific marker for lymphatic endothelium. (1/1660)

Angiosarcomas apparently derive from blood vessel endothelial cells; however, occasionally their histological features suggest mixed origin from blood and lymphatic endothelia. In the absence of specific positive markers for lymphatic endothelia the precise distinction between these components has not been possible. Here we provide evidence by light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry that podoplanin, a approximately 38-kd membrane glycoprotein of podocytes, is specifically expressed in the endothelium of lymphatic capillaries, but not in the blood vasculature. In normal skin and kidney, podoplanin colocalized with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3, the only other lymphatic marker presently available. Complementary immunostaining of blood vessels was obtained with established endothelial markers (CD31, CD34, factor VIII-related antigen, and Ulex europaeus I lectin) as well as podocalyxin, another podocytic protein that is also localized in endothelia of blood vessels. Podoplanin specifically immunolabeled endothelia of benign tumorous lesions of undisputed lymphatic origin (lymphangiomas, hygromas) and was detected there as a 38-kd protein by immunoblotting. As paradigms of malignant vascular tumors, poorly differentiated (G3) common angiosarcomas (n = 8), epitheloid angiosarcomas (n = 3), and intestinal Kaposi's sarcomas (n = 5) were examined for their podoplanin content in relation to conventional endothelial markers. The relative number of tumor cells expressing podoplanin was estimated and, although the number of cases in this preliminary study was limited to 16, an apparent spectrum of podoplanin expression emerged that can be divided into a low-expression group in which 0-10% of tumor cells contained podoplanin, a moderate-expression group with 30-60% and a high-expression group with 70-100%. Ten of eleven angiosarcomas and all Kaposi's sarcomas showed mixed expression of both lymphatic and blood vascular endothelial phenotypes. By double labeling, most podoplanin-positive tumor cells coexpressed endothelial markers of blood vessels, whereas few tumor cells were positive for individual markers only. From these results we conclude that (1) podoplanin is a selective marker of lymphatic endothelium; (2) G3 angiosarcomas display a quantitative spectrum of podoplanin-expressing tumor cells; (3) in most angiosarcomas, a varying subset of tumor cells coexpresses podoplanin and endothelial markers of blood vessels; and (4) all endothelial cells of Kaposi's sarcomas expressed the lymphatic marker podoplanin.  (+info)

In vitro hematopoietic and endothelial cell development from cells expressing TEK receptor in murine aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. (2/1660)

Recent studies have shown that long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) first appear in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region. Our immunohistochemistry study showed that TEK+ cells existed in the AGM region. Approximately 5% of AGM cells were TEK+, and most of these were CD34(+) and c-Kit+. We then established a coculture system of AGM cells using a stromal cell line, OP9, which is deficient in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). With this system, we showed that AGM cells at 10.5 days postcoitum (dpc) differentiated and proliferated into both hematopoietic and endothelial cells. Proliferating hematopoietic cells contained a significant number of colony-forming cells in culture (CFU-C) and in spleen (CFU-S). Among primary AGM cells at 10.5 dpc, sorted TEK+ AGM cells generated hematopoietic cells and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1(+) endothelial cells on the OP9 stromal layer, while TEK- cells did not. When a ligand for TEK, angiopoietin-1, was added to the single-cell culture of AGM, endothelial cell growth was detected in the wells where hematopoietic colonies grew. Although the incidence was still low (1/135), we showed that single TEK+ cells generated hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells simultaneously, using a single-cell deposition system. This in vitro coculture system shows that the TEK+ fraction of primary AGM cells is a candidate for hemangioblasts, which can differentiate into both hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells.  (+info)

Streptavidin facilitates internalization and pulmonary targeting of an anti-endothelial cell antibody (platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1): a strategy for vascular immunotargeting of drugs. (3/1660)

Conjugation of drugs with antibodies to surface endothelial antigens is a potential strategy for drug delivery to endothelium. We studied antibodies to platelet-endothelial adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, a stably expressed endothelial antigen) as carriers for vascular immunotargeting. Although 125I-labeled anti-PECAM bound to endothelial cells in culture, the antibody was poorly internalized by the cells and accumulated poorly after intravenous administration in mice and rats. However, conjugation of biotinylated anti-PECAM (b-anti-PECAM) with streptavidin (SA) markedly stimulated uptake and internalization of anti-PECAM by endothelial cells and by cells expressing PECAM. In addition, conjugation with streptavidin markedly stimulated uptake of 125I-labeled b-anti-PECAM in perfused rat lungs and in the lungs of intact animals after either intravenous or intraarterial injection. The antioxidant enzyme catalase conjugated with b-anti-PECAM/SA bound to endothelial cells in culture, entered the cells, escaped intracellular degradation, and protected the cells against H2O2-induced injury. Anti-PECAM/SA/125I-catalase accumulated in the lungs after intravenous injection or in the perfused rat lungs and protected these lungs against H2O2-induced injury. Thus, modification of a poor carrier antibody with biotin and SA provides an approach for facilitation of antibody-mediated drug targeting. Anti-PECAM/SA is a promising candidate for vascular immunotargeting of bioactive drugs.  (+info)

Neutrophils sense flow-generated stress and direct their migration through alphaVbeta3-integrin. (4/1660)

During inflammation neutrophils are recruited from the blood onto the surface of microvascular endothelial cells. In this milieu the presence of soluble chemotactic gradients is disallowed by blood flow. However, directional cues are still required for neutrophils to migrate to the junctions of endothelial cells where extravasation occurs. Shear forces generated by flowing blood provide a potential alternative guide. In our flow-based adhesion assay neutrophils preferentially migrated in the direction of flow when activated after attachment to platelet monolayers. Neutralizing alphaVbeta3-integrin with monoclonal antibodies or turning the flow off randomized the direction of migration without affecting migration velocity. Purified, immobilized alphaVbeta3-integrin ligands, CD31 and fibronectin, could both support flow-directed neutrophil migration in a concentration-dependent manner. Migration could be randomized by neutralizing alphaVbeta3-integrin interactions with the substrate using antibodies or Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptide. These results exemplify mechanical signal transduction through integrin-ligand interactions and reveal a guidance system that was hitherto unknown in neutrophils. In more general terms, it demonstrates that cells can use integrin molecules to "sample" their physical microenvironment through adhesion and use this information to modulate their behavior.  (+info)

Vaginal epithelioid angiosarcoma. (5/1660)

A case of epithelioid angiosarcoma of the vagina is described. Only five cases of angiosarcoma at this site have been reported, three of which followed radiotherapy for other gynaecological malignancies. None is described as an epithelioid angiosarcoma, an unusual and recently described variant which is readily confused with carcinoma. This is thought to be the first reported epithelioid angiosarcoma at this site and highlights the difficulties in diagnosis.  (+info)

Genetic evidence for functional redundancy of Platelet/Endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1): CD31-deficient mice reveal PECAM-1-dependent and PECAM-1-independent functions. (6/1660)

Platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1; CD31), a member of the Ig superfamily, is expressed strongly at endothelial cell-cell junctions, on platelets, and on most leukocytes. CD31 has been postulated to play a role in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, and has been implicated as a key mediator of the transendothelial migration of leukocytes. To further define the physiologic role of CD31, we used targeted gene disruption of the CD31 gene in embryonic stem cells to generate CD31-deficient mice. CD31-deficient mice (CD31KO) are viable and born at the expected Mendelian frequency, remain healthy, and exhibit no obvious vascular developmental defects. In response to inflammatory challenge, polymorphonuclear leukocytes of CD31KO mice are arrested between the vascular endothelium and the basement membrane of inflammatory site mesenteric microvessels, confirming a role for CD31 in the migration of neutrophils through the subendothelial extracellular matrix. Normal numbers of leukocytes are recovered from inflammatory sites in CD31KO mice, however, suggesting that the defect in leukocyte migration across basal lamina observed in the absence of CD31 may be compensated for by the use of other adhesion molecules, or possibly an increased rate of migration. Homing of T lymphocytes in vivo is normal, and CD31KO mice are able to mount a cutaneous hypersensitivity response normally. In addition, CD31-mediated homophilic adhesion does not appear to play a role in platelet aggregation in vitro. This study provides genetic evidence that CD31 is involved in transbasement membrane migration, but does not play an obligatory role in either vascular development or leukocyte migration.  (+info)

Analysis of macrophage scavenger receptor (SR-A) expression in human aortic atherosclerotic lesions. (7/1660)

The class A scavenger receptors (SR-As) are trimeric, integral membrane glycoproteins that exhibit unusually broad ligand-binding properties. A number of studies have suggested that these receptors may play an important role in host defense and in many macrophage-associated pathological processes, including atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. The study of the expression and function of these receptors in human disease has been hampered by the lack of suitable antibodies recognizing human SR-A. This has generated questions regarding the nature of receptors responsible for scavenger receptor activity detected in a variety of cell types, including monocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. To address these questions, we have produced high-titer antisera recognizing human SR-A by using mice deficient for SR-A (SR-A -/-). We show that SR-A -/- mice produce a significantly higher-titer immune response than do wild-type (SR-A +/+) littermates, with antisera of the former having a broad species reactivity and recognizing SR-A from humans, mice, and rabbits. The antisera recognize both type I and II SR-A in a wide range of immunological techniques. Using these antisera we show that the expression of SR-A protein is induced during monocyte to macrophage differentiation and that SR-A mediates 80% of the uptake of acetylated low density lipoprotein by human monocyte-derived macrophages. We also establish that human SR-A is expressed by tissue macrophages in liver and lung and by macrophage-derived foam cells within aortic atherosclerotic lesions, with little detectable expression by smooth muscle cells or aortic endothelium.  (+info)

Irradiation induces upregulation of CD31 in human endothelial cells. (8/1660)

Radiation-induced vascular injury is believed to be a major factor contributing to parenchymal atrophy, fibrosis and necrosis in normal tissue after radiotherapy. In this study irradiation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) significantly increased adherence of U-937 cells in a time-dependent manner. Given the potential multifunctional role of CD31 in the vasculature we have examined the possible effects of irradiation on levels of CD31 expression in HUVECs. Irradiation upregulated CD31 expression on HUVECs, independently of initial plating density and radiation-induced changes such as cell number, cell cycle stage, or cell size. CD31 mRNA levels were raised in irradiated HUVECs relative to controls. Both CD31 mRNA and surface protein showed similar changes, suggesting that the increase in mRNA in irradiated HUVECs is responsible for the elevation in cell surface protein. A semi-quantitative study of tissue specimens from patients who had received radiotherapy indicated that CD31 staining in the blood vessels from irradiated tissues was increased compared with controls. Endothelial CD31 is important in the transmigration of leukocytes. We have demonstrated that the incorporation of monoclonal antibody to CD31 significantly inhibited the transmigration of human peripheral blood leukocytes through a monolayer of irradiated HUVECs. Taken together these data strongly suggest that irradiation induces a marked increase in CD31 expression on endothelial cells as part of a general response to irradiation. Its upregulation may play an important role in the development of radiation-induced normal tissue damage and thus is a possible target for therapeutic intervention.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.395)

... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.098 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... 395.550.200.170 -- antigens, cd146 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.175 -- antigens, cd164 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.200 -- cadherins ... antigens, cd43 MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.650.264 -- antigens, cd164. ... ca-15-3 antigen MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.300 -- gastric mucin MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.650 -- sialomucins MeSH D12.776.395.560. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.050.301.264.900.131 --- antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.050.301.264.920 --- antigens, ly MeSH D23.050.301.264. ... antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 --- antigens, ly MeSH D23.101.100.930 --- antigens, thy-1 MeSH D23.101.840.050 --- alpha- ... antigens, cd29 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.130 --- antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.131 --- antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D23.050.301.350.098 --- antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.301.350.131 --- antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.050.301.350.150 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 -- receptors, antigen, ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 -- antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 -- antigens, cd40 ... antigens, cd11a MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.150 -- antigens, cd11b MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.200 -- antigens, cd11c ...

*CD31

Malignant endothelial cells also commonly retain the antigen, so that CD31 immunohistochemistry can also be used to demonstrate ... Human CD Antigen Chart (eBioscience) Mouse CD Antigen Chart (eBioscience) Human PECAM1 genome location and PECAM1 gene details ... CD31 is normally found on endothelial cells, platelets, macrophages and Kupffer cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes (T cells, B ... In immunohistochemistry, CD31 is used primarily to demonstrate the presence of endothelial cells in histological tissue ...

*Duffy antigen system

Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines, von Willebrand factor, CD31, CD34, CD105 and CD146". J. Pathol. 206 (3): 260-8. doi: ... Because the Duffy antigen is uncommon in those of Black African descent, the presence of this antigen has been used to detect ... This antigen along with other blood group antigens was used to identify the Basque people as a genetically separate group. Its ... The Duffy antigen is expressed in greater quantities on reticulocytes than on mature erythrocytes. While the Duffy antigen is ...

*Sca-1

"Concise Review: Stem Cell Antigen-1: Expression, Function, and Enigma". Wang, X; Hu, Q; Nakamura, Y; Lee, J; Zhang, G; From, AH ... Sca-1 has a regenerative role in cardiac repair: Endogenous Sca-1+CD31− cells upon myocardial infarction as well as Sca-1 ... Sca-1 stands for "Stem cells antigen-1". It consist of 18-kDa mouse glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored cell surface protein ... Zhang, J. "The role of the sca-1+/CD31- cardiac progenitor cell population in postinfarction left ventricular remodeling". Stem ...

*Peripheral tolerance

T-cells can be made non-responsive to antigens presented if the T-cell engages an MHC molecule on an antigen presenting cell ( ... and CD31 surface markers. Among those, only fibroblastic reticular cells and lymph node stromal cells were shown to play a role ... Antigens, which are present in generally low amount can be ignored by the immune system without any further mechanism, since T ... Some antigens are at too low a concentration to cause an immune response - a subthreshold stimulation will lead to apoptosis in ...

*Pericyte

The vascular markers CD 31, von Willebrand factor (vWF), and smooth muscle actin (pericyte marker) are present during the ... During the early proliferative phase (0-12 months) the tumors express proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pericytesna), ...

*Sharon Lewin

Lewin's laboratory have also described the role of myeloid dendritic cells and other antigen-presenting cells in establishing ... "Both CD31+ and CD31- Naive CD4+ T Cells Are Persistent HIV Type 1-Infected Reservoirs in Individuals Receiving Antiretroviral ... "The role of antigen presenting cells in the induction of HIV-1 latency in resting CD4+ T-cells". Retrovirology. 12: 76. doi: ... where longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have shown that both CD31+ and CD31- naive CD4 T cells contribute to the ongoing ...

*Outline of immunology

Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... CD31) L1 family L1-CAM CHL1 Neurofascin NrCAM SIGLEC family - Sialic acid binding lectins SIGLEC1 (Sialoadhesin) SIGLEC2 (CD22 ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... B cells Antigen receptor - B cell receptor (BCR) Subunits- Immunoglobulin heavy chain / Immunoglobulin light chain Co-receptors ...

*Lymph node stromal cell

Antigen-presenting cells accumulate near high endothelial venules to process soluble antigens. Antigens are also presented on ... glycoprotein CD31 and glycoprotein podoplanin GP38. The different sub-populations are also known by their production of small ... Via the reticular network, the MRCs bring antigens from the sub-capsular sinuses to the B cell follicles. MRCs express the ... Naive lymphocytes (those with no history of contact with antigens) travel from the bone marrow or high endothelial venules of ...

*PTPN6

... has been shown to interact with: BCR gene, CD117, CD22, CD31, CTNND1, EGFR, EPOR, FCRL3, Grb2, HOXA10, JAK2, LAIR1, ... "SHP-1 requires inhibitory co-receptors to down-modulate B cell antigen receptor-mediated phosphorylation of cellular substrates ... SHIP and phospholipase C-gamma1 with PECAM-1/CD31". FEBS Lett. 450 (1-2): 77-83. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(99)00446-9. PMID ...

*CD38

... Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD38 genome location and CD38 gene ... 1998). "Human CD38 (ADP-ribosyl cyclase) is a counter-receptor of CD31, an Ig superfamily member". J. Immunol. 160 (1): 395-402 ... 1994). "Synthesis and hydrolysis of cyclic ADP-ribose by human leukocyte antigen CD38 and inhibition of the hydrolysis by ATP ... 1995). "Assignment of CD38, the gene encoding human leukocyte antigen CD38 (ADP-ribosyl cyclase/cyclic ADP-ribose hydrolase), ...

*Cluster of differentiation

For example, a "CD34+, CD31−" cell is one that expresses CD34, but not CD31. This CD combination typically corresponds to a ... White Cell Differentiation Antigens. Oxford University Press. Knapp, W; et al. (1989). Leucocyte Typing IV. Oxford University ... "CD Antigens" (PDF). abcam. 2009. Retrieved 2014-11-22. Passlick B, Flieger D, Ziegler-Heitbrock HW (1989). "Identification and ... In the example of CD4 & CD8, these molecules are critical in antigen recognition. Others (e.g., CD135) act as cell surface ...

*INPP5D

... has been shown to interact with DOK2, LYN, CD22, Grb2, CRKL, CD31, DOK1 and SHC1. Rosiptor (AQX-1125) is an INPP5D ... A pathway for regulation of B lymphocyte antigen receptor-induced calcium flux". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (23 ... A pathway for regulation of B lymphocyte antigen receptor-induced calcium flux". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (23 ... SHIP and phospholipase C-gamma1 with PECAM-1/CD31". FEBS Letters. 450 (1-2): 77-83. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99)00446-9. PMID ...

*Stem cell marker

CK19, Cytokeratin 19, K19) Kit L-selectin (CD62L) Lamin A/C Lewis X antigen (Le(X)) LeX Lgr5 Lrp4 MCM2 MCSP Metallothionein (MT ... CD31) Siglec-3 (CD33) CD34 CD44 NCAM (CD56) CD73 CD9 CD90 CDCP1 Circulating anticoagulants protein C (PC) CK19 CLV3 cyclic CMP ... May 2006). "Lack of expression of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan neuron-glial antigen 2 on candidate stem cell ... Muramatsu T, Muramatsu H (2004). "Carbohydrate antigens expressed on stem cells and early embryonic cells". Glycoconjugate ...

*Guo Mei

CD31-CD34- mesenchymal stem cells: feasibility and safety from monkey to human", published in Stem Cells Dev. 2006 Kinetic ... tumor antigen 1-specific T lymphocyte generation soon after nonmyeloablative allergenic stem-cell transplantation in acute and ...

*PLCG1

Nel AE, Gupta S, Lee L, Ledbetter JA, Kanner SB (August 1995). "Ligation of the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) induces ... PLCG1 has been shown to interact with: BAG3, CD117, CD31, Cbl gene CISH Epidermal growth factor receptor, Eukaryotic ... Scholler JK, Perez-Villar JJ, O'Day K, Kanner SB (August 2000). "Engagement of the T lymphocyte antigen receptor regulates ... on the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR). The phosphorylated ITAMs recruit ZAP-70, which phosphorylates tyrosines in LAT and SLP-76 ...

*Macrophage

Eventually, the antigen presentation results in the production of antibodies that attach to the antigens of pathogens, making ... see CD31 for a description of this process). The neutrophils are at first attracted to a site, where they proliferate, before ... the antigen is endocytosed and processed. The processed antigen is then presented in MHCII on the surface of the B-cell. T ... The antigen presentation on the surface of infected macrophages (in the context of MHC class II) in a lymph node stimulates TH1 ...

*BAG3

Nel AE, Gupta S, Lee L, Ledbetter JA, Kanner SB (August 1995). "Ligation of the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) induces ... PLCG1 has been shown to interact with: FGFR1, CD117, CD31, Cbl gene CISH Epidermal growth factor receptor, Eukaryotic ... Scholler JK, Perez-Villar JJ, O'Day K, Kanner SB (August 2000). "Engagement of the T lymphocyte antigen receptor regulates ... SHIP and phospholipase C-gamma1 with PECAM-1/CD31". FEBS Lett. 450 (1-2): 77-83. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(99)00446-9. PMID ...
PECAM-1 is a well-studied cellular adhesion and signaling receptor that plays an important role in supporting leukocyte diapedesis during the leukocyte adhesion cascade (4, 21). In contrast to this proinflammatory effect, PECAM-1 was shown in a number of situations to function as an ITIM-containing inhibitory receptor capable of dampening cellular activation events in lymphocytes (9, 22, 23), mast cells (24), and platelets (25-28). Numerous reports also demonstrated an anti-inflammatory role for PECAM-1 in well-established acute and chronic inflammatory disease models. For example, mice expressing PECAM-1 produce lower levels of inflammatory cytokines (7, 11-13), exhibit enhanced vascular barrier protection (10-12), and paradoxically, accumulate fewer leukocytes at sites of inflammation (10-13). However, the mechanisms by which PECAM-1 serves to confer protection in inflammation and how it regulates these aspects of the inflammatory response are still poorly understood.. One intriguing ...
Results Thrombin (0.08 to 0.2 U/ml) increased platelet adhesion in a dose-dependent manner from 2.7 ± 0.3% to 6.4 ± 0.6% (mean value ± SEM). Preincubation of platelets resulted in a dose-dependent down-regulation of 3H-iloprost binding up to 58.8 ± 6.7% of control platelets with 100 nmol/liter of iloprost. Co-incubation of prostacyclin receptor-desensitized platelets with endothelial cells resulted in a marked augmentation of thrombin-induced adhesion up to 28.6 ± 4.5%. Approximately the same increase in platelet adhesion was seen after complete abrogation of endothelial cell prostacyclin synthesis by pretreatment with aspirin. Comparison of iloprost-induced receptor desensitization and increased platelet-endothelial cell adhesion indicated a positive correlation. ...
Cell adhesion molecule which is required for leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) under most inflammatory conditions. Tyr-660 plays a critical role in TEM and is required for efficient trafficking of PECAM1 to and from the lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC) and is also essential for the LBRC membrane to be targeted around migrating leukocytes. Prevents phagocyte ingestion of closely apposed viable cells by transmitting detachment signals, and changes function on apoptosis, promoting tethering of dying cells to phagocytes (the encounter of a viable cell with a phagocyte via the homophilic interaction of PECAM1 on both cell surfaces leads to the viable cells active repulsion from the phagocyte. During apoptosis, the inside-out signaling of PECAM1 is somehow disabled so that the apoptotic cell does not actively reject the phagocyte anymore. The lack of this repulsion signal together with the interaction of the eat-me signals and their respective receptors causes the attachment of the
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
Methods. Animals. Male C57BL/6 mice weighing between 19 and 21 g were obtained from Charles River (Wilmington, MA). All animals were treated in accordance with the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. Mice were anesthetized with intramuscular ketamine hydrochloride (25 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg) and their pupils dilated with 1% tropicamide. The mice were euthanized by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a ketamine and xylazine overdose.. Antibodies and Reagents. H8 humanized IgG antibody and mouse monoclonal HUIV26 raised against denatured collagen type IV were supplied by Cancer Vax (Carlsbad, CA). Both triple-helical and denatured collagen type IV was detected using the polyclonal antibody AB769 (Chemicon, Temecula, CA). Endothelial cells were visualized with an antibody for platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, clone MEC13.3; BD Biosciences Pharmingen, San Diego, CA) or biotinylated Griffonia simplicifolia lectin B4 (Vector ...
CD31, also known as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) or endoCAM, binds CD38 and plays a role in wound healing, angiogenesis, and cellular migration.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of monocytes/macrophages to compensatory neovascularization. T2 - The drilling of metalloelastase-positive tunnels in ischemic myocardium. AU - Moldovan, Nicanor I.. AU - Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal. AU - Parker-Thornburg, Jan. AU - Shapiro, Steven D.. AU - Kolattukudy, Pappachan E.. PY - 2000/9/1. Y1 - 2000/9/1. N2 - In a transgenic model of ischemic cardiomyopathy in which monocytes are attracted to the myocardium by the targeted overexpression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), we have observed the presence of endothelial NO synthase and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1-negative tunnels, occasionally containing blood-derived cells, that probe the cardiac tissue. Immunohistochemical data show that monocytes/macrophages (MCs/Mphs) drill tunnels using the broad-spectrum mouse macrophage metalloelastase. 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation and neo-endothelial markers present in the microvasculature of MCP-1 mouse hearts suggest an active ...
The specific association of multiple adhesion molecules with hHpSCs and hepatoblasts suggests that they play important regulatory functions in modulating interactions with cells that comprise local inductive environments and/or stem cell niches. A critical, enabling event, required for formation of the liver, is that angioblasts from the septum transversum induce the hepatic bud to form (7). Such key interactions are now amenable to study in vitro using hHpSCs. We observed that colony expansion and cell outgrowth of hHpSCs depends on the mesenchymal companion cells that are prominent at the periphery of hHpSC colonies and identified by antigenic profiles as angioblasts (positive for VEGFr, CD31 or platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule, CD117, and CD133) or hepatic stellate cell precursors (positive for CD146 [MEL-CAM and MCAM], desmin, and α-smooth muscle actin). These findings parallel our prior work defining hepatic stellate cell precursors as supportive of rodent hepatic progenitors ...
In this work we have evaluated the capacity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and fibrin-binding platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) to support cell growth and induce bone regeneration using two different imaging technologies to improve the understanding of structural and organizational processes participating in tissue repair. Human mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (hAMSCs) expressing two luciferase genes, one under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter and the other under the control of a tissue-specific promoter (osteocalcin or platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule), were seeded in fibrin matrices containing BMP-2 and fibrin-binding PDGF-BB, and further implanted intramuscularly or in a mouse calvarial defect. Then, cell growth and bone regeneration were monitored by bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to analyze the evolution of target gene expression, indicative of cell differentiation towards the osteoblastic and endothelial lineages. Non-invasive ...
CD31 antibody [B493 (158-2B3)] (platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule) for FACS, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, IP. Anti-CD31 mAb (GTX72197) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules in the development of atherosclerosis. AU - Berman, Joan W.. AU - Calderon, Tina M.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - The vascular endothelium serves as a dynamic interface between circulating blood elements and the interstitial tissues. As such, it communicates to cells within the vessel wall as well as to the surrounding tissue, sensing its environment and responding accordingly. The vasculature must maintain a delicate balance when initiating a functional response by producing both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory mediators, vasoconstrictors and vasodilators, growth stimulators and inhibitors, and prothrombogenic and antithrombogenic factors. Any response to injurious agents could lead to pathology. Confounding this complex interplay is the fact that the very response to injury that may have developed to undo the damage may itself be even more deleterious. One response to injury by the endothelium is the new or increased ...
Antibodies. The following primary antibodies were used for immunostaining of mouse tissues: rabbit anti-mouse PROX1 (diluted 1:200; ref. 43), goat anti-human PROX1 (diluted 1:500; AF2727, R&D Systems), polyclonal goat anti-mouse VEGFR-3 (diluted 1:100; AF743, R&D Systems), goat anti-mouse VEGFR-2 (diluted 1:100; AF644, R&D Systems), unconjugated rat anti-PECAM-1 (diluted 1:500; clone MEC 13.3, 553370, BD Biosciences - Pharmingen), hamster anti-PECAM-1 (diluted 1:500; clone 2H8, MAB1398Z, Chemicon), Cy3-conjugated mouse anti-SMA (clone 1A4, C6189, Sigma-Aldrich), polyclonal rabbit anti-LYVE-1 (diluted 1:1,000; ref. 24), goat anti-CCL21 (diluted 1:100; AF457, R&D Systems), VE-cadherin (diluted 1:100; clone 11D4.1, BD Biosciences - Pharmingen), rabbit anti-mouse collagen IV (diluted 1:1,000; LB-1403, Cosmo Bio), rabbit polyclonal anti-GFP (diluted 1:1,000; TP401, Torrey Pines Biolabs), rabbit anti-NG2 (diluted 1:500; AB5320, Millipore), IgG fraction of rabbit polyclonal anti-mouse podoplanin ...
Antibodies. The following primary antibodies were used for immunostaining of mouse tissues: rabbit anti-mouse PROX1 (diluted 1:200; ref. 43), goat anti-human PROX1 (diluted 1:500; AF2727, R&D Systems), polyclonal goat anti-mouse VEGFR-3 (diluted 1:100; AF743, R&D Systems), goat anti-mouse VEGFR-2 (diluted 1:100; AF644, R&D Systems), unconjugated rat anti-PECAM-1 (diluted 1:500; clone MEC 13.3, 553370, BD Biosciences - Pharmingen), hamster anti-PECAM-1 (diluted 1:500; clone 2H8, MAB1398Z, Chemicon), Cy3-conjugated mouse anti-SMA (clone 1A4, C6189, Sigma-Aldrich), polyclonal rabbit anti-LYVE-1 (diluted 1:1,000; ref. 24), goat anti-CCL21 (diluted 1:100; AF457, R&D Systems), VE-cadherin (diluted 1:100; clone 11D4.1, BD Biosciences - Pharmingen), rabbit anti-mouse collagen IV (diluted 1:1,000; LB-1403, Cosmo Bio), rabbit polyclonal anti-GFP (diluted 1:1,000; TP401, Torrey Pines Biolabs), rabbit anti-NG2 (diluted 1:500; AB5320, Millipore), IgG fraction of rabbit polyclonal anti-mouse podoplanin ...
We have described methods for expanding highly purified EPC from HUCB. Importantly, we have rigorously demonstrated that the cells isolated from blood and placed in culture express the stem/progenitor cell marker CD133 as well as the endothelial markers CD34 and KDR. The EPC differentiate to mature EC on the basis of the loss of CD133 expression but remain viable and phenotypically stable after seeding on a biodegradable scaffold, i.e., PGA-PLLA, which is currently being tested for construction of TE heart valves. We show that EPC-derived EC have an inherent ability to assemble into a microvascular-like network when seeded on PGA-PLLA with human SMC. This vasculogenic potential suggests that EPC-derived EC can be used to introduce a microvascular network in TE organs and tissues. The rationale is that the engineered microvessels might readily form anastomoses with existing vessels in the host, thereby accelerating vascularization and improving the construct viability. Support for this rationale ...
Introduction: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease that develops preferentially in regions of disturbed hemodynamic shear stress. The extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN) is deposited in the sub-endothelial layer of pre-atherosclerotic and advanced lesions. Atheroprone shear stress promotes FN deposition and inflammatory signaling pathways in endothelial cells (ECs). Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), a mechanosensory protein, is necessary for the production, secretion, and assembly of FN matrix by ECs. Similar to ECs, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) also display a pro-inflammatory phenotype in regions of atherogenesis, and this phenotype is key to the progression of atherosclerosis.. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that endothelial PECAM and FN signaling promotes a pro-inflammatory smooth muscle cell phenotype in response to atheroprone shear stress patterns.. Methods: An in vitro cone-and-plate viscometer model was used to apply human-derived atheroprone or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Forkhead Box m1 transcription factor is essential for embryonic development of pulmonary vasculature. AU - Kim, Il-man. AU - Ramakrishna, Sneha. AU - Gusarova, Galina A.. AU - Yoder, Helena M.. AU - Costa, Robert H.. AU - Kalinichenko, Vladimir V.. PY - 2005/6/10. Y1 - 2005/6/10. N2 - Transgenic and gene knock-out studies demonstrated that the mouse Forkhead Box m1 (Foxm1 or Foxm1b) transcription factor (previously called HFH-11B, Trident, Win, or MPP2) is essential for hepatocyte entry into mitosis during liver development, regeneration, and liver cancer. Targeted deletion of Foxm1 gene in mice produces an embryonic lethal phenotype due to severe abnormalities in the development of liver and heart. In this study, we show for the first time that Foxm1-/- lungs exhibit severe hypertrophy of arteriolar smooth muscle cells and defects in the formation of peripheral pulmonary capillaries as evidenced by significant reduction in platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 ...
Although there is now increasing in vitro and in vivo evidence illustrating the involvement of individual endothelial cell junctional molecules in the process of leukocyte transendothelial cell migration, very few studies have addressed the potential additive/synergistic effects of multiple molecules. One such study is by Schenkel and colleagues in which an anti-PECAM-1 mAb was found to act in an additive manner with a CD99 blocker to inhibit monocyte transendothelial cell migration in vitro.31 Because in numerous inflammatory models PECAM-1 blockade/deletion results in partial suppression of leukocyte transmigration, in a final series of experiments we aimed to investigate the possibility that ICAM-2 may mediate PECAM-1-independent leukocyte transmigration. For this purpose the effect of the anti-ICAM-2 mAb, 3C4, on leukocyte transmigration in WT and PECAM-1-deficient mice was directly compared using both the cremaster muscle and peritonitis models. In line with data discussed above, ...
PECAM and CD99 have been known to be critical for leukocyte extravasation in vivo for some time (reviewed in Ref. 17); however, this is a complicated, multistep process that involves transmigration across not only the endothelium, but also the basement membrane. There have been discrepancies between studies demonstrating the exact level of function of PECAM and CD99 in relation to the endothelium and basement membrane. In this report we harnessed the technology of 4D IVM to study the step in TEM at which PECAM and CD99 function in vivo in real time. We demonstrate that the role of PECAM and CD99 in leukocyte transmigration is dependent on the murine strain being studied.. The results of these studies explain the apparent inconsistencies among previous studies and largely confirm all previous conclusions. In the commonly used C57BL/6 strain, blocking PECAM or CD99 inhibits migration through the basement membrane, not the endothelium. In contrast, FVB/n mice more accurately replicate results ...
Gene target information for ESAM - endothelial cell adhesion molecule (human). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full length recombinant PECAM1. PECAM1 (AAH22512, 29 a.a. ~ 738 a.a) full-length recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (H00005175-M01) - Products - Abnova
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD31/PECAM-1 Antibody (SPM122) [DyLight 405]. Endothelial Cell Marker. Validated: WB, ELISA, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, IP. Tested Reactivity: Human, Cynomolgus Monkey, Rabbit, and more. 100% Guaranteed.
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD31/PECAM-1 Antibody (SPM122) [HRP]. Endothelial Cell Marker. Validated: WB, ELISA, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, IP. Tested Reactivity: Human, Cynomolgus Monkey, Rabbit, and more. 100% Guaranteed.
This antibody pair set comes with matched antibody pair to detect and quantify protein level of human PECAM1. (H00005175-AP21) - Products - Abnova
Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) also known as cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PECAM1 gene found on chromosome 17. PECAM-1 plays a key role in removing aged neutrophils from the body. PECAM-1 is found on the surface of platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and some types of T-cells, and makes up a large portion of endothelial cell intercellular junctions. The encoded protein is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is likely involved in leukocyte transmigration, angiogenesis, and integrin activation. CD31 is normally found on endothelial cells, platelets, macrophages and Kupffer cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes (T cells, B cells, and NK cells), megakaryocytes, and osteoclasts. CD31 is also expressed in certain tumors, including epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, epithelioid sarcoma-like hemangioendothelioma, other vascular tumors, histiocytic malignancies, and plasmacytomas. It is rarely found in some sarcomas, such as ...
Magnolol, a neolignan from the traditional medicinal plant Magnolia obovata, has been shown to possess neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and anti-angiogenic activities. However, the precise mechanism of the anti-angiogenic activity of magnolol remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the anti-angiogenic effect of magnolol was evaluated in mouse embryonic stem (mES)/embryoid body (EB)-derived endothelial-like cells. The endothelial-like cells were obtained by differentiation from mES/EB cells. Magnolol (20 µM) significantly suppressed the transcriptional and translational expression of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), an endothelial biomarker, in mES/EB-derived endothelial-like cells. To further understand the molecular mechanism of the suppression of PECAM expression, signaling pathways were analyzed in the mES/EB-derived endothelial-like cells. Magnolol induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria, a process that was associated with
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
3.0.CO;2-X. PMID 10741407. Berditchevski F (2002). "Complexes of tetraspanins with integrins: more than meets the eye". J. Cell Sci. 114 (Pt 23): 4143-51. PMID 11739647. Ashman LK (2003). "CD151". J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents. 16 (3): 223-6. PMID 12456024. Ashman LK, Aylett GW, Mehrabani PA, Bendall LJ, Niutta S, Cambareri AC, Cole SR, Berndt MC (1992). "The murine monoclonal antibody, 14A2.H1, identifies a novel platelet surface antigen". Br. J. Haematol. 79 (2): 263-70. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.1991.tb04531.x. PMID 1958484. Fitter S, Tetaz TJ, Berndt MC, Ashman LK (1995). "Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding a novel platelet-endothelial cell tetra-span antigen, PETA-3". Blood. 86 (4): 1348-55. PMID 7632941. Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Hasegawa H, Utsunomiya Y, Kishimoto K, Yanagisawa K, Fujita S (1996). "SFA-1, a ...
Boespflug, G., Maire, M., De Crescenzo, G., Lerouge, S. et Wertheimer, Michael R.. 2016. « Chemical aspects of endothelial cell adhesion and growth for vascular grafts ». Communication lors de la conférence : 6th International Conference on Plasma Medicine (Bratislava, Slovakia, Sept. 04-09, 2016). The full text of this document is not available here ...
Human Prostate Tumor-Associated Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray display typical cobblestone with large dark nuclei appearance under light microscopy. Cells are tested for expression of endothelial cell marker using antibody, CD31 (Catalog No. 550389, BD; CD31/PECAM-1 PE-conjugated Antibody, Catalog No. FAB3567P, R&D) or VE-Cadherin (FITC-VE-cadherin Catalog No. 560411, BD) by immunofluorescence staining or FACS. All cells test negative for mycoplasma, bacteria, yeast, and fungi. HIV-1, hepatitis B and hepatitis C are not detected for all donors and/or cell lots. Per request, a Certificate of Analysis will be provided for each cell lot purchased. Cells can be expanded for 3-5 passages under the cell culture conditions specified by Creative Bioarray. Repeated freezing and thawing of cells is not recommended ...
Having demonstrated that PEMF has a potent effect on endothelial cells in vitro, we examined whether PEMF was able to stimulate angiogenesis in vivo. Matrigel is a soluble basement membrane preparation, and when implanted s.c. supports vascular ingrowth. Matrigel was injected s.c. into tie2/lacZ transgenic mice that were housed in cages emitting PEMF for 8 h a day or control cages. After 3, 10, and 14 days, there was significantly greater vascular ingrowth into the matrix in PEMF-treated animals, confirmed by staining specific for endothelial markers CD31 and Tie-2. PEMF increased the vascular ingrowth more than twofold by day 3 (13.3±0.41 vs. 5.8±0.28 cells/hpf; P,0.01). This increase in vascular ingrowth persisted through days 10 and 14 (16.6±0.49 vs 12.6±0.43 cells/hpf; P,0.01, and 19.4±0.55 vs. 14.8±0.40 cells/hpf; P,0.01, respectivelLISA confirmed a twofold increase in FGF-2 in PEMF-treated matrigel, but demfactors TPO, Ang-2, and EGF (data not shown). In this study, we demonstrate ...
The ICAM-1-positive vessels in the hippocampal CA1 in the control, 2VO, HL and HL + 2VO groups at 1, 2 and 4 months post-surgery. Scale bar: 20 µm.Values are e
A molécula de adesão celular endotelial plaquetária (PECAM-1) também conhecida como cluster de diferenciação 31 (CD31) é uma proteína que em humanos é codificada pelo gene PECAM1, localizado no cromossomo 17. A PECAM-1 possui um papel pivotal na remoção de neutrófilos envelhecidos do organismo A PECAM-1 é encontrada na superfície de plaquetas, monócitos, neutrófilos, e alguns tipos de células T, constituindo parte significadiva das junções intercelulares do endotélio. Essa proteína é membra da superfamília das imunoglobulinas e está, provavelmente, envolvida em transmigração de leucócitos, angiogênese e ativação de integrinas. A CD31 é normalmente encontrada em células endoteliais, plaquetas, macrófagos, células de Kupffer, granulócitos, células T/NK cells, linfócitos, megacariócitos, osteoclastos e neutrófilos. A CD31 é também expressa em certos tumores, como no hemangioendotelioma epitelióide, tumores vasculares diversos e plasmocitomas. É encontrado ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
File gems/aws-sdk-autoscaling/lib/aws-sdk-autoscaling/instance.rb, line 202 def wait_until(options = {}, &block) self_copy = self.dup attempts = 0 options[:max_attempts] = 10 unless options.key?(:max_attempts) options[:delay] ,,= 10 options[:poller] = Proc.new do attempts += 1 if block.call(self_copy) [:success, self_copy] else self_copy.reload unless attempts == options[:max_attempts] :retry end end Aws::Waiters::Waiter.new(options).wait({}) end ...
Aims Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by autoimmune depletion of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. and T cells of NOD mice. In macrophages, 12/15-LO deletion leads to decreased proinflammatory cytokine mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, splenocytes from NOD-mice are unable Pecam1 to transfer diabetes in an adoptive transfer model. In islets, expression of 12/15-LO in …Read More. ...
BAMBI (BMP and Activin Membrane Bound Inhibitor) is considered to influence TGFβ and Wnt signaling, and thereby fibrosis. Recent basic science studies have shown that this molecule might be important in the role of fibrosis and how can manipulate fibrosis. In zebrafish a role for BAMBI was identified in platelet-endothelial interaction and thrombus formation after endothelial injury. Prior studies in liver cirrhosis and connection with TGF-B, studies have shown that BAMBI downregulation leads to enhanced profibrotic effects of TGF-B. So in other words, BAMBI is a check point and perhaps a gatekeeper for TGF-Bd pro fibrosis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cdc42 is required for cytoskeletal support of endothelial cell adhesion during blood vessel formation in mice. AU - Barry, David M.. AU - Xu, Ke. AU - Meadows, Stryder M.. AU - Zheng, Yi. AU - Norden, Pieter R.. AU - Davis, George E.. AU - Cleaver, Ondine. PY - 2015/9/1. Y1 - 2015/9/1. N2 - The Rho family of small GTPases has been shown to be required in endothelial cells (ECs) during blood vessel formation. However, the underlying cellular events controlled by different GTPases remain unclear. Here, we assess the cellular mechanisms by which Cdc42 regulates mammalian vascular morphogenesis and maintenance. In vivo deletion of Cdc42 in embryonic ECs (Cdc42Tie2KO) results in blocked lumen formation and endothelial tearing, leading to lethality of mutant embryos by E9-10 due to failed blood circulation. Similarly, inducible deletion of Cdc42 (Cdc42Cad5KO) at mid-gestation blocks angiogenic tubulogenesis. By contrast, deletion of Cdc42 in postnatal retinal vessels leads to aberrant ...
My research efforts have concentrated on delineating the molecular basis of vascular development in the mammalian embryo as an approach to understanding the etiology of congenital heart diseases. My laborotory efforts are based on the hypothesis that the developing vasculature provides important patterning information that directs subsequent cardiac and pulmonary morphogenetic events. We have focused our investigation on two areas: 1) the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules, particularly PECAM-1 in regulating vascular ontogeny and 2) the role of NFATc-1, in specification of endocardial development during early organogenesis. PECAM-1/CD31 is the earliest endothelial specific adhesion molecule expressed in the developing embryo. In addition, it is expressed as multiple alternatively spliced isoforms which demonstrate dramatically different adhesion profiles. We are using in vitro cell culture, in situ whole mouse embryo culture, and transgenic approaches to define the specific role of PECAM-1
Altered fluid flow, which is found in branches and curvatures of arteries, results in abnormal forces on the endothelial cells (EC). These forces have been shown to alter EC gene expression and phenotype and to activate several cellular structures including G-proteins, ion channels, adhesion molecules, and caveolae. Recently, PECAM-1 has been implicated as the primary sensor of hemodynamic forces in EC. Shear stress rapidly induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1 and the recruitment of SHP-2. These events appear to contribute to shear-activation of ERK1/2. Additionally, PECAM-1 has been shown to form a mechanosensory signaling complex with VE-cadherin, VEGFR2, and βcatenin which plays a role in adhesion molecule expression and regulation of NF-κB. Past work has shown that caveolae membrane domains also serve as mechanotransduction sites that regulate many of these same second messengers. Based on these novel observations, we hypothesize that the PECAM-1 mediated mechanotransduction ...
This study aimed to investigate the association of both intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and endothelial cell adhesion molecule (E-selectin) polymorphisms using PCR technique and their role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The
Background Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between IPF and vascular disease. The recognised role of platelets in vascular disease and their profibrotic potential led us to investigate platelet reactivity in IPF. We previously reported increased platelet reactivity due to a plasma factor in IPF. In this study we investigate platelet-endothelial adhesion.. Method. Blood was collected from 10 IPF patients and 10 controls to prepare platelet poor plasma. Washed control platelets were suspended in autologous plasma, allogeneic control plasma or IPF patient plasma and labelled with antiCD42b, stimulated with ADP and incubated with HUVEC. The percentage of endothelial cells with one or more adherent platelet(s) were identified by flow cytometry.. Results. Platelet-endothelial adhesion was significantly greater following incubation in IPF plasma compared with autologous and allogeneic control plasma at basal levels (0.86±0.03%, 0.09±0.03% and 0.15±0.03% respectively. P ,0.05) ...
A growing body of evidence suggests that transiently activated NF-κB in noninflammatory states and persistently activated NF-κB during inflammation play different pathophysiological roles in vivo. During the initial phase of inflammation, proinflammatory cytokines and mediators induce prolonged NF-κB activation in various inflammatory cells and endothelium. The activated NF-κB further upregulates the expression of several proinflammatory molecules, such as endothelial cell adhesion molecules and macrophage inflammatory protein-2, which triggers neutrophilic infiltration and tissue injury (1, 27, 34). Thus persistent NF-κB activation during the early phase of inflammation amplifies inflammatory response in vivo.. In contrast, transient activation of NF-κB before inflammatory stimulation results in the anti-inflammatory response. For example, several investigators (41, 54, 56) have found that transient activation of NF-κB is required for the heart to tolerate ischemia-reperfusion-induced ...
1972 and developing with aerospace malicious view Sheaves in 1980. 1974, left by the splanchnic Design Review of the PECAM-1 Advertisement( 102) in March 1975. Palmdale, California, were view in September 1976.
4946 Leukocyte trafficking in inflamed tissues is mediated through a coordinated series of adhesive interactions that take place between vascular endothelial cell adhesion molecules (ECAMs) and corresponding receptors on the leukocyte surface. The endothelial glycoprotein, E-selectin, provides a low-affinity contact for circulating leukocytes allowing them to roll along the vascular surface. Two members of the immunoglobulin supergene family, ICAM and VCAM, provide stable adhesive contacts that are necessary for the process of leukocyte transmigration. While the expression patterns of vascular ECAMs have been the focus of investigative efforts, little is known regarding these glycoproteins on lymphatic endothelium. We developed a surgical approach that utilizes human afferent lymphatic vessels to isolate and establish in primary culture lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). Using these characterized LECs, we examined constitutive and inducible expression patterns of several ECAMs. Methods: Using ...
Looking for microvessel density? Find out information about microvessel density. ratio of the mass mass, in physics, the quantity of matter in a body regardless of its volume or of any forces acting on it. The term should not be confused... Explanation of microvessel density
Primary human endothelial cells have a finite life span in vitro. After 3-4 passages, they tend to de-differentiate and eventually reach senescence. This limits their use in studies of endothelial cell function. To overcome this, we have developed human saphenous vein endothelial cell lines (HSVEC lines). Two cell lines were produced by infection with pZipSVtsA58-U19 which encodes the simian virus 40 large T-antigen, and one cell line was obtained by transfection with pLXSN16E6E7, which encodes the human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 genes. Two of the three HSVEC lines exhibited an extended life span in vitro and retained characteristic endothelial cobblestone morphology. These cell lines expressed the known endothelial markers CD31 and vascular endothelial cadherin, and were able to bind Ulex europaeus lectin I, but they did not retain the expression of von Willebrand factor. Furthermore, one cell line was able to functionally up-regulate the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ...
A peculiar characteristic of parathyroid tissue is the ability to spontaneously induce angiogenesis, to proliferate and to secrete PTH when autotransplanted in patients undergoing total parathyroidectomy. Since stem/progenitor cells have been involved in the process of tissue regeneration, we searched for putative parathyroid progenitors from human normal and tumoral parathyroids. By immunohistochemistry, FACS analysis and cell culture we identified parathyroid cells positive for the haematopoietic/endothelial marker CD34 which expressed surface antigens typical of endothelial progenitors, such as CD146 and CXCR4, but not the haematopoietic and mesenchymal markers, such as CD45, Thy-1/CD90, CD105 and CD117/c-kit. These cells were more abundant in tumoral than in normal parathyroids (4.4±1.2 and 2.2±0.9% respectively; P=0.05), without any difference in their immunophenotype except for the expression of nestin, a neural stem cell specific marker, which was almost exclusively restricted to the ...
4. DISCUSSION. As far as we know, this is the first report studying angiogenic markers in histopathological material comparing benign polyps and cancers. As endometrial cancer is now the most frequent gynaecological malignancy in the Western world and the incidence is constantly increasing, potential biological markers for cancer development to select high risk cases for surgical treatment would be of importance in daily routine. In former studies other risk indicators of malignant development in polyps like age, menopausal status, polyp diameter, and hypertension have been evaluated [1,21-23]. Thus, in a recent study polyp diameter exceeding 18 mm was significantly associated to an abnormal histology [22]. Also Rahimi and co-workers concluded that postmenopausal women with larger polyps had a 3.6-fold higher likelihood of atypia [23]. However, such indicators have limited value as they do not exclude malignancy in smaller lesion and more exact diagnostic guidelines are important to determine ...
The mechanism regarding rapid progression of residual hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after insufficient radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been preliminarily discussed. However, most studies have mainly focused on RFA-induced changes in the tumor cells. The present study was designed to determine whether tumor-associated endothelial cells (TAECs) could contribute to the invasiveness of HCC after insufficient RFA. TAECs were isolated from fresh HCC tissue and characterized. Morphological changes were observed in TAECs after heat treatment for 10 min. TAEC proliferation, migration and tube formation after heat treatment for 10 min at 37°C (control group), and 42 and 47°C (insufficient RFA groups) were examined. The differences in TAECs interactions with HepG2-GFP or HCCLM3-GFP cells among the two insufficient RFA groups and control group were evaluated. The expression of E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in TAECs was measured. The effects of TAECs on the invasiveness of HepG2-GFP or HCCLM3-GFP cells after
Following 15 years of experimental studies, tumor immunotargeting using monoclonal antibodies directed against tumor associated antigens shows now important clinical developments. This is mainly due to encouraging therapeutic results which have been obtained using humanized antibodies such as the anti-CD20 rituximab in follicular B lymphomas and the anti-ErbB2 herceptin in breast carcinomas. Thanks to genetic engineering, it is possible to graft variable or hypervariable regions from murine antibodies to human IgG, and even to obtain fully human antibodies by using either transgenic mice containing a large part of the human repertoire of human IgG, or selection of human antiboby fragments expressed by phages. Radiolabeling of antibodies played a major role to demonstrate the tumor immunotargeting specificity and remains attractive for the diagnosis by immunoscintigraphy as well as for the treatment by radioimmunotherapy of some cancers. In this review, the current results and the prospects of ...
Camenisch G et al. (2002) ANGPTL3 stimulates endothelial cell adhesion and migration via integrin alpha vbeta 3 and induces blood vessel formation in vivo.. [^] ...
Our laboratory consists of 5 Research Fellows and a Junior Faculty member who are physician scientists or research scientists and two senior research technicians. who use a combination of immunological, biochemical and molecular biological strategies to study leukocyte recruitment in various in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation. We have developed a valuable in vitro model that allows direct microscopic examination of live leukocyte Ð endothelial interactions under defined laminar fluid shear stress conditions that mimic blood flow in small venules. Areas of focus using this model are three-fold: first, dissection of the adhesion mechanisms that support blood monocyte and specific T cell subset adhesive interactions with endothelium under flow, or specific recombinant endothelial cell adhesion molecules; second, characterization of endothelial-dependent mechanisms involved in regulation of endothelial cell borders (lateral junctions) during leukocyte transmigration, permeability function ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. ...
In the present study, it is noteworthy that only focal or little immunoreactive vWF was found in the endocardium of noncardiac patients with none of the clinical high-risk predictors for thromboembolism, whereas vWF was apparent in the endothelium of intramyocardial vessels of the same cases. We confirmed that immunoreactivity for other endothelial cell markers, CD31, CD34 and eNOS, was maintained in the endocardial endothelium as well as in the vessel endothelium. Our observations suggest that in noncardiac patients, the endocardial endothelium of the atrial appendage is selectively deficient in vWF, which has been used as an endothelial cell marker in human vessels (19,20). However, this is not surprising because Yamamoto et al. (21)have recently reported that vWF is differentially expressed in endothelial cells among different tissues or organs in mice.. On the other hand, increased immunoreactivity for vWF in the endocardium was found particularly in the left, compared with the right, atrial ...

Antigens, CD31 - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.orgAntigens, CD31 - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org

Antigens, CD31. Cell Adhesion Molecules present on virtually all Monocytes, Platelets, and Granulocytes. CD31 is highly ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/antigens-cd31.html

CD31 Human Recombinant Protein - CD Antigens - Recombinant Protein - Full-Length Protein - Products  | ProMabCD31 Human Recombinant Protein - CD Antigens - Recombinant Protein - Full-Length Protein - Products | ProMab

The CD31 is purified by proprietary technologyary technonlogyary chromatographic techniques. ... CD31 Human Recombinant (aa 625-739) expressed in E.coli, shows a 38 kDa band on SDS-PAGE. ... Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule, PECAM-1, EndoCAM, GPIIA, CD31 antigen, PECAM1, CD31. ... CD31 Human Recombinant (aa 625-739) expressed in E.coli, shows a 38 kDa band on SDS-PAGE. The CD31 is purified by proprietary ...
more infohttps://www.promab.com/products/full-length-proteins/recombinant-protein-full/cd-antigens/cd31-human-recombinant-protein

2A)  However, the number of antigen-specific cells recovered at d | CD31 signal2A) However, the number of antigen-specific cells recovered at d | CD31 signal

CD31 signal. CD31 is expressed by stem cells. Search. Main menu. Skip to primary content ... 2D). However, antigen-specific Parvulin cells from the dLN of mice treated with CpG and peptide were readily detected by IFN-γ ... 2A) However, the number of antigen-specific cells recovered at d. Posted on November 8, 2018. by admin ... Curiously, antigen-specific IFN-γ secreting T cells were not detected in the spleen when immunizing mice with either peptide ...
more infohttps://cd31-signal.com/2a-however-the-number-of-antigen-specific-cells-recovered-at-d

Developmental characteristics of vessel density in the human fetal and infant brains.Developmental characteristics of vessel density in the human fetal and infant brains.

... using an antibody against CD31, which specifically reacts with endothelium. In the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter ... Antigens, CD31 / analysis. Blood Vessels / embryology*, growth & development*. Brain / blood supply*, embryology, growth & ... We demonstrated the developmental characteristics of vessel density in the human brain, using an antibody against CD31, which ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Developmental-characteristics-vessel-density-in/10193927.html

Benign mesenchymal tumours and tumour-like lesions in end-stage renal disease.Benign mesenchymal tumours and tumour-like lesions in end-stage renal disease.

Antigens, CD31 / metabolism. Capillaries / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / blood supply, diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential ... 0/Antigens, CD31; 0/FLII protein, human; 0/Microfilament Proteins; 0/Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0/Tumor Markers, ... All tumours stained positively for CD31 and FLI-1, but none expressed pankeratin (KL-1), podoplanin/D2-40, HHV8 or GLUT-1. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Benign-mesenchymal-tumours-tumour-like/23020314.html

Brain Concussion
      - Cerebral Concussion
     Summary Report | CureHunterBrain Concussion - Cerebral Concussion Summary Report | CureHunter

CD31 AntigensIBA 01/01/2011 - "The more rapid progression of multiple sclerosis was associated with male sex, a history of ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD001924-Brain-Concussion-Cerebral-Concussion.do

The representative experiment of inhibition of the angi | Open-iThe representative experiment of inhibition of the angi | Open-i

Vessel density was determined by counting per high-power field in the sections stained with an antibody reactive to CD31, as ... Vessel density was determined by counting per high-power field in the sections stained with an antibody reactive to CD31, as ... In addition, the combination of honokiol and DDP apparently reduced the number of vessels by immunolabeling of CD31 in the ... In addition, the combination of honokiol and DDP apparently reduced the number of vessels by immunolabeling of CD31 in the ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2543046_1471-2407-8-242-2&req=4

Metformin promoted ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5 rearran | Open-iMetformin promoted ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5 rearran | Open-i

Mentions: To evaluate endothelial cell permeability after metformin treatment, we conducted occludin/CD31, ZO-1/CD31 and ... Mentions: To evaluate endothelial cell permeability after metformin treatment, we conducted occludin/CD31, ZO-1/CD31 and ... Antigens, CD31/metabolism. *Brain Infarction/drug therapy. *Cells, Cultured. *Cytokines/metabolism. *Disease Models, Animal ... claudin-5/CD31 double staining to observe tight junction distribution in situ at 3 days after tMCAO. Result indicated that ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4201919_12974_2014_177_Fig4_HTML&req=4

Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Human Cytomegalovirus Reprograms Monocyte Differentiation toward an M1 Macrophage | The Journal...Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Human Cytomegalovirus Reprograms Monocyte Differentiation toward an M1 Macrophage | The Journal...

Platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (CD31 antigen). PECAM1. 37398_at. −14.7. Cell motility. ... CD86 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 2, B7-2 antigen). CD86. 36270_at. −3.4. ... CD80 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 1, B7-1 antigen). CD80. 35015_at. 4.7. ... CD209 antigen-like. CD209L. 39270_at. nc. CD36 antigen (collagen type I receptor, thrombospondin receptor). CD36. 36656_at. nc ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/181/1/698/tab-figures-data

Anti-Human PECAM1 scFv Stable Cell Line-CHO CSC-P1036 - Creative BioMartAnti-Human PECAM1 scFv Stable Cell Line-CHO CSC-P1036 - Creative BioMart

CD31; CD31 antigen; PECA1; GPIIA; PECAM-1; end°CAM; CD31/End°CAM; FLJ34100; FLJ58394;. ... Tested positive against native human antigen.. Product Storage:. It should be stored at -20 °C. Reconstituted protein aliquots ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_174393_309.htm

Tandutinib Inhibits the Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway to Inhibit Colon Cancer Growth | Molecular Cancer TherapeuticsTandutinib Inhibits the Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway to Inhibit Colon Cancer Growth | Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

We also determined the effect of the compound on tumor vascularization by staining for endothelial-specific antigen CD31. As ... 5D, the treatment with the tandutinib leads to a significant reduction in CD31 staining and to the obliteration of the normal ... Tissues embedded in paraffin were cut to a section of 4 μm, deparaffinized, and treated with antigen decloaker for 15 minutes ( ... Applications to detection of lymphokines and cell surface antigens. J Immunol Methods 1984;67:379-88. ...
more infohttp://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/12/5/598?rss=1

Green Tea Protects Against Skin Cancer | Herb NewsGreen Tea Protects Against Skin Cancer | Herb News

Assessment of expression of vascular endotketial cell antigen, CD31. Frozen sections (5 µm thick) were fixed in cold acetone ... GTPs inhibit the expression of CD31 and VEGF in tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of CD31 indicated ... 4, Panel A) which was greater than that of control skin (P , 0.001). Staining of CD31 was weak in the tumors of the mice ... 4 A). Moreover, the staining pattern of CD31 in the tumor tissue sections from mice of the UVB group revealed elongated vessels ...
more infohttp://www.herbs.org/herbnews/2008/05/green-tea-protects-against-skin-cancer/

Recombinant Human PECAM1 cell lysate PECAM1-3049HCL - Creative BioMartRecombinant Human PECAM1 cell lysate PECAM1-3049HCL - Creative BioMart

Human Cells transfected lysate in which Human CD31 / PECAM1 has been over-expressed. The whole cell lysate is provided in 1X ... CD31; CD31 antigen; PECA1; GPIIA; PECAM-1; endoCAM; CD31/EndoCAM; FLJ34100; FLJ58394;. ... Human Cells transfected lysate in which Human CD31 / PECAM1 has been over-expressed. The whole cell lysate is provided in 1X ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_400820_318.htm

adenoma of alveoli 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineadenoma of alveoli 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / ... Antigens, CD34; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40; 0 / prospero-related ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=adenoma+of+alveoli+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0

stage iia non small cell carcinoma of the lung drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search enginestage iia non small cell carcinoma of the lung drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Antigens, CD31 / metabolism. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inducing Agents; 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ... Mineo TC, Ambrogi V, Baldi A, Rabitti C, Bollero P, Vincenzi B, Tonini G: Prognostic impact of VEGF, CD31, CD34, and CD105 ... Title] Prognostic impact of VEGF, CD31, CD34, and CD105 expression and tumour vessel invasion after radical surgery for IB-IIA ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=stage+iia+non+small+cell+carcinoma+of+the+lung+drug+therapy+2000:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b1

Zack Z. Wang - Research Output
     - Johns Hopkins UniversityZack Z. Wang - Research Output - Johns Hopkins University

Kinetic expression of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) during embryonic stem cell differentiation. ... CD15 Antigens Extrinsic regulation of cardiomyocyte differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Chen, K., Wu, L. & Wang, Z. Z., ...
more infohttps://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/zack-z-wang/publications/?type=%2Fdk%2Fatira%2Fpure%2Fresearchoutput%2Fresearchoutputtypes%2Fcontributiontojournal%2Farticle&ordering=title&descending=false

Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Lingna Li (Translated to Turkish)Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Lingna Li (Translated to Turkish)

Results of immunohistochemical staining showed that the blood vessel-specific antigen CD31 was expressed in ND-GFP-expressing ... Results of immunohistochemical staining showed that CD31 was expressed in the ND-GFP-expressing nascent blood vessels. The ND- ... because they display the characteristic endothelial-cell-specific markers CD31 and von Willebrand factor. This model displays ... are regarded as promising therapeutic agents due to their ability to simultaneously bind two different antigens. Several ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/author/Lingna_Li?language=Turkish

Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Lingna Li (Translated to Swedish)Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Lingna Li (Translated to Swedish)

Results of immunohistochemical staining showed that the blood vessel-specific antigen CD31 was expressed in ND-GFP-expressing ... Results of immunohistochemical staining showed that CD31 was expressed in the ND-GFP-expressing nascent blood vessels. The ND- ... because they display the characteristic endothelial-cell-specific markers CD31 and von Willebrand factor. This model displays ... are regarded as promising therapeutic agents due to their ability to simultaneously bind two different antigens. Several ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/author/Lingna_Li?language=Swedish

CD31/PECAM-1 Antibody (MEC 7.46) [PerCP] (NB100-1642PCP): Novus BiologicalsCD31/PECAM-1 Antibody (MEC 7.46) [PerCP] (NB100-1642PCP): Novus Biologicals

Rat Monoclonal Anti-CD31/PECAM-1 Antibody (MEC 7.46) [PerCP]. Validated: Flow, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IP. Tested Reactivity: ... Check out the latest blog posts on CD31/PECAM-1.. The application of CD31/Pecam-1 (MEC 7.46) in breast cancer research CD31/ ... Additional CD31/PECAM-1 Products. CD31/PECAM-1 NB100-1642PCP * CD31/PECAM-1 Antibodies ... Home » CD31/PECAM-1 » CD31/PECAM-1 Antibodies » CD31/PECAM-1 Antibody (MEC 7.46) [PerCP] ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/cd31-pecam-1-antibody-mec-746_nb100-1642pcp

Role of VEGF-A in angiogenesis promoted by umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells: in vitro study | Stem Cell...Role of VEGF-A in angiogenesis promoted by umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells: in vitro study | Stem Cell...

Progressive differentiation of MSCs to endothelioid progeny was assessed by CD31 immunostaining. Although no detectable ... CD31 antigen. *Cell migration assays. *Extracellular matrix. Background. The concept of therapeutic angiogenesis stems from ... The cells started to grow in multiple layers, but formed no tubular structures and stayed CD31- (Fig. 5a).. ... Notably, acquisition of the CD31+ phenotype by UC-MSCs in long-term coculture with EA.hy926 cells on Matrigel occurred in the ...
more infohttps://stemcellres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13287-016-0305-4

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

CD31 - Cluster of differentiation antigen 31 Current Synonym true false 8440012 Lymphocyte antigen CD31 Current Synonym true ... Cluster of differentiation antigen 31 Current Synonym true false 1229787018 Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 ... Lymphocyte antigen CD31 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD31 (substance). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=4167003

Multiparametric Monitoring of Early Response to Antiangiogenic Therapy: A Sequential Perfusion CT and PET/CT Study in a Rabbit...Multiparametric Monitoring of Early Response to Antiangiogenic Therapy: A Sequential Perfusion CT and PET/CT Study in a Rabbit...

... these pathologic slides were immunohistochemically stained specifically for the endothelial antigen CD31, which is ... MVD was calculated when any endothelial cell or cell cluster showed CD31 staining and was clearly separate from adjacent tissue ... Figure 5: Representative microvessel density (MVD) of (a) control and (b) treatment groups: immunostaining with CD31 antibody ... To assess the relationship between perfusion and metabolic parameters as well as between measured parameters and CD 31 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/701954/

Anti-CD31 antibody [JC/70A] (ab9498) | AbcamAnti-CD31 antibody [JC/70A] (ab9498) | Abcam

Mouse monoclonal CD31 antibody [JC/70A]. Validated in WB, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Human, Cynomolgus monkey. ... Perform enzymatic antigen retrieval (pepsin or 0.1% trypsin solution at 37°C for 60 min (see reference by Moriyama M et al) ... Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) abreview for Anti-CD31 antibody [JC/70A]. Average ... Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) abreview for Anti-CD31 antibody [JC/70A]. Good ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/cd31-antibody-jc70a-ab9498.html
  • In addition, the combination of honokiol and DDP apparently reduced the number of vessels by immunolabeling of CD31 in the tissue sections, compared with control groups. (nih.gov)
  • Perform enzymatic antigen retrieval (pepsin or 0.1% trypsin solution at 37°C for 60 min (see reference by Moriyama M et al) before commencing with IHC staining protocol. (abcam.com)
  • The CD31 is purified by proprietary technologyary technonlogyary chromatographic techniques. (promab.com)