Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Tyrosine phosphorylation and complex formation of Cbl-b upon T cell receptor stimulation. (1/3906)

Cbl-b, a mammalian homolog of Cbl, consists of an N-terminal region (Cbl-b-N) highly homologous to oncogenic v-Cbl, a Ring finger, and a C-terminal region containing multiple proline-rich stretches and potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites. In the present study, we demonstrate that upon engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR), endogenous Cbl-b becomes rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated. In heterogeneous COS-1 cells, Cbl-b was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by both Syk- (Syk/Zap-70) and Src- (Fyn/Lck) family kinases, with Syk kinase inducing the most prominent effect. Syk associates and phosphorylates Cbl-b in Jurkat T cells. A Tyr-316 Cbl-binding site in Syk was required for the association with and for the maximal tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl-b. Mutation at a loss-of-function site (Gly-298) in Cbl-b-N disrupts its interaction with Syk. Cbl-b constitutively binds Grb2 and becomes associated with Crk-L upon TCR stimulation. The Grb2- and the Crk-L-binding regions were mapped to the C-terminus of Cbl-b. The Crk-L-binding sites were further determined to be Y655DVP and Y709KIP, with the latter being the primary binding site. Taken together, these results implicate that Cbl-b is involved in TCR-mediated intracellular signaling pathways.  (+info)

Expanded tumor-reactive CD4+ T-cell responses to human cancers induced by secondary anti-CD3/anti-CD28 activation. (2/3906)

Generation of tumor-reactive T cells in large numbers ex vivo is a requisite step in the adoptive immunotherapy of patients. We examined the immune responses of T cells derived from tumor vaccine-primed lymph nodes activated with anti-CD3 alone and with an anti-CD3/anti-CD28 combination. Nylon wool-purified CD3+ cells were isolated from vaccine-primed lymph nodes obtained from melanoma, renal cell, and head and neck cancer patients. In the absence of antigen-presenting cells, activation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 greatly enhanced subsequent T-cell expansion in interleukin 2 (>100-fold), compared to anti-CD3 alone. CD4+ T cells were preferentially stimulated. In four of eight patients, we found evidence of CD4+ cellular responses to autologous tumors by cytokine release assays. Positively selected CD4+ cells activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 released greater amounts of cytokine (IFN-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) in response to autologous tumors compared to cells activated by anti-CD3 alone. The CD4+ reactivity was MHC class II restricted and appeared to be associated with the expression of class II molecules on the vaccinating tumor cells. The CD4+ T-cell responses to class II-restricted tumor-associated antigens in patients with renal cell cancers represent unique findings.  (+info)

T-cell stimulation through the T-cell receptor/CD3 complex regulates CD2 lateral mobility by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent mechanism. (3/3906)

T lymphocyte activation through the T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex alters the avidity of the cell surface adhesion receptor CD2 for its ligand CD58. Based on the observations that activation-associated increases in intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) strengthen interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells, and that the lateral mobility of cell surface adhesion receptors is an important regulator of cellular adhesion strength, we postulated that [Ca2+]i controls CD2 lateral mobility at the T cell surface. Human Jurkat T leukemia cells were stimulated by antibody-mediated cross-linking of the TCR/CD3 complex. CD2 was labeled with a fluorescently conjugated monoclonal antibody. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy techniques were used to measure [Ca2+]i and CD2 lateral mobility. Cross-linking of the TCR/CD3 complex caused an immediate increase in [Ca2+]i and, 10-20 min later, a decrease in the fractional mobility of CD2 from the control value of 68 +/- 1% to 45 +/- 2% (mean +/- SEM). One to two hours after cell stimulation the fractional mobility spontaneously returned to the control level. Under these and other treatment conditions, the fraction of cells with significantly elevated [Ca2+]i was highly correlated with the fraction of cells manifesting significantly reduced CD2 mobility. Pretreatment of cells with a calmodulin inhibitor or a calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor prevented Ca2+-mediated CD2 immobilization, and pretreatment of cells with a calcineurin phosphatase inhibitor prevented the spontaneous reversal of CD2 immobilization. These data suggest that T cell activation through the TCR/CD3 complex controls CD2 lateral mobility by a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent mechanism, and that this mechanism may involve regulated phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of CD2 or a closely associated protein.  (+info)

Interaction of B cells with activated T cells reduces the threshold for CD40-mediated B cell activation. (4/3906)

CD154-CD40 interactions are of central importance for the induction of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens. Since most anti-CD40 mAb are only weak B cell mitogens, it is believed that under physiological conditions, signals through CD40 synergize with those from other receptors on B cells to induce B cell activation. We show here that the interaction of either normal B cells, or those from CBA/N (xid) mice, with CD3-activated primary T cells in whole spleen cell cultures markedly reduces the threshold for B cell activation via CD40. Hence, these pre-activated cells undergo vigorous proliferation when stimulated with either optimal or suboptimal concentrations of weakly mitogenic anti-CD40 mAb, or with soluble CD40 ligand. Blocking experiments indicate that the establishment of this priming effect requires stimulation via CD40 itself, plus T cell-derived IL-2. In support of this concept, only CD3/CD28-pre-activated, but not CD3-pre-activated T cells induce this effect, unless the co-cultures of B cells with the latter T cells are supplemented with IL-2. Although B cells activated in this fashion do express higher levels of CD40 than naive cells, we believe that this is insufficient to explain the observed dramatic effects on their proliferative capacity. Rather we propose that T cell-dependent B cell activation induces fundamental changes in the signalling machinery invoked by ligation of CD40. It is likely that this amplification loop could play an important role during the initiation of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens, when activated CD4 T cells only express low levels of CD154.  (+info)

Patterns of A2A extracellular adenosine receptor expression in different functional subsets of human peripheral T cells. Flow cytometry studies with anti-A2A receptor monoclonal antibodies. (5/3906)

Signaling through A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR) regulates T lymphocyte expansion and modulates T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated effector functions in vitro. To understand the role of A2ARs in the regulation of immune response, we investigated the expression levels of this receptor in different functional lymphocyte subsets. Monoclonal anti-A2AR antibody was used to develop a flow cytometric assay to quantify the expression A2ARs on lymphocytes. We report that detectable levels of expression of A2ARs are much higher among T cells than B cells. More CD4(+) than CD8(+) T cells express A2ARs, but activation of T cells increases A2AR expression, predominantly in CD8(+) T cells. No significant differences were found in the proportion of A2AR+ cells between CD8(low) and CD8(high) T cells or between TCR/CD3(low) and TCR/CD3(high) T cells. Studies of T helper cell subsets (TH1 and TH2) reveal that lymphokine-producing cells are much more likely to express A2ARs than are cells that do not produce lymphokines. These results suggest that A2ARs are variably expressed on T cell subsets and may regulate cytokine production in activated T lymphocytes.  (+info)

Increased expression of regeneration and tolerance factor in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection. (6/3906)

Regeneration and tolerance factor (RTF) plays a pivotal role in successful pregnancy outcome and has potent immunomodulating properties. During pregnancy, it is abundantly expressed in the placenta and on peripheral B lymphocytes. Several lines of evidence suggest that both successful pregnancy outcome and progression from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to AIDS are associated with a Th2-type response. As a result, we hypothesized that the cellular expression of RTF may also be increased during infection with HIV. Using flow cytometric analysis, we showed a significantly (P < 0.01) increased expression of RTF on CD3(+) cells obtained from individuals with HIV over that for individuals without HIV. On average, 32.1% of the CD3(+) cells from individuals with HIV expressed high levels of RTF. In contrast, an average of only 6.7% of the CD3(+) cells from individuals without HIV expressed high levels of RTF. Similar results were obtained when CD19(+) cells from individuals with (mean, 44.1%) and without (mean, 25.8%) HIV were evaluated. Linear regression analysis suggested that high levels of RTF expression by CD3(+) cells correlated better with viral load (r value, 0.46) than with absolute CD4 count (r value, 0.09). While additional experiments are necessary to delineate the precise immunologic role of RTF, our current data suggest that RTF expression during HIV infection may be a useful marker of immune activation.  (+info)

Interferon-alpha activates multiple STAT proteins and upregulates proliferation-associated IL-2Ralpha, c-myc, and pim-1 genes in human T cells. (7/3906)

Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunoregulatory functions. There is increasing evidence that IFN-alpha has an important role in T-cell biology. We have analyzed the expression of IL-2Ralpha, c-myc, and pim-1 genes in anti-CD3-activated human T lymphocytes. The induction of these genes is associated with interleukin-2 (IL-2)-induced T-cell proliferation. Treatment of T lymphocytes with IFN-alpha, IL-2, IL-12, and IL-15 upregulated IL-2Ralpha, c-myc, and pim-1 gene expression. IFN-alpha also sensitized T cells to IL-2-induced proliferation, further suggesting that IFN-alpha may be involved in the regulation of T-cell mitogenesis. When we analyzed the nature of STAT proteins capable of binding to IL-2Ralpha, pim-1, and IRF-1 GAS elements after cytokine stimulation, we observed IFN-alpha-induced binding of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT4, but not STAT5 to all of these elements. Yet, IFN-alpha was able to activate binding of STAT5 to the high-affinity IFP53 GAS site. IFN-alpha enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5a, and STAT5b. IL-12 induced STAT4 and IL-2 and IL-15 induced STAT5 binding to the GAS elements. Taken together, our results suggest that IFN-alpha, IL-2, IL-12, and IL-15 have overlapping activities on human T cells. These findings thus emphasize the importance of IFN-alpha as a T-cell regulatory cytokine.  (+info)

Long-term fetal microchimerism in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets in healthy women and women with scleroderma. (8/3906)

Fetal CD34(+) CD38(+) cells have recently been found to persist in maternal peripheral blood for many years after pregnancy. CD34(+) CD38(+) cells are progenitor cells that can differentiate into mature immune-competent cells. We asked whether long-term fetal microchimerism occurs in T lymphocyte, B lymphocyte, monocyte, and natural-killer cell populations of previously pregnant women. We targeted women with sons and used polymerase chain reaction for a Y-chromosome-specific sequence to test DNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and from CD3, CD19, CD14, and CD56/16 sorted subsets. We also asked whether persistent microchimerism might contribute to subsequent autoimmune disease in the mother and included women with the autoimmune disease scleroderma. Scleroderma has a peak incidence in women after childbearing years and has clinical similarities to chronic graft-versus-host disease that occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, known to involve chimerism. Sixty-eight parous women were studied for male DNA in PBMC and 20 for PBMC subsets. Microchimerism was found in PBMC from 33% (16 of 48) of healthy women and 60% (12 of 20) women with scleroderma, P =.046. Microchimerism was found in some women in CD3, CD19, CD14, and CD56/16 subsets including up to 38 years after pregnancy. Microchimerism in PBMC subsets was not appreciably more frequent in scleroderma patients than in healthy controls. Overall, microchimerism was found in CD3, CD19, and CD14 subsets in approximately one third of women and in CD56/16 in one half of women. HLA typing of mothers and sons indicated that HLA compatibility was not a requirement for persistent microchimerism in PBMC subsets. Fetal microchimerism in the face of HLA disparity implies that specific maternal immunoregulatory pathways exist that permit persistence but prevent effector function of these cells in normal women. Although microchimerism in PBMC was more frequent in women with scleroderma than healthy controls additional studies will be necessary to determine whether microchimerism plays a role in the pathogenesis of this or other autoimmune diseases.  (+info)

*Catumaxomab

It binds to antigens CD3 and EpCAM. It is in clinical trials in the United States currently and is used in Europe. It was ... By binding to such a cell via one arm, to a T lymphocyte via the other arm and to an antigen-presenting cell like a macrophage ... of an anti-EpCAM antibody and one half of an anti-CD3 antibody, so that each molecule of catumaxomab can bind both EpCAM and ... CD3. In addition, the Fc-region can bind to an Fc receptor on accessory cells like other antibodies, which has led to calling ...

*CD3G

1991). "The CD3-gamma and CD3-delta subunits of the T cell antigen receptor can be expressed within distinct functional TCR/CD3 ... T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is associated on the T cell surface with a complex of protein called CD3. CD3G (gamma chain) is ... 1989). "Dephosphorylation of the human T lymphocyte CD3 antigen". Eur. J. Biochem. 181 (1): 55-65. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1989 ... 1991). "Human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoproteins gp120 and gp160 specifically inhibit the CD3/T cell-antigen receptor ...

*CD3D

1991). "The CD3-gamma and CD3-delta subunits of the T cell antigen receptor can be expressed within distinct functional TCR/CD3 ... 1989). "Dephosphorylation of the human T lymphocyte CD3 antigen". Eur. J. Biochem. 181 (1): 55-65. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1989 ... 1991). "Human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoproteins gp120 and gp160 specifically inhibit the CD3/T cell-antigen receptor ... 1991). "Cloning of a novel cell type from human fetal liver expressing cytoplasmic CD3 delta and epsilon but not membrane CD3 ...

*CD5 (protein)

"Evidence for an association between the T cell receptor/CD3 antigen complex and the CD5 antigen in human T lymphocytes". Eur. J ... CD5 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD5 genome location and CD5 gene ... CD5 was used as a T-cell marker until monoclonal antibodies against CD3 were developed. In humans, the gene is located on the ... Raab M, Yamamoto M, Rudd CE (1994). "The T-cell antigen CD5 acts as a receptor and substrate for the protein-tyrosine kinase ...

*CD3 (immunology)

CD3 Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... The TCR, ζ-chain, and CD3 molecules together constitute the TCR complex. The CD3γ, CD3δ, and CD3ε chains are highly related ... In mammals, the complex contains a CD3γ chain, a CD3δ chain, and two CD3ε chains. These chains associate with a molecule known ... and it is at this latter stage that CD3 antigen begins to migrate to the cell membrane. The antigen is found bound to the ...

*CD43

... it is generally less effective at demonstrating this condition than is CD3 antigen. However, it may be useful as part of a ... CD43 antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human SPN genome location and SPN gene ... Fukuda M, Carlsson SR (1987). "Leukosialin, a major sialoglycoprotein on human leukocytes as differentiation antigens". Med. ...

*Nc/Nga mice model

These seven candidate genes are: - thymus cell antigen 1 theta (Thy1) - CD3 antigen delta, epsilon and gamma polypeptide (Cd3d, ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.101.100.110.103 --- antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.101.100.110.103.800 --- receptor-cd3 complex, antigen, t-cell ... antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.101.100.894.095 --- antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.101.100.894.095.800 --- receptor-cd3 complex, antigen, t-cell ... antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.103 --- antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.103.800 --- receptor-cd3 complex, antigen ... antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.095 --- antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.095.800 --- receptor-cd3 complex, antigen ...

*Acute biphenotypic leukaemia

The presence of specific T-lymphoid antigens, cytoplasmic CD3 (cCD3), MPO and CD 19 became the most important standard for ...

*PLCD3

"Human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoproteins gp120 and gp160 specifically inhibit the CD3/T cell-antigen receptor ...

*PLCG2

"Human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoproteins gp120 and gp160 specifically inhibit the CD3/T cell-antigen receptor ... associates with the B cell antigen receptor complex and regulates lymphocyte signaling". Immunity. 5 (4): 353-63. doi:10.1016/ ...

*T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain

Müller B, Cooper L, Terhorst C (January 1995). "Interplay between the human TCR/CD3 epsilon and the B-cell antigen receptor ... The protein encoded by this gene is the CD3-epsilon polypeptide, which together with CD3-gamma, -delta and -zeta, and the T- ... T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain has been shown to interact with TOP2B, CD3EAP and NCK2. CD3 (immunology) Cluster ... DeNofrio D, Radcliff G, Weinhold KJ, Denning SM (August 1995). "CD3 delta and epsilon gene expression in CD3-CD16+ natural ...

*Trifunctional antibody

A trifunctional antibody is a monoclonal antibody with binding sites for two different antigens, typically CD3 and a tumor ... CD3), ertumaxomab (HER2/neu / CD3), FBTA05 (CD20 / CD3, proposed trade name Lymphomun)and TRBS07 (GD2 / CD3, proposed trade ... The net effect is that this type of drug links T cells (via CD3) and monocytes/macrophages, natural killer cells, dendritic ... 2008). "Immunotherapy of recurrent B-cell malignancies after allo SCT with Bi20 (FBTA05), a trifunctional anti-CD3 x anti-CD20 ...

*ZAP70

"Tandem SH2 domains of ZAP-70 bind to T cell antigen receptor zeta and CD3 epsilon from activated Jurkat T cells". The Journal ... The most important member of the CD3 family is CD3-zeta, to which ZAP-70 binds (hence the abbreviation). The tandem SH2-domains ... Lindholm CK, Henriksson ML, Hallberg B, Welsh M (July 2002). "Shb links SLP-76 and Vav with the CD3 complex in Jurkat T cells ... Nel AE, Gupta S, Lee L, Ledbetter JA, Kanner SB (August 1995). "Ligation of the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) induces ...

*T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia

... and the neoplastic cells are typically positive for pan-T antigens CD2, CD3, and CD7 and negative for TdT and CD1a. The ...

*CD79B

Müller B, Cooper L, Terhorst C (1995). "Interplay between the human TCR/CD3 epsilon and the B-cell antigen receptor associated ... It is associated with agammaglobulinemia-6. The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen ... 1994). "CD5 is associated with the human B cell antigen receptor complex". Eur. J. Immunol. 24 (4): 812-6. doi:10.1002/eji. ... This gene encodes the Ig-beta protein of the B-cell antigen component. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding ...

*CD79

Müller B, Cooper L, Terhorst C (1995). "Interplay between the human TCR/CD3 epsilon and the B-cell antigen receptor associated ... Van Noesel C, Brouns G, van Schijndel G, Bende R, Mason D, Borst J, van Lier R (1992). "Comparison of human B cell antigen ... CD79 Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... in a similar manner to CD3-generated signal tranduction observed during T cell receptor activation on T cells. Chu P, Arber D ( ...

*Immunosuppressive drug

Past this period CD3 blocks the TCR-antigen binding and causes conformational change or the removal of the entire TCR3/CD3 ... Muromonab-CD3 is a murine anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody of the IgG2a type that prevents T-cell activation and proliferation by ... Muromonab-CD3 can cause excessive immunosuppression. Although CD3 antibodies act more specifically than polyclonal antibodies, ... CD3 antibodies shift the balance from Th1 to Th2 cells.[citation needed] The patient may develop neutralizing antibodies ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... receptor-cd3 complex, antigen, t-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824.825 -- receptors, antigen, t-cell, alpha-beta MeSH ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 -- receptors, antigen, ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 -- antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 -- antigens, cd40 ...

*TRA (gene)

Manolios N, Kemp O, Li ZG (1994). "The T cell antigen receptor alpha and beta chains interact via distinct regions with CD3 ... San José E, Sahuquillo AG, Bragado R, Alarcón B (1998). "Assembly of the TCR/CD3 complex: CD3 epsilon/delta and CD3 epsilon/ ... Koning F, Maloy WL, Coligan JE (1990). "The implications of subunit interactions for the structure of the T cell receptor-CD3 ... Kearse KP, Roberts JL, Singer A (1995). "TCR alpha-CD3 delta epsilon association is the initial step in alpha beta dimer ...

*CD3

... or CD-3 may be: CD3 (immunology), an antigen, cluster of differentiation protein (immunology), part of the T cell receptor ... CD3 = CDx3 from Cost of Delay Divided by Duration). Ford CD3 platform MediaMax CD-3, copy protection scheme MiniCD, a 3-inch CD ... TCR) complex on a mature T lymphocyte Cost of delay (CD3 Prioritisation), an approach for scheduling work through a scarce ...

*Calnexin

van Leeuwen JE, Kearse KP (Apr 1996). "Calnexin associates exclusively with individual CD3 delta and T cell antigen receptor ( ... This association prepares the MHC class I for binding an antigen for presentation on the cell surface. ATP and calcium ions are ... "The major histocompatibility complex class I antigen-binding protein p88 is the product of the calnexin gene". Proceedings of ... the job of chaperoning the MHC class I protein while the tapasin links the complex to the Transporter associated with antigen ...

*Pan-T antigens

... are antigens found on all T cells. They include CD2, CD3, CD5 and CD7. Mario Roederer (October 2004). Cytometry ...

*CD8

Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ... T-cell Group - Cardiff University Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart CD8 alpha - Marker for cytotoxic T lymphocytes ... In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ...

*Muromonab-CD3

The T cell receptor-CD3 complex transduces the signal for the T cell to proliferate and attack the antigen. Muromonab-CD3 is a ... It binds to the T cell receptor-CD3-complex (specifically the CD3 epsilon chain) on the surface of circulating T cells, ... the binding of muromonab-CD3 to CD3 can activate T cells to release cytokines like tumor necrosis factor and interferon gamma. ... Muromonab-CD3 (OKT3) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1985, making it the first monoclonal ...

*Immunosenescence

The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ... "Age-related impairment of p56lck and ZAP-70 activities in human T lymphocytes activated through the TcR/CD3 complex". Exp ... The age-associated impairment of dendritic Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) has profound implications as this translates into a ... Hakim, F.T.; R.E. Gress (2007). "Immunosenescence: deficits in adaptive immunity in elderly". Tissue Antigens. 70 (3): 179-189 ...
Preferred Name: Visilizumab Definition: A humanized, non-Fc receptor (FcR)-binding IgG2 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) directed against CD3 with potential immunosuppressive activity. Visilizumab binds to invariant CD3 epsilon, one of the non-covalently-associated subunits of T-cell receptors (TCRs) on activated T-cells. Upon binding to the TCR/CD3 complex, visilizumab induces apoptosis, which may result in the selective clonal deletion of activated pathogenic T-cells. This MoAb is engineered with a substitution at amino acid residues 234 and 237 (Val3Ala) within the IgG2 Fc arm, rendering it unable to bind to type II FcRs; accordingly, this agent is less likely to activate type II FcR-expressing resting T-cells. NCI-GLOSS Definition: A monoclonal antibody that binds to CD3 (a substance found on T-cells) and that is being studied as a treatment for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). It belongs to the family of drugs called monoclonal antibodies. Display Name: Visilizumab Label: Visilizumab NCI ...
We next determined the function of the CD4+CD25+ T cells. For these experiments we used the CD4+CD25- and CD4+CD25+ peripheral blood T cells whose FoxP3 expression levels were shown in Figure 1 (a and b). These T cell subsets were assessed for their ability to respond to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, and for the ability of the CD25+ cells to suppress the in vitro activation of the CD25- cells. When cultured in the presence of feeder cells along with soluble anti-CD3 and anti-CD28, the CD4+CD25- cells responded with robust proliferation, whereas the CD4+CD25+ cells did not (Figure 1c). When the two populations were cocultured, the level of proliferation, as measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation, was dramatically reduced (Figure 1c). The level of suppression seen was correlated with the ratio of CD4+CD25-:CD4+CD25+ cells in the culture, with more CD25+ cells resulting in more suppression of CD25- cell proliferation. These results are not due to exhaustion of the resources within the culture ...
Our project is directly responsive to the program objectives by applying high throughput technologies to isolate small molecules capable of disrupting or modify...
Highly purified CD1-3-4-8- human thymocytes were obtained by panning techniques combined with cell depletion with antibody-coated magnetic beads. Most of these cells expressed cytoplasmic CD3 antigen, as assessed by mAbs known to react with the CD3 epsilon chain. After culture with low doses of PMA (0.5 ng/ml) and subsequent addition (at 24 h) of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2; 100 U/ml) cells underwent extensive proliferation (40-60-fold of the initial cell input after 2 wk). The majority of the proliferating cells were CD3-TCR-. The remaining cells (5-40%) were represented by CD3+ TCR gamma/delta+ (BB3- A13+) cells. Further removal of CD3+ TCR-gamma/delta+ cells resulted in highly purified CD3- populations that further proliferated in culture with no substantial phenotypic changes. When CD3+ thymocytes were cultured under the same experimental conditions, only CD3+ TCR-alpha/beta+ cells could be detected, thus indicating that PMA did not affect the surface expression of the CD3/TCR complex, ...
CHO-Anti-Human CD80 scFv stable cell line is clonally-derived from a CHO cell line, which has been transfected with an anti-human CD80 scFv gene to allow expression of the scFv. It is an example of a cell line transfected using our proprietary CBTGS gene screening and amplification system.
CHO-Anti-Human CD99 scFv stable cell line is clonally-derived from a CHO cell line, which has been transfected with an Anti-human CD99 scFv gene to allow expression of the scFv. It is an example of a cell line transfected using our proprietary CBTGS gene screening and amplification system.
Use the human CD4 mouse for direct in vivo assessment of anti-human CD4 molecules. Model for Anti-CD4 compound efficacy and safety assessment. Research tool for investigation of CD4 biology.
CD3 epsilon兔单克隆抗体[E272](ab32186)可与人样本反应并经IP, IHC, ICC实验严格验证,被3篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
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The guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins include signal-transducing heterotrimeric G proteins (for example, Gs, Gi), smaller GTP-binding proteins that function in protein sorting, and the oncogenic protein p21ras. The T cell receptor complexes CD4-p56lck and CD8-p56lck were found to include a 32- to 33-kilodalton phosphoprotein (p32) that was recognized by an antiserum to a consensus GTP-binding region in G proteins. Immunoprecipitated CD4 and CD8 complexes bound GTP and hydrolyzed it to guanosine diphosphate (GDP). The p32 protein was covalently linked to [alpha-32P]GTP by ultraviolet photoaffinity labeling. These results demonstrate an interaction between T cell receptor complexes and an intracellular GTP-binding protein. ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate in vitro natural killer (NK) cell activity and expression of signal-transducing zeta chains in patients with cervical cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Experiments were performed with frozen lymphocytes from patients at all disease stages and from healthy controls. Thawed NK were activated by overnight incubation in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma); activity against two target cell lines was assessed by 4-h (51)Cr release assay. Targets chosen were K562, an erythroleukemic cell line, and a cervical carcinoma cell line designated 808. T and NK cell zeta chain expression was measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Patients NK were found to be as cytotoxic as those of normal controls against cell lines K562 and 808. Patient T and NK cells did not show significant down-regulation of the zeta chain. CONCLUSIONS: We have found no evidence to suggest that loss of zeta chains is a mechanism for immunocompromise in patients with cervical carcinoma. IFN-recoverable patient NK activity is ...
Peripheral blood lymphocytes expressing CD8 and CD57 determinants are a small (1-15%) subset in healthy humans. CD8+, CD57+ peripheral blood lymphocytes may be divided by the level of CD8 expression, into CD8+high (CD57+) T-cells and CD8+low (CD57+) natural killer (NK) cells. CD8+high (CD57+) T-cell numbers are increased in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-seropositive subjects, and there is substantial evidence that HCMV is integral in the development of this subset in health and disease. Furthermore, the CD8+high (CD57+) subset is clonally derived, expressing a limited range of T-cell receptors, and are therefore likely to have restricted antigen specificity. Functionally, CD8+low(CD57+) cells exhibit NK activity, while CD8+high(CD57+) T-cells from healthy subjects mediate contact-dependent suppression in several in vitro systems including: (i) pokeweed mitogen-induced proliferation and immunoglobulin synthesis, and (ii) generation of antiviral MHC-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. This is ...
Human T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain (CD3E) ELISA Kit can measure Human T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain in serum, blood, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other related supernatants and tissues.
Asthma affects approximately 300 million people worldwide and is the most common chronic lung disease, which usually is associated with bronchial inflammation. Most research has focused upon the role of CD4+ T cells and relatively few studies have addressed the phenotypic and functional roles of CD8+ T cell types and subtypes.Human NK-like CD8+ T cells may involve cells that have been described as CD8+CD28-, CD8+CD28-CD57+, CD8+CD27-, or CD8+ effector-memory (TEM) cells, among other. However, most of the data which is available regarding these various cell types were obtained in murine models, did not thoroughly characterize these cells with phenotypically or functionally or did not involve asthma-related settings.Nevertheless, one may conceptualize three principal roles for human NK-like CD8+ T cells in asthma: disease-promoting, regulatory and/or tissue repair. Although evidence for some of these roles is scarce, it is possible to extrapolate some data from overlapping or related CD8+ T cell
CD3 complex is crucial in transducing antigen-recognition signals into the cytoplasm of T cells and in regulating the cell surface expression of the TCR complex. T cell activation through the antigen receptor (TCR) involves the cytoplasmic tails of the CD3 subunits CD3 gamma, CD3 delta, CD3 epsilon and CD3 zeta (CD247). These CD3 subunits are structurally related members of the immunoglobulins super family encoded by closely linked genes on human chromosome 11. The CD3 components have long cytoplasmic tails that associate with cytoplasmic signal transduction molecules. This association is mediated at least in part by a double tyrosine-based motif present in a single copy in the CD3 subunits. CD3 may play a role in TCR-induced growth arrest, cell survival and proliferation ...
CD3 complex is crucial in transducing antigen-recognition signals into the cytoplasm of T cells and in regulating the cell surface expression of the TCR complex. T cell activation through the antigen receptor (TCR) involves the cytoplasmic tails of the CD3 subunits CD3 gamma, CD3 delta, CD3 epsilon and CD3 zeta (CD247). These CD3 subunits are structurally related members of the immunoglobulins super family encoded by closely linked genes on human chromosome 11. The CD3 components have long cytoplasmic tails that associate with cytoplasmic signal transduction molecules. This association is mediated at least in part by a double tyrosine-based motif present in a single copy in the CD3 subunits. CD3 may play a role in TCR-induced growth arrest, cell survival and proliferation ...
Clone REA1226 recognizes the murine CD18 antigen, a 95 kDa glycoprotein also known as integrin beta-2 (ITGB2). CD18 associates non-covalently with CD11a, CD11b, and CD11c to form LFA-1, Mac-1, and gp150/95, respectively and plays an important role in leukocytes adhesion. It is expressed on all leukocytes with NK and T cells showing higher density of surface expression. The CD18 integrin complexes bind CD54 (ICAM-1), CD102 (ICAM-2), CD50 (ICAM-3), iC3b, and fibrinogen. Heterodimers of CD18 with α subunits show different expression patterns on different leucocytes. Mice leucocytes lacking CD18 or expressing dysfunctional CD18 are defective in chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and homotypic aggregation. Additional information: Clone REA1226 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Schweiz
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Clone TB03 specifically recognizes human CD57. CD57, also known as HNK-1 or Leu-7, is an antigenic oligosaccharide moiety detected on extracellular proteins of certain cell types. In blood, CD57 is found on 15-20% of mononuclear cells, including subsets of natural killer (NK) and T cells, though not on erythrocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, or platelets. Also, CD57 expression can be found on a variety of neural cell types. CD57 has been shown to be expressed on late stage effector CD8+ T cells. The frequency of CD57+ T lymphocytes is raised in a variety of diseases. CD57 expression is also increased on chronically activated CD8+ T cells in persistent viral infections, such as HIV. - Belgique
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CD25− CD45RBlow as well as CD25+ CD45RBlow CD4+ cells from infected WT mice protect RAG KO mice against colitis. Infected RAG KO mice were given either no cel
Dear Ralph, I appreciate your questions and I think thay are valid and worth exploring. However, I think that I must clarify my point a bit. I am not implying that the CD8 cells are the worst hit by the virus. (Forgive the sensationalism of my first posting... this was meant to call attention to my article) Of course the CD4 cells are the worst hit because they carry the CD4 antigen constantly, thus their name. What I _am_ implying is that the CD8 cells must also be effected by the virus due to their positivity for CD4 during their development. Since CTL (the cells responsible for killing virally infected cells) are CD8 cells, any effects (quantitative or qualitative) on this compartment must be important in the pathogenisis of a viral disease. McMichael et al have reported that CTL response to viral peptide epitopes in the MHC class molecule dissipate at the end stage of HIV disease. This could be explained by the slow and steady exhaustion of CD8 precursers via infection by HIV when these ...
CD66a, also known as CEACAM1, is expressed on the surface of endothelial/epithelial cells, neutrophils and monocytes and can be induced on T cells, B cells and CD16-negative NK cells.
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8G12 antibody reacts with human CD34, expressed by most HSPCs. CD34 is a marker used to identify and isolate HSPCs capable of cell engraftment.
8G12 antibody reacts with human CD34, expressed by most HSPCs. CD34 is a marker used to identify and isolate HSPCs capable of cell engraftment.
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A trapped bead (right) decorated with a foreign antigen is actively placed on a T cell (left) and force is applied to facilitate recognition by the T cell receptor complex.
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CD130, also known as gp130 (glycoprotein 130), IL6ST (interleukin-6 signal transducer), and IL6RB/IL-6Rβ (interleukin-6 receptor beta).
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CD84 (Cluster of Differentiation 84) is a human protein encoded by the CD84 gene.. Members of the CD2 (see MIM 186990) subgroup of the Ig superfamily, such as CD84, have similar patterns of conserved disulfide bonds and function in adhesion interactions between T lymphocytes and accessory cells. ...
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B7-DC costimulates PD1−/− CD4+ T cells. (a) Purified CD4+ T cells from wt (open bars) or PD-1 KO mice (filled bars) were stimulated with 30 ng/well of preco
40% represents a normal percentage of CD4 cells. In other words, 40% of the lymphocytes counted are CD4 lymphocytes, and 60% are other kinds of lymphocytes like CD8 cells....
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1. I am concerned about the trend in CD4% decline. If it truly is approaching 20%, then regardless of the absolute number, you are losing CD4 cells. Despite your viral load being detectable and low,...
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2001 05 22.20858 16 06 45.68 -20 01 22.4 22.0R 01KG76 807 Cd1817 2001 05 22.28897 16 06 45.29 -20 01 21.3 01KG76 807 Cd1817 2001 06 10.02875 16 05 16.38 -19 57 27.3 22.9R 01KG76 304 Cd1817 2001 06 10.10380 16 05 16.05 -19 57 26.3 01KG76 304 Cd1817 2001 08 19.03454 16 02 18.80 -19 50 35.3 21.4R 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2001 08 20.03188 16 02 19.15 -19 50 37.8 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2001 08 21.03938 16 02 19.58 -19 50 40.7 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2002 04 07.29240 16 15 09.97 -20 25 16.3 21.6R 01KG76 807 Cf4617 2002 04 07.38861 16 15 09.68 -20 25 15.6 01KG76 807 Cf4617 2002 05 12.03950 16 12 54.85 -20 19 22.5 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 12.08513 16 12 54.63 -20 19 21.8 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 12.13062 16 12 54.41 -20 19 21.3 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 13.04812 16 12 50.15 -20 19 10.5 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 13.11749 16 12 49.83 -20 19 09.6 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 07 10.99718 16 08 34.27 -20 08 36.4 22.2R 01KG76 304 Cf9823 2002 07 11.20921 16 08 33.59 -20 08 35.0 01KG76 304 Cf9823 2002 07 13.10322 16 08 27.82 -20 08 ...
CD45, 100 Tests. CD45 is a family of single chain transmembraneous glycoproteins consisting of at least four isoforms (220, 205, 190, 180 kDa) which share a common large intracellular domain.
CD45, 100 Tests. CD45 is a family of single chain transmembraneous glycoproteins consisting of at least four isoforms (220, 205, 190, 180 kDa) which share a common large intracellular domain.
CD4 cells protect the body from infection by circulating in the blood to identify bacteria and viruses then produce antibodies to destroy them. CD4 cells also trigger the body to respond to infection...
CD8 T 세포는 바이러스나 박테리아와 같은 병원체 및 종양, 이식된 장기 등에서 발현되는 외부 항원을 인지하고 이 외부항원을 발현하는 세포를 제거하는 기능을 갖는 세포독성 T 세포이다. 외부항원들에 대한 CD8 T 세포 기억의 형성은 차 후 이 항원들에 재노출되었을 때 강하고 빠른 면역 반응을 일으켜, 감염 병원체나 종양을 퇴치하는데 기여하기 때문에 면역력 향상에 중요한 요인이다. 감염 병원체 항원에 대한 백신을 접종하는 이유는 바로 이와 같은 T 세포 기억을 형성하기 위함이다. 반대로, 특정 항원에 대한 CD8 T 세포의 관용 (tolerance)이 형성하게 되면 그 항원들이 제거되지 않고 받아들여지게 되는데, 이식거부 반응이나 자가면역질환이 억제되기 위해서는 이식 항원이나 자가 항원에 대한 관용의 형성이 중요하다 ...
Pill with imprint cardizem CD 300 mg is Blue & Gray, Capsule-shape and has been identified as Cardizem CD 300 mg. It is supplied by BTA Pharmaceuticals.
ഒരുപോലെയിരിക്കുന്ന ശരാശരി വലിപ്പമുള്ള ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകളാണ് സൂക്ഷ്മദർശിനിയിലൂടെ ദൃശ്യമാവുക. നക്ഷത്രപൂരിതമായ ആകാശം എന്നാണ് ഈ സൂക്ഷ്മദർശിനി ദൃശ്യത്തെ വിശേഷിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്.[4] ഈ ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകൾക്ക് ക്ഷാരാഭിമുഖ്യമുള്ള കോശദ്രവ്യം ഉണ്ടാകും. ചെറിയ മുറിയാത്ത കോശങ്ങൾ എന്നാണ് ബർക്കിറ്റ് ലിംഫോമയിലെ ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകളെ വിശേഷിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്. ബി-കോശ വ്യതിരക്ത മാർക്കറുകളായ CD20, CD22, CD19 എന്നിവ ...
Are people with HIV getting their blood taken for CD4 testing more often than they need? Paul Sax, M.D., makes the case for less frequent measurements -- ...
Im a bit unsettled today because my cycle was supposed to start and it didnt. And I am super-regular. AF arrives every 28 days like clockwork. The FET schedule is built upon today being Day One, not Day Twenty-nine. (Actually, to make matters worse, I miscounted and the FET schedule is built upon yesterday being CD One.) Now Im going to be at least two days behind on the path to an April 22 transfer . . . Or ...
Zespół: HOLOCAUSTO CANIBAL Tytuł: Larvas Label: Bizarre Leprous Prod. Nr. Kat.: BLP0136 Format: CD Styl: Brutal Death/Grind Tracklista: 1. C
High-quality CD14 proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of PCSK9 proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
High-quality CD79B proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of PCSK9 proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
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ゲット・イット・ベイビー (ノーナ・リーヴス・リミックス) ,ボーナス・トラック, / ティト・ ...
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Page 3 - Hello everyone So I took the AANP in March 2011 after taking the Fitz course, and failed (personally I didnt think I was ready), but I thought I would try. Then I purchased the Barkley Assoc CD
هدف: پلاکت‏ها قطعات سلولی بدون هسته و مشتق از مگاکاریوسیت‏ها هستند که علاوه بر ایفای نقش در هموستاز و ایمنی ذاتی به واسطه داشتن شاخص‏های مهم نظیر CD40L (یک شاخص مولکولی مهم در تحریک سلول‏های ایمنی) می‏توانند در ایمنی اکتسابی نیز نقش داشته باشند؛ از جمله تأثیر آن‏ها بر لنفوسیت‏های B و فعال‏سازی آن‏ها مشخص شده است. اکنون در پاسخ به این سؤال که آیا میکروذرات مشتق از غشای پلاکت نیز می‏تواند این تأثیر‏گذاری را داشته باشد، تأثیر آن‏ها بر فعال‏سازی لنفوسیت‏های B بررسی شد. مواد و روش‏ها: در ابتدا پلاکت کنسانتره از پایگاه انتقال خون منطقه‌ای و آموزشی استان
CD3e molecule, epsilon also known as CD3E is a polypeptide which in humans is encoded by the CD3E gene which resides on chromosome 11. The protein encoded by this gene is the CD3-epsilon polypeptide, which together with CD3-gamma, -delta and -zeta, and the T-cell receptor alpha/beta and gamma/delta heterodimers, forms the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. This complex plays an important role in coupling antigen recognition to several intracellular signal-transduction pathways. The genes encoding the epsilon, gamma and delta polypeptides are located in the same cluster on chromosome 11. The epsilon polypeptide plays an essential role in T-cell development. Defects in this gene cause severe immunodeficiency. This gene has also been linked to a susceptibility to type I diabetes in women. T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain has been shown to interact with TOP2B, CD3EAP and NCK2. CD3 (immunology) Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000198851 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ...
CD27 is a lymphocyte-specific member of the TNF receptor family and has a TNF-related transmembrane ligand, CD70. The CD27/CD70 receptor-ligand pair cooperates with the TCR in the regulation of the peripheral T cell response. The study presented here reveals that CD27 may play a similar role in thymic pre-T cell development. We have previously cloned the cDNA encoding murine CD27, prepared specific mAbs and observed that murine CD27 is expressed on virtually all thymocytes, with the exception of a subpopulation of CD4-8- precursor T cells. It is shown here that induction of murine CD27 expression occurs at the transition from the CD4-8-25+ to the CD4-8-25- precursor T cell stage and is regulated by the pre-TCR. Therefore, we investigated whether CD27 contributes to pre-TCR-mediated thymocyte development. Pre-TCR function was mimicked by the induction of CD3 signaling in thymocytes of recombination activating gene (RAG)-deficient mice. This in vivo anti-CD3 epsilon mAb treatment induces an about ...
Purified CD3-4- thymocytes were obtained by depletion of CD3+ and CD4+ cells from fresh thymocyte suspensions. 5-15% of these cells were found to express CD16 antigen, while other natural killer (NK) cell markers were virtually absent. Double fluorescence analysis revealed that 20-40% of thymic CD16+ cells coexpressed CD1, while approximately half were cyCD3+. When cultured in the presence of peripheral blood lymphocytes and H9 leukemia cell line as a source of irradiated feeder cells and interleukin 2 (IL-2), CD3-4- thymocytes underwent extensive proliferation. In addition, after 1-2 wk of culture, 30-50% of these cells were found to express CD16 surface antigen. Cloning under limiting dilution conditions of either CD3-4- or CD3-4-16- thymocytes in the presence of irradiated H9 cells resulted in large proportions (approximately 50%) of CD16+ clones. On the basis of the expression of surface CD16 and/or cyCD3 antigen, clones could be grouped in the following subsets: CD16+ cyCD3+; CD16+ cyCD3-; ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the interleukin-2 receptor α (CD25) is selectively decreased on decidual CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes in normal pregnancies. AU - Chao, Kunag Han. AU - Wu, Ming Yih. AU - Yang, Jehn Hsiahn. AU - Chen, Shee Uan. AU - Yang, Yu Shih. AU - Ho, Hong Nerng. PY - 2002/7/22. Y1 - 2002/7/22. N2 - In a previous study, we demonstrated that the proportion of activated T cells (CD69 +CD3 + and HLA-DR +CD3 +) is higher in the endometrium and decidua after the luteal phase and throughout early pregnancy compared with in the peripheral blood. However, there was no difference in the proportion of CD25 +CD3 + lymphocytes between the endometrium and peripheral blood. In this study, we further verify that the levels of CD25 on CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes are not increased in normal pregnancy, although the levels of CD69 and HLA-DR are markedly increased. We also elucidate that the amounts of all three activation molecules on local T lymphocytes are down-regulated in pregnancy ...
Like most mammalian species, humans express several structurally distinct CD1 antigen-presenting molecules. The conservation of large CD1 gene families among most mammals suggests that each type of CD1 protein has distinct functions that confer selective advantage. Cellular studies of CD1 proteins increasingly explain how each CD1 protein differs from the others. CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, and CD1d have distinct antigen groove structures, patterns of expression in tissues, intracellular trafficking, and trigger T cells expressing diverse TCRs (Kasmar et al., 2009). CD1d (group 2) diverges most clearly from CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c (group 1) with regard to protein sequence. Also, group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins show differing transcriptional responses to pathogens, suggesting that they function at different stages of the immune response (Roura-Mir et al., 2005b). Collectively, these cellular studies suggest that group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins likely have differing roles in immune responses.. The majority ...
CD57 is a marker of terminal differentiation on human CD8+ T cells and possibly on human NK cells. Newborn and fetal NK cells do not express CD57, however the frequency of CD57-bearing NK cells increases with age. Utilizing PBMC obtained from healthy donors we are assessing the phenotypic and functional differences between CD57+ and CD57neg NK cells. CD57+ NK cells express different activation markers and a distinct repertoire of NK receptors suggestive of a more mature phenotype. Preliminary data also indicate that there is a higher frequency of IFNγ CD57+ NK cells compare to CD57neg NK cells when stimulated through their activating receptors, CD57+ NK cells are less sensitive to activation-induced apoptosis, and interestingly, proliferate less when co-cultured with target cells and/or cytokines. The combination of a more activated phenotype and a decreased capacity to proliferate suggests CD57+ NK cells are terminally differentiated. Studies are underway to assess the phenotypic and ...
Results Cultured cells started to express CD14 on the day 12 and more than 90% of the cells expressed CD14 on the day 21 in the monocyte differentiation induction course. According to the expression levels of CD14, the cell population was divided into three groups: CD14 (−), CD14 (+) and CD14 (++). CD15 (+) cells were observed in CD14 (−) and CD14 (+) population but not in CD14 (++) population. The CD15+ cells in CD14 (+) transiently appeared in RA-iPS derived cells at 11.9±2.8% (mean ± SE) on day15. However these cell proportion in NOF was1.7±2.0%. Meanwhile, CD15+ cells in CD14 (−) proportion decreased during monocyte differentiation in RA-iPS cells, but remained in NOF-iPS cells (representative data, RA 31.5, 20.6, 15.6%, NOF 47.3, 46.1, 47.3%, on day15, 18 and 21).. ...
Sato S., Miller A.S., Howard M.C., Tedder T.F.. B lymphocyte development and function are regulated in part by the CD19 cell surface receptor complex, which is composed of at least four proteins; CD19, CD21 (CR2, complement receptor 2), CD81, and Leu 13. Because this complex has eight membrane-spanning domains and six cytoplasmic regions, determining the molecular basis for its function and signal transduction activities has not been straightforward. In this study, the contribution of the CD19 cytoplasmic domain to the in vivo function of the CD19/CD21/CD81/Leu 13 complex was assessed by generating CD19-deficient mice that expressed a transgene that encoded only the extracellular and transmembrane domains of CD19. Mice expressing this transgene were similar, if not identical, to CD19-deficient mice with abnormal B cell development, a lack of B-1 cells, increased surface IgM levels on B cells, modest mitogen responses, minimal serum Ig levels, and low humoral immune responses. The results of this ...
Su, J., and J. Forman. CD8 T cells in MHC class Ia-deficient mice. AAI, Denver, CO, 2003. Su, J., R. E. Berg, S. Murry, and J. Forman. Thymus dependent MHC non class Ia selected memory phenotype CD8 T cells from naïve mice provide rapid protection against infection. AAI, San Diego, CA, 2005. xiii List of Figures 1. An elevated percentage of CD8 T cells in DKO are CD8?+CD8?-………………………….50 2. There are less CD8??CD44hi cells and similar CD8?? cells in DKO mice compared to B6 mice…………………………………………………………………………………………..52 3. A significant portion of CD8?? T cells in DKO mice is CD44hiCD122+Ly6C+ and CD62Llo……………………………………………………………………………...............53 4. Expression of NK cell markers by CD8??CD44hi cells from naïve B6 and DKO mice ………………………………………………………………………………………………..55 5. ...
CD4+/CD8+/CD3+ cells are 1-4% range of the lymphocyte population from our HIV+ patients. Most of the cells are brightCD4+/dimCD8+ but all combinations of bright and dim are possible. We include these dual positive cells in both the CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+ counts. What do other labs do with these cells and why? -----Original Message----- From: Kenneth Ault [mailto:aultk at mmc.org] Sent: Wednesday, October 31, 2001 7:32 PM To: cyto-inbox Subject: Re: cd4 cd8 coexpression A phenomenon frequently forgotten is coincidence. If two cells enter the observation volume at the same time they will be seen as one event with the properties of both cells. This is a very common problem in my world (platelets) and should be considered as a possible explanation for any kind of unexpected dual expression of markers. It would be interesting to know if the frequency of CD4/CD8 doubles changes as the particle flow rate changes (i.e change the sample pressure or dilute the specimen.) Ken Ault ...
Mice hemizygous for the X-linked mutation, scurfy (sf), exhibit a fatal lymphoreticular disease that is mediated by T lymphocytes. To evaluate the respective roles of CD4 or CD8 single positive T cells in scurfy disease, neonates were treated with mAbs directed against the CD4 or CD8 molecules. Whereas mice treated with an anti-CD8 Ab developed lesions and succumbed to disease at the same time (17 days) as their untreated scurfy littermates, mice treated with an anti-CD4 Ab lived up to 11 wk before developing scurfy disease. To insure a more complete elimination of the T cell subsets, the scurfy mutation was bred onto beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m)-deficient (CD8-less) and CD4-deficient transgenic mouse lines. Whereas there was little moderation of disease in beta 2m-deficient scurfy mice, CD4-deficient scurfy mice had markedly decreased scurfy lesions and a prolonged life span, similar to that of anti-CD4-treated sf/Y mice. Additionally, scurfy disease was transplanted into H-2-compatible nude ...
ClearLLab Control Cells Normal and ClearLLab Control Cells Abnormal are stabilized preparations of assayed, lysable whole blood intended as process controls for the verification of the ClearLLab 10C Panels on the Navios and Navios EX flow cytometers. Parameters assayed include: Kappa, Lambda, CD5, CD200, CD38, CD20, CD19, CD45, TCRγδ, CD4, CD2, CD56, CD3, CD7, CD8, CD16, CD10, CD13, CD64, CD14, HLA-DR, CD11b, CD15, CD33, CD34, CD117, and CD123 They provide positive cell controls that are processed in the same manner as a whole blood sample. This allows verification of reagent performance and the methods used for staining targeted cells, lysing erythrocytes, and analyzing samples with flow cytometry.
CD200 (OX2) is a broadly distributed cell surface glycoprotein that interacts with a structurally related receptor (CD200R) expressed on rodent myeloid cells and is involved in regulation of macrophage function. We report the first characterization of human CD200R (hCD200R) and define its binding characteristics to hCD200. We also report the identification of a closely related gene to hCD200R, designated hCD200RLa, and four mouse CD200R-related genes (termed mCD200RLa-d). CD200, CD200R, and CD200R-related genes were closely linked in humans and mice, suggesting that these genes arose by gene duplication. The distributions of the receptor genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR, and protein expression was confirmed by a set of novel mAbs. The distribution of mouse and human CD200R was similar, with strongest labeling of macrophages and neutrophils, but also other leukocytes, including monocytes, mast cells, and T lymphocytes. Two mCD200 receptor-like family members, designated mCD200RLa and
PerCP/Cy5.5 anti-human CD55 - read details of BioLegend antibodies in the SelectScience.net Antibody products and suppliers directory
Chemokine receptors (CKRs), the primordial receptors for primate lentiviruses, are sufficient to mediate virus-cell fusion. Several different fusogenic CKRs and related receptors provide a broad potential host cell range, presumably advantageous for viral spread within a given infected individual, and across species. By contrast, the additional constraint of obligatory CD4 binding, just prior to CKR engagement, radically restricts potential host cells within an individual (or lymph node microenvironment), and might also limit xenotransmission, as CD4 sequences vary among primates. In spite of these potential drawbacks, CD4 dependent entry for SIV and HIV is the rule rather than the exception, and is generally thought to have evolved by selection for 1) stabilization of virus-cell surface interactions, and 2) conformational shielding of readily neutralized CKR binding epitopes. CD4 binding residues of SIV and HIV envelope are recessed, (relatively hidden from immune detection) and may exhibit a strong
Research in the past few years has documented significant advances in our understanding of the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD154) system in diverse immune functions. This system influences many T cell mediated inflammatory immune responses and effector functions, unmasking a previously unexpected role for CD40-CD154 in cell mediated immunity. Manipulation of CD154 in animal models of infection by the use of CD154-deficient mice or anti-CD154 antibodies has shown the importance of this system in the initiation of the inflammatory response, in the activation of antigen-presenting cells and in resistance to infections ...
As with any breakthrough, new questions arise and new experiments become feasible.....One problem, however, is that CD32a is a marker for only 50% of the reservoir, whereas the eradication of latent HIV would require a much greater reduction in the number of latently infected cells in the body. Moreover, targeting CD32a would also make the antigen-presenting cells that normally express CD32a vulnerable to destruction, which might well cause unwanted or harmful side effects.....Second, the authors studied CD4 lymphocytes from the blood, but these circulating cells account for 2%, at most, of the CD4 T cells in the body2. It remains to be seen whether CD32a is as good a marker for latently infected cells in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, gut and other tissues. Perhaps more markers could be identified from the 103 differentially expressed genes found in the researchers screen - analysis of these proteins in combination with CD32a might increase the total proportion of identifiable latent ...
cd200 rpe mouse anti rat cd200 rpe | order cd200 rpe mouse anti rat cd200 rpe | How to use: cd200 rpe mouse anti rat cd200 rpe | support help for cd200 rpe mouse anti
CD to MP3 Maker is an extremely easy to use cd ripper and MP3 to WAV decoder and WAV to MP3 encoder for Windows 9X/NT/Me/2000/XP/Vista/7 . Rip CD to MP3,OGG,WMA,WAV,AAC,APE,FLAC,TTA,SPX,AC-3,MP2,WV(wavepack) and MPC(musepack) CD to MP3 Maker is an extremely easy to use cd ripper and audio converter for Windows OS. It may rip CD to MP3,OGG,WMA,WAV,AAC,APE,FLAC,TTA,SPX,AC-3,MP2,WV(wavepack) and MPC(musepack) .And convert audio formats MP3, WAV, WMA, OGG, AAC ...
... :Phenotype assessed by FACS assay following attempts at differentiation in induction medium A: Fibroblast X-axis CD45-PerCp; Y-axis CD10-FITC (CD45+CD10+31% UR quadrant and CD45-CD10+ 66% LR quadrant) 28% and 51% respectively. B: X-axis SP-C-FITC. Lung lineage specific lineages (SP-C+) ,2% (UL quadrant). C: X- axis CD45-PerCp. Hematopoietic lineage (pan-hematopoietic lineage negative). D: CD81+CD47+ (LR 67.5%) Fibroblast specific markers. E: R2 is CD45- gated SP-C+ (UR 1.34%). F: R2 is CD45- gated AQP-1+ (UR 0.67%). G: R5 is CD45- gated AQP-5+ (UR 0.67%). H: R5 is CD45- gated TTF-1+ (UR 0.31 ...
CD371 belongs to the C-type lectin family and is expressed on monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, granulocytes, and some NK cell subsets.
CD66a/c/e are members of the CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) family of the Ig superfamily. CEA family members are involved in transmembrane signaling and activation of neutrophils.
CD4 (helper cells) 43% (30-61) Absolute CD4 + cells 527 (490-1740) CD8 (supressor T cells) 28% (12-42) Absolute CD8+ cells 340 (180-1170)...
The human group 1 CD1 molecules CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c have been shown to present both endogenous and mycobacterial-derived lipid antigens to various subsets of T...
CD62E + CD62P antibody [1.2B6] (FITC) for FACS. Anti-CD62E + CD62P mAb (GTX76588) is tested in Human, Pig samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
CD21 + CD35 antibody [7E9] (complement receptor 2) for ICC/IF, IP, WB. Anti-CD21 + CD35 mAb (GTX54408) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The test evaluates and monitors T-lymphocyte helper cells (CD4) and inducer T-cells. T-lymphocyte helper cells (such as CD4 cells) play a critical role in orchestrating the response to infections. After activation of the immune response, T-lymphocyte suppressor cells (such as CD8) deactivate the immune cells fighting t
Everything you want to know about the XCD28. Get the inside scoop on the Dell XCD28 from a large number of expert and user reviews.
Given two numbers not prime to one another, to find their greatest common measure. Let AB, CD be the two given numbers not prime to one another. Thus it is required to find the greatest common measure of AB, CD. If now CD measures AB-and it also measures itself-CD is a common measure of CD, AB. And it is manifest that it is also the greatest; for no greater number than CD will measure CD. But, if CD does not measure AB, then, the less of the numbers AB, CD being continually subtracted from the greater, some number will be left which will measure the one before it. For an unit will not be left; otherwise AB, CD will be prime to one another [VII. 1], which is contrary to the hypothesis. Therefore some number will be left which will measure the one before it. Now let CD, measuring BE, leave EA less than itself, let EA, measuring DF, leave FC less than itself, and let CF measure AE. Since then, CF measures AE, and AE measures DF, therefore CF will also measure DF. But it also measures itself; ...
Mouse anti Pig CD163 antibody, clone 2A10/11 recognises porcine CD163, a 120 kDa single pass type 1 transmembrane cell surface glycoprotei
The protocol plan was a two stage, controlled, phase II study to assess safety and compare the grade of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) with visilizumab, or Anti-thymocyte Globulin (ATG) in combination with tacrolimus + methotrexate in patients at high risk of GVHD after transplant from unrelated donors mismatched for 1-2 alleles of any type at human leukocyte antigen (HLA) A, B, C and DRB1.. The study design included two stages. The first stage of the trial was to enroll 15 patients on a single arm to be treated with study treatment (visilizumab, tacrolimus and methotrexate) to assess for treatment safety and exclude intolerable GVHD. The second stage of the trial was to include a random control group of patients treated with the current standard treatment (ATG, tacrolimus, and methotrexate) or study treatment. The purpose of this comparison was to determine if the study treatment visilizumab causes less severe side effects and if it is more potent in reducing graft-versus-host ...
There are 19 IL7R alpha / CD127 antibodies which are validated in multiple tissues with various applications, including IHC-P, ELISA, FCM, WB. There are 1 IL7R alpha / CD127 antibody for IHC-P, 10 IL7R alpha / CD127 antibody for ELISA, 9 IL7R alpha / CD127 antibody for FCM, 1 IL7R alpha / CD127 antibody for WB. Among all these IL7R alpha / CD127 antibodies, there are 7 anti-IL7R alpha / CD127 rabbit polyclonal antibodies , 1 anti-IL7R alpha / CD127 mouse monoclonal antibodies , 11 anti-IL7R alpha / CD127 rabbit monoclonal antibodies . All the IL7R alpha / CD127 anbodies are produced in house and all are in stock. IL7R alpha / CD127 antibody customerized service is available. ...
Rabinowich H., Manciulea M., Metes D., Sulica A., Herberman R.B., Corey S.J., Whiteside T.L.. We recently reported that Fc mu R on NK cells is a signal transducing protein that stimulates a rapid increase in the level of cytoplasmic free calcium upon binding of IgM. This study was designed to examine signal transduction via the Fc mu R on NK cells and to characterize intracellular second messengers activated by IgM. Immunoprecipitation of IgM-bound Fc mu R by IgM-specific Ab coimmunoprecipitated the zeta- and Fc epsilon RI gamma-chains. Furthermore, engagement and clustering of Fc mu R by polyclonal IgM induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the zeta- and Fc epsilon RI gamma-chains, indicating their functional association with the Fc mu R-induced signal transduction cascade. Ligand-induced clustering of the Fc mu R also induced activity of src family kinases, Lck, Fyn, Lyn, and Src, as well as their physical interaction with the receptor. Triggering via Fc mu R also induced the activity of Syk and ...
CD248 (endosialin) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is dynamically expressed on pericytes and fibroblasts during tissue development, tumour neovascularization and inflammation. Its role in tissue remodelling is associated with increased stromal cell proliferation and migration. We show that CD248 is also uniquely expressed by human, but not mouse (C57BL/6), CD8(+) naive T cells. CD248 is found only on CD8(+) CCR7(+) CD11a(low) naive T cells and on CD8 single-positive T cells in the thymus. Transfection of the CD248 negative T-cell line MOLT-4 with CD248 cDNA surprisingly reduced cell proliferation. Knock-down of CD248 on naive CD8 T cells increased cell proliferation. These data demonstrate opposing functions for CD248 on haematopoietic (CD8(+)) versus stromal cells and suggests that CD248 helps to maintain naive CD8(+) human T cells in a quiescent state.
Human regulatory T cells (Treg) have been variously defined as CD4(+)CD25(+), CD4(+)CD25(high) or CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) cells which are responsible for maintaining peripheral tolerance. Their isolation from human peripheral blood or tissues depends on the expression level of CD25(IL-2Ralpha) - a surface marker which is also expressed on activated effector helper T cells. CD39, a cell surface associated ectonucleotidase, can be used to purify Treg with strong suppressor functions. The CD4(+)CD39(+) T cells catalyze cleavage of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which is then further cleaved to adenosine. CD4(+)CD39(+) T cells largely overlap with CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) but not CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell subset, and mediate equally potent immune suppression. Thus, CD39 surface marker can be successfully used for routine isolation of functionally-active human Treg from the peripheral blood of healthy donors or patients with cancer for studies of their role in health and disease.
Costimulation is a fundamental principle of T-cell activation. In addition to T-cell receptor engagement, the interaction between CD80 and/or CD86 with CD28 and/or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) receptors is required to regulate T-cell activation and tolerance. While the importance of costimulation is clearly established, the exact molecular mechanism is unknown. We demonstrate that T-cell proliferation and the ability of CD8(+) T-effector cells to kill were enhanced slightly by CD80 but dramatically by CD86 costimulation. To further analyse the cellular process of costimulation, we developed a single-cell assay to analyse Ca(2+) signals following costimulation with bi-specific antibodies. We found that this stimulation method worked in every human T-cell that was analysed, making it one of the most efficient T-cell activation methods to date for primary human T cells. The enhanced proliferation and killing by costimulation was paralleled by an increase of Ca(2+) influx following CD86 ...
Regulation of the immune response is important to avoid chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Anergic/suppressive CD4+CD25+ T cells have been shown to be major contributors to this regulation. We have previously shown that the suppressive CD4+CD25+ T cells can suppress mitogenic and antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell responses in humans (EJI 2001, 31:1122; Immunology 2001, 104:6). In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), besides CD4+ T cells also monocytes play an important role in the disease process. Therefore we investigated whether the suppressive CD4+CD25+ T cells could affect monocyte activation as well as T-cell activation. CD4+ T cells and monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors via MACS isolation techniques. CD4+ T cells were separated into CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- T cells. T cells and monocytes were cocultured for two days without or with anti-CD3 mAb, after which proliferation, cytokine production and phenotypic markers were investigated. Coculture of ...

The effect of artificial antigen-presenting cells with preclustered anti-CD28/-CD3/-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies on the...The effect of artificial antigen-presenting cells with preclustered anti-CD28/-CD3/-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies on the...

Design and Methods Our artificial antigen-presenting cells were generated with activating (anti-CD3), co-stimulating (anti-CD28 ... The activity of our artificial antigen-presenting cells was compared with that of anti-CD3/-CD28 coated immunomagnetic ... The effect of artificial antigen-presenting cells with preclustered anti-CD28/-CD3/-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies on the ... The effect of artificial antigen-presenting cells with preclustered anti-CD28/-CD3/-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies on the ...
more infohttp://www.haematologica.org/content/93/10/1523

Antigens, CD3 | Profiles RNSAntigens, CD3 | Profiles RNS

CD3" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, CD3" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to ... "Antigens, CD3" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD3" by people in Profiles. ...
more infohttp://profiles.wakehealth.edu/display/91696

Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell - RightDiagnosis.comReceptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell - RightDiagnosis.com

Antigen, T-Cell information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues. ... Introduction: Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell. Description of Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell. Receptor-CD3 Complex ... ANTIGEN, T-CELL) with the CD3 complex (ANTIGENS, CD3). This association is required for the surface expression and function of ... Antigen, T-Cell: *T-Cell *Receptor *CD3 *Complex *Antigen *Cell Interesting Medical Articles:. *Symptoms of the Silent Killer ...
more infohttps://www.rightdiagnosis.com/medical/receptor_cd3_complex_antigen_t_cell.htm

Expression of a functional CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor in the absence of surface CD2. Analysis with clonal Jurkat cell mutants....Expression of a functional CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor in the absence of surface CD2. Analysis with clonal Jurkat cell mutants....

Expression of a functional CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor in the absence of surface CD2. Analysis with clonal Jurkat cell mutants. ... Expression of a functional CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor in the absence of surface CD2. Analysis with clonal Jurkat cell mutants. ... To investigate the requirement for CD2 expression in activation of T lymphocytes via the CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor complex, ... In contrast, triggering of their CD3-Ti components resulted in the normal set of T lymphocyte-associated activation events, ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/168/6/2077

Gentaur Molecular :FabGennix \ CD3, Antigen blocking peptide  \ P-CD3-130Gentaur Molecular :FabGennix \ CD3, Antigen blocking peptide \ P-CD3-130

CD3, Antigen blocking peptide \ P-CD3-130 for more molecular products just contact us ... CD3 antigen gamma polypeptide (CD3 antigen, gamma polypeptide, isoform CRA_b). [CD3 gamma] T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 ... We have also other products like : CD3, Antigen blocking peptide Related products : CD3, Antigen blocking peptide ... CD3E T3E] T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain (T-cell surface antigen T3/Leu-4 epsilon chain) (CD antigen CD3e). [ ...
more infohttp://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product_det.php?id=3097426&supplier=search&name=CD3,%20Antigen%20blocking%20peptide%20

The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex | PNASThe CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex | PNAS

The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex. E K Barber, J D ... The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex ... The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex ... The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/86/9/3277?ijkey=cd56f19b14b5ffd7b06a0115cef0051f775932af&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Natural Killer Cell Surface Antigen | Blood Test - Life ExtensionNatural Killer Cell Surface Antigen | Blood Test - Life Extension

NK cells are classified as being positive for CD56 and negative for CD3. In other words, they express NK cell markers with a 95 ... Cells in our immune system are characterized by unique markers (antigens) on their surface membranes called CD proteins. CD ...
more infohttps://www.lifeextension.com/lab-testing/itemLC505016/Natural-Killer-Cell-Surface-Antigen-CD3-CD56-Marker-Analysis-Blood-Test

A novel model for antigen-dependent activation of normal human T cells. Transmembrane signaling by crosslinkage of the CD3/T...A novel model for antigen-dependent activation of normal human T cells. Transmembrane signaling by crosslinkage of the CD3/T...

Transmembrane signaling by crosslinkage of the CD3/T cell receptor-alpha/beta complex with the cluster determinant 2 antigen.. ... A novel model for antigen-dependent activation of normal human T cells. Transmembrane signaling by crosslinkage of the CD3/T ... and not independent crosslinking of TCR and of CD2 antigen or crosslinking of either protein with the CD4 or CD8 antigen ... suggest that the CD2 antigen might be targeted for the regulation of antigen-specific T cell immunity (e.g., organ ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/171/6/1965

A novel model for antigen-dependent activation of normal human T cells. Transmembrane signaling by crosslinkage of the CD3/T...A novel model for antigen-dependent activation of normal human T cells. Transmembrane signaling by crosslinkage of the CD3/T...

A novel model for antigen-dependent activation of normal human T cells. Transmembrane signaling by crosslinkage of the CD3/T ... and not independent crosslinking of TCR and of CD2 antigen or crosslinking of either protein with the CD4 or CD8 antigen ... suggest that the CD2 antigen might be targeted for the regulation of antigen-specific T cell immunity (e.g., organ ... Antigen presentation. FASEB J. 1989 Nov;3(13):2496-2502. [PubMed]. *Meuer SC, Acuto O, Hussey RE, Hodgdon JC, Fitzgerald KA, ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2187964/?lang=en-ca

Antibody matrix device and method for evaluating immune status - Tanox Biosystems, Inc.Antibody matrix device and method for evaluating immune status - Tanox Biosystems, Inc.

... with antibodies against the surface antigen CD3, antibodies against the CD4 antigen (OKT4 antibodies) and antibodies against ... Such a device could include, for example, spots coated with antibodies against the surface antigen CD3 (for all T cells), spots ... Antibodies against the surface antigen CD3, which is expressed distinctively by all T lymphocytes, can be used to test for ... b. antibody specific for surface antigen present on all B lymphocytes; c. antibody specific for surface antigens present on all ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/5100777.html

The effects of altered exercise distribution on lymphocyte subpopulations.The effects of altered exercise distribution on lymphocyte subpopulations.

0/Antigens, CD19; 0/Antigens, CD3; 50-23-7/Hydrocortisone From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ... Antigens, CD19 / analysis. Antigens, CD3 / analysis. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes. Exercise / ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/effects-altered-exercise-distribution-lymphocyte/8789587.html

Leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and CD44 are signalling molecules for cytoskeleton-dependent morphological...Leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and CD44 are signalling molecules for cytoskeleton-dependent morphological...

Signaling through the leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) molecule has previously been shown to induce homotypic ... 0/Alkaloids; 0/Antigens, CD2; 0/Antigens, CD3; 0/Antigens, CD44; 0/Enzyme Inhibitors; 0/Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen- ... Antigens, CD2 / metabolism. Antigens, CD3 / physiology. Antigens, CD44 / physiology*. Cell Membrane / ultrastructure. Cell Size ... Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 / physiology*. Protein Kinase C / antagonists & inhibitors, physiology. Signal ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Leukocyte-function-associated-antigen-1/7595055.html

Cd3g - T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 gamma chain precursor - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cd3g gene & proteinCd3g - T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 gamma chain precursor - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cd3g gene & protein

When antigen presenting cells (APCs) activate T-cell receptor (TCR), TCR-mediated signals are transmitted across the cell ... All CD3 chains contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) in their cytoplasmic domain. Upon TCR engagement ... Part of the TCR-CD3 complex present on T-lymphocyte cell surface that plays an essential role in adaptive immune response. ... membrane by the CD3 chains CD3D, CD3E, CD3G and CD3Z. ... T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 gamma chain. RAT. 182. UniRef50 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P11942

Patent US7507873 - Transgenic avians containing recombinant ovomucoid promoters - Google PatentsPatent US7507873 - Transgenic avians containing recombinant ovomucoid promoters - Google Patents

wherein the therapeutic protein is selected from the group consisting of marine MAb directed against t-lymphocyte antigen CD3, ... wherein the therapeutic protein is selected from the group consisting of murine MAb, directed against t-lymphocyte antigen CD3 ... Antibody was captured from the egg white in microplate wells coated with the antibodies target antigen. Antigen-antibody ... the antigen specific hMab produced by mammalian cells (11A and 11B), the antigen specific hMab produced by a transgenic hen (11 ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US7507873?dq=5920316

Catumaxomab - WikipediaCatumaxomab - Wikipedia

It binds to antigens CD3 and EpCAM. It is in clinical trials in the United States currently and is used in Europe. It was ... By binding to such a cell via one arm, to a T lymphocyte via the other arm and to an antigen-presenting cell like a macrophage ... of an anti-EpCAM antibody and one half of an anti-CD3 antibody, so that each molecule of catumaxomab can bind both EpCAM and ... CD3. In addition, the Fc-region can bind to an Fc receptor on accessory cells like other antibodies, which has led to calling ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catumaxomab

CD3, T-Cell, TCR associated antigen, Thymocyte, Clone: UCHT-1, Mouse Monoclonal antibody-Human, Chimpanzee, FITC; flow...CD3, T-Cell, TCR associated antigen, Thymocyte, Clone: UCHT-1, Mouse Monoclonal antibody-Human, Chimpanzee, FITC; flow...

TCR associated antigen, Thymocyte, Clone: UCHT-1, Mouse Monoclonal antibody-Human, Chimpanzee, FITC; flow datasheet and ... CD3, T-Cell, TCR associated antigen, Thymocyte, Clone: UCHT-1, Mouse Monoclonal antibody-Human, Chimpanzee, FITC; flow. Contact ... CD3, T-Cell, TCR associated antigen, Thymocyte, Clone: UCHT-1, Mouse Monoclonal antibody-Human, Chimpanzee, FITC; flow. ... anti-CD3 T-Cell TCR associated antigen Thymocyte Clone: UCHT-1 Chimpanzee flow. ...
more infohttps://gentaursearch.com/product/chimpanzee/1939919/cd3-t-cell-tcr-associated-antigen-thymocyte-clone-ucht-1-mouse-monoclonal-antibody-human-chimpanzee-fitc-flow.html

Metezeau P[au] - PubMed - NCBIMetezeau P[au] - PubMed - NCBI

The activation of protein kinase C is not necessary for the monoclonal antibody-induced modulation of CD3 and CD4 antigens. ... Heterogeneity of mouse Thy 1.2 antigen expression revealed by monoclonal antibodies.. Del Guercio P, Motta I, Metezeau P, ... The gene for catalase is assigned between the antigen loci MIC4 and MIC11. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Metezeau+P%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Cd247 - Cd247 molecule - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Cd247 gene & proteinCd247 - Cd247 molecule - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Cd247 gene & protein

CD3 antigen, zeta polypeptide, isof.... CD3 antigen, zeta polypeptide, isoform CRA_b (Cd247 molecule) ... IPR021663 CD3_zeta/IgE_Fc_rcpt_gamma. IPR003110 Phos_immunorcpt_sig_ITAM. IPR024128 T-cell_CD3_zeta. ... IPR021663 CD3_zeta/IgE_Fc_rcpt_gamma. IPR003110 Phos_immunorcpt_sig_ITAM. IPR024128 T-cell_CD3_zeta. ... "Structural analysis of the CD3 zeta/eta locus of the rat. Expression of zeta but not eta transcripts by rat T cells.". Itoh Y. ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/M0R576

CD3E protein, human - Semantic ScholarCD3E protein, human - Semantic Scholar

T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain (207 aa, ~23 kDa) is encoded by the human CD3E gene. This protein plays a role in ... CD3E Antigen, Epsilon Polypeptide (Tit3 Complex), T3E (More). T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain (207 aa, ~23 kDa) ... A conformational epitope expressed upon association of CD3-epsilon with either CD3-delta or CD3-gamma is the main target for ... We have performed immunofluorescence analysis of COS cells transfected with human CD3 genes and detergent permeabilized to ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/CD3E-protein%2C-human/716054

Anti-T Cell Receptor antibody [JOVI.1] (ab5465) | AbcamAnti-T Cell Receptor antibody [JOVI.1] (ab5465) | Abcam

CD3d antigen antibody. *CD3d antigen delta polypeptide (TiT3 complex) antibody. *CD3d molecule delta (CD3 TCR complex) antibody ... Two distinct types of T-cell antigen receptors have been identified: the alpha/beta heterodimer found on functional helper and ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/t-cell-receptor-antibody-jovi1-ab5465.html

CD3 Antibody (OKT3) - Low Endotoxin and Azide Free (NBP2-24867): Novus BiologicalsCD3 Antibody (OKT3) - Low Endotoxin and Azide Free (NBP2-24867): Novus Biologicals

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD3 Antibody (OKT3) - Low Endotoxin and Azide Free. Validated: Flow, Flow-CS, Func, In vitro, In vivo, ... CD3-g, CD3-e, CD3-s and the zeta chain) to generate activation signals. CD3 is specially engaged in antigen recognition and is ... Home » CD3 » CD3 Antibodies » CD3 Antibody (OKT3) - Low Endotoxin and Azide Free ... Blogs on CD3. Check out the latest blog posts on CD3.. Transferrin and the blood brain barrier. Transferrin, an iron binding ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/cd3-antibody-okt3_nbp2-24867

Go to Alternative antigen receptor (TCR) signaling in T cells derived from ZAP-70-deficient patients expressing high levels of...Go to Alternative antigen receptor (TCR) signaling in T cells derived from ZAP-70-deficient patients expressing high levels of...

Antigens, CD3/metabolism; Enzyme Precursors/*metabolism; Isoenzymes/metabolism; JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; Mitogen- ... Alternative antigen receptor (TCR) signaling in T cells derived from ZAP-70-deficient patients expressing high levels of Syk. ... Alternative antigen receptor (TCR) signaling in T cells derived from ZAP-70-deficient patients expressing high levels of Syk. ... Importantly, CD3-induced responses, such as tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular substrates (LAT, SLP76, and PLC-gamma1), as ...
more infohttp://www.igmm.cnrs.fr/en/publication/alternative-antigen-receptor-tcr-signaling-in-t-cells-derived-from-zap-70-deficient-patients-expressing-high-levels-of-syk/

A) TCR-LAT assembly formation requires palmitoylation  | Open-iA) TCR-LAT assembly formation requires palmitoylation | Open-i

Antigens, CD3/immunology/isolation & purification. *Cell Fractionation/methods. *Cholesterol/isolation & purification. *Humans ... 1999). α-CD3 immunoisolates from ANJ3 contained TCR ζ-chain, albeit at a reduced immunoisolation efficiency, but lacked LAT and ... 1999). α-CD3 immunoisolates from ANJ3 contained TCR ζ-chain, albeit at a reduced immunoisolation efficiency, but lacked LAT and ... In contrast, a LAT variant mutated in the S-palmitoylation sites Cys 26 and Cys 29 was not recruited into the α-CD3 isolates ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2192654_JCB0003036.f5a&req=4

Measurement of T Cell Activation After 16‐hr In Vitro Stimulation with Concanavalin A - Current ProtocolsMeasurement of T Cell Activation After 16‐hr In Vitro Stimulation with Concanavalin A - Current Protocols

Fluorochrome‐conjugated monoclonal antibodies that recognize cell surface antigens CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD69 (Table 6.28.1. ): * ... CD3. PerCP. CD3 versus side scatter, gate on lymphocytes, count 30,000. CD4. APC. CD69 versus CD4, count CD69+ and CD69- CD4 ... CD8 FITC, CD69 PE, and CD3 PerCP antibodies (e.g., FastImmune CD8 FITC, CD69 PE and CD3 PerCP antibody mix, BD Bioscience, ... Induction of CD69 antigen on normal CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subsets and its relationship with the phenotype of responding T‐ ...
more infohttp://www.currentprotocols.com/WileyCDA/CPUnit/refId-cy0628.html?quicktabs_cp=materials
  • Signaling through the leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) molecule has previously been shown to induce homotypic aggregation in T cells and to induce cytoskeletal changes in T lymphoma cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Antigens, CD3" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (wakehealth.edu)
  • In contrast, triggering of their CD3-Ti components resulted in the normal set of T lymphocyte-associated activation events, including phosphoinositide turnover, elevation in intracellular free calcium, early gene-induction events, and IL-2 production. (rupress.org)
  • By binding to such a cell via one arm, to a T lymphocyte via the other arm and to an antigen-presenting cell like a macrophage, a natural killer cell or a dendritic cell via the heavy chains, an immunological reaction against the cancer cell is triggered. (wikipedia.org)
  • All CD3 chains contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) in their cytoplasmic domain. (uniprot.org)
  • A novel model for antigen-dependent activation of normal human T cells. (rupress.org)
  • Our first demonstration that crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen induces proliferation of normal human CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, in addition to revealing a novel activation mechanism utilizable by the two major subsets of T cells, suggest that the CD2 antigen might be targeted for the regulation of antigen-specific T cell immunity (e.g., organ transplantation). (rupress.org)
  • However, Syk(hi)/ZAP-70(-) T cells differ from control T cells with respect to the T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of the MAPK cascades: extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity and recruitment of the JNK and p38 stress-related MAPK pathways are diminished. (cnrs.fr)
  • Activation of T cell antigen receptor (TCR) induces tyrosine phosphorylations that mediate the assembly of signaling protein complexes. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusions Our artificial antigen-presenting cells might represent an efficient tool to rapidly obtain a sufficient number of functional T cells for adoptive immunotherapy in patients with cancer. (haematologica.org)
  • A) Purified CD4+CD25+, CD4+CD25− CD45RBlow and CD4+CD25−CD45RBhigh T cells were stimulated with plate-bound anti-CD3 (10 μg/ml) and anti-CTLA-4 (10 μg/ml), soluble anti-CD28 (2 μg/ml), and IL-2 (20 U/ml). 24 h later, cells were incubated with either biotin-conjugated chicken anti-TGF-β1 or biotin-conjugated normal chicken Ig G, washed, and stained with Cy-Chrome™-conjugated streptavidin. (nih.gov)
  • B-E) 105 CD4+ CD25+, CD4+ CD25−CD45RBlow and CD4+ CD25−CD45RBhigh T cells were stimulated with plate-bound anti-CD3 (10 μg/ml) and anti-CTLA-4 (10 μg/ml), soluble anti-CD28 (2 μg/ml) and IL-2 (20 U/ml) in 100 μl culture for 72 h. (nih.gov)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD3" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, CD3" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (wakehealth.edu)
  • Three distinct antigens associated with human T-lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis: LFA-1, LFA-2, and LFA-3. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This distinct phenotype of Syk(hi)/ZAP-70(-) T cells is associated with a profound decrease in CD3-mediated interleukin 2 secretion and proliferation relative to control T cells. (cnrs.fr)
  • In this study, we reveal that the human CD8 antigen is also associated with the T-cell-specific protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck). (pnas.org)
  • Two-dimensional nonequilibrium pH-gradient gel electrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated the similarity of p56lck to the protein-tyrosine kinase associated with the CD4 antigen. (pnas.org)
  • Importantly, CD3-induced responses, such as tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular substrates (LAT, SLP76, and PLC-gamma1), as well as calcium mobilization, which are defective in T cells expressing neither ZAP-70 nor Syk, are observed in Syk(hi)/ZAP-70(-) T cells. (cnrs.fr)
  • Suthanthiran M. Oxidative mitogenesis: participation of CD2 antigen in the generation and/or transduction of obligatory accessory signals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Transmembrane signaling of normal human T cells was explored with mAbs directed at TCR, CD2, CD4, CD5, or CD8 antigens and highly purified CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. (rupress.org)
  • Stimulation with artificial antigen-presenting cells allows for the generation of viable T cells displaying an immunophenotype consistent with in vivo potential for persistence, without increasing the frequency of regulatory T cells. (haematologica.org)
  • The starting specificity of anti MART-1 CD8 + T cells was preserved after stimulation with artificial antigen-presenting cells and it was statistically greater when compared to the activity of the same cells expanded with the other systems. (haematologica.org)
  • For effective immunity, it is therefore necessary to overcome the well-developed capacity of the immune system to regulate responses to self-antigens and tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • Leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and CD44 are signalling molecules for cytoskeleton-dependent morphological changes in activated T cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1999). α-CD3 immunoisolates from ANJ3 contained TCR ζ-chain, albeit at a reduced immunoisolation efficiency, but lacked LAT and associated PLC-γ and Grb2. (nih.gov)