Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Tyrosine phosphorylation and complex formation of Cbl-b upon T cell receptor stimulation. (1/3906)

Cbl-b, a mammalian homolog of Cbl, consists of an N-terminal region (Cbl-b-N) highly homologous to oncogenic v-Cbl, a Ring finger, and a C-terminal region containing multiple proline-rich stretches and potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites. In the present study, we demonstrate that upon engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR), endogenous Cbl-b becomes rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated. In heterogeneous COS-1 cells, Cbl-b was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by both Syk- (Syk/Zap-70) and Src- (Fyn/Lck) family kinases, with Syk kinase inducing the most prominent effect. Syk associates and phosphorylates Cbl-b in Jurkat T cells. A Tyr-316 Cbl-binding site in Syk was required for the association with and for the maximal tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl-b. Mutation at a loss-of-function site (Gly-298) in Cbl-b-N disrupts its interaction with Syk. Cbl-b constitutively binds Grb2 and becomes associated with Crk-L upon TCR stimulation. The Grb2- and the Crk-L-binding regions were mapped to the C-terminus of Cbl-b. The Crk-L-binding sites were further determined to be Y655DVP and Y709KIP, with the latter being the primary binding site. Taken together, these results implicate that Cbl-b is involved in TCR-mediated intracellular signaling pathways.  (+info)

Expanded tumor-reactive CD4+ T-cell responses to human cancers induced by secondary anti-CD3/anti-CD28 activation. (2/3906)

Generation of tumor-reactive T cells in large numbers ex vivo is a requisite step in the adoptive immunotherapy of patients. We examined the immune responses of T cells derived from tumor vaccine-primed lymph nodes activated with anti-CD3 alone and with an anti-CD3/anti-CD28 combination. Nylon wool-purified CD3+ cells were isolated from vaccine-primed lymph nodes obtained from melanoma, renal cell, and head and neck cancer patients. In the absence of antigen-presenting cells, activation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 greatly enhanced subsequent T-cell expansion in interleukin 2 (>100-fold), compared to anti-CD3 alone. CD4+ T cells were preferentially stimulated. In four of eight patients, we found evidence of CD4+ cellular responses to autologous tumors by cytokine release assays. Positively selected CD4+ cells activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 released greater amounts of cytokine (IFN-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) in response to autologous tumors compared to cells activated by anti-CD3 alone. The CD4+ reactivity was MHC class II restricted and appeared to be associated with the expression of class II molecules on the vaccinating tumor cells. The CD4+ T-cell responses to class II-restricted tumor-associated antigens in patients with renal cell cancers represent unique findings.  (+info)

T-cell stimulation through the T-cell receptor/CD3 complex regulates CD2 lateral mobility by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent mechanism. (3/3906)

T lymphocyte activation through the T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex alters the avidity of the cell surface adhesion receptor CD2 for its ligand CD58. Based on the observations that activation-associated increases in intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) strengthen interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells, and that the lateral mobility of cell surface adhesion receptors is an important regulator of cellular adhesion strength, we postulated that [Ca2+]i controls CD2 lateral mobility at the T cell surface. Human Jurkat T leukemia cells were stimulated by antibody-mediated cross-linking of the TCR/CD3 complex. CD2 was labeled with a fluorescently conjugated monoclonal antibody. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy techniques were used to measure [Ca2+]i and CD2 lateral mobility. Cross-linking of the TCR/CD3 complex caused an immediate increase in [Ca2+]i and, 10-20 min later, a decrease in the fractional mobility of CD2 from the control value of 68 +/- 1% to 45 +/- 2% (mean +/- SEM). One to two hours after cell stimulation the fractional mobility spontaneously returned to the control level. Under these and other treatment conditions, the fraction of cells with significantly elevated [Ca2+]i was highly correlated with the fraction of cells manifesting significantly reduced CD2 mobility. Pretreatment of cells with a calmodulin inhibitor or a calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor prevented Ca2+-mediated CD2 immobilization, and pretreatment of cells with a calcineurin phosphatase inhibitor prevented the spontaneous reversal of CD2 immobilization. These data suggest that T cell activation through the TCR/CD3 complex controls CD2 lateral mobility by a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent mechanism, and that this mechanism may involve regulated phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of CD2 or a closely associated protein.  (+info)

Interaction of B cells with activated T cells reduces the threshold for CD40-mediated B cell activation. (4/3906)

CD154-CD40 interactions are of central importance for the induction of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens. Since most anti-CD40 mAb are only weak B cell mitogens, it is believed that under physiological conditions, signals through CD40 synergize with those from other receptors on B cells to induce B cell activation. We show here that the interaction of either normal B cells, or those from CBA/N (xid) mice, with CD3-activated primary T cells in whole spleen cell cultures markedly reduces the threshold for B cell activation via CD40. Hence, these pre-activated cells undergo vigorous proliferation when stimulated with either optimal or suboptimal concentrations of weakly mitogenic anti-CD40 mAb, or with soluble CD40 ligand. Blocking experiments indicate that the establishment of this priming effect requires stimulation via CD40 itself, plus T cell-derived IL-2. In support of this concept, only CD3/CD28-pre-activated, but not CD3-pre-activated T cells induce this effect, unless the co-cultures of B cells with the latter T cells are supplemented with IL-2. Although B cells activated in this fashion do express higher levels of CD40 than naive cells, we believe that this is insufficient to explain the observed dramatic effects on their proliferative capacity. Rather we propose that T cell-dependent B cell activation induces fundamental changes in the signalling machinery invoked by ligation of CD40. It is likely that this amplification loop could play an important role during the initiation of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens, when activated CD4 T cells only express low levels of CD154.  (+info)

Patterns of A2A extracellular adenosine receptor expression in different functional subsets of human peripheral T cells. Flow cytometry studies with anti-A2A receptor monoclonal antibodies. (5/3906)

Signaling through A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR) regulates T lymphocyte expansion and modulates T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated effector functions in vitro. To understand the role of A2ARs in the regulation of immune response, we investigated the expression levels of this receptor in different functional lymphocyte subsets. Monoclonal anti-A2AR antibody was used to develop a flow cytometric assay to quantify the expression A2ARs on lymphocytes. We report that detectable levels of expression of A2ARs are much higher among T cells than B cells. More CD4(+) than CD8(+) T cells express A2ARs, but activation of T cells increases A2AR expression, predominantly in CD8(+) T cells. No significant differences were found in the proportion of A2AR+ cells between CD8(low) and CD8(high) T cells or between TCR/CD3(low) and TCR/CD3(high) T cells. Studies of T helper cell subsets (TH1 and TH2) reveal that lymphokine-producing cells are much more likely to express A2ARs than are cells that do not produce lymphokines. These results suggest that A2ARs are variably expressed on T cell subsets and may regulate cytokine production in activated T lymphocytes.  (+info)

Increased expression of regeneration and tolerance factor in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection. (6/3906)

Regeneration and tolerance factor (RTF) plays a pivotal role in successful pregnancy outcome and has potent immunomodulating properties. During pregnancy, it is abundantly expressed in the placenta and on peripheral B lymphocytes. Several lines of evidence suggest that both successful pregnancy outcome and progression from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to AIDS are associated with a Th2-type response. As a result, we hypothesized that the cellular expression of RTF may also be increased during infection with HIV. Using flow cytometric analysis, we showed a significantly (P < 0.01) increased expression of RTF on CD3(+) cells obtained from individuals with HIV over that for individuals without HIV. On average, 32.1% of the CD3(+) cells from individuals with HIV expressed high levels of RTF. In contrast, an average of only 6.7% of the CD3(+) cells from individuals without HIV expressed high levels of RTF. Similar results were obtained when CD19(+) cells from individuals with (mean, 44.1%) and without (mean, 25.8%) HIV were evaluated. Linear regression analysis suggested that high levels of RTF expression by CD3(+) cells correlated better with viral load (r value, 0.46) than with absolute CD4 count (r value, 0.09). While additional experiments are necessary to delineate the precise immunologic role of RTF, our current data suggest that RTF expression during HIV infection may be a useful marker of immune activation.  (+info)

Interferon-alpha activates multiple STAT proteins and upregulates proliferation-associated IL-2Ralpha, c-myc, and pim-1 genes in human T cells. (7/3906)

Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunoregulatory functions. There is increasing evidence that IFN-alpha has an important role in T-cell biology. We have analyzed the expression of IL-2Ralpha, c-myc, and pim-1 genes in anti-CD3-activated human T lymphocytes. The induction of these genes is associated with interleukin-2 (IL-2)-induced T-cell proliferation. Treatment of T lymphocytes with IFN-alpha, IL-2, IL-12, and IL-15 upregulated IL-2Ralpha, c-myc, and pim-1 gene expression. IFN-alpha also sensitized T cells to IL-2-induced proliferation, further suggesting that IFN-alpha may be involved in the regulation of T-cell mitogenesis. When we analyzed the nature of STAT proteins capable of binding to IL-2Ralpha, pim-1, and IRF-1 GAS elements after cytokine stimulation, we observed IFN-alpha-induced binding of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT4, but not STAT5 to all of these elements. Yet, IFN-alpha was able to activate binding of STAT5 to the high-affinity IFP53 GAS site. IFN-alpha enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5a, and STAT5b. IL-12 induced STAT4 and IL-2 and IL-15 induced STAT5 binding to the GAS elements. Taken together, our results suggest that IFN-alpha, IL-2, IL-12, and IL-15 have overlapping activities on human T cells. These findings thus emphasize the importance of IFN-alpha as a T-cell regulatory cytokine.  (+info)

Long-term fetal microchimerism in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets in healthy women and women with scleroderma. (8/3906)

Fetal CD34(+) CD38(+) cells have recently been found to persist in maternal peripheral blood for many years after pregnancy. CD34(+) CD38(+) cells are progenitor cells that can differentiate into mature immune-competent cells. We asked whether long-term fetal microchimerism occurs in T lymphocyte, B lymphocyte, monocyte, and natural-killer cell populations of previously pregnant women. We targeted women with sons and used polymerase chain reaction for a Y-chromosome-specific sequence to test DNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and from CD3, CD19, CD14, and CD56/16 sorted subsets. We also asked whether persistent microchimerism might contribute to subsequent autoimmune disease in the mother and included women with the autoimmune disease scleroderma. Scleroderma has a peak incidence in women after childbearing years and has clinical similarities to chronic graft-versus-host disease that occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, known to involve chimerism. Sixty-eight parous women were studied for male DNA in PBMC and 20 for PBMC subsets. Microchimerism was found in PBMC from 33% (16 of 48) of healthy women and 60% (12 of 20) women with scleroderma, P =.046. Microchimerism was found in some women in CD3, CD19, CD14, and CD56/16 subsets including up to 38 years after pregnancy. Microchimerism in PBMC subsets was not appreciably more frequent in scleroderma patients than in healthy controls. Overall, microchimerism was found in CD3, CD19, and CD14 subsets in approximately one third of women and in CD56/16 in one half of women. HLA typing of mothers and sons indicated that HLA compatibility was not a requirement for persistent microchimerism in PBMC subsets. Fetal microchimerism in the face of HLA disparity implies that specific maternal immunoregulatory pathways exist that permit persistence but prevent effector function of these cells in normal women. Although microchimerism in PBMC was more frequent in women with scleroderma than healthy controls additional studies will be necessary to determine whether microchimerism plays a role in the pathogenesis of this or other autoimmune diseases.  (+info)

Preferred Name: Visilizumab Definition: A humanized, non-Fc receptor (FcR)-binding IgG2 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) directed against CD3 with potential immunosuppressive activity. Visilizumab binds to invariant CD3 epsilon, one of the non-covalently-associated subunits of T-cell receptors (TCRs) on activated T-cells. Upon binding to the TCR/CD3 complex, visilizumab induces apoptosis, which may result in the selective clonal deletion of activated pathogenic T-cells. This MoAb is engineered with a substitution at amino acid residues 234 and 237 (Val3Ala) within the IgG2 Fc arm, rendering it unable to bind to type II FcRs; accordingly, this agent is less likely to activate type II FcR-expressing resting T-cells. NCI-GLOSS Definition: A monoclonal antibody that binds to CD3 (a substance found on T-cells) and that is being studied as a treatment for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). It belongs to the family of drugs called monoclonal antibodies. Display Name: Visilizumab Label: Visilizumab NCI ...
To study the signaling role of CD11a/CD18 in the early events of T cell activation we have examined the induction of transcription of two important cytokines, namely TNF alpha and IL-2. Human peripheral blood T cells were stimulated with PMA/ionophore or immobilized anti-CD3 mAb (OKT3) with or without CD11a/CD18 engagement. Induced cytokine production by immobilized OKT3 was enhanced (3- to 10-fold) in cells adhering to OKT3 and ICAM-1 coimmobilized surfaces and anti-CD11a mAb abolished this enhancement effect. Similarly, inhibition of the PMA/ionophore-induced CD11a/CD18-mediated homotypic aggregations of T cells by mAbs specific for either CD11a or ICAM-1 reduced the induced cytokine production by more than 70%. We have also observed that greatly enhanced cytokine production resulted from cellular interactions between activated T cells and monolayers of endothelial cells. This enhancement was inhibited by a combination of CD11a-, CD18-, and ICAM-1-specific mAbs implicating a role of CD11a/CD18 ...
We next determined the function of the CD4+CD25+ T cells. For these experiments we used the CD4+CD25- and CD4+CD25+ peripheral blood T cells whose FoxP3 expression levels were shown in Figure 1 (a and b). These T cell subsets were assessed for their ability to respond to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, and for the ability of the CD25+ cells to suppress the in vitro activation of the CD25- cells. When cultured in the presence of feeder cells along with soluble anti-CD3 and anti-CD28, the CD4+CD25- cells responded with robust proliferation, whereas the CD4+CD25+ cells did not (Figure 1c). When the two populations were cocultured, the level of proliferation, as measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation, was dramatically reduced (Figure 1c). The level of suppression seen was correlated with the ratio of CD4+CD25-:CD4+CD25+ cells in the culture, with more CD25+ cells resulting in more suppression of CD25- cell proliferation. These results are not due to exhaustion of the resources within the culture ...
Our project is directly responsive to the program objectives by applying high throughput technologies to isolate small molecules capable of disrupting or modify...
Garrett Lam, MD University of North Carolina, Chapel HillTopic: Prospective Study to Evaluate the role of CD3-zeta expression in Preeclampsia compared to Normotensive Pregnant Controls Final Report. ...
Highly purified CD1-3-4-8- human thymocytes were obtained by panning techniques combined with cell depletion with antibody-coated magnetic beads. Most of these cells expressed cytoplasmic CD3 antigen, as assessed by mAbs known to react with the CD3 epsilon chain. After culture with low doses of PMA (0.5 ng/ml) and subsequent addition (at 24 h) of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2; 100 U/ml) cells underwent extensive proliferation (40-60-fold of the initial cell input after 2 wk). The majority of the proliferating cells were CD3-TCR-. The remaining cells (5-40%) were represented by CD3+ TCR gamma/delta+ (BB3- A13+) cells. Further removal of CD3+ TCR-gamma/delta+ cells resulted in highly purified CD3- populations that further proliferated in culture with no substantial phenotypic changes. When CD3+ thymocytes were cultured under the same experimental conditions, only CD3+ TCR-alpha/beta+ cells could be detected, thus indicating that PMA did not affect the surface expression of the CD3/TCR complex, ...
Purified anti-human CD41 (Maxpar® Ready) Antibody - CD41 is a 125/25 kD α subunit of the gpIIb/IIIa (CD41/CD61) complex.
CHO-Anti-Human CD80 scFv stable cell line is clonally-derived from a CHO cell line, which has been transfected with an anti-human CD80 scFv gene to allow expression of the scFv. It is an example of a cell line transfected using our proprietary CBTGS gene screening and amplification system.
CHO-Anti-Human CD99 scFv stable cell line is clonally-derived from a CHO cell line, which has been transfected with an Anti-human CD99 scFv gene to allow expression of the scFv. It is an example of a cell line transfected using our proprietary CBTGS gene screening and amplification system.
The 4H11 monoclonal antibody reacts with human CD34, a single pass transmembrane protein with a molecular weight of 105-120 kDa. CD34 is heavily glycosylated with an N-terminal mucin domain. Although the function of CD34 is not defined, the intracellular domain of CD34 is a target for phosphorylation by activated prote
CD325 (N-cadherin) is a 130 kD, single pass transmembrane protein. Its extracellular region consists of five EC domains and has one cytoplasmic domain. N-cadherin is involved in organogenesis and maintenance of organ architecture by contributing to the sorting of heterogeneous cell types and in the
Use the human CD4 mouse for direct in vivo assessment of anti-human CD4 molecules. Model for Anti-CD4 compound efficacy and safety assessment. Research tool for investigation of CD4 biology.
CD3 epsilon兔单克隆抗体[E272](ab32186)可与人样本反应并经IP, IHC, ICC实验严格验证,被3篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
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The guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins include signal-transducing heterotrimeric G proteins (for example, Gs, Gi), smaller GTP-binding proteins that function in protein sorting, and the oncogenic protein p21ras. The T cell receptor complexes CD4-p56lck and CD8-p56lck were found to include a 32- to 33-kilodalton phosphoprotein (p32) that was recognized by an antiserum to a consensus GTP-binding region in G proteins. Immunoprecipitated CD4 and CD8 complexes bound GTP and hydrolyzed it to guanosine diphosphate (GDP). The p32 protein was covalently linked to [alpha-32P]GTP by ultraviolet photoaffinity labeling. These results demonstrate an interaction between T cell receptor complexes and an intracellular GTP-binding protein. ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate in vitro natural killer (NK) cell activity and expression of signal-transducing zeta chains in patients with cervical cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Experiments were performed with frozen lymphocytes from patients at all disease stages and from healthy controls. Thawed NK were activated by overnight incubation in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma); activity against two target cell lines was assessed by 4-h (51)Cr release assay. Targets chosen were K562, an erythroleukemic cell line, and a cervical carcinoma cell line designated 808. T and NK cell zeta chain expression was measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Patients NK were found to be as cytotoxic as those of normal controls against cell lines K562 and 808. Patient T and NK cells did not show significant down-regulation of the zeta chain. CONCLUSIONS: We have found no evidence to suggest that loss of zeta chains is a mechanism for immunocompromise in patients with cervical carcinoma. IFN-recoverable patient NK activity is ...
|span style=font-family:Times,serif;font-size:9pt;>The SK1 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD8 alpha (CD8α). CD8α is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. CD8α is expressed by the majority of thymocytes, by subpopulations of αβ T cells and γδ T cells and by some NK cells. Cell surface CD8α is expressed either as a disulfide-linked homodimer (CD8αα) or as a heterodimer (CD8αβ) when disulfide-bonded to a CD8 beta chain (CD8β). CD8-positive αβ T cells coexpress both CD8αα homodimers and CD8αβ heterodimers whereas som|/span>|span style=font-family:Times,serif;color:#000000;font-size:9pt;>e γδ T cells and NK cells express CD8αα homodimers. CD8 plays important roles in T cell activation and selection. The extracellular IgSF domain of CD8α binds to a non-polymorphic determinant on HLA class I molecules (α3 domain) and enables CD8 to function as a co-receptor with MHC class I-restricted TCR during T cell recognition of
The protein encoded by this gene is the CD3-epsilon polypeptide, which together with CD3-gamma, -delta and -zeta, and the T-cell receptor alpha/beta and gamma/delta heterodimers, forms the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. This complex plays an important role in coupling antigen recognition to several intracellular signal-transduction pathways. The genes encoding the epsilon, gamma and delta polypeptides are located in the same cluster on chromosome 11. The epsilon polypeptide plays an essential role in T-cell development.[3] ...
Peripheral blood lymphocytes expressing CD8 and CD57 determinants are a small (1-15%) subset in healthy humans. CD8+, CD57+ peripheral blood lymphocytes may be divided by the level of CD8 expression, into CD8+high (CD57+) T-cells and CD8+low (CD57+) natural killer (NK) cells. CD8+high (CD57+) T-cell numbers are increased in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-seropositive subjects, and there is substantial evidence that HCMV is integral in the development of this subset in health and disease. Furthermore, the CD8+high (CD57+) subset is clonally derived, expressing a limited range of T-cell receptors, and are therefore likely to have restricted antigen specificity. Functionally, CD8+low(CD57+) cells exhibit NK activity, while CD8+high(CD57+) T-cells from healthy subjects mediate contact-dependent suppression in several in vitro systems including: (i) pokeweed mitogen-induced proliferation and immunoglobulin synthesis, and (ii) generation of antiviral MHC-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. This is ...
CD1c-dependent self-reactive T cells are abundant in the blood of healthy neonates and adults (17, 18), but the endogenous lipid antigens that are presented by CD1c to these T cells have remained unknown. Guided by the new CD1c-SL structure presented here, we now find that CD1c can bind CE and ASG, and that both these ligand classes enable the binding of self-reactive T-cell receptors to CD1c. Two previous CD1c structures, CD1c-PM and CD1c-MPM, had revealed how CD1c binds and presents methylated monoalkyl chain ligands such as mycobacterial mycoketides (7, 12). In both CD1c-PM and CD1c-MPM a single mycoketide molecule was bound to the A′ channel, in analogy to the arrangement seen for the stearic acid in CD1c-SL. Together CD1c-SL, CD1c-PM, and CD1c-MPM thus illustrate a certain promiscuity of the A′ channel, which is the most conserved region of the CD1 groove for ligand binding.. CD1c-PM and CD1c-MPM complexes are exclusively recognized by mycoketide-specific human T cells, but not by CD1c ...
Human T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain (CD3E) ELISA Kit can measure Human T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain in serum, blood, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other related supernatants and tissues.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the costimulatory receptor CD30 is regulated by both CD28 and cytokines. AU - Gilffillan, Molly C.. AU - Noel, Patricia J.. AU - Podack, Eckhard R.. AU - Reiner, Steven L.. AU - Thompson, Craig B.. PY - 1998/3/1. Y1 - 1998/3/1. N2 - Costimulation was originally defined and characterized during primary T cell activation. The signaling events that regulate subsequent antigen encounters by T cells are less well defined. In this study we examined the role of CD30 in T cell activation and defined factors that regulate expression of CD30 on T cells. We demonstrate that CD30 expression is restricted to activated T cells and regulated by CD28 signal transduction. In contrast to CD28-expressing TCR Tg cells, CD28-deficient TCR Tg cells did not express CD30 when cultured with peptide and APCs. However, rIL-4 reconstituted CD30 expression on CD28-deficient TCR Tg cells. Blockade of CD28 interactions or depletion of IL-4 inhibited the induction of CD30, suggesting that both ...
|span style=font-family:Times,serif;font-size:9pt;>The L293 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD28 which is also known as Tp44 or T44. The CD28 antigen is a 44 kDa homodimeric type I transmembrane glycoprotein which is present on most mature T cells, thymocytes, and plasma cells. CD28 is a cell-adhesion molecule (CAM) that functions as a receptor for CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) antigens, which are present on activated B lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells. Interaction of the CD28 antigen with CD80 or CD86 antigens, or both, co-stimulates CD2 and CD3 antigen/T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-dependent T-cell-mediated proliferation and cytotoxicity. The L293 antibody has been demonstrated to bind to the same molecule as clone CD28.2, another CD28-specific antibody.|/span>
Asthma affects approximately 300 million people worldwide and is the most common chronic lung disease, which usually is associated with bronchial inflammation. Most research has focused upon the role of CD4+ T cells and relatively few studies have addressed the phenotypic and functional roles of CD8+ T cell types and subtypes.Human NK-like CD8+ T cells may involve cells that have been described as CD8+CD28-, CD8+CD28-CD57+, CD8+CD27-, or CD8+ effector-memory (TEM) cells, among other. However, most of the data which is available regarding these various cell types were obtained in murine models, did not thoroughly characterize these cells with phenotypically or functionally or did not involve asthma-related settings.Nevertheless, one may conceptualize three principal roles for human NK-like CD8+ T cells in asthma: disease-promoting, regulatory and/or tissue repair. Although evidence for some of these roles is scarce, it is possible to extrapolate some data from overlapping or related CD8+ T cell
Expressed immune markers combinations for CD4+/CD8+ T cells included CD40-L, IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-13, as follows: M15=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(+)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); M16=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(+)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(-); M17=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(+); M18=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(-); M19=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); M20=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(-); M21=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(+); M22=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(-); M23=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); M24=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(+)+IFN-γ(-)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(-); M25=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(+); M26=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(+)+IL-13(-); M27=CD4.CD40L(+)+IL-2(-)+TNF-α(-)+IFN-γ(+)+IL-17(-)+IL-13(+); ...
CD3 complex is crucial in transducing antigen-recognition signals into the cytoplasm of T cells and in regulating the cell surface expression of the TCR complex. T cell activation through the antigen receptor (TCR) involves the cytoplasmic tails of the CD3 subunits CD3 gamma, CD3 delta, CD3 epsilon and CD3 zeta (CD247). These CD3 subunits are structurally related members of the immunoglobulins super family encoded by closely linked genes on human chromosome 11. The CD3 components have long cytoplasmic tails that associate with cytoplasmic signal transduction molecules. This association is mediated at least in part by a double tyrosine-based motif present in a single copy in the CD3 subunits. CD3 may play a role in TCR-induced growth arrest, cell survival and proliferation ...
CD3 complex is crucial in transducing antigen-recognition signals into the cytoplasm of T cells and in regulating the cell surface expression of the TCR complex. T cell activation through the antigen receptor (TCR) involves the cytoplasmic tails of the CD3 subunits CD3 gamma, CD3 delta, CD3 epsilon and CD3 zeta (CD247). These CD3 subunits are structurally related members of the immunoglobulins super family encoded by closely linked genes on human chromosome 11. The CD3 components have long cytoplasmic tails that associate with cytoplasmic signal transduction molecules. This association is mediated at least in part by a double tyrosine-based motif present in a single copy in the CD3 subunits. CD3 may play a role in TCR-induced growth arrest, cell survival and proliferation ...
LRA, chemical agents, and antibodies. LRAs and BCL-2 antagonist were used at the following concentrations: bryostatin-1 dissolved in DMSO and used at 10 nM (Sigma-Aldrich); anti-CD3 (clone OKT3, BioLegend), anti-CD28 (clone CD28.2, BioLegend), and anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies were used at 1 μg/mL each; PMA and ionomycin were dissolved in DMSO, and PMA was used at 25 nM (Sigma-Aldrich), ionomycin at 1 μg/mL (Sigma-Aldrich); ABT-199 (Med Chem Express, catalog HY-15531) was dissolved in DMSO used at 1 μM or 100 nM (as indicated). Fixable viability dye (aqua, Thermo Fisher Scientific), anti-human CD3 (clone SK7, BD Biosciences), anti-human CD4 (clone RPA-T4, BD Biosciences), anti-human CD8 (clone RPA-T8, BioLegend), anti-human CD45RA (clone HI100, BD Biosciences), anti-human CCR7 (clone G043H7, BioLegend), anti-human CD69 (clone FN50, BioLegend), anti-human HLA-DR (clone L243, BioLegend), anti-human BCL-2 (clone 100, BioLegend), and p24 antibodies (anti-HIV core antigen: clone KC57, Beckman ...
Clone REA1226 recognizes the murine CD18 antigen, a 95 kDa glycoprotein also known as integrin beta-2 (ITGB2). CD18 associates non-covalently with CD11a, CD11b, and CD11c to form LFA-1, Mac-1, and gp150/95, respectively and plays an important role in leukocytes adhesion. It is expressed on all leukocytes with NK and T cells showing higher density of surface expression. The CD18 integrin complexes bind CD54 (ICAM-1), CD102 (ICAM-2), CD50 (ICAM-3), iC3b, and fibrinogen. Heterodimers of CD18 with α subunits show different expression patterns on different leucocytes. Mice leucocytes lacking CD18 or expressing dysfunctional CD18 are defective in chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and homotypic aggregation. Additional information: Clone REA1226 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Schweiz
Human mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) CD8 + and Tc17 cells are important tissue-homing cell populations, characterized by high expression of CD161 ( ++) and type-17 differentiation, but their origins and relationships remain poorly defined. By transcriptional and functional analyses, we demonstrate that a pool of polyclonal, precommitted type-17CD161 ++CD8αβ + T cells exist in cord blood, from which a prominent MAIT cell(TCR Vα7.2 +) population emerges postnatally. During this expansion, CD8αα T cells appear exclusively within aCD161 ++CD8 +/MAIT subset, sharing cytokine production, chemokine-receptor expression, TCR-usage, and transcriptional profiles with their CD161 ++CD8αβ + counterparts. Our data demonstrate the origin and differentiation pathway of MAIT-cells from a naive type-17 precommitted CD161 ++CD8 +T-cell pool and the distinct phenotype and function of CD8αα cells in man. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.
Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
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Clone TB03 specifically recognizes human CD57. CD57, also known as HNK-1 or Leu-7, is an antigenic oligosaccharide moiety detected on extracellular proteins of certain cell types. In blood, CD57 is found on 15-20% of mononuclear cells, including subsets of natural killer (NK) and T cells, though not on erythrocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, or platelets. Also, CD57 expression can be found on a variety of neural cell types. CD57 has been shown to be expressed on late stage effector CD8+ T cells. The frequency of CD57+ T lymphocytes is raised in a variety of diseases. CD57 expression is also increased on chronically activated CD8+ T cells in persistent viral infections, such as HIV. - Belgique
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CD25− CD45RBlow as well as CD25+ CD45RBlow CD4+ cells from infected WT mice protect RAG KO mice against colitis. Infected RAG KO mice were given either no cel
Resumo: CD80 e CD86, também denominados B7.1 e B7.2, são genes proximamente ligados no cromossomo 3 que codificam glicoproteinas da superfamília das imunoglobulinas, expressas na superfície das células apresentadoras de antígeno. Essas moléculas participam na ativação e inibição das células T através da ligação aos receptores CD28 e CTLA-4. Nesse estudo foram analizados polimorfismos dos genes CD80 e CD86 com o objetivo de investigar a diversidade genética, microevolução e relevância funcional. Foram genotipados 1.124 indivíduos, incluindo brasileiros de ancestralidade predominantemente européia, mista africana e européia e japonesa, 5 populações ameríndias e africanos. As regiões promotoras de CD80 e CD86 foram sequenciadas e utilizadas em ensaios de gene repórter com luciferase em células HEK293T. As proteínas foram quantificadas por citometria de fluxo em monócitos, estimulados com quatro ligantes de TLR, de indivíduos com diferentes genótipos. Sítios de ...
Dear Ralph, I appreciate your questions and I think thay are valid and worth exploring. However, I think that I must clarify my point a bit. I am not implying that the CD8 cells are the worst hit by the virus. (Forgive the sensationalism of my first posting... this was meant to call attention to my article) Of course the CD4 cells are the worst hit because they carry the CD4 antigen constantly, thus their name. What I _am_ implying is that the CD8 cells must also be effected by the virus due to their positivity for CD4 during their development. Since CTL (the cells responsible for killing virally infected cells) are CD8 cells, any effects (quantitative or qualitative) on this compartment must be important in the pathogenisis of a viral disease. McMichael et al have reported that CTL response to viral peptide epitopes in the MHC class molecule dissipate at the end stage of HIV disease. This could be explained by the slow and steady exhaustion of CD8 precursers via infection by HIV when these ...
CD66a, also known as CEACAM1, is expressed on the surface of endothelial/epithelial cells, neutrophils and monocytes and can be induced on T cells, B cells and CD16-negative NK cells.
CD4 receptor - MedHelps CD4 receptor Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for CD4 receptor. Find CD4 receptor information, treatments for CD4 receptor and CD4 receptor symptoms.
8G12 antibody reacts with human CD34, expressed by most HSPCs. CD34 is a marker used to identify and isolate HSPCs capable of cell engraftment.
8G12 antibody reacts with human CD34, expressed by most HSPCs. CD34 is a marker used to identify and isolate HSPCs capable of cell engraftment.
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A trapped bead (right) decorated with a foreign antigen is actively placed on a T cell (left) and force is applied to facilitate recognition by the T cell receptor complex.
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CD3e molecule, epsilon also known as CD3E is a polypeptide which in humans is encoded by the CD3E gene which resides on chromosome 11. The protein encoded by this gene is the CD3-epsilon polypeptide, which together with CD3-gamma, -delta and -zeta, and the T-cell receptor alpha/beta and gamma/delta heterodimers, forms the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. This complex plays an important role in coupling antigen recognition to several intracellular signal-transduction pathways. The genes encoding the epsilon, gamma and delta polypeptides are located in the same cluster on chromosome 11. The epsilon polypeptide plays an essential role in T-cell development. Defects in this gene cause severe immunodeficiency. This gene has also been linked to a susceptibility to type I diabetes in women. T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain has been shown to interact with TOP2B, CD3EAP and NCK2. CD3 (immunology) Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000198851 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ...
CD3gamma and CD3delta are two highly related components of the T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex which is essential for the assembly and signal transduction of the T cell receptor on mature T cells. In gene knockout mice deficient in either CD3delta or CD3gamma, early thymic development mediated by pre-TCR was either undisturbed or severely blocked, respectively, and small numbers of TCR-alphabeta+ T cells were detected in the periphery of both mice. gammadelta T cell development was either normal in CD3delta-/- mice or partially blocked in CD3gamma-/- mice. To examine the collective role of CD3gamma and CD3delta in the assembly and function of pre-TCR and in the development of gammadelta T cells, we generated a mouse strain with a disruption in both CD3gamma and CD3delta genes (CD3gammadelta-/-). In contrast to mice deficient in either CD3gamma or CD3delta chains, early thymic development mediated by pre-TCR is completely blocked, and TCR-alphabeta+ or TCR-gammadelta+ T cells were absent in the
CD27 is a lymphocyte-specific member of the TNF receptor family and has a TNF-related transmembrane ligand, CD70. The CD27/CD70 receptor-ligand pair cooperates with the TCR in the regulation of the peripheral T cell response. The study presented here reveals that CD27 may play a similar role in thymic pre-T cell development. We have previously cloned the cDNA encoding murine CD27, prepared specific mAbs and observed that murine CD27 is expressed on virtually all thymocytes, with the exception of a subpopulation of CD4-8- precursor T cells. It is shown here that induction of murine CD27 expression occurs at the transition from the CD4-8-25+ to the CD4-8-25- precursor T cell stage and is regulated by the pre-TCR. Therefore, we investigated whether CD27 contributes to pre-TCR-mediated thymocyte development. Pre-TCR function was mimicked by the induction of CD3 signaling in thymocytes of recombination activating gene (RAG)-deficient mice. This in vivo anti-CD3 epsilon mAb treatment induces an about ...
Purified CD3-4- thymocytes were obtained by depletion of CD3+ and CD4+ cells from fresh thymocyte suspensions. 5-15% of these cells were found to express CD16 antigen, while other natural killer (NK) cell markers were virtually absent. Double fluorescence analysis revealed that 20-40% of thymic CD16+ cells coexpressed CD1, while approximately half were cyCD3+. When cultured in the presence of peripheral blood lymphocytes and H9 leukemia cell line as a source of irradiated feeder cells and interleukin 2 (IL-2), CD3-4- thymocytes underwent extensive proliferation. In addition, after 1-2 wk of culture, 30-50% of these cells were found to express CD16 surface antigen. Cloning under limiting dilution conditions of either CD3-4- or CD3-4-16- thymocytes in the presence of irradiated H9 cells resulted in large proportions (approximately 50%) of CD16+ clones. On the basis of the expression of surface CD16 and/or cyCD3 antigen, clones could be grouped in the following subsets: CD16+ cyCD3+; CD16+ cyCD3-; ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the interleukin-2 receptor α (CD25) is selectively decreased on decidual CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes in normal pregnancies. AU - Chao, Kunag Han. AU - Wu, Ming Yih. AU - Yang, Jehn Hsiahn. AU - Chen, Shee Uan. AU - Yang, Yu Shih. AU - Ho, Hong Nerng. PY - 2002/7/22. Y1 - 2002/7/22. N2 - In a previous study, we demonstrated that the proportion of activated T cells (CD69 +CD3 + and HLA-DR +CD3 +) is higher in the endometrium and decidua after the luteal phase and throughout early pregnancy compared with in the peripheral blood. However, there was no difference in the proportion of CD25 +CD3 + lymphocytes between the endometrium and peripheral blood. In this study, we further verify that the levels of CD25 on CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes are not increased in normal pregnancy, although the levels of CD69 and HLA-DR are markedly increased. We also elucidate that the amounts of all three activation molecules on local T lymphocytes are down-regulated in pregnancy ...
Like most mammalian species, humans express several structurally distinct CD1 antigen-presenting molecules. The conservation of large CD1 gene families among most mammals suggests that each type of CD1 protein has distinct functions that confer selective advantage. Cellular studies of CD1 proteins increasingly explain how each CD1 protein differs from the others. CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, and CD1d have distinct antigen groove structures, patterns of expression in tissues, intracellular trafficking, and trigger T cells expressing diverse TCRs (Kasmar et al., 2009). CD1d (group 2) diverges most clearly from CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c (group 1) with regard to protein sequence. Also, group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins show differing transcriptional responses to pathogens, suggesting that they function at different stages of the immune response (Roura-Mir et al., 2005b). Collectively, these cellular studies suggest that group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins likely have differing roles in immune responses.. The majority ...
CD57 is a marker of terminal differentiation on human CD8+ T cells and possibly on human NK cells. Newborn and fetal NK cells do not express CD57, however the frequency of CD57-bearing NK cells increases with age. Utilizing PBMC obtained from healthy donors we are assessing the phenotypic and functional differences between CD57+ and CD57neg NK cells. CD57+ NK cells express different activation markers and a distinct repertoire of NK receptors suggestive of a more mature phenotype. Preliminary data also indicate that there is a higher frequency of IFNγ CD57+ NK cells compare to CD57neg NK cells when stimulated through their activating receptors, CD57+ NK cells are less sensitive to activation-induced apoptosis, and interestingly, proliferate less when co-cultured with target cells and/or cytokines. The combination of a more activated phenotype and a decreased capacity to proliferate suggests CD57+ NK cells are terminally differentiated. Studies are underway to assess the phenotypic and ...
Results Cultured cells started to express CD14 on the day 12 and more than 90% of the cells expressed CD14 on the day 21 in the monocyte differentiation induction course. According to the expression levels of CD14, the cell population was divided into three groups: CD14 (−), CD14 (+) and CD14 (++). CD15 (+) cells were observed in CD14 (−) and CD14 (+) population but not in CD14 (++) population. The CD15+ cells in CD14 (+) transiently appeared in RA-iPS derived cells at 11.9±2.8% (mean ± SE) on day15. However these cell proportion in NOF was1.7±2.0%. Meanwhile, CD15+ cells in CD14 (−) proportion decreased during monocyte differentiation in RA-iPS cells, but remained in NOF-iPS cells (representative data, RA 31.5, 20.6, 15.6%, NOF 47.3, 46.1, 47.3%, on day15, 18 and 21).. ...
Sato S., Miller A.S., Howard M.C., Tedder T.F.. B lymphocyte development and function are regulated in part by the CD19 cell surface receptor complex, which is composed of at least four proteins; CD19, CD21 (CR2, complement receptor 2), CD81, and Leu 13. Because this complex has eight membrane-spanning domains and six cytoplasmic regions, determining the molecular basis for its function and signal transduction activities has not been straightforward. In this study, the contribution of the CD19 cytoplasmic domain to the in vivo function of the CD19/CD21/CD81/Leu 13 complex was assessed by generating CD19-deficient mice that expressed a transgene that encoded only the extracellular and transmembrane domains of CD19. Mice expressing this transgene were similar, if not identical, to CD19-deficient mice with abnormal B cell development, a lack of B-1 cells, increased surface IgM levels on B cells, modest mitogen responses, minimal serum Ig levels, and low humoral immune responses. The results of this ...
We next tested the prediction that the inhibitory activity of LLC CD4+CD25+ TILs should be greater than that of peripheral LN CD4+CD25+ cells. As shown in Fig. 3⇑B, there was no difference in the suppressive potency of Tregs over various ratios of T effector (Teff) to Treg cells from peripheral LNs of tumor-bearing and control mice. In contrast, TIL CD4+CD25+ cells retrieved from LLC tumors exhibited far more potent suppressive activity than LN CD4+CD25+ cells from tumor-free mice (Fig. 3⇑C). Thus, the suppressive effects of peripheral LN Tregs and TIL Tregs correlated well with their levels of TNFR2 expression. As shown in Fig. 3⇑, B and C, the potent inhibitory effect exerted by CD4+CD25+ TILs was not Ag specific because both targeted responder cells and APCs were from tumor-free mice. The phenotype of TIL CD4+CD25+ cells, which were 75∼100% TNFR2+, resembled that of normal mouse LN TNFR2+ Tregs and were indicative of an activated/memory subset (data not shown).. Although other factors ...
Su, J., and J. Forman. CD8 T cells in MHC class Ia-deficient mice. AAI, Denver, CO, 2003. Su, J., R. E. Berg, S. Murry, and J. Forman. Thymus dependent MHC non class Ia selected memory phenotype CD8 T cells from naïve mice provide rapid protection against infection. AAI, San Diego, CA, 2005. xiii List of Figures 1. An elevated percentage of CD8 T cells in DKO are CD8?+CD8?-………………………….50 2. There are less CD8??CD44hi cells and similar CD8?? cells in DKO mice compared to B6 mice…………………………………………………………………………………………..52 3. A significant portion of CD8?? T cells in DKO mice is CD44hiCD122+Ly6C+ and CD62Llo……………………………………………………………………………...............53 4. Expression of NK cell markers by CD8??CD44hi cells from naïve B6 and DKO mice ………………………………………………………………………………………………..55 5. ...
CD4+/CD8+/CD3+ cells are 1-4% range of the lymphocyte population from our HIV+ patients. Most of the cells are brightCD4+/dimCD8+ but all combinations of bright and dim are possible. We include these dual positive cells in both the CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+ counts. What do other labs do with these cells and why? -----Original Message----- From: Kenneth Ault [mailto:aultk at mmc.org] Sent: Wednesday, October 31, 2001 7:32 PM To: cyto-inbox Subject: Re: cd4 cd8 coexpression A phenomenon frequently forgotten is coincidence. If two cells enter the observation volume at the same time they will be seen as one event with the properties of both cells. This is a very common problem in my world (platelets) and should be considered as a possible explanation for any kind of unexpected dual expression of markers. It would be interesting to know if the frequency of CD4/CD8 doubles changes as the particle flow rate changes (i.e change the sample pressure or dilute the specimen.) Ken Ault ...
ClearLLab Control Cells Normal and ClearLLab Control Cells Abnormal are stabilized preparations of assayed, lysable whole blood intended as process controls for the verification of the ClearLLab 10C Panels on the Navios and Navios EX flow cytometers. Parameters assayed include: Kappa, Lambda, CD5, CD200, CD38, CD20, CD19, CD45, TCRγδ, CD4, CD2, CD56, CD3, CD7, CD8, CD16, CD10, CD13, CD64, CD14, HLA-DR, CD11b, CD15, CD33, CD34, CD117, and CD123 They provide positive cell controls that are processed in the same manner as a whole blood sample. This allows verification of reagent performance and the methods used for staining targeted cells, lysing erythrocytes, and analyzing samples with flow cytometry.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparable impact of mutational and selective influences in shaping the expressed repertoire of peripheral IgM+/CD5- and IgM+/CD5+ B cells. AU - Dörner, Thomas. AU - Brezinschek, Hans Peter. AU - Foster, Sandra J.. AU - Brezinschek, Ruth I.. AU - Farner, Nancy L.. AU - Lipsky, Peter E.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - Somatic hypermutation and subsequent selection play a significant role in shaping the peripheral B cell repertoire. This repertoire is composed of CD5+ (5%) and CD5- B cells (95%) which are known to traffic through different lymphoid compartments. Previous studies have shown that V(H) gene usage by CD5+ and CD5- B cells is similar, although mutations are more frequent in the latter. However, the effect of mutation and subsequent selection on the expressed V(H) repertoire of CD5+ and CD5- B cells has not been delineated in detail. This study, therefore, analyzed the mutational pattern of individual IgM+/CD5+ and IgM+/CD5- B cells. In both populations, mutations can ...
CD200 (OX2) is a broadly distributed cell surface glycoprotein that interacts with a structurally related receptor (CD200R) expressed on rodent myeloid cells and is involved in regulation of macrophage function. We report the first characterization of human CD200R (hCD200R) and define its binding characteristics to hCD200. We also report the identification of a closely related gene to hCD200R, designated hCD200RLa, and four mouse CD200R-related genes (termed mCD200RLa-d). CD200, CD200R, and CD200R-related genes were closely linked in humans and mice, suggesting that these genes arose by gene duplication. The distributions of the receptor genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR, and protein expression was confirmed by a set of novel mAbs. The distribution of mouse and human CD200R was similar, with strongest labeling of macrophages and neutrophils, but also other leukocytes, including monocytes, mast cells, and T lymphocytes. Two mCD200 receptor-like family members, designated mCD200RLa and
TY - JOUR. T1 - TCR stimulation drives cleavage and shedding of the ITIM receptor CD31. AU - Fornasa, Giulia. AU - Groyer, Emilie. AU - Clement, Marc. AU - Dimitrov, Jordan. AU - Compain, Caroline. AU - Gaston, Anh Thu. AU - Varthaman, Aditi. AU - Khallou-Laschet, Jamila. AU - Newman, Debra K.. AU - Graff-Dubois, Stéphanie. AU - Nicoletti, Antonino. AU - Caligiuri, Giuseppina. PY - 2010/5/15. Y1 - 2010/5/15. N2 - CD31 is a transmembrane molecule endowed with T cell regulatory functions owing to the presence of 2 immunotyrosine-based inhibitory motifs. For reasons not understood, CD31 is lost by a portion of circulating T lymphocytes, which appear prone to uncontrolled activation. In this study, we show that extracellular T cell CD31 comprising Ig-like domains 1 to 5 is cleaved and shed from the surface of human T cells upon activation via their TCR. The shed CD31 can be specifically detected as a soluble, truncated protein in human plasma. CD31 shedding results in the loss of its inhibitory ...
PerCP/Cy5.5 anti-human CD55 - read details of BioLegend antibodies in the SelectScience.net Antibody products and suppliers directory
Chemokine receptors (CKRs), the primordial receptors for primate lentiviruses, are sufficient to mediate virus-cell fusion. Several different fusogenic CKRs and related receptors provide a broad potential host cell range, presumably advantageous for viral spread within a given infected individual, and across species. By contrast, the additional constraint of obligatory CD4 binding, just prior to CKR engagement, radically restricts potential host cells within an individual (or lymph node microenvironment), and might also limit xenotransmission, as CD4 sequences vary among primates. In spite of these potential drawbacks, CD4 dependent entry for SIV and HIV is the rule rather than the exception, and is generally thought to have evolved by selection for 1) stabilization of virus-cell surface interactions, and 2) conformational shielding of readily neutralized CKR binding epitopes. CD4 binding residues of SIV and HIV envelope are recessed, (relatively hidden from immune detection) and may exhibit a strong
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Research in the past few years has documented significant advances in our understanding of the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD154) system in diverse immune functions. This system influences many T cell mediated inflammatory immune responses and effector functions, unmasking a previously unexpected role for CD40-CD154 in cell mediated immunity. Manipulation of CD154 in animal models of infection by the use of CD154-deficient mice or anti-CD154 antibodies has shown the importance of this system in the initiation of the inflammatory response, in the activation of antigen-presenting cells and in resistance to infections ...
As with any breakthrough, new questions arise and new experiments become feasible.....One problem, however, is that CD32a is a marker for only 50% of the reservoir, whereas the eradication of latent HIV would require a much greater reduction in the number of latently infected cells in the body. Moreover, targeting CD32a would also make the antigen-presenting cells that normally express CD32a vulnerable to destruction, which might well cause unwanted or harmful side effects.....Second, the authors studied CD4 lymphocytes from the blood, but these circulating cells account for 2%, at most, of the CD4 T cells in the body2. It remains to be seen whether CD32a is as good a marker for latently infected cells in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, gut and other tissues. Perhaps more markers could be identified from the 103 differentially expressed genes found in the researchers screen - analysis of these proteins in combination with CD32a might increase the total proportion of identifiable latent ...
The L17F12 antibody is specific for human CD5, a 67 kD transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed on most thymocytes, mature T cells, and a subset of B cells. CD5 is a member of the scavenger receptor superfamily and is present on approximately 70% of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes. CD5 is involved in modulating
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Anti-human CD45/FITC + CD14/RPE antibodies for use in flow cytometry. These dual-color reagents are of value to the study of leucocytes, subdividing them into CD14-positive monocytes, lymphocytes and granulocytes, since the expression of CD45 on the surface of mature granulocytes is less than that of lymphocytes. Learn more about this product at www.agilent.com.
It binds to antigens CD3 and EpCAM. It was developed by Fresenius Biotech and Trion Pharma (Germany). The drug is used for the ... By binding to such a cell via one arm, to a T lymphocyte via the other arm and to an antigen-presenting cell like a macrophage ... of an anti-EpCAM antibody and one half of an anti-CD3 antibody, so that each molecule of catumaxomab can bind both EpCAM and ... CD3. In addition, the Fc-region can bind to an Fc receptor on accessory cells like other antibodies, which has led to calling ...
1991). "The CD3-gamma and CD3-delta subunits of the T cell antigen receptor can be expressed within distinct functional TCR/CD3 ... 1989). "Dephosphorylation of the human T lymphocyte CD3 antigen". Eur. J. Biochem. 181 (1): 55-65. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1989 ... 1991). "Human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoproteins gp120 and gp160 specifically inhibit the CD3/T cell-antigen receptor ... 1991). "Cloning of a novel cell type from human fetal liver expressing cytoplasmic CD3 delta and epsilon but not membrane CD3 ...
... including deparaffinization and antigen retrieval. For formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, antigen-retrieval is often ... Identification of T-cell lymphomas using CD3. PIN-4 cocktail, targeting p63, CK-5, CK-14 and AMACR (latter also known as P504S ... "IHC Tip 1: Antigen retrieval - should I do PIER or HIER?". AbD Serotec. Archived from the original on 2016-04-23. Retrieved ... Visualising an antibody-antigen interaction can be accomplished in a number of ways, mainly either of the following: ...
Past this period CD3 blocks the TCR-antigen binding and causes conformational change or the removal of the entire TCR3/CD3 ... Muromonab-CD3 is a murine anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody of the IgG2a type that was previously used to prevent T-cell activation ... CD3 antibodies shift the balance from Th1 to Th2 cells as CD3 stimulates Th1 activation. The patient may develop neutralizing ... Muromonab-CD3 can cause excessive immunosuppression. Although CD3 antibodies act more specifically than polyclonal antibodies, ...
... a monoclonal antibody that binds both CD3 and CD19; chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy using CD19-directed CAR-T cells; ...
Manolios N, Kemp O, Li ZG (1994). "The T cell antigen receptor alpha and beta chains interact via distinct regions with CD3 ... San José E, Sahuquillo AG, Bragado R, Alarcón B (1998). "Assembly of the TCR/CD3 complex: CD3 epsilon/delta and CD3 epsilon/ ... Koning F, Maloy WL, Coligan JE (1990). "The implications of subunit interactions for the structure of the T cell receptor-CD3 ... Kearse KP, Roberts JL, Singer A (1995). "TCR alpha-CD3 delta epsilon association is the initial step in alpha beta dimer ...
One of them is development of bispecific antibodies such as CD3/CLL-1 antibody. It can recruit unstimulated primary T cells in ... Other way is development of CAR T cells specific for CLL-1 antigen. This principle showed efficient and specific anti-leukemia ... February 2017). "An anti-CD3/anti-CLL-1 bispecific antibody for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia". Blood. 129 (5): 609- ... October 2007). "The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination between normal and leukemic stem cells ...
Müller B, Cooper L, Terhorst C (1995). "Interplay between the human TCR/CD3 epsilon and the B-cell antigen receptor associated ... It is associated with agammaglobulinemia-6. The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human B-cell antigen receptor complex- ... 1994). "CD5 is associated with the human B cell antigen receptor complex". Eur. J. Immunol. 24 (4): 812-6. doi:10.1002/eji. ...
1991). "The CD3-gamma and CD3-delta subunits of the T cell antigen receptor can be expressed within distinct functional TCR/CD3 ... T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is associated on the T cell surface with a complex of protein called CD3. CD3G (gamma chain) is ... 1989). "Dephosphorylation of the human T lymphocyte CD3 antigen". Eur. J. Biochem. 181 (1): 55-65. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1989 ... 1991). "Human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoproteins gp120 and gp160 specifically inhibit the CD3/T cell-antigen receptor ...
The CD8 antigen, acting as a coreceptor, and the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte recognize antigen displayed by an antigen- ... "CD3 delta establishes a functional link between the T cell receptor and CD8". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (5): 3257-64. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... The CD8 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediates efficient cell-cell ... Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ...
CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... on the cytoplasmic domains of CD3 to amplify the signal generated by the TCR. Phosphorylated ITAMs on CD3 recruit and activate ... The antigen has also been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases such as vitiligo and type I diabetes mellitus. T- ... CD4 is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ...
Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (May 1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ... Lck tyrosine phosphorylates a number of proteins, the most important of which are the CD3 receptor, CEACAM1, ZAP-70, SLP-76, ... When the T cell receptor is engaged by the specific antigen presented by MHC, Lck acts to phosphorylate the intracellular ... "Syk and ZAP-70 mediate recruitment of p56lck/CD4 to the activated T cell receptor/CD3/zeta complex". The Journal of ...
"Human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoproteins gp120 and gp160 specifically inhibit the CD3/T cell-antigen receptor ...
"Human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoproteins gp120 and gp160 specifically inhibit the CD3/T cell-antigen receptor ... associates with the B cell antigen receptor complex and regulates lymphocyte signaling". Immunity. 5 (4): 353-63. doi:10.1016/ ...
1989) The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex. Proc. ... Rudd's work has had important clinical outcomes as it laid the foundation for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) cancer therapy ... CD4, CD8 and the TcR/CD3 Complex: a novel class of protein tyrosine kinase receptor (1990) Immunology Today, 11, 400-406 ... to account for CTLA-4 inhibition of T-cell responses to antigen. His research also showed that a mutant form of the immune cell ...
Human Antibodies Against Cell Surface Tumor Antigens Selected From Repertoires Displayed on T Cell Chimeric Antigen Receptors ... By engaging the CD3 T-cell with the CD19 receptor on B cells, it triggers a response to induce the release of inflammatory ... TdT is a protein expressed early in the development of pre-T and pre-B cells, whereas CALLA is an antigen found in 80% of ALL ... The process as a whole results in an effector cell, typically a T-cell, that can recognize a tumor cell antigen in a manner ...
... class I and class II proteins on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs). The CD3 and ξ- subunits contain cytoplasmic ... endocytosis of antigen bound to the BCR and its routing to late endosomes to facilitate loading of antigen-derived peptides ... T cell antigen receptor signalling, B cell antigen receptor signalling, EGF receptor signalling, insulin receptor signalling ... The process of B cell antigen receptor signalling is similar to Immunoglobulin E signalling and T-cell antigen receptor ...
Müller B, Cooper L, Terhorst C (January 1995). "Interplay between the human TCR/CD3 epsilon and the B-cell antigen receptor ... Activation of the BCR with T-cell-dependent (TD) or TI antigens induces cross-linking of surface Ig molecules and binding to ... CD79+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... and generates a signal following recognition of antigen by the BCR. CD79 is composed of two distinct chains called CD79A and ...
"Tandem SH2 domains of ZAP-70 bind to T cell antigen receptor zeta and CD3 epsilon from activated Jurkat T cells". The Journal ... The most important member of the CD3 family is CD3-zeta, to which ZAP-70 binds (hence the abbreviation). The tandem SH2-domains ... Lindholm CK, Henriksson ML, Hallberg B, Welsh M (July 2002). "Shb links SLP-76 and Vav with the CD3 complex in Jurkat T cells ... Nel AE, Gupta S, Lee L, Ledbetter JA, Kanner SB (August 1995). "Ligation of the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) induces ...
"The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex". Proceedings ... CD4 is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Leucocyte typing: human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ...
The CD4 or CD8 proteins on the T-cell surface form a complex with the CD3 protein, which can then recognize the MHC. This is ... B7 is a type of peripheral membrane protein found on activated antigen-presenting cells (APC) that, when paired with either a ... also called "Signal 1" and its main purpose is to guarantee antigen specificity of the T cell activation. However, MHC binding ...
Soares LR, Tsavaler L, Rivas A, Engleman EG (1998). "V7 (CD101) ligation inhibits TCR/CD3-induced IL-2 production by blocking ... Role in T-lymphocyte activation". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 439-48. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1997.tb02898.x. PMID 9389317. ...
The presence of specific T-lymphoid antigens, cytoplasmic CD3 (cCD3), MPO and CD 19 became the most important standard for ...
When a Th cell encounters and recognizes the antigen on an APC, the TCR-CD3 complex binds strongly to the peptide-MHC complex ... For example, when an antigen-presenting cell displays a peptide antigen on MHC class II proteins, a CD4+ cell will aid those ... During an immune response, professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) endocytose antigens (typically bacteria or viruses), ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ...
One of the scFvs binds to T cells via the CD3 receptor, and the other to EpCAM as a tumor antigen against gastrointestinal, ... June 2009). "Antitumor activity of an EpCAM/CD3-bispecific BiTE antibody during long-term treatment of mice in the absence of T ... solitumab forms a link between T cells and its target tumor cell antigen. This causes T cells to exert cytotoxic activity on ...
... it is generally less effective at demonstrating this condition than is CD3 antigen. However, it may be useful as part of a ... CD43+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human SPN genome location and SPN gene ... Fukuda M, Carlsson SR (1987). "Leukosialin, a major sialoglycoprotein on human leukocytes as differentiation antigens". Med. ...
In this way the MHC-TCR-CD3 interaction for T cells is functionally similar to the antigen(Ag)-immunoglobulin(Ig)-FcR ... CD3γ, CD3ε and CD3ζ in the stoichiometry TCR α β - CD3εγ - CD3εδ - CD3ζζ. Charged residues in the transmembrane domain of each ... CD3δ, CD3γ and CD3ε each contain a single ITAM, while CD3ζ contains three ITAMs. In total the TCR complex contains 10 ITAMs. ... At the same time it has to ignore any self-antigen and tolerate harmless antigens such as food antigens. The signal ...
These cells are EBV+ cytotoxic T cells and express CD8, CD3, CD2, TAI1, and granzyme but not CD56. Rarely and mostly in the ... The EBV+ NK cells express CD56 antigen and are malignant with EBV in its latency II phase. The NK cells expression relatively ... Addition of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against the CD20 antigen expressed on B cells, may be added to this or other ... The EBV+ large B cells in these lesions often have reduced expression of the CD20 antigen and contain genetic abnormalities ...
A trifunctional antibody is a monoclonal antibody with binding sites for two different antigens, typically CD3 and a tumor ... CD3), ertumaxomab (HER2/neu / CD3), FBTA05 (CD20 / CD3, proposed trade name Lymphomun) and TRBS07 (GD2 / CD3, proposed trade ... The net effect is that this type of drug links T cells (via CD3) and monocytes/macrophages, natural killer cells, dendritic ... 2008). "Immunotherapy of recurrent B-cell malignancies after allo SCT with Bi20 (FBTA05), a trifunctional anti-CD3 x anti-CD20 ...
"Anti-CD3-based bispecific antibody designed for therapy of human B-cell malignancy can induce T-cell activation by antigen- ... Two chemically linked fragments antigen-binding form an artificial antibody that binds to two different antigens, making it a ... They are fragments antigen-binding (Fab or Fab') of two different monoclonal antibodies and are linked by chemical means like a ... Typically, one of the Fabs binds to a tumour antigen (such as CD30) and the other to a protein on the surface of an immune cell ...
T细胞受体(TCR)是由几种蛋白质组合成的复合体。TCR的两个主要组分是由两个独立基因分别编码的TCRα和TCRβ,其他的组分包括CD3家族的蛋白:CD3εγ和CD3εδ的异二聚体,以及最重要的CD3ζ同二聚体。CD3ζ同二聚体上共有6个ITAM基序,可 ... MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. Proceedings of the National ... An induced rebinding model of
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ... "Age-related impairment of p56lck and ZAP-70 activities in human T lymphocytes activated through the TcR/CD3 complex". Exp ... The age-associated impairment of dendritic Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) has profound implications as this translates into a ... Hakim, F.T.; R.E. Gress (2007). "Immunosenescence: deficits in adaptive immunity in elderly". Tissue Antigens. 70 (3): 179-189 ...
CD3δ/CD3ε deficiency. T-/B- SCID (both T and B cells absent): RAG 1/2 deficiency, DCLRE1C deficiency, adenosine deaminase (ADA ... This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... deficiency CD3γ deficiency CD8 deficiency ZAP-70 deficiency Ca++ channel deficiency MHC class I deficiency MHC class II ... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
In this way the MHC-TCR-CD3 interaction for T cells is functionally similar to the antigen(Ag)-immunoglobulin(Ig)-FcR ... T-cell sensitivity to antigen could be increased via avidity-based mechanism. The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen- ... Each recombined TCR possess unique antigen specificity, determined by the structure of the antigen-binding site formed by the α ... many TCRs recognize the same antigen peptide and many antigen peptides are recognized by the same TCR.[2] ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
There is evidence that not only gliadin (main cytotoxic antigen of gluten), but also other proteins present in gluten and ... or CD/CD3 ratio) in immunohistochemical assessment of biopsies, or the presence of IgA anti-TG2 and/or anti-endomysial ...
Human Antibodies Against Cell Surface Tumor Antigens Selected From Repertoires Displayed on T Cell Chimeric Antigen Receptors" ... By engaging the CD3 T-cell with the CD19 receptor on B cells, it triggers a response to induce the release of inflammatory ... TdT is a protein expressed early in the development of pre-T and pre-B cells, whereas CALLA is an antigen found in 80% of ALL ... Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been developed as a promising immunotherapy for ALL. This technology uses a single chain ...
CD3 (Muromonab-CD3, Oteliksizumab, Teplizumab, Visilizumab) • CD4 (Klenoliksimab, Keliksimab, Zanolimumab) • CD11a (Efalizumab) ... Induction of Potent and Long-Lasting T-Cell Responses against Cancer Antigens". Cancer Research 62: 1477-1480. ... "A divalent major histocompatibility complex/IgG1 fusion protein induces antigen-specific T cell activation in vitro and in ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
The protein also carries the Jr(a) antigen, which defines the Junior blood group system.[9] ...
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
"Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
The CD4 and CD8 T cell surface antigens are associated with the internal membrane tyrosine-protein kinase p56lck.. „Cell". 55 ( ... CD4 może również inicjować szlaki sygnałowe niezależnie od kompleksu TCR/CD3, co prowadzi do napływu wapnia do wnętrza komórki ... Positive signal transduction via surface CD4 molecules does not need coexpression of the CD3/TcR complex.. „Res Immunol". 142 ( ... Constitutively active Lck kinase in T cells drives antigen receptor signal transduction.. „Immunity". 32 (6), s. 766-77, Jun ...
"Guiding the selection of human antibodies from phage display repertoires to a single epitope of an antigen". Bio/Technology. 12 ... drug were found by guiding the selection of human antibodies from phage display repertoires to a single epitope of an antigen ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... "CD3/TCR complex-associated lymphocyte activation gene-3 molecules inhibit CD3/TCR signaling". Journal of Immunology. 161 (8): ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ...
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
Autoreactive thymic B cells are efficient antigen-presenting cells of cognate self-antigens for T cell negative selection., 110 ... CD3 (diferentseerumise marker 3); CD4, CD8, CD30, CD120 (TNFR), CD150, CD152, CD279. ... Ana C. Anderson ja Vijay K. Kuchroo, Expression of Self-antigen in the Thymus A Little Goes a Long Way, 1. detsember 2003 // ... Christian Koble ja Bruno Kyewski, The thymic medulla: a unique microenvironment for intercellular self-antigen transfer, J. Exp ...
TCRαβ, CD3 ja CD4 Tsütotoksilised T-rakud. viiruslikult nakatunud rakkude, kasvajarakkude ja. siirikute lüüsimine. 19% (13-32%) ... Aimee L. Edinger ja Craig B. Thompson, Antigen-presenting cells control T cell proliferation by regulating amino acid ... CD16, CD56 aga mitte CD3 T-abistajarakud. tsütokiinide ja kasvufaktorite tootmine,. mis reguleerivad teisi immuunsüsteemi rakke ...
CD3 (Muromonab-CD3, Oteliksizumab, Teplizumab, Visilizumab) • CD4 (Klenoliksimab, Keliksimab, Zanolimumab) • CD11a (Efalizumab ... ćelije bile identifikovane kao najpotentniji proizvođači tipa I interferona u odgovoru na antigen, i bile su nazvani prirodne ...
"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)".. *^ May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; ... CD61+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Dendritic cells can be stimulated to activate a cytotoxic response towards an antigen. Dendritic cells, a type of antigen ... "Possibility of adoptive immunotherapy with peripheral blood-derived CD3⁻CD56+ and CD3+CD56+ cells for inducing ... causing them to display the antigen. Upon transfusion into the person, these activated cells present the antigen to the ... The cells then destroy the tumor cells that express the antigen.[citation needed] ...
In contrast to NKT cells, NK cells do not express T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) or pan T marker CD3 or surface immunoglobulins ... Infusions of T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor that recognizes an antigen molecule on leukemia cells ... which subsequently enables antigen-specific T and B cell responses. Instead of acting via antigen-specific receptors, lysis of ... Natural killer cells often lack antigen-specific cell surface receptors, so are part of innate immunity, i.e. able to react ...
Anti-CD3 antibodies, including teplizumab and otelixizumab, had suggested evidence of preserving insulin production (as ... that suppress activation of the immune system and thereby maintain immune system homeostasis and tolerance to self-antigens.[26 ...
When a Th cell encounters and recognises the antigen on an APC, the TCR-CD3 complex binds strongly to the peptide-MHC complex ... For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ... but unprocessed antigens do not interact with T cells and are not involved in their activation. The antigens that bind to MHC ...
antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. • proteolysis. • neutrophil degranulation. ... brain antigen processing and regulation of programmed cell death.[17][18][19][20] ...
CD3E stands for CD3 Antigen, Epsilon Subunit. CD3E is defined as CD3 Antigen, Epsilon Subunit rarely. ... www.acronymfinder.com/CD3-Antigen%2c-Epsilon-Subunit-(CD3E).html,CD3E,/a,. ... www.acronymfinder.com/CD3-Antigen%2c-Epsilon-Subunit-(CD3E).html ... www.acronymfinder.com/CD3-Antigen%2c-Epsilon-Subunit-(CD3E). ... www.acronymfinder.com/CD3-Antigen%2c-Epsilon-Subunit-(CD3E).html ... CD8 Antigen, Alpha Polypeptide. *Calcul Distribué et ...
CD3 complex is initiated by rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins. Protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) of the src ... Activation of resting T lymphocytes by ligands to the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)/ ... p56lck-independent activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of p72syk by T-cell antigen receptor/CD3 stimulation Proc Natl Acad ... Activation of resting T lymphocytes by ligands to the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex is initiated by rapid tyrosine ...
Synonyms: AI504783, CD3, CD3epsilon, T-cell surface antigen T3/Leu-4 epsilon chain, T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon ... a neomycin cassette inserted within the CD3 epsilon promoter abolishes CD3 epsilon and delta expression and also abolishes CD3 ... T cell receptor complexes containing Fc epsilon RI gamma homodimers in lieu of CD3 zeta and CD3 eta components: a novel isoform ... Interactions between CD3 and Thy1 T cell activation pathways: blockade of CD3-mediated T lymphocyte activation induced by ...
The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex. E K Barber, J D ... The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex ... The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex ... The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex ...
Expression of a functional CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor in the absence of surface CD2. Analysis with clonal Jurkat cell mutants. ... Expression of a functional CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor in the absence of surface CD2. Analysis with clonal Jurkat cell mutants. ... To investigate the requirement for CD2 expression in activation of T lymphocytes via the CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor complex, ... In contrast, triggering of their CD3-Ti components resulted in the normal set of T lymphocyte-associated activation events, ...
Recombinant T-cell receptors with antibody-like specificity for tumor-associated antigens are successfully used to direct the ... humanized CD3 zeta-chain signaling receptor that directs peripheral blood t cells to specific lysis of carcinoembryonic antigen ... Recombinant T-cell receptors with antibody-like specificity for tumor-associated antigens are successfully used to direct the ... The receptor consists of a single-chain antibody (scFv) binding domain specific for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), the IgG ...
Transmembrane signaling by crosslinkage of the CD3/T cell receptor-alpha/beta complex with the cluster determinant 2 antigen.. ... A novel model for antigen-dependent activation of normal human T cells. Transmembrane signaling by crosslinkage of the CD3/T ... and not independent crosslinking of TCR and of CD2 antigen or crosslinking of either protein with the CD4 or CD8 antigen ... suggest that the CD2 antigen might be targeted for the regulation of antigen-specific T cell immunity (e.g., organ ...
Design and Methods Our artificial antigen-presenting cells were generated with activating (anti-CD3), co-stimulating (anti-CD28 ... The activity of our artificial antigen-presenting cells was compared with that of anti-CD3/-CD28 coated immunomagnetic ... The effect of artificial antigen-presenting cells with preclustered anti-CD28/-CD3/-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies on the ... The effect of artificial antigen-presenting cells with preclustered anti-CD28/-CD3/-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies on the ...
Antigen, T-Cell information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues. ... Introduction: Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell. Description of Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell. Receptor-CD3 Complex ... ANTIGEN, T-CELL) with the CD3 complex (ANTIGENS, CD3). This association is required for the surface expression and function of ... Antigen, T-Cell: *T-Cell *Receptor *CD3 *Complex *Antigen *Cell Interesting Medical Articles:. *Symptoms of the Silent Killer ...
A novel model for antigen-dependent activation of normal human T cells. Transmembrane signaling by crosslinkage of the CD3/T ... and not independent crosslinking of TCR and of CD2 antigen or crosslinking of either protein with the CD4 or CD8 antigen ... suggest that the CD2 antigen might be targeted for the regulation of antigen-specific T cell immunity (e.g., organ ... Antigen presentation. FASEB J. 1989 Nov;3(13):2496-2502. [PubMed]. *Meuer SC, Acuto O, Hussey RE, Hodgdon JC, Fitzgerald KA, ...
Dephosphorylation of CD3-zeta by PD-1 bound phosphatases (Mus musculus) * Antigen-bearing MHC Class II: TCR with ... Antigen-bearing MHC Class II: TCR with dephosphorylated CD3 zeta chain:CD4 [plasma membrane] Stable Identifier ... Antigen-bearing MHC Class II: TCR with dephosphorylated CD3 zeta chain:CD4 [plasma membrane] (Homo sapiens) ... T-cell receptor complex with dephosphorylated CD3 zeta chain [plasma membrane] (Mus musculus) ...
CD3, Antigen blocking peptide \ P-CD3-130 for more molecular products just contact us ... CD3 antigen gamma polypeptide (CD3 antigen, gamma polypeptide, isoform CRA_b). [CD3 gamma] T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 ... We have also other products like : CD3, Antigen blocking peptide Related products : CD3, Antigen blocking peptide ... CD3E T3E] T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain (T-cell surface antigen T3/Leu-4 epsilon chain) (CD antigen CD3e). [ ...
CD3" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, CD3" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to ... "Antigens, CD3" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD3" by people in Profiles. ...
Transmembrane signaling by crosslinkage of the CD3/T cell receptor-α/β complex with the cluster determinant 2 antigen Academic ... and not independent crosslinking of TCR and of CD2 antigen or crosslinking of either protein with the CD4 or CD8 antigen ... suggest that the CD2 antigen might be targeted for the regulation of antigen-specific T cell immunity (e.g., organ ... Transmembrane signaling of normal human T cells was explored with mAbs directed at TCR, CD2, CD4, CD5, or CD8 antigens and ...
Antigen Details Biology Area Immunology Antigen References 1. Barclay N, et al. 1993. The Leucocyte FactsBook. Academic Press. ... Dot plots depict CD3+CD4+ T cells (top) and CD45RA+CCR7+ naïve T cells (TN), CD45RA-CCR7+ central memory T cells (TCM) and ... Dot plots depict CD3+CD4+ T cells (top) and CD45RA+CCR7+ naïve T cells (TN), CD45RA-CCR7+ central memory T cells (TCM) and ... Central memory, effector memory, TCM, TEM, CD3, CD4, CD45RA, CD197, CCR7 Isotype Mouse IgG1, Mouse IgG1, Mouse IgG2b, Mouse ...
Human CD3 T Cell Isolation Kit - Non CD3+ T cells are depleted by incubating your sample with the biotin antibody cocktail ... Antigen Details Biology Area Immunology Molecular Family CD Molecules, TCRs Gene ID NA UniProt View information about CD3 on ... Cells were stained with CD3ε (UCHT1) APC. * PBMCs were prepared to isolate CD3+ T cells using the MojoSort™ Human CD3 T Cell ... PBMCs were prepared to isolate CD3+ T cells using the MojoSort™ Human CD3 T Cell Isolation Kit. ...
Human CD3+ cells are either selected or depleted by incubating the sample with a biotin conjugated anti-human CD3 antibody and ... Antigen Details Gene ID NA UniProt View information about CD3 on UniProt.org ... EasySep™ Human CD3 Positive Selection Kit II, MagniSort™ Human CD3 Positive Selection Kit, CD3 MicroBeads, human Ave. Rating ... 10 µL of Biotin anti-human CD3 antibody for 1 x 107 cells in 100 µL of buffer.. 10 µL of Streptavidin Nanobeads for 1 x 107 ...
This mini-review explains the structure of CD3, the genes involved in its expression, its function and the signal transduction ... CD3 is an essential T cell co-receptorand defines T cell lineage. CD3is therefore an ideal T cell marker. ... CD3-12 which has a very broad species cross-reactivity for the CD3 marker (Jones et al. 1993). Both CD3 γ and CD3 δ are ... The cytoplasmic segments of CD3 ε, CD3 γ and CD3 δ contain a single ITAM, whereas the cytoplasmic domain of the CD3 ζ subunit ...
T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Epsilon Chain Pipeline Review H2 Market Size by Types, Applications, Major Regions and Major ... T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Epsilon Chain Pipeline Review H2 Market 2019. ... The report reviews key players involved in T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Epsilon Chain (T Cell Surface Antigen T3/Leu 4 ... The report reviews latest news and deals related to T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Epsilon Chain (T Cell Surface Antigen T3/ ...
surface receptor TCR and MHC-I-bound antigen, found on the professional antigen presenting cells (pAPC) surface, leads to ... CD3+CD8+CD28− T Lymphocytes in Patients with Lupus Nephritis. Marcelina Żabińska. ,1 Magdalena Krajewska. ,1 Katarzyna ... Determination of CD3+CD8+CD28−Foxp3+ Subpopulation. 300 μL of heparinized blood was stained with 20 μL of the following ... This results in accumulation of "highly antigen-experienced" T-cell with phenotype characterized by extremely shortened ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against human CD3. Shop CD3 Mouse anti-Human, PE-Cy5, Clone: 4AT3, Abnova™ ... CD3 Mouse anti-Human, PE-Cy5, Clone: 4AT3, Abnova™- ... Antigen. CD3. Clone. 4AT3. Description. Mouse monoclonal ...
... products and learn more about CD3 Mouse anti-Human, Brilliant Violet 711, Clone: UCHT1, BD 100 Tests; 100 Tests; Brilliant ... The UCHT1 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to the human CD3 ε -chain, a 20-kDa subunit of the CD3/T cell antigen receptor ... CD3 plays a central role in signal transduction during antigen recognition. The UCHT1 antibody stains both surface and ... intracellular CD3 ε unlike the other CD3 clone, HIT3a, that stains only extracellular CD3 ε . ...
CD3 cell surface expression on resting and antigen-activated T cells. We show that the TCR:CD3 complex is very stable and is ... On the dynamics of TCR:CD3 complex cell surface expression and downmodulation.. Liu H1, Rhodes M, Wiest DL, Vignali DA. ...
When antigen presenting cells (APCs) activate T-cell receptor (TCR), TCR-mediated signals are transmitted across the cell ... All CD3 chains contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) in their cytoplasmic domain. Upon TCR engagement ... Part of the TCR-CD3 complex present on T-lymphocyte cell surface that plays an essential role in adaptive immune response. ... membrane by the CD3 chains CD3D, CD3E, CD3G and CD3Z. ... T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 gamma chain. RAT. 182. UniRef50 ...
When antigen presenting cells (APCs) activate T-cell receptor (TCR), TCR-mediated signals are transmitted across the cell ... All CD3 chains contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) in their cytoplasmic domain. Upon TCR engagement ... Indeed, participates in correct intracellular TCR-CD3 complex assembly and surface expression. In absence of a functional TCR- ... CD3 complex, thymocytes are unable to differentiate properly (PubMed:10935641). Interacts with CD4 and CD8 and thus serves to ...
... Academic Article ... In the case of stimulation with accessory cell-bound CD3 antibody, activation was blocked by LFA-1 but not L3T4 antibody. These ... The differential effect of L3T4 antibody in the case of Con A activation vs CD3 activation is consistent with the possibility ... T-helper hybridomas were activated by accessory cells coated either with concanavalin A (Con A) or with CD3 antibodies. ...
Recombinant Protein Antigen (92). *. Recombinant Protein (52). *. Partial Recombinant Protein (31). *. Biologically Active ... CD3 epsilon (5). *. GABA-B R2 (5). *. Semaphorin 4A (5). *. Calretinin (4) ...
... www.abbiotec.com/antibodies/cd3-antibody-3请您点击此链接查看产品说明书 CD3 AntibodyRabbit PolyclonalCatalog Number… ... The CD3 antibody recognizes the 17-19 kD ε-chain of CD3 within the CD3 antigen/T cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex. The CD3 ... 250935 CD3 (HIT3b) Antibody. 250934 CD3 (HIT3a) Antibody. Alternate Names. T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3; T-cell surface ... CD3 antigen is displayed on 60-80% of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes and 60-70% of thymocytes and plays an important role
Compare P antigen family, member 4 (prostate associated) ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, ... Staining Mouse WBC With Anti-CD3 Pacific Blue Adam Guess *. NIH-Funded Study Finds That Gabapentin May Treat Alcohol Dependence ... P antigen family, member 4 (prostate associated) ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well- ... Your search returned 1 P antigen family, member 4 (prostate associated) ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. ...
Buy our Recombinant Human CD3 protein (Fc Chimera His Tag). Ab220590 is a protein fragment produced in HEK 293 cells and has ... T-cell antigen receptor complex, gamma subunit of T3. *T-cell antigen receptor complex, zeta subunit of CD3 ... Recombinant Human CD3 protein (Fc Chimera His Tag). See all CD3 proteins and peptides. ... T-cell antigen receptor complex, epsilon subunit of T3. * ... T cell surface glycoprotein CD3 zeta chain. *T-cell antigen ...
  • These mutants lack detectable surface CD2 as determined by indirect immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation analysis, and specific radiolabeled antibody binding assay, but nevertheless, expressed normal numbers of CD3-Ti receptors. (rupress.org)
  • Recombinant T-cell receptors with antibody-like specificity for tumor-associated antigens are successfully used to direct the cytolytic activity of T cells toward tumor cells. (nih.gov)
  • The receptor consists of a single-chain antibody (scFv) binding domain specific for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), the IgG hinge and CH2/CH3 (Fc) joining region, and the transmembrane and intracellular CD3 zeta signaling chain. (nih.gov)
  • The activity of our artificial antigen-presenting cells was compared with that of anti-CD3/-CD28 coated immunomagnetic microbeads and immobilized anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (OKT3 clone), the only two commercially available artificial systems. (haematologica.org)
  • Characteristics of a monoclonal antibody (WT-31) that recognizes a common epitope on the human T cell receptor for antigen. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This product consists of four antibody vials: CD3 APC/Cy7, CD4 PerCP/Cy5.5, CD45RA FITC, and CD197 APC. (biolegend.com)
  • Non CD3 + T cells are depleted by incubating your sample with the biotin antibody cocktail followed by incubation with magnetic Streptavidin Nanobeads. (biolegend.com)
  • Human CD3+ cells are either selected or depleted by incubating the sample with a biotin conjugated anti-human CD3 antibody and magnetic Streptavidin Nanobeads. (biolegend.com)
  • 10 µL of Biotin anti-human CD3 antibody for 1 x 10 7 cells in 100 µL of buffer. (biolegend.com)
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against human CD3. (fishersci.com)
  • The UCHT1 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to the human CD3 ε -chain, a 20-kDa subunit of the CD3/T cell antigen receptor complex. (fishersci.com)
  • Studies from the HLDA Workshop show that this antibody is mitogenic for CD3 ε -positive cells when used in conjunction with costimulatory agents such as pokeweed mitogen or anti-CD28 antibody. (fishersci.com)
  • In the case of stimulation with accessory cell-bound CD3 antibody, activation was blocked by LFA-1 but not L3T4 antibody. (scripps.edu)
  • The differential effect of L3T4 antibody in the case of Con A activation vs CD3 activation is consistent with the possibility that L3T4 and the alpha/beta portions of the T-cell receptor must interact during antigen- and lectin-stimulated T-cell activation. (scripps.edu)
  • The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based tool for detecting and quantifying antigens of interest. (biocompare.com)
  • Paraffin-embedded rat pancreas is stained with CD3 Antibody (Cat. (labbase.net)
  • The CD3 antibody recognizes the 17-19 kD ε-chain of CD3 within the CD3 antigen/T cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex. (labbase.net)
  • To expand the full repertoire of γδT without bias toward specific TCRs, we made use of artificial antigen-presenting cells loaded with an anti γδTCR antibody that promoted unbiased expansion of the γδT repertoire. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gamma delta T (γδT) lymphocytes have both cytotoxic and professional antigen-presenting capacity ( 1-4 ), but have been relatively overlooked in terms of their potential role as mediators of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), particularly in the context of mAb treatments of cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • T-cell proliferation in response to mitogenic anti-CD3 antibody was impaired in the presence of 10 microM adenosine (plus coformycin to inhibit endogenous adenosine deaminase). (nih.gov)
  • this was fused to a CD3-specific single-chain antibody to generate bscEphA2xCD3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD3 was detected in immersion fixed mouse splenocytes using Rat Anti-Mouse CD3 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB4841) at 3 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. (novusbio.com)
  • The UCHT1 antibody reacts with the ~20 kDa CD3ε subunit of the human T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex, which is expressed on the surface of ~95% of mature T cells and NKT cells, and variably on thymocytes. (stemcell.com)
  • Flow cytometry analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) labeled with Anti-Human CD3 Antibody, Clone UCHT1, Alexa Fluor® 488 (filled histogram) or a mouse IgG1, kappa Alexa Fluor® 488 isotype control antibody (solid line histogram). (stemcell.com)
  • We thus treated 14 patients with metastatic melanoma by using serial i.v. administration of a fully human anti-CTLA-4 antibody (MDX-010) in conjunction with s.c. vaccination with two modified HLA-A * 0201-restricted peptides from the gp100 melanoma-associated antigen, gp100:209-217(210M) and gp100:280-288(288V). (pnas.org)
  • ImmunoCult™ Human CD3/CD28 T Cell Activator consists of soluble tetrameric antibody complexes that bind CD3 and CD28 cell surface ligands. (stemcell.com)
  • Binding of the tetrameric antibody complexes results in the cross-linking of CD3 and CD28 cell surface ligands, thereby providing the required primary and co-stimulatory signals for T cell activation. (stemcell.com)
  • An assessment of functional antibody production in response to natural antigens or antigens to which the population is commonly exposed may be helpful. (medscape.com)
  • Similarly, an evaluation of the antibody response after active immunization with polysaccharide or protein antigens is possible. (medscape.com)
  • Otelixizumab (Tolerx and GlaxoSmithKline), a humanized non-FcR binding CD3-specific antibody, unfortunately failed to preserve β-cell function when administered at a lower dose. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Catumaxomab consists of one "half" (one heavy chain and one light chain) of an anti-EpCAM antibody and one half of an anti-CD3 antibody, so that each molecule of catumaxomab can bind both EpCAM and CD3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NK cells are genetically modified through transduction with a lentiviral vector expressing scFv of anti-GD2 antibody linked to CD4 transmembrane domain and CD3-zeta signaling domains. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • The T cells are genetically modified through transduction with a retroviral vector expressing scFv of anti-CD23 antibody linked to CD28 and 41BB and CD3ζ signaling domains. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • The HIT3a monoclonal antibody specifically binds to the human CD3ε-chain, a 20 kDa subunit of the CD3/T cell antigen receptor complex found on 70-80% of normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes and 60-85% of thymocytes. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • HIT3a antibody does not stain intracellular CD3 unlike the other CD3-specific clone, UCHT1 (Cat. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: CD3/HLA Class 2 Antibody Cocktail, FITC, PE from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA5-16958, RRID AB_2538433. (thermofisher.com)
  • This antibody is designed to permit the simultaneous enumeration of CD3 and HLA Class 2 expressing cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • Mitogenic anti‐CD3 monoclonal antibody: e.g., purified NA/LE mouse anti‐human CD3ɛ antibody (Becton Dickinson, cat. (currentprotocols.com)
  • An anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)/anti-CD3 bispecific monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. (cancer.gov)
  • A Phase 1, Open-label, Dose Finding Study of CC-93269, a BCMA X CD3 T Cell Engaging Antibody, in Subjects With Relapsed and Refractory Multiple Myeloma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • CEA-TCB is a novel T-cell bispecific antibody being investigated for the treatment of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-expressing solid tumours. (roche.com)
  • Molecule composed of the non-covalent association of the T-cell antigen receptor ( RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL ) with the CD3 complex (ANTIGENS, CD3). (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). (wakehealth.edu)
  • The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA). (wakehealth.edu)
  • Optimal T cell activation requires interaction between the T cell receptor and specific antigen ( 1 ) (the first signal) and engagement of costimulatory receptors on the surface of the T cell with costimulatory ligands expressed by the antigen-presenting cell (APC) (the second signal). (pnas.org)
  • Two important T cell costimulatory receptors are CD28 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4, CD152) whose ligands on APC are B7-1 and B7-2 ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Adaptive immunity is mediated by antigen receptors that can induce weak or strong immune responses depending on the nature of the antigen that is bound. (sciencemag.org)
  • These antigens include CD69, IL-2 receptor (CD25), transferring receptors (CD71), and major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (human leukocyte antigen DR). (medscape.com)
  • Design and Methods Our artificial antigen-presenting cells were generated with activating (anti-CD3), co-stimulating (anti-CD28) and adhesion (anti-LFA-1) biotinylated monoclonal antibodies preclusterted in microdomains held on a liposome scaffold by neutravidin rafts. (haematologica.org)
  • Polymorphism in mitogenic effect of IgG1 monoclonal antibodies against T3 antigen on human T cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2009). The CD3 protein complex is a defining feature of the T cell lineage, therefore anti-CD3 antibodies can be used effectively as T cell markers (Chetty and Gatter 1994). (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • T-helper hybridomas were activated by accessory cells coated either with concanavalin A (Con A) or with CD3 antibodies. (scripps.edu)
  • Clone E6-1 cells produce large amounts of IL-2 after stimulation with phorbol esters and either lectins or monoclonal antibodies against the T3 antigen (both types of stimulants are needed to induce IL-2 production. (atcc.org)
  • No antibodies against prostate-specific antigen were detected. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have previously developed a combination therapy (CT) using anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies together with islet-(auto)antigen immunizations that can more efficiently reverse type 1 diabetes (T1D) than either entity alone. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Among these, non-Fc receptor (FcR) binding CD3-specific antibodies have been extensively studied and have shown clinical efficacy by preserving β-cell function in newly diagnosed patients ( 5 , 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Splenocytes from BALB/c mice were stained with CD3ε antibodies or with the corresponding REA Control antibodies (left images) as well as with CD4 antibodies. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Bio Rad ( The T Cell Marker, CD3 Antigen and Antibodies, 2016). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Activation of resting T lymphocytes by ligands to the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex is initiated by rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the requirement for CD2 expression in activation of T lymphocytes via the CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor complex, we produced and characterized a series of CD2- Jurkat variants. (rupress.org)
  • Assuming that the Jurkat cell line is representative of normal cycling human T lymphocytes, we conclude that the presence of the CD2 molecule on the plasma membrane is not in itself a requirement for an operational CD3-Ti-alpha/beta receptor. (rupress.org)
  • In order to identify a reliable method for producing adequate amounts of functional antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes with a potentially long in vivo lifespan, we tested the T-cell expansion efficiency of a new artificial antigen-presenting cell-based system. (haematologica.org)
  • Townsend A, Bodmer H. Antigen recognition by class I-restricted T lymphocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were stained using the Human Naïve/Memory T cell ID Panel consisting of CD3 APC/Cy7, CD4 PerCP/Cy5.5, CD45RA FITC and CD197 APC. (biolegend.com)
  • CD3 ε is expressed on 70-80% of normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes and 60-85% of thymocytes. (fishersci.com)
  • CD3 antigen is displayed on 60-80% of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes and 60-70% of thymocytes and plays an important role in signal transduction after antigen recognition by TCR. (labbase.net)
  • The CD2 antigen associates with the T-cell antigen receptor CD3 antigen complex on the surface of human T lymphocytes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The TCR/CD3 complex of T-lymphocytes consists of either a TCR alpha/beta or TCR gamma/delta heterodimer coexpressed at the cell surface with the invariant subunits of CD3 labeled gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta. (genecards.org)
  • In T lymphocytes, antigen recognition triggers signal transduction by clustering T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 multiprotein complexes. (sciencemag.org)
  • The CD3 antigen is present on 68-82% of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes, 65-85% of thymocytes and Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. (selectscience.net)
  • PPD, streptokinase, Candida antigen, and tetanus toxoid all activate lymphocytes, if the patient has had a prior exposure to the antigen or superantigen. (medscape.com)
  • T lymphocytes express certain antigens after activation. (medscape.com)
  • UCHT1 recognizes the human CD3 cell surface antigen expressed by T lymphocytes. (thermofisher.com)
  • This antigen is expressed on B lymphocytes, monocytes and on activated T lymphocytes. (thermofisher.com)
  • CD3ε is expressed on all mature T lymphocytes, NKT cells, and during the development of thymocytes. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The proliferative response is accompanied by the generation of lymphoblastic cells (LBCs), which consist of heterologous lymphocyte populations: CD4 + helper type of T cells, and CD4 − CD8 − double-negative (DN) lymphocytes, including both CD3 + TcR γδ + T cells and CD2 + CD3 − immature type of T or non-T cell type of lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • Almost all the LBCs express Leu19, TfR (transferrin receptor), LFA-1 and CD38 (OKT10) antigens, which are expressed on activated T cells, NK cells and some other lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • C-dependent cytolysis and cell sorting experiments of OK-432-activated LBCs revealed that both CD3 + and CD3 − types of CD4 − CD8 − DN lymphocytes, but not CD4 + helper T cells, may be major populations responsible for the cytotoxicity induced. (springer.com)
  • A population of CD3-positive lymphocytes expressing the CD56 surface antigen, with potential immunomodulating activity. (cancer.gov)
  • Upon infusion of the CD56-enriched CD3-positive donor lymphocytes, these cells may facilitate the reconstitution of CD4-positive T cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and natural killer (NK) cells, which may reduce the incidence of post-transplant graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) following haploidentical stem cell transplant (SCT). (cancer.gov)
  • The lymph node processes and presents various antigens to either B or T lymphocytes. (medscape.com)
  • The CD3 complex mediates signal transduction, resulting in T-cell activation and proliferation. (grandresearchstore.com)
  • CD3 plays a central role in signal transduction during antigen recognition. (fishersci.com)
  • This complex plays an important role in coupling antigen recognition to several intracellular signal-transduction pathways. (genecards.org)
  • Upon recognition of peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) antigens, T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 triggering induces signal transduction that requires receptor clustering ( 1 , 2 ) but may be influenced by biophysical changes proposed to occur in TCR ( 3 - 8 ) and CD3 ( 9 - 12 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The CD3 components have long cytoplasmic tails that associate with cytoplasmic signal transduction molecules. (selectscience.net)
  • The CD3 complex plays a role in signal transduction during antigen recognition by the T cell receptor. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is part of the T-cell receptor/CD3 complex (TCR/CD3 complex) and is involved in T-cell development and signal transduction. (thermofisher.com)
  • The CD3 complex mediates signal transduction in several intracellular pathways and has a role in T cell activation and antigen recognition by binding the peptide/MHC antigen complex. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • CD3 is associated with the T cell receptor (TCR) and is responsible for its signal transduction. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Epsilon Chain (T Cell Surface Antigen T3/Leu 4 Epsilon Chain or CD3E) pipeline Target constitutes close to 16 molecules. (grandresearchstore.com)
  • The latest report T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Epsilon Chain - Pipeline Review, H2 2018, outlays comprehensive information on the T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Epsilon Chain (T Cell Surface Antigen T3/Leu 4 Epsilon Chain or CD3E) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (grandresearchstore.com)
  • T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Epsilon Chain (T Cell Surface Antigen T3/Leu 4 Epsilon Chain or CD3E) - T-Cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain also known as CD3E is a polypeptide encoded by the CD3E gene. (grandresearchstore.com)
  • Furthermore, this report also reviews key players involved in T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Epsilon Chain (T Cell Surface Antigen T3/Leu 4 Epsilon Chain or CD3E) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (grandresearchstore.com)
  • When antigen presenting cells (APCs) activate T-cell receptor (TCR), TCR-mediated signals are transmitted across the cell membrane by the CD3 chains CD3D, CD3E, CD3G and CD3Z. (uniprot.org)
  • This molecule simultaneously targets EphA2 on tumor cells and the T-cell receptor/CD3 complex on T cells and possesses structural and functional characteristics of the recently developed BiTE technology. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is the CD3-epsilon polypeptide, which together with CD3-gamma, -delta and -zeta, and the T-cell receptor alpha/beta and gamma/delta heterodimers, forms the T-cell receptor-CD3 complex. (genecards.org)
  • In contrast, triggering of their CD3-Ti components resulted in the normal set of T lymphocyte-associated activation events, including phosphoinositide turnover, elevation in intracellular free calcium, early gene-induction events, and IL-2 production. (rupress.org)
  • Indeed, participates in correct intracellular TCR-CD3 complex assembly and surface expression. (uniprot.org)
  • T cell activation involves a cascade of TCR-mediated signals that are regulated by three distinct intracellular signaling motifs located within the cytoplasmic tails of the CD3 chains. (jimmunol.org)
  • Without its phosphoinositide-binding functions, CD3 ζ was concentrated in intracellular structures after T cell activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although the α and β subunits of the TCR are essential for peptide-MHC recognition, intracellular signaling events are mediated by the paired invariant subunits (CD3 ζζ, CD3 γε, and CD3 δε) ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The CD3 complex functions to transduce intracellular signals during TCR antigen recognition. (novusbio.com)
  • This linkage, between a regulatory antigen on T cells and a member of a family of intracellular molecules with an established ability to activate and transform cells, is likely to be of great importance in the regulation of T-cell growth. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Clone REA975 recognizes an intracellular part of the CD3ε chain (activation epitope). (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • A novel model for antigen-dependent activation of normal human T cells. (rupress.org)
  • Transmembrane signaling of normal human T cells was explored with mAbs directed at TCR, CD2, CD4, CD5, or CD8 antigens and highly purified CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. (rupress.org)
  • Our first demonstration that crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen induces proliferation of normal human CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, in addition to revealing a novel activation mechanism utilizable by the two major subsets of T cells, suggest that the CD2 antigen might be targeted for the regulation of antigen-specific T cell immunity (e.g., organ transplantation). (rupress.org)
  • Results Our artificial antigen-presenting cells expanded both polyclonal T cells and MART-1-specific CD8 + T cells in a more efficient manner than the other systems. (haematologica.org)
  • Stimulation with artificial antigen-presenting cells allows for the generation of viable T cells displaying an immunophenotype consistent with in vivo potential for persistence, without increasing the frequency of regulatory T cells. (haematologica.org)
  • The starting specificity of anti MART-1 CD8 + T cells was preserved after stimulation with artificial antigen-presenting cells and it was statistically greater when compared to the activity of the same cells expanded with the other systems. (haematologica.org)
  • Finally, our artificial antigen-presenting cells proved to be suitable for large-scale application, minimizing the volume and the costs of T-cell expansion. (haematologica.org)
  • Conclusions Our artificial antigen-presenting cells might represent an efficient tool to rapidly obtain a sufficient number of functional T cells for adoptive immunotherapy in patients with cancer. (haematologica.org)
  • Suthanthiran M. T-cell differentiation antigen cluster 2 (CD2) is a receptor for accessory cells and can generate and/or transduce accessory signals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • MHC class I molecules are expressed on all nucleated cells of the body and present antigens to CD8, a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed predominately on cytotoxic T cells. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Dot plots depict CD3 + CD4 + T cells (top) and CD45RA + CCR7 + naïve T cells (T N ), CD45RA - CCR7 + central memory T cells (T CM ) and CD45RA - CCR7 - effector memory T cells (T EM ) (bottom, gated on CD4 + T cells). (biolegend.com)
  • PBMCs were prepared to isolate CD3 + T cells using the MojoSort™ Human CD3 T Cell Isolation Kit. (biolegend.com)
  • Cells were stained with CD3ε (UCHT1) APC. (biolegend.com)
  • The untouched CD3 + T cells are collected by decanting the liquid in a clean tube. (biolegend.com)
  • This kit is designed for the isolation of untouched CD3 + T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). (biolegend.com)
  • A single cell suspension from human PBMCs was prepared for the positive selection of CD3+ cells using the MojoSort™ Human CD3 Selection Kit. (biolegend.com)
  • Cells were stained with anti-human CD3 (clone UCHT1) PE and anti-human CD14 (clone M5E2) APC. (biolegend.com)
  • Here, we analyzed the dynamics of TCR:CD3 cell surface expression on resting and antigen-activated T cells. (nih.gov)
  • We show that the TCR:CD3 complex is very stable and is rapidly internalized and recycled in resting T cells. (nih.gov)
  • NK cells also express the CD3 antigen in the cytoplasm. (labbase.net)
  • In addition, depletion CD3±CD19 cells may contribute to prevent developing severe acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) in haploidentical transplantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Here, we show that artificial antigen-presenting cells that can be used within good manufacturing practice (GMP) protocols can result in the unbiased expansion of a wide range of repertoires. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cells are positive for the beta-2-microglobulin, Leu12, My7 (CD13), OKT9 (CD71), OKT10 (CD38) and CALLA (CD10) antigens. (atcc.org)
  • The cells do not express B-cell lineage restricted antigens or kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chains or T-cell lineage-restricted antigens. (atcc.org)
  • The cells do express activation antigens. (atcc.org)
  • As shown In our previous report, the early appearance of CD3 + TCRαβ - T cells, presumably TCR α δ cells, was evident In the peritoneal cavity and liver of control rats at the early stage after llsterial Infection, while this was suppressed at this stage in rats pretreated with both 1A29 and WT1. (elsevier.com)
  • These results suggest that the ICAM-1 and LFA-1 adhesion pathway may be critically involved in protectlve roles of CD3 + TCR αβ - T cells at the early stage of rat listeriosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Adenosine acts through an A3 receptor to prevent the induction of murine anti-CD3-activated killer T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Anti-CD3-activated killer T (AK-T) cells induced in the presence of adenosine exhibited reduced major histocompatibility complex-unrestricted cytotoxicity against P815 mastocytoma cells in JAM and (51)Cr-release assays. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show, using Kv1.3-deficient rats, that Kv1.3 is involved in the development of chronically activated antigen-specific T cells. (nature.com)
  • At rest, T cells express low levels of both K + channels, and both are upregulated upon antigen-specific or mitogen-specific activation. (nature.com)
  • Reacts with mouse TCR-associated CD3 complex that occurs on thymocytes and mature T cells. (novusbio.com)
  • CD3 is expressed early in thymocyte development, and on a subset of NK cells. (novusbio.com)
  • The CD3 complex, which is assembled from combinations of CD3γ, δ, ε, η, and ζ subunits, associates non-covalently with the TCR and is involved in transducing antigen recognition signals into the cytoplasm of T cells and in regulating the cell surface expression of the TCR. (stemcell.com)
  • Activation of T cells by the TCR involves the cytoplasmic tails of the CD3 subunits, which are structurally related type 1 transmembrane proteins and members of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (stemcell.com)
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is a critical immunoregulatory molecule (expressed on activated T cells and a subset of regulatory T cells) capable of down-regulating T cell activation. (pnas.org)
  • In a transgenic murine model of primary prostate cancer, administrating anti-CTLA-4 Ab plus GM-CSF-expressing prostate cancer cells reduced the incidence and histological severity of prostate cancer and led to prostatitis in normal mice, again suggesting an antigen-specific immune response against self-antigens in tumor rejection ( 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • Because many such antigens may also be present in normal prostate epithelial cells as well as PCA cells, one major therapeutic challenge for induction of anti-PCA immune responses may be the need to overcome immune tolerance against normal prostate antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Irradiated GM-CSF-secreting cancer cell vaccines induce antitumor immune responses by recruiting antigen-presenting cells, such as DCs, to immunization sites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a critical role in both the priming of adaptive immune responses and the induction of self-tolerance, herein, we investigated the effect of Grp78 on the maturation of murine myeloid APCs (CD11c + cells). (frontiersin.org)
  • Leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and CD44 are signalling molecules for cytoskeleton-dependent morphological changes in activated T cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Signaling through the leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) molecule has previously been shown to induce homotypic aggregation in T cells and to induce cytoskeletal changes in T lymphoma cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Expression of leukocyte differentiation antigens during the differentiation of HL-60 cells induced b. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We report that the intrinsically inert monovalent engagement of TCR/CD3 can specifically enhance physiologic T cell responses to weak antigens in vitro and in vivo without stimulating antigen-unengaged T cells and without interrupting T cell responses to strong antigens, an effect that we term as "co-potentiation. (sciencemag.org)
  • CD3 complex is crucial in transducing antigen-recognition signals into the cytoplasm of T cells and in regulating the cell surface expression of the TCR complex.T cell activation through the antigen receptor (TCR) involves the cytoplasmic tails of the CD3 subunits CD3 γ, CD3 δ, CD3 ε and CD3 ζ. (selectscience.net)
  • CD3 complex is crucial in transducing antigen-recognition signals into the cytoplasm of T cells and in regulating the cell surface expression of the TCR complex. (selectscience.net)
  • ImmunoCult™ Human CD3/CD28 T Cell Activator is designed to activate and expand human T cells in the absence of magnetic beads, feeder cells, or antigen. (stemcell.com)
  • Image of human T cells isolated using the EasySep™ Human T Cell Isolation Kit (Catalog #17951), stimulated with ImmunoCult™ Human CD3/CD28 T Cell Activator, and cultured in ImmunoCult™-XF T Cell Expansion Medium (Catalog # 10981). (stemcell.com)
  • Therefore, we conclude that in primary T cells, TCR/CD3 complexes can be found that are physically and functionally bivalent. (jimmunol.org)
  • Using intravital two-photon microscopy in the mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we detected antigen recognition motility of the OT-1 CD8 + T cells within the CNS leading to a selective enrichment in inflammatory lesions. (jneurosci.org)
  • CD19 and CD20 (B cells), CD3 (T cells), CD4 (helper T cells), and CD8 (suppressor T cells) are all commonly used. (medscape.com)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells also express CD3 and CD8 surface proteins. (medscape.com)
  • Coadministration of oral insulin improved and prolonged the therapeutic efficacy of anti-CD3 therapy, and long-term protection was achieved by maintaining elevated insulin-specific regulatory T cell numbers that efficiently lowered diabetogenic effector memory T cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2015. Measurement of phenotype and absolute number of circulating heparinbinding hemagglutinin, ESAT-6 and CFP-10, and purified protein derivative antigen-specific CD4 T cells can discriminate active from latent tuberculosis infection. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Pan-T antigens are antigens found on all T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vector of anti-GD2 chimeric antigen receptor(CAR) is constructed for the engineering of NK cells to target Human GD2. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • On T cells, CD4 is the co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR), and these two distinct structures recognize the Antigen-Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). (creative-biolabs.com)
  • CD28 is the receptor for CD80 (B7.1) and CD86 (B7.2) proteins which are expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APC). (creative-biolabs.com)
  • It is expressed mainly on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and binds to a high-affinity ligand (4-1BBL) expressed on several antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and activated B cells. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • On the basis of preclinical observation, this molecule can promote the persistence of antigen-specific and antigen-nonspecific chimeric antigen receptor T-cells to significantly increases antitumor activity. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • CEF peptides (comprising CMV, EBV and flu antigens) were used to stimulate CD8 cells and mumps antigen to stimulate CD4 cells. (mdpi.com)
  • The ELISPOT technology permits enumeration of individual antigen-specific T cells through the detection of their secretory products such as the antigen-triggered release of interferon gamma (IFN-γ). (mdpi.com)
  • The encoded membrane protein represents the delta subunit of the CD3 complex, and along with four other CD3 subunits, binds either TCR alpha/beta or TCR gamma/delta to form the TCR/CD3 complex on the surface of T-cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1, wherein said allogeneic anti-tumor T cell immune response further comprises at least about 5% circulating allogeneic type CD3 + T cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Cibisatamab contains two antigen-recognition sites: one for human CD3, a T-cell surface antigen, and one for human CEA, a tumor-associated antigen that is specifically expressed on certain tumor cells. (cancer.gov)
  • accessory cells macrophages involved in the processing and presentation of antigens, making them more immunogenic. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • CD47, also called integrin-associated protein (IAP), is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on normal, healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and overexpressed on the surface of a variety of cancer cells. (cancer.gov)
  • Cells in our immune system are characterized by unique markers (antigens) on their surface membranes called CD proteins. (lifeextension.com)
  • NK cells are classified as being positive for CD56 and negative for CD3. (lifeextension.com)
  • Less is known about the possible influence of a trigger bacterial antigen on circulating blood cells. (medscimonit.com)
  • NK cells are identified by the expression of the CD56 surface antigen and the lack of CD3. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Safety and Toxicity of Escalating Doses of Adoptively Infused ex Vivo Selected CD56+CD3- NK Cells on Day 7 Following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients With Hematological Malignancies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To evaluate the safety and toxicity of escalating doses of ex vivo selected donor CD56+CD3- NK cells, adoptively infused on day 7 following sibling allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with hematological malignancies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is engineered to bind simultaneously with one arm to CD3 on T-cells and with two arms to CEA on tumour cells, bringing T-cells into close proximity to the cancer cells. (roche.com)
  • Last, we demonstrate directly that members of the CD3 complex, including the gamma, delta, and epsilon chains, as well as a putative zeta subunit, can be phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by the CD4/CD8.p56lck complex. (pnas.org)
  • Whereas all the CD3 subunits possess at least one ITAM, the CD3 ε subunit also contains a proline-rich sequence and a basic-rich stretch (BRS). (jimmunol.org)
  • Because of this property, digitonin has been used to solubilize the αβ TCR/CD3 complex for analysis of subunit constituency and stoichiometry as αβγδε 2 ζ 2 ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • CD3ε is a single-pass type I membrane protein, which is a part of the CD3 complex and a subunit of the TCR complex. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The molecule consists of up to seven chains: either the alpha/beta or gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor, and four or five chains in the CD3 complex. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Under chronic antigen stimulation, repeated cycles of activation occur and lead to progressive and irreversible reduction in CD28 molecule expression on the lymphocyte surface. (hindawi.com)
  • This study establishes CTLA-4 as an important molecule regulating tolerance to "self" antigens in humans and suggests a role for CTLA-4 blockade in breaking tolerance to human cancer antigens for cancer immunotherapy. (pnas.org)
  • Activation signals generated by antigen binding to the antigen-specific alpha/beta heterodimer (Ti) are thought to be transduced via the invariant CD3 gamma, epsilon and delta chains, and the associated zeta and eta subunits. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Mutations in the CD3 subunits have been associated with various immunodeficiency disorders including severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). (stemcell.com)
  • Nonclustering monovalent TCR/CD3 engagement is functionally inert despite the fact that it may induce changes in conformational arrangement or in the flexibility of receptor subunits. (sciencemag.org)
  • These CD3 subunits are structurally related members of the immunoglobulins super family encoded by closely linked genes on human chromosome 11. (selectscience.net)
  • This association is mediated at least in part by a double tyrosine-based motif present in a single copy in the CD3 subunits. (selectscience.net)
  • T cell activation through the antigen receptor (TCR) involves the cytoplasmic tails of the CD3 subunits CD3γ, CD3 δ, CD3ε and CD3ζ. (selectscience.net)
  • This reagent contains one vial each of APC/Cy7 conjugated anti-CD3 (clone SK7), PerCP/Cy5.5 conjugated anti-CD4 (clone SK3), FITC conjugated anti-CD45RA (clone HI100), and APC conjugated anti-CD197 (clone G043H7) at optimal concentration for four-color flow cytometric analysis. (biolegend.com)
  • MA5-16958 contains a monoclonal mixture of FITC-conjugated CD3 (clone #UCH-T1, Mouse IgG1) and RPE-conjugated HLA Class 2 (clone #WR18, Mouse IgG2a). (thermofisher.com)
  • Purpose: This phase I/II trial is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and antithymocyte globulin with CD3±CD19 depleted graft from haploidentical donors in treating patients with aplastic anemia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To assess the engraftment rate and survival of CD3±CD19 depleted haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation after conditioning with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and anti-thymocyte globulin. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • What are self-antigens? (brainscape.com)
  • Furthermore, because many human tumor antigens are normal self-antigens, breaking tolerance against self may be critical to the success of cancer immunotherapy. (pnas.org)
  • that is, that infections with certain pathogens drive adaptive immune-cell responses, resulting in cross-recognition of foreign and self-antigens ( Benoist and Mathis, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • UCHT1 reacts with the ε-chain of the CD3 complex. (beckman.com)
  • A variant of signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa) that antagonizes the human cell surface antigen CD47, with potential phagocytosis-inducing, immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. (cancer.gov)
  • For example, chimeric CD28 and OX40 can be used with CD3-zeta to transmit a proliferative/survival signal, or all three can be used together. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • CD28 modulates the primary TCR/CD3ζ signal in a different fashion than the late costimulatory elements OX40 and 4-1BB. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • T-lymphocyte recognition of antigen in association with gene products of the major histocompatibility complex. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex consists of two variable antigen-recognition receptor chains (TCR-alpha/TCR-beta or TCR-gamma/TCR-delta) that are non-covalently linked to at least four different invariant chains: CD3 gamma, CD3 delta, CD3 epsilon, and the CD3 zeta chain that exists as either a homodimer or as a heterodimer with its splice-variant the CD3 eta chain. (novusbio.com)
  • We show that a member of another family of PTKs, the p72syk kinase, is constitutively bound to the TCR/CD3 complex and becomes tyrosine phosphorylated and activated within 1 min after TCR/CD3 stimulation. (nih.gov)
  • We identified Mono-7D6-Fab, which biophysically altered TCR/CD3 when bound and functionally enhanced immune reactivity to several weak antigens in vitro, including a gp100-derived peptide associated with melanoma. (sciencemag.org)
  • Transmembrane signaling by crosslinkage of the CD3/T cell receptor-alpha/beta complex with the cluster determinant 2 antigen. (rupress.org)
  • Because TCR/CD3 is expressed only in a transmembrane complex with no naturally secreted form, its valency has been studied via biochemical analyses involving immunoprecipitation (IP) and other methods. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we reveal that the human CD8 antigen is also associated with the T-cell-specific protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck). (pnas.org)
  • Three distinct antigens associated with human T-lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis: LFA-1, LFA-2, and LFA-3. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • instead TCRs bind enzymatically cleaved fragments of larger polypeptides associated with major histocompatibility complexes (MHC), which is synonymous with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system in humans (Rudd 1990, Gao et al. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • KLH-conjugated synthetic peptide encompassing a sequence within the center region of human CD3 epsilon. (labbase.net)
  • Our validation of preexisting autoantibodies as biomarkers to distinguish future responders from nonresponders among recipients of oral insulin provides a compelling and mechanistic rationale to more rapidly translate anti-CD3/oral insulin CT for human T1D. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CD3ζ see TCRζ in Human non-CD antigens section. (beckman.com)
  • Synthetic peptide: KAKAKPVTRGAGA, corresponding to amino acids 156-168 of Human CD3 epsilon chain. (genetex.com)
  • CD4 signaling in CAR ensures specificity of the TCR-antigen interaction, prolongs the contact between the T cell and the antigen presenting cell and recruits the tyrosine kinase Lck, which is essential for T cell activation. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Thus, mutant T-cell lines expressing CD2, but not Ti-CD3, on the cell surface cannot be activated via the CD2 molecules. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we use a digitonin-based solubilization procedure to explore this possibility and show that 40% of the cell-surface CD2 molecules can be specifically co-precipitated in association with the Ti-CD3 complex. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Enhanced antitumor immunity was seen when anti-CTLA-4 Ab was given with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-transduced B16 cell vaccine and was associated with depigmentation, suggesting that at least part of the antitumor response was antigen-specific against "self" melanocyte differentiation antigens ( 16 , 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • A negative test result to all antigens suggests impaired type IV immunity. (medscape.com)
  • When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. (wakehealth.edu)
  • It binds to antigens CD3 and EpCAM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of a functional CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor in the absence of surface CD2. (rupress.org)
  • On the dynamics of TCR:CD3 complex cell surface expression and downmodulation. (nih.gov)
  • The CD3 ε BRS complexes selected phosphoinositides, interactions that are required for normal cell surface expression of the TCR. (jimmunol.org)
  • The expression of bivalent TCR/CD3 complexes has implications regarding potential mechanisms by which Ag may trigger signaling. (jimmunol.org)
  • 1988) Characterization and expression of the murine CD3-epsilon gene. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Expression was estimated by reference to the fluorescence intensity of the surface antigens studied. (medscimonit.com)
  • We also found that the prevalence of bivalency among fully assembled, mature TCR/CD3 complexes was sufficient to impact the functional performance of immunoprecipitated TCRs in binding antigenic peptide/MHC-Ig fusion proteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • Importantly, the detergent digitonin was used in all of those studies, because it is known to maintain TCR/CD3 associations while excluding extraneous proteins from the complex ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Using the same strategy described above, two groups reported coassociation by IP of two different TCRs when solubilized in Brij-family detergents ( 10 , 11 ), although it is known that Brij lysates fail to separate TCR/CD3 from extraneous membrane proteins ( 12 , 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Yang SY, Chouaib S, Dupont B. A common pathway for T lymphocyte activation involving both the CD3-Ti complex and CD2 sheep erythrocyte receptor determinants. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • All CD3 chains contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) in their cytoplasmic domain. (uniprot.org)
  • Such findings demonstrate a novel functional role for CD3 ζ BRS-phosphoinositide interactions in supporting T cell activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • It has been suggested that CD2 regulates an antigen-independent pathway of activation or that signals delivered via CD2 are an integral part of the antigen-specific pathway. (ox.ac.uk)
  • T cell activation may be induced when a foreign antigen is presented to the TCR through MHC complex. (beckman.com)
  • It transmits an activation signal to the T cell after antigen is bound. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • CD3-zeta may not provide a fully competent activation signal and additional co-stimulatory signaling is needed. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Each of these chains contains one (CD3 γ, δ, ε) or three copies (CD3 ζ) of a conserved signaling domain, termed the ITAM ( 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • By binding to such a cell via one arm, to a T lymphocyte via the other arm and to an antigen-presenting cell like a macrophage, a natural killer cell or a dendritic cell via the heavy chains, an immunological reaction against the cancer cell is triggered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using immunoprecipitation followed by flow cytometry, we unexpectedly observed TCR/CD3 complexes that contained two TCRs per complex. (jimmunol.org)
  • After permeabilization with saponin-based permeabilization reagent IntraPrep, it may be used to detect intracytoplasmic CD3 by flow cytometry. (beckman.com)
  • Part of the TCR-CD3 complex present on T-lymphocyte cell surface that plays an essential role in adaptive immune response. (uniprot.org)
  • Functional interaction between the Ti-CD3 complex and the CD2 antigen suggests that these T-lymphocyte cell-surface structures are physically associated. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The CD3 antigen is expressed in the cell cytoplasm during the early stage of T cell development and is expressed on the cell membrane at the late stage. (labbase.net)
  • Instead, the elimination of the phosphoinositide-binding function of CD3 ζ significantly impaired the ability of this invariant chain to accumulate stably at the immunological synapse during T cell-APC interactions. (jimmunol.org)
  • Antigens, CD3" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (wakehealth.edu)
  • Two-dimensional nonequilibrium pH-gradient gel electrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated the similarity of p56lck to the protein-tyrosine kinase associated with the CD4 antigen. (pnas.org)
  • CD4, CD8 and the TCR-CD3 complex: a novel class of protein-tyrosine kinase receptor. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A novel form of receptor-kinase interaction was first described in the interaction between the CD4 and CD8 antigens and the protein-tyrosine kinase p56lck. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A proprietary agent that targets the cancer stem cell (CSC) antigen CD44, with potential antineoplastic activity. (cancer.gov)
  • These results demonstrate that proteases expressed by opportunistic pathogens impact host immune responses that are relevant to the development of food sensitivities, independently of the trigger antigen. (nature.com)
  • Vaccination activated new T-cell and B-cell immune responses against PCA antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, because the nonresponse rate to hepatitis B is so high, especially among persons older than 40 years, these antigens remain unreliable in the testing of immune competence. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast to systemic immune modulators, antigen-specific therapies control autoimmunity locally in the islets and the pancreatic lymph nodes (PLN), thus circumventing systemic side effects ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)