Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

RhoA activity is required for fibronectin assembly and counteracts beta1B integrin inhibitory effect in FRT epithelial cells. (1/1924)

FRT thyroid epithelial cells synthesize fibronectin and organize a network of fibronectin fibrils at the basal surface of the cells. Fibronectin fibril formation is enhanced by the overexpression of the ubiquitous beta1A integrin and is inhibited by the expression of the dominant-negative beta1B subunit. We tested the hypotheses that RhoA activity might mediate the integrin-dependent fibronectin fibrillogenesis and might counteract beta1B integrin inhibitory effect. FRT-beta1A cells were transfected with a vector carrying a dominant negative form of RhoA (RhoAN19) or treated with the C3 transferase exoenzyme. Both treatments inhibited fibronectin assembly and caused loss of actin microfilaments and adhesion plaques. On the other hand, FRT-beta1B cells were transfected with the constitutively activated form of RhoA (RhoAV14) or treated with the E. coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1, which directly activates RhoA. Either treatment restored microfilament and adhesion plaque assembly and promoted fibronectin fibril organization. A great increase in fibronectin fibril assembly was also obtained by treatment of FRT-beta1B cells with TGF-beta. Our data indicate that RhoA is required to promote fibronectin matrix assembly in FRT cells and that the activation of the signal transduction pathway downstream of RhoA can overcome the inhibitory effect of beta1B integrin.  (+info)

A region of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin protein enhances integrin-mediated uptake into mammalian cells and promotes self-association. (2/1924)

Invasin allows efficient entry into mammalian cells by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. It has been shown that the C-terminal 192 amino acids of invasin are essential for binding of beta1 integrin receptors and subsequent uptake. By analyzing the internalization of latex beads coated with invasin derivatives, an additional domain of invasin was shown to be required for efficient bacterial internalization. A monomeric derivative encompassing the C-terminal 197 amino acids was inefficient at promoting entry of latex beads, whereas dimerization of this derivative by antibody significantly increased uptake. By using the DNA-binding domain of lambda repressor as a reporter for invasin self-interaction, we have demonstrated that a region of the invasin protein located N-terminal to the cell adhesion domain of invasin is able to self-associate. Chemical cross-linking studies of purified and surface-exposed invasin proteins, and the dominant-interfering effect of a non-functional invasin derivative are consistent with the presence of a self-association domain that is located within the region of invasin that enhances bacterial uptake. We conclude that interaction of homomultimeric invasin with multiple integrins establishes tight adherence and receptor clustering, thus providing a signal for internalization.  (+info)

CD9 is involved in invasion of human trophoblast-like choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo cells. (3/1924)

The CD9 molecule is expressed on human extravillous trophoblasts, which invade the endometrium during implantation and placentation. To elucidate the role of CD9 in trophoblastic function, we investigated the expression of CD9 protein and mRNA in BeWo cells, a human trophoblast-like choriocarcinoma cell line, using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). When BeWo cells were cultured with anti-CD9 monoclonal antibodies (mAb), their invasion through the extracellular matrices was significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. Cell proliferation and human chorionic gonadotrophin production were unaffected. On the other hand, culture in the presence of mAb against integrins alpha3, alpha5 and beta1, which partially block the interaction with the extracellular matrices, inhibited BeWo cell invasion. Anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody had a stimulatory effect on BeWo cell invasion in the presence of anti-integrin alpha3 antibody. In contrast, it had no effect in the presence of mAb against integrins alpha5 and beta1, which were also highly expressed on BeWo cells. These findings suggest that CD9 has a function connected with the invasive properties of BeWo cells, which is partially mediated by integrin alpha5beta1. This may relate to the involvement of CD9 in trophoblastic invasion.  (+info)

Minimally modified low-density lipoprotein induces monocyte adhesion to endothelial connecting segment-1 by activating beta1 integrin. (4/1924)

We have shown previously that treatment of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) with minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (MM-LDL) induces monocyte but not neutrophil binding. This monocyte binding was not mediated by endothelial E-selectin, P-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-I, or intercellular adhesion molecule-I, suggesting an alternative monocyte-specific adhesion molecule. We now show that moncytic alpha4beta1 integrins mediate binding to MM-LDL-treated endothelial cells. We present data suggesting that the expression of the connecting segment-1 (CS-1) domain of fibronectin (FN) is induced on the apical surface of HAEC by MM-LDL and is the endothelial alpha4beta1 ligand in MM-LDL-treated cells. Although the levels of CS-1 mRNA and protein were not increased, we show that MM-LDL treatment causes deposition of FN on the apical surface by activation of beta1integrins, particularly those associated with alpha5 integrins. Activation of beta1 by antibody 8A2 also induced CS-1-mediated monocyte binding. Confocal microscopy demonstrated the activated beta1 and CS-1colocalize in concentrated filamentous patches on the apical surface of HAEC. Both anti-CS-1 and an antibody to activated beta1 showed increased staining on the luminal endothelium of human coronary lesions with active monocyte entry. These results suggest the importance of these integrin ligand interactions in human atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Mutational analysis of cell cycle inhibition by integrin beta1C. (5/1924)

Integrin beta1C is an alternatively spliced cytoplasmic variant of the beta1 subunit that potently inhibits cell cycle progression. In this study, we analyzed the requirements for growth suppression by beta1C. A chimera containing the extracellular/transmembrane domain of the Tac subunit of the human interleukin 2 receptor (gp55) fused to the cytoplasmic domain of beta1C (residues 732-805) strongly inhibited growth in mouse 10T1/2 cells even at low expression levels, whereas chimeras containing the beta1A, beta1B, beta1D, beta3, and beta5 cytoplasmic domains had weak and variable effects. The beta1C cytoplasmic domain is composed of a membrane proximal region (732-757) common to all beta1 variants and a COOH-terminal 48-amino acid domain (758-805) unique to beta1C. The beta1C-specific domain (758-805) was sufficient to block cell growth even when expressed as a soluble cytoplasmic green fluorescent protein fusion protein. These results indicate that growth inhibition by beta1C does not require the intact receptor and can function in the absence of membrane targeting. Analysis of deletions within the beta1C-specific domain showed that the 18-amino acid sequence 775-792 is both necessary and sufficient for maximal growth inhibition, although the 13 COOH-terminal residues (793-805) also had weak activity. Finally, beta1C is known to be induced in endothelial cells in response to tumor necrosis factor and is down-regulated in prostate epithelial cells after transformation. The green fluorescent protein/beta1C (758-805) chimera blocked growth in the human endothelial cell line EV304 and in the transformed prostate epithelial cell line DU145, consistent with a role for beta1C as a growth inhibitor in vivo.  (+info)

Mouse primordial germ cells lacking beta1 integrins enter the germline but fail to migrate normally to the gonads. (6/1924)

Primordial germ cells are the founder cells of the gametes. They are set aside at the initial stages of gastrulation in mammals, become embedded in the hind-gut endoderm, then actively migrate to the sites of gonad formation. The molecular basis of this migration is poorly understood. Here we sought to determine if members of the integrin family of cell surface receptors are required for primordial germ cell migration, as integrins have been implicated in the migration of several other motile cell types. We have established a line of mice which express green fluorescent protein in germline cells that has enabled us to efficiently purify primordial germ cells at different stages by flow cytometry. We have catalogued the spectrum of integrin subunit expression by primordial germ cells during and after migration, using flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. Through analysis of integrin beta1(-/-)-->wild-type chimeras, we show that embryonic cells lacking beta1 integrins can enter the germline. However, integrin beta1(-/-) primordial germ cells do not colonize the gonad efficiently. Embryos with targeted deletion of integrin subunit alpha3, alpha6, or alphaV show no major defects in primordial germ cell migration. These results demonstrate a role for beta1-containing integrins in the development of the germline, although an equivalent role for * integrin subunit(s) has yet to be established.  (+info)

Maturation of the myogenic program is induced by postmitotic expression of insulin-like growth factor I. (7/1924)

The molecular mechanisms underlying myogenic induction by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are distinct from its proliferative effects on myoblasts. To determine the postmitotic role of IGF-I on muscle cell differentiation, we derived L6E9 muscle cell lines carrying a stably transfected rat IGF-I gene under the control of a myosin light chain (MLC) promoter-enhancer cassette. Expression of MLC-IGF-I exclusively in differentiated L6E9 myotubes, which express the embryonic form of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and no endogenous IGF-I, resulted in pronounced myotube hypertrophy, accompanied by activation of the neonatal MyHC isoform. The hypertrophic myotubes dramatically increased expression of myogenin, muscle creatine kinase, beta-enolase, and IGF binding protein 5 and activated the myocyte enhancer factor 2C gene which is normally silent in this cell line. MLC-IGF-I induction in differentiated L6E9 cells also increased the expression of a transiently transfected LacZ reporter driven by the myogenin promoter, demonstrating activation of the differentiation program at the transcriptional level. Nuclear reorganization, accumulation of skeletal actin protein, and an increased expression of beta1D integrin were also observed. Inhibition of the phosphatidyl inositol (PI) 3-kinase intermediate in IGF-I-mediated signal transduction confirmed that the PI 3-kinase pathway is required only at early stages for IGF-I-mediated hypertrophy and neonatal MyHC induction in these cells. Expression of IGF-I in postmitotic muscle may therefore play an important role in the maturation of the myogenic program.  (+info)

Targeted disruption of fibronectin-integrin interactions in human gingival fibroblasts by the RI protease of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50. (8/1924)

Cell surface integrins mediate interactions between cells and their extracellular matrix and are frequently exploited by a range of bacterial pathogens to facilitate adherence and/or invasion. In this study we examined the effects of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteases on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) integrins and their fibronectin matrix. Culture supernatant from the virulent strain W50 caused considerably greater loss of the beta1 integrin subunit from HGF in vitro than did that of the beige-pigmented strain W50/BE1. Prior treatment of the W50 culture supernatant with the protease inhibitor Nalpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) blocked its effects on cultured cells, indicating that this process is proteolytically mediated. Purified arginine-specific proteases from P. gingivalis W50 were able to mimic the effects of the whole-culture supernatant on loss of beta1 integrin expression. However purified RI, an alpha/beta heterodimer in which the catalytic chain is associated with an adhesin chain, was 12 times more active than RIA, the catalytic monomer, in causing loss of the alpha5beta1 integrin (fibronectin receptor) from HGF. No effect was observed on the alphaVbeta3 integrin (vitronectin receptor). The sites of action of RI and RIA were investigated in cells exposed to proteases pretreated with TLCK to inactivate the catalytic component. Use of both monoclonal antibody 1A1, which recognizes only the adhesin chain of RI, and a rabbit antibody against P. gingivalis whole cells indicated localization of RI on the fibroblasts in a clear, linear pattern typical of that seen with fibronectin and alpha5beta1 integrin. Exact colocalization of RI with fibronectin and its alpha5beta1 receptor was confirmed by double labeling and multiple-exposure photomicroscopy. In contrast, RIA bound to fibroblasts in a weak, patchy manner, showing only fine linear or granular staining. It is concluded that the adhesin component of RI targets the P. gingivalis arginine-protease to sites of fibronectin deposition on HGF, contributing to the rapid loss of both fibronectin and its main alpha5beta1 integrin receptor. Given the importance of integrin-ligand interactions in fibroblast function, their targeted disruption by RI may represent a novel mechanism of damage in periodontal disease.  (+info)

*CD29

... is an integrin unit associated with very late antigen receptors. It is known to conjoin with alpha-3 subunit to create ... CD29 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human ITGB1 genome location and ITGB1 gene ... "Entrez Gene: ITGB1 integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12)". Hynes RO (Apr ... CD29 has been shown to interact with ACTN1; CD46, CD9, FHL2, Filamin, FLNB, CD81, GNB2L1, ITGB1BP1, LGALS8, MAP4K4, NME1, PKC ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.128 --- antigens, cd28 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.129 --- antigens, cd29 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd20 MeSH D23.050.301.264.051.140 --- antigens, cd40 MeSH D23.050.301.264.129 --- antigens, cd29 MeSH D23.050.301.264 ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.101.100.110.128 --- antigens, cd28 MeSH D23.101.100.110.129 --- antigens, cd29 MeSH D23.101.100.110.130 ... antigens, cd29 MeSH D23.101.100.150 --- antigens, differentiation, b-lymphocyte MeSH D23.101.100.150.101 --- antigens, cd5 MeSH ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... antigens, cd18 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.200.500 -- antigens, cd29 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.200.750 -- integrin beta3 ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 -- receptors, antigen, ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 -- antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 -- antigens, cd40 ...

*VLA-4

Integrin α4β1 (Very Late Antigen-4) is an integrin dimer. It is composed of CD49d (alpha 4) and CD29 (beta 1). Vascular cell ... Chigaev A, Wu Y, Williams DB, Smagley Y, Sklar LA (February 2011). "Discovery of very late antigen-4 (VLA-4, alpha4beta1 ... ISBN 978-0-226-74264-9. Lin KC, Castro AC (1998). "Very late antigen 4 (VLA4) antagonists as anti-inflammatory agents". Current ...

*Outline of immunology

Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... CD29 Alpha-5 beta-1 Integrin alpha6beta1 Vitronectin receptor: Alpha-v beta-3 Alpha-v beta-5 Immunoglobulin superfamily CAMs ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... B cells Antigen receptor - B cell receptor (BCR) Subunits- Immunoglobulin heavy chain / Immunoglobulin light chain Co-receptors ...

*TSPAN4

This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein and is similar in sequence to its family member CD53 antigen. It is known ... TSPAN4 has been shown to interact with CD9, ITGA6, CD29, CD49c and CD81. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000214063 - Ensembl ...

*CD49d

... /CD29)". J. Immunol. 157 (5): 2039-47. PMID 8757325. CD49d antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Takada Y, Strominger JL, Hemler ME (1987). "The very late antigen family of heterodimers is part of a superfamily of molecules ... antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor)". Hadari YR, Arbel-Goren R, Levy Y, Amsterdam A, Alon R, Zakut R, Zick Y ( ...

*Galectin-8

... has been shown to interact with CD49d, CD29 and CD49c. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000116977 - Ensembl, May ... 2000). "Molecular characterization of prostate carcinoma tumor antigen-1, PCTA-1, a human galectin-8 related gene". Oncogene. ... "Surface-epitope masking and expression cloning identifies the human prostate carcinoma tumor antigen gene PCTA-1 a member of ...

*CD9

... antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD9 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... CD9 has been shown to interact with: CD117, CD29 CD46, CD49c, CD81, PTGFRN, and TSPAN4. Tetraspanin Myogenesis Fertilisation ... Boucheix C, Benoit P, Frachet P, Billard M, Worthington RE, Gagnon J, Uzan G (1991). "Molecular cloning of the CD9 antigen. A ... Higashihara M, Takahata K, Yatomi Y, Nakahara K, Kurokawa K (1990). "Purification and partial characterization of CD9 antigen ...

*FHL2

... has been shown to interact with: Androgen receptor, BRCA1, CTNNB1, CD18, CD29, CD49c, CREB1, EIF6, FHL3, IGFBP5, ITGA7, ... rise in circulatory prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels after surgical or radiography treatment) FHL2 expression is ...

*CD24

... Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... 2009). "CD15, CD24, and CD29 define a surface biomarker code for neural lineage differentiation of stem cells". Stem Cells. 27 ... "The CD24 surface antigen in neural development and disease". Neurobiology of Disease. 99: 133-144. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2016.12. ... Signal transducer CD24 also known as cluster of differentiation 24 or heat stable antigen CD24 (HSA) is a protein that in ...

*Stem cell marker

CK19, Cytokeratin 19, K19) Kit L-selectin (CD62L) Lamin A/C Lewis X antigen (Le(X)) LeX Lgr5 Lrp4 MCM2 MCSP Metallothionein (MT ... CD29) TNFRSF8 (CD30) PECAM-1 (CD31) Siglec-3 (CD33) CD34 CD44 NCAM (CD56) CD73 CD9 CD90 CDCP1 Circulating anticoagulants ... May 2006). "Lack of expression of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan neuron-glial antigen 2 on candidate stem cell ... Muramatsu T, Muramatsu H (2004). "Carbohydrate antigens expressed on stem cells and early embryonic cells". Glycoconjugate ...

*CD53

1990). "The human leucocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein structurally similar to the CD37 and MRC OX-44 antigens". ... CD49d/CD29)". J. Immunol. 157 (5): 2039-47. PMID 8757325. Szöllósi J, Horejsí V, Bene L, et al. (1996). "Supramolecular ... Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... A pan-leukocyte antigen related to membrane transport proteins". J. Immunol. 145 (12): 4322-5. PMID 2258620. Dianzani U, ...

*CD82 (gene)

1992). "C33 antigen recognized by monoclonal antibodies inhibitory to human T cell leukemia virus type 1-induced syncytium ... CD49d/CD29)". J. Immunol. 157 (5): 2039-47. PMID 8757325. Szöllósi J, Horejsí V, Bene L, et al. (1996). "Supramolecular ... 1991). "A new superfamily of lymphoid and melanoma cell proteins with extensive homology to Schistosoma mansoni antigen Sm23". ...

*CD63

1991). "CD63 antigen. A novel lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, cloned by a screening procedure for intracellular antigens in ... CD49d/CD29)". J. Immunol. 157 (5): 2039-47. PMID 8757325. Skubitz KM, Campbell KD, Iida J, Skubitz AP (1996). "CD63 associates ... CD63 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD63 gene. CD63 is mainly associated with membranes of intracellular ... 1992). "Genomic structure of the ME491/CD63 antigen gene and functional analysis of the 5'-flanking regulatory sequences". ...

*CD46

... has been shown to interact with CD9, CD151 and CD29. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000117335 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... NIH/UW entry on Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome OMIM entries on Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome CD46 antigen at the US ...

*CD81

... has been shown to interact with TSPAN4, CD19, CD9, PTGFRN, CD117 and CD29. Benzyl salicylate and terfenadine have been ... 1994). "Mouse homologue of C33 antigen (CD82), a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily: complementary DNA, genomic ... is associated on the cell surface with the Leu-13 antigen". J. Immunol. 145 (7): 2207-13. PMID 2398277. Matsumoto AK, Martin DR ...
CD49d / integrin alpha 4, unlike other alpha integrins, neither contains an I-domain, nor undergoes disulfide-linked cleavage. It associates with beta 7 chain to form alpha 4 / beta 7 integrin, and with beta 1 chain (CD29) to form VLA-4 integrin. These complexes are important for lymphocyte migration from circulation into tissue (binding VCAM-1) and homing of T cell subsets to Peyer s patches (binding MadCAM-1), but VLA-4 is also target for invasive bacteria which contain invasin. CD49d is essential for differentiation and migration of hematopoietic stem cells by their adhesion to bone marrow stromal cells, and provides a costimulatory signal to TCR-CD3 complex by inducing phosphorylation of some focal adhesion proteins ...
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Effect of blocking αvβ3 integrins on tenascin- C-dependent smooth muscle cell morphology, attachment efficiency, and survival. (A) Representative phase c
Integrin activation by talins and kindlins has been studied extensively; however, the role of other integrin-binding proteins in regulating integrin activity remains elusive. Our data demonstrate that the scaffold protein tensin, known to bind β-integrin at one of the talin-binding sites, supports β1-integrin activity. This is unprecedented, given that other integrin-binding proteins, like DOK-1, which has overlapping binding sites with talin, act as inhibitors of integrin activity (Calderwood et al., 2013). A potential explanation for this finding is that tensins, similar to talin, are among the few proteins that couple integrins to actin (Lo et al., 1994b; Horton et al., 2016), and thus the integrin-tensin complex could extend the list of molecules mediating mechanosensitive coupling of active integrins to actin beyond the well-established integrin-talin-vinculin adhesions.. Fibroblasts adhering to fibronectin generate different types of adhesions, such as nascent, focal, and fibrillar ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel activating anti-β1 integrin monoclonal antibody binds to the cysteine-rich repeats in the β1 chain. AU - Faull, Randall J.. AU - Wang, Jian. AU - Leavesley, David I.. AU - Puzon, Wilma. AU - Russ, Graeme R.. AU - Vestweber, Dietmar. AU - Takada, Yoshikazu. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - The functional status of an integrin depends on the conformation of its extracellular domain, which is controlled by the cell expressing that receptor. The transmission of regulatory signals from within the cell is considered to be via propagated conformational changes from the receptors cytoplasmic tails to the extracellular ligand binding pocket. The end result is increased accessibility of the ligand binding pocket in the high affinity (active) form of integrins. We report a novel monoclonal antibody (QE.2E5) that binds within the cysteine-rich repeats in the integrin β1 chain and induces high affinity binding of fibronectin to the integrin α5β1. The QE.2E5 epitope is located ...
c. Cell adhesion. Cell adhesion occurs when a cell is bound to a surface such as a cell matrix or to another cell. It maintains multicellular structure; seals gaps between cells; links the cytoplasm of adjacent cells and relays signals or synapses in the nervous system.. Some of the most important proteins in this category are cadherin proteins, ependymin proteins, integrin proteins, integrin, NCAM and selectin proteins.. Ion Channels. Ion channels are formed to provide routes for ion transport across membrane walls. They allow only certain sized ions with specific charges to pass through and they differ depending on their location. Most are only large enough to accommodate one or two atoms at a time. They are most prominent in the workings of the nervous system and are also used in biological processes such as rapid changes in cells transporting ions in the cardiac, skeletal, muscular, epithelial and pancreatic systems as well as T-cell activation. They are present as either a. ligand-gated ion ...
BioLegend offers a wide array of CD49d Alpha4 Integrin Antibodies Products. BioLegend develops and manufactures world-class, cutting-edge immunological reagents for biomedical research, offered at an outstanding value.
In the normal kidney, the α8 integrin chain is expressed only on mesangial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. α8 integrin ligates several matrix molecules including fibronectin, osteopontin and fibrillin-1. Recently, we detected de novo expression of α8 integrin on epithelial cells in renal cysts. We hypothesized that the α8 integrin chain is induced in tubular epithelia undergoing dedifferentiation and contributes to the fibrotic response in the tubulointerstitium (TI) after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). After induction of UUO in rats by ligation of the right ureter, increased expression of the α8 integrin chain and its ligands was observed. In the TI, α8 integrin was localized to cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells and to interstitial fibroblasts; and colocalized with its ligands. In mice underexpressing α8 integrin UUO led to collagen deposition and fibroblast activation comparable to wild types. Mice lacking α8 integrin showed even more TI damage, fibroblast activation and
Several pieces of evidence presented here document that β1Δ/Δ or Dko mice have an uncompensated anemia at homeostasis with signs of ineffective erythropoiesis and shortened RBC survival likely because of their inability to counteract chronic ROS accumulation. As a result, membrane changes through protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation would affect membrane fluidity and stability,3,4 leading to hemolysis. Since a similar picture is not seen in the absence of only α4-integrins ([α4β1;α4β7]−/−) the data would suggest that the absence of other integrin heterodimers in β1Δ/Δ or Dkos alone or in combination are responsible for this phenotype.. Integrins expressed in differentiated erythroid cells (mainly α4β1 and α5β1) and their interactions with fibronectin (Fn) in their ME have been previously emphasized as critical for completing terminal maturation steps.30,40,41 Specifically, on the basis of in vitro studies using fetal liver cells, it was concluded that Epo and Fn regulate ...
Hello everyone . i am actually trying to build a computational simulation module for neurons that will explain the effect of mechanical stress experienced by them at different physiological conditions . Actin remodeling in neurons is a process that creates stress but i have a few doubts about neurons and will be grateful to you if you can provide me with some tips : 1. Do neurons have a mechanosensing activity which is triggered by integrin proteins ???? 2. any neurodegenerative
Integrin beta 2 ELISA Kits für viele Reaktivitäten. Rind (Kuh), Human, Maus und weitere. Integrin beta 2 ELISA Kits vergleichen und bestellen.
1. Lu X, Lu D, Scully M, Kakkar V. The role of integrins in cancer and the development of anti-integrin therapeutic agents for cancer therapy. Perspect Medicin Chem. 2008;2:57-73 2. Hynes RO. Integrins: a family of cell surface receptors. Cell. 1987;48:549-54 3. Hynes RO. Integrins: versatility, modulation, and signaling in cell adhesion. Cell. 1992;69:11-25 4. Serini G, Valdembri D, Bussolino F. Integrins and angiogenesis: a sticky business. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:651-8 5. Brakebusch C, Bouvard D, Stanchi F, Sakai T, Fassler R. Integrins in invasive growth. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:999-1006 6. Hynes RO. Integrins: bidirectional, allosteric signaling machines. Cell. 2002;110:673-87 7. Vogel V, Sheetz M. Local force and geometry sensing regulate cell functions. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2006;7:265-75 8. Ginsberg MH, Partridge A, Shattil SJ. Integrin regulation. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2005;17:509-16 9. Springer TA. Complement and the multifaceted functions of VWA and integrin I domains. Structure. ...
Integrin beta 3 antibody [JM2E5] (FITC) (integrin subunit beta 3) for FACS. Anti-Integrin beta 3 mAb (GTX43357) is tested in Human, Dog, Pig, Horse, Bovine samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
VEGFRs in PI 3-kinase and integrin activation. (A) VEGFR knockdown. HUVECs transfected with the indicated siRNAs for 72 h were analyzed for VEGFR expression by
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab33171 交差種: Hu,Bb 適用: WB,IP,IHC-Fr,Flow Cyt…Integrin beta 3抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab5190 交差種: Hu 適用: WB…Integrin beta 3抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
Integrins are proteins important for integrating signals from cell to cell and for interpreting cues from their microenvironment that greatly influencing cell b...
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A first-in-human clinical trial of a fully human, Fc-engineered IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting integrin alpha 5 beta 1 was conducted to evaluate tolerability, maximum tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and preliminary anti-tumor activity. Escalating doses of PF-04605412 were given IV on day 1, 28 and every 2 weeks thereafter to patients with advanced solid tumors until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Sequential dose cohorts were evaluated based on a modified 3 + 3 dose-escalation design. The starting dose was 7.5 mg based on preclinical data. Thirty-three patients were enrolled to six dose levels (7.5, 11.25, 16.9, 34, 68 and 136 mg). Twenty-three patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint (determination of the maximum tolerated dose). Five patients required permanent drug discontinuation due to acute infusion-related reactions, which occurred as grade 3 events in two patients. PK analysis indicated that the targeted drug exposure based on preclinical ...
Given its effects on cell spreading and motility, Rap1 was postulated some time ago to be involved in integrin function; however, confirmation of this required alternative cellular models. Leukocytes represented such a model, since the positive effect of GTP-bound Rap1 on integrin-mediated adhesion is easier to see: in blood cells, in contrast to the more traditional, fibroblast and epithelial, adherent cell systems, integrins are normally kept inactive. Upon inside-out signalling elicited by various agonists, leukocyte integrins can rapidly and transiently be converted to a functionally active, ligand-binding state able to trigger the classic outside-in signalling to Rho-like GTPases (Harris et al., 2000; Schoenwaelder and Burridge, 1999).. Rap1 regulates functional activation of several integrin heterodimers:α 4β1 (VLA-4), α5β1 (VLA-5), αLβ2 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18), αMβ2 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) and αIIbβ3 (Reedquist et al., 2000; Caron et al., 2000; Katagiri et al., 2000; Arai et al., 2001; ...
We have provided evidence that MK specifically binds to α4β1- and α6β1-integrins. The ligands of α4β1-integrin are fibronectin, a major component of the ECM, and VCAM, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. α4β1-Integrin recognizes LDV in the alternatively spliced III CS domain of fibronectin (Guan and Hynes, 1990; Kleiman and Mosher, 2002). α4β1-Integrin plays important roles in cell migration - it governs lymphocyte migration (Rose et al., 2001), is involved in recruitment of neutrophils to inflammatory sites (Burns et al., 2001; Henderson et al., 2001) and is essential for the migration of epicardial progenitor cells to the surface of the heart to form the epicardium (Sengbusch et al., 2002). MK also promotes the migration of neutrophils, macrophages, UMR-106 osteoblastic cells and neurons (Takada et al., 1997; Maeda et al., 1999; Horiba et al., 2000; Qi et al., 2001). Therefore, we postulated that MK-induced migration of UMR-106 cells might be mediated by α4β1-integrin. ...
The integrin family of cell surface receptors is evolutionary conserved and found in all multicellular animals. In humans 8-alpha and 18-beta integrins are non-covalently associated into 24 dimers. Integrins mediate cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions and participate in cell signalling. This ideally places integrins to regulate vital processes such as cell adhesion, migration, differentiation and cytoskeleton dynamics. Integrins also play a fundamental role in regulating cell survival and anoikis. In this thesis molecular mechanisms employed by integrins to induce signal transduction, independently or through crosstalk with other receptors, were characterised.. Rictor-mTOR (mTORC2) was required for Akt Ser473 phosphorylation in response to β1 integrin-mediated adhesion as well as EGF-, PDGF- or LPA-stimulation of MCF7 cells. ILK and PAK were dispensable for Akt Ser473 phosphorylation upon β1 integrin-engagement or EGF-stimulation. PAK was needed when this phosphorylation was ...
Mutations in the genes KRIT1, CCM2, and PDCD10 are known to result in the formation of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). Although these genes have been known to be associated with CCMs since the 1990s, numerous discoveries have been made that better elucidate how they and their subsequent protein products are involved in CCM pathogenesis. Since our last review of the molecular genetics of CCM pathogenesis in 2012, breakthroughs include a more thorough understanding of the protein structures of the gene products, involvement with integrin proteins, and MEKK3 signaling pathways, and the importance of CCM2-PDCD10 interactions 1). Programmed cell death protein 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PDCD10 gene. This gene encodes a protein, originally identified in a premyeloid cell line, with similarity to proteins that participate in apoptosis. Three alternative transcripts encoding the same protein, differing only in their 5 UTRs, have been identified for this gene. Loss of ...
Kindlins are FERM-containing cytoplasmic protein that regulate integrin-mediated cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) accessories. and -3 possess specific but overlapping appearance patterns5,6. They possess nonredundant features as exemplified by particular illnesses connected with each paralog. The pores and skin fragility disorder Kindlers symptoms can be attributed to mutations in kindlin-17. Kindlin-2 can be included in tumor development and its insufficiency can be embryonic deadly8,9. Insufficiency in kindlin-3 can be the trigger of Leukocyte Adhesion Insufficiency 3 characterized by faulty platelet coagulation and leukocyte migration10. All kindlins consist of an N-terminal N0 site and C-terminal FERM site linearly structured into areas: N1, N2 divided by a pleckstrin homology (PH) site, and N311. Kindlins combine to the membrane layer distal NxxY/N theme of the ? integrin cytoplasmic tails10,12. With talin Together, they favorably regulate integrin ligand-binding avidity13,14. ...
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References for Abcams Integrin beta 5 peptide (786-799) (ab45697). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
These data show that high levels of αvβ6 integrins are significantly associated with poor prognosis. There is also a trend towards worse prognosis with high levels of αSMA. However, there were no differences observed between samples with UIP or NSIP histology, although this study was not sufficiently powered to detect a difference between the two groups. Furthermore, there was no apparent relationship between the number of fibroblastic foci and mortality, consistent with previous reports [8]. This is the first study to demonstrate a tissue immunomarker in ILD with a significant association with the prognosis. A notable observation is that the median survival of patients with the highest expression of the αvβ6 integrin was only 25 months, which is comparable to the published survival data in IPF. This suggests that increased expression of the αvβ6 integrin may represent a distinct endotype of progressive fibrotic ILD, and could be useful as a biomarker for disease progression and ...
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The regulation of CD11b integrin levels on human blood leukocytes and leukotriene B4-stimulated skin by a specific leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist (LY293111 ...
The mammary gland epithelium comprises two major cell types: basal and luminal. Basal cells interact directly with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and express higher levels of the ECM receptors, integrins, than luminal cells. We show that deletion of beta1 integrin from basal cells abolishes the regenerative potential of the mammary epithelium and affects mammary gland development. The mutant epithelium was characterized by an abnormal ductal branching pattern and aberrant morphogenesis in pregnancy, although at the end of gestation, the secretory alveoli developed from beta1 integrin-positive progenitors. Lack of beta1 integrin altered the orientation of the basal-cell division axis and in mutant epithelium, in contrast to control tissue, the progeny of beta1 integrin-null basal cells, identified by a genetic marker, was found in the luminal compartment. These results reveal, for the first time, the essential role of the basal mammary epithelial cell-ECM interactions mediated by beta1 integrins in the
Integrins are subdivided into different families based on the structural composition of their α and β subunits, their expression in specific cell types, or their affinity toward certain groups of extracellular matrix proteins. Among them, several integrins, namely, αIIbβ3, α5β1, α8β1, αvβ1, αvβ3, αvβ5, αvβ6, and αvβ8 and, under special conditions, α3β1α4β1, α2β1, and α1β1, have been documented to bind through an RGD motif. This motif is present in proteins such as fibronectin, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, vitronectin, osteopontin, tenascin, and others (Ruoslahti, 1997). With the exception of αIIbβ3integrin that has an expression restricted to platelets and megakaryocytes, all other RGD-dependent integrins are widely distributed. Attribution of a functional, cellular role for each integrin has been impaired by the fact that multiple integrins with similar specificity can be expressed on one cell type. However, some information indicates that αvβ3 integrin may ...
Integrin beta 1 / CD29 antibody [HM beta 1-1] (integrin beta 1 (fibronectin receptor beta)) for FACS, IP. Anti-Integrin beta 1 / CD29 mAb (GTX42117) is tested in Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Autor: Pozzi, A. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2008-04-15; Keywords: kidney; development; basement membrane; receptors; Titel: beta 1 integrin expression by podocytes is required to maintain glomerular structural integrity
https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.4896 Pengcheng Zhou, Sonia Erfani, Zeyi Liu, Changhe Jia, Yecang Chen, Bingwei Xu, Xinyu Deng, Jose E. Alfáro, Li Chen, Dana Napier, Michael Lu, Jian-An Huang,...
Monoklonale und polyklonale Integrin beta 4 Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für Integrin beta 4 Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
The overall goal of this renewal continues to be the study of the integrin ?6?4 (referred to as `?4) as an approach for elucidating mechanisms involved in the...
Rat Keratinocyte Stem Cells Frozen Vial. This Product is also available as Plated Cells. T25 Plated Cells: $550.00. T75 Plated Cells: $750.00. T150 Plated Cells: $2500.00. T225 Plated Cells: $5500.00. This product also requires Celprogens Rat Keratinocyte Stem Cell Culture Extra-cellular Matrix. Cat# E55008-09 and Complete Media with Serum Cat# M55008-09S, and for serum free conditions Cat# M55008-09 is required provided the cells are weaned off the serum. as indicated in their specified protocol provided with purchase of these cells.. Source : Rat Skin. Positive Markers: Keratinocyte function (CD44), and profileration index (Ki67), keratin, CD71, CD34, keratinocyte derived chemokine (KC).. 120 Population Doublings.. Cells are only guaranteed with purchase of Celprogen Media, Extra Cellular Matrix, Trypsin EDTA, 1X PBS, and freezing media for the appropriate cell culture, for 30 days from the date of shipment.. ...
Rat Keratinocyte Stem Cells Frozen Vial. This Product is also available as Plated Cells. T25 Plated Cells: $550.00. T75 Plated Cells: $750.00. T150 Plated Cells: $2500.00. T225 Plated Cells: $5500.00. This product also requires Celprogens Rat Keratinocyte Stem Cell Culture Extra-cellular Matrix. Cat# E55008-09 and Complete Media with Serum Cat# M55008-09S, and for serum free conditions Cat# M55008-09 is required provided the cells are weaned off the serum. as indicated in their specified protocol provided with purchase of these cells.. Source : Rat Skin. Positive Markers: Keratinocyte function (CD44), and profileration index (Ki67), keratin, CD71, CD34, keratinocyte derived chemokine (KC).. 120 Population Doublings.. Cells are only guaranteed with purchase of Celprogen Media, Extra Cellular Matrix, Trypsin EDTA, 1X PBS, and freezing media for the appropriate cell culture, for 30 days from the date of shipment.. ...
Epithelial ovarian cancer is a fatal disease, with a cure rate of only 30%. Several recent studies have targeted integrins for cancer treatment. Preclinical studies have shown the effectiveness of several integrin inhibitors for blocking cancer progression, especially by blocking angiogenesis. Because the initial critical step in ovarian cancer metastasis is the attachment of cancer cells to the peritoneum or omentum and because clinical trials have provided positive results for anti-angiogenic therapy, therapies targeting integrins may be the most feasible approach for treating cancer. This review summarizes the current understanding of integrin biology in ovarian cancer metastasis and various therapeutic approaches involving integrin inhibitors. However, no integrin inhibitor has shown favorable results thus far. However, conjugates of cytotoxic agents with the triplet sequence arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptides targeting α5β1-, αvβ3-, and αvβ6-integrins may be promising integrin
Integrins are cell adhesion receptors which mediate interactions between the extracellular matrix and the actin cytoskeleton. They are heterodimers composed of α and β subunits. As adhesion receptors, integrins are important for cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and therefore are essential for the structural integrity of an organ. Moreover, integrin-extracellular matrix interactions play important roles in the coordinated integration of external and internal cues that are essential for proper development. β1 integrin is the most widely expressed integrin and controls various developmental processes, including neurogenesis, chondrogenesis, skin and hair follicle morphogenesis, and myoblast fusion. To determine the role of β1 integrin in normal development of the mouse mammary gland, with a particular emphasis on how β1 integrins influcence proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis; we examined the consequence of conditional deletion of β1 integrin in mammary epithelia. ...
The Shc adaptor protein, particularly its p52 isoform, has been identified as a primary signaling partner for the tyrosine(s)-phosphorylated cytoplasmic tails of activated β3 integrins. Inspired by our recent structure of the Shc PTB domain in complex with a bi-phosphorylated peptide derived from β3 cytoplasmic tail, we have initiated the investigation of Shc interaction with phospholipids of the membrane. We are particularly focused on PtdIns and their effects on Shc mediated integrin signaling in vitro. Here we present thermodynamic profiles and molecular details of the interactions between Shc, integrin, and PtdIns, all of which have been studied by ITC and solution NMR methods. A model of p52 Shc interaction with phosphorylated β3 integrin cytoplasmic tail at the cytosolic face of the plasma membrane is proposed based on these data.
Order monoclonal and polyclonal Integrin beta 4 antibodies for many applications. Selected quality suppliers for anti-Integrin beta 4 antibodies.
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Integrin beta 4/CD104 Antibody (UM-A9) [DyLight 755]. Validated: WB, ELISA, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
To address the role of β(1) integrins in pancreatic cancer progression, we stably knocked down β(1) integrin subunit expression in human FG-RFP pancreatic cancer cells using lentiviral-based RNA interference. We then examined the effects of β(1) integrin subunit knockdown on pancreatic cancer cell adhesion, migration and proliferation on tumor microenvironment-specific extracellular matrix proteins in vitro and on tumor progression in vivo using a clinically relevant fluorescent orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Knockdown of the β(1) integrin subunit inhibited cell adhesion, migration and proliferation on types I and IV collagen, fibronectin and laminin in vitro. In vivo, knockdown of the β(1) integrin subunit reduced primary tumor growth by 50% and completely inhibited spontaneously occurring metastasis. These observations indicate a critical role for the β(1) integrin subunit in pancreatic cancer progression and metastasis in particular. Our results suggest the β(1) integrin
CD61, also called integrin beta-3, belongs to the integrin protein family that participates in cell adhesion and cell-surface mediated signalling by forming heterodimers of alpha and beta integrin chains. Integrin alpha-V/beta-3 is a receptor for cytoactin, fibronectin, laminin, matrix metalloproteinase-2, osteopontin, osteomodulin, prothrombin, thrombospondin, vitronectin and von Willebrand factor. Integrin alpha-IIb/beta-3 is a receptor for fibronectin, fibrinogen, plasminogen, prothrombin, thrombospondin and vitronectin. These two integrins recognize the sequence RGD in a wide array of ligands. Integrin IIb/IIIa recognizes the sequence HHLGGGAKQAGDV in fibrinogen gamma chain. Following activation, integrin alpha-IIb/beta-3 supports platelet/platelet interaction through binding of soluble fibrinogen, leading to rapid platelet aggregation which physically plugs ruptured endothelial surface. Defects in CD61 are a cause of Glanzmann thrombasthenia, a blot clot disorder ...
A loss of function mutation of the murine alpha 5 integrin gene generated by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells is a recessive embryonic lethal. The mutant embryos start to show observable defects by day 9 of gestation and die around day 10-11. The alpha 5-null embryos have pronounced defects in posterior trunk and yolk sac mesodermal structures, suggesting a role for alpha 5 beta 1 integrin in mesoderm formation, movement or function. However, the embryos progress significantly further than embryos null for fibronectin, for which alpha 5 beta 1 integrin is a receptor, suggesting the involvement of other fibronectin receptors. In vitro studies on cells derived from the alpha 5-null embryos confirm that the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin is not expressed on mutant cells and show that the mutant cells are able to assemble fibronectin matrix, form focal contacts, and migrate on fibronectin despite the complete absence of the alpha 5 beta 1 fibronectin receptor integrin. All these functions have ...
Integrins are a large family of heterodimeric adhesion molecules that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions.13 In vertebrates, 8 β subunits associate with 18 α subunits to generate 24 distinct integrins. Most integrins bind to ligands that contain an RGD tripeptide sequence. An important aspect of integrin biology is the role of conformational changes that modulate integrin function. Many integrins are expressed in a low-affinity (off) state, and on activation, whether through outside-in or inside-out signals, they convert to a high-affinity (on) state that can bind specific ligands and trigger signaling.13 Integrin activation state is cell-dependent. For example, αvβ3 integrin is mostly in a low-affinity state in JY lymphoblastoid cells, whereas in melanoma cell lines it is present in an active conformation.14 In resting ECs, αvβ3 is mostly in a low-affinity state, and EC activation (eg, with shear stress) increases the level of high-affinity integrin.12. Integrin αvβ3 is ...
Integrins plays a role in the resistance of advanced cancers to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In this study, we demonstrate that high expression of the α5 integrin subunit compromises temozolomide-induced tumor suppressor p53 activity in human glioblastoma cells. We found that depletion of the α5 integrin subunit increased p53 activity and temozolomide sensitivity. However, when cells were treated with the p53 activator nutlin-3a, the protective effect of α5 integrin on p53 activation and cell survival was lost. In a functional p53 background, nutlin-3a downregulated the α5 integrin subunit, thereby increasing the cytotoxic effect of temozolomide. Clinically, α5β1 integrin expression was associated with a more aggressive phenotype in brain tumors, and high α5 integrin gene expression was associated with decreased survival of patients with high-grade glioma. Taken together, our findings indicate that negative crosstalk between α5β1 integrin and p53 supports glioma resistance to ...
Integrin Regulation of the Leukocyte Inflammatory Phenotype Integrins are the cellular receptors for the proteins which constitute the extracellular matrix of all tissues. The binding of integrin receptors to extraceullular proteins permits cell adhesion and migration during development, wound healing, and inflammation. White blood cells, or leukocytes, are extremely dependent upon integrin receptor recognition of matrix proteins in order to exit the vasculature and resolve inflammatory events within the tissues. Recently it has been recognized that integrin receptors not only provide a physical link between cells and substrates, but also transduce signals to the cell which affect cell behavior. Our laboratory studies two aspects of leukocyte integrin biology. First, how does the leukocyte utilize these receptors to mediate selective adhesion and migration through complex extracellular tissues? Second, how does the ligation of integrin receptors affect leukocyte behavior? Defining integrin ...
The use of a 3-D BM assay and two related human MEC lines, one phenotypically "normal" and the other malignant, have allowed us to examine the fundamental role of integrins and their intimate relationship to adherens junctions in the regulation of growth and tissue morphogenesis. The results described in this paper demonstrate not only that misregulation of integrins may play a causal role in the expression of malignancy in human epithelial breast cells, but also that manipulations from the cell surface (such as modification of the transmembrane signaling receptors), can restore tissue form and function and reduce tumorigenicity in vivo. Thus, analogous to the effects following retinoid treatment of leukemias, cell surface ECM-receptor manipulations may offer a plausible alternative therapeutic modality for solid epithelial tumors.. Our results showed that the T4-2 tumorigenic cells have increased β1-integrin expression and cell surface levels which are associated with loss of growth control ...
Sulfated glycoprotein widely distributed in basement membranes and tightly associated with laminin. Also binds to collagen IV and perlecan. It probably has a role in cell-extracellular matrix interactions.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Integrin beta 7 protein (ab114397). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
PET Radiopharmaceuticals for Imaging Integrin Expression: Tracers in Clinical Studies and Recent Developments. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Integrins are the major family of transmembrane cell adhesion receptors controlling cell proliferation and migration. The objective of the ADHESWITCH project is to gain fundamentally novel mechanistic insight into the emerging new roles of integrins in cancer. The goal is to generate a road map of integrin-dependent pathways critical in branching morphogenesis, collective cell invasion and integrin signalling in cancer, thus opening new targets for therapeutic interventions. The projects are a combination of in vivo-based, clinically-linked translational approaches and cell and molecular biological studies aiming to identify entirely novel concepts in integrin function using cutting edge techniques and synthetic biology tools.. ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Integrin beta 2/CD18 Antibody (MEM-48) [Biotin]. Validated: Flow. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science Signaling.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
As expected U.S. and U.K. authorities announced yesterday that they will fine brokerage firm ICAP $87 million for its role in manipulating benchmark interest ratesspecifically the London interbank offered rate (LIBOR).
Psoriasis is a hyperproliferative cutaneous disease of unknown etiology and etiopathogenesis. Alteration of keratinocyte adhesiveness to basal lamina has been proposed as the initial disturbance leading to poorly controlled proliferation. Keratinocyte adhesion to basal lamina and lateral interactions among basal epidermal cells are mediated, besides other molecules, by integrin receptors that are segregated to discrete membrane domains. In this paper, the expression and function of integrins in psoriatic keratinocytes were examined, both in vivo and in vitro. We found that: (a) in psoriatic keratinocytes the integrin heterodimers alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 3 beta 1, and alpha 6 beta 4 have lost their polarized distribution on the plasma membrane; (b) the role of these integrins in mediating keratinocyte adhesion in vitro is altered; (c) psoriatic keratinocytes form focal contacts containing both beta 1 and beta 4 integrins. In normal adult keratinocytes the alpha 5 beta 1 fibronectin receptor is ...
This paper shows that, in confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cell (EC) monolayers, the integrin heterodimers alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 1, but not other members of the beta 1 subfamily, are located at cell-cell contact borders and not at cellular free edges. Also the alpha v chain, but not its most common partner beta 3, that is widely expressed in EC cell-matrix junctions, is found at cell-cell borders. In EC monolayers, the putative ligands of alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 1 receptors, i.e., laminin, collagen type IV, and fibronectin, are also organized in strands corresponding to cell-cell borders. The location of the above integrin receptors is not an artifact of in vitro culture since it has been noted also in explanted islets of the native umbilical vein endothelium. The integrins alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 1 play a role in the maintenance of endothelial monolayer continuity in vitro. Indeed, specific antibodies to alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 5 beta 1, and the synthetic ...
Figure 5: Mechanical stimulation activates intracellular signaling pathways that converge with growth factors to activate transcription factors, which promotes bone formation. Perception of load (strain, "1") triggers a number of intracellular responses including the release of PGE2, "2," through a poorly understood mechanism into the lacunar-canalicular fluid where it can act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. Connexin-43 hemichannels (CX43 HC) in this PGE2 and integrin proteins appear to be involved. Binding of PGE2 to its EP2 and/or EP4 receptor, "3," leads to a downstream inhibition of GSK-3β, "5" (likely mediated by Akt, "4") and the intracellular accumulation of free β-catenin, "6." (Integrin activation can also lead to Akt activation and GSK-3β inhibition.) New evidence suggests that ER may participate in the nuclear translocation of β-catenin, "7," which leads to changes in the expression of a number of key target genes "8." One of the apparent consequences is the reduction in ...
The product of this gene belongs to the integrin alpha chain family. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha subunit and a beta subunit that function in cell surface adhesion and signaling. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate light and heavy chains that comprise the alpha 5 subunit. This subunit associates with the beta 1 subunit to form a fibronectin receptor. This integrin may promote tumor invasion, and higher expression of this gene may be correlated with shorter survival time in lung cancer patients. Note that the integrin alpha 5 and integrin alpha V subunits are encoded by distinct genes. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2015 ...
Integrin beta-3 (β3) or CD61 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITGB3 gene. CD61 is a cluster of differentiation found on thrombocytes. The ITGB3 protein product is the integrin beta chain beta 3. Integrins are integral cell-surface proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. A given chain may combine with multiple partners resulting in different integrins. Integrin beta 3 is found along with the alpha IIb chain in platelets. Integrins are known to participate in cell adhesion as well as cell-surface-mediated signaling. Defectively expressed β3 integrin subunit has been correlated with presence of endometriosis, and has been suggested as a putative marker of this condition. CD61 has been shown to interact with PTK2, ITGB3BP, TLN1 and CIB1. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000259207 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000020689 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Sosnoski DM, Emanuel BS, ...
IMG SRC="/math/agr.gif" ALT="{alpha}" BORDER="0",,SUB,E,/SUB,ß,SUB,7,/SUB, integrin interaction with E-cadherin promotes antitumor CTL activity by triggering lytic granule polarization and ...
IMMUNOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT METHOD USING HAPTEN AND ANTIBODY BINDING THERETO AS REFERENCE ANTIBODY, AND... | METHODS FOR DETECTING TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY | PERSONALIZED MEDICINE APPROACH FOR TREATING COGNITIVE LOSS | METHODS FOR DETERMINING DIFFERENCES IN ALPHA-4 INTEGRIN ACTIVITY BY CORRELATING DIFFERENCES IN sVCAM AND/OR... | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR STUDYING MATRIX VESICLE CALCIFICATION |
The angiopoietin/Tie (ANG/Tie) receptor system controls developmental and tumor angiogenesis, inflammatory vascular remodeling, and vessel leakage. ANG1 is a Tie2 agonist that promotes vascular stabilization in inflammation and sepsis, whereas ANG2 is a context-dependent Tie2 agonist or antagonist. A limited understanding of ANG signaling mechanisms and the orphan receptor Tie1 has hindered development of ANG/Tie-targeted therapeutics. Here, we determined that both ANG1 and ANG2 binding to Tie2 increases Tie1-Tie2 interactions in a β1 integrin-dependent manner and that Tie1 regulates ANG-induced Tie2 trafficking in endothelial cells. Endothelial Tie1 was essential for the agonist activity of ANG1 and autocrine ANG2. Deletion of endothelial ...
This Anti-Integrin α₃ Mouse mAb (P1B5) is validated for use in Cell Inhibition Assays, FC, IF, IP for the detection of Integrin α₃. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
definition of ILKBP, what does ILKBP mean?, meaning of ILKBP, Integrin-Linked Kinase-Binding Protein, ILKBP stands for Integrin-Linked Kinase-Binding Protein
Axon Medchem | Prime source supplier of high-value life science products, providing Axon Ligands™ for pharmaceutical research as world-wide recognized drug standards
ITGB2 - ITGB2 - Human, 4 unique 29mer shRNA constructs in retroviral RFP vector shRNA available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
The hypercholesterolemia-atherosclerosis association is now established; hypercholesterolemia may induce vascular-cell activation, subsequently increasing expression of adhesion molecules, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and other key inflammatory molecules. Among inflammatory molecules expressed by vascular cells, integrins play a critical role in regulating macrophage activation and migration to the site of inflammation, by mediating cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. The main lipid oxidation products present in oxidized LDL that may be responsible for inflammatory processes in atherogenesis, are cholesterol oxidation products, known as oxysterols. This study demonstrates the effect of an oxysterol mixture, compatible with that detectable in human hypercholesterolemic plasma, on the expression and synthesis of β1-integrin in cells of the macrophage lineage. The molecular signaling whereby oxysterols induce β1-integrin up-regulation is also comprehensively investigated. Over
Integrins control the cell attachment to the extracellular matrix and play an important role in mediating cell proliferation, migration and survival. A number of important cancer-associated integrin genes can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) that bind to their target sites in the 3 untranslated regions. We examined the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in predicted miRNA target sites of six integrin genes (ITGA3, ITGA6, ITGAv, ITGB3, ITGB4 and ITGB5) on breast cancer (BC) risk and clinical outcome. Six SNPs were genotyped in 749 Swedish incident BC cases with detailed clinical data and up to 15 years of follow-up together with 1493 matched controls. We evaluated associations between genotypes and BC risk and clinical tumour characteristics. Survival probabilities were compared between different subgroups. As a novel finding, several SNPs seemed to associate with the hormone receptor status. The strongest association was observed between the A allele of the SNP rs743554 in the ...
The results of our study demonstrate that the adhesion complex protein ILK regulates the expression of smooth muscle-specific genes in intact differentiated tracheal smooth muscle tissues. This is the first demonstration that ILK mediates signaling pathways that regulate the phenotype of smooth muscle. We found that ILK modulates its effects on airway smooth muscle gene transcription by activating the phosphoinositide-dependent kinase Akt/PKB, a downstream effector and substrate of ILK (1, 8, 29, 33), and that the activation of Akt suppresses gene transcription by inhibiting activity of the transcriptional regulator SRF. ILK binds to the cytoplasmic tails of β-integrin proteins where it regulates the organization of macromolecular signaling complexes at extracellular matrix/cytoskeletal junctions in tracheal smooth muscle tissues (38). Thus our results suggest that ILK may regulate nuclear signaling pathways that control the differentiation and phenotype of airway smooth muscle in response to ...
The major contribution of β2 integrins in immune defense and inflammatory processes relates to their pivotal role in mediating cellular contacts between leukocytes and endothelium as a prerequisite for subsequent transmigration towards a chemotactic stimulus. Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that uPAR forms complexes with integrins ((12), (13)) and thereby modulates integrin-mediated binding to extracellular matrix proteins ((26)-(28)).. This study demonstrates that uPAR is needed for β2 integrin-dependent leukocyte recruitment into sites of acute inflammation. Migration of neutrophils and monocytes into the inflamed peritoneum was drastically reduced after 4 h in uPAR-deficient mice. Consistently, β2 integrin- dependent cell adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells was abrogated after depletion of uPAR from the cell surface, whereas reconstitution with soluble intact, but not truncated, uPAR could totally rescue β2 integrin-mediated adhesion. Regulation of β2 integrin ...
Integrin receptors regulate cell fate by coupling the binding of extracellular adhesion proteins to the assembly of intracellular cytoskeletal and signaling complexes. A detailed, integrative view of adhesion complexes will provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that control cell morphology, survival, movement, and differentiation. To date, membrane receptor-associated signaling complexes have been refractory to proteomic analysis because of their inherent lability and inaccessibility. We developed a methodology to isolate ligand-induced integrin adhesion complexes, and we used this technique to analyze the composition of complexes associated with multiple receptor-ligand pairs and define core and receptor-specific subnetworks. In particular, we identified regulator of chromosome condensation-2 (RCC2) as a component of fibronectin-activated signaling pathways that regulate directional cell movement. The development of this proteomics pipeline provides the means to investigate the ...
Id like to bring the existence of The integrin Page to your attention. The site is completely devoted to the fascinating cell adhesion receptors called integrins. It features: - Basic information about integrins - Direct links to sequences of integrin subunits in the EMBL database with clickable references. - Antibody data for all the subunits (already 126 Ab are present) - And much more. Recent additions to the homepage are: - factsheets for every integrin subunit. - a questions and answers section. - links from Ab to commercial sources (just started). You are all welcome on The Integrin Page. It can be accessed at: http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/9629 ...
Leukocyte adhesion during hypoxia is mediated by HIF-1-dependent induction of beta2 integrin gene expression.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Cell shape and architecture are determined by cell-extracellular matrix interactions and have profound effects on cellular behavior, chromatin condensation, and tumor cell resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. To evaluate the role of chromatin
Integrin beta 7 Monoclonal Antibody, FITC conjugate from Invitrogen for Flow Cytometry applications. This antibody reacts with Human, Mouse samples. Clone: FIB504. Supplied as 25 Tests purified antibody (5 µl/Test) in PBS with 0.1% gelatin, 0.2% BSA and 0.09% sodium azide; pH 7.2.
Academic Dissertations;Academic Dissertations--South Carolina;src-Family Kinases;Cardiomegaly;Integrin beta1;Integrin beta3;Integrin alphaVbeta3;Integrin beta Chains;Platelet Membrane ...
Academic Dissertations;Academic Dissertations--South Carolina;src-Family Kinases;Cardiomegaly;Integrin beta1;Integrin beta3;Integrin alphaVbeta3;Integrin beta Chains;Platelet Membrane ...
Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface receptors composed of alpha and beta subunits, which mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix attachments. Aberrant
In Integrin Protocols, Anthony Howlett and a distinguished panel of experimentalists describe in detail a series of cutting-edge methods for dissecting the role of integrins in biological processes. T

antigens cd29 Protocols and Video...'antigens cd29' Protocols and Video...

... antigens cd29 include Isolation and Characterization of Cardiac Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Endomyocardial Bioptic Samples ... Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific ... Cd29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. ( ... from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164) Isolation and Characterization of Cardiac Mesenchymal ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/keyword/antigens+cd29

DETERMINING AGE RANGES OF SKIN SAMPLES - DERMTECH INTERNATIONALDETERMINING AGE RANGES OF SKIN SAMPLES - DERMTECH INTERNATIONAL

integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes. MDF2, MSK12). ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2015/0259739.html

CD29 - WikipediaCD29 - Wikipedia

CD29 is an integrin unit associated with very late antigen receptors. It is known to conjoin with alpha-3 subunit to create ... CD29 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human ITGB1 genome location and ITGB1 gene ... "Entrez Gene: ITGB1 integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12)". Hynes RO (Apr ... CD29 has been shown to interact with ACTN1; CD46, CD9, FHL2, Filamin, FLNB, CD81, GNB2L1, ITGB1BP1, LGALS8, MAP4K4, NME1, PKC ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD29

thymodepressin
     Summary Report | CureHunterthymodepressin Summary Report | CureHunter

Ki-67 Antigen (Ki 67 Antigen) 3. CD29 Antigens 4. Fibronectins (Fibronectin) ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC449663-thymodepressin.do

Integrin alpha6beta1
     Summary Report | CureHunterIntegrin alpha6beta1 Summary Report | CureHunter

CD49f-CD29; Integrin alpha(6)beta(1); Integrin alpha6Abeta1; Integrin alpha6Bbeta1; Platelet Glycoprotein Ic-IIa; VLA-6; alpha ... Very Late Antigen Receptors: 8*Integrin alpha6beta1: 78. *Laminin Receptors: 415*Integrin alpha6beta1: 78 ... 6 beta 1 Integrin; alpha6beta1 Integrin; CD49f CD29; Glycoprotein Ic-IIa, Platelet; Ic-IIa, Platelet Glycoprotein; Integrin, ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD039121-I-c-IIa--Platelet-Glycoprotein.do

GO Gene ListGO Gene List

Integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12). NM_002211. NM_133376. NM_033668. ... Integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61). NM_000212. Gene Info. ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GoGeneQuery?PAGE=1&ORG=Hs&GOID=0050731

GO Gene ListGO Gene List

Integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12). NM_002211. NM_133376. NM_033668. ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GoGeneQuery?PAGE=1&ORG=Hs&GOID=0060627

ITGB1 Antibody (Monoclonal, 2B1)
		        
	ITGB1 Antibody (Monoclonal, 2B1)

... antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12); ITBG1D; ITGB1; MDF2; MSK12; very late activation protein, beta polypeptide; VLA-4 subunit ... Protein Aliases: CD29; Fibronectin receptor subunit beta; FNRB; Glycoprotein IIa; GPIIA; integrin beta 1; Integrin beta-1; ... Gene Aliases: 4633401G24Rik; AA409975; AA960159; CD29; ENSMUSG00000051907; FNRB; Gm9863; GPIIA; ITGB1; MDF2; MSK12; VLA-BETA; ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/Integrin-beta-1D-CD29-Antibody-2B1-Monoclonal/MA1-06906

ITGB1 Antibody (Monoclonal, 7F10)
                
                
		        
	ITGB1 Antibody (Monoclonal, 7F10)

... antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12); ITGB1; MDF2; MSK12; very late activation protein, beta polypeptide; VLA-4 subunit beta; VLA ... Integrin beta-1/CD29 was detected at approximately 110, 130 kDa using a Integrin beta-1/CD29 monoclonal antibody (Product # MA5 ... The CD29 is expressed at the cell surface exclusively as part of a heterodimer, in association with one of at least nine ... MA5-11429 targets CD29 in IHC (P) and Western blot applications and shows reactivity with Human and Rat samples.. The MA5-11429 ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/ITGB1-Antibody-clone-7F10-Monoclonal/MA5-11429

Overexpression or Knockdown of ClC-3 Promotes or Degrad | Open-iOverexpression or Knockdown of ClC-3 Promotes or Degrad | Open-i

Antigens, CD29/metabolism. *Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics/metabolism. *Cell Line, Tumor. *Cell Movement/genetics ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4385862_oncotarget-06-2434-g002&req=4

A Blood was drawn using the submandibular collection me | Open-iA Blood was drawn using the submandibular collection me | Open-i

Antigens, CD29/metabolism. *Cell Adhesion/drug effects. *Cell Hypoxia/drug effects. *Cell Movement/drug effects ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3927960_emmm0006-0278-f6&req=4

anti-Integrin beta 1 / CD29 antibody [MEM-101A]  | GeneTexanti-Integrin beta 1 / CD29 antibody [MEM-101A] | GeneTex

... antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12)) for FACS, IP, WB. Anti-Integrin beta 1 / CD29 mAb (GTX28238) is tested in Human samples. ... CD29 antibody [MEM-101A] (integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, ... Integrin beta 1 / CD29 antibody [MEM-101A] See all Integrin beta 1 / CD29 products ... integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12). ...
more infohttp://www.genetex.com/Integrin-beta-1-CD29-antibody-MEM-101A-GTX28238.html

ITGB1 monoclonal antibody, clone MEM-101A - (MAB0883) - Products - AbnovaITGB1 monoclonal antibody, clone MEM-101A - (MAB0883) - Products - Abnova

integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12) ... This antibody reacts with CD29 (integrin beta chain), a 130 KDa single chain type I glycoprotein expressed as a heterodimer ( ... non-covalently associated with the integrin alpha subunits 1-6). CD29 is broadly expressed on majority of hematopoietic and non ...
more infohttp://www.abnova.com/products/products_detail.asp?catalog_id=MAB0883

Integrin beta-1 Antibody 66315-1-Ig  | ProteintechIntegrin beta-1 Antibody 66315-1-Ig | Proteintech

integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12) ... CD29, FNRB, GPIIA, Integrin beta 1, Integrin beta-1, ITGB1, MDF2, MSK12, VLA 4 subunit beta, VLA BETA, VLAB ... Integrin beta-1 (ITGB1), also named as CD29, is a 130 kDa single chain type I glycoprotein that is expressed in a heterodimeric ... complex with one of six distinct α subunits, comprising the very late activation antigen (VLA) subfamily of adhesion receptors ...
more infohttps://www.ptglab.com/Products/Integrin-beta-1-Antibody-66315-1-Ig.htm

Integrin beta-1 Antibody 12594-1-AP  | ProteintechIntegrin beta-1 Antibody 12594-1-AP | Proteintech

integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12) ... Note: suggested antigen retrieval with TE buffer pH 9.0; (*) Alternatively, antigen retrieval may be performed with citrate ... Integrin beta-1 (ITGB1), also named as CD29, is a 130 kDa single chain type I glycoprotein that is expressed in a heterodimeric ... CD29, FNRB, GPIIA, Integrin beta 1, ITB1, ITGB1, MDF2, MSK12, VLA 4 subunit beta, VLA BETA, VLAB ...
more infohttps://www.ptglab.com/Products/ITGB1-Antibody-12594-1-AP.htm

CD29 - Beckman CoulterCD29 - Beckman Coulter

... also known as Very Late Antigens (VLA). CD29 complexes are involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, depending on the α ... The CD29 antigen is the 130 kDa integrin β1 chain which is expressed as a heterodimer, non-covalently associated with the ... CD29 Antigen. The CD29 antigen is the 130 kDa integrin β1 chain which is expressed as a heterodimer, non-covalently associated ... depending on the α subunit associated to CD29. CD29 is also known as platelet GPIIa. The antigen mediates cellular adhesion and ...
more infohttps://www.beckman.mx/reagents/coulter-flow-cytometry/antibodies-and-kits/single-color-antibodies/cd29

OriGene - ITGB1 (NM 002211) Human ORF cDNA CloneOriGene - ITGB1 (NM 002211) Human ORF cDNA Clone

... antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12) (ITGB1), transcript variant 1A available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company. ... antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12) (ITGB1), transcript variant 1A. pCMV6-AC-GFP. pLenti-C-Myc-DDK. pLenti-C-mGFP. $610. In ... ITGB1 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12) ( ... ITGB1 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12) ( ...
more infohttp://www.origene.com/Human_ORF/RC203818.aspx

anti-Integrin beta 1 / CD29 antibody [HM beta 1-1]  | GeneTexanti-Integrin beta 1 / CD29 antibody [HM beta 1-1] | GeneTex

Anti-Integrin beta 1 / CD29 mAb (GTX42117) is tested in Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... CD29 antibody [HM beta 1-1] (integrin beta 1 (fibronectin receptor beta)) for FACS, IP. ... Purified mouse Integrin beta 1 / CD29 antigen.. Antigen Species. Mouse. Species Reactivity. Mouse, Rat. ... Integrin beta 1 / CD29 antibody [HM beta 1-1] See all Integrin beta 1 / CD29 products ...
more infohttp://www.genetex.com/Integrin-beta-1-CD29-antibody-HM-beta-1-1-GTX42117.html

Recombinant Proteins | OriGeneRecombinant Proteins | OriGene

Recombinant protein of human integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12) ( ... Recombinant protein of human integrin, alpha 4 (antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor) (ITGA4) ... Recombinant protein of human integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61) (ITGB3) ...
more infohttps://www.origene.com/category/proteins/recombinant-proteins?sizes_filter=500+pmol&pathways_filter=Dilated+cardiomyopathy

Trisomy 21 dysregulates T cell lineages toward an autoimmunity-prone state associated with interferon hyperactivity | PNASTrisomy 21 dysregulates T cell lineages toward an autoimmunity-prone state associated with interferon hyperactivity | PNAS

Imbalance of the CD4+ subpopulations expressing CD45RA and CD29 antigens in the peripheral blood of adults and children with ... Interleukin-10 directly inhibits CD8+ T cell function by enhancing N-glycan branching to decrease antigen sensitivity. Immunity ... Expression of killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 on antigen-specific human CD8+ T lymphocytes during active, latent, and ... and their history of antigen-induced activation. To obtain an overview of the T cell subsets in people with DS, we reduced the ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/early/2019/11/06/1908129116

Matrix metalloproteinase 2 and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase co-regulate axonal outgrowth of mouse retinal ganglion...Matrix metalloproteinase 2 and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase co-regulate axonal outgrowth of mouse retinal ganglion...

Animals; Antibodies, Blocking; Antigens, CD29; Axons; Gelatinases; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Immunohistochemistry; ...
more infohttp://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/268250124

Molecular Vision: Differentiation of rabbit bone marrow
mesenchymal stem cells into corneal epithelial cells in vivo and ex...Molecular Vision: Differentiation of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into corneal epithelial cells in vivo and ex...

5% of the cells expressed CD29 antigen and 5.15% of the cells expressed CD34 antigen (Figure 2). ... It has been observed that MSCs express several surface markers, such as CD29, CD90, and CD105, but do not express the ... Flow cytometry analysis revealed that most cells expressed the mesenchymal marker CD29 and did not express CD34, a ... Morphology, surface antigen profile characteristics, and differentiation characteristics provided evidence that the cells ...
more infohttp://www.molvis.org/molvis/v15/a10/

Integrin beta 1D Antibody from NOVUS BIOLOGICALS, LLCIntegrin beta 1D Antibody from NOVUS BIOLOGICALS, LLC

integrin beta-1, CD29, FNRB, GPIIA, integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12 ...
more infohttps://www.linscottsdirectory.com/antibodies/novus-biologicals-llc/Integrin-beta-1D-28296840