Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Effect of transforming growth factor beta on experimental Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice. (1/2090)

We have investigated the effect of the in vivo administration of recombinant transforming growth factor beta (rTGF-beta) on the pathogenic mechanisms involved in Salmonella typhimurium experimental infection in mice. The protective response elicited by macrophages was induced by rTGF-beta1 by 2 days after experimental infection, as demonstrated by an increased NO production, while the humoral protective effect began with cytokine mRNA expression 2 days after the challenge and continued after 5 days with cytokine release and lymphocyte activation. We demonstrated that all mice who received rTGF-beta1 survived 7 days after infection. The number of bacteria recovered in the spleens and in the livers of rTGF-beta1-treated mice 2 and 5 days after infection was significantly smaller than that found in the same organs after phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) inoculation. Furthermore, 2 and 5 days after infection, splenic macrophages from rTGF-beta1-treated mice showed a greater NO production than did those from PBS-treated mice. The effect of rTGF-beta1 on S. typhimurium infection in mice was correlated with the expression of cell costimulatory CD28 molecules. Five days after S. typhimurium infection, the percentage of CD28(+)-expressing T cells in splenic lymphocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice increased with respect to that from control mice. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) mRNA was present in a greater amount in spleen cells from rTGF-beta1-treated mice after 2 days, although the intensity of the band decreased 5 days after the challenge. A similar pattern was obtained with the mRNAs for interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, TGF-beta, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which showed greater expression in cells obtained from rTGF-beta1-treated and S. typhimurium-infected mice 2 days after challenge. The treatment with rTGF-beta1 induced an increase in IL-1alpha and IFN-gamma release in the supernatant of splenocyte cultures 5 days after the experimental infection with S. typhimurium. Moreover, we demonstrated that 5 days after infection, the IFN-gamma titer was significantly greater in the sera of rTGF-beta-treated mice than in those of PBS-treated mice. Also, hsp60 showed greater expression 2 days after the challenge in splenocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice. The role played by proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines and by CD28 is discussed.  (+info)

Expanded tumor-reactive CD4+ T-cell responses to human cancers induced by secondary anti-CD3/anti-CD28 activation. (2/2090)

Generation of tumor-reactive T cells in large numbers ex vivo is a requisite step in the adoptive immunotherapy of patients. We examined the immune responses of T cells derived from tumor vaccine-primed lymph nodes activated with anti-CD3 alone and with an anti-CD3/anti-CD28 combination. Nylon wool-purified CD3+ cells were isolated from vaccine-primed lymph nodes obtained from melanoma, renal cell, and head and neck cancer patients. In the absence of antigen-presenting cells, activation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 greatly enhanced subsequent T-cell expansion in interleukin 2 (>100-fold), compared to anti-CD3 alone. CD4+ T cells were preferentially stimulated. In four of eight patients, we found evidence of CD4+ cellular responses to autologous tumors by cytokine release assays. Positively selected CD4+ cells activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 released greater amounts of cytokine (IFN-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) in response to autologous tumors compared to cells activated by anti-CD3 alone. The CD4+ reactivity was MHC class II restricted and appeared to be associated with the expression of class II molecules on the vaccinating tumor cells. The CD4+ T-cell responses to class II-restricted tumor-associated antigens in patients with renal cell cancers represent unique findings.  (+info)

CD28 ligation induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 but not Fak in Jurkat T cells. (3/2090)

Protein tyrosine kinases are critical for the function of CD28 in T cells. We examined whether the tyrosine kinases Pyk2 and Fak (members of the focal adhesion kinase family) are involved in CD28 signaling. We found that ligating CD28 in Jurkat T cells rapidly increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 but not of Fak. Paxillin, a substrate for Pyk2 and Fak, was not tyrosine-phosphorylated after CD28 ligation. CD28-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 was markedly reduced in the absence of external Ca2+. Previous studies have shown that the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2. In this report, the concurrent ligation of CD28 and TCR increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2; however, the extent of phosphorylation by both receptors was equivalent to the sum of that induced by each receptor alone. The Syk/Zap inhibitor piceatannol blocked CD28, and TCR induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2, suggesting that Syk/Zap is involved in Pyk2 phosphorylation. In contrast, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin blocked TCR- but not CD28-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2, suggesting that CD28 and TCR activate distinct pathways to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2. Notably, depleting phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-sensitive protein kinase C did not block CD28- and CD3-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2. These data provide evidence for the involvement of Pyk2 in the CD28 signaling cascade and suggest that neither Fak nor paxillin is involved in the signaling pathways of CD28.  (+info)

Interaction of B cells with activated T cells reduces the threshold for CD40-mediated B cell activation. (4/2090)

CD154-CD40 interactions are of central importance for the induction of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens. Since most anti-CD40 mAb are only weak B cell mitogens, it is believed that under physiological conditions, signals through CD40 synergize with those from other receptors on B cells to induce B cell activation. We show here that the interaction of either normal B cells, or those from CBA/N (xid) mice, with CD3-activated primary T cells in whole spleen cell cultures markedly reduces the threshold for B cell activation via CD40. Hence, these pre-activated cells undergo vigorous proliferation when stimulated with either optimal or suboptimal concentrations of weakly mitogenic anti-CD40 mAb, or with soluble CD40 ligand. Blocking experiments indicate that the establishment of this priming effect requires stimulation via CD40 itself, plus T cell-derived IL-2. In support of this concept, only CD3/CD28-pre-activated, but not CD3-pre-activated T cells induce this effect, unless the co-cultures of B cells with the latter T cells are supplemented with IL-2. Although B cells activated in this fashion do express higher levels of CD40 than naive cells, we believe that this is insufficient to explain the observed dramatic effects on their proliferative capacity. Rather we propose that T cell-dependent B cell activation induces fundamental changes in the signalling machinery invoked by ligation of CD40. It is likely that this amplification loop could play an important role during the initiation of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens, when activated CD4 T cells only express low levels of CD154.  (+info)

Autophosphorylation of p110delta phosphoinositide 3-kinase: a new paradigm for the regulation of lipid kinases in vitro and in vivo. (5/2090)

Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are lipid kinases which also possess an in vitro protein kinase activity towards themselves or their adaptor proteins. The physiological relevance of these phosphorylations is unclear at present. Here, the protein kinase activity of the tyrosine kinase-linked PI3K, p110delta, is characterized and its functional impact assessed. In vitro autophosphorylation of p110delta completely down-regulates its lipid kinase activity. The single site of autophosphorylation was mapped to Ser1039 at the C-terminus of p110delta. Antisera specific for phospho-Ser1039 revealed a very low level of phosphorylation of this residue in cell lines. However, p110delta that is recruited to activated receptors (such as CD28 in T cells) shows a time-dependent increase in Ser1039 phosphorylation and a concomitant decrease in associated lipid kinase activity. Treatment of cells with okadaic acid, an inhibitor of Ser/Thr phosphatases, also dramatically increases the level of Ser1039-phosphorylated p110delta. LY294002 and wortmannin blocked these in vivo increases in Ser1039 phosphorylation, consistent with the notion that PI3Ks, and possibly p110delta itself, are involved in the in vivo phosphorylation of p110delta. In summary, we show that PI3Ks are subject to regulatory phosphorylations in vivo similar to those identified under in vitro conditions, identifying a new level of control of these signalling molecules.  (+info)

Differentiation of human CD8 T cells: implications for in vivo persistence of CD8+ CD28- cytotoxic effector clones. (6/2090)

CD8 T cells contain a distinct subset of CD8+ CD28- cells. These cells are not present at birth and their frequency increases with age. They frequently contain expanded clones using various TCRalphabeta receptors and these clones can represent >50% of all CD8 cells, specially in old subjects or patients with chronic viral infections such as HIV-1. Herein, it is shown that a large fraction of CD8+ CD28- cells expresses intracellular perforin by three-color flow cytometry, in particular when this subset is expanded. Together with their known ability to exert potent re-directed cytotoxicity, this indicates that CD8+ CD28- T cells comprise cytotoxic effector cells. With BrdU labeling, we show that CD8+ CD28- cells derive from CD8+ CD28+ precursors in vitro. In addition, sorted CD8+ CD28+ cells gave rise to a population of CD8+ CD28- cells after allo-stimulation. Moreover, ex vivo CD8+ CD28+ cells contain the majority of CD8 blasts, supporting the notion that they contain the proliferative precursors of CD8+ CD28- cells. CD95 (Fas) expression was lower in CD8+ CD28- cells, and this subset was less prone to spontaneous apoptosis in ex vivo samples and more resistant to activation-induced cell death induced by a superantigen in vitro. Thus, the persistence of expanded clones in vivo in the CD8+ CD28- subset may be explained by antigen-driven differentiation from CD8+ CD28+ memory precursors, with relative resistance to apoptosis as the clones become perforin(+) effector cells.  (+info)

The proto-oncogene Cot kinase participates in CD3/CD28 induction of NF-kappaB acting through the NF-kappaB-inducing kinase and IkappaB kinases. (7/2090)

The proto-oncogene Cot/Tpl-2 encodes a MAP3K-related serine-threonine kinase. Expression of wild type Cot activates the IkappaB kinases (IKK) leading to induction of NF-kappaB. Conversely, expression of kinase-deficient Cot inhibits CD3/CD28 but not TNF alpha induction of NF-kappaB. These findings suggest the selective involvement of Cot/Tpl-2 or a closely related kinase in the CD3/CD28 costimulatory pathway leading to induced nuclear expression of NF-kappaB. In contrast, a kinase-deficient mutant of the NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) inhibits both CD3/CD28 and TNF alpha signaling, indicating that these pathways converge at or prior to the action of NIK. Consistent with such a sequential function of these two kinases, Cot physically assembles with and phosphorylates NIK in vivo.  (+info)

Cutting edge: alloimmune responses against major and minor histocompatibility antigens: distinct division kinetics and requirement for CD28 costimulation. (8/2090)

Comparative study of alloimmune responses against major and minor histocompatibility Ags has been limited by the lack of suitable assays. Here, we use a bioassay that permits tracking of alloreactive CD4+ T cell populations as they proliferate in response to major or minor histocompatibility Ags in vivo. Division of alloreactive CD4+ T cells proceeded more rapidly in response to major histocompatibility Ags than minor Ags, although CD4+ T cells alloreactive to minor Ags had a similar capacity to divide successively up to eight times after stimulation. Allorecognition of minor histocompatibility Ags was highly dependent on CD28 costimulation, with the frequency of CD4+ T cells proliferating in response to minor Ags in the absence of CD28 costimulation reduced up to 20-fold. These findings highlight differences in signaling processes that lead to allorecognition of major and minor histocompatibility Ags and have implications on the design of interventions aimed at abrogating these responses.  (+info)

*CD28

Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart Human CD28 genome location and CD28 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... antigen complex without CD28:B7 interaction results in a T cell that is anergic. CD28 possesses an intracellular domain with ... Schneider H, Cai YC, Prasad KV, Shoelson SE, Rudd CE (Apr 1995). "T cell antigen CD28 binds to the GRB-2/SOS complex, ... Linsley PS, Ledbetter JA (1993). "The role of the CD28 receptor during T cell responses to antigen". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 11: ...

*Theralizumab

... or human CD28 identified so-called "superagonistic" antibodies that could stimulate T cells without concurrent antigen-receptor ... the CD28 receptor of the immune system's T cells. CD28 is the co-receptor for the T cell receptor; It binds to receptors on the ... "TGN1412 is a humanised monoclonal antibody directed against the human CD28 antigen. The molecule was genetically engineered by ... "Expression of CD28 and CD86 by Human Eosinophils and Role in the Secretion of Type 1 Cytokines (Interleukin 2 and Interferon { ...

*Cytokine-induced killer cell

Hombach, AA; Rappl, G; Abken, H (December 2013). "Arming cytokine-induced killer cells with chimeric antigen receptors: CD28 ... redirected by chimeric antigen receptors with an antibody-defined specificity for different tumor antigens, showed an improved ... "Targeting of acute myeloid leukaemia by cytokine-induced killer cells redirected with a novel CD123-specific chimeric antigen ... outperforms combined CD28-OX40 "super-stimulation"". Molecular Therapy. 21 (12): 2268-77. doi:10.1038/mt.2013.192. PMC 3863798 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd26 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.127 --- antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.128 --- antigens, cd28 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd26 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.127 --- antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.128 --- antigens, cd28 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd26 MeSH D23.101.100.110.127 --- antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.101.100.110.128 --- antigens, cd28 MeSH D23.101.100.110.129 ... antigens, cd26 MeSH D23.101.100.894.127 --- antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.101.100.894.128 --- antigens, cd28 MeSH D23.101.100.894.156 ...

*MAPK phosphatase

"Inhibitory Role for Dual Specificity Phosphatase VHR in T Cell Antigen Receptor and CD28-induced Erk and Jnk Activation". ...

*C3a (complement)

C3aR signaling along antigen-presenting cells' CD28 and CD40L pathways also plays a role in T cell proliferation and ... There are three pathways of activation, each of which leads to the formation of C3a and C3b, which is involved in antigen ... recognize and bind to pathogen-associated molecular patterns on the antigen, including sugars. These bound receptors then ...

*AP2M1

... medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and CD28 ... medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and CD28 ...

*CTLA-4

... on antigen-presenting cells. CTLA-4 binds CD80 and CD86 with greater affinity and avidity than CD28 thus enabling it to ... It acts as an "off" switch when bound to CD80 or CD86 on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. The CTLA-4 protein is encoded ... CTLA4 is homologous to the T-cell co-stimulatory protein, CD28, and both molecules bind to CD80 and CD86, also called B7-1 and ... T cell activation through the T cell receptor and CD28 leads to increased expression of CTLA-4. The mechanism by which CTLA-4 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... antigen, t-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824.133 -- antigens, cd28 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824.300 -- complementarity ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 -- antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 -- antigens, cd40 ... antigens, cd11a MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.150 -- antigens, cd11b MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.200 -- antigens, cd11c ...

*Co-receptor

... or CD28 to bind antigens or regulate T cell activity in some way. Many co-receptor-related disorders occur due to mutations in ... In comparison, CD28 acts as a 'co-coreceptor' for the MHC-II binding with TCR and CD4. CD28 increases the Il-2 secretion from ... Carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule-1 (Caecam1) is an immunoglobulin-like co-receptor that aids in cell adhesion in ... Analysis of the CD4 coreceptor and activation-induced costimulatory molecules in antigen-mediated mature T lymphocyte death. ...

*P110δ

In T cells, the antigen receptor (TCR) and costimulatory receptors (CD28 and ICOS) are thought to be main receptors responsible ... Genetic inactivation of p110δ in mice causes T cells to be less responsive to antigen as determined by their reduced ability to ... In immune cells, antigen receptors, cytokine receptors and costimulatory and accessory receptors stimulate tyrosine kinase ... Cook JA, August A, Henderson AJ (2002). "Recruitment of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to CD28 inhibits HIV transcription by a ...

*Chimeric antigen receptor

More recent, third generation CARs combine multiple signaling domains, such as CD3z-CD28-41BB or CD3z-CD28-OX40, to augment ... A spacer region links the antigen binding domain to the transmembrane domain. It should be flexible enough to allow the antigen ... Bridgeman, JS; Hawkins RE; Bagley S; Blaylock M; Holland M; Gilham DE (2010). "The Optimal Antigen Response of Chimeric Antigen ... A list of tumors antigens and CARs in in vitro and in vivo trials A list of tumors antigens and CARs in in vitro and in vivo ...

*VTCN1

These proteins are expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells and interact with ligands (e.g., CD28; MIM 186760) on T ...

*CTL-mediated cytotoxicity

... a costimulatory signal is transmitted by the interaction between CD28 and B7 of the precursor cell and the licensed antigen ... In the second phase, affector CTLs destroy target cells by recognizing the antigen-MHC class I complex. In phase one, effector ... This results in proliferation and differentiation of the antigen-activated precursor cell into a functional effector CTL. In ... This step allows the cell to become licensed to an antigen presenting cell. Second, ...

*T helper cell

CD28 plays an important role in decreasing the risk of T cell auto-immunity against host antigens. Once the naïve T cell has ... For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a ... these T cells must rely on the activation of CD28 for confirmation that they recognise a foreign antigen (as CD80/CD86 is only ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ...

*Antigen-presenting cell

The latter can interact with CD28 on the surface of a CD4+ T cell. The dendritic cell is then a fully mature professional APC. ... An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility ... Antigen: protease degradation on YouTube - PMAP animation Antigen-Presenting Cells at the US National Library of Medicine ... Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T ...

*Autocrine signalling

MHC complex on a professional antigen-presenting cell and by the B7:CD28 costimulatory signal. Upon activation, "low-affinity" ...

*Ipilimumab

"Antigen-dependent clonal expansion of a trace population of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in vivo is dependent on CD28 ... These antigens are recognized by dendritic cells that present the antigens to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in the lymph nodes ... Following the 1987 cloning of CTLA-4 in mice, its conservation in humans and similarities with CD28 were soon noticed. CD28 at ... The CTLs recognize the cancer cells by those antigens and destroy them. However, along with the antigens, the dendritic cells ...

*Alloimmunity

229(1):271-93 Jenkins MK, Taylor PS, Norton SD, Urdahl KB (1991), CD28 delivers a costimulatory signal involved in antigen- ... Two major types of alloantigens are blood group antigens and histocompatibility antigens. In alloimmunity, the body creates ... Antigen presentation by chemically modified splenocytes induces antigen-specific T cell unresponsiveness in vitro and in vivo. ... There are costimulatory molecules on T-cell surface and APCs express their ligands (e.g. molecule CD28, which is on the surface ...

*Cancer immunotherapy

... the T-cell receptor binding to an antigen-MHC complex and T-cell surface receptor CD28 binding to CD80 or CD86 proteins. CTLA4 ... Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the mammalian immune system. In cancer treatment they aid cancer antigen ... Cancer vaccine Antigen 5T4 Chimeric antigen receptor Coley's Toxins Combinatorial ablation and immunotherapy Cryoimmunotherapy ... Antigens can be added to the antibody and can induce the dendritic cells to mature and provide immunity to the tumor. Dendritic ...

*Joel N. Blankson

"The CD28/B7 pathway costimulates the response of primary murine T cells to superantigens as well as to conventional antigens". ... antigens in HIV-1-infected patients with immune reconstitution". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 183 (4): 657-661. doi: ... "Superantigens and conventional antigens induce different responses in alpha beta T-cell receptor transgenic mice". Immunology. ...

*Immune checkpoint

CD28 itself and ICOS. CD27 - This molecule supports antigen-specific expansion of naïve T cells and is vital for the generation ... CD28 - This molecule is constitutively expressed on almost all human CD4+ T cells and on around half of all CD8 T cells. ... CD28 was the target of the TGN1412 'superagonist' which caused severe inflammatory reactions in the first-in-man study in ... The ligand for GITR is mainly expressed on antigen presenting cells. Antibodies to GITR have been shown to promote an anti- ...

*Biochemical cascade

CD28/CD19) play an important role because they can improve the antigen/receptor binding and initiate parallel cascade events, ... These receptors, that recognize the antigen soluble (B cells) or linked to a molecule on Antigen Presenting Cells (T cells), ... The antigen receptor and signal protein form a stable complex, named BCR or TCR, in B or T cells, respectively. The family Src ... Therefore, Lyn and Lck, in lymphocytes B and T, respectively, phosphorylate ITAMs after the antigen recognition and the ...

*B7 (protein)

CD28 and CTLA-4 each interact with both B7-1 and B7-2. There are several steps to activation of the immune system against a ... This is also called "Signal 1" and its main purpose is to guarantee antigen specificity of the T cell activation. However, MHC ... Blockade of CD28 is effective in stopping T cell activation, a mechanism that the immune system uses to down-regulate T cell ... The B7 (B7-1/B7-2) protein is present on the APC surface, and it interacts with the CD28 receptor on the T cell surface. This ...

*T cell

Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... Other receptors are expressed upon activation of the T cell, such as OX40 and ICOS, but these largely depend upon CD28 for ... These self-antigens are expressed by thymic cortical epithelial cells on MHC molecules on the surface of cortical epithelial ... The second signal licenses the T cell to respond to an antigen. Without it, the T cell becomes anergic, and it becomes more ...

*Dendritic cell

Every helper T-cell is specific to one particular antigen. Only professional antigen-presenting cells (macrophages, B ... An example of this includes the interaction of the membrane proteins of the B7 family of the dendritic cell with CD28 present ... Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. They ... Here they act as antigen-presenting cells: they activate helper T-cells and killer T-cells as well as B-cells by presenting ...
During evolutionary adaptation in the immune system, host defense is traded off against autoreactivity. Signals through the costimulatory receptor CD28 enable T cells to respond specifically to pathogens, whereas those through the related costimulatory receptor, ICOS, which arose by gene duplication, are critical for affinity maturation and memory antibody responses. ICOS ligand, unlike the pathogen-inducible CD28 ligands, is widely and constitutively expressed in the immune system. Here, we show that crosstalk between these two pathways provides a mechanism for obviating the normal T cell dependence on CD28. Several CD28-mediated responses-generation of follicular helper T cells, germinal center formation, T helper 1 cell-dependent extrafollicular antibody responses to Salmonella and bacterial clearance, and regulatory T cell homeostasis-became independent of CD28 and dependent on ICOS when the E3 ubiquitin ligase Roquin was mutated. Mechanisms to functionally compartmentalize ICOS and CD28 signals are
Signaling mediated through the IL-2R, in conjunction with signals mediated through the T cell Ag receptor, promotes the proliferation and effector function of T cells (32). Some of the signals, such as up-regulation of the IL-2R α-chain, result from cooperative signals mediated both through the T cell Ag receptor as well as through the IL-2R itself; however, the relative role of signals delivered through these pathways has not been fully elucidated. Human tumor-reactive effector T cells have been shown to proliferate extensively in vitro in the presence of high-dose IL-2 alone (33). In addition, between 15 and 20% of melanoma and renal cancer patients treated with high-dose IL-2 alone respond to therapy (6), which may reflect the ability of IL-2 to maintain the proliferation of T cells that were activated by prior exposure to tumor Ags.. Interactions between the costimulatory receptor CD27 and its ligand, CD70, have also been found to play a key role in T lymphocyte activation, proliferation, ...
The induction of survival versus apoptosis is a central issue during T cell development and activation. The differential regulation of thymocyte survival versus death through TCR-mediated selection signals plays a key role in establishing a functional mature T cell repertoire (1). In mature T cells, several studies have demonstrated that signals from MHC molecules are required for the survival of resting T cells (2)(3)(4). In addition, the induction of apoptosis is strictly regulated after antigenic triggering (5). However, during T cell activation, the T cell costimulatory molecule CD28 is believed to contribute to survival signals (6)(7)(8).. Several molecules have been identified that play key roles in regulating apoptosis in T cells (9). Important advances in understanding T cell apoptosis have come through the study of Bcl-2 family members. Bcl-2-related proteins function to promote either cell survival (such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL) or cell death (such as Bax and BAD). Several studies have ...
CD26 is associated with T cell signal transduction processes as a costimulatory molecule, and CD26+ T cells have been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of diverse autoimmune diseases. Although the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in CD26-mediated T cell activation have been extensively evaluated by our group and others, potential negative feedback mechanisms to regulate CD26-mediated activation still remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we examine the expression of inhibitory molecules induced via CD26-mediated costimulation. We show that coengagement of CD3 and CD26 induces preferential production of IL-10 in human CD4+ T cells, mediated through NFAT and Raf-MEK-ERK pathways. A high level of early growth response 2 (EGR2) is also induced following CD26 costimulation, possibly via NFAT and AP-1-mediated signaling, and knockdown of EGR2 leads to decreased IL-10 production. Furthermore, CD3/CD26-stimulated CD4+ T cells clearly suppress proliferative activity and ...
A population of individual T cells expressing an invariant V24JQ T cell antigen receptor (TCR) chain and high levels of CD161 (NKR-P1A) appears to play an immunoregulatory role through production of both T helper (Th) type 1 and Th2 cytokines. and cytokine secretion in response to CD1d+ target cells, demonstrating a physiological accessory molecule function for CD161. However, CD1d-restricted target cell lysis by activated V24invt T cells, which involved a granule-mediated exocytotic mechanism, was CD161-impartial. In further contrast to the mouse, the signaling pathway involved in V24invt T cell costimulation through CD161 did not appear to involve stable association with tyrosine kinase p56Lck. These results demonstrate a role for CD161 as a novel costimulatory molecule for TCR-mediated acknowledgement of CD1d by human V24invt T cells. (Camarillo, CA). Functional Analysis of T Cells. For activation of T cells (105/ well), anti-CD3 mAb OKT3 was bound overnight in PBS (50 l/well) to 96-well ...
The CD28 antibody is specific for the mouse CD28 costimulatory molecule, expressed on most thymocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Ligation of CD28 with CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) provides a costimulatory signal for T cell activation. Clone 37.51 has been shown to activate T cells in combination with CD3. Activation and proliferation of T cells can be induced by interaction of the T cell receptor with peptide-MHC complexes. The T cell receives a signal transduced through the CD3 complex. Cytokines or other costimulatory signals from accessory cells are required in addition. Activated T cells can be used for any downstream processes, such as cytokine analysis or immunoprecipitation. Cells can also be transfected with high efficiency. - Italia
The CD28 antibody is specific for the mouse CD28 costimulatory molecule, expressed on most thymocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Ligation of CD28 with CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) provides a costimulatory signal for T cell activation. Clone 37.51 has been shown to activate T cells in combination with CD3. Activation and proliferation of T cells can be induced by interaction of the T cell receptor with peptide-MHC complexes. The T cell receives a signal transduced through the CD3 complex. Cytokines or other costimulatory signals from accessory cells are required in addition. Activated T cells can be used for any downstream processes, such as cytokine analysis or immunoprecipitation. Cells can also be transfected with high efficiency. - España
B7-DC costimulates PD1−/− CD4+ T cells. (a) Purified CD4+ T cells from wt (open bars) or PD-1 KO mice (filled bars) were stimulated with 30 ng/well of preco
Three major events must occur to induce CD8+ T cell-mediated, tumor-protective immunity against syngeneic melanoma. First, the T-cell receptor must be triggered by a (or multiple) self antigen-derived peptide MHC class I complex (7-13). Therefore, this event depends entirely on appropriate antigen presentation, which is most efficiently provided by mature dendritic cells (14). Peripherally tolerant or "ignorant" self-reactive T-cell clones, once properly activated, may serve as tumor-specific effector T cells (15, 16). Second, simultaneously with T-cell receptor triggering, a distinct second costimulatory signal must be delivered, mediated by IL-2, B7-1, or B7-2, which engage IL-2 receptors and CD28 on the surface of the T cell, respectively (17). A source of these cofactors for effective CD8+ T-cell stimulation can be provided by CD4+ T cells that release critical amounts of IL-2, or by mature dendritic cells that display an increased level of B7-1/B7-2 costimulatory molecules on their cell ...
The contributions of gamma-delta T cells to immunity to infection or tumours critically depend on their activation and differentiation into effectors capable of secreting cytokines and killing infected or transformed cells. These processes are molecularly controlled by surface receptors that capture key extracellular cues and convey downstream intracellular signals that regulate gamma-delta T cell physiology. The understanding of how environmental signals are integrated by gamma-delta T cells is critical for their manipulation in clinical settings. Here we discuss how different classes of surface receptors impact on human and murine gamma-delta T cell differentiation, activation and expansion. In particular, we review the role of five receptor types: the T cell receptor (TCR), costimulatory receptors, cytokine receptors, NK receptors and inhibitory receptors. Some of the key players are the costimulatory receptors CD27 and CD28, which differentially impact on pro-inflammatory subsets of gamma-delta T
Costimulation is a fundamental principle of T-cell activation. In addition to T-cell receptor engagement, the interaction between CD80 and/or CD86 with CD28 and/or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) receptors is required to regulate T-cell activation and tolerance. While the importance of costimulation is clearly established, the exact molecular mechanism is unknown. We demonstrate that T-cell proliferation and the ability of CD8(+) T-effector cells to kill were enhanced slightly by CD80 but dramatically by CD86 costimulation. To further analyse the cellular process of costimulation, we developed a single-cell assay to analyse Ca(2+) signals following costimulation with bi-specific antibodies. We found that this stimulation method worked in every human T-cell that was analysed, making it one of the most efficient T-cell activation methods to date for primary human T cells. The enhanced proliferation and killing by costimulation was paralleled by an increase of Ca(2+) influx following CD86 ...
Dr. Allisons pioneer work has transformed the fields of basic and tumour immunology. Early in his career, he identified and characterized key molecules involved in T-cell activation, including the T-cell receptor (TCR), the prototypical costimulatory receptor CD28 and coinhibitory receptor CTLA-4, providing evidence that T-cell responses are determined by a complex process involving antigen driven TCR signalling plus integration of costimulatory and coinhbitory signals. His landmark translation studies showing antibody-mediated blockade of CTLA-4 co-inhibitory function could enhance antitumor immunity and result in tumour rejection in mice prompted clinical development of ipilimumab, a CTLA-4 blocking monoclonal antibody. Ipilimumab is the first drug of its kind to show survival benefit in melanoma patients and was approved by the FDA in 2011 as a standard-of-care therapy for late-stage melanoma patients. Dr. Allisons concept of antibody-mediated blockade of immunologic checkpoints as cancer ...
Therapeutic tumor immunity requires the presence and appropriate activation of tumor antigen specific CD8+ T cells and migration of activated tumor-antigen specific CD8+ T cells into a tumor microenvironment where immunosuppressive barriers have been eliminated. Antibody mediated blockade of CTLA-4 and PD-1 is a clinically effective strategy to dampen tumor mediated immunosuppression in a minority of patients with advanced cancer, and this approach may be potentiated through vaccination to prime additional CTL clones and through direct stimulation of T cell costimulatory molecules of the TNF superfamily. Here we provide a systematic comparison of anti-tumor vaccination with either heat shock protein gp96-Ig or traditional peptide/adjuvant vaccines given alone or in combination with CTLA-4 or PD-1 blockade and direct T cell costimulation via OX40, 4-1BB and TNFRSF25. Through the tracking of tumor-antigen specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses, these studies demonstrate that both TNFRSF4 and ...
The NKG2D costimulatory receptor is currently a focus of anti-tumor, anti-viral, and auto-immunity studies. NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on NK cells, all human CD8+ T cells, activated murine CD8+ T cells, γδ T cells, and some CD4+ T cells [5,6]. In T cells, NKG2D associates with an adaptor protein, DAP10, and provides a costimulation signal by activating intracellular signaling pathways [7-9]. The cytoplasmic domain of DAP10 has one known signaling motif, a YINM-sequence, that is also found in the CD28 costimulatory receptor [8,9]. After receptor stimulation, the tyrosine is phosphorylated and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and a Grb2-Vav1 complex are subsequently activated, leading to downstream Akt activation and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) respectively [9]. Akt activation by either of these two receptors initiates a plethora of downstream signaling pathways including NF-κB, mTORc1, NFAT, GSK-3β, and many others depending on what other proteins are being ...
The 2 signal model provides the framework for our understanding of T cell responses. Using high throughput microarray analysis we have uncovered several novel TCR-induced genes and pathways that play critical roles in dictating the outcome of antigen recognition. We identified Egr-2 and Egr-3 as playing an important role in determining the fate of TCR recognition (Signal 1). Egr-2 and Egr-3 null T cells induce more aggressive autoimmune disease but are more effective in mounting anti-tumor responses. A second gene that was revealed by our screen is the adenosine A2aR. Activating the receptor can promote tolerance and inhibit autoimmune disease. Alternatively employing A2aR null mice and specific antagonists promotes anti-tumor immunity and enhances vaccine responses. In addition to Signal 1, we are also interested in understanding mechanisms of costimulation. Along these lines we have identified the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) as playing a central role in dictating the outcome of ...
We have shown that a "KIR-CAR" can be simply constructed by swapping the two immunoglobulin-like domains of the KIR2DS2 ectodomain with an scFv capable of binding a desired target antigen. When delivered to T cells together with DAP12, this KIR-based CAR triggers antigen-specific cytotoxicity, cytokine production, and proliferation that is comparable with second-generation CD3ζ-based CARs in vitro without the need for additional domains from costimulatory receptors. The ability of a KIR-based CAR to activate T cells in the absence of added costimulation is interesting in light of the critical importance of costimulation for full T-cell activation and acquisition of effector function. KIR2DS2, the natural KIR upon which the presented KIR-CAR is based, has previously been reported to deliver a costimulation-like signal to T cells. In these studies, engagement of the KIR in T-cell clones lacking DAP12 expression augmented anti-CD3-induced IFNγ production (16). The mechanism of this costimulatory ...
Changes of CD8/HLADR+ T cells during a period of seven years HAART ( ± SD,/ μL). Patient numbers: Effective group (A) (n = 25), Ineffective group (B) (n = 18)
Subsets of B cells inhibit various immune responses through their production of the cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). We found that IL-10-producing CD5+ B cells suppressed the immunoglobulin E (IgE)- and antigen-mediated activation of mast cells in vitro as well as allergic responses in mice in an IL-10-dependent manner. Furthermore, the suppressive effect of these B cells on mast cells in vitro and in vivo depended on direct cell-to-cell contact through the costimulatory receptor CD40 on CD5+ B cells and the CD40 ligand on mast cells. This contact enhanced the production of IL-10 by the CD5+ B cells. Through activation of the Janus-activated kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway, IL-10 decreased the abundance of the kinases Fyn and Fgr and inhibited the activation of the downstream kinase Syk in mast cells. Together, these findings suggest that an important function of IL-10-producing CD5+ B cells is inhibiting mast cells and IgE-mediated allergic responses.. ...
In mammals, the classical B7 molecules expressed on antigen-presenting cells, B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86), bind the structurally related glycoproteins CD28 and CTLA-4 (CD152), generating costimulatory signals that regulate the activation state of T cells. A recently identified human CD28-like protein, ICOS, also induces costimulatory signals in T cells when crosslinked with antibodies, but it is unclear whether ICOS is part of a B7-mediated regulatory pathway of previously unsuspected complexity, or whether it functions independently and in parallel. Here, we report that, rather than binding B7-1 or B7-2, ICOS binds a new B7-related molecule of previously unknown function that we call LICOS (for ligand of ICOS). At 37 degrees C, LICOS binds only to ICOS but, at lower, non-physiological temperatures, it also binds weakly to CD28 and CTLA-4. Sequence comparisons suggest that LICOS is the homologue of a molecule expressed by avian macrophages and of a murine protein whose expression is induced in non
T cell activation is a tightly regulated event involving complex receptor-ligand interaction, ultimately leading to downstream signaling events. Optimal T cell activation requires at least two signals, antigen recognition and costimulation (29-31). The TCR-CD3 complex, which recognizes antigens presented by MHC molecules, is critical in maintaining the specificity of T cell responses. Signal two, or costimulation, is an antigen-independent signal required for sustained T cell activation, proliferation, and survival. Although several costimulatory molecules have been identified that can either enhance (e.g., CD28 and ICOS) or inhibit (e.g., CTLA4 and PD-1) T cell responses in terms of T cell activation, none of these molecules has been found to both activate and inhibit T cell proliferation/cytokine responses. With the specific anti-Tim-1 antibodies described here, we provide evidence that engagement of Tim-1 can both activate and inhibit T cell responses. We have shown that two mAbs that are ...
Altor is building on our IL-15 technology to create a next-generation targeted IL-15 scaffold platform to recognize and target specific antigens found in various cancers and viral infections. We have adapted the IL-15 superagonist complex to create a functional scaffold for the design of multi-specific fusion protein complexes. Using an antibody or single-chain T cell receptors (STARTM) as recognition domains linked to the IL-15 scaffold, we have generated both bivalent and bispecific product candidates (TxM).. Extensive characterization of these product candidates consisting of therapeutic antibodies and this scaffold indicates that such a targeted immunotherapeutic can potentiate the anti-tumor activities of the therapeutic antibody as well as potently facilitate immune responses. Thus, we are utilizing this IL-15 scaffold platform to generate multiple targeted IL-15 product candidates that can simultaneously promote killing of target cells and retain immunostimulatory functions of ...
We next determined the function of the CD4+CD25+ T cells. For these experiments we used the CD4+CD25- and CD4+CD25+ peripheral blood T cells whose FoxP3 expression levels were shown in Figure 1 (a and b). These T cell subsets were assessed for their ability to respond to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, and for the ability of the CD25+ cells to suppress the in vitro activation of the CD25- cells. When cultured in the presence of feeder cells along with soluble anti-CD3 and anti-CD28, the CD4+CD25- cells responded with robust proliferation, whereas the CD4+CD25+ cells did not (Figure 1c). When the two populations were cocultured, the level of proliferation, as measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation, was dramatically reduced (Figure 1c). The level of suppression seen was correlated with the ratio of CD4+CD25-:CD4+CD25+ cells in the culture, with more CD25+ cells resulting in more suppression of CD25- cell proliferation. These results are not due to exhaustion of the resources within the culture ...
The modulation of co-stimulatory pathways represents a novel therapeutic strategy to regulate autoimmune diseases. Auto-reactive CD4+ T cells play a critical role in initiating the immune response leading to inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Blocking co-stimulatory signals prevents T-cell activation, thus diminishing autoimmune responses and possibly preventing the progression of autoimmune disease. Blockade of several co-stimulatory pathways has been investigated in animal models and has led to clinical trials testing specific blocking agents in humans. In this review we will describe the role of co-stimulatory pathways, primarily the CD28-B7 pathway, in autoimmune diseases, and we will present in vivo and in vitro studies supporting the efficacy of co-stimulation blockade in animal models of autoimmune disease. Finally, we will discuss the clinical therapeutic efficacy of blocking monoclonal antibodies in preventing or reducing auto-antigen driven T-cell activation in humans with ...
CD80 is a highly glycosylated surface protein of 45-60 kDa found on activated B cells, T cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells. Based upon the CD80 cDNA sequence, the molecular weight of the protein core is 30 kDa. The remaining 15-30 kDa of the molecular weight is N-linked carbohydrate attached at eight possible sites in the extracellular region. CD80, and its structural and functional homolog CD86, both bind to the T cell molecules CD28 and CTLA-4. CD28 is found on resting and activated T cells, and is a major costimulatory molecule in the immune response. Ligation of CD28 increases both cytokine gene transcription and mRNA stability, and up-regulates cytokine receptor expression. CTLA-4 is expressed on T cells and B cells only after activation. Its role in T cell immunity is less clear than that of CD28. Initially, antibodies to CTLA-4 were shown to enhance CD3-and CD28-mediated T cell proliferation, but it has become clear recently that CTLA-4 is a major negative regulatory protein, limiting ...
To our knowledge, expression of B7-H1 within RCC tumors of the kidney has not been previously demonstrated. We also believe that B7-H1 is the first T cell costimulatory molecule that has been reported to exhibit a strong association with the aggressiveness of a solid (nonhematologic) tumor and patient cancer-specific survival. Finally, our study provides previously undescribed evidence that B7-H1 may function at the clinical level to promote cancer progression, perhaps through impairment of host T cell-mediated immunity, as has recently been reported in the basic scientific literature (2, 6).. B7-H1 represents a recently identified cell-surface glycoprotein belonging to the B7 family of costimulatory molecules (1). Constitutive B7-H1 protein expression is normally restricted to macrophage-lineage cells, where it may participate in the costimulatory activation of naïve T cells or deletion of activated T cells (1, 23). Several human cancers, however, have also been reported to aberrantly express ...
CD26, also known as dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV), is a homodimeric cell surface serine peptidase that degradates IFN-gamma-induced cytokines, acts as a T cell costimulatory molecule, and participates in multiple immunopathological roles in leukocyte homing and inflammation. Alterations in its peptidase activity are characteristic of malignant transformation. The enzymatic activity increases dramatically with tumour grade and severity. CD26 is expressed in various blood cell types, but also e.g. in cells that are histogenetically related to activated fibroblasts. Alterations in CD26 density have been reported on circulating monocytes and CD4+ T cells during rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus ...
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) stimulates both activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to proliferate. IL-2 signals through an identical receptor complex and promotes the same dose-dependent phosphorylation of the canonical transcription factor STAT5 in both cell types. Despite this, CD8+ T cells enter the S phase earlier and proliferate to a greater extent than do CD4+ T cells in response to IL-2. We identified distinct IL-2 signaling dynamics in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In IL-2-stimulated CD8+ T cells, STAT5 phosphorylation increased rapidly and was sustained for 6 hours. In contrast, CD4+ T cells had a biphasic response, with maxima at 15 min and 2 to 4 hours after stimulation. Both cell types required vesicular trafficking, but only CD4+ T cells required new protein synthesis to maintain high phosphorylation of STAT5. Two subunits of the IL-2 receptor, IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγ, were twice as abundant in CD8+ T cells than in CD4+ T cells. Reduction of IL-2Rβ abundance by 50% was sufficient to convert CD8+ T cells to ...
Protein Kinase C Theta Type (nPKC Theta or PRKCQ or EC 2.7.11.13) - Pipeline Review, H1 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-05-30 Available for US$ 3500 at Researchmoz.us
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The present results verify the previously suggested, but not definitively proven, mechanism that α-GalCer-activated iNKT-cells at least partly protect NOD mice from type 1 diabetes by driving the maturation of tolerogenic DCs. In contrast, iNKT-conditioned DCs in B6.H2g7 mice mature to an alternative immunogenic state that supports rather than inhibits AI4 T-cell-induced type 1 diabetes. The downstream maturation of iNKT-conditioned DCs in NOD and B6.H2g7 mice to a tolerogenic versus an immunogenic state is due to the induction of quantitatively different expression levels of T-cell costimulatory and inhibitory molecules.. A series of T-cell costimulatory molecules were upregulated to a much greater extent on iNKT-conditioned DCs from B6.H2g7 than NOD mice. In particular, CD70 and OX40L expression levels were unchanged or strongly upregulated on iNKT-conditioned DCs from NOD and B6.H2g7 mice, respectively. This could be significant given a report that iNKT-cells promote CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell ...
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Del Guercio. 1905[1904]. Sulle differenze esistenti fra la Schizoneura Reaumuri Kalt. ed il Pachypappa vesicalis Koch e sulla convenienza di escludere la prima dal genere per essa indicate. Redia 2(2):306 ...
Given the opposing negative effect of CTLA-4 on T cell activation (4, 5), we next assessed whether CTLA-4 coligation could alter the surface expression of rafts. Coligation of CTLA-4 with either TcR, or the combination of TcR and CD28 potently inhibited GM1 expression (Fig. 1 A). On average, CTLA-4 inhibited the percentage of GM1-positive cells by 70-90% so that the level of expression at 48-96 h exceeded that of the resting population by only 5-10%. CTLA-4 also inhibited the expression level on cells that had been induced to express GM1 as a result of anti-CD3 or anti-CD3/CD28 ligation (i.e., MIF of positively gated cells), albeit to a much lesser extent (i.e., MFI: 48 h: anti-CD3 versus anti-CD3/CTLA-4: 12.1 [61%] to 11.0 [55%]; anti-CD3/CD28 versus anti-CD3/CD28/CTLA-4: 13.6 [69%] to 11.9 [60%]). Inhibition of GM1 expression correlated with the anti-CTLA-4 blockage of proliferation (Fig. 1 B), and CD25 expression (Fig. 1 C). Our findings therefore show that CD28 and CTLA-4 have striking ...
CD4+CD28null T cells are a population of lymphocytes rarely found in healthy individuals.1,3 Although cell numbers increase with age, disease-associated expansions, in addition to ACS, have also been reported in inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid vasculitis.18 The present study has addressed a critical point concerning antigen specificity and found that hHSP60 was recognized by CD4+CD28null cells via the MHC class II presentation pathway in ,50% of our patients with ACS. This finding is of significance because of the frequency and damaging potential of CD4+CD28null cells and the almost ubiquitous expression of HSPs.. The association between HSPs and atherosclerosis has been a subject of recent interest.7 The elevated expression of these proteins in atheromatous lesions, correlating with the severity of atherosclerosis, is consistent with a focal role that HSPs may play in the pathogenesis of the disease.19,20 This, combined with a growing body of evidence that suggests that risk factors ...
Adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells inhibits HSV-1-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Purified CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25− T cells (2 × 106/mouse) were adoptively transferred into WT B6 mice 24 h before HSV infection, and the immune response was measured on days 7 and 28 p.i. (A) On days 7 and 28 p.i., spleen cells were incubated with gB498-505, and CD8/IFN-γ production was measured by intracellular staining. The number shown in each plot is the mean percentage of IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells obtained from four mice per group. (B) The resulting decrease in IFN-γ-secreting CD8+ T cells in B6 mice after adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells were also measured by a standard ELISPOT assay. On days 7 and 28 post HSV infection, spleen cells were analyzed for the number of IFN-γ-secreting CD8+ T cells in response to SSIEFARL peptide. The error bars represent the mean ± SD of four different mice in the same group. *P , 0.05 compared with HSV-infected B6 mice receiving no adoptive transfer. Without ...
Asthma affects approximately 300 million people worldwide and is the most common chronic lung disease, which usually is associated with bronchial inflammation. Most research has focused upon the role of CD4+ T cells and relatively few studies have addressed the phenotypic and functional roles of CD8+ T cell types and subtypes.Human NK-like CD8+ T cells may involve cells that have been described as CD8+CD28-, CD8+CD28-CD57+, CD8+CD27-, or CD8+ effector-memory (TEM) cells, among other. However, most of the data which is available regarding these various cell types were obtained in murine models, did not thoroughly characterize these cells with phenotypically or functionally or did not involve asthma-related settings.Nevertheless, one may conceptualize three principal roles for human NK-like CD8+ T cells in asthma: disease-promoting, regulatory and/or tissue repair. Although evidence for some of these roles is scarce, it is possible to extrapolate some data from overlapping or related CD8+ T cell
T cell activation requires both antigen specific and co-stimulatory signals that include the interaction of CD28 with its ligands CD80 and CD86. These signals are delivered by antigen presenting cells (APC) in the context of the immunological synapse (IS). Reorganization of the cytoskeleton is required for the formation and maintenance of the IS. Our results show that a highly conserved polylysine motif in CD86 cytoplasmic tail, herein referred to as the K4 motif, is responsible for the constitutive association of CD86 to the cytoskeleton in primary human APC as well as in a murine APC model. This motif is not involved in initial APC:T cell conjugate formation but mutation of the K4 motif affects CD86 reorientation at the IS. Importantly, APCs expressing CD86 with mutated K4 motif are severely compromised in their capacity to trigger complete T cell activation upon peptide presentation as measured by IL-2 secretion. Altogether, our results reveal the critical importance of the cytoskeleton-dependent
TLR ligands act directly upon T cells to restore proliferation in the absence of protein kinase C-theta signaling and promote autoimmune ...
OBJECTIVE: The nonsynonymous polymorphism rs763361 of the CD226 gene, which encodes DNAX accessory molecule 1, which is involved in T cell costimulation pathways, has recently been identified as a genetic risk factor for autoimmunity. The purpose of this study was to test for association of the CD226 rs763361 polymorphism with systemic sclerosis (SSc) in European Caucasian populations. METHODS: CD226 rs763361 was genotyped in 3,632 individuals, consisting of a discovery sample (991 SSc patients and 1,008 controls) and a replication sample (999 SSc patients and 634 controls). All study subjects were of European Caucasian origin. Expression of CD226 was assessed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 21 healthy donors genotyped for CD226 rs763361. RESULTS: The CD226 rs763361 T allele was found to be associated with SSc in both the discovery and the replication samples, showing the following results in the combined populations: odds ratio (OR) 1.22 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] ...
Interleukin (IL)-4 is considered to be essential for T helper (Th)2 cell development, yet in areas of primary T cell activation, CD4+ cells are its only source. This implies that other signals must drive the initial expression of IL-4 production. The role of CD28 co-stimulation in Th2 subset development has been described. However, in mice deficient for CD28, Th2 responses are diminished, but not abrogated. Cytokines produced within the lymphoid tissue, e.g. IL-7, may be important in the primary activation of naive CD4+ cells. We have found that human naive CD4+ cells purified from umbilical cord blood express the IL-7 receptor and respond vigorously to IL-7 during primary stimulation. Naive CD4+ cells grown in IL-4, in the presence or absence of IL-2, fail to produce Th2 cytokines upon restimulation. In contrast, IL-7 induces development of a population of T cells that produce large amounts of IL-4. Growth in IL-7 also increases IL-2-induced production of interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-10 production. IL
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CD4+ T cells play a major role in adaptive immune responses to intracellular and extracellular microbes by regulating the functions of B cells, CD8+ T cells, an...
In this study we show that CPS and nordihydrocapsiate (CPT) inhibit early and late events in T cell activation, including CD69, CD25 and ICAM-1 cell surface expression, progression to the S phase of the cell cycle and proliferation in response to TCR and CD28 co-engagement ...
CD3 epsilon兔单克隆抗体[E272](ab32186)可与人样本反应并经IP, IHC, ICC实验严格验证,被3篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
CD40山羊多克隆抗体(ab10959)可与小鼠样本反应并经WB, ELISA实验严格验证,被4篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
CD31大鼠单克隆抗体[MEC 7.46](ab7388)可与小鼠样本反应并经IP, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被28篇文献引用并得到3个独立的用户反馈。所有产品提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
The CD2 receptor on T lymphocytes is essential for T cell adhesion and stimulation by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Blockade of CD2 function is immunosuppressive in both model systems and humans, indicating the importance of CD2 for the cellular immune response. Although the affinity of the molecular interaction between CD2 and its counter-receptor, CD58, is relatively low when measured in solution, this interaction mediates tight adhesion within the 2D cell-cell interface. To understand the mechanisms responsible for regulating the avidity of the CD2-CD58 interaction, we measured the number, affinity, and lateral mobility of CD2 molecules on resting and activated T cells. Cell activation caused a 1.5-fold increase in the number of CD2 sites on the cell surface, and the 2D affinity of CD2 for CD58 increased by 2.5-fold. The combination of T cell activation and CD2 ligation to CD58 decreased the laterally mobile fraction of the ligated CD2. Together, these changes would substantially enhance CD2
The CD8 antigen is a disulfide-linked dimer, which exists either as a CD8α homodimer or as a CD8α/β heterodimer. CD8α is required for surface expression of CD8β. The molecular weight of each monomer of α or β is approximately 32-34 kDa. CD8 binds to a non-polymorphic domain (α3 domain) of MHC Class I molecules. CD8 is expressed on a subset of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes. A subset of NK cells possess the CD8 antigen but show low to medium density of expression. CD8α homodimer is expressed by NK cells and γ/δ+ T cells. CD8 is also present on most thymocytes where it is frequently co-expressed with CD4, and on a subpopulation of bone marrow cells. The CD8 molecule acts with the T Cell Receptor (TCR) as a coreceptor for MHC class I restricted antigen recognition. CD8 is widely used as a marker of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. *Alexa Fluor and Pacific Blue are registered trademarks of Molecular Probes, Inc ...
A broad array of evidence indicates that T lymphocytes make significant contributions to vascular inflammation in the setting of atherosclerotic disease, hypertension, autoimmune vasculitis, and other disorders. Experimental data show that costimulatory and coinhibitory pathways involving molecules of the B7-CD28 and TNF-TNFR families regulate T cell responses that promote vascular disease. Antigen presenting cells (APCs) display both peptide-major histocompatibility complex antigen and costimulators or coinhibitors to T cells. Two major types of APCs, dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, are present in significant numbers in the walls of arteries affected by atherosclerosis and arteritis, and some DCs are present in normal arteries. Costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules expressed by these vascular APCs can contribute to the activation or inhibition of effector T cells within the arterial wall. Vascular DCs may also be involved in transport of antigens to secondary lymphoid organs, where ...
The CD279 antigen, also known as Programmed Death 1 (PD-1), belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. It contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in its cytoplasmic tail. It is encoded by the PDCD1 gene, which is located on the human chromosome 2q37.3. Immune cell function implicates important modulators known as cosignaling receptors. On T cells, the cosignaling receptors belong to either the immunoglobulin (CD28-like) or TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamilies. The CD28 immunoglobulin-superfamily is composed of coinhibitory and costimulatory receptors. Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) is one of the coinhibitory receptors, with notably Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4) and CD272 (BTLA). The interaction of PD-1 with its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, plays a critical role in regulating T cell activation and tolerance ...
Mark, there has been a number of discussions on this list regarding RA/RO... Im not going to rehash those discussions, since I dont want to bore everyone else. Go to the archives and read over the material -- it includes references. But once again, CD45RA+ cells are BOTH naive AND memory. You CANNOT use RA and/or RO to identify naive T cells without an additional marker such as CD62L, CD11a, CD27. As for Double-positive, it depends on how you define positive. Bright (true) RA+RO+ double positives are very rare in peripheral blood but common in active tissues (like tonsil). Cells positive for one and dull for the other are normal resting memory T cells. There are no double-negative cells that are viable. Percentages in the peripheral blood are meaningless for the simple reason that RA+ cells are a heterogeneous mixture of naive & memory. Especially the CD8s, where anywhere between 20 and 80% of RA+ cells can be memory. (In CD4, most (95%) are naive; however, in many disease states ...
The main finding of this work is that tTregs control inflammatory responses in vivo by suppressing the CD70/CD27 costimulatory pathway that is important for Th1 priming. tTregs downregulate CD70 protein levels at the plasma membrane of DCs by direct contact. Our data suggest that endocytosis and degradation of CD70 are enhanced as a result of its contact with CD27 on the surface of tTregs. This effect of Tregs on DC function is compatible with their capacity to sequester DCs (Hugues et al, 2004; Tadokoro et al, 2006; Tang et al, 2006; Onishi et al, 2008) and their higher expression of CD27 on the plasma membrane at steady state. Live imaging suggests that the transfer of the CD27 receptor from T cells to DCs may occur by previously described mechanisms, such as the elusive trogocytosis at the level of the immune synapse (Joly & Hudrisier, 2003; Nakayama et al, 2011; Somanchi et al, 2012) or tunneling nanotubes which allow physical connections of the plasma membranes between remote cells (Watkins ...
Research in the past few years has documented significant advances in our understanding of the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD154) system in diverse immune functions. This system influences many T cell mediated inflammatory immune responses and effector functions, unmasking a previously unexpected role for CD40-CD154 in cell mediated immunity. Manipulation of CD154 in animal models of infection by the use of CD154-deficient mice or anti-CD154 antibodies has shown the importance of this system in the initiation of the inflammatory response, in the activation of antigen-presenting cells and in resistance to infections ...
In the present study, we re-established an experimental system for cellular and molecular studies on the induced resistance to HIV-1 infection in CD4 + T cells as first reported by Levine et al. [27]. This cellular system includes two methods most commonly used to activate and expand CD4 + T cells in vitro. Incubation with PHA/IL-2 induces proliferating CD4 + T cells which are highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection and highly permissive for the subsequent viral replication, whereas co-stimulation with CD3/CD28 reverses the intrinsic susceptibility in these cells and renders them with resistance to HIV-1 infection and un-permissiveness for viral replication. Thus, these two extremely polarized statuses of activated CD4 + T cells, with the un-stimulated resting cells (susceptible to the infection but not permissive for the rapid viral replication) as control in the middle of the "spectrum of permissiveness", constitute a highly insightful system in the search for host factors responsible for HIV-1 ...
Within the paradigm of the two-signal model of lymphocyte activation, the interest in costimulation has witnessed a remarkable emergence in the past few years with the discovery of a large array of molecules that can serve this role, including some with an inhibitory function. Interest has been further enhanced by the realization of these molecules potential as targets to modulate clinical immune responses. Although the therapeutic translation of mechanistic knowledge in costimulatory molecules has been relatively straightforward, the capacity to target their inhibitory counterparts has remained limited. This limited capacity is particularly apparent in the case of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), a major negative regulator of T cell responses. Because there have been several previous comprehensive reviews on the function of this molecule, we focus here on the physiological implications of its structural features. Such an exercise may ultimately help us to design
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PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) donne libre accès en ligne à des archives numériques fiables et permanentes qui contiennent le texte intégral de publications de recherches évaluées par des pairs en santé et en sciences de la vie. Il fait fond sur PubMed Central (PMC), les archives numériques gratuites des National Institutes of Health (NIH) des États-Unis qui proviennent de revues biomédicales et sur les sciences de la vie, et il est membre du réseau élargi PMC International (PMCI).
The human group 1 CD1 molecules CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c have been shown to present both endogenous and mycobacterial-derived lipid antigens to various subsets of T...
CD84 (Cluster of Differentiation 84) is a human protein encoded by the CD84 gene.. Members of the CD2 (see MIM 186990) subgroup of the Ig superfamily, such as CD84, have similar patterns of conserved disulfide bonds and function in adhesion interactions between T lymphocytes and accessory cells. ...
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This clinical study is designed to evaluate the safety of oral administration of the study drug muromonab CD3 (anti CD3; OKT3) in combination with β-D
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CD4, 0.1 ml. Accessory protein for MHC class-II antigen/T-cell receptor interaction. May regulate T-cell activation. Induces the aggregation of lipid rafts.
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Objective: To investigate the expressions of Foxp3 and CD25 on CD4+T cells from patients with new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and assess their clinical significance.. Methods: Ten active (SLEDAI≥10) and eleven inactive (SLEDAI≤5) new-onset SLE patients as well as eleven healthy volunteers were enrolled. The expressions of CD25, Foxp3 and CD127 on CD4+ T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Proliferation assays were performed on isolated CD4+CD25+ and/or CD4+CD25- T cells.. Results: There was no significant difference in number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T cells in subjects with either active or inactive SLE compared to normal controls (P,0.05). Moreover, suppressive capacity of CD4+CD25+T cells in new-onset lupus patients was not impaired as measured by the capacity to inhibit proliferation of CD4+CD25- T cells. Interestingly, CD4+CD25-Foxp3+T cells in new-onset lupus (2.97-10.94%) were significantly more frequent than in normal controls (1.01-3.62%) (P,0.01), and positively correlated ...
The CD4+/CD8+ ratio measures the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood of healthy adults and mice is about 2:1, and an altered ratio can indicate diseases relating to immunodeficiency or autoimmunity. An inverted CD4+/CD8+ ratio (namely, less than 1/1) indicates an impaired immune system. A reduced CD4+/CD8+ ratio is associated with reduced resistance to infection. Patients with tuberculosis show a reduced CD4+/CD8+ ratio. A declining CD4+/CD8+ ratio is associated with ageing, and is an indicator of immunosenescence. A study of elderly humans showed the highest expansion of cytotoxic T cells among those with cytomegalovirus. In obese adipose tissue, pro-inflammatory CD8+ cells increase and recruit macrophages, predominating over anti-inflammatory CD4+ cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells (lowering the CD4+/CD8+ ratio) through a number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis of abortively infected CD4 T cells, apoptosis of ...
DTA-1 mAb abrogates suppression mediated by CD4+ CD25+ T cells. (A) CD4+ CD25- or CD4+ CD25+ T cells (gated as a or b, respectively) were purified by cell-sorter from BALB/c spleen cells. (B) CD4+ CD25+ T cells (open square and closed square) or CD4+ CD25- T cells (open circle and closed circle) purified from 2-month-old BALB/c mice, or these two populations mixed in equal amounts (open triangle and closed triangle), were stimulated for 3 days along with MMC-treated spleen cells as APC in the absence or presence of graded amounts of DTA-1 mAb. Incorporation of [3H] thymidine by proliferating lymphocytes during the last 6 hr of the culture was measured. (C) Spleen cell suspensions prepared from 2-month-old BALB/c mouse were stained with anti-CD4, anti-CD25 and DTA-1. Expression of GITR (DTA-1) on CD4+ CD25+ T cells or CD4+ CD25- T cells is shown in the histogram. The dotted lines represent control staining with an irrelevant Ab.. ...
Horses are particularly prone to allergic and autoimmune diseases, but little information about equine regulatory T cells (Treg) is currently available. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the existence of CD4(+) Treg cells in horses, determine their suppressive function as well as their mechanism of action. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy horses were examined for CD4, CD25 and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) expression. We show that equine FoxP3 is expressed constitutively by a population of CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells, mainly in the CD4(+) CD25(high) subpopulation. Proliferation of CD4(+) CD25(-) sorted cells stimulated with irradiated allogenic PBMC was significantly suppressed in co-culture with CD4(+) CD25(high) sorted cells in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism of suppression by the CD4(+) CD25(high) cell population is mediated by close contact as well as interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and probably other ...
The T cell Ag receptor (CD3/Ti) and the sheep E receptor (CD2) expressed on the surface of human T cells are both capable of initiating intracellular signals necessary for T cell activation. CD3/Ti interacts with Ag to initiate cellular immune responses. Although the exact function of CD2 is unknown, lymphocyte function-associated Ag 3 (LFA-3), a 55- to 70-kDa receptor expressed on a broad spectrum of hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic cells, has recently been shown to be its natural ligand. We show here that although purified multimeric LFA-3 is not capable of initiating transmembrane signaling events on its own, the combination of LFA-3 and the anti-CD2 mAb CD2.1 induces intracellular calcium increases, phosphatidylinositol second messenger generation and lymphokine secretion in the T cell leukemic line Jurkat. In order to study the signaling requirements of CD2, we compared the ability of CD2 mAb and LFA-3 to initiate activation signals in Jurkat and in three Jurkat-derived mutants. A CD3-CD2+ mutant
CD3 complex is crucial in transducing antigen-recognition signals into the cytoplasm of T cells and in regulating the cell surface expression of the TCR complex. T cell activation through the antigen receptor (TCR) involves the cytoplasmic tails of the CD3 subunits CD3 gamma, CD3 delta, CD3 epsilon and CD3 zeta (CD247). These CD3 subunits are structurally related members of the immunoglobulins super family encoded by closely linked genes on human chromosome 11. The CD3 components have long cytoplasmic tails that associate with cytoplasmic signal transduction molecules. This association is mediated at least in part by a double tyrosine-based motif present in a single copy in the CD3 subunits. CD3 may play a role in TCR-induced growth arrest, cell survival and proliferation ...
Costimulatory signals by CD28 are critical for thymic regulatory T-cell (Treg) development. To determine the functional relevance of CD28 for peripheral Treg post thymic selection, we crossed the widely used Forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3)-CreYFP mice to mice bearing a conditional Cd28 allele. Treg-specific CD28 deficiency provoked a severe autoimmune syndrome as a result of a strong disadvantage in competitive fitness and proliferation of CD28-deficient Tregs. By contrast, Treg survival and lineage integrity were not affected by the lack of CD28. This data demonstrate that, even after the initial induction requirement, Treg maintain a higher dependency on CD28 signalling than conventional T cells for homeostasis. In addition, we found the Foxp3-CreYFP allele to be a hypomorph, with reduced Foxp3 protein levels. Furthermore, we report here the stochastic activity of the Foxp3-CreYFP allele in non-Tregs, sufficient to recombine some conditional alleles (including Cd28) but not others (including ...
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This study was carried out with the goal of determining whether Fyn tyrosine kinase had a unique role in the signaling of CD4 T cells through TCR/CD3. Our results demonstrate that the capacity for Fyn-deficient T cells to be activated depends critically on the mode of stimulation and the prior experience of the T cells. Naïve Fyn-/- CD4 T cells stimulated by CD3 crosslinking had profound defects in the early signaling events of tyrosine phosphorylation and calcium response, which resulted in a markedly reduced ability to produce IL-2 and proliferate. In contrast, previously activated Fyn-/- T cells showed no such activation defects. Furthermore, when naïve Fyn-/- T cells were stimulated by antigen-pulsed APCs or cocrosslinking of CD3 and CD4, no defects in naïve Fyn-/- T cell responses were observed.. Previous characterizations have led to somewhat varied conclusions with regard to the capacity of Fyn-/- peripheral T cells to respond to stimulation. Appleby et al. (6) characterized the ...
In the present study, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which CD8+ T cells contribute to atherogenesis through modulation of medullar monopoiesis and circulating Ly6Chi monocyte levels, thereby indirectly controlling macrophage accumulation within lesions.. Previous studies addressing the role of CD8+ T cells in atherogenesis have mostly used genetically engineered mouse models of CD8+ T-cell deficiency with contradictory results,17,18 which may be because of compensatory mechanisms in these mice. We circumvented this hurdle by treating Ldlr−/− mice with an anti-CD8α monoclonal antibody, which efficiently depleted CD8+ T cells while not altering DCs levels, including CD8α+ DCs, and functionality of splenic CD11c+ DCs, as well as leaving CD4+ T cell numbers, activation and polarization untouched, thus confirming the specificity of our depletion strategy.. CD8+ T-cell depletion with the anti-CD8α antibody entailed a significant decrease in atherosclerotic lesion formation in the aortic ...
As depicted in Fig. 3A, a clear upregulated pattern of expression of CD40, CD80 and CD86, but not CD40L, can be seen on the surface of CD11c+PDCA-1+. cells obtained from the LN. In contrast, we detect only the upregulation of CD40 on CD11c+PDCA-1+ splenocytes at day 10 after infection (Fig. 3B). In addition, we also stained LN and spleen cells for CD11c expression in conjuction with CD8α in addition to the activation markers CD40, CD40L, and CD86 at different times after infection. A limited pattern of upregulation of expression of Lumacaftor cell line CD86 can be seen on the surface of CD11c+CD8α+ cells collected from the LN or spleen on days 3-7 following infection (Fig. 4A and B). Similar analyses were also conducted for CD11C+CD8a− cells collected. from the spleen and LN, but we did not detect an upregulation of expression of the activation markers CD40, CD40L, CD80, or CD86 at any time point from 3 to 30 days in the spleen or LN (data not shown). To determine whether indeed ...
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... - This anti-Human Lineage Cocktail is optimized for the detection of human lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils.
As with any breakthrough, new questions arise and new experiments become feasible.....One problem, however, is that CD32a is a marker for only 50% of the reservoir, whereas the eradication of latent HIV would require a much greater reduction in the number of latently infected cells in the body. Moreover, targeting CD32a would also make the antigen-presenting cells that normally express CD32a vulnerable to destruction, which might well cause unwanted or harmful side effects.....Second, the authors studied CD4 lymphocytes from the blood, but these circulating cells account for 2%, at most, of the CD4 T cells in the body2. It remains to be seen whether CD32a is as good a marker for latently infected cells in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, gut and other tissues. Perhaps more markers could be identified from the 103 differentially expressed genes found in the researchers screen - analysis of these proteins in combination with CD32a might increase the total proportion of identifiable latent ...
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Dear Ralph, I appreciate your questions and I think thay are valid and worth exploring. However, I think that I must clarify my point a bit. I am not implying that the CD8 cells are the worst hit by the virus. (Forgive the sensationalism of my first posting... this was meant to call attention to my article) Of course the CD4 cells are the worst hit because they carry the CD4 antigen constantly, thus their name. What I _am_ implying is that the CD8 cells must also be effected by the virus due to their positivity for CD4 during their development. Since CTL (the cells responsible for killing virally infected cells) are CD8 cells, any effects (quantitative or qualitative) on this compartment must be important in the pathogenisis of a viral disease. McMichael et al have reported that CTL response to viral peptide epitopes in the MHC class molecule dissipate at the end stage of HIV disease. This could be explained by the slow and steady exhaustion of CD8 precursers via infection by HIV when these ...
CD4 receptor - MedHelps CD4 receptor Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for CD4 receptor. Find CD4 receptor information, treatments for CD4 receptor and CD4 receptor symptoms.
CD4 (helper cells) 43% (30-61) Absolute CD4 + cells 527 (490-1740) CD8 (supressor T cells) 28% (12-42) Absolute CD8+ cells 340 (180-1170)...
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, Effect of tigecycline on the production of selected cytokines and counts of murine CD4+ and CD8+ T cells - an in vitro study - Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
The normal CD4 count range is 500-1500 and the normal CD4 percentage is 35-50%. The lower the CD4 percent and count, the worse off the immune system...
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2001 05 22.20858 16 06 45.68 -20 01 22.4 22.0R 01KG76 807 Cd1817 2001 05 22.28897 16 06 45.29 -20 01 21.3 01KG76 807 Cd1817 2001 06 10.02875 16 05 16.38 -19 57 27.3 22.9R 01KG76 304 Cd1817 2001 06 10.10380 16 05 16.05 -19 57 26.3 01KG76 304 Cd1817 2001 08 19.03454 16 02 18.80 -19 50 35.3 21.4R 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2001 08 20.03188 16 02 19.15 -19 50 37.8 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2001 08 21.03938 16 02 19.58 -19 50 40.7 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2002 04 07.29240 16 15 09.97 -20 25 16.3 21.6R 01KG76 807 Cf4617 2002 04 07.38861 16 15 09.68 -20 25 15.6 01KG76 807 Cf4617 2002 05 12.03950 16 12 54.85 -20 19 22.5 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 12.08513 16 12 54.63 -20 19 21.8 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 12.13062 16 12 54.41 -20 19 21.3 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 13.04812 16 12 50.15 -20 19 10.5 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 13.11749 16 12 49.83 -20 19 09.6 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 07 10.99718 16 08 34.27 -20 08 36.4 22.2R 01KG76 304 Cf9823 2002 07 11.20921 16 08 33.59 -20 08 35.0 01KG76 304 Cf9823 2002 07 13.10322 16 08 27.82 -20 08 ...
2B4 belongs to the CD2 family of molecules and is expressed on all NK, gammadelta, and memory CD8(+) (alphabeta) T cells. The murine NK receptor 2B4 exhibits both inhibitory and activating functions, whereas human 2B4 has been reported to be an activ
WING Kajsa , FEHERVARI Zoltan , SAKAGUCHI Shimon International immunology 18(7), 991-1000, 2006-07-01 医中誌Web 参考文献121件 被引用文献4件 ...
CD8 T 세포는 바이러스나 박테리아와 같은 병원체 및 종양, 이식된 장기 등에서 발현되는 외부 항원을 인지하고 이 외부항원을 발현하는 세포를 제거하는 기능을 갖는 세포독성 T 세포이다. 외부항원들에 대한 CD8 T 세포 기억의 형성은 차 후 이 항원들에 재노출되었을 때 강하고 빠른 면역 반응을 일으켜, 감염 병원체나 종양을 퇴치하는데 기여하기 때문에 면역력 향상에 중요한 요인이다. 감염 병원체 항원에 대한 백신을 접종하는 이유는 바로 이와 같은 T 세포 기억을 형성하기 위함이다. 반대로, 특정 항원에 대한 CD8 T 세포의 관용 (tolerance)이 형성하게 되면 그 항원들이 제거되지 않고 받아들여지게 되는데, 이식거부 반응이나 자가면역질환이 억제되기 위해서는 이식 항원이나 자가 항원에 대한 관용의 형성이 중요하다 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromatinized Protein Kinase C-theta: Can It Escape the Clutches of NF-kB?. AU - Sutcliffe, Elissa. AU - Li, Jasmine. AU - Zafar, Anjum. AU - Hardy, Kristine. AU - Ghildyal, Reena. AU - Norris, Nicole. AU - Lim, Chloe (Pek Siew). AU - Milburn, Peter. AU - Casarotto, Marco. AU - Denyer, Gareth. AU - Rao, Sudha. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - We recently provided the first description of a nuclear mechanism used by Protein Kinase C-theta (PKC-θ) to mediate T cell gene expression. In this mode, PKC-θ tethers to chromatin to form an active nuclear complex by interacting with proteins including RNA polymerase II, the histone kinase MSK-1, the demethylase LSD1, and the adaptor molecule 14-3-3ζ at regulatory regions of inducible immune response genes. Moreover, our genome-wide analysis identified many novel PKC-θ target genes and microRNAs implicated in T cell development, differentiation, apoptosis, and proliferation. We have expanded our ChIP-on-chip analysis and have now identified a ...
Short-lived TCR microclusters and a longer-lived protein kinase Ctheta-focusing central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC) have been defined in model immunological synapses (IS). In different model systems, CD28-mediated costimulatory interactions have been detected in microclusters, the cSMAC, or segregated from the TCR forming multiple distinct foci. The relationship between TCR and costimulatory molecules in the physiological IS of T cell-dendritic cell (DC) is obscure. To study the dynamic relationship of CD28-CD80 and TCR interactions in the T cell-DC IS during Ag-specific T cell activation, we generated CD80-eCFP mice using bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic technology. In splenic DCs, endogenous CD80 and CD80-eCFP localized to plasma membrane and Golgi apparatus, and CD80-eCFP was functional in vivo. In the OT-II T cell-DC IS, multiple segregated TCR, CD80, and LFA-1 clusters were detected. In the T cell-DC synapse CD80 clusters were colocalized with CD28 and PKCtheta, a
In comparison to murine dendritic cells (DCs), less is known about the function of human DCs in tissues. Here, we analyzed, by using lung tissues from humans and humanized mice, the role of human CD1c(+) and CD141(+) DCs in determining the type of CD8(+) T cell immunity generated to live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine. We found that both lung DC subsets acquired influenza antigens in vivo and expanded specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, lung-tissue-resident CD1c(+) DCs, but not CD141(+) DCs, were able to drive CD103 expression on CD8(+) T cells and promoted CD8(+) T cell accumulation in lung epithelia in vitro and in vivo. CD1c(+) DCs induction of CD103 expression was dependent on membrane-bound cytokine TGF-β1. Thus, CD1c(+) and CD141(+) DCs generate CD8(+) T cells with different properties, and CD1c(+) DCs specialize in the regulation of mucosal CD8(+) T cells. Immunity 2013 Apr 18; 38(4):818-30.

The effect of artificial antigen-presenting cells with preclustered anti-CD28/-CD3/-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies on the...The effect of artificial antigen-presenting cells with preclustered anti-CD28/-CD3/-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies on the...

Design and Methods Our artificial antigen-presenting cells were generated with activating (anti-CD3), co-stimulating (anti-CD28 ... The activity of our artificial antigen-presenting cells was compared with that of anti-CD3/-CD28 coated immunomagnetic ... The effect of artificial antigen-presenting cells with preclustered anti-CD28/-CD3/-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies on the ... The effect of artificial antigen-presenting cells with preclustered anti-CD28/-CD3/-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies on the ...
more infohttp://www.haematologica.org/content/93/10/1523

Antigens, cd28 | definition of Antigens, cd28 by Medical dictionaryAntigens, cd28 | definition of Antigens, cd28 by Medical dictionary

Antigens, cd28 explanation free. What is Antigens, cd28? Meaning of Antigens, cd28 medical term. What does Antigens, cd28 mean? ... Looking for online definition of Antigens, cd28 in the Medical Dictionary? ... CD28. (redirected from Antigens, cd28) CD28. a type I transmembrane protein present on most CD4 T cells, many CD8 T cells, and ... Antigens, cd28 , definition of Antigens, cd28 by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Antigens% ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Antigens%2C+cd28

CD28 Antigens - Semantic ScholarCD28 Antigens - Semantic Scholar

Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor ... CD28 Antigens. Known as: TP44 Receptor, Antigens, CD28, CD28 (More). Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity ... Antigen-specific targeting of CD28-mediated T cell co-stimulation using chimeric single-chain antibody variable fragment-CD28 ... Chimeric antigen receptors combining 4-1BB and CD28 signaling domains augment PI3kinase/AKT/Bcl-XL activation and CD8+ T cell- ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/CD28-Antigens/315222

Binding of the B cell activation antigen B7 to CD28 costimulates T cell proliferation and interleukin 2 mRNA accumulation. | JEMBinding of the B cell activation antigen B7 to CD28 costimulates T cell proliferation and interleukin 2 mRNA accumulation. | JEM

Binding of the B cell activation antigen B7 to CD28 costimulates T cell proliferation and interleukin 2 mRNA accumulation.. P S ... Binding of the B cell activation antigen B7 to CD28 costimulates T cell proliferation and interleukin 2 mRNA accumulation. ... Here we show that CD28 is the primary receptor for B7 on activated peripheral blood T cells, that CD28 binds to B7 in the ... To characterize the binding of CD28 to B7, we have produced genetic fusions of the extracellular portions of B7 and CD28, and ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/173/3/721?ijkey=980a6ff8e3df23c6f9b84c4f9f4a9b5a523e21db&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 and CD28 Modulate Cell Surface Raft Expression in Their Regulation of T Cell Function | JEMCytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 and CD28 Modulate Cell Surface Raft Expression in Their Regulation of T Cell Function | JEM

... anti-CD3/CD28 (1°) followed by anti-CD3/CD28 (2°) (light gray bars), and anti-CD3/CD28/CTLA-4 (1°) followed by anti-CD3/CD28 (2 ... Coreceptors CD28 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 have opposing effects on TcR/CD3 activation of T cells. While CD28 ... and that this antigen receptor-mediated effect is potentiated by anti-CD28 ligation. CD28 therefore does not provide a unique ... and coreceptors CD28, inducible costimulator (ICOS), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 (CD152) (1, 2). CD28 and CTLA- ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/194/11/1675

JCI -
CD28 costimulation improves expansion and persistence of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells in lymphoma patientsJCI - CD28 costimulation improves expansion and persistence of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells in lymphoma patients

CD28 costimulation improves expansion and persistence of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells in lymphoma patients. ... The B7-CD28 superfamily. Nat Rev Immunol. 2002;2(2):116-126.. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar ... One CAR encoded both the costimulatory CD28 and the ζ-endodomains, while the other encoded only the ζ-endodomain. CAR+ T cells ... Sadelain M, Brentjens R, Riviere I. The promise and potential pitfalls of chimeric antigen receptors. Curr Opin Immunol. 2009; ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/46110

EP 0980390 A2 20000223 - HUMAN-CD28 SPECIFIC MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES FOR ANTIGEN NON-SPECIFIC ACTIVATION OF T-LYMPHOCYTESEP 0980390 A2 20000223 - HUMAN-CD28 SPECIFIC MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES FOR ANTIGEN NON-SPECIFIC ACTIVATION OF T-LYMPHOCYTES

... human-CD28 and which activate non-specifically human-T-lymphocytes of several to all sub-groups without occupying an antigen ... human-CD28 and which activate non-specifically human-T-lymphocytes of several to all sub-groups without occupying an antigen ... HUMAN-CD28 SPECIFIC MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES FOR ANTIGEN NON-SPECIFIC ACTIVATION OF T-LYMPHOCYTES - [origin: DE19722888A1] The ... HUMAN-CD28 SPECIFIC MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES FOR ANTIGEN NON-SPECIFIC ACTIVATION OF T-LYMPHOCYTES. Title (en). HUMAN-CD28 SPECIFIC ...
more infohttps://data.epo.org/gpi/EP0980390A2-HUMAN-CD28-SPECIFIC-MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES-FOR-ANTIGEN-NON-SPECIFIC-ACTIVATION-OF-T-LYMPHOCYTES

Nutrients  | Free Full-Text | Maternal Choline Supplementation during Normal Murine Pregnancy Alters the Placental Epigenome:...Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Maternal Choline Supplementation during Normal Murine Pregnancy Alters the Placental Epigenome:...

Cd28. CD28 antigen. 1.64. Mt3. metallothionein 3. 1.69. 1 Predicted mRNA targets, which have a context++ score ≤−0.2, were ... Takeda, K.; Harada, Y.; Watanabe, R.; Inutake, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Onuki, K.; Kagaya, S.; Tanabe, K.; Kishimoto, H.; Abe, R. Cd28 ... and Cd28 (fold change = 1.64; p = 0.05). In contrast to the female placentas, the expression of Gja4 in the male placentas of ... and Cd28 [73]). These processes affect placental trophoblast survival and migration, and the remodeling of the maternal ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/4/417/htm

T lymphocyte co-signaling pathways of the B7-CD28 family.T lymphocyte co-signaling pathways of the B7-CD28 family.

The past years have witnessed significant advance in our understanding of critical roles of T cell co-signals in B7-CD28 family ... 0/Antigens, CD; 0/Antigens, CD28; 0/Antigens, CD80; 0/Antigens, CD86; 0/Antigens, Differentiation; 0/Antigens, Differentiation ... Antigens, CD. Antigens, CD28 / immunology*. Antigens, CD80 / immunology*. Antigens, CD86 / immunology*. Antigens, ... Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / immunology. Humans. Lymphocyte Activation. Receptors, Immunologic / immunology. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/T-lymphocyte-co-signaling-pathways/16212919.html

Heat-shock protein 60-reactive CD4+CD28null T cells in patients with acute coronary syndromes.Heat-shock protein 60-reactive CD4+CD28null T cells in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

Antigen Presentation. Antigens, CD28 / analysis. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology*, metabolism. ... 0/Antigens, CD28; 0/Chaperonin 60; 0/HLA-D Antigens; 0/Lipoproteins, LDL; 0/Membrane Glycoproteins; 0/Pore Forming Cytotoxic ... HLA-D Antigens / immunology. Humans. Inflammation / immunology. Interferon-gamma / biosynthesis, genetics. Lipoproteins, LDL / ... Incubation of the cells with anti-MHC class II and anti-CD4 antibodies but not anti-class I antibodies blocked antigen ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Heat-shock-protein-60-reactive/14993140.html

GO Gene ListGO Gene List

Cd28. CD28 antigen. NM_007642. Gene Info. Cd40. CD40 antigen. NM_011611. NM_170704. NM_170703. NM_170702. Gene Info. ... Stromal antigen 2. NM_001077712. NM_021465. Gene Info. Stat6. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6. NM_009284. ... Meningioma expressed antigen 5 (hyaluronidase). NM_023799. Gene Info. Mgmt. O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. NM_008598 ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GoGeneQuery?PAGE=1&ORG=Mm&GOID=0051052

CD28 antibodies, mouse - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - USACD28 antibodies, mouse - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - USA

Ligation of CD28 with CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) provides a costimulatory signal for T cell activation. Additional information ... CD28 is a homodimeric type I transmembrane protein of the Ig receptor superfamily, composed of disulfide-linked 45 kDa subunits ... Clone REA806 recognizes the mouse CD28 antigen, a costimulatory molecule, expressed on most thymocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, ... Gross, J. A. et al. (1990) The murine homologue of the T lymphocyte antigen CD28. Molecular cloning and cell surface expression ...
more infohttps://www.miltenyibiotec.com/US-en/products/macs-flow-cytometry/antibodies/primary-antibodies/cd28-antibodies-mouse-rea806-1-50.html

KEGG BRITE: CD Molecules - Homo sapiens (human)KEGG BRITE: CD Molecules - Homo sapiens (human)

... tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 7 K06470 CD28; CD28 antigen K05719 ITGB1; integrin beta 1 K05145 TNFRSF8; ... CD79A antigen K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen K05412 CD80; CD80 antigen K06508 CD81; CD81 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K06510 ... CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06721 CLEC10A; C-type lectin ... CD96 antigen K08446 ADGRE5; CD97 antigen K06519 SLC3A2; solute carrier family 3, member 2 K06520 CD99; CD99 antigen K06521 ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?hsa04090+4486

SHP-1 and SHP-2 Associate with Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-Based Switch Motif of Programmed Death 1 upon Primary Human T Cell...SHP-1 and SHP-2 Associate with Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-Based Switch Motif of Programmed Death 1 upon Primary Human T Cell...

T cell antigen CD28 binds to the GRB-2/SOS complex, regulators of p21ras. Eur. J. Immunol. 25:1044. ... A cell-based artificial antigen-presenting cell coated with anti-CD3 and CD28 antibodies enables rapid expansion and long-term ... Stimulation of CD28 triggers an association between CD28 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in Jurkat T cells. J. Exp. Med. 179: ... B, Purified T cells were similarly stimulated with CD3/MHC I, CD3/CD28/MHC I, and CD3/CD28/PD-1 aAPCs. The relative levels of ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/2/945?ijkey=78d349c366734670c8586f675c719b246e9803a0&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

SHP-1 and SHP-2 Associate with Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-Based Switch Motif of Programmed Death 1 upon Primary Human T Cell...SHP-1 and SHP-2 Associate with Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-Based Switch Motif of Programmed Death 1 upon Primary Human T Cell...

T cell antigen CD28 binds to the GRB-2/SOS complex, regulators of p21ras. Eur. J. Immunol. 25:1044. ... A cell-based artificial antigen-presenting cell coated with anti-CD3 and CD28 antibodies enables rapid expansion and long-term ... Stimulation of CD28 triggers an association between CD28 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in Jurkat T cells. J. Exp. Med. 179: ... B, Purified T cells were similarly stimulated with CD3/MHC I, CD3/CD28/MHC I, and CD3/CD28/PD-1 aAPCs. The relative levels of ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/2/945

anti-CD28 antibody (CD28)</span...anti-CD28 antibody (CD28)</span...

Order this anti-CD28 antibody. , Product number ABIN1176978 ... Golden Syrian Hamster Monoclonal CD28 antibody for BR, CyTox, ... Antigen CD28 Alternative Name CD28 (CD28 Antibody Abstract) Background The 37.51 antibody reacts with CD28, which is expressed ... anti-CD28 antibody (CD28) CD28 antibody (CD28). Details for Product anti-CD28 Antibody No. ABIN1176978, Supplier: Log in to see ... anti-Mouse (Murine) CD28 antibody for Immunohistochemistry Show more 44 anti-Mouse (Murine) CD28 antibody for ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/antibody/1176978/anti-CD28+CD28+antibody/

Linsley PS[au] - PubMed - NCBILinsley PS[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Pillars article: T-cell antigen CD28 mediates adhesion with B cells by interacting with activation antigen B7/BB-1. 1990. Proc ... Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Reveals Expanded Clones of Islet Antigen-Reactive CD4+ T Cells in Peripheral Blood of Subjects with ... Pillars article: long-term acceptance of skin and cardiac allografts after blocking CD40 and CD28 pathways. Nature. 1996. 381: ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Linsley+PS%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

B7.2 (CD86) ORF cDNA clone | Expression-ready | InvivoGenB7.2 (CD86) ORF cDNA clone | Expression-ready | InvivoGen

CD28 antigen ligand 2. Back to the top Specifications. Human B7.2 isoform 2 (pUNO1-hB72b). Genbank : NM_006889.4. ORF size : ...
more infohttps://www.invivogen.com/puno-b72

JCI -
Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy of human cancer: past, present, and futureJCI - Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy of human cancer: past, present, and future

T-cell antigen CD28 mediates adhesion with B cells by interacting with activation antigen B7/BB-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. ... CTLA-4 is a second receptor for the B cell activation antigen B7. J Exp Med. 1991;174(3):561-569.. View this article via: ... Chen L. Co-inhibitory molecules of the B7-CD28 family in the control of T-cell immunity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2004;4(5):336-347. ... For example, tumor antigen-based cancer vaccines often enhance T cell responses in both quantity and quality; unfortunately, ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/80011

CD28 - WikipediaCD28 - Wikipedia

Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart Human CD28 genome location and CD28 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... antigen complex without CD28:B7 interaction results in a T cell that is anergic. CD28 possesses an intracellular domain with ... Schneider H, Cai YC, Prasad KV, Shoelson SE, Rudd CE (Apr 1995). "T cell antigen CD28 binds to the GRB-2/SOS complex, ... Linsley PS, Ledbetter JA (1993). "The role of the CD28 receptor during T cell responses to antigen". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 11: ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD28

IM2070 - Beckman CoulterIM2070 - Beckman Coulter

It has homology with the T cell antigen CD28, and like CD28, is a ligand for CD80 and CD86. CTLA-4 is transiently expressed by ... The CD152 antigen, also called CTLA4, is an integral membrane protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, which is ... CD152 and CD28 are involved in the costimulation required for T cell activation. ...
more infohttps://www.beckman.com/reagents/coulter-flow-cytometry/antibodies-and-kits/single-color-antibodies/IM2070

Anti-CD28 antibody (FITC) [PV-1] | AbcamAnti-CD28 antibody (FITC) [PV-1] | Abcam

Anti-CD28 antibody conjugated to FITC [PV-1] validated for IP, FuncS, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse. Immunogen ... T cell antigen CD28 antibody. *T cell specific surface glycoprotein antibody. *T cell specific surface glycoprotein CD28 ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/cd28-antibody-pv-1-fitc-ab24844.html

CD28 co-stimulation induced Lck signaling is important for survival and antigen-specific functionality of re-directed T cells |...CD28 co-stimulation induced Lck signaling is important for survival and antigen-specific functionality of re-directed T cells |...

CD28 co-stimulation induced Lck signaling is important for survival and antigen-specific functionality of re-directed T cells. ... Gulati, P., Schuberth, P., Renner, C. et al. CD28 co-stimulation induced Lck signaling is important for survival and antigen- ... We deleted the Lck binding moiety in the CD28 domain of our CAR constructs. The effect of Lck deletion on antigen specific ... Thus, we conclude that Lck signaling mediated by CD28 co-stimulation is important to promote the survival by antigen-specific ...
more infohttps://jitc.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2051-1426-1-S1-P12

Resveratrol and Curcumin Suppress Immune Response Through CD28/CTLA-4 and CD80 Co-Stimulatory Pathway - PubMedResveratrol and Curcumin Suppress Immune Response Through CD28/CTLA-4 and CD80 Co-Stimulatory Pathway - PubMed

Cell surface interactions between the T cell costimulatory receptors, CD28 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4), with ... Activation of T cells requires co-stimulation, in addition to signals through the antigen-receptor complex. Antigen encounter ... Resveratrol and Curcumin Suppress Immune Response Through CD28/CTLA-4 and CD80 Co-Stimulatory Pathway S Sharma 1 , K Chopra, S ... Resveratrol and Curcumin Suppress Immune Response Through CD28/CTLA-4 and CD80 Co-Stimulatory Pathway S Sharma et al. Clin Exp ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17177975/

CD80 Gene - GeneCards | CD80 Protein | CD80 AntibodyCD80 Gene - GeneCards | CD80 Protein | CD80 Antibody

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:. *cDNA FLJ75225, highly similar to Homo sapiens CD80 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 1 ... cell differentiation antigen CD80,identified by monoclonal antibody BB1,B7.1,expressed in T lymphocyte,CD28,CD86 ligand *CD80 ... The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane receptor that is activated by the binding of CD28 or CTLA-4. The activated ... Homodimer; CD80 dimers on the antigen presenting cells (APCs) bridge CTLA4/CD152 dimers on T-cells in a periodic zipper-like ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CD80
  • Hybridomas were obtained by fusing B cells with the hybridoma partner X63Ag8.653 and screened for reactivity with human CD28 and TCR-independent mitogenic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CD152 antigen, also called CTLA4, is an integral membrane protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, which is expressed either as a 30 kDa monomer or as a disulfide-linked homodimer. (beckman.com)
  • CD80 dimers on the antigen presenting cells (APCs) bridge CTLA4/CD152 dimers on T-cells in a periodic zipper-like arrangement. (genecards.org)
  • T cells were genetically engineered with CARs with pre-defined binding and CD28-CD3ζ signaling to initiate T cell activation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The anti-FAP CAR recognizes surface FAP antigen while the anti-NY-ESO-1 CAR recognizes the NY-ESO-1 157-165 peptide bound to HLA-A2 on tumor cell. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To characterize the binding of CD28 to B7, we have produced genetic fusions of the extracellular portions of B7 and CD28, and immunoglobulin (Ig) C gamma 1 chains. (rupress.org)
  • CD28 possesses an intracellular domain with several residues that are critical for its effective signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of Tec to CD28 enhances IL-2 production, dependent on binding of its SH3 and PH domains to CD28 and PIP3 respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • NY-ESO-1 or Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) linked to CD28-CD3ζ T cell signaling domains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that both CD28 and CTLA-4 profoundly alter the surface expression of membrane rafts during T cell activation. (rupress.org)
  • The effect of Lck deletion on antigen specific activation through the CAR was measured by ELISA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • T-cell proliferation and cytokine production is induced by the binding of CD28, binding to CTLA-4 has opposite effects and inhibits T-cell activation. (genecards.org)