Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

B7-H1 costimulation preferentially enhances CD28-independent T-helper cell function. (1/481)

B7-H1 is a recently described B7-like molecule that costimulates T-cell growth and cytokine secretion without binding to CD28, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), and inducible costimulator (ICOS). In this report, a mouse homologue of human B7-H1 is identified, and its immunologic functions are studied in vitro and in vivo. Mouse B7-H1 shares 69% amino acid homology to the human counterpart. Similar to human B7-H1, mouse B7-H1 can be induced to express on macrophages, T cells, and B cells and to enhance T-cell proliferation and secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon-gamma, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor but not IL-2 and IL-4. Furthermore, B7-H1 preferentially costimulates CD4+ T cells independently of CD28 and enhances mixed lymphocyte responses to allogeneic antigens. In contrast to B7-1, expression of B7-H1 on murine P815 tumor cells by transfection fails to increase allogeneic and syngeneic cytolytic T-cell responses in vitro and in vivo. Administration of B7-H1Ig fusion protein, however, enhances keyhole limpet hemocyanin- specific T-cell proliferation and 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-specific immunoglobulin G2a antibody production. The study thus identifies a unique costimulatory pathway that preferentially affects T-helper cell functions.  (+info)

CD4+CD25high regulatory cells in human peripheral blood. (2/481)

Thymectomy in mice on neonatal day 3 leads to the development of multiorgan autoimmune disease due to loss of a CD(+)CD25(+) T cell regulatory population in their peripheral lymphoid tissues. Here, we report the identification of a CD4(+) population of regulatory T cells in the circulation of humans expressing high levels of CD25 that exhibit in vitro characteristics identical with those of the CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory cells isolated in mice. With TCR cross-linking, CD4(+)CD25(high) cells did not proliferate but instead totally inhibited proliferation and cytokine secretion by activated CD4(+)CD25(-) responder T cells in a contact-dependent manner. The CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells expressed high levels of CD45RO but not CD45RA, akin to the expression of CD45RB(low) on murine CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory cells. Increasing the strength of signal by providing either costimulation with CD28 cross-linking or the addition of IL-2 to a maximal anti-CD3 stimulus resulted in a modest induction of proliferation and the loss of observable suppression in cocultures of CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory cells and CD4(+)CD25(-) responder cells. Whereas higher ratios of CD4(+)CD25(high) T cells are required to suppress proliferation if the PD-L1 receptor is blocked, regulatory cell function is shown to persist in the absence of the PD-1/PD-L1 or CTLA-4/B7 pathway. Thus, regulatory CD4 T cells expressing high levels of the IL-2 receptor are present in humans, providing the opportunity to determine whether alterations of these populations of T cells are involved in the induction of human autoimmune disorders.  (+info)

Expression and regulation of the PD-L1 immunoinhibitory molecule on microvascular endothelial cells. (3/481)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression and regulation of a novel B7-like protein, PD-L1, the ligand for the immunoinhibitory receptor PD-1 expressed on activated T-cells, on microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) METHODS: PD-L1 expression on ECs in vitro and in vivo was quantified by using a dual radiolabeled antibody technique after treatment with interferons (IFN) and IL-12, respectively. Changes in the level of PD-L1 mRNA were determined by using RT-PCR. RESULTS: PD-L1 was observed to be present on ECs under basal conditions. Treatment of ECs with IFN-alpha, -beta and -gamma, but not LPS, was observed to induce elevations in the mRNA and surface expression of PD-L1 on ECs. By using a dual radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) technique, PD-L1 expression in various tissues of control and IL-12 challenged wild-type and IFN-gamma-deficient mice was measured. A significant increase in PD-L1 expression was observed in tissues at 24 hours after IL-12-challenge, with peak levels of PD-L1 occurring 72 hours after IL-12 challenge. IL-12 was not effective at inducing PD-L1 expression in tissues of IFN-gamma-deficient mice. CONCLUSIONS: These data show the expression of a novel B7-like molecule on murine ECs that is mediated by IFN-alpha, -beta, and -gamma, and suggest a potential pathway by which ECs may modulate T-cell function.  (+info)

Involvement of PD-L1 on tumor cells in the escape from host immune system and tumor immunotherapy by PD-L1 blockade. (4/481)

PD-1 is a receptor of the Ig superfamily that negatively regulates T cell antigen receptor signaling by interacting with the specific ligands (PD-L) and is suggested to play a role in the maintenance of self-tolerance. In the present study, we examined possible roles of the PD-1/PD-L system in tumor immunity. Transgenic expression of PD-L1, one of the PD-L, in P815 tumor cells rendered them less susceptible to the specific T cell antigen receptor-mediated lysis by cytotoxic T cells in vitro, and markedly enhanced their tumorigenesis and invasiveness in vivo in the syngeneic hosts as compared with the parental tumor cells that lacked endogenous PD-L. Both effects could be reversed by anti-PD-L1 Ab. Survey of murine tumor lines revealed that all of the myeloma cell lines examined naturally expressed PD-L1. Growth of the myeloma cells in normal syngeneic mice was inhibited significantly albeit transiently by the administration of anti-PD-L1 Ab in vivo and was suppressed completely in the syngeneic PD-1-deficient mice. These results suggest that the expression of PD-L1 can serve as a potent mechanism for potentially immunogenic tumors to escape from host immune responses and that blockade of interaction between PD-1 and PD-L may provide a promising strategy for specific tumor immunotherapy.  (+info)

B7-H1 is expressed by human endothelial cells and suppresses T cell cytokine synthesis. (5/481)

Human endothelial cells (ECs) provide costimulatory signals sufficient to activate resting memory T cells to produce IL-2 and IFN-gamma, at least in part through CD58-CD2 interactions. Recently, the B7-like molecule, B7-H1 (PD-L1), was described and shown to regulate T cell activation; however, there are conflicting reports on whether it stimulates or inhibits T cell cytokine synthesis. B7-H1 is not expressed constitutively by ECs; however, it is rapidly induced by IFN-gamma, and synergistically by IFN-gamma and TNF. In inflamed skin, B7-H1 is expressed by a subset of microvessels, and by keratinocytes, but is barely detectable in normal skin. Blocking the interaction of EC-expressed B7-H1 with its T cell ligand, programmed death-1 (PD-1), using a PD-1-Fc fusion protein, or by blocking B7-H1 expression with morpholino antisense oligonucleotides, augments expression of IL-2 and IFN-gamma, implicating B7-H1 as a negative regulator of cytokine synthesis. However, signaling through PD-1 does not affect induction of the activation markers CD25 or CD69 on T cells, suggesting that its effects are specific to cytokine synthesis. The suppressive effects of B7-H1 on cytokine expression are proportional to the strength of the primary stimulus, allowing for B7-H1 to determine the level of T cell activation in response to ECs. Our results demonstrate that B7-H1 negatively regulates cytokine synthesis in T cells activated by ECs.  (+info)

Expression of programmed death 1 ligands by murine T cells and APC. (6/481)

Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is a new member of the CD28/CTLA-4 family, which has been implicated in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Two ligands for PD-1, namely, B7-H1 (PD-L1) and B7-DC (PD-L2), have recently been identified as new members of the B7 family but their expression at the protein level remains largely unknown. To characterize the expression of B7-H1 and B7-DC, we newly generated an anti-mouse B7-H1 mAb (MIH6) and an anti-mouse B7-DC mAb (TY25). MIH6 and TY25 immunoprecipitated a single molecule of 43 and 42 kDa from the lysate of B7-H1 and B7-DC transfectants, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that B7-H1 was broadly expressed on the surface of mouse tumor cell lines while the expression of B7-DC was rather restricted. PD-1 was expressed on anti-CD3-stimulated T cells and anti-IgM plus anti-CD40-stimulated B cells at high levels but was undetectable on activated macrophages or DCs. B7-H1 was constitutively expressed on freshly isolated splenic T cells, B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs), and up-regulated on T cells by anti-CD3 stimulation on macrophages by LPS, IFN-gamma, GM-CSF, or IL-4, and on DCs by IFN-gamma, GM-CSF, or IL-4. In contrast, B7-DC expression was only inducible on macrophages and DCs upon stimulation with IFN-gamma, GM-CSF, or IL-4. The inducible expression of PD-1 ligands on both T cells and APCs may suggest new paradigms of PD-1-mediated immune regulation.  (+info)

Programmed death-1 targeting can promote allograft survival. (7/481)

The recently identified CD28 homolog and costimulatory molecule programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, which are homologs of B7, constitute an inhibitory regulatory pathway of potential therapeutic use in immune-mediated diseases. We examined the expression and functions of PD-1 and its ligands in experimental cardiac allograft rejection. In initial studies, we found that most normal tissues and cardiac isografts had minimal expression of PD-1, PD-L1, or PD-L2, but intragraft induction of all three molecules occurred during development of cardiac allograft rejection. Intragraft expression of all three genes was maintained despite therapy with cyclosporin A or rapamycin, but was prevented in the early posttransplant period by costimulation blockade using CD154 or anti-inducible costimulator mAb. We prepared PD-L1.Ig and PD-L2.Ig fusion proteins and showed that each bound to activated PD-1(+) T cells and inhibited T cell functions in vitro, thereby allowing us to test the effects of PD-1 targeting on allograft survival in vivo. Neither agent alone modulated allograft rejection in wild-type recipients. However, use of PD-L1.Ig administration in CD28(-/-) recipients, or in conjunction with immunosuppression in fully MHC-disparate combinations, markedly prolonged cardiac allograft survival, in some cases causing permanent engraftment, and was accompanied by reduced intragraft expression of IFN-gamma and IFN-gamma-induced chemokines. PD-L1.Ig use also prevented development of transplant arteriosclerosis post-CD154 mAb therapy. These data show that when combined with limited immunosuppression, or in the context of submaximal TCR or costimulatory signals, targeting of PD-1 can block allograft rejection and modulate T and B cell-dependent pathologic immune responses in vivo.  (+info)

B7-H1 is up-regulated in HIV infection and is a novel surrogate marker of disease progression. (8/481)

The ligation of programmed death-ligand 1 (B7-H1) to T cells results in the preferential production of interleukin 10 (IL-10). We investigated if B7-H1 would be up-regulated in HIV infection, a disease characterized by increased IL-10 production, by measuring B7-H1, B7-1 (CD80), and B7-2 (CD86) expression and mRNA in 36 HIV-infected patients and in 22 healthy controls (HCs). Results showed that (1) B7-H1 expression and mRNA are augmented in cells of HIV patients; (2) increased IL-10 production in these patients is largely induced by B7-H1-expressing CD14(+) cells; (3) an inverse correlation is detected between B7-H1 expression and CD4 counts, whereas the up-regulation of B7-H1 is directly associated with HIV plasma viremia; (4) antiviral therapy results in the parallel down modulation of IL-10 production and B7-H1 expression/synthesis; and (5) B7-H1/CD80 and B7-H1/CD86 mRNA ratios are increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HIV patients compared with HCs. B7-H1 synthesis and expression are up-regulated in HIV infection, and the degree of dysregulation correlates with the severity of disease. Aberrant antigen presentation by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that exhibit increased B7-H1 expression and IL-10 production in HIV infection could be responsible for T-lymphocyte unresponsiveness and loss of protective immunity. B7-H1 is a surrogate marker potentially involved in AIDS disease progression.  (+info)

Free Online Library: Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) Expression in the Programmed Death Receptor-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 Blockade: A Key Player Against Various Cancers.(Report) by Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine; Health, general Apoptosis Research Gene expression
/PRNewswire/ -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of the Global Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) & Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) Inhibitors...
A Molecular Epidemiological Analysis Of Programmed Cell Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) Protein Expression, Mutations And Survival In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Patients with PD-L1-expressing tumors have a poor prognosis. By upregulating PD-L1, tumor cells can escape immune recognition and attack. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies have shown impressive antitumor effects. However, currently, there is no useful biomarker to predict response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 targeted therapy, although there are first indications that tumor PD-L1 expression seems to be required for response to treatment. We have shown for the first time that it is feasible to noninvasively detect tumor PD-L1 expression. SPECT/CT imaging with the monoclonal antibody PD-L1.3.1 showed specific and efficient accumulation in PD-L1-expressing xenografts, whereas no specific uptake was measured in PD-L1-negative tumors.. Molecular imaging with radiolabeled anti-PD-L1 antibodies has important advantages over immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1 expression. First of all, imaging allows measurement of PD-L1 expression of whole tumor lesions and their metastases, thereby avoiding sampling errors and thus ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. ... Ross A Soo, Joey Sze Yun Lim, Bernadette Reyna Asuncion, Zul Fazreen, Maria Cynthia Herrera, Mohd Feroz Mohd Omar, Nguyen Hoang Diem Phuong, Ju Ee Seet,...
Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression on tumor cells (TCs) is associated with improved survival in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with immunotherapy, although its role as a prognostic factor is controversial. This study investigates whether tumoral expression of PD-L1 is a prognostic marker in patients with recurrent and/or metastatic (R/M) HNSCC treated with standard chemotherapy. This retrospective, multicenter, noninterventional study assessed PD-L1 expression on archival R/M HNSCC tissue samples using the VENTANA PD-L1 (SP263) Assay. PD-L1 high was defined as PD-L1 staining of ≥ 25% TC, with exploratory scoring at TC ≥ 10% and TC ≥ 50%. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the prognostic value of PD-L1 status in terms of overall survival (OS) in patients with R/M HNSCC. 412 patients (median age, 62.0 years; 79.9% male; 88.2% Caucasian) were included from 19 sites in seven countries. 132 patients (32.0%) had TC ≥ 25% PD-L1
TY - JOUR. T1 - Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) Ligand (PD-L1) expression in solid tumors as a predictive biomarker of benefit from PD-1/PD-L1 axis inhibitors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. AU - Khunger, Monica. AU - Hernandez, Adrian V.. AU - Pasupuleti, Vinay. AU - Rakshit, Sagar. AU - Pennell, Nathan A.. AU - Stevenson, James. AU - Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay. AU - Schalper, Kurt. AU - Velcheti, Vamsidhar. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - © 2018 American Society of Clinical Oncology. Purpose Drugs targeting the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway show significant clinical activity across several tumor types. However, a majority of patients do not respond to these agents. Use of biomarker assays to predict response to these agents is an active area of research; however, the predictive value of PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays is largely inconsistent across clinical trials. In this meta-analysis of clinical trials of PD-1/PD-L1-targeted ...
Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-targeted monoclonal antibodies interact with a protein called PD-1 on T-cells and can be useful in determining if certain immunomodulation therapies can be used in treatment of certain types of cancers. PD-L1 is ...
The programmed death-1 receptor (PD-1, CD279) with its ligands PD-L1 (CD274, B7-H1) and PD-L2 (CD273, B7-DC) constitutes a inhibitory pathway in cancer immunity. Therapeutic antibodies for blocking PD-1 and PD-L1 have been developed and are undergoing human clinical testing. Negating the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction is of particular interest as PD-L1 is upregulated by many human cancers. On the other hand, the role of PD-L2 in modulating immune responses is less clear, and its expression is more restricted compared to PD-L1, thus making it a less obvious target in cancer immunotherapy. However, in this context, several aspects of PD-L2 biology deserve attention, including a partial contextual dependency of PD-L2 expression.
El Annan J, Goyal S, Zhang Q, Freeman GJ, Sharpe AH, Dana R. Regulation of T-cell chemotaxis by programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in dry eye-associated corneal inflammation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51 (7) :3418-23.
Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) plays a pivotal role in the suppression of antitumour immunity by binding to programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) on tumouricidal cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), rendering them inactive. As blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 interaction by the monoclonal antibodies induced effective T cell-mediated antitumour response, suppression of PD-L1 expression in tumour cells by the chemical agent might contribute to treatment against malignant tumours. Nafamostat mesilate (NM), a serine protease inhibitor that is frequently used in the clinic, potently suppressed interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-induced up-regulation of PD-L1 in cultured human lung cancer cells (HLC-1) at both the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels ...
CD274 / PD-L1 (programmed death ligand-1), also known as B7-H1, is a member of the B7 family of regulatory proteins. It can act as both costimulatory and coinhibitory molecule for T cells. Interaction with its ligand CD279 (PD1) appears to be important in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance and in prevention of tumor rejection. Even pathogens (e.g. Schistosoma) may exploit CD274 to evade an immune response. Besides CD279, existence of other receptor(s) for CD274 is likely ...
High-dose ionizing irradiation (IR) results in direct tumor cell death and augments tumor-specific immunity, which enhances tumor control both locally and distantly. Unfortunately, local relapses often occur following IR treatment, indicating that IR-induced responses are inadequate to maintain antitumor immunity. Therapeutic blockade of the T cell negative regulator programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1, also called B7-H1) can enhance T cell effector function when PD-L1 is expressed in chronically inflamed tissues and tumors. Here, we demonstrate that PD-L1 was upregulated in the tumor microenvironment after IR. Administration of anti-PD-L1 enhanced the efficacy of IR through a cytotoxic T cell-dependent mechanism. Concomitant with IR-mediated tumor regression, we observed that IR and anti-PD-L1 synergistically reduced the local accumulation of tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which suppress T cells and alter the tumor immune microenvironment. Furthermore, activation of ...
Immune checkpoint therapies have shown tremendous promise in cancer therapy. However, tools to assess their target engagement, and hence the ability to predict their efficacy, have been lacking. Here, we show that target engagement and tumor-residence kinetics of antibody therapeutics targeting programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) can be quantified noninvasively. In computational docking studies, we observed that PD-L1-targeted monoclonal antibodies (atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab) and a high-affinity PD-L1-binding peptide, WL12, have common interaction sites on PD-L1. Using the peptide radiotracer [64Cu]WL12 in vivo, we employed positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies in multiple xenograft models and demonstrated that variable PD-L1 expression and its saturation by atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab can be quantified independently of biophysical properties and pharmacokinetics of antibodies. Next, we used [64Cu]WL12 to evaluate the impact of time and dose ...
Programmed death-1-directed (PD-1-directed) immune checkpoint blockade results in durable antitumor activity in many advanced malignancies. Recent studies suggest that IFN-γ is a critical driver of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in cancer and host cells, and baseline intratumoral T cell infiltration may improve response likelihood to anti-PD-1 therapies, including pembrolizumab. However, whether quantifying T cell-inflamed microenvironment is a useful pan-tumor determinant of PD-1-directed therapy response has not been rigorously evaluated. Here, we analyzed gene expression profiles (GEPs) using RNA from baseline tumor samples of pembrolizumab-treated patients. We identified immune-related signatures correlating with clinical benefit using a learn-and-confirm paradigm based on data from different clinical studies of pembrolizumab, starting with a small pilot of 19 melanoma patients and eventually defining a pan-tumor T cell-inflamed GEP in 220 patients with 9 cancers. Predictive ...
PD-L1 是一個 33 kDa 的跨膜蛋白,在多種腫瘤組織中高度表現。隨著 PD-1/PD-L1 免疫檢查點研究的不斷開發與深入,已有多個 PD-1/PD-L1 抑製劑藥物(例如 Atezolizumab、Avelumab、Durvalumab、Nivolumab、Pembrolizumab 等)進入臨床作為非小細胞肺癌、頭頸部鱗狀上皮癌、腎細胞癌、泌尿上皮癌、黑色素瘤、何杰金氏淋巴瘤等疾病的二線甚至一線治療藥物 [1, 2]。. 病患癌症組織的 PD-L1 表現量可用來作為預測藥物療效或是衡量病患是否適合接受 PD-1/PD-L1 抑製劑藥物的評估指標。然而由於 PD-L1 的重度醣基化,使得 PD-L1 的 IHC-P 或 Western Blot 檢測極具挑戰性 [2]。以下我們特別整理了 PD-L1 的實驗注意事項,期望能幫助您取得更精確的 PD-L1 檢測結果!. PD-L1 的 IHC-P 檢測注意事項. 當 PD-L1 的 IHC-P 檢測結果訊號不佳時,可嘗試使用醣苷水解酶 PNGase F (peptide-N-glycosidase F) 處理組織樣本,使 ...
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a receptor on T cells that has been shown to suppress activating signals from the T cell receptor when bound by either of its ligands, Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) or PD-L2. When PD-1 expressing T cells contact cells expressing its ligands, functional activities in response to antigenic stimuli, including proliferation, cytokine secretion, and cytotoxicity are reduced. PD-1/PD-Ligand interactions down regulate immune responses during resolution of an infection or tumor, or during the development of self tolerance.. Interference with the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction has also shown enhanced T cell activity in chronic infection systems. Chronic lymphocytic chorio meningitis virus infection of mice also exhibits improved virus clearance and restored immunity with blockade of PD-L1.. In addition to enhancing immunologic responses to chronic antigens, blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway has also been shown to enhance responses to vaccination, including therapeutic ...
Preclinical studies suggest that PD-L1/PD-1 are key mediators of impaired anti-tumor immune responses in lymphomas.1413 It is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that increased PD-L1/PD-1 expression confers an adverse prognosis, and that such patients might be prime candidates for therapeutic strategies targeting this axis. As prospective studies are currently lacking, we systematically reviewed published data on PD-L1/PD-1 expression and association with prognosis on B-cell lymphoma and lymphoma-associated cells.. We found that PD-L1 expression on DLBCL cells is very heterogeneous and present in only a small number of examined samples, while being affected by EBV status and potentially molecular subtype. On FL cells, PD-L1 is absent except in an extremes of survival approach. PD-L1 expression on CLL/SLL cells is increased on both LN and PB cells and in patients experiencing short-term survival. Malignant PMBCL and RS cells strongly express PD-L1 and PD-L2, especially in cHL subtypes, while ...
SP263 : Programmed cell death 1-ligand 1 (PD-L1), also known as B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) or CD274, is a transmembrane protein involved in the regulation of cell-mediated immune responses through interaction with the receptor programmed death protein-1 (PD-1). PD-L1 has been identified as both a prognostic and theranostic marker in a variety of neoplasms. Overexpression of PD-L1 has been observed in carcinomas of the urinary bladder, lung, thymus, colon, pancreas, ovary, breast, kidney, and in melanoma and glioblastoma.
PD-L1 is a coinhibitory checkpoint molecule known for its role in dampening T-cell responses. However, previous clinical trials found that PD-L1 antibody treatment in patients whose tumor cells do not express PD-L1 can still be effective in inducing tumor regression, suggesting a tumor-independent effect of the treatment (16, 17). Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with PD-L1 antibody decreases tumor growth in mice deficient in T cells, which points to a lymphocyte-independent mechanism of action (42). This phenomenon was attributed to direct effects of PD-L1 antibodies on tumor cell growth through alterations in mTOR pathway signaling. Thus, there is precedent for antitumor effects induced by PD-L1 antibody treatment that may not be related to T-cell PD-1 expression. Several reports have suggested additional roles for PD-L1 in regulating tumor cell and dendritic cell activity (6-14), but little is known concerning the role of PD-L1 in regulating macrophage function.. Key findings from the studies ...
While several clinical trials have tried to identify a programmed death-1 or programmed death ligand-1 expression-dependent response, its been an uphill task. During one of the sessions at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, researchers were tasked with sharing their data on any breakthroughs or leads with biomarker-based treatment.
Durvalumab monotherapy and combination trials on track in multiple cancers, including 1st-line therapy for NSCLC, head & neck and bladder cancers. AstraZeneca today provided an update on preliminary findings from the ATLANTIC trial of durvalumab as 3rd-line or later stage therapy in patients with locally advanced or metastatic programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that lacks epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or ALK alterations. An initial analysis supports durvalumabs clinical activity, with durable responses and an established safety profile in these difficult-to-treat patients.. ATLANTIC investigated the efficacy and tolerability of durvalumab in patients who received at least two prior systemic treatment regimens including platinum-based chemotherapy, and who have limited options for further therapy. A full evaluation of the data is ongoing and the results will be presented at a scientific congress in 2016.. Sean Bohen, Executive Vice President, ...
Chinas First Fully Human, Full-length Anti-PD-L1 Monoclonal Antibody Receives Approval to Initiate Clinical Trials by the China Food and Drug Administration
Chinas First Fully Human, Full-length Anti-PD-L1 Monoclonal Antibody Receives Approval to Initiate Clinical Trials by the China Food and Drug Administration
Jun 28, 2012· 0.3 mg/kg (N = 3) Anti-PD-L1, 1 mg/kg (N=37) Anti-PD-L1, 3 mg/kg (N = 42) Anti-PD-L1, 10 mg/kg (N = 125) Anti-PD-L1, Total (N = 207) All Grades Grade 3 or 4 All Grades Grade 3 or 4 All Grades Grade 3 or 4 All Grades Grade 3 or 4 All Grades Grade 3 or 4; number of patients (percent) Any adverse event of special interest † 1 (33) 0: 18 .... Read more ...
Programmed death ligand (PD-L) 1 is expressed on many tumors and inhibits anti-tumor T cells through programmed death (PD)-1. Tumor PD-L1 predicts αPD-L1 treatment effects, but mechanism(s) for PD-L1- tumor response to αPD-L1 are unclear. Our studies suggest tumor-intrinsic PD-L1 signals and spatially varied PD-L1 expression may contribute to response deviation. We used PD-L1+ B16 melanoma (ctrl) and made PD-L1KO by CRISPR. αPD-L1 slowed ctrl but not PD-L1KO B16 growth in mice as expected, but PD-L1KO also responded to αPD-L1 if ctrl B16 was on the trans flank. αPD-L1 elicited similar CD3+ T cell infiltration into ctrl vs. PD-L1KO tumors, but without detectable B16-specific T cell increase. CD11b+ cell infiltration was similar in ctrl and PD-L1KO. Strikingly, NKp46+ and NK1.1+ natural killer (NK) cells infiltrated PD-L1KO , ctrl. NK cells increased significantly (~2-fold) after αPD-L1 in PD-L1KO vs. ctrl, along with NK effector functions (e.g., IFN-γ). Tumor PD-L1 altered tumor chemokines ...
Durvalumab (MEDI 4736), developed by MedImmune (a subsidiary of AstraZeneca), is a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against programmed death ligand-1
INTRODUCTION: Green space in the built environment is an important topic on the health agenda today. Studies have shown that access to green spaces is associated with better mental and physical health, yet green spaces can also be detrimental to health if they are not managed appropriately. Despite the increasing interest in urban green spaces, little research has so far been conducted into the links between green spaces and cancer. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this scoping review is therefore to map the literature available on the types of relationship between urban green spaces and cancer ...
Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) also known as cluster of differentiation 274 (CD274) or B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD274 gene. The formation of PD-1 receptor / PD-L1 or B7.1 receptor /PD-L1 ligand complex transmits an inhibitory signal which reduces the proliferation of these CD8+ T cells at the lymph nodes. Supplementary to that PD-1 is also able to control the accumulation of foreign antigen specific T cells in the lymph nodes through apoptosis which is further mediated by a lower regulation of the gene Bcl-2.
It is now understood that PD-L1 protein expression is not binary; it is a continuous variable whereby a range of PD-L1 expression levels are observed, with tumor heterogeneity also frequently noted (21, 23, 31), all of which may have biological and/or clinical significance. Staining cutoffs are used to classify patients with high or low/no tumor PD-L1 expression (20, 23), and the cutoff appropriate for clinical decision making for each PD-1 or PD-L1 therapy is determined by clinical data.. Expression cutoffs for PD-L1 used in clinical trials to date vary between 1% and 50%, depending on the study and assay used (refs. 5, 7, 17, 19; Supplementary Table S1). Two recent reviews have examined the correlation between PD-L1 expression and outcome in patients with NSCLC treated with anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 therapeutic agents (32, 33). One of these, a meta-analysis by Abdel-Rahman, found that the advantage of anti-PD-1 agents over docetaxel in second-line treatment of NSCLC is limited to tumors with ,1% ...
T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated antigen-specific stimulation is essential for initiating T-cell activation. However, signaling through the TCR alone is not sufficient for inducing an effective...
Fig. 5. pKL cells abrogate the autoimmune response in vitro.. (A to C) Results of screening of small molecules tested for their ability to up-regulate PD-L1 [mean fluorescence intensity (MFI)] on mobilized CD34+ cells obtained from healthy controls, the three-color coding shown in (C) represents lowest PD-L1 MFI values (orange), median PD-L1 MFI values (yellow), and highest PD-L1 MFI values (green). TLR, toll-like receptor; wp, well plate. (D and E) PD-L1 expression (mRNA and MFI) fold change was quantified for each component of the small-molecule cocktail tested singularly or in combination. Tx, treatment. (F) Representative flow cytometric analysis and quantitative bar graph of PD-L1 expression on KL cells from NOD mice pre- and postpharmacological modulation with a cocktail of small molecules (n = 3 from two independent experiments), and statistical significance was performed by using two-tailed unpaired t test. (G) Confocal imaging of KL cells pre- and postmodulation with cocktail of small ...
The development of human cancer is a multistep process characterized by the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that drive or reflect tumour progression. These changes distinguish cancer cells from their normal counterparts, allowing tumours to be recognized as foreign by the immune s …
PD-L2 is expressed in various human tumour types and may explain the response seen to anti-PD-1 therapy in patients with tumours lacking PD-L1 express
Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 is one of the two ligands of PD-1. PD-L1 is expressed on macrophages, T cells, B cells, NK cells, DCs and some cancer cell surface. Binding of PD-1 with PD-L1 could result in down-regulation of the immune system by inhibiting the T-cell activation process. Thus, P...
多种适用的PD-L1ELISA试剂盒,如小鸡, Cow, 犬等。在antibodies-online.cn对比PD-L1ELISA试剂盒,以便找到您需要的产品。
Learn more about FAZ053 (anti-PD-L1), an investigational immuno-oncology treatment being developed by Novartis for patients with advanced cancers.
Our PD-L1 expression and immune filtration kit enables co-localization of macrophages, cytotoxic T cells and underlying mechanisms. Click to learn more!
A Study of ASP1948, Targeting an Immune Modulatory Receptor as a Single Agent and in Combination With a PD-l Inhibitor (Nivolumab or Pembrolizumab) in Subjects With Advanced Solid Tumors - NCT03565445
Dr Ascierto talks to ecancertv at ITOC-3 about PD-L1 checkpoint inhibition. In particular, he discusses whether or not it can be truly considered a
Sino Biological produced high purity PD-L1 proteins in house covering various species Human, Mouse, Rat, Canine, Cynomolgus, Rhesus and with different tags which are expressed in HEK293 Cells.
Characterization of programmed cell death-1 ligand (PD-L1) expression in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of lung cancer.2019-05-25T08:02:17-08:00 Characterization of programmed cell death-1 ligand (PD-L1) expression in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of lung cancer.. ...
Results: No drug-related adverse events occurred in this study. The mean effective dose was 8.84 × 10−3 ± 9.33 × 10−4 mSv/MBq (3.59 ± 0.74 mSv per patient). Tracer uptake was observed in the kidneys, spleen, liver, and bone marrow. SPECT primary tumor-to-blood-pool ratios (T:BP) varied from 1.24 to 2.3 (mean, 1.79) at 1 h and 1.24 to 3.53 (mean, 2.22) at 2 h (P = 0.005). Two-hour primary T:BP ratios correlated with PD-L1 immunohistochemistry results (r = 0.68, P = 0.014). Two-hour T:BP was lower in tumors with ≤1% PD-L1 expression (1.89 vs. 2.49, P = 0.048). Nodal and bone metastases showed tracer uptake. Heterogeneity (,20%) between primary tumor and nodal T:BP was present in 4 of 13 patients ...
Cancer is one of the most serious issues in human life. Blocking Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) pathway is one of the great innovation on last few years, but a few numbers of inhibitors can be able to block it. (2-methyl-3-biphenylyl) methanol (MBPM) derivative is one of them. Here, the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) established twenty (2-methyl-3-biphenylyl) methanol (MBPM) derivatives as the programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitors. Density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LPY/6-31+G (d, p) level was employed to study the chemical structure and properties of the chosen compounds. Highest occupied molecular orbital energy EHOMO, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy ELUMO, total energy ET, dipole moment DM, absolute hardness η, absolute electronegativity χ, softness S, electrophilicity ω, energy gap ΔE, etc, properties were observed and determine. Principal component analysis (PCA), multiple linear regression (MLR) ...
Cancer is one of the most serious issues in human life. Blocking Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) pathway is one of the great innovation on last few years, but a few numbers of inhibitors can be able to block it. (2-methyl-3-biphenylyl) methanol (MBPM) derivative is one of them. Here, the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) established twenty (2-methyl-3-biphenylyl) methanol (MBPM) derivatives as the programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitors. Density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LPY/6-31+G (d, p) level was employed to study the chemical structure and properties of the chosen compounds. Highest occupied molecular orbital energy EHOMO, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy ELUMO, total energy ET, dipole moment DM, absolute hardness η, absolute electronegativity χ, softness S, electrophilicity ω, energy gap ΔE, etc, properties were observed and determine. Principal component analysis (PCA), multiple linear regression (MLR) ...
While programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors have activity in a proportion of patients with advanced bladder cancer, strongly predictive and prognostic biomarkers are still lacking. In this study, we evaluated PD-L1 protein expression on circulating tumor cells (CTCs) isolated from patients with muscle invasive (MIBC) and metastatic (mBCa) bladder cancer and explore the prognostic value of CTC PD-L1 expression on clinical outcomes. Blood samples from 25 patients with MIBC or mBCa were collected at UCSF and shipped to Epic Sciences. All nucleated cells were subjected to immunofluorescent (IF) staining and CTC identification by fluorescent scanners using algorithmic analysis. Cytokeratin expressing (CK)+ and (CK)−CTCs (CD45−, intact nuclei, morphologically distinct from WBCs) were enumerated. A subset of patient samples underwent genetic characterization by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and copy number variation (CNV) analysis. CTCs were
Currently, the choice of treatment for individuals with metastatic soft tissue sarcomas (MSTS) presents a significant challenge to clinicians. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the efficacy and safety of nivolumab plus ipilimumab (NPI) versus nivolumab alone (NIV) in individuals with treatment-naive programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) positive MSTS. Prospectively maintained databases were reviewed from 2013 to 2018 to assess individuals with treatment-naive PD-L1 MSTS who received NPI (nivolumab 3 mg/kg and ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 3 weeks for 4 doses followed by nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks) or NIV (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks) until disease progression, withdrawal, unendurable [AEs], or death. The co-primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). The median follow-up was 16.0 months (IQR 14.4-18.5) after targeted intervention. The median OS was 12.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.1-13.7) and 9.2 months (95% CI, 4.2-11.5) for the NPI and NIV groups
Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) also known as cluster of differentiation 274 (CD274) or B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD274 gene. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a 40kDa type 1 transmembrane protein that has been speculated to play a major role in suppressing the immune system during particular events such as pregnancy, tissue allografts, autoimmune disease and other disease states such as hepatitis. Normally the immune system reacts to foreign antigens that are associated with exogenous or endogenous Danger signals, which triggers a proliferation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and/or CD4+ helper cells. The binding of PD-L1 to PD-1 or B7.1 transmits an inhibitory signal that reduces the proliferation of these T cells and can also induce apoptosis, which is further mediated by a lower regulation of the gene Bcl-2. PD-L1 was characterized at the Mayo Clinic as an immune regulatory molecule, B7-H1. Later this molecule was renamed as PD-L1 because it was ...
CD273 / PD-L2 (programmed death ligand-1), also known as B7-DC, is a member of the B7 family of regulatory proteins. It costimulates the proliferation of T cells, and mediates IFN gamma production. Ligation of CD273 on dendritic cells enhances dendritic cell activation and T cell responses. When interacting with CD279, it can act as a coinhibitor of the T cell function. CD273 expression is a useful marker to distinguish primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma from other diffuse large B cell lymphomas ...
This is a multicenter, open-label, first-in-human Phase 1 study evaluating the anti-lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) antibody TSR-033 alone, in combination with the anti-PD-1 antibody dostarlimab, and in combination with dostarlimab, modified folinic acid (FOL)/leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (OX) (mFOLFOX6) or FOL/leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil and irinotecan (IRI) (FOLFIRI), and bevacizumab in participants with advanced solid tumors in a broad range of solid tumors. Participants with disease types selected for evaluation in this study are expected to derive clinical benefit with addition of an anti-PD-1. The study will be conducted in two parts with Part 1 consisting of dose escalation to determine the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of TSR-033 as a single agent (Part 1a) and in combination with dostarlimab (Part 1c). RP2D decisions will be based on the occurrence of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), pharmacokinetics (PK), as well as pharmacodynamics (PDy) data. Part 2A of the study ...
The results of this study show that the PD-1 pathway is important in the alleviation of chronic GVHD. Blockade of the PD-1 pathway using anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, or anti-PD-L2 mAbs exacerbated chronic GVHD, and chimeric mice showed the importance of PD-L1 expression in host tissues in attenuating chronic GVHD. BMT into PD-L1-deficient recipients revealed IL-17+IFN-γ+ T cell expansion and Am80 administration of Am80 overcame the IL-17+IFN-γ+ T cell expansion caused by PD-L1 deficiency, resulting in reduced chronic GVHD damage in PD-L1−/− recipients. Stimulation of the PD-1 pathway with an agonistic anti-PD-1 mAb alleviated chronic GVHD, suggesting a new target for the prevention or treatment of chronic GVHD.. T cell activation via the TCR and costimulatory molecules has been well characterized, whereas coinhibitory pathways, which regulate T cell tolerance, are also known (32). The PD-1R and its ligands were identified and their inhibitory roles have become better understood (5-7, 9, 20, 21, ...
Basel, 31 May 2014. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted first Breakthrough Therapy Designation in bladder cancer for MPDL3280A. Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY) today announced results from a Phase I open-label study that showed the investigational cancer immunotherapy MPDL3280A (anti-PDL1) shrank tumours (overall response rate) in 43 percent (13/30) of people previously treated for metastatic urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) whose tumours were characterised as PD-L1 (Programed Death Ligand-1) positive by a test being developed by Roche.1 Adverse events (AEs) were consistent with what has been previously reported for MPDL3280A. There were no severe (Grade 4-5) treatment related AEs. The FDA has granted MPDL3280A Breakthrough Therapy Designation. This designation is designed to expedite the development and review of medicines intended to treat serious diseases and to help ensure patients have access to them through FDA approval as soon as possible. Bladder cancer is the ...
Tumors can be recognized by the immune system, but they have multiple mechanisms for evading eradication by the immune system. The tumor microenvironment suppresses the immune response, partly because tumors can express molecules that inhibit immune responses. The cancer clinical trials summarized by Dr. Herbst and Dr. Wolchok use a new strategy that blocks major pathways the tumor uses to suppress the immune response.. Underlying Mechanisms. Immunoinhibitory receptors regulate T-cell activation, tolerance, and exhaustion. T-cell exhaustion is a dysfunctional state that develops in the setting of chronic antigen stimulation (such as occurs in a chronic infection or tumor). Immune responses against tumors are an ongoing chronic fight. Multiple inhibitory receptors contribute to T-cell exhaustion, and these are targets for immunotherapy. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes can express many immunoinhibitory receptors, and these are druggable targets for immunotherapy. This inhibitory strategy is often ...
Immunosenescence is the age-associated dysregulation of the immune system, of high clinical relevance, as it contributes to multiple age-related comorbidities, including malignancies, infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, and degenerative diseases. T cells are important components of the immune system. Age-associated T-cell dysfunction is important for the development of immunosenescence. T-cell senescence is different from T-cell exhaustion, a hyporesponsiveness associated with chronic infections and cancer. Exhausted T cells are derived from activated T cells that progressively lose function because of persistent antigen stimulation, whereas senescence is cell cycle arrest due to aging. However, emerging evidence indicates that T-cell senescence shares several key features with exhaustion. The upregulation of multiple co-inhibitory receptors is not only a hallmark, but also an important mechanism involved in the development of T-cell exhaustion. Consistently, certain co-inhibitory ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential expression of immune-regulatory genes associated with PD-L1 display in melanoma. T2 - Implications for PD-1 pathway blockade. AU - Taube, Janis M. AU - Young, Geoffrey D.. AU - McMiller, Tracee L.. AU - Chen, Shuming. AU - Salas, January T.. AU - Pritchard, Theresa S.. AU - Xu, Haiying. AU - Meeker, Alan Keith. AU - Fan, Jinshui. AU - Cheadle, Chris. AU - Berger, Alan E.. AU - Pardoll, Andrew Mark. AU - Topalian, Suzanne. PY - 2015/9/1. Y1 - 2015/9/1. N2 - Purpose: Blocking the immunosuppressive PD-1/PD-L1 pathway has antitumor activity in multiple cancer types, and PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and infiltrating myeloid cells correlates with the likelihood of response. We previously found that IFNG (interferon-gamma) was overexpressed by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in PD-L1+ versus PD-L1(-) melanomas, creating adaptive immune resistance by promoting PD-L1 display. This study was undertaken to identify additional factors in the PD-L1+ melanoma microenvironment ...
Recent studies in cancer research have focused intensely on the antineoplastic effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors. While the development of these inhibitors has progressed successfully, strategies to further improve their efficacy and reduce their toxicity are still needed. We hypothesized that the delivery of anti-PD-1 antibody encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles (anti-PD-1 NPs) to the spleen would improve the antitumor effect of this agent. Unexpectedly, we found that mice treated with a high dose of anti-PD-1 NPs exhibited significantly higher mortality compared with those treated with free anti-PD-1 antibody, due to the overactivation of T cells. Administration of anti-PD-1 NPs to splenectomized LT-α-/- mice, which lack both lymph nodes and spleen, resulted in a complete reversal of this increased mortality and revealed the importance of secondary lymphoid tissues in mediating anti-PD-1-associated toxicity. Attenuation of the anti-PD-1 NPs dosage prevented toxicity and significantly ...
Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) testing serves as a diagnostic approach for stratifying patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and tailoring treatment. PD-L1 expression has been observed either on tumor cells or on tumor-infiltrating immune cells, but the mechanistic implications of this expression are unclear. To investigate PD-L1 expression in tumor cells and immune cells, Marcin Kowanetz et al. (pp. E10119-E10126) retrospectively characterized tumor specimens from 4,549 patients with NSCLC for PD-L1 expression. The authors found that NSCLC tumors with PD-L1 expression on tumor cells had different histological and molecular characteristics from those with PD-L1 expression on immune cells, with high PD-L1 expression on tumor cells associated with poor immune infiltration. PD-L1 expression on immune cells, with or without associated expression on tumor cells, was more prevalent and thought to reflect interferon-gamma-induced adaptive regulation. In contrast, PD-L1 expression solely on ...
Have not received prior systemic therapy treatment for their advanced/Stage four NSCLC. Completion of treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy, biological therapy, and/or radiation as part of neoadjuvant/adjuvant therapy is allowed as long as therapy was completed at least 6 months prior to the diagnosis of metastatic disease. Confirmation of resolution of toxic effects of previous neoadjuvant/adjuvant chemotherapy therapy to Grade less than or equal to 1. For radiation toxicity or prior major surgeries, participants should have recovered from side effects and/or ...
Glycosylation of immune receptors and ligands, such as T cell receptor and coinhibitory molecules, regulates immune signaling activation and immune surveillance. However, how oncogenic signaling initiates glycosylation of coinhibitory molecules to induce immunosuppression remains unclear. Here we show that IL-6-activated JAK1 phosphorylates programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) Tyr112, which recruits the endoplasmic reticulum-associated N-glycosyltransferase STT3A to catalyze PD-L1 glycosylation and maintain PD-L1 stability. Targeting of IL-6 by IL-6 antibody induced synergistic T cell killing effects when combined with anti-T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (anti-Tim-3) therapy in animal models. A positive correlation between IL-6 and PD-L1 expression was also observed in hepatocellular carcinoma patient tumor tissues. These results identify a mechanism regulating PD-L1 glycosylation initiation and suggest the combination of anti-IL-6 and anti-Tim-3 as an effective marker-guided therapeutic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cardiotoxicity with immune system targeting drugs. T2 - A meta-analysis of anti-PD/PD-L1 immunotherapy randomized clinical trials. AU - Rahouma, Mohamed. AU - Karim, Nagla Abdel. AU - Baudo, Massimo. AU - Yahia, Maha. AU - Kamel, Mohamed. AU - Eldessouki, Ihab. AU - Abouarab, Ahmed. AU - Saad, Ihab. AU - Elmously, Adham. AU - Gray, Katherine D.. AU - Ghaly, Galal. AU - Gaber, Ola. AU - Kamal, Mona. AU - A Hassan, Ayah. AU - Rahouma, Mostafa. AU - DAscenzo, Fabrizio. AU - Morris, John. AU - Mohamed, Abdelrahman. AU - Girardi, Leonard. AU - Gaudino, Mario. PY - 2019/5/15. Y1 - 2019/5/15. N2 - Background: With antiprogrammed death receptor-1 (anti-PD-L1) therapy, a recent meta-analysis reported higher incidence of cutaneous, endocrine and gastrointestinal complications especially with dual anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy (IMM). Methods: Our primary outcome was assessment of all cardiotoxicity grades in IMM compared with different treatments, thus a systemic review and a meta-analysis on ...
Inhibitors of PD-1 signaling have revolutionized cancer therapy. PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies have been approved for the treatment of cancer. To date, therapeutic PD-1 inhibitors have not been compared in a functional assay. We used an efficient T cell reporter platform to evaluate the efficacy of five clinically used PD-1 inhibitors to block PD-1 signaling. The half maximal effective concentrations (EC50) for nivolumab and pembrolizumab were 76.17 ng/ml (95% CI 64.95-89.34 ng/ml) and 39.90 ng/ml (34.01-46.80 ng/ml), respectively. The EC50 values of the PD-L1 inhibitors were 6.46 ng/ml (5.48-7.61 ng/ml), 6.15 ng/ml (5.24-7.21 ng/ml) and 7.64 ng/ml (6.52-8.96 ng/ml) for atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab, respectively. In conclusion, a functional assay evaluating antibodies targeting PD-1 inhibition in vitro revealed that pembrolizumab is a slightly more effective PD-1 blocker than nivolumab, and that PD-L1 antibodies are superior to PD-1 antibodies in reverting PD-1 signaling.
CancerConnect News: The checkpoint inhibitor Keytruda (pembrolizumab) has been reported to produce an overall response rate of 30% in patients with PD-L1-positive, advanced esophageal cancer.1. About Keytruda. Keytruda is a monoclonal antibody that helps to restore the bodys immune system in fighting cancer. It creates its anti-cancer effects by blocking a specific protein used by cancer cells called the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), to escape an attack by the immune system. Once PD-L1 is blocked, cells of the immune system are able to identify cancer cells as a threat, and initiate an attack to destroy the cancer.. About Esophageal Cancer. The esophagus is a muscular tube that food and liquids pass through on their on their way to the stomach. Each year in the United States, more than 17,000 people are diagnosed with cancer of the esophagus and more than 15,000 die of the disease.2 Although many people with esophageal cancer are diagnosed with advanced disease, treatment has slowly ...
Immunological checkpoint blockade with anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies reverses cancer immunosuppression and promotes antitumor immune responses in several cancer types. Long-term responses with minimal side effects have been reported in patients with melanoma, lung, liver, kidney, bladder, mismatch repair-deficient colon cancers, and hematologic malignancies, among others (1-4, 31). Why these agents exhibit antitumor responses in certain histologies and only in a percentage of patients with the same type of tumor remains unknown. Here, we studied tumor models that respond differently to anti-PD-1 treatment and tested the reasons for anti-PD-1 activity in MC38 and YUMM2.1 tumors.. Upregulation of PD-L1 and its ligation to PD-1 on activated T cells is a well-described mechanism by which cancer tissues limit the host immune response, termed adaptive immune resistance (37). High baseline PD-L1-expressing tumor cells have been positively correlated with response to PD-1 blockade in patient ...
Tumor mutational burden was an informative classifier of response with nivolumab and ipilimumab in patients with PD-L1 , 1% and PD-L1 ≥ 1%. Both PD-L1 and tumor mutational burden are independent and distinct biomarkers, said lead author Suresh Ramalingam, MD, of Emory Universitys Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta. Efforts to identify a valid biomarker for response to immunotherapy have been disappointing thus far. PD-L1 expression on its own is problematic, since both PD-L1-positive and PD-L1-negative NSCLC tumors respond to anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) and anti-PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors. A previous study in the CheckMate program, CheckMate 012, suggested that tumor mutational burden could identify patients who benefit from the nivolumab/ipilimumab combination.2 The study showed durable activity for the combination and identified optimized dosing, which was brought forward in CheckMate 568. In that trial, PD-L1 expression was not clearly associated with response. ...
Clinical trials have shown that a preparation of rose bengal called PV-10 has induced regression of both injected lesions and uninjected bystander lesions in patients with melanoma, and tumor ablation with PV-10 has been shown to increase certain T-cell populations in patients peripheral blood.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of Biomarker Modalities for Predicting Response to PD-1/PD-L1 Checkpoint Blockade. T2 - A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. AU - Lu, Steve. AU - Stein, Julie E.. AU - Rimm, David L.. AU - Wang, Daphne W.. AU - Bell, J. Michael. AU - Johnson, Douglas B.. AU - Sosman, Jeffrey A.. AU - Schalper, Kurt A.. AU - Anders, Robert A.. AU - Wang, Hao. AU - Hoyt, Clifford. AU - Pardoll, Drew M.. AU - Danilova, Ludmila. AU - Taube, Janis M.. PY - 2019/8. Y1 - 2019/8. N2 - Importance: PD-L1 (programmed cell death ligand 1) immunohistochemistry (IHC), tumor mutational burden (TMB), gene expression profiling (GEP), and multiplex immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence (mIHC/IF) assays have been used to assess pretreatment tumor tissue to predict response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies. However, the relative diagnostic performance of these modalities has yet to be established. Objective: To compare studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of PD-L1 IHC, TMB, GEP, and mIHC/IF in ...
This purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and tolerability of study drug atezolizumab when administered with bevacizumab and FOLFOX in patients with gastric cancer. This study will also evaluate the safety and tolerability of atezolizumab administered with nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.
When you express interest in a specific study, the information from your profile will be sent to the doctor conducting that study. If youre eligible to participate, you may be contacted by a nurse or study coordinator. If you select a health category rather than a specific study, doctors who have active studies in that area may contact you to ask if you would like to participate. In both cases, you will be contacted by the preferred method (email or phone) that you specified in your profile. ...
Merck, known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, announced that Keytruda (pembrolizumab), the companys anti-PD-1 therapy, has been approved in Japan for the treatment of certain patients with PD-L1-positive unresectable
CD274 is reported to possess dual functions; inhibition of activated effector T cells and co-stimulation of naive T cells. CD274 inhibits proliferation of activated T cells via ligation to the co-inhibitory molecule CD279 (programmed death-1; PD-1) leading to the secretion of the regulatory cytokine interleukin-10. CD274 has also been shown to co-stimulate early T cell priming and differentiation ...
Researchers tested the combined treatment in mice, after detecting increased PAK4 expression and reduced immune infiltration in melanoma patients with poor anti-PD-1 response.
The research, conducted in a preclinical model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), showed increased immune activation against tumors, increased immune cell infiltration into tumors, decreased metastasis and prolonged survival as a result of inhibited PD-L1 expression. Furthermore, this research demonstrated that PD-L1 expression is up regulated in the context of oncogene activation at the step of mRNA translation. PD-L1 is an immune-checkpoint protein that inhibits tumor immune suppression by signaling through its receptor on T cells, programed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). The therapeutic benefit of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 signaling has been demonstrated by several FDA-approved inhibitors of PD-1 or PD-L1.. This report of the molecular mechanism whereby tomivosertib inhibits translation of PD-L1 mRNA further substantiates previously presented results showing that tomivosertib selectively inhibits production of key immunosuppressive factors including PD-1, PD-L1, LAG3, TIM3 and IL-10 through ...
Control antibody for the PD-1/PD-L1 Blockade Bioassay, a biologically relevant MOA-based assay that can be used to measure the potency and stability of antibodies and other biologics designed to block the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction.
Recombinant Human PD-L1 Protein (Met1-Thr239) Biotinylated 10084-H02H-B with a fusion hFc Tag, is expressed in HEK293 Cells. With high purity, high biological activity, high stability, and other superior features, you can use this Human PD-L1 protein for relevant bioassay and related research.
The patterns of PD-L1 mRNA expression in plasma-derived exosomes at baseline corresponded to response to atezolizumab plus nab-paclitaxel and...
To protect your privacy, your account will be locked after 6 failed attempts. After that, you will need to contact Customer Service to unlock your account.. You have 4 remaining attempts.. You have 3 remaining attempts.. You have 2 remaining attempts.. You have 1 remaining attempt.. Contact Customer Service ...
the acceptance of death-LEGO Complete Sets & Packs- OVP NEU Titandrache - 70748 NINJAGO SEALED LEGO Choprai Clouse Zane 633derydt5719-most preferential -
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
"Entrez Gene: CD274 CD274 molecule". Chemnitz JM, Parry RV, Nichols KE, June CH, Riley JL (July 2004). "SHP-1 and SHP-2 ... In turn, clonal expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and/or CD4+ helper cells is propagated. The binding of PD-L1 to the ... CD274+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Overview of all the structural ... Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) also known as cluster of differentiation 274 (CD274) or B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) is a protein ...
Antigen-activated T cells secrete CCR5 ligands (CCL2 and CCL3) to recruit natural killer (NK) cells and other innate immune ... Gene Signature : CCL5, CD27, CD274 (PD-L1), CD276 (B7-H3), CD8A, CMKLR1, CXCL9, CXCR6, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DRB1, HLA-E, IDO1, LAG3, ... They are found to express conformational epitopes, such as MHC molecules, as nonself antigens, which activates both B and T ... by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). CXCR3 expressing Th1-polarized CD4 T cells and cytotoxic T cells are recruited to the site ...
This antigen along with other blood group antigens was used to identify the Basque people as a genetically separate group.[49] ... Because the Duffy antigen is uncommon in those of Black African descent, the presence of this antigen has been used to detect ... The Fy4 antigen, originally described on Fy (a-b-) RBCs, is now thought to be a distinct, unrelated antigen and is no longer ... The Duffy antigen is expressed in greater quantities on reticulocytes than on mature erythrocytes.[21] While the Duffy antigen ...
CD274; CD276; CD300A; CD300C; CD300D; CD300E; CD300LB; CD300LF; CD300LG; CD33; CD3G; CD7; CD79A; CD79B; CD80; CD83; CD86; CD8A ... IPR003596 T-cell surface antigen CD2 InterPro: IPR013285 ACAM; ACAN; ADAMTSL1; AGC1; AMICA1; BCAM; BCAN; BGP; BGPc; BT3.3; ...
Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the mammalian immune system. In cancer treatment they aid cancer antigen ... CD274). PD-L1 on the cell surface binds to PD1 on an immune cell surface, which inhibits immune cell activity. Among PD-L1 ... Antigens can be added to the antibody and can induce the dendritic cells to mature and provide immunity to the tumor. Dendritic ... Carbohydrate antigens on the surface of cells can be used as targets for immunotherapy. GD2 is a ganglioside found on the ...
The neoplastic B cells in PT-DLBCL also show gains and amplifications of CD274 and PDCD1LG2, which are the genes for the pro- ... Immune privileged sites are sanctuaries where abnormal antigens that occur in them, such as those that are expressed on cancer ...
Cancer immunotherapy Chimeric antigen receptor Pardoll DM (March 2012). "The blockade of immune checkpoints in cancer ... or CD274). PD-L1 on the cell surface binds to PD-1 on an immune cell surface, which inhibits immune cell activity. Among PD-L1 ...
CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... CD274 • CD275 • CD276 • CD278 • CD279 • CD280 • CD281 • CD282 • CD283 • CD284 • CD286 • CD288 • CD289 • CD290 • CD292 • CDw293 ... 2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
Tissue Antigens (англ.)русск. : journal. - 2007. - Vol. 68, no. 6. - P. 509-517. - DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00726.x. - PMID ...
1991). „Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID ... CD274 • CD275 • CD276 • CD278 • CD279 • CD280 • CD281 • CD282 • CD283 • CD284 • CD286 • CD288 • CD289 • CD290 • CD292 • CDw293 ... 2003). „Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". Int. J. Hematol. 75 ...
"Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26". Science. 261 (5120): 466-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
... is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Leucocyte typing: human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
CD64+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
CD274 • CD275 • CD276 • CD278 • CD279 • CD280 • CD281 • CD282 • CD283 • CD284 • CD286 • CD288 • CD289 • CD290 • CD292 • CDw293 ... 1996). "CD88 antibodies specifically bind to C5aR on dermal CD117+ and CD14+ cells and react with a desmosomal antigen in human ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
"Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11.[5] CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ... "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms cooperate to mediate colon carcinoma cell adhesion to E- and L-selectin in ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... Hamann J, Wishaupt JO, van Lier RA, Smeets TJ, Breedveld FC, Tak PP (Apr 1999). "Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and ... Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004325.x. PMID 11380941.. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
CD274 • CD275 • CD276 • CD278 • CD279 • CD280 • CD281 • CD282 • CD283 • CD284 • CD286 • CD288 • CD289 • CD290 • CD292 • CDw293 ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)".. *^ May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; ... CD61+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
The protein also carries the Jr(a) antigen, which defines the Junior blood group system.[9] ...
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
CD274 • CD275 • CD276 • CD278 • CD279 • CD280 • CD281 • CD282 • CD283 • CD284 • CD286 • CD288 • CD289 • CD290 • CD292 • CDw293 ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet degranulation. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling ...
... uveitis antigens induce CXCR3- and CXCR5-expressing lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells to migrate (англ.) // Blood (англ ...
antigen binding. • virus receptor activity. • protein binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • identical protein ...
T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell. • T cell antigen ... CD274 · CD275 · CD276 · CD278 · CD279 · CD280 · CD281 · CD282 · CD283 · CD284 · CD286 · CD288 · CD289 · CD290 · CD292 · CDw293 ...
CD274 Human Recombinant produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 462 amino ... CD274 molecule, CD274 antigen, programmed cell death 1 ligand 1, PD-L1, PDCD1L1, PDCD1LG1, PDCD1 ligand 1, B7 homolog 1, B7H1. ... CD274 takes part in the costimulatory signal, vital for T-cell proliferation and creation of IL10 and IFNG, in a PDCD1- ... CD274 Human Recombinant produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 462 amino ...
CD274)-Fc Chimera (carrier-free) - PD-L1 is a type I transmembrane protein of 290 amino acids, and it is a member of the B7 ... Antigen References 1. Dong H, et al. 1999. Nat. Med. 5:1365.. 2. Freeman GJ, et al. 2000. J. Exp. Med. 192:1027.. 3. Latchman Y ... CD274, Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), B7 homolog 1 (B7h1) Ave. Rating Submit a Review Product Citations publications ... Antigen Details Structure Dimer. Distribution APC, monocytes, dendritic cells, expressed in nonlymphoid tissues, and stromal ...
PD-L1 / B7-H1 / CD274 Antibody, Rabbit MAb * PD-L1 / B7-H1 / CD274 Antibody, Rabbit PAb, Antigen Affinity Purified ... CD274 CD274 molecule [Homo sapiens] CD274 CD274 molecule [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:29126 ... CD274provided by HGNC. Official Full Name. CD274 moleculeprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:17635 See related. Ensembl ... Homologs of the CD274 gene: The CD274 gene is conserved in chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, dog, cow, mouse, rat, chicken, zebrafish ...
Shop online for a wide selection of CD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1) Mouse anti-Human, eFluor(T) 450, Clone: MIH1, eBioscience Mouse ... Antigen. CD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1). Target Species. Human. Isotype. IgG1, kappa. ... CD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1) Mouse anti-Human, eFluor® 450, Clone: MIH1, eBioscience ... CD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1) Mouse anti-Human, eFluor® 450, Clone: MIH1, eBioscience ...
Antigens. *CD274. *CD274: analysis. *CD274: antagonists & inhibitors. *Carcinoma. *Drug Resistance. *Humanized. *Humanized: ...
B7-H1 Antigen * CD274 protein, human * CTLA-4 Antigen * Immunologic Factors * Ipilimumab ...
... antigen=CD274; Flags: Precursor," Accession No. Q9NZQ7.1, accessed at, accessed on ... An "antigen-binding portion" of an antibody (also called an "antigen-binding fragment") refers to one or more fragments of an ... An "anti-antigen" antibody refers to an antibody that binds specifically to the antigen. For example, an anti-PD-1 antibody ... In other embodiments, the anti-PD-1 antibody, anti-PD-L1 antibody, or antigen-binding portions thereof is a mAb or an antigen- ...
Keywords: CD274 antigens; immunohistochemistry; immunotherapy; non-small-cell lung carcinoma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. ...
For other IHC staining systems (automated and non-automated) customers should optimize variable parameters such as antigen ... For other IHC staining systems (automated and non-automated) customers should optimize variable parameters such as antigen ... For other IHC staining systems (automated and non-automated) customers should optimize variable parameters such as antigen ... The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with EDTA buffer (pH9, epitope retrieval solution 2) for 30 ...
PD-L1 (also known as CD274 or B7-H1) is a membrane bound glycoprotein involved in regulation of the immune system. PD-L1 is ... Tumor antigens. * Function. Involved in the costimulatory signal, essential for T-cell proliferation and production of IL10 and ...
CD274 Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... Aliases for CD274 Gene. * CD274 Molecule 2 3 5 * CD274 Antigen 2 3 4 ... Animal Models for CD274 Gene. MGI Knock Outs for CD274:. * Cd274 Cd274,tm1Lpc, ... GeneCards Summary for CD274 Gene CD274 (CD274 Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CD274 include ...
"CD274 antigen" HgncId : HGNC:17635 Omim: 605402 Refseq: NM_014143 GenBank: AF177937 ... CD274 Gene Structure. Chromosome: chr9 Genbank ID: NM_014143 Orientation: + Length coding sequence : 870 nucleotides. Region. ... Find PDB entities (unique chains) for CD274 View list of all current human gene IDs ...
CD274 (PDL1) cloned gene : ORF from ATG to Stop, in pUNO1 expression plasmid selectable in E.coli and mammalian cells. Fully ... CD274 molecule.. CD274 antigen.. Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1. Back to the top ... Human CD274 isoform 1 (pUNO1-hCD274a). Genbank : NM_014143.3. ORF size : 873 bp Subclone : AgeI - NheI ... Mouse CD274 (pUNO1-mCD274). Genbank : NM_021893.2. ORF size : 873 bp Subclone : BspHI - NheI ...
0 (Antigens, CD); 0 (B7-H1 Antigen); 0 (Biomarkers, Tumor); 0 (CD223 antigen); 0 (CD274 protein, human); 0 (CD8 Antigens); 0 ( ... 0 (Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibodies); 0 (Antigens, CD); 0 (Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic); 0 (CD68 antigen, ... 0 (AC133 Antigen); 0 (Antigens, CD); 0 (Biomarkers, Tumor); 0 (CDH1 protein, human); 0 (CDH2 protein, human); 0 (Cadherins); 0 ... 0 (Antigens, CD); 0 (Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic); 0 (Lectins); 0 (Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products ...
CD274 plays a key role in induction and maintenance of immune tolerance to self-antigens and limits normal immune response ... In contrast to CD274, no modulation or, for that matter, expression of the CD274 receptor CD279/PD-1 and the CD274-related ... Expression of CD274 is induced by NPM/ALK. (A) Expression of CD274 mRNA in the ALK+TCL SUDHL-1 cell line before and after ... CD274 expression by ALK+TCL cells. (A) Expression of CD274 (PD-L1) and the functionally-related CD273 (PD-L2) and CD279 (PD-1) ...
CD274 antigen. Protein Similarities Based on Shared Motif Content. Find gene products sharing protein motifs with: NP_068693 ...
Cd274. CD274 antigen. NM_021893. Gene Info. Cd276. CD276 antigen. NM_133983. Gene Info. ... CD3 antigen, epsilon polypeptide. NM_007648. Gene Info. Cd40. CD40 antigen. NM_011611. NM_170704. NM_170703. NM_170702. Gene ... CD59b antigen. NM_181858. Gene Info. Cd74. CD74 antigen (invariant polypeptide of major histocompatibility complex, class II ... Histocompatibility 2, class II antigen A, alpha. NM_010378. Gene Info. H2-Ab1. Histocompatibility 2, class II antigen A, beta 1 ...
... for all studied cell populations with an increased expression level of CD54 and CD106 and induction of that of CD40 and CD274. ... The immune-regulatory molecules CD39 and CD274 were constitutively negative in all cell types whereas only CD274 was strongly ... HLA antigens and costimulatory molecules profiling was performed to assess the immunogenicity state of liver-derived cells. As ... CD274 expression is known to be upregulated in response to proinflammatory cytokines where it exerts an inhibitory role on the ...
CD274 antigen antibody. *CD3e antigen, epsilon polypeptide (TiT3 complex) antibody. *CD3e molecule, epsilon (CD3-TCR complex) ...
CD274 antigen antibody. *CD3e antigen, epsilon polypeptide (TiT3 complex) antibody. *CD3e molecule, epsilon (CD3-TCR complex) ...
CD274 / PD-L1 derived in Human Cells. The whole cell lysate is provided in 1X Sample Buffer.Browse all transfected cell lysate ... CD274. Synonyms:. CD274; CD274 antigen; programmed cell death 1 ligand 1; B7 homolog 1; PDCD1 ligand 1; programmed death ligand ... Recombinant Mouse CD274 cell lysate. Download Datasheet See All CD274 Products. Bring this labeled protein directly to your ... CD274-2642MCL. Product Overview:. Mouse B7-H1 / CD274 / PD-L1 derived in Human Cells. The whole cell lysate is provided in 1X ...
CD274, B7-H1) (6, 7) is expressed widely on both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues (8). Disruption of the PD-L1 gene leads to up ... The only non-antigen receptor found in the search was the CD8 homodimer. It appears that only rarely do non-antigen receptor ... loops of PD-1/PD-L1 are in positions similar to those of the antigen-binding loops of the representative antigen receptors (Fig ... Similarities with Antigen Receptors.. We searched the protein structure database with the Fv-like portion of the PD-1/PD-L1 ...
... such as MHC class I and antigen processing (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-F, TAP1, TAP2, TAPBP, TAPBPL, B2M), costimulatory ... and Cd274 (i.e., Pd-l1) (Figure 4B). Immunoproteasome induction represents another hallmark of IFN activation, bridging the ... antigen processing, or immunoproteosome molecules were positively correlated with the levels of multiple complement components ... IFN stimulates the expression of MHC class I genes and promotes antigen processing and presentation during viral infection. In ...
categories: CD and Related Antigens (Human). Mouse Monoclonal to CD274 / PD-L1. 29E.2A3 (IgG2b). Technical Information Request ... 1. Surface staining of CD274 on PHA-stimulated PBMC with anti-CD274 (29E.2A3) PE.. ... CD274 / PD-L1 (programmed death ligand-1), also known as B7-H1, is a member of the B7 family of regulatory proteins. It can act ... The mouse monoclonal antibody 29E.2A3 recognizes CD274 / PD-L1 (also known as B7-H1), a 40 kDa type I transmembrane protein ...
B7-H1/CD274), is expressed on antigen-presenting cells. Binding of PD-L1 to its receptor inhibits T-cell activation and ... B7-H1 (PD-L1, CD274) suppresses host immunity in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Blood 2009;114:2149-58. ... Oncogenic kinase NPM/ALK induces through STAT3 expression of immunosuppressive protein CD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1). Proc Natl Acad Sci ... Purpose: Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is expressed on antigen-presenting cells and inhibits activation of T cells through ...
Recombinant Mouse Cd274 extracellular domain (Met 1-Thr 238) (NP_068693.1), fused with a polyhistidine tag at the C-terminus, ... Cd274 CD274 antigen [ Mus musculus ]. Official Symbol:. Cd274. Gene ID:. 60533. mRNA Refseq:. NM_021893. ... Recombinant Mouse Cd274, His tagged. Download Datasheet See All Cd274 Products. Bring this labeled protein directly to your ... Cd274-2275M. Product Overview:. Recombinant Mouse Cd274 extracellular domain (Met 1-Thr 238) (NP_068693.1), fused with a ...
CD274 Antigen 2017 Academic cancer center phase i program development. Frankel, A. E., Flaherty, K. T., Weiner, G. J., Chen, R ...
CD274), labeled with the radioisotope fluorine F 18, with potential use for assessing PD-L1 tumor antigen expression using ... Flotetuzumab possesses two antigen-recognition and binding sites, one for the CD3 complex, a group of T-cell surface ... Upon antibody/antigen binding and internalization, fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki binds to and inhibits Top1-DNA complexes, ... CEA, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed on the surface of tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using ...
Learn more about Anti-CD274 (B7-H1, PD-L1) Rat Monoclonal Antibody () [clone: 10F.9G2]. We enable science by offering product ... Antigen Symbol. CD274 (B7-H1, PD-L1). Antigen Name. CD274 (B7-H1, PD-L1). ...
  • CD274 (CD274 Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • The CD274 expression is strictly dependent on the expression and enzymatic activity of NPM/ALK, as demonstrated by inhibition of the NPM/ALK function in ALK+TCL cells by the small molecule ALK inhibitor CEP-14083 and by documenting CD274 expression in IL-3-depleted BaF3 cells transfected with the wild-type NPM/ALK, but not the kinase-inactive NPM/ALK K210R mutant or empty vector alone. (
  • Today, the HLDA Workshop meeting has been held 10 times and has over 371 CD antigens molecule have been identified. (
  • Here we studied the role of the co-inhibitory molecule B7-H1 (PD-L1, CD274) on semi-mature DC that were generated from bone marrow (BM) cells of B7-H1(-/-) mice and applied to the model of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). (
  • CD279 has two known ligands: CD274 (also called PD-L1 or B7-H1) and CD273 (PD-L2 or B7-DC). (
  • CD274 antigen is one of the two ligands, with PD-1 ligand 2 (PD-L2), for PD-1 and belongs to the B7 family. (
  • PD-L1 (also known as CD274 and B7-H1), one of the ligands for programmed death 1 (PD-1), is an immune-inhibitory receptor belonging to the CD28/cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) family. (
  • Two members of the B7 family have been identified as the PD-1 ligands, PD-L1 (B7-H1, CD274) and PD-L2 (B7-DC, CD273). (
  • Evidence reported to date suggests overlapping functions for these two PD-1 ligands and their constitutive expression on some normal tissues and upregulation on activated antigen-presenting cells. (
  • CD antigens can act in lot of ways, like as recepters or ligands in terms of physiology. (
  • It is an inhibitory receptor on antigen activated T-cells that plays a critical role in induction and maintenance of immune tolerance to self ( Fife and Pauken 2011 ) and delivers inhibitory signals upon binding to ligands CD274/PDCD1L1 and CD273/PDCD1LG2 ( Fife and Pauken 2011 ). (
  • Cancer immunotherapy has witnessed a revolution in the past decade with the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), monoclonal antibodies against cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or their ligands, such as PD1 ligand 1 (PD-L1). (
  • The ligands PD-L1 (CD274, also knwon as B7-H1) and PD-L2 (CD273, also known as B7-DC) belong to the B7 immunglobulin superfamily. (
  • Antigen-activated T cells secrete CCR5 ligands (CCL2 and CCL3) to recruit natural killer (NK) cells and other innate immune effector cells to the site of acute inflammation. (
  • Chemokine ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL5 that bind to chemokine receptors such as CXCR3 and CCR5, Immune suppressive or counter regulatory genes like IDO1, PDCD1, PDL1 (CD274), CTLA4 and FOXP3 The disrupted homeostasis of cancer cells is found to initiate processes promoting cell growth. (
  • 8) PD-1 has 2 major ligands: PD-L1/CD274 (encoded by PDCD1LG1 in chromosome 9) and PD-L2/CD273 (encoded by PDCD1LG2 in chromosome 9). (
  • The CD274 antigen is known as Programmed Cell Death 1 ligand 1 (PDCD1LG1 or PD-L1) or B7- H1. (
  • CD274 protein solution (1mg/ml) contains Phosphate Buffered Saline (pH 7.4) and 10% glycerol. (
  • Here we report that the NPM/ALK-carrying T cell lymphoma (ALK+TCL) cells strongly express the immunosuppressive cell-surface protein CD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1), as determined on the mRNA and protein level. (
  • The monoclonal antibody portion of the F16-IL2 fusion protein binds to tumor cells expressing the tumor associated antigen (TAA) tenascin-C. In turn, the IL-2 moiety of the fusion protein stimulates natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and neutrophils and induces T-cell antitumor cellular immune responses thereby selectively killing tenascin-C-expressing tumor cells. (
  • Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor ( DARC ), also known as Fy glycoprotein ( FY ) or CD234 ( C luster of D ifferentiation 234), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACKR1 gene . (
  • Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) also known as cluster of differentiation 274 (CD274) or B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD274 gene. (
  • CD274 (which codes for PD-L1) displays a very wide pattern of tissue gene expression, but PD-L1 is only seen at the protein level in myeloid cells, airway and kidney tubular epithelium, heart, placenta, and intestinal colon epithelium of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients (6). (
  • This antibody was obtained by immunization of PD-L1/CD274 recombinant protein (Accession Number: BC074984). (
  • CD274, also commonly referred to as PDL1, is a ligand that binds with the receptor PD1, commonly found on T-cells, and acts to block T-cell activation. (
  • CD279 transduces the inhibitory signal when engaged simultaneously with the antigen T-cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex. (
  • Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is expressed on antigen-presenting cells and inhibits activation of T cells through its receptor PD-1. (
  • Besides CD279, existence of other receptor(s) for CD274 is likely. (
  • 5. The method cell of claim 4, wherein the chimeric receptor is a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) polypeptide. (
  • CD274 binding to its receptor CD279 (PD-1) on activated T cells can decrease proliferation. (
  • A crucial event determining the recognition and elimination of detrimental cells is antigen recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR) expressed on the surface of T cells. (
  • An essential element determining the balance between immunity and tolerance is antigen recognition on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC) by the T cell receptor (TCR) on T cells [ 10 - 19 ]. (
  • The formation of PD-1 receptor / PD-L1 or B7.1 receptor /PD-L1 ligand complex transmits an inhibitory signal which reduces the proliferation of these CD8+ T cells at the lymph nodes and supplementary to that PD-1 is also able to control the accumulation of foreign antigen specific T cells in the lymph nodes through apoptosis which is further mediated by a lower regulation of the gene Bcl-2. (
  • Objective Evidence suggests that CD274 (programmed death-ligand 1, B7-H1) immune checkpoint ligand repress antitumour immunity through its interaction with the PDCD1 (programmed cell death 1, PD-1) receptor of T lymphocytes in various tumours. (
  • This places the loops at the ends of the IgV domains on the same side of the PD-1/PD-L1 complex, forming a surface that is similar to the antigen-binding surface of antibodies and T cell receptors. (
  • See our complete line of Immunohistochemistry Reagents including antigen retrieval solutions, blocking agents ABC Detection Kits and polymers, biotinylated secondary antibodies, substrates and more. (
  • CD antigens for cluster of differentiation, which indicates a defined subset of cellular surface receptors (epitopes) that identify cell type and stage of differentiation, and which are recognized by antibodies. (
  • CD antigens have been present in disguise since the efforts began to develop therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in 1970s. (
  • CD antigens are the basis on which monoclonal antibodies were discovered. (
  • CD antigens have been used as targets in a wide variety of cancer therapeutics including monoclonal antibodies, antibody-drug-conjugates, tri-functional and bi-specific T-cell engager antibodies, radio immunoconjugates and CAR T-cell therapies. (
  • CD274 takes part in the costimulatory signal, vital for T-cell proliferation and creation of IL10 and IFNG, in a PDCD1-independent and an IL2-dependent manner. (
  • CD274 collaboration with PDCD1 inhibits cytokine production and T-cell proliferation. (
  • PD-L1 antibody LS-C669079 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to human PD-L1 (CD274 / B7-H1). (
  • AP07695PU-N CD274 antibody staining of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Human Thymus. (
  • In 1950, the Duffy antigen was discovered in a multiply-transfused hemophiliac whose serum contained the first example of anti-Fya antibody . (
  • [10] In 1951, the antibody to a second antigen, Fyb, was discovered in serum . (
  • Global CD antigen based cancer therapy market has evolved since the approval of first CD antigen targeting monoclonal antibody. (
  • In order to compare the epitope specificity of an antibody, the clone being used is compared with other known clones recognizing the same antigen in a competition assay. (
  • Initial antigen-mediated activation of T cells is modulated by several regulatory mechanisms, including engagement co-stimulatory signals like the binding of CD28 on T cells to CD80/B7-1 and/or CD86/B7-2 on antigen-presenting cells. (
  • Description Engagement of CD28 by B7-1 (CD80) or B7-2 (CD86) in the presence of antigen promotes T cell proliferation, cytokine production, differentiation of effector T cells, and the induction of Bcl-x, a promoter of T cell survival. (
  • When human B7-H1 (PD-L1, CD274)-Fc chimera is immobilized at 1 μg/mL, biotinylated recombinant human PD-1 (CD279)-Fc chimera binds in a dose-dependent manner. (
  • Clone REAL383 recognizes the human CD279 antigen, also known as PD-1 (programmed death-1) or PD1. (
  • Apart from the antigen peptides embedded on the MHC molecules, antigen-presenting cells must provide costimulatory signals through surface receptors (such as CD28) and cytokines [such as interleukin (IL)-12] for effective T cell stimulation ( 2 ). (
  • Programmed Death- 1 (PD-1) is one of the three coinhibitory receptors with Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4) and CD272. (
  • Non peptide antigen presentation to T-cell receptors on NKT cells. (
  • Antigen-stimulated T and B cells, regulatory T cells, follicular T and B cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes. (
  • CD274 antigen is expressed on immature dendritic cells (iDC), mature dendritic cells (mDC), IFN-γ-treated monocytes, and follicular dendritic cells. (
  • CD274 is expressed constitutively on macrophages and dendritic cells, and is induced on activated T-cells, B-cells, endothelial cells and epithelial cells in response to Interferons alpha, beta and gamma. (
  • On the contrary, PD-L2 is largely limited to antigen-presenting cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. (
  • STAT3 binds to the CD274 gene promoter in vitro and in vivo , as shown in the gel electromobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, and is required for the PD-L1 gene expression, as demonstrated by siRNA-mediated STAT3 depletion. (
  • NPM/ALK triggers the expression by activating STAT3, which in turn acts as a transcriptional activator of the CD274 gene. (
  • These antigens include normal proteins overexpressed by cancer cells and novel proteins that are generated by mutation and gene rearrangement ( 1 ). (
  • The Duffy antigen gene was the fourth gene associated with the resistance after the genes responsible for sickle cell anaemia , thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase . (
  • [6] The gene was first localised to chromosome 1 in 1968, and was the first blood system antigen to be localised. (
  • This reduces the proliferation of antigen-specific T-cells in lymph nodes, while simultaneously reducing apoptosis in regulatory T cells (anti-inflammatory, suppressive T cells) - further mediated by a lower regulation of the gene Bcl-2. (
  • Approval of CD antigen directed CAR-T cell therapy has further encouraged public and private sectors to increase investments in research studies related to genomics and technological advancements for feasible gene sequencing and selection of target gene expressing CD antigens. (
  • Supplementary to that PD-1 is also able to control the accumulation of foreign antigen specific T cells in the lymph nodes through apoptosis which is further mediated by a lower regulation of the gene Bcl-2. (
  • It has been assigned to the CD274 cluster of differentiation during the 8th HLDA Workshop on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens, held in Adelaide, Australia, in 2004. (
  • CD274 has also been shown to co-stimulate early T cell priming and differentiation. (
  • The CD antigens / Cluster of differentiation nomenclature was established in the 1st International Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA), which was held in Paris in 1982. (
  • PD-L1 (also known as CD274 or B7-H1) is a membrane bound glycoprotein involved in regulation of the immune system. (
  • They are also involved in immune evasion in malignancy, as cells of various tumor types have been shown to aberrantly express CD274 and, seemingly to a lesser degree, CD273. (
  • Schistosoma) may exploit CD274 to evade an immune response. (
  • Cancer cells are genetically unstable, which contributes to their uncontrolled proliferation and the expression of antigens that can be recognized by the immune system. (
  • A prominent signature of the combination relates to the transcriptional induction of cancer testis antigens and genes involved in the immune response. (
  • Except for one, the 13 functional genomic alterations remained the same in the diagnostic, recurrent, and post-treatment, relapsed tumor specimens, suggesting that nivolumab reset the patient's immune system against one or more preexisting tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). (
  • Normally the adaptive immune system reacts to antigens that are associated with immune system activation by exogenous or endogenous danger signals. (
  • Normally the immune system reacts to foreign antigens where there is some accumulation in the lymph nodes or spleen which triggers a proliferation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell. (
  • Results CD274 expression in tumour cells or stromal cells (including immune cells) was detected in 731 (89%) or 44 (5%) cases, respectively. (
  • During the past several decades, the efforts of antitumor immune therapy have been focused on identification of specific tumor antigens to augment antitumor immunity. (
  • Its ligand, PD-L1 (B7-H1/CD274), is expressed on antigen-presenting cells. (
  • Among these genes, we identified CD24 and CD274, key immunoreceptors that regulate immunogenic T and B cells and play important roles in systemic autoimmune diseases. (
  • CD274 Human Recombinant produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 462 amino acids (19-238a.a.) and having a molecular mass of 52.5kDa (Molecular size on SDS-PAGE will appear at approximately 50-70kDa). (
  • Here we report that ALK+TCL cells universally express CD274. (
  • The CD274 expression is induced in these malignant cells by the NPM/ALK tyrosine kinase. (
  • ALK+TCL Cells Express CD274. (
  • Mouse B7-H1 / CD274 / PD-L1 derived in Human Cells. (
  • E) CD8 T cells were purified from four P14-transferred mice on day 6 p.i. and mixed with chromium-labeled, antigen-pulsed MS-I cells at the indicated effector to target ratios. (
  • These cells may learn to recognize the tumor-specific antigens presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and thereby perform targeted tumor cell killing. (
  • CD8 + T cells become licensed effector cells after appropriate stimulation by antigen-presenting cells that have collected antigens at the tumor site. (
  • PD-L1 (CD274) expression did not differ between the resistant and parental tumor cells. (
  • Recent studies have challenged the view that Langerhans cells (LCs) constitute the exclusive antigen-presenting cells of the skin and suggest that the dermal dendritic cell (DDC) network is exceedingly complex. (
  • Tumor expressed CD274 can increase apoptosis of tumor specific T cells resulting in better tumor cell survival. (
  • The CD antigens are protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells. (
  • The Duffy antigen is located on the surface of red blood cells , and is named after the patient in whom it was discovered. (
  • In turn, clonal expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and/or CD4+ helper cells is propagated. (
  • PD-L1 binding to PD-1 also contributes to ligand-induced TCR down-modulation during antigen presentation to naive T cells, by inducing the up-regulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CBL-b. (
  • Upon binding of the TCR to cognate peptide-MHC complexes presented on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs), a specialized supramolecular structure known as the immunological synapse (IS) assembles at the T cell-APC interface. (
  • T cells constantly scan the APC surface searching for antigens to activate and exert their effector functions. (
  • PD-L2 expression is restricted to professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) and is generally present at much lower levels on the cell surface compared with PD-L1 (6). (
  • Conclusions Tumour CD274 expression is inversely associated with FOXP3 + cell density in colorectal cancer tissue, suggesting a possible influence of CD274-expressing carcinoma cells on regulatory T cells in the tumour microenvironment. (
  • These initiate the following cascade: CXCR3 ligand chemokines (CXCL-9, -10 and -11) are produced in response to activated B cells and the pro-inflammatory secretion of interleukin 12 (IL12) and/or interferon-gamma (IFNy) by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (
  • Binding of PD-1 to either PD-L1 or PD-L2 results in the activation of inhibitory kinases involved in T-cell proliferation, adhesion, and cytokine production/secretion via phosphatase SHP2.2 PD-1-PD-L interaction has been shown to play an important role in limiting the initial response of T cells upon antigen exposure and inducing T-cell tolerance. (
  • CD274 Human Recombinant produced in E. coli is a single polypeptide chain containing 245 amino acids (19-238) and having a molecular mass of 27.9kDa (Molecular weight on SDS-PAGE will appear higher). (
  • Knowledge of this extra reactivity is important because it could be, and already has been, mistakenly interpreted to support the view that antigen transfer can occur between LCs and DDCs. (
  • Recombinant Mouse Cd274 extracellular domain (Met 1-Thr 238) (NP_068693.1), fused with a polyhistidine tag at the C-terminus, was produced in Human Cell. (
  • The secreted recombinant mouse CD274 comprises 231 amino acids and has a predicted molecular mass of 26.3 kDa. (
  • Diseases associated with CD274 include Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma and Ovarian Carcinosarcoma . (
  • High levels of CD274 present in renal cell carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis. (
  • We hypothesised that tumour CD274 expression levels might be inversely associated with T-cell densities in colorectal carcinoma tissue. (
  • However, the expression of important molecules in the antigen presentation pathway, including MHC class I and II, as well as β2-microglobulin, were significantly downregulated in the anti-PD-1-resistant tumors compared with parental tumors. (
  • This product detects CD274, also known as B7-H1 and PD-1L, a cell surface glycoprotein which is a member of the B7 family of co-stimulatory molecules. (
  • Identification of T cell antigens on the surface of APCs will lead to the rearrangement of intracellular and extracellular molecules at the T cell APC interface, ultimately leading to the assembly of a specialized supramolecular structure known as the immunological synapse (IS) [ 20 , 21 ]. (
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing revealed HLA-A*0201 homozygosity, which is the prevalent HLA class I allele that has been used to develop universal cancer vaccine targeting TERT-derived peptides. (
  • Design We evaluated tumour CD274 expression by immunohistochemistry in 823 rectal and colon cancer cases within the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. (
  • The samples were tested in a binding assay with human B7-H1 (PD-L1, CD274)-Fc Chimera. (
  • Antisera to Human CD274 were raised by repeated immunisation of rabbits with highly purified antigen. (
  • A peptide corresponding to a 17 amino acid sequence from near the center of Human CD274. (
  • We have previously reported an antigen-specific protocol to induce transplant tolerance and linked suppression to human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived tissues in immunocompetent mice through coreceptor and costimulation blockade. (
  • CD274 / PD-L1 (programmed death ligand-1), also known as B7-H1, is a member of the B7 family of regulatory proteins. (
  • PD-L1 (programmed cell death ligand 1, also known as CD274 or B7-H1) is the first member of B7 family to be discovered. (
  • But with continuous efforts in research more CD antigens were found to play significant roles in cancer progression which were then used as cancer therapeutic targets including CD19, CD22, CD38, CD33 and CD3. (
  • Tolerance induced by apoptotic antigen-coupled leukocytes is induced by PD-L1+ and IL-10-producing splenic macrophages and maintained by T regulato. (
  • On the other hand, the impact of inflammation was quite similar for all studied cell populations with an increased expression level of CD54 and CD106 and induction of that of CD40 and CD274. (
  • PD-L1 is suggested a negative regulator of T and B cell, and play important role in mediating tolerance of lymphocytes to self-antigens. (