Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Immunotherapy of human tumors with T-cell-activating bispecific antibodies: stimulation of cytotoxic pathways in vivo. (1/629)

Bispecific monoclonal antibodies (Bi-mAbs) specific for a tumor-associated antigen and the CD3 or CD28 antigen on T lymphocytes represent one of the most successful experimental strategies for the immunotherapy of cancer. We report that the in vivo administration of both alpha-CD3/CD30 and alpha-CD28/CD30 Bi-mAbs results in the specific activation of xenotransplanted, resting human T cells infiltrating the CD30-positive Hodgkin's tumor. Bi-mAb treatment resulted in enhanced expression of cytokines such as interleukin 1beta, interleukin 2, tumor necrosis factor type alpha, and activation markers including Ki-67, CD25, and CD45RO in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. This antigen-dependent, local T-cell stimulation led to the activation of the cytolytic machinery in T lymphocytes, determined by the up-regulation of mRNA-encoding perforin and the cytotoxic serine-esterases granzymes A and B. The Bi-mAb-induced generation of CTLs depended on the presence of the CD30 antigen and the combined application of both Bi-mAbs. Our findings suggest that the combined application of T-cell-activating Bi-mAbs is able to achieve a tumor site-specific activation of the T-cell cytolytic machinery in vivo. The fact that these cytotoxic cells do not home in tumor-associated antigen-negative tissue and do not enter circulation might explain our previous observations (C. Renner et al., Blood, 87: 2930-2937, 1996) of a high cure rate in preclinical models even at an advanced stage of disease.  (+info)

The T-cell activation markers CD30 and OX40/CD134 are expressed in nonoverlapping subsets of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. (2/629)

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family includes several important markers of activation in T cells. We examined expression patterns of two T-cell-associated members of these receptors, namely CD30 and OX40/CD134, in 148 cases of T-cell lymphoma to identify possible objective immunohistochemical criteria for subclassification of these tumors. CD30 expression was characteristic of tumors with an anaplastic (46/47 cases [98%]) or large-cell (10/21 [48%]) morphology and was seen in only scattered cells in other tumor types. In contrast, large numbers of OX40/CD134(+) tumors cells were typical of angioimmunoblastic lymphoma (15/16 [94%]), angiocentric lymphoma (4/4), a subset of large-cell lymphomas (10/21 [48%]), and lymphomas with a prominent histiocytic component (6/7 [86%]). Strong OX40/CD134 and CD30 coexpression was seen in only 4% of tumors, typically those with an anaplastic/Hodgkin's-like appearance. OX40/CD134 expression was characteristic of tumors composed of activated CD4(+) T cells and was not seen in small-cell T-cell lymphomas, lymphoblastic lymphomas, or other tumor types, including B-cell lymphomas or carcinomas. These results suggest that immunostaining for OX40/CD134 may be helpful in subclassification of peripheral T-cell lymphomas and that the patterns of TNF receptor family expression in these tumors may parallel those seen within nonneoplastic helper T-cell subsets.  (+info)

Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of soluble CD27 in HTLV-I associated myelopathy and multiple sclerosis. (3/629)

OBJECTIVES: Stimulation of T lymphocytes via the T cell receptor strongly enhances CD27 membrane expression and induces the release of a soluble 32 kDa form of CD27 (sCD27). CD27 is a member of the TNF receptor family, a group of molecules that have important roles in lymphocyte differentiation and survival. Raised concentrations of sCD27 have been reported in various immunopathological conditions and there is evidence that this molecule can serve as a marker of T cell activation in vivo. Concentrations of sCD27 in CSF were compared between patients with T cell mediated neurological disease and non-inflammatory controls. Also, the relation of CSF-sCD27 concentrations with clinical disease activity was investigated in patients with multiple sclerosis. METHODS: Four groups were studied: (1) eight patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/ tropical spastic paraparisis (HAM)/TSP), (2) eight HTLV-I carriers, (3) 41 patients with multiple sclerosis, and (4) 43 patients with other neurological disease (OND). Concentrations of CSF-sCD27 were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Quantification of CSF-sCD27 differentiates patients with HAM/TSP from HTLV-I carriers (p<0.01) and from patients with OND (p<0.001). Moreover, the multiple sclerosis patient group was different from the OND group (p<0.0001). In patients with multiple sclerosis, CSF-sCD27 concentrations were higher in 24 patients with clinically active disease than in 17 with clinically stable disease. In addition, most of the patients with multiple sclerosis with high sCD27 concentrations showed an increase in EDSS, whereas none of the patients with low sCD27 had an EDSS increase. CONCLUSIONS: As a reliable marker of immunological disease activity in inflammatory white matter disease is still not available, it is proposed that quantification of CSF-sCD27 concentrations is a good candidate. Also, it may serve as a tool to stratify neurological diseases in inflammatory and non-inflammatory states.  (+info)

Early reduction of the over-expression of CD40L, OX40 and Fas on T cells in HIV-1 infection during triple anti-retroviral therapy: possible implications for lymphocyte traffic and functional recovery. (4/629)

Fas, CD40L and OX40 are members of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily with critical roles in T cell activation and death, B cell function, dendritic cell maturation and leucocyte traffic regulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) on CD40L, OX40 and Fas expression on freshly isolated peripheral blood T cells by three-colour flow cytometry and compare them with lymphoproliferative responses, peripheral blood cell counts and viral load. Fourteen asymptomatic HIV-1+ patients treated with Lamivudine, Stavudine and Nelfinavir were prospectively investigated sequentially for 48 weeks. At baseline, patients exhibited significantly enhanced proportions and counts of CD40L+ and OX40+ cells within the CD4 subset which were corrected by weeks 8-16 of HAART. Interestingly, in the five patients showing viral load rebound during therapy in spite of increasing CD4 counts, the reduction of the levels of these costimulatory molecules was similarly maintained. Therapy induced a decrease in the over-expression of Fas, particularly in the CD4 subset where normal levels were reached at week 8. This reduction occurred in parallel with the major recovery of lymphoproliferative responses. Higher basal levels and lower reduction of Fas were associated with suboptimal suppression of viraemia. In conclusion, this previously undescribed increased expression of CD40L and OX40 may play a role in the HIV-associated pan-immune activation and represent a possible target for immunointervention, as suggested for several immunologically mediated diseases. Moreover, HAART induced an early correction of the over-expression of Fas, CD40L and OX40 in CD4 T cells which could be involved in the recovery of the cell traffic disturbances and in the T cell renewal capacity.  (+info)

CD28-independent costimulation of T cells by OX40 ligand and CD70 on activated B cells. (5/629)

OX40 and its ligand (OX40L) have been implicated in T cell-dependent humoral immune responses. To further characterize the role of OX40/OX40L in T-B cell interaction, we newly generated an anti-mouse OX40L mAb (RM134L) that can inhibit the costimulatory activity of OX40L transfectants for anti-CD3-stimulated T cell proliferation. Flow cytometric analyses using RM134L and an anti-mouse OX40 mAb indicated that OX40 was inducible on splenic T cells by stimulation with immobilized anti-CD3 mAb in a CD28-independent manner, while OX40L was not expressed on resting or activated T cells. OX40L was inducible on splenic B cells by stimulation with anti-IgM Ab plus anti-CD40 mAb, but not by either alone. These activated B cells exhibited a potent costimulatory activity for anti-CD3-stimulated T cell proliferation and IL-2 production. Anti-CD80 and anti-CD86 mAbs partially inhibited the costimulatory activity, and further inhibition was obtained by their combination with RM134L and/or anti-CD70 mAb. We also found the anti-IgM Ab- plus anti-CD40 mAb-stimulated B cells exhibited a potent costimulatory activity for proliferation of and IL-2 production by anti-CD3-stimulated CD28- T cells from CD28-deficient mice, which was substantially inhibited by RM134L and/or anti-CD70 mAb. These results indicated that OX40L and CD70 expressed on surface Ig- and CD40-stimulated B cells can provide CD28-independent costimulatory signals to T cells.  (+info)

Expression of T cell activation antigen CD134 (OX40) has no predictive value for the occurrence or response to therapy of acute graft-versus-host disease in partial T cell-depleted bone marrow transplantation. (6/629)

CD134 (OX40) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor family which is expressed by activated T lymphocytes. CD134 expression on T cells was monitored during the first 35 days post-transplant in 14 patients, receiving either an HLA-identical sibling bone marrow transplant (BMT), a matched unrelated transplant (MUD-BMT) or an autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell transplant (PBPCT). The sibling and unrelated grafts were partially depleted of T cells. CD134 expression on CD4+ T cells peaked between 7 and 14 days after BMT, with a mean peak value of 45% of CD4+ cells (range 26-70%) over all three patient groups. The observed pattern of CD4+ CD134+ expression, an increase during the first 2 weeks post-BMT followed by a gradual decline towards values of 15-40%, was similar in all groups. No difference in the kinetics of CD134 expression by CD4+ T cells was observed between the patients that did or did not develop graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), nor did the clinical effect of any treatment given for GVHD correlate with alterations in CD134 expression by CD4+ T cells. Absolute CD4+,CD134+ T cell numbers showed a more rapid increment after autologous PBPCT than after sibling or MUD transplants. We conclude that expression of CD134+ by CD4+ T lymphocytes cannot serve as a surrogate marker for allo-reactivity. CD134+ expression may reflect lymphocyte regeneration, rather than alloreactivity.  (+info)

Evidence that human CD8+CD45RA+CD27- cells are induced by antigen and evolve through extensive rounds of division. (7/629)

We recently showed that circulating human CD8(+) effector cells have a CD45RA+CD27(-) membrane phenotype. In itself this phenotype appeared to pose a paradox: CD45RA, a marker expressed by unprimed cells, combined with absence of CD27, characteristic for chronically stimulated T cells. To investigate whether differentiation towards the CD45RA+CD27(-) phenotype is dependent on antigenic stimulation and involves cellular division, TCR Vbeta usage and telomeric restriction fragment (TRF) length were analyzed within distinct peripheral blood CD8(+) subsets. FACS analysis showed that the TCR Vbeta repertoire of CD8(+)CD45RA+CD27(-) cells differed significantly from that of unprimed CD8(+)CD45RA+CD27(+) cells. Moreover, in two out of six individuals large expansions of particular Vbeta families were observed in the CD8(+)CD45RA+CD27(-) subset. CDR3 spectrotyping and single-strand confirmation analysis revealed that within the CD8(+)CD45RA+CD27(-) population most of the 22 tested Vbeta families were dominated by oligoclonal expansions. The mean TRF length was found to be 2.3+/-1.0 kb shorter in the CD8(+)CD45RA+CD27(-) subset compared with the unprimed CD8(+)CD45RA+CD27(+) population, but did not differ substantially from that of memory type, CD8(+)CD45RA-CD27(+) T cells. These findings indicate that the CD8(+)CD45RA+CD27(-) cytotoxic effector population consists of antigen-induced, clonally expanded cells and confirm that the expression of CD45RA is not a strict marker of antigen non-experienced T cells.  (+info)

Targeted disruption of Traf5 gene causes defects in CD40- and CD27-mediated lymphocyte activation. (8/629)

TRAF5 [tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 5] is implicated in NF-kappaB and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase activation by members of the TNF receptor superfamily, including CD27, CD30, CD40, and lymphotoxin-beta receptor. To investigate the functional role of TRAF5 in vivo, we generated TRAF5-deficient mice by gene targeting. Activation of either NF-kappaB or c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase by tumor necrosis factor, CD27, and CD40 was not abrogated in traf5(-/-) mice. However, traf5(-/-) B cells showed defects in proliferation and up-regulation of various surface molecules, including CD23, CD54, CD80, CD86, and Fas in response to CD40 stimulation. Moreover, in vitro Ig production of traf5(-/-) B cells stimulated with anti-CD40 plus IL-4 was reduced substantially. CD27-mediated costimulatory signal also was impaired in traf5(-/-) T cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that TRAF5 is involved in CD40- and CD27-mediated signaling.  (+info)

*SIVA1

... pathway induced by the CD27 antigen, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TFNR) superfamily. The CD27 antigen ... Held-Feindt J, Mentlein R (2002). "CD70/CD27 ligand, a member of the TNF family, is expressed in human brain tumors". Int. J. ... SIVA1 has been shown to interact with CD27. Siva protein is a zinc-containing intracellular ligand of the CD4 receptor that ... "CD27, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, induces apoptosis and binds to Siva, a proapoptotic protein". Proc ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.126 --- antigens, cd26 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.127 --- antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd18 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.126 --- antigens, cd26 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.127 --- antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.101.100.110.126 --- antigens, cd26 MeSH D23.101.100.110.127 --- antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.101.100.110.128 ... antigens, cd18 MeSH D23.101.100.894.126 --- antigens, cd26 MeSH D23.101.100.894.127 --- antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.101.100.894.128 ...

*CD27

... Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD27 genome location and CD27 gene ... CD27 CD27 molecule". Prasad KV, Ao Z, Yoon Y, Wu MX, Rizk M, Jacquot S, Schlossman SF (Jun 1997). "CD27, a member of the tumor ... Varlilumab is an antibody that binds to CD27 and is an experimental cancer treatment. CD27 has been shown to interact with ... CD27-binding protein (SIVA), a proapoptotic protein, can bind to this receptor and is thought to play an important role in the ...

*Vorsetuzumab

... human CD70 antigen (CD27 ligand, Tumor necrosis Vorsetuzumab mafodotin http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/usan/vorsetuzumab. ... Chemical names are: Immunoglobulin G1, anti-(CD antigen CD70) (human-mouse monoclonal h1F6 heavy chain), disulfide with human- ...

*Immune checkpoint

CD27 - This molecule supports antigen-specific expansion of naïve T cells and is vital for the generation of T cell memory. ... CD27 is also a memory marker of B cells. CD27's activity is governed by the transient availability of its ligand, CD70, on ... "Agonist anti-human CD27 monoclonal antibody induces T cell activation and tumor immunity in human CD27-transgenic mice". J ... Like CD27, OX40 promotes the expansion of effector and memory T cells, however it is also noted for its ability to suppress the ...

*Plasma cell

... naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are CD27++. The surface antigen CD138 (syndecan-1) is ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ... Pieces of the antigen (which are now known as antigenic peptides) are loaded onto MHC II molecules, and presented on its ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 -- antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 -- antigens, cd40 ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 -- receptors, antigen, ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... antigens, cd11a MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.150 -- antigens, cd11b MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.200 -- antigens, cd11c ...

*Betty Diamond

T. Activated memory B cell sub-sets correlate with disease activity in SLE: Delineation by expression of CD27, IgD, and CD95. ... XBP1 governs late events in plasma cell differentiation and is not required for antigen-specific memory B cell development J ... 109:1625-1633 (2002). Newman, J., Rice, JS., Wang, C., Harris, SL., and Diamond, B. Identification of an antigen-specific B ... 111:275-283 (2003). Wang, C., Khalil, M., Ravetch, J., and Diamond, B. The naïve B cell repertoire predisposes to antigen- ...

*Persistent polyclonal B-cell lymphocytosis

Among them, it is associated with a particular genetic variant of the human leukocyte antigen called HLA-DR7. This variant is ... Immunologically, peripheral B-cells show more functional IgD+ positive CD27 cells than usual. In the followup of 111 patients, ...

*CD160

... antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD160 gene. CD160 is a 27 kDa glycoprotein which was initially ... CD28-CD27-cells. In tissues, CD160 is expressed on all intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. CD160 shows a broad specificity ... CD160 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD160 genome location and CD160 gene ...

*CD70

... (Cluster of Differentiation 70) is a ligand for CD27. The CD70 protein is expressed on highly activated lymphocytes (like ... Seattle Genetics Third Quarter 2013 Financial Report CD70 Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...

*B-1 cell

... making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen presenting cells. Notably, most B1 cells do not develop into memory B ... In January 2011, human B1 cells were found to have marker profile of CD20+CD27+CD43+CD70- and could either be CD5+ or CD5-, ... Hence, there appears to be a role for self or foreign antigen in shaping the repertoire of the B-1 B cell compartment. B1 B ... These studies indicate preexisting subset differences in B cell receptor (BCR) specificity and antigen-driven B cell fate that ...

*Lymphopoiesis

CD27 plays a role in lymphoid proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The acquisition of CD27 and Flt3 by the HSC ... Once in a secondary lymphoid organ the B cell can be introduced to an antigen that it is able to recognize. Through this ... It can be expressed as a set (Lin2, Sca1high, c-kit high, CD44+, Thy1.1low, CD27 2, and IL-7Ra2). This set is a 'barcode' for ... T cells are formed in bone marrow then migrate to the cortex of the thymus to undergo maturation in an antigen-free environment ...

*Systemic lupus erythematosus

CD27-/IgD- memory B cells are associated with increased disease activity and renal lupus. T cells, which regulate B-cell ... That leads to maturation of DCs and also to the presentation of intracellular antigens of late apoptotic or secondary necrotic ... In close proximity to TBM, follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are localised in GC, which attach antigen material to their surface ... When apoptotic material is not removed correctly by phagocytes, they are captured instead by antigen-presenting cells, which ...

*IMP321

And there was an increase in the costimulation molecules CD27 and CD28 (CD27+CD28+, p=0.016; and CD27-CD28+, p=0.014). Stable ... The investigators for this work used influenza matrix protein antigen and the tumor antigens Melan-A/MART-1 and survivin when ... Subjects who got IMP321 had higher levels of HBsAg antibody in their blood as well as higher levels of antigen-specific T cells ... An April 2006 paper in Cancer Research showed, in vitro, that IMP321 would induce an antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell response in ...

*CD11a

Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is ... Maurer D, Holter W, Majdic O, Fischer GF, Knapp W (1991). "CD27 expression by a distinct subpopulation of human B lymphocytes ... antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide)". Lu C, Takagi J, Springer TA (May 2001). " ... CD11a Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGAL Info with links in the Cell ...

*PTPRJ

Dong HY, Shahsafaei A, Dorfman DM (2003). "CD148 and CD27 are expressed in B cell lymphomas derived from both memory and naïve ... Tissue Antigens. 54 (5): 485-98. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.1999.540506.x. PMID 10599888. Billard C, Delaire S, Raffoux E, ...

*Germinal center B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

B-cells that have not encountered an antigen are called naive B cells. When naïve B-cells encounter an antigen, one of the ... In normal lymphoid tissues CD27 and its ligand CD70 have a restricted expression pattern, but a 1999 study found CD70 on 71% of ... that bind to a specific antigen. Once activated by an antigen, B-cells proliferate and further differentiate into plasma cells ... Follicular dendritic cells and T cells help to select the B-cells that have a high affinity to the antigen for further ...

*Federica Sallusto

A flavonoid sulfate antigen activates human ab CD8+ Th2 lymphocytes in pollen allergy. Eur J Immunol 2000, 30:964-968. ... Ruprecht CR, Gattorno M, Ferlito F, Gregorio A, Martini A, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Coexpression of CD25 and CD27 identifies ... Sallusto F, Nicolò C, De Maria R, Corinti S, Testi R. Ceramide inhibits antigen uptake and presentation by dendritic cells. J ... Cella M, Salio M, Scheidegger D, Engering A, Pieters J, Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A. Regulation of antigen capture, MHC ...

*Regulatory B cells

However, peripheral blood Bregs were mostly CD24 and CD27 positive after cultivation with anti-CD40 antibody and CpG bacterial ... "IgG4 production is confined to human IL-10-producing regulatory B cells that suppress antigen-specific immune responses". The ...
Hi, I´m Angela. I´m 30 years. I´m from Colombia. I´m a manager engineer. I like to go to the gym, read a book and spend time with my friends. I´m respectful, organized and easy going. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein and is similar in sequence to its family member CD53 antigen. It is known to complex with integrins and other transmembrane 4 superfamily proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Exposure of APL as well as non-APL samples to any concentration of As2O3 did not affect the expression of beta2 integrins (CD11a and CD11b), CD45 isoforms (RA, RB and R0), CD44/H-CAM, CD33 and the CEA-related antigen family members CD66ade and CD66b, thus ...
Original citation: J. Clin. Invest.112:286-297 (2003). doi:10.1172/JCI18025.. Citation for this corrigendum: J. Clin. Invest.113:1069 (2004). doi:10.1172/JCI18025E1.. The legends for Figures 6 and 7 contained inaccuracies, and the correct versions appear below. The conclusions of the article are unaffected.. Figure 6 BAFF increases the generation of ISC from activated memory B cells. (a and b) Memory B cells were preactivated with CD40L and IL-2/IL-10 for 4 days and then recultured with (a) media (black bars), or (b) IL-2/IL-10 alone (black bars) or in the presence of CD40L (white bars) or BAFF (gray bars). Each value represents the mean Ig secretion ± SEM of five (a) or seven (b) experiments using cells from different donors. *P , 0.05; **P , 0.01. (c) Secondary B cell cultures were performed in the absence (black bars) or presence (white bars) of soluble TACI-Ig (20 μg/ml). The values represent the mean IgA ± SD of duplicate samples. (d) Memory B cells were preactivated with ...
Activated naive B cells that seed a GC and undergo SHM, Ig isotype switching, and selection by a specific Ag can differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. It is generally accepted that the processes of SHM and isotype switching are markers of memory B cells. In human tonsils, memory B cells were historically identified by the loss of IgD together with other markers such as CD38 (5, 10, 11, 17). The case for using IgD and CD38 to separate memory (IgD−CD38−) from naive (IgD+CD38−) and GC (IgD−CD38+) B cells was supported by the finding that the majority of tonsil IgD+ cells expressed unmutated IgV region genes, while those expressed by IgD− cells were mutated (5, 11, 25, 26). Studies using these markers demonstrated that although both naive and memory B cells were in a quiescent state, memory cells exhibited enhanced responses compared to naive B cells in vitro (10, 17, 18, 19, 20). Together, these articles established a scheme to identify human memory B cells.. However, ...
B-cells go through a variety of stages during their development which is discussed in B-cell Development. However, the major functionally important stages to be aware of are the final stages known as the Plasma Cell and Memory B Cell stages. Plasma Cells are B-cells specialized for high levels of antibody synthesis and secretion. Memory B Cells are quiescent antigen-sepecific cells which differentiate following a primary immune response to a particular microbe which can become rapidly activated to differentiate into Plasma Cells if the microbe if re-encountered. B-cells can also be classified based on the subtype of antibody which they secrete ...
Quantitative variation in the expression of MHC-encoded class II (Ia) glycoproteins has been associated with stages of lymphocyte development and a number
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Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Stroke.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. ...
Finally, we compared both the frequency and the numbers of Flu- and CMV-specific T cells before EBV infection with those after resolution of the acute phase of infection. Although acute EBV infection transiently alters the CD8+ T cell compartment, both the frequency and total numbers of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells ,150 d after acute infection are similar to baseline (Fig. 1, D and E), indicating that homeostasis of the peripheral immune compartment is not grossly altered by infectious mononucleosis. Consistent with this, there was no significant loss of either CMV- or Flu- specific memory T cells at later time points after EBV infection (Fig. 5 C). Altogether, these data suggest there is no attrition of peripheral blood memory CD8+ T cells during or after heterologous infections in young adults.. This was surprising because studies in animal models showed attrition of preexisting memory CD8+ T cells in many infections (Selin et al., 1996, 1999; Varga et al., 2001; Smith et al., 2002; Liu et al., 2003; ...
Free online memory games. metro match is the classic memory game with a twist. Aj and ep are extremes on the spectrum of human memory. and their cases say more than any brain scan about the extent to which our memories make us who we. The game will be opened inside a popup window. please turn off any block popup program before clicking on the play button. Here, we show that human memory b lymphocytes. proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells in response to polyclonal stimuli, .. Is human memory similar to to the ram in a pc? discussion by michael freed, aerospace human factors, nasa ames research center. Exploiting human memory to create secure and emorable passwords they are difficult to remember because there are limits to human memory. Basic perofrmance data were obtained on the effect of critical task variables in unaided multiobject tracking behavior. .forgetmenot. intimate computing in support of human memory. a prototype device for memory support, an example of contextbased ...
Results Twenty patients were included. Nine were treated by etanercept (ETN), 9 by certolizumab pegol and 2 by adalimumab. The percentage of B cells significantly increased under TNFi from (median [IQR 25-75]) 4.6 (3.5-6.7) to 7.6 (5.2-9.9) % of lymphocytes. No change was observed in the different subtypes of B cells. However, in patients treated with ETN, IgD-CD27- double negative memory B cells significantly increased from 4.6 (2.5-5.4) to 7.7 (6.2-11.0)(p=0.03). The variation of those double negative B cells were significantly different from those observed with monoclonal antibodies (+1.6 [0.0-5.4] vs 0.3 [-1.3-1.8]% of B cells, p=0.02). No change of T, NK, NKT cells was observed in either group. EULAR responders at 3 months had significantly higher percentage of CD27+ memory B cells at baseline (32.9 [25.2-40.6] vs 19.5 [12.3-19.6]% of B cells, respectively; p=0.02), especially IgD+CD27+ pre-switch memory B cells (19.3 [9.8-21.8] vs 5.9 [4.9-9.4]% of B cells, respectively; p=0.02). Since ...
Tracer or toxin injections. For tracer experiments, under chloral hydrate anesthesia (7% in saline; 350 mg/kg), a fine glass pipette containing 1.0% cholera toxin subunit B (CTB; List Biologic, Campbell, CA), 12.5% biotinylated dextran (BD), or a mixture of 1% CTB and 12.5% BD was lowered to the precalculated targets based on the rat atlas of Paxinos and Watson (1998), and 9 nl of a solution containing the tracers was injected by an air pressure system. Phaseolus vulgaris leukoagglutinin (PHA-L; 2.5%) was injected by iontophoresis with a current of 5 μA for 15 min (7 s on and 7 s off). After two additional minutes, the pipette was slowly withdrawn and the incision was closed with wound clips. Animals survived for 7 d. The coordinates for tracer injections were as follows: medial prefrontal cortex, anteroposterior (AP), 2.20 mm, medial-lateral (ML), 0.4 mm, dorsoventral (DV), 4.6 mm; midline thalamus, AP, -2.8 mm, ML, 0 mm, DV, 4.4 mm; intralaminar thalamus, AP, -2.8 mm, ML, 0.8 mm, DV, 5.6 mm; ...
The mental faculty that allows us to retain information as well as recall experiences from a long time ago is known as memory. the human memory is a highly. Here, we show that human memory b lymphocytes. proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells in response to polyclonal stimuli, .. It is more accurate to speak of human memories rather than of human memory, since people have several distinctly different types. The human memory and cognition lab uses empirical, computational, and developmental approaches to understand how memory works in humans. Turn the cards, test your memory see whether you can match them in correct pairs. instructions to play. there are pairs of images hidden in this applet. Try remember where the images are f youre about to go crazy pictures in this game are from poisons icons. return to game index. How is your memory for faces? back to games back to memory games back to face recognition. ame developed by kien caoxuan. When you are considering face, try to imprint it ...
Regulation of inhibitory IgSF receptors in memory B cells by IL-4. Naive and memory B cells were purified from peripheral blood and cultured either in medium al
Combattre les radicaux libres pour prévenir le vieillissement prématuré de la peau. Traitement anti-âge innovant. Combattre les radicaux libres pour prévenir le... ...
Given the genetic diversity of B-cell lymphomas and differential antigen expression patterns across lymphoma subtypes, it is unlikely that a single small molecule or antibody-based therapeutic will effectively treat all categories of NHL. Therefore, the use of therapeutic antibody combinations targeting different tumor antigens is expected to produce a more robust antitumor response. Simultaneously targeting CD20 and the TNFR family member CD40 may be productive, because both are expressed on the majority of B-cell lymphomas and mediate differential signaling events through their cytoplasmic domains. We evaluated the potential of improving rituximab-based therapies in NHL by targeting CD40 with dacetuzumab. In vivo analysis of the dacetuzumab-rituximab combination in the Ramos NHL xenograft model showed the capacity of dacetuzumab to augment rituximab activity. Potential mechanisms of action behind the ability of dacetuzumab to enhance rituximab activity in vivo include improved recruitment of ...
Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share your publications and get them in front of Issuus millions of monthly readers. Title: Multiple trace theory of human memory, Author: Daniel Krchnak, Name: Multiple trace theory of human memory, Length: 17 pages, Page: 1, Published: 2013-09-23
A printable page of FREE kids reward stickers that have been designed for our popular high flyers kids reward chart. This collection contains images of hot air balloons, planes and birds.. Why not use them with our FREE Kids Reward Chart - High Flyers. The download comes as a high quality A4 PDF file with no watermark.. HighFlyersRewardChartStickers2.zip Your download link expires after 10 minutes. Please refresh this page if it has expired.. ...
View mouse Siva1 Chr12:112644828-112649152 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
A Phase Ib trial design will be employed in patients with metastatic PC who have failed prior androgen ablation and docetaxel. CTX will be administered also on Day 1. All patients will receive RT (800 cGy in a single fraction) to up to 3 bone metastatic sites on Day 4 in the AM. Anti-OX40 at 0.4 mg/kg IV will be given on days 4, 6 and 8. The timing of CTX, RT and anti-OX40 are based on the pre-clinical models and the observation that the synergies of CTX and RT are reduced when they are given more than one week after anti-OX40 and are maximized when given within 3 days of starting anti-OX40. The proposed radiation dose is commonly used to palliate bone pain in PC and generally will not induce significant cytopenias. The CTX dose will be escalated in successive cohorts of 3 - 6 patients to assure patient safety. The dose levels of CTX will be 300, 600 and 900 mg/m2 intravenously in the initial stage of the study. The range of CTX doses is commonly used in general oncology practice and is not ...

CD27 Antibody | Bethyl Laboratories, Inc.CD27 Antibody | Bethyl Laboratories, Inc.

Unconjugated Whole IgG Rabbit anti-CD27 Antibody, Affinity Purified suitable for WB applications. Visit Bethyl.com for all your ... T cell activation antigen S152 antibody. *T14 antibody. *T-cell activation antigen CD27 antibody ...
more infohttps://www.bethyl.com/product/A304-380A-T?referrer=Signal+Transduction&target=CD27

Biomarkers - Olink	Biomarkers - Olink

CD27 antigen is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, and is needed for generation and maintenance of T ... Via its interactions with ligand CD70, it plays a key role in regulating B-cell activation and immunoglobulin synthesis.CD27 ... These curves are generated during the assay validation process using recombinant antigens. Please note that when analyzing ...
more infohttps://www.olink.com/products/immuno-oncology/biomarkers/?biomarkerId=800

Evaluation of CD27 expression on mycobacterial antigen-specific CD4+ T cells as an immunological marker for diagnosis of active...Evaluation of CD27 expression on mycobacterial antigen-specific CD4+ T cells as an immunological marker for diagnosis of active...

Evaluation of CD27 expression on mycobacterial antigen-specific CD4+ T cells as an immunological marker for diagnosis of active ... Evaluation of CD27 expression on mycobacterial antigen-specific CD4+ T cells as an immunological marker for diagnosis of active ... This study aims to explore the extent of CD27 expression on ESAT-6 and CFP-10 antigen-specific CD4+ T cells as a recent ... Evaluation of CD27 expression on mycobacterial antigen-specific CD4+ T cells as an immunological marker for diagnosis of active ...
more infohttps://vlibrary.emro.who.int/imemr/evaluation-of-cd27-expression-on-mycobacterial-antigen-specific-cd4-t-cells-as-an-immunological-marker-for-diagnosis-of-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-2/?skeyword=

Evaluation of CD27 expression on mycobacterial antigen-specific CD4+ T cells as an immunological marker for diagnosis of active...Evaluation of CD27 expression on mycobacterial antigen-specific CD4+ T cells as an immunological marker for diagnosis of active...

Evaluation of CD27 expression on mycobacterial antigen-specific CD4+ T cells as an immunological marker for diagnosis of active ... Evaluation of CD27 expression on mycobacterial antigen-specific CD4+ T cells as an immunological marker for diagnosis of active ... This study aims to explore the extent of CD27 expression on ESAT-6 and CFP-10 antigen-specific CD4+ T cells as a recent ... Evaluation of CD27 expression on mycobacterial antigen-specific CD4+ T cells as an immunological marker for diagnosis of active ...
more infohttps://vlibrary.emro.who.int/imemr/evaluation-of-cd27-expression-on-mycobacterial-antigen-specific-cd4-t-cells-as-an-immunological-marker-for-diagnosis-of-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-2/

CD27 | Cancer Genetics WebCD27 | Cancer Genetics Web

Persistence of EBV antigen-specific CD8 T cell clonotypes during homeostatic immune reconstitution in cancer patients.. PLoS ... CD27 and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. View Publications. 11. Multiple Myeloma. CD27 and Multiple Myeloma. View Publications. ... CD27. COSMIC, Sanger Institute. Somatic mutation information and related details CD27. GEO Profiles, NCBI. Search the gene ... CD70-dependent release of soluble CD27 in cocultures may explain the high CD27 levels observed in sera of patients with CD70- ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/CD27.htm

Anti-CD27 antibody [LG.3A10] (ab80777) | AbcamAnti-CD27 antibody [LG.3A10] (ab80777) | Abcam

Armenian hamster monoclonal CD27 antibody [LG.3A10] validated for IP, IHC, Flow Cyt and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. ... T cell activation antigen CD27 antibody. *T cell antivation antigen S152 antibody ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/cd27-antibody-lg3a10-ab80777.html

cd27 Protein, CD27 molecule - Creative BioMartcd27 Protein, CD27 molecule - Creative BioMart

CD27-binding protein (SIVA), a proapoptotic protein, can bind to this receptor and is thought to play an important role in the ... CD27; CD27 molecule; T14; S152; Tp55; TNFRSF7; S152. LPFS2; CD27 antigen; CD27L receptor; T cell activation antigen S152; T- ... Recombinant Human CD27 Molecule, His-tagged. E. coli. Human. His. +Inquiry. Cd27-3258M. Recombinant Mouse CD27 Antigen, Fc ... CD27-141H. Recombinant Human CD27, Fc-tagged. CHO. Human. Fc. +Inquiry. CD27-180H. Recombinant Human CD27 Protein, Fc-tagged. ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/symbolsearch_CD27.htm

Effect of food intake on 92 oncological biomarkers by the Proseek Oncology II panel | Springer for Research & DevelopmentEffect of food intake on 92 oncological biomarkers by the Proseek Oncology II panel | Springer for Research & Development

CD27 antigen (7%,13%), Xaa-Pro aminopeptidase 2 (6%,15%), Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-4 (6%,15%), Hepatocyte growth ... CD48 antigen (7%,14%), Secretory carrier-associated membrane protein 3 (8%,15%), T-lymphocyte surface antigen Ly-9 (6%,14%), ... CD70 antigen (7%,16%), R-spondin-3 (10%,13%), Folate receptor gamma (8%,13%), Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion ... Cancer antigen-125) [29]. Their results, for the most part, coincided with ours: food intake showed no effect on biomarker ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs13104-019-4237-9

Homo sapiens ATCC ® 95673™Homo sapiens ATCC ® 95673™

Gene name: CD70 antigen (CD27 ligand). Contains complete coding sequence?: Y. Chromosome: 19; Localization: 19 p13. Tissue: B- ... Molecular and biological characterization of a ligand for CD27 defines a new family of cytokines with homology to tumor ... The cloning of CD70 and its identification as the ligand for CD27. J. Immunol. 152: 1756-1761, 1994. PubMed: 8120384 ... Gene product: CD70 antigen (CD27 ligand) [CD70]. Target Gene: CD70 antigen (CD27 ligand) ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Molecular_Biology/Clones/95673.aspx

A Monoclonal Antibody Reactive with a 40-kDa Molecule on Fetal Thymocytes and Tumor Cells Blocks Proliferation and Stimulates...A Monoclonal Antibody Reactive with a 40-kDa Molecule on Fetal Thymocytes and Tumor Cells Blocks Proliferation and Stimulates...

The T cell activation antigen CD27 is a member of the NGF/TNF receptor gene family. J. Immunol. 147: 3165. ... Antigen recognition by H-2-restricted T cells. I. Cell-free antigen. J. Exp. Med. 158: 303. ... Antigen presentation by Ia+ B cell hybridomas to H-2-restricted T cell hybridomas. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 3604. ... Presentation of exogenous antigens by macrophages: analysis of major histocompatibility complex class I and II presentation. ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/163/3/1306

The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Effect of Diethylcarbamazine on HIV Load, CD4%, and CD4/CD8 Ratio in...The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Effect of Diethylcarbamazine on HIV Load, CD4%, and CD4/CD8 Ratio in...

Elevated levels of T cell activation antigen CD27 and increased interleukin-4 production in human lymphatic filariasis. Eur J ... Effect of diethylcarbamazine in serum antibody to feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen in feline leukaemia ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.507

Integrated network analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data in psoriasis | Springer for Research & DevelopmentIntegrated network analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data in psoriasis | Springer for Research & Development

De Rie MA, et al.: Expression of the T-cell activation antigens CD27 and CD28 in normal and psoriatic skin. Clin Exp Dermatol. ... Squamous cell carcinoma antigen, Squamous cell carcinoma antigen-2, Enolase 1, Superoxide dismutase [Mn], Galectin-7, S100 ... Takeda A, et al.: Overexpression of serpin squamous cell carcinoma antigens in psoriatic skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2002, 118 (1 ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186/1752-0509-4-41

CD27 Antibody, Alexa Fluor® 700 (56-0279-42)
                
                
		        
	CD27 Antibody, Alexa Fluor® 700 (56-0279-42)

Invitrogen Anti-CD27 Monoclonal (O323), eBioscience™, Catalog # 56-0279-42. Tested in Flow Cytometry (Flow) applications. This ... CD27 antigen; CD27L receptor; T cell activation antigen CD27; T cell activation antigen S152; T-cell activation antigen CD27; ... degradates CD27 and counteracts T cell activation mediated by CD27 and its ligand CD70. CD27-binding protein (SIVA), a ... Published figure using CD27 monoclonal antibody (Product # 56-0279-42). Published figure using CD27 monoclonal antibody ( ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/CD27-Antibody-clone-O323-Monoclonal/56-0279-42

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Cluster of differentiation antigen 27 Current Synonym true false 1233155010 CD27 - Cluster of differentiation antigen 27 ... Lymphocyte antigen CD27 Current Synonym true false 1233154014 ... Lymphocyte antigen CD27 (substance). Concept Status. Published ... Lymphocyte antigen CD27 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=69342005

Jean Kim - Research Output
     - Johns Hopkins UniversityJean Kim - Research Output - Johns Hopkins University

CD27 Antigens Respiratory Mucosa Gene expression profiles in human nasal polyp tissues studied by means of DNA microarray. Liu ...
more infohttps://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/jean-kim/publications/

Christopher Gamper - Research Output
     - Johns Hopkins UniversityChristopher Gamper - Research Output - Johns Hopkins University

CD27 Antigens 2012 All PI3Kinase signaling is not mTOR: Dissecting mtor-dependent and independent signaling pathways in T cells ... Single-Agent Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide as Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis after Human Leukocyte Antigen- ...
more infohttps://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/christopher-gamper/publications/?type=%2Fdk%2Fatira%2Fpure%2Fresearchoutput%2Fresearchoutputtypes%2Fcontributiontojournal%2Farticle&ordering=publicationYearThenTitle&descending=false

Factors Associated With Persistence of Plasma HIV-1 RNA During Long-term Continuously Suppressive Firstline Antiretroviral...Factors Associated With Persistence of Plasma HIV-1 RNA During Long-term Continuously Suppressive Firstline Antiretroviral...

Decay of soluble CD30 and HIV-1 ferentiation antigen CD27 is released after triggering of the TCR/CD3 complex. plasma viral ... Decay of soluble CD30 and HIV-1 ferentiation antigen CD27 is released after triggering of the TCR/CD3 complex. plasma viral ... Aberrant expression of CD27 and sol- during more than a decade of suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis uble CD27 ... Aberrant expression of CD27 and sol- during more than a decade of suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis uble CD27 ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/ou_press/factors-associated-with-persistence-of-plasma-hiv-1-rna-during-long-FKH1Ud8HRh

anti-CD27 antibody | Rabbit CD27 Polyclonal Antibody-NP 001233.1anti-CD27 antibody | Rabbit CD27 Polyclonal Antibody-NP 001233.1

Rabbit CD27 Polyclonal Antibody-NP_001233.1 (MBS2520573) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: ... CD27 antigen; CD27L receptor; T cell activation antigen S152; T-cell activation antigen CD27; tumor necrosis factor receptor ... CD27 antigen UniProt Synonym Protein Names CD27L receptor; T-cell activation antigen CD27; T14; Tumor necrosis factor receptor ... Research Articles on CD27 1. A lower primary CD24(hi) CD27(+) CD19(+) B cells may be an immunologic aspect of new-onset SLE ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/prods/Antibody/Polyclonal/CD27/datasheet.php?products_id=2520573

Anti-CD27 Armenian Hamster Monoclonal Antibody () [clone: LG.3A10] | VWRAnti-CD27 Armenian Hamster Monoclonal Antibody () [clone: LG.3A10] | VWR

Antigen: CD27. Clonality: Monoclonal. Clone: LG.3A10. Conjugation: Epitope: Host: Armenian Hamster. Isotype: Armenian Hamster ... Anti-CD27 Armenian Hamster Monoclonal Antibody () [clone: LG.3A10]. Anti-CD27 Armenian Hamster Monoclonal Antibody () [clone: ... Armenian hamster fibroblast line ARHO12 transfected with mouse CD27 cDNA. Purification. The antibody was purified by affinity ... Purified anti-mouse/rat/human CD27 [LG.3A10]; Isotype: Armenian Hamster IgG; Reactivity: Mouse, Rat, Human; Apps: FC, IHC; Size ...
more infohttps://us.vwr.com/store/product/16794292/anti-cd27-armenian-hamster-monoclonal-antibody-clone-lg-3a10

OriGene - Cd27 (NM 001033126) Human ORF cDNA CloneOriGene - Cd27 (NM 001033126) Human ORF cDNA Clone

Cd27 (GFP-tagged) - Mouse CD27 antigen (Cd27) transcript variant 1, (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene ... CD27 (untagged)-Human CD27 molecule (CD27). $190. Next day. RC204252. CD27 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human CD27 molecule (CD27). $390. ... CD27 (GFP-tagged) - Human CD27 molecule (CD27). $430. Next day. RC504252. CD27 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human CD27 molecule (CD27), ( ... Cd27 Rat Clones. SKU. Description. Price. Shipping. RN207230. Cd27 (untagged ORF) - Rat CD27 molecule (Cd27), (10 ug). $390. ...
more infohttp://www.origene.com/Mouse_ORF/MG226565.aspx

CD27-PC5 - Beckman CoulterCD27-PC5 - Beckman Coulter

The CD27 antigen is a transmembrane glycoprotein disulfide-linked homodimer composed of 55 kDa monomers. CD27 belongs to the ... CD27 antigen is found on medullary thymocytes, peripheral T lymphocytes, activated B lymphocytes and NK cells. It is ...
more infohttps://www.beckman.com/reagents/coulter-flow-cytometry/antibodies-and-kits/single-color-antibodies/6607107?loopPrevention=1

CD27-APC-A750 - Beckman CoulterCD27-APC-A750 - Beckman Coulter

The CD27 antigen is a transmembrane glycoprotein disulfide-linked homodimer composed of 55 kDa monomers. CD27 belongs to the ... CD27 antigen is found on medullary thymocytes, peripheral T lymphocytes, activated B lymphocytes and NK cells. It is ...
more infohttps://www.beckman.com/reagents/coulter-flow-cytometry/antibodies-and-kits/single-color-antibodies/B12701

939-MSM2-P | CD27 (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily 7) | NeoBiotechnologies939-MSM2-P | CD27 (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily 7) | NeoBiotechnologies

LPFS2/1611] is a mouse monoclonal antibody to CD27. It has been validated for use in the following applications: IHC, FC & IF. ... LPFS2; S152; T cell activation antigen S152; T-cell activation antigen CD27; T14; TNFRSF7; TNFSF7; Tp55; Tumor necrosis factor ... Expression of the T-cell activation antigens CD27 and CD28 in normal and psoriatic skin. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1996 Mar;21(2):104- ... CD27 binds to its ligand CD70, a member of the TNF family, and induces T-cell co-stimulation and B-cell activation. It also ...
more infohttps://www.neobiotechnologies.com/datasheet/cd27-antibody-lpfs21611-939-2

Pathobiology of Hodgkin LymphomaPathobiology of Hodgkin Lymphoma

... the memory B-cell antigen CD27, and the stem cell marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) [13]. Grippingly, CD27+/ALDH++ B-cells, ... Antibodies against the nuclear-associated antigens Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) stain most H&RS cells, ... melanoma-associated antigens, carcinoembryonic antigen, and placental alkaline phosphatise [14]. ... Interestingly, the antigen is masked by fixation (especially prolonged fixation in formalin or fixation in B5); thus, very ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ah/2011/920898/
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: CD27 Monoclonal Antibody (O323), Alexa Fluor 700, eBioscience™ from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 56-0279-42, RRID AB_11044789. (thermofisher.com)
  • CD27 is expressed by a subset of thymocytes and virtually all mature T cells and is upregulated upon T-cell stimulation. (thermofisher.com)
  • Activation of T cells via TCR-CD3 complex results in upregulation of CD27 expression on the plasma membrane as well as in the release of its soluble 28-32 kDa form, sCD27, detected in the plasma, urine or spinal fluid. (thermofisher.com)
  • Importantly, on both transitional and activated memory/effector T cell subsets, the expression patterns of the 15/7 and 24 epitopes vs. a variety of T cell activation antigens are identical, and the expression of these epitopes relative to each other is linearly correlated, findings strongly supporting the coordinate activation of β1 and β2 integrins during T cell activation in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • naive peripheral T cells express CD27 and expression is up-regulated upon TCR stimulation. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Loss of CD27 expression is irreversible and seems to represent terminal effector T cell differentiation. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Intriguingly, the B cells within the HL cell lines expressed immunoglobulin light chain, the memory B-cell antigen CD27, and the stem cell marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Grippingly, CD27 + /ALDH ++ B-cells, clonally related to lymph node HRS cells, were also detected in the blood of HL patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Our method showed significant advantages, including the rapid incorporation of OVA and the activation of antigen-specific T cells in a MHC-restricted manner. (elsevier.com)
  • Soluble CD27 is an important prognostic marker of acute and chronic B cell malignancies. (thermofisher.com)
  • Small volumes of anti-CD27 antibody vial(s) may occasionally become entrapped in the seal of the product vial during shipment and storage. (mybiosource.com)