Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Allelic variants of the gamma-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN GAMMA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
2-(2,2-Dicyclohexylethyl)piperidine. Coronary vasodilator used especially for angina of effort. It may cause neuropathy and hepatitis.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.

Immunotherapy of human tumors with T-cell-activating bispecific antibodies: stimulation of cytotoxic pathways in vivo. (1/629)

Bispecific monoclonal antibodies (Bi-mAbs) specific for a tumor-associated antigen and the CD3 or CD28 antigen on T lymphocytes represent one of the most successful experimental strategies for the immunotherapy of cancer. We report that the in vivo administration of both alpha-CD3/CD30 and alpha-CD28/CD30 Bi-mAbs results in the specific activation of xenotransplanted, resting human T cells infiltrating the CD30-positive Hodgkin's tumor. Bi-mAb treatment resulted in enhanced expression of cytokines such as interleukin 1beta, interleukin 2, tumor necrosis factor type alpha, and activation markers including Ki-67, CD25, and CD45RO in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. This antigen-dependent, local T-cell stimulation led to the activation of the cytolytic machinery in T lymphocytes, determined by the up-regulation of mRNA-encoding perforin and the cytotoxic serine-esterases granzymes A and B. The Bi-mAb-induced generation of CTLs depended on the presence of the CD30 antigen and the combined application of both Bi-mAbs. Our findings suggest that the combined application of T-cell-activating Bi-mAbs is able to achieve a tumor site-specific activation of the T-cell cytolytic machinery in vivo. The fact that these cytotoxic cells do not home in tumor-associated antigen-negative tissue and do not enter circulation might explain our previous observations (C. Renner et al., Blood, 87: 2930-2937, 1996) of a high cure rate in preclinical models even at an advanced stage of disease.  (+info)

The T-cell activation markers CD30 and OX40/CD134 are expressed in nonoverlapping subsets of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. (2/629)

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family includes several important markers of activation in T cells. We examined expression patterns of two T-cell-associated members of these receptors, namely CD30 and OX40/CD134, in 148 cases of T-cell lymphoma to identify possible objective immunohistochemical criteria for subclassification of these tumors. CD30 expression was characteristic of tumors with an anaplastic (46/47 cases [98%]) or large-cell (10/21 [48%]) morphology and was seen in only scattered cells in other tumor types. In contrast, large numbers of OX40/CD134(+) tumors cells were typical of angioimmunoblastic lymphoma (15/16 [94%]), angiocentric lymphoma (4/4), a subset of large-cell lymphomas (10/21 [48%]), and lymphomas with a prominent histiocytic component (6/7 [86%]). Strong OX40/CD134 and CD30 coexpression was seen in only 4% of tumors, typically those with an anaplastic/Hodgkin's-like appearance. OX40/CD134 expression was characteristic of tumors composed of activated CD4(+) T cells and was not seen in small-cell T-cell lymphomas, lymphoblastic lymphomas, or other tumor types, including B-cell lymphomas or carcinomas. These results suggest that immunostaining for OX40/CD134 may be helpful in subclassification of peripheral T-cell lymphomas and that the patterns of TNF receptor family expression in these tumors may parallel those seen within nonneoplastic helper T-cell subsets.  (+info)

Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of soluble CD27 in HTLV-I associated myelopathy and multiple sclerosis. (3/629)

OBJECTIVES: Stimulation of T lymphocytes via the T cell receptor strongly enhances CD27 membrane expression and induces the release of a soluble 32 kDa form of CD27 (sCD27). CD27 is a member of the TNF receptor family, a group of molecules that have important roles in lymphocyte differentiation and survival. Raised concentrations of sCD27 have been reported in various immunopathological conditions and there is evidence that this molecule can serve as a marker of T cell activation in vivo. Concentrations of sCD27 in CSF were compared between patients with T cell mediated neurological disease and non-inflammatory controls. Also, the relation of CSF-sCD27 concentrations with clinical disease activity was investigated in patients with multiple sclerosis. METHODS: Four groups were studied: (1) eight patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/ tropical spastic paraparisis (HAM)/TSP), (2) eight HTLV-I carriers, (3) 41 patients with multiple sclerosis, and (4) 43 patients with other neurological disease (OND). Concentrations of CSF-sCD27 were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Quantification of CSF-sCD27 differentiates patients with HAM/TSP from HTLV-I carriers (p<0.01) and from patients with OND (p<0.001). Moreover, the multiple sclerosis patient group was different from the OND group (p<0.0001). In patients with multiple sclerosis, CSF-sCD27 concentrations were higher in 24 patients with clinically active disease than in 17 with clinically stable disease. In addition, most of the patients with multiple sclerosis with high sCD27 concentrations showed an increase in EDSS, whereas none of the patients with low sCD27 had an EDSS increase. CONCLUSIONS: As a reliable marker of immunological disease activity in inflammatory white matter disease is still not available, it is proposed that quantification of CSF-sCD27 concentrations is a good candidate. Also, it may serve as a tool to stratify neurological diseases in inflammatory and non-inflammatory states.  (+info)

Early reduction of the over-expression of CD40L, OX40 and Fas on T cells in HIV-1 infection during triple anti-retroviral therapy: possible implications for lymphocyte traffic and functional recovery. (4/629)

Fas, CD40L and OX40 are members of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily with critical roles in T cell activation and death, B cell function, dendritic cell maturation and leucocyte traffic regulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) on CD40L, OX40 and Fas expression on freshly isolated peripheral blood T cells by three-colour flow cytometry and compare them with lymphoproliferative responses, peripheral blood cell counts and viral load. Fourteen asymptomatic HIV-1+ patients treated with Lamivudine, Stavudine and Nelfinavir were prospectively investigated sequentially for 48 weeks. At baseline, patients exhibited significantly enhanced proportions and counts of CD40L+ and OX40+ cells within the CD4 subset which were corrected by weeks 8-16 of HAART. Interestingly, in the five patients showing viral load rebound during therapy in spite of increasing CD4 counts, the reduction of the levels of these costimulatory molecules was similarly maintained. Therapy induced a decrease in the over-expression of Fas, particularly in the CD4 subset where normal levels were reached at week 8. This reduction occurred in parallel with the major recovery of lymphoproliferative responses. Higher basal levels and lower reduction of Fas were associated with suboptimal suppression of viraemia. In conclusion, this previously undescribed increased expression of CD40L and OX40 may play a role in the HIV-associated pan-immune activation and represent a possible target for immunointervention, as suggested for several immunologically mediated diseases. Moreover, HAART induced an early correction of the over-expression of Fas, CD40L and OX40 in CD4 T cells which could be involved in the recovery of the cell traffic disturbances and in the T cell renewal capacity.  (+info)

CD28-independent costimulation of T cells by OX40 ligand and CD70 on activated B cells. (5/629)

OX40 and its ligand (OX40L) have been implicated in T cell-dependent humoral immune responses. To further characterize the role of OX40/OX40L in T-B cell interaction, we newly generated an anti-mouse OX40L mAb (RM134L) that can inhibit the costimulatory activity of OX40L transfectants for anti-CD3-stimulated T cell proliferation. Flow cytometric analyses using RM134L and an anti-mouse OX40 mAb indicated that OX40 was inducible on splenic T cells by stimulation with immobilized anti-CD3 mAb in a CD28-independent manner, while OX40L was not expressed on resting or activated T cells. OX40L was inducible on splenic B cells by stimulation with anti-IgM Ab plus anti-CD40 mAb, but not by either alone. These activated B cells exhibited a potent costimulatory activity for anti-CD3-stimulated T cell proliferation and IL-2 production. Anti-CD80 and anti-CD86 mAbs partially inhibited the costimulatory activity, and further inhibition was obtained by their combination with RM134L and/or anti-CD70 mAb. We also found the anti-IgM Ab- plus anti-CD40 mAb-stimulated B cells exhibited a potent costimulatory activity for proliferation of and IL-2 production by anti-CD3-stimulated CD28- T cells from CD28-deficient mice, which was substantially inhibited by RM134L and/or anti-CD70 mAb. These results indicated that OX40L and CD70 expressed on surface Ig- and CD40-stimulated B cells can provide CD28-independent costimulatory signals to T cells.  (+info)

Expression of T cell activation antigen CD134 (OX40) has no predictive value for the occurrence or response to therapy of acute graft-versus-host disease in partial T cell-depleted bone marrow transplantation. (6/629)

CD134 (OX40) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor family which is expressed by activated T lymphocytes. CD134 expression on T cells was monitored during the first 35 days post-transplant in 14 patients, receiving either an HLA-identical sibling bone marrow transplant (BMT), a matched unrelated transplant (MUD-BMT) or an autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell transplant (PBPCT). The sibling and unrelated grafts were partially depleted of T cells. CD134 expression on CD4+ T cells peaked between 7 and 14 days after BMT, with a mean peak value of 45% of CD4+ cells (range 26-70%) over all three patient groups. The observed pattern of CD4+ CD134+ expression, an increase during the first 2 weeks post-BMT followed by a gradual decline towards values of 15-40%, was similar in all groups. No difference in the kinetics of CD134 expression by CD4+ T cells was observed between the patients that did or did not develop graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), nor did the clinical effect of any treatment given for GVHD correlate with alterations in CD134 expression by CD4+ T cells. Absolute CD4+,CD134+ T cell numbers showed a more rapid increment after autologous PBPCT than after sibling or MUD transplants. We conclude that expression of CD134+ by CD4+ T lymphocytes cannot serve as a surrogate marker for allo-reactivity. CD134+ expression may reflect lymphocyte regeneration, rather than alloreactivity.  (+info)

Evidence that human CD8+CD45RA+CD27- cells are induced by antigen and evolve through extensive rounds of division. (7/629)

We recently showed that circulating human CD8(+) effector cells have a CD45RA+CD27(-) membrane phenotype. In itself this phenotype appeared to pose a paradox: CD45RA, a marker expressed by unprimed cells, combined with absence of CD27, characteristic for chronically stimulated T cells. To investigate whether differentiation towards the CD45RA+CD27(-) phenotype is dependent on antigenic stimulation and involves cellular division, TCR Vbeta usage and telomeric restriction fragment (TRF) length were analyzed within distinct peripheral blood CD8(+) subsets. FACS analysis showed that the TCR Vbeta repertoire of CD8(+)CD45RA+CD27(-) cells differed significantly from that of unprimed CD8(+)CD45RA+CD27(+) cells. Moreover, in two out of six individuals large expansions of particular Vbeta families were observed in the CD8(+)CD45RA+CD27(-) subset. CDR3 spectrotyping and single-strand confirmation analysis revealed that within the CD8(+)CD45RA+CD27(-) population most of the 22 tested Vbeta families were dominated by oligoclonal expansions. The mean TRF length was found to be 2.3+/-1.0 kb shorter in the CD8(+)CD45RA+CD27(-) subset compared with the unprimed CD8(+)CD45RA+CD27(+) population, but did not differ substantially from that of memory type, CD8(+)CD45RA-CD27(+) T cells. These findings indicate that the CD8(+)CD45RA+CD27(-) cytotoxic effector population consists of antigen-induced, clonally expanded cells and confirm that the expression of CD45RA is not a strict marker of antigen non-experienced T cells.  (+info)

Targeted disruption of Traf5 gene causes defects in CD40- and CD27-mediated lymphocyte activation. (8/629)

TRAF5 [tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 5] is implicated in NF-kappaB and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase activation by members of the TNF receptor superfamily, including CD27, CD30, CD40, and lymphotoxin-beta receptor. To investigate the functional role of TRAF5 in vivo, we generated TRAF5-deficient mice by gene targeting. Activation of either NF-kappaB or c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase by tumor necrosis factor, CD27, and CD40 was not abrogated in traf5(-/-) mice. However, traf5(-/-) B cells showed defects in proliferation and up-regulation of various surface molecules, including CD23, CD54, CD80, CD86, and Fas in response to CD40 stimulation. Moreover, in vitro Ig production of traf5(-/-) B cells stimulated with anti-CD40 plus IL-4 was reduced substantially. CD27-mediated costimulatory signal also was impaired in traf5(-/-) T cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that TRAF5 is involved in CD40- and CD27-mediated signaling.  (+info)

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This eighth edition of the United States Code was prepared and published pursuant to section 202 (c) of Title 1 of the Code. It contains a consolidation and codification of all the general and permanent laws of the United States which are in force on January 20, 1971, By statutory authority this edition may be cited U.S.C. 1970 ed. Previous editions were published in 1926, 1934, 1940, 1946, 1952, 1958, and 1964.. Inasmuch as many of the general and permanent laws which are required to be incorporated in this Code are inconsistent, redundant, and obsolete, the Committee on the Judiciary is engaged in a comprehensive project of revising and enacting the Code into law, title by title. In furtherance of this plan bills have been enacted to revise, codify and enact into law Titles 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 14, 17, 18, 23, 28, 32, 35, 37, 38, 39, and 44. In addition, bills relating to other titles are also being prepared for introduction. When this work is completed all the titles of the Code will ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein and is similar in sequence to its family member CD53 antigen. It is known to complex with integrins and other transmembrane 4 superfamily proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Exposure of APL as well as non-APL samples to any concentration of As2O3 did not affect the expression of beta2 integrins (CD11a and CD11b), CD45 isoforms (RA, RB and R0), CD44/H-CAM, CD33 and the CEA-related antigen family members CD66ade and CD66b, thus ...
Literatura, Paramaśiva, Śiva e Śakti, entendendo os tattva-s (Paramasiva,Parama siva,Paramashiva,Parama shiva,Paramshiva,Param shiva,Siva,Shiva,Sakti,Shakti) - The sun of Sanskrit knowledge
Original citation: J. Clin. Invest.112:286-297 (2003). doi:10.1172/JCI18025.. Citation for this corrigendum: J. Clin. Invest.113:1069 (2004). doi:10.1172/JCI18025E1.. The legends for Figures 6 and 7 contained inaccuracies, and the correct versions appear below. The conclusions of the article are unaffected.. Figure 6 BAFF increases the generation of ISC from activated memory B cells. (a and b) Memory B cells were preactivated with CD40L and IL-2/IL-10 for 4 days and then recultured with (a) media (black bars), or (b) IL-2/IL-10 alone (black bars) or in the presence of CD40L (white bars) or BAFF (gray bars). Each value represents the mean Ig secretion ± SEM of five (a) or seven (b) experiments using cells from different donors. *P , 0.05; **P , 0.01. (c) Secondary B cell cultures were performed in the absence (black bars) or presence (white bars) of soluble TACI-Ig (20 μg/ml). The values represent the mean IgA ± SD of duplicate samples. (d) Memory B cells were preactivated with ...
M-T271 recognizes CD27, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family. CD27 is expressed at differing levels on memory B cells, a fraction of plasma cells, and on naive and memory T cells, but is not expressed on naive B cells or effector T cells. It is also expressed on NK cells. CD27 therefore represents a useful marker to distinguish certain T and B cell subsets from each other. - Österreich
Activated naive B cells that seed a GC and undergo SHM, Ig isotype switching, and selection by a specific Ag can differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. It is generally accepted that the processes of SHM and isotype switching are markers of memory B cells. In human tonsils, memory B cells were historically identified by the loss of IgD together with other markers such as CD38 (5, 10, 11, 17). The case for using IgD and CD38 to separate memory (IgD−CD38−) from naive (IgD+CD38−) and GC (IgD−CD38+) B cells was supported by the finding that the majority of tonsil IgD+ cells expressed unmutated IgV region genes, while those expressed by IgD− cells were mutated (5, 11, 25, 26). Studies using these markers demonstrated that although both naive and memory B cells were in a quiescent state, memory cells exhibited enhanced responses compared to naive B cells in vitro (10, 17, 18, 19, 20). Together, these articles established a scheme to identify human memory B cells.. However, ...
Memory B cells are generated in germinal centers (GC) and contribute to serological immunity by rapidly differentiating into plasma cells. Human memory B cells can be identified by the expression of CD27. These cells exhibit more rapid responses than naive (CD27-) B cells following stimulation in vitro, consistent with the heightened kinetics of secondary responses in vivo. CD27+ B cells express mutated Ig V region genes; however a significant proportion continue to express IgM, suggesting the existence of IgM+ memory B cells. The observation that mutated IgM+CD27+ B cells are generated in humans who cannot form GC led to the conclusions that these cells are generated independently of GC and thus are not memory cells and that they mediate responses to T cell-independent Ag. Although some studies support the idea that IgM+CD27+ B cells participate in T cell-independent responses, many others do not. In this review we will provide alternate interpretations of the biology of IgM+CD27+ B cells and propose
B-cells go through a variety of stages during their development which is discussed in B-cell Development. However, the major functionally important stages to be aware of are the final stages known as the Plasma Cell and Memory B Cell stages. Plasma Cells are B-cells specialized for high levels of antibody synthesis and secretion. Memory B Cells are quiescent antigen-sepecific cells which differentiate following a primary immune response to a particular microbe which can become rapidly activated to differentiate into Plasma Cells if the microbe if re-encountered. B-cells can also be classified based on the subtype of antibody which they secrete ...
Quantitative variation in the expression of MHC-encoded class II (Ia) glycoproteins has been associated with stages of lymphocyte development and a number
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Finally, we compared both the frequency and the numbers of Flu- and CMV-specific T cells before EBV infection with those after resolution of the acute phase of infection. Although acute EBV infection transiently alters the CD8+ T cell compartment, both the frequency and total numbers of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells ,150 d after acute infection are similar to baseline (Fig. 1, D and E), indicating that homeostasis of the peripheral immune compartment is not grossly altered by infectious mononucleosis. Consistent with this, there was no significant loss of either CMV- or Flu- specific memory T cells at later time points after EBV infection (Fig. 5 C). Altogether, these data suggest there is no attrition of peripheral blood memory CD8+ T cells during or after heterologous infections in young adults.. This was surprising because studies in animal models showed attrition of preexisting memory CD8+ T cells in many infections (Selin et al., 1996, 1999; Varga et al., 2001; Smith et al., 2002; Liu et al., 2003; ...
Scientists already knew that the formation of memory B lymphocytes is not as effective in elderly population, putting them at greater risk when facing new pathogens such as the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.. The study in Melameds lab revealed that as part of the aging process, existing memory B lymphocytes use hormonal signals to obstruct the production of new ones. As a result, the immune system becomes better at responding to pathogens it encountered before, but less capable of adapting to new threats.. Seeking a solution for this problem, Melameds lab collaborated with the departments of hematology and rheumatology at Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and Rambam Health Care Campus in Haifa, respectively.. They examined elderly patients who had undergone B-cell depletion as a treatment for conditions such as lupus, lymphoma and multiple sclerosis. They found that after a significant amount of memory B lymphocytes were removed, the patients immune system was rejuvenated and began producing new, ...
Free online memory games. metro match is the classic memory game with a twist. Aj and ep are extremes on the spectrum of human memory. and their cases say more than any brain scan about the extent to which our memories make us who we. The game will be opened inside a popup window. please turn off any block popup program before clicking on the play button. Here, we show that human memory b lymphocytes. proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells in response to polyclonal stimuli, .. Is human memory similar to to the ram in a pc? discussion by michael freed, aerospace human factors, nasa ames research center. Exploiting human memory to create secure and emorable passwords they are difficult to remember because there are limits to human memory. Basic perofrmance data were obtained on the effect of critical task variables in unaided multiobject tracking behavior. .forgetmenot. intimate computing in support of human memory. a prototype device for memory support, an example of contextbased ...
Results Twenty patients were included. Nine were treated by etanercept (ETN), 9 by certolizumab pegol and 2 by adalimumab. The percentage of B cells significantly increased under TNFi from (median [IQR 25-75]) 4.6 (3.5-6.7) to 7.6 (5.2-9.9) % of lymphocytes. No change was observed in the different subtypes of B cells. However, in patients treated with ETN, IgD-CD27- double negative memory B cells significantly increased from 4.6 (2.5-5.4) to 7.7 (6.2-11.0)(p=0.03). The variation of those double negative B cells were significantly different from those observed with monoclonal antibodies (+1.6 [0.0-5.4] vs 0.3 [-1.3-1.8]% of B cells, p=0.02). No change of T, NK, NKT cells was observed in either group. EULAR responders at 3 months had significantly higher percentage of CD27+ memory B cells at baseline (32.9 [25.2-40.6] vs 19.5 [12.3-19.6]% of B cells, respectively; p=0.02), especially IgD+CD27+ pre-switch memory B cells (19.3 [9.8-21.8] vs 5.9 [4.9-9.4]% of B cells, respectively; p=0.02). Since ...
The long-term goal of our research is to understand the cellular and molecular basis for B cell memory, an essential component of immunity to most pathogens. We...
Tracer or toxin injections. For tracer experiments, under chloral hydrate anesthesia (7% in saline; 350 mg/kg), a fine glass pipette containing 1.0% cholera toxin subunit B (CTB; List Biologic, Campbell, CA), 12.5% biotinylated dextran (BD), or a mixture of 1% CTB and 12.5% BD was lowered to the precalculated targets based on the rat atlas of Paxinos and Watson (1998), and 9 nl of a solution containing the tracers was injected by an air pressure system. Phaseolus vulgaris leukoagglutinin (PHA-L; 2.5%) was injected by iontophoresis with a current of 5 μA for 15 min (7 s on and 7 s off). After two additional minutes, the pipette was slowly withdrawn and the incision was closed with wound clips. Animals survived for 7 d. The coordinates for tracer injections were as follows: medial prefrontal cortex, anteroposterior (AP), 2.20 mm, medial-lateral (ML), 0.4 mm, dorsoventral (DV), 4.6 mm; midline thalamus, AP, -2.8 mm, ML, 0 mm, DV, 4.4 mm; intralaminar thalamus, AP, -2.8 mm, ML, 0.8 mm, DV, 5.6 mm; ...
Stimulation by antigen through the B cell receptor (BCR) followed by cognate T cell help drives proliferation and differentiation of antigen-specific naı̈ve B lymphocytes into memory B cells and plasma cells (1, 2). Memory B cells carrying somatically mutated immunoglobulin (Ig) genes survive in secondary lymphoid organs in the absence of antigen (3) and mediate secondary immune responses upon rechallenge. In contrast, plasma cells are terminally differentiated, nondividing cells that home to spleen and bone marrow and are the main source of antibody, which they secrete at a high rate. Mouse plasma cells can be long-lived and are able to sustain antibody production for several months in the absence of memory B cells or antigen (4, 5). However, it is less likely that long-lived plasma cells produced during an immune response will maintain a constant supply of specific antibody over a human life-span, because even long-lived plasma cells would eventually need to be replenished over a human ...
The mental faculty that allows us to retain information as well as recall experiences from a long time ago is known as memory. the human memory is a highly. Here, we show that human memory b lymphocytes. proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells in response to polyclonal stimuli, .. It is more accurate to speak of human memories rather than of human memory, since people have several distinctly different types. The human memory and cognition lab uses empirical, computational, and developmental approaches to understand how memory works in humans. Turn the cards, test your memory see whether you can match them in correct pairs. instructions to play. there are pairs of images hidden in this applet. Try remember where the images are f youre about to go crazy pictures in this game are from poisons icons. return to game index. How is your memory for faces? back to games back to memory games back to face recognition. ame developed by kien caoxuan. When you are considering face, try to imprint it ...
In the late 1990s, I was doing a postdoc at the wonderful DNAX Research Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology in California. Many fundamental discoveries in basic molecular and cellular immunology had been made at DNAX in the 1980s and 90s. To be a young postdoc from Sydney working in that environment was just magic, inspirational, and influential. Toward the end of my postdoc, I was starting to think about returning to Australia for the next phase of my career. Luckily for me, in 1998, I published my first ever paper in JEM (Tangye et al., 1998). This paper identified specific cell surface markers (particularly CD27) that enabled detection (and subsequent isolation and detailed functional analysis) of human memory B cells. I honestly think that having achieved some measure of success during my DNAX postdoc-i.e., a first author JEM paper-played a very important role in my securing a research fellowship awarded by the University of Sydney, which enabled me to return to a position in Sydney ...
Regulation of inhibitory IgSF receptors in memory B cells by IL-4. Naive and memory B cells were purified from peripheral blood and cultured either in medium al
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The regulatory cyclin, Cyclin T1 (CycT1), is a host factor essential for HIV-1 replication in CD4 T cells and macrophages. The importance of CycT1 and the Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) complex for HIV replication is well-established, but regulation of CycT1 expression and protein levels during HIV replication and latency establishment in CD4 T cells is less characterized. To better define the regulation of CycT1 levels during HIV replication in CD4 T cells, multiparameter flow cytometry was utilized to study the interaction between HIV replication (intracellular p24) and CycT1 of human peripheral blood memory CD4 T cells infected with HIV in vitro. CycT1 was further examined in CD4 T cells of human lymph nodes. In activated (CD3+CD28 costimulation) uninfected blood memory CD4 T cells, CycT1 was most significantly upregulated in maximally activated (CD69+CD25+ and HLA.DR+CD38+) cells. In memory CD4 T cells infected with HIV in vitro, two distinct infected populations of p24+CycT1+
Given the genetic diversity of B-cell lymphomas and differential antigen expression patterns across lymphoma subtypes, it is unlikely that a single small molecule or antibody-based therapeutic will effectively treat all categories of NHL. Therefore, the use of therapeutic antibody combinations targeting different tumor antigens is expected to produce a more robust antitumor response. Simultaneously targeting CD20 and the TNFR family member CD40 may be productive, because both are expressed on the majority of B-cell lymphomas and mediate differential signaling events through their cytoplasmic domains. We evaluated the potential of improving rituximab-based therapies in NHL by targeting CD40 with dacetuzumab. In vivo analysis of the dacetuzumab-rituximab combination in the Ramos NHL xenograft model showed the capacity of dacetuzumab to augment rituximab activity. Potential mechanisms of action behind the ability of dacetuzumab to enhance rituximab activity in vivo include improved recruitment of ...
Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share your publications and get them in front of Issuus millions of monthly readers. Title: Multiple trace theory of human memory, Author: Daniel Krchnak, Name: Multiple trace theory of human memory, Length: 17 pages, Page: 1, Published: 2013-09-23
Siva Athreya speaking at BIRS workshop, Stochastic Analysis and its Applications, on Tuesday, October 24, 2017 on the topic: Small noise limit for singularly perturbed diffusion.
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One possibility, however, was that IgM+ memory cells switched immunoglobulin isotype after challenge and contributed to the swIg+ progeny. This possibility was difficult to assess as long as swIg+ memory cells were present at the time of challenge. Therefore, the secondary response was tested in mice that were primed with PE 450 days earlier and contained 100,000 PE-specific IgM+ and scarcely any swIg+ memory cells. These mice generated very few swIg+ cells of any kind after challenge, which indicated that the IgM+ memory cells did not undergo isotype switching. The IgM+ memory cells increased only twofold after challenge (Fig. 4B), in contrast to the robust primary response of naïve IgM+ cells to intraperitoneal injection of PE, which generated many IgM+ and swIg+ germinal center and memory cells (Fig. 4C).. Several lines of evidence suggested that the poor secondary response of IgM+ memory cells was related to anti-PE immunoglobulin present during challenge. Injection of hyperimmune serum ...
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View mouse Siva1 Chr12:112644828-112649152 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
... pathway induced by the CD27 antigen, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TFNR) superfamily. The CD27 antigen ... Prasad KV, Ao Z, Yoon Y, Wu MX, Rizk M, Jacquot S, Schlossman SF (Jul 1997). "CD27, a member of the tumor necrosis factor ... Held-Feindt J, Mentlein R (2002). "CD70/CD27 ligand, a member of the TNF family, is expressed in human brain tumors". Int. J. ... SIVA1 has been shown to interact with CD27. Siva protein is a zinc-containing intracellular ligand of the CD4 receptor that ...
... naïve B cells are CD27−, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are CD27++. The surface antigen CD138 (syndecan-1) is ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen-presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ... The absence of antigens and the depletion of B cells does not appear to have an effect on the production of high-affinity ...
CD27: This molecule supports antigen-specific expansion of naïve T cells and is vital for the generation of T cell memory. CD27 ... CD27's activity is governed by the transient availability of its ligand, CD70, on lymphocytes and dendritic cells. CD27 ... October 2013). "Agonist anti-human CD27 monoclonal antibody induces T cell activation and tumor immunity in human CD27- ... Like CD27, OX40 promotes the expansion of effector and memory T cells, however it is also noted for its ability to suppress the ...
However, they are able to promote the secretion of immunoglobulins though CD27/CD70 interactions. B cells begin expressing CD27 ... Centroblasts do not express immunoglobulins and are unable to respond to the follicular dendritic cell antigens present in the ... CD27 is an important marker for germinal center formation in the lymphoid follicle and is produced by centroblasts interacting ... Xiao, Yanling; Hendriks, Jenny; Langerak, Petra; Jacobs, Heinz; Borst, Jannie (2004-06-15). "CD27 Is Acquired by Primed B Cells ...
... +Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD27 genome location and CD27 gene ... "Entrez Gene: CD27 CD27 molecule". Ribot JC, deBarros A, Pang DJ, Neves JF, Peperzak V, Roberts SJ, et al. (April 2009). "CD27 ... CD27 has been shown to interact with SIVA1, TRAF2 and TRAF3. Some mutations can decrease the expression of CD27. Three such ... Furthermore, CD27 is expressed on both naïve and activated effector T cells as well as NK cells and activated B cells. It is a ...
... antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.126 - antigens, cd26 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.127 - antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.050.301.264 ... antigens, cd18 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.126 - antigens, cd26 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.127 - antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.050.301.264 ... antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.101.100.110.126 - antigens, cd26 MeSH D23.101.100.110.127 - antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.101.100.110.128 - ... antigens, cd18 MeSH D23.101.100.894.126 - antigens, cd26 MeSH D23.101.100.894.127 - antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.101.100.894.128 - ...
Among them, it is associated with a particular genetic variant of the human leukocyte antigen called HLA-DR7. This variant is ... Immunologically, peripheral B-cells show more functional IgD+ positive CD27 cells than usual.[citation needed] In the followup ...
MZ B cells shuttle between the blood-filled marginal zone for antigen collection and the follicle for antigen delivery to ... They are furthermore distinguished by the expression of CD9 and CD27 (in humans). In mice, MZ B cells characteristically ... MZ B cells respond to a wide spectrum of T-independent, but also T-dependent antigens. It is believed that MZ B cells are ... Moreover, MZ B cells are potent antigen-presenting cells, that are able to activate CD4+ T cells more effectively than FO B ...
Borst, Jannie; Hendriks, Jenny; Xiao, Yanling (June 2005). "CD27 and CD70 in T cell and B cell activation". Current Opinion in ... that recognizes a common epitope on the human T cell receptor for antigen". Journal of Immunology. 135 (3): 1922-1928. ISSN ... The identification of TNF receptor CD27 and CD70 ligand as important costimulatory system on T cells LUMC. "Prof. Jannie Borst ... Church, J. A. (2004-08-01). "Lethal T Cell Immunodeficiency Induced by Chronic Costimulation via CD27-CD70 Interactions". ...
B1b cells seem to recognize more types of antigens including intracellular antigens. Previously, B1b cell antigen recognition ... Human B1 cells have been found to have marker profile of CD20+CD27+CD43+CD70- and could either be CD5+ or CD5-, which has been ... making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen-presenting cells. These B1 cells are commonly found in peripheral ... Hence, there appears to be a role for self or foreign antigen in shaping the repertoire of the B-1 B cell compartment. B1 cells ...
GITR interacts with its ligand (GITRL) that is expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APC) and endothelial cells. Human ... OX40 or CD27. GITR is constitutively expressed on CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells and its expression is upregulated on all T cell ...
... and malignant cells that express activation-induced cytidine deaminase but not CD27, CCL20, MAdCAM-1, or C-C chemokine receptor ... develops as a consequence of chronic inflammation and specific antigen stimulation. In support of this possibility, there have ... and associations with chronic inflammatory diseases and chronic antigen stimulation; Mantle cell lymphoma differs from DFL by ...
Gene Signature : CCL5, CD27, CD274 (PD-L1), CD276 (B7-H3), CD8A, CMKLR1, CXCL9, CXCR6, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DRB1, HLA-E, IDO1, LAG3, ... Antigen-activated T cells secrete CCR5 ligands (CCL2 and CCL3) to recruit natural killer (NK) cells and other innate immune ... They are found to express conformational epitopes, such as MHC molecules, as nonself antigens, which activates both B and T ... by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). CXCR3 expressing Th1-polarized CD4 T cells and cytotoxic T cells are recruited to the site ...
And there was an increase in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD27 and CD28 (CD27+CD28+, p=0.016; and CD27-CD28+, p= ... The investigators for this work used influenza matrix protein antigen and the tumor antigens Melan-A/MART-1 and survivin to ... In the absence of antigen presentation via MHC class II molecules, efti reactivates dormant antigen-experienced memory T cells ... circulating tumor antigen), and efti increases activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) as they take up that debris. This ...
... chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy using CD19-directed CAR-T cells; and lenalidomide, a drug with multiple anti-tumor ... a monoclonal antibody that binds to the CD27 protein expressed by cells and thereby promotes the anti-tumor activity of T cells ...
... antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD160 gene. CD160 is a 27 kDa glycoprotein which was initially ... CD28-CD27-cells. In tissues, CD160 is expressed on all intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. CD160 shows a broad specificity ... CD160+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD160 genome location and CD160 gene ...
In a secondary response, the memory B cells specific to the antigen or similar antigens will respond. When memory B cells ... Memory B cells are typically distinguished by the cell surface marker CD27, although some subsets do not express CD27. Memory B ... where they can be activated by a floating foreign peptide brought in through the lymph or by antigen presented by antigen ... When reintroduced to antigen, some of these B1 cells can differentiate into memory B cells without interacting with a T cell. ...
"PLCE1 is a poor prognostic marker and may promote immune escape from osteosarcoma by the CD70-CD27 signaling pathway". Bosnian ... "Human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoproteins gp120 and gp160 specifically inhibit the CD3/T cell-antigen receptor ...
CD27 plays a role in lymphoid proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The acquisition of CD27 and Flt3 by the HSC ... Once in a secondary lymphoid organ the B cell can be introduced to an antigen that it is able to recognize.[citation needed] ... It can be expressed as a set (Lin2, Sca1high, c-kit high, CD44+, Thy1.1low, CD27 2, and IL-7Ra2). This set is a 'barcode' for ... T cells are formed in bone marrow then migrate to the cortex of the thymus to undergo maturation in an antigen-free environment ...
... is a ligand for CD27. The CD70 protein is expressed on highly activated lymphocytes (like in T- and B-cell lymphomas). It ... Seattle Genetics Third Quarter 2013 Financial Report[permanent dead link] CD70+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine ...
Identification of good antigens has been challenging: such antigens must be highly expressed on the majority of cancer cells, ... Signaling domains from a wide variety of co-stimulatory molecules have been successfully tested, including CD28, CD27, CD134 ( ... After an antigen is bound to the external antigen recognition domain, CAR receptors cluster together and transmit an activation ... T cells are genetically engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors specifically directed toward antigens on a patient's ...
CD25 deficiency CD27 deficiency STAT5b deficiency ITK deficiency SH2D1A deficiency (XLP1) MAGT1 deficiency DOCK2 deficiency ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ...
... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 - antigens, cd40 MeSH ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 - receptors, antigen, t- ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776.543.550 ... antigens, cd11a MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.150 - antigens, cd11b MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.200 - antigens, cd11c ...
Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is ... Maurer D, Holter W, Majdic O, Fischer GF, Knapp W (1991). "CD27 expression by a distinct subpopulation of human B lymphocytes ... CD11a+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGAL Info with links in the Cell ... CD11a is one of the two components, along with CD18, which form lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1. Efalizumab acts as an ...
CD27-/IgD- memory B cells are associated with increased disease activity and renal lupus. T cells, which regulate B-cell ... That leads to the maturation of DCs and also to the presentation of intracellular antigens of late apoptotic or secondary ... Close to TBM, follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are localised in GC, which attach antigen material to their surface and, in ... When apoptotic material is not removed correctly by phagocytes, they are captured instead by antigen-presenting cells, which ...
B-cells that have not encountered an antigen are called naive B cells. When naïve B-cells encounter an antigen, one of the ... In normal lymphoid tissues CD27 and its ligand CD70 have a restricted expression pattern, but a 1999 study found CD70 on 71% of ... that bind to a specific antigen. Once activated by an antigen, B-cells proliferate and further differentiate into plasma cells ... Follicular dendritic cells and T cells help to select the B-cells that have a high affinity to the antigen for further ...
Dong HY, Shahsafaei A, Dorfman DM (2003). "CD148 and CD27 are expressed in B cell lymphomas derived from both memory and naïve ... Tissue Antigens. 54 (5): 485-98. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.1999.540506.x. PMID 10599888. Billard C, Delaire S, Raffoux E, ...
These mutations include those in the following genes: UNC13D, STX11, RAB27A, STXBP2, LYST, PRF1 1, SH2D1A, BIRC4, ITK, CD27, ... This inability to remove infected and antigen-presenting cells and terminate the immune response leads to uncontrolled ...
The EBV+ NK cells express CD56 antigen and are malignant with EBV in its latency II phase. The NK cells expression relatively ... CD27 encoding a receptor in the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, STK4 encoding serine/threonine-protein kinase 4, ... Addition of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against the CD20 antigen expressed on B cells, may be added to this or other ... The EBV+ large B cells in these lesions often have reduced expression of the CD20 antigen and contain genetic abnormalities ...
These populations of B cells differ from standard ones by their lack of receptors CD21 and CD27, also given that these cells ... Yu HR, Chang JC, Chen RF, Chuang H, Hong KC, Wang L, Yang KD (November 2003). "Different antigens trigger different Th1/Th2 ... hypothesised that the decrease of Th1 differentiation is caused by the destruction of dendritic cells presenting auto antigens ...
Shulzhenko N, Morgun A, Chinellato AP, Rampim GF, Diniz RV, Almeida DR, Gerbase-DeLima M (March 2002). "CD27 but not CD70 and 4 ... Although it is thought to function mainly in co-stimulating those cell types to support their activation by antigen presenting ... November 2008). "Rapid identification and sorting of viable virus-reactive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells based on antigen-triggered ...
However, peripheral blood Bregs were mostly CD24 and CD27 positive after cultivation with anti-CD40 antibody and CpG bacterial ... "IgG4 production is confined to human IL-10-producing regulatory B cells that suppress antigen-specific immune responses". The ...
CD27 and CD30, besides the ligands on which the family is named. Seven transmembrane helix family, the ubiquitous receptor type ... its mediation by cell-free substances formed by lymphoid cell-antigen interaction". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 56 (1): 72-77 ...
CD27+ IgD-switched B cells are normal. [33] The T- and B-cell immune function should be closely monitored, perhaps yearly. ... Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to recall antigens are absent, anergic. de la Fuente et al [33] reported ... and to antigens such as Candidaalbicans and tetanus toxoid may be decreased. ... data regarding bacterial polysaccharide antigens must be obtained. Occasionally, hypogammaglobulinemia consistent with common ...
View our 28 CD27 Ligand/TNFSF7 products for your research including CD27 Ligand/TNFSF7 Primary Antibodies, Proteins and Enzymes ... CD27 Ligand expression is induced by antigen-receptor activation in B cells. CD27/TNFRSF7 is expressed on natural killer (NK) ... CD27 Ligand/TNFSF7: Products. CD27 Ligand, also known as CD70 and TNFSF7, is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to ... cells and subsets of T and B cells. CD27 ligation on NK cells induces proliferation and IFN production. CD27 ligation on T ...
Levels of rabies virus antigen and RNA were low in all brain structures tested, but were higher in brain stem and rostral ... Results show significant expansion of CD4+, CD45R, CD27 and CD62L cell populations in the vaccinated mice group, indicating the ... We used a highly specific multiplex assay that detects antibodies to three different viral antigens. We also assessed ... Adjuvants can increase the magnitude and durability of the immune response generated by the vaccine antigen. Aluminum salts ( ...
The dimeric antigen receptors have antibody-like properties as they bind specifically to a target antigen. The dimeric antigen ... The two polypeptide chains that make up the dimeric antigen receptors can dimerize to form an antigen binding domain. ... constructs that bind a BCMA target antigen, where the DAR construct comprises a heavy chain binding region on one polypeptide ... The present disclosure provides dimeric antigen receptors (DAR) ... and CD27−. It is postulated that antigen-experienced memory T ...
CD27 ligand, CD27L, Ki-24 antigen, Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily, member 7 (TNFSF7) Isotype Mouse IgG1, κ Barcode ... Antigen References 1. Bowman MR, et al. 1994. J. Immunol. 152:1756.. 2. Shaw J, et al. 2010. Blood 115:3051.. 3. Keller AM, et ... CD27 Cell Type B cells, Dendritic cells, NK cells, T cells Biology Area Costimulatory Molecules, Immunology Molecular Family CD ... Antigen Details Structure Type II transmembrane glycoprotein, member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, 50 kD ...
Akbar and colleagues show that sestrins induce the reprogramming of non-proliferative, senescent-like CD27-CD28-CD8+ T cells to ... CD8+ T cells lost the signaling activity of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and expressed a protein complex containing the ... Therefore, during aging, sestrins induce the reprogramming of non-proliferative senescent-like CD27−CD28−CD8+ T cells to ... inhibition of sestrin 2 resulted in decreased expression of NKG2D and DAP12 and restored TCR signaling in senescent-like CD27− ...
CD27, CD38, CD45, CD80, OX40, GITR and LAMP1 (Figure 5A, and supplement excel file 1). However, a few proteins not enriched in ... 1989) Antigen-specific helper function of cell-free T cell products bearing TCR V beta 8 determinants Science 244:1477-1480. ... 2017) CD40L is transferred to antigen-presenting B cells during delivery of T-cell help European Journal of Immunology 47:41-50 ... described soluble antigen-specific and MHC-restricted factors that delivered T cell help. Whilst Guy et al suggested a ...
Antigen References 1. Hintzen R, et al. 1994. Immunol. Today 15:307.. 2. Agematsu K, et al. 1995. J. Immunol. 154:3627. ... CD27 is expressed on medullary thymocytes, virtually all mature T cells, some B cells, and NK cells. CD27 binds to CD70 and ... Antigen Details Structure TNF-R superfamily, type I transmembrane glycoprotein, 50-55 kD Distribution Medullary thymocytes, T ... CD27 is a 50-55 kD type I membrane protein also known as S152 and T14. It is a lymphocyte-specific member of the TNF-receptor ...
B-cell maturation antigen; CHI3L1=. chitinase 3-like 1; CTCAE=. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events; EDSS=. Expanded ... soluble CD27; SDMT=. Symbol Digit Modalities Test; SIMOA=. single-molecule array; T25FW=. Timed 25-Foot Walk. ... At screening CSF concentrations, adjusted for age and sex, of NFL, myelin basic protein (MBP), soluble CD27, chitinase 3-like 1 ... Secondary endpoints were change in CSF concentrations of myelin basic protein (MBP), soluble B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), ...
It appears that the expression of CD27 on B cells led to the activation of naïve T cells in response to antigens that - without ... al., Lethal T cell immunodeficiency induced by chronic costimulation via CD27-CD70 interactions. Nat Immunol 2003 Jan;4(1):49- ... The DCs were then exposed to an inactivated SIV vaccine (leading to the processing and presenting of SIV antigens - the ... CD27) on their B cells experienced a combination of persistent immune activation and eventual immunodeficiency that closely ...
CD27, CD38, and immunoglobulin (Ig) D on B cells. Results: Pseurotin D significantly inhibited the activation of both CD4+ and ... expression of activation markers CD69 and CD25 on T cells and Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR isotype (HLA-DR) on B cells, and the ...
Antigens, CD2. CD2 Antigens. Antigens, CD24. CD24 Antigen. Antigens, CD27. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 7 ... Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1, Heavy Chain. Antigens, CD98 Light Chains. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1 ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-1. ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member 2. ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-2. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 3. ...
Antigens, CD2. CD2 Antigens. Antigens, CD24. CD24 Antigen. Antigens, CD27. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 7 ... Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1, Heavy Chain. Antigens, CD98 Light Chains. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1 ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-1. ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member 2. ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-2. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 3. ...
Antigens, CD2. CD2 Antigens. Antigens, CD24. CD24 Antigen. Antigens, CD27. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 7 ... Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1, Heavy Chain. Antigens, CD98 Light Chains. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1 ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-1. ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member 2. ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-2. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 3. ...
Antigens, CD2. CD2 Antigens. Antigens, CD24. CD24 Antigen. Antigens, CD27. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 7 ... Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1, Heavy Chain. Antigens, CD98 Light Chains. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1 ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-1. ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member 2. ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-2. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 3. ...
Jiang J, Wang X, Wang X, Cao Z, Liu Y, Dong M, Tong A, Cheng X. Reduced CD27 expression on antigen-specific CD4+ T cells ... Studies of TBP patients identified the pleural T cells with an effector phenotype of CD27-CD45RA-CCR7-CD62L- mediates local M. ... BTLA-expressing CD11c antigen presenting cells in patients with active tuberculosis exhibit low capacity to stimulate T cell ... However, several researches consider the lower expression of CD27 on M. tb-specific CD4 + T cells is associated with persistent ...
Cluster of differentiation antigen 27 Active Synonym false false 1233155010 CD27 - Cluster of differentiation antigen 27 Active ... Lymphocyte antigen CD27 Active Synonym false false 1233154014 ... Lymphocyte antigen CD27 (substance). Concept Status. Published ... Lymphocyte antigen CD27 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. ...
Antigens, CD27. 1. + 405. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1. 1. + 406. Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor. 1. + ...
Along the treatment, it was observed a progressive increase of tumor antigen [Carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) and thymidylate ... CD27+CD62L+; Tcm) subsets, which represent a fresh source of activated immune effectors. These cells under specific ... which takes place in response to antigen presentation by DCs and by other antigen presenting cells in the primary lymphoid ... They have in fact speculated that chemotherapy is able to reduce the immunosuppressive tumor burden (4, 21), induce antigen ...
Looking for CD Antigens? Buy Recombinant proteins online of the best range from Angio Proteomie right at best range. Make your ... CD27 Human Recombinant, sf9 1.0 ug ($70.00) 5.0 ug ($182.00) 50.0 ug ($1,680.00) ...
Evaluation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific antigen-stimulated CD27-CD38+IFN-γ+CD4+ T cells for discrimination of active ...
... is a Monoclonal Antibody specific for human CD27. Working in Flow Cytometry, ELISA. Important for Immunology, Inflammation, ... anti-CD27 (human), mAb (M-T271) (CD27L Receptor, T14, TNFRSF7) ... Immunogen/Antigen. T cell line (from patient with CLL). ... anti-CD27 (human), mAb (M-T271) (preservative free) ANC-176-820. Add to Compare ... anti-CD27 (human), mAb (M-T271) (R-PE) ANC-176-050. Add to Compare ...
CD27 moleculeBackground: CD27 is a transmembrane 55 kDa protein of the nerve growth factor-receptor family, expressed as a ... Activation of T cells via … Read more CD27 antibody [LT27] (APC) ... CD27 antibody [LT27] (APC)Applications: FACSPredicted Target Size: Positive Controls: Form Supplied: LiquidConcentration: ... Antigen Species: Human. Species Reactivity: Human. Conjugation: Allophycocyanin (APC). Storage Buffer: The reagent is provided ...
Frequencies of pro- and anti-inflammatory CD4+ T cells stimulated with the vaccine antigen GMZ2 as well as B cell profiles ... Antibody responses to several P. falciparum blood and liver stage antigens (MSP1, MSP4, MSP8, PfEMP1, STARP) as well as the ... Additionally, the antibody response against 212 P. falciparum antigens was estimated before CHMI by protein microarray. ... Similarly, CD20+IgG+ cell frequency in response to the vaccine antigen GMZ2 remained without changes and neither CD27+ nor CD27 ...
CD27−CD28−) and latent CMV infection did not have the same impact on the percentage of naive (CD45RA+CCR7+CD27+CD28+) and late- ... tried to answer that question by analyzing the response towards multiple CMV antigens. It was found that IE-1-, pp65-, US3- and ... CD45RA and CD27. No significant age-associated differences with respect to CD4+ T cell responses were found in their ... CD28-CD27- T cells. The data presented suggest that better stratification of the elderly should be performed in order to ...
CD27 antigen negative expression indicates poor prognosis in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Clinical immunology (Orlando, ... Query Trace: Multiple Myeloma and CD27[original query]. Correlation between Clinical Factors and Prognosis in Newly Diagnosed ...
Abbreviations: BCL2L1, bcl-2-like protein 1; CASP3, caspase-3; CASP8, caspase-8; CD27, tumor necrosis factor receptor ... Peptidomics has been used to identify tumor-derived human leukocyte antigen-I (HLA-I) and HLA-II binding peptides from human ... proliferating cell nuclear antigen; RAD18, E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RAD18; RIPK1, receptor-interacting serine/threonine- ...
Antibody tumor targeting is enhanced by CD27 agonists through myeloid recruitment. Cancer Cell 2017;32:777-91.doi:10.1016/j. ... Antigen retrieval was performed by the heat-induced epitope retrieval method. The slides were then incubated with the following ... We found that CD27, CCL5, and ITGAM were the three most significantly upregulated genes in tumors characterized by a high level ... These included genes encoding for integrin (ITGAM (CD11b)), chemokine (CCL5), and a receptor (CD27). On the other hand, two ...
GITR and OX40 displayed only minor effects on their own but, like 4-1BB, CD27 could enhance GITR expression and subsequent GITR ... and both had only modest effects on antigen sensitivity. An operational model explained these different phenotypes using shared ... Although both 4-1BB and CD27 increased production, only 4-1BB was able to prolong the duration over which cytokine was produced ... The model predicted and experiments confirmed that CD27 co-stimulation increases 4-1BB expression and subsequent 4-1BB co- ...
  • The present disclosure provides dimeric antigen receptors (DAR) constructs that bind a BCMA target antigen, where the DAR construct comprises a heavy chain binding region on one polypeptide chain and a light chain binding region on a separate polypeptide chain. (justia.com)
  • The two polypeptide chains that make up the dimeric antigen receptors can dimerize to form an antigen binding domain. (justia.com)
  • The dimeric antigen receptors have antibody-like properties as they bind specifically to a target antigen. (justia.com)
  • The dimeric antigen receptors can be used for directed cell therapy. (justia.com)
  • The present disclosure provides dimeric antigen receptors (DAR) protein constructs that bind specifically to a target antigen, nucleic acids that encode the dimeric antigen receptors, vectors comprising the nucleic acids, and host cells harboring the vectors. (justia.com)
  • Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been developed to target antigens associated, in particular, with cancer. (justia.com)
  • Adoptive immunotherapy by infusion of T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for redirected tumoricidal activity represents a potentially highly specific modality for the treatment of metastatic cancer. (justia.com)
  • Antigen receptors comprising both an antibody heavy chain binding region and an antibody light chain binding region in separate polypeptide chains and their use in directed cell therapy are disclosed herein in an effort to meet this need and/or provide other benefits, or at least provide the public with a useful choice. (justia.com)
  • Receptor-ligand interaction is required for the transduction of second signal, following the first signal conveyed by the interaction of MHC molecules on APCs and T cell receptors on effector T cells loaded with cognate antigens [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Persistence of T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has been a major barrier to use of these cells for molecularly targeted adoptive immuno-therapy. (web.app)
  • En tredje Co-domän ingår för att förbättra T-cells funktion, engrafktion, Chimeric receptors containing CD137 signal transduction domains Fältet av chimära antigen receptorn (bil) T-cellterapi går snabbt framåt med Denna analys kan kopplas till profilering T cellaktivering, utmattning och minne fenotyper. (web.app)
  • More recently, another classification model centered on manifestation of chemokine receptors CCR7 and CD27 offers been explained [24]. (thetechnoant.info)
  • CD27 Ligand, also known as CD70 and TNFSF7, is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the TNF superfamily (TNFSF). (rndsystems.com)
  • The ligand of CD70 is CD27. (biolegend.com)
  • CD27 binds to CD70 and plays an important role in costimulation of T cell activation, and regulation of B cell differentiation and proliferation. (biolegend.com)
  • Co-stimulatory receptor-ligand interactions that help amplify effector T cell responses include CD28-CD80, 4-1BB (also known as CD137)-4-1BB ligand, CD27-CD70. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ligand for CD27 is CD70, which is a member of the TNF ligand superfamily. (adipogen.com)
  • These data indicate that CD70 represents a potential target antigen for toxin-conjugated therapeutic antibody treatment of RCC. (ox.ac.uk)
  • [ 17 ] Although earlier studies reported that antibody responses to protein immunization were normal, data regarding bacterial polysaccharide antigens must be obtained. (medscape.com)
  • Here we found that CD27 − CD28 − CD8 + T cells lost the signaling activity of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and expressed a protein complex containing the agonistic natural killer (NK) receptor NKG2D and the NK adaptor molecule DAP12, which promoted cytotoxicity against cells that expressed NKG2D ligands. (nature.com)
  • CD27 is a 50-55 kD type I membrane protein also known as S152 and T14. (biolegend.com)
  • Background: CD27 is a transmembrane 55 kDa protein of the nerve growth factor-receptor family, expressed as a disulfide-linked homodimer on mature thymocytes, peripheral blood T cells and a subpopulation of B cells. (icbinhibitor.com)
  • Additionally, the antibody response against 212 P. falciparum antigens was estimated before CHMI by protein microarray. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 简介 This gene encodes a protein with an important role in the apoptotic (programmed cell death) pathway induced by the CD27 antigen, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TFNR) superfamily. (solarbio.cc)
  • The CD27 antigen cytoplasmic tail binds to the N-terminus of this protein. (solarbio.cc)
  • Antigens and antibodies Purified pertussis toxoid vaccine protein antigen (PT), pertactin (PRN) and filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) were used for Capital t cell excitement (gifts from Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA, USA). (thetechnoant.info)
  • Thus, the protein CTLA4 serves to blunt de novo responses to (in this case) tumor antigens, while the protein PD-1 serves to halt ongoing immune responses by restricting B cell expansion in the secondary lymphoid organs (spleen, lymph nodes and Peyer's Patches) and by restricting T cell activity at the site of the immune response, thus, in the tumor itself. (sugarconebiotech.com)
  • This assessment can also be done by measuring antibody responses following active immunization with protein or polysaccharide antigens. (medscape.com)
  • In children who have completed immunizations with diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) or Hib-conjugated vaccines, the antibody response to protein antigens can be tested in adults and older children by measuring IgG antibodies to tetanus or diphtheria toxoid and H influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide antigen. (medscape.com)
  • Assessment of responses to polysaccharide antigens is important in patients older than 18-24 months because these responses may be deficient in some patients who can respond normally to protein antigens. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, antibody responses should be measured to polysaccharide antigens that are not present in the protein-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine. (medscape.com)
  • Specificity: The antibody LT27 reacts with CD27 (T14), a 50-55 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein (member of the TNF-receptor superfamily) expressed on medullary thymocytes, peripheral T lymphocytes, some B lymphocytes and NK cells. (icbinhibitor.com)
  • The co-stimulation TNF receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) members 4-1BB, CD27, GITR and OX40 have similar signalling mechanisms raising the question of whether they have similar impacts on T-cell responses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD27 is a lymphocyte-specific member of the TNF-R/NGF-R superfamily, and is expressed on a subset of human thymocytes and on the majority of mature T-lymphocytes. (progen.com)
  • ProSci's Primary antibodies are used to detect, analyze and purify specific antigens helping to accelerate discoveries in cancer, infectious disease, neuroscience, cell biology, and immunology research. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Creative Biolabs provides agonistic antibody products against the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, such as CD27, CD40, and OX40 to support the research on therapeutic antibodies of agonism mechanism of action. (getnews.info)
  • We evaluated 3 assays, not affected by passive antibodies (PA), in assignment of CMV status: quantification of CMV-specific CD4 + T-cells (CMV-TC) and exhausted CD27-CD28- CD4 + T-cells, and detection of CMV DNA with Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing (NAAT). (uni-saarland.de)
  • Assessment of the ability to produce functional antibodies can be obtained by measuring antibody responses to natural antigens or those antigens to which the population commonly is exposed. (medscape.com)
  • Isohemagglutinins are IgM antibodies to ABO blood group antigens that are polysaccharide. (medscape.com)
  • Approximately 80% of children have detectable antibodies to these antigens after 3 immunizations during their first year of life. (medscape.com)
  • CD40 is expressed broadly on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells, B cells, macrophages, and monocytes as well as non-immune endothelial cells, basal epithelial cells, and a range of tumors. (bioxcell.com)
  • The genetic inhibition of sestrin 2 resulted in decreased expression of NKG2D and DAP12 and restored TCR signaling in senescent-like CD27 − CD28 − CD8 + T cells. (nature.com)
  • Therefore, during aging, sestrins induce the reprogramming of non-proliferative senescent-like CD27 − CD28 − CD8 + T cells to acquire a broad-spectrum, innate-like killing activity. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 4: NKG2D-DAP12 complex mediates NK cytotoxicity in CD27 − CD28 − CD8 + T cells. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 5: Sestrins and Jnk MAPK dampen TCR signaling in CD27 − CD28 − CD8 + T cells. (nature.com)
  • Immunorestored patients, compared with patients with active retinitis, had increased levels of circulating CMV-specific CD8 + T cells with "early" (CD27 + CD28 + CD45RA + , CD27 + CD28 + CD45RA - ) and "intermediate" (CD27 - CD28 + CD45RA - ) phenotypes. (elsevier.com)
  • To address this issue, we created a series of CARs that contain the T cell receptor-ζ (TCR-ζ) signal transduction domain with the CD28 and/or CD137 Se hela listan på academic.oup.com 2019-04-22 · 61 insight into how CD137 costimulation of effector T cells, independent of plaque-antigen 62 recognition, instigates their retention and promotes innate-like responses from immune 63 infiltrates within atherogenic foci. (web.app)
  • Using flow cytometry CD4 + T-cells were phenotypically analyzed for expression of CD27 and CD28 and CMV-specific CD4 + T-cells were identified by CD69 expression and intracellular IFN-γ quantification after stimulation with CMV-antigen lysate. (uni-saarland.de)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Given its high specificity, the CMV-TC assay is valuable in confirming true-positive CMV status in seropositive SOT candidates with PA, while use of CD27-CD28-CD4 + T-cell analysis is limited by moderate specificity. (uni-saarland.de)
  • CD27/TNFRSF7 is expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and subsets of T and B cells. (rndsystems.com)
  • Reversible senescence in human CD4 + CD45RA + CD27 − memory T cells. (nature.com)
  • The majority of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from HIV-infected and uninfected women were of the effector memory (CD45RA(-) CCR7(-) CD27(-)) phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • The combination of CCR7 and CD45RA offers been used extensively for classifying antigen-experienced Capital t cells (effector memory space, TEM and central memory space, TCM) [23]. (thetechnoant.info)
  • The effects of pseurotin were tested on the basis of changes in cell viability, apoptosis, activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling pathways, production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha by T cells, expression of activation markers CD69 and CD25 on T cells and Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR isotype (HLA-DR) on B cells, and the differentiation markers CD20, CD27, CD38, and immunoglobulin (Ig) D on B cells. (muni.cz)
  • Evaluation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific antigen-stimulated CD27 - CD38 + IFN-γ + CD4 + T cells for discrimination of active tuberculosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Further characterization of CD19 + CD24 − CD38 hi plasmablasts/plasma cells was carried out by evaluating additional surface markers, including CD27, CD95, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, by flow cytometric assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, CD27, CD95, and HLA-DR were highly expressed on CD19 + CD24 − CD38 hi plasmablasts/plasma cells from patients with IgG4-RD. Furthermore, CD19 + CD24 − CD38 hi plasmablasts/plasma cells secreted more IgG4 than other B-cell populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We describe a new population of memory B cells containing isotype-switched (IgG and IgA) and IgM-only cells and lacking expression of CD27 and IgD. (aai.org)
  • Additional to the above-mentioned engineered antibody products, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) products and antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) products are also available at attractive prices. (getnews.info)
  • Pneumococcal (unconjugated) or meningococcal vaccines are commercially available polysaccharide antigens. (medscape.com)
  • GITR and OX40 displayed only minor effects on their own but, like 4-1BB, CD27 could enhance GITR expression and subsequent GITR co-stimulation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD137 is closely related to CD27, OX40, and CD30. (web.app)
  • anti-CTLA4, anti-CD137, and anti-OX40 into murine tumor or proximal to the antigen, tumor-specific infiltrating lymphocytes, and antigen presenting cells. (web.app)
  • CD27 + IgD-switched B cells are normal. (medscape.com)
  • CD27 Ligand expression is induced by antigen-receptor activation in B cells. (rndsystems.com)
  • CD27 ligation on NK cells induces proliferation and IFN production. (rndsystems.com)
  • CD27 ligation on T cells provides a co-stimulatory signal required for T cell proliferation, clonal expansion and the promotion of effector T cell formation. (rndsystems.com)
  • CD27 ligation on B cells inhibits terminal differentiation of activated B cells into plasma cells and enhances commitment to memory B cell responses. (rndsystems.com)
  • We analyzed 17DD-YF-specific memory by establishing the phenotypic features of peripheral blood mononuclear cells upon 17DD-YF antigen recall in vitro. (cdc.gov)
  • central memory T cells/(CMCD4;CMCD8)/CD27+CD45RO+ and effector memory T cells/(EMCD4;EMCD8)/CD27-CD45RO+. (cdc.gov)
  • non-classical memory B cells/(nCMCD19)/CD27+IgD+ and classical memory B cells/(CMCD19)/CD27+IgD. (cdc.gov)
  • YF antigen recall of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (cdc.gov)
  • TCR CAR-T cells against various tumor antigens have been developed (Ma et al. (justia.com)
  • CD40L is transferred to antigen presenting cells in vitro ( Gardell and Parker, 2017 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • CD27 is expressed on medullary thymocytes, virtually all mature T cells, some B cells, and NK cells. (biolegend.com)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are a type of immune system cell that process and present fragments of infectious agents to T cells, a function known as antigen presentation. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • Immune checkpoint proteins can regulate the immune response in malignancies and infectious diseases via numerous types of activating and inhibitory signals between antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells [ 3 , 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human CD27 is a lymphocyte specific member of the TNF receptor family and is found primarily on peripheral blood T cells and on a subpopulation of B cells and NK cells. (adipogen.com)
  • Activation of T cells via TCR-CD3 complex results in upregulation of CD27 expression on the plasma membrane as well as in the release of its soluble 28-32 kDa form, sCD27, detected in the plasma, urine or spinal fluid. (icbinhibitor.com)
  • Frequencies of pro- and anti-inflammatory CD4 + T cells stimulated with the vaccine antigen GMZ2 as well as B cell profiles did not change after vaccination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recovery from AIDS-related CMVR after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy may be mediated by CMV-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells capable of promoting antigen-specific CD8 + T cell proliferation. (elsevier.com)
  • These cells are present in peripheral blood and tonsils of healthy subjects and display a degree of hypermutation comparable to CD27 + nonswitched memory cells. (aai.org)
  • In contrast to other recently described CD27-negative (CD27neg) memory B cells, they lack expression of FcRH4 and recirculate in the peripheral blood. (aai.org)
  • Contrary to conventional T cells, MAITs recognize vitamin B2 metabolites as antigens and promptly produce a plethora of cytokines and chemokines upon activation (Birkinshaw et al. (springeropen.com)
  • Properties of murine (CD8+)CD27- T cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In humans, loss of CD27 expression is associated with the stable acquisition of effector functions by CD8+ T cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We found that murine (CD8+)CD27- T cells were confined to the primed CD62L(dull/-)CD44(bright)CCR7- T cell population. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD8+)CD27- T cells were absent from lymph nodes but could be found in blood, spleen and in non-lymphoid organs such as lung and liver. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Late after primary influenza virus infection, low percentages of antigen-specific CD27- cells emerged in the lung and spleen. (ox.ac.uk)
  • After recovery from secondary influenza virus infection, high percentages of influenza-specific CD27- T cells were found in the lung and the loss of CD27 on lung CD8+ T cells coincided with high granzyme B expression. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We suggest that in mice, CD27 is lost from CD8+ T cells only after repetitive antigenic stimulation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, the high expression of both granzyme B and perforin in the CD27- T cells suggests that the lack of CD27 on murine CD8+ T cells can be used to identify memory T cells with expression of cytotoxic effector molecules. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD27 is highly expressed on activated T and B-cells. (progen.com)
  • CD137 engagement by CD137L on antigen-activated T cells increases proliferation, effector functions, and survival, in both mouse and human. (web.app)
  • The ability of ilixadencel to up-regulate CD137-expression on co-cultured allogeneic NK cells and T av G Fotaki · 2019 - (alloDCs), not for direct antigen-presentation to T cells but as an immune primer targeting of PD-1 or CD137 enhances the effect of adjuvant. (web.app)
  • of vaccine antigen-specific CD4+ Capital t cells related to adults. (thetechnoant.info)
  • however, those observations were made centered on traditional antigen-specific Capital t cell expansion and SB 525334 IC50 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-centered cytokine assays, and lacked info concerning memory space generation, practical and/or phenotypic properties of vaccine-induced CD4+ Capital t cells [18C20]. (thetechnoant.info)
  • CCR7+CD27+ cells are least differentiated, whereas CCR7-CD27- are fully differentiated CD4+ Capital t cells due to their shortest telomere lengths. (thetechnoant.info)
  • Tumor cells exploit certain immune-checkpoint pathways as a major mechanism of immune resistance, particularly against T cells that are specific for tumor antigens. (bioxcell.com)
  • Arce F. et al (2011) Selective ERK activation differentiates mouse and human tolerogenic dendritic cells, expands antigen-specific regulatory T cells, and suppresses experimental inflammatory arthritis. (proimmune.com)
  • Secondary lymphopoiesis (SL) begins when mature B cells enter the extrafollicular area of lymphoid tissue and differentiate into short-lived plasma cells and memory cells after being stimulated by antigen-presenting cells. (medscape.com)
  • Anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-ID antibody) specifically binds to the antigen-binding site of an antibody, which can be classified into Type I anti-ID (the target idiotope is within CDR), Type II anti-ID (the target idiotope is within FR), Type III anti-ID (partially blocks antigen-antibody interaction), and Type IV anti-ID (recognizes the idiotopes of both antibody and antigen). (getnews.info)
  • The cytoplasmic domains of CD27 have also been shown to interact with TRAF2 and TRAF5 to elicit NF-κB and SAPK/JNK activation. (biolegend.com)
  • The DCs were then exposed to an inactivated SIV vaccine (leading to the processing and presenting of SIV antigens - the researchers described these DCs as SIV-loaded) or left unloaded with any antigens. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • Alternatively antibody response to typhoid-Vi antigen can be measured following typhoid vaccine administration. (medscape.com)
  • 11. The method of any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein the anti-ILT4 antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof comprises a heavy chain variable region of SEQ ID NO: 19 and a light chain variable region of SEQ ID NO: 14. (sumobrain.com)
  • 18. The method of claim 15, wherein the anti-PD-1 antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof comprises a heavy chain variable region of SEQ ID NO:9 and a light chain variable region of SEQ ID NON. (sumobrain.com)
  • 19. The method of claim 15, wherein the anti-PD-1 antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof comprises a heavy chain of SEQ ID NO: 10 and a light chain of SEQ ID NO:5. (sumobrain.com)
  • Spatial transcriptomic profiles of 16 tumors revealed the upregulation of ITGAM , CD27, and CCL5 in tumors with high CD163+ cell infiltration. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Enrichment of TAMs in the TME of NSCLC is associated with resistance to immunotherapy regardless of the programmed death ligand 1 status and is driven by upregulation of CD27 , ITGAM, and CCL5 gene expression within the tumor compartment. (bmj.com)
  • Antibody responses to several P. falciparum blood and liver stage antigens (MSP1, MSP4, MSP8, PfEMP1, STARP) as well as the breadth of the malaria-specific antibody response were significantly higher in protected study participants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to recall antigens are absent, anergic. (medscape.com)
  • A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. (rush.edu)
  • In the present study, we have analyzed the relative frequency of MAITs and the expression of the cell surface antigens in MAITs to seek a possible link to the disease. (springeropen.com)
  • 203-6 reacts with human CD27, a disulphide-linked 120 kDa dimer. (progen.com)
  • After murine cytomegalovirus infection, loss of CD27 expression on virus-specific CD8+ T cell populations was sustained and especially marked in liver and lung. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Immune checkpoints are regulators of the immune system which prevent the immune system from attacking self-antigens indiscriminately. (bioxcell.com)
  • Hepatitis B is not a reliable antigen for testing immune competence because of the high frequency of nonresponders in the population, particularly in persons older than 40 years. (medscape.com)
  • The human immune system is capable of producing up to 109 different antibody species to interact with a wide range of antigens. (medscape.com)
  • Although both 4-1BB and CD27 increased production, only 4-1BB was able to prolong the duration over which cytokine was produced, and both had only modest effects on antigen sensitivity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD27 antigen negative expression indicates poor prognosis in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. (cdc.gov)
  • The model predicted and experiments confirmed that CD27 co-stimulation increases 4-1BB expression and subsequent 4-1BB co-stimulation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In addition to somatic hypermutation, CD27 expression has also been considered a universal memory B cell marker. (aai.org)