Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Combining SSH and cDNA microarrays for rapid identification of differentially expressed genes. (1/395)

Comparing patterns of gene expression in cell lines and tissues has important applications in a variety of biological systems. In this study we have examined whether the emerging technology of cDNA microarrays will allow a high throughput analysis of expression of cDNA clones generated by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). A set of cDNA clones including 332 SSH inserts amplified by PCR was arrayed using robotic printing. The cDNA arrays were hybridized with fluorescent labeled probes prepared from RNA from ER-positive (MCF7 and T47D) and ER-negative (MDA-MB-231 and HBL-100) breast cancer cell lines. Ten clones were identified that were over-expressed by at least a factor of five in the ER-positive cell lines. Northern blot analysis confirmed over-expression of these 10 cDNAs. Sequence analysis identified four of these clones as cytokeratin 19, GATA-3, CD24 and glutathione-S-transferase mu-3. Of the remaining six cDNA clones, four clones matched EST sequences from two different genes and two clones were novel sequences. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence confirmed that CD24 protein was over-expressed in the ER-positive cell lines. We conclude that SSH and microarray technology can be successfully applied to identify differentially expressed genes. This approach allowed the identification of differentially expressed genes without the need to obtain previously cloned cDNAs.  (+info)

Statistically significant differences in the number of CD24 positive muscle fibers and satellite cells between sarcoglycanopathy and age-matched Becker muscular dystrophy patients. (2/395)

OBJECT: The aim of this study was to reveal variations in the patterns of expression of the cell surface proteins in regenerating fibers and those in the number of satellite cells to gain an understanding of the pathological processes involved in sarcoglycanopathy. METHODS: We have reported that there is a reduction of the beta-1 subunit of laminin, heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), and HCAM (CD44) in Japanese patients with sarcoglycanopathy. Here, we investigated immunohistochemically the expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), which is a marker for human regenerating muscle and satellite cell, and CD24, which appears to be expressed in the early stages of the regeneration process. PATIENTS: We investigated six Japanese patients with sarcoglycanopathy, and compared to age-matched Becker muscular dystrophy. RESULTS: We found that the incidences of muscle fibers with increased NCAM were not statistically different between the two groups. However, the incidences of muscle fibers with increased CD24 and those of NCAM positive satellite cells were very low in sarcoglycanopathy and were statistically different between sarcoglycanopathy and age-matched Becker muscular dystrophies. CONCLUSION: The poor expression of CD24 and the fewer satellite cells in sarcoglycanopathy without significant difference in the number of total regenerating fibers suggest that a different regeneration process is involved in sarcoglycanopathy compared to that in other types of muscular dystrophy.  (+info)

Efficient and durable gene marking of hematopoietic progenitor cells in nonhuman primates after nonablative conditioning. (3/395)

Optimization of mobilization, harvest, and transduction of hematopoietic stem cells is critical to successful stem cell gene therapy. We evaluated the utility of a novel protocol involving Flt3-ligand (Flt3-L) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells and retrovirus transduction using hematopoietic growth factors to introduce a reporter gene, murine CD24 (mCD24), into hematopoietic stem cells in nonhuman primates. Rhesus macaques were treated with Flt3-L (200 microgram/kg) and G-CSF (20 microgram/kg) for 7 days and autologous CD34(+) peripheral blood stem cells harvested by leukapheresis. CD34(+) cells were transduced with an MFGS-based retrovirus vector encoding mCD24 using 4 daily transductions with centrifugations in the presence of Flt3-L (100 ng/mL), human stem cell factor (50 ng/mL), and PIXY321 (50 ng/mL) in serum-free medium. An important and novel feature of this study is that enhanced in vivo engraftment of transduced stem cells was achieved by conditioning the animals with a low-morbidity regimen of sublethal irradiation (320 to 400 cGy) on the day of transplantation. Engraftment was monitored sequentially in the bone marrow and blood using both multiparameter flow cytometry and semi-quantitative DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our data show successful and persistent engraftment of transduced primitive progenitors capable of giving rise to marked cells of multiple hematopoietic lineages, including granulocytes, monocytes, and B and T lymphocytes. At 4 to 6 weeks posttransplantation, 47% +/- 32% (n = 4) of granulocytes expressed mCD24 antigen at the cell surface. Peak in vivo levels of genetically modified peripheral blood lymphocytes approached 35% +/- 22% (n = 4) as assessed both by flow cytometry and PCR 6 to 10 weeks posttransplantation. In addition, naive (CD45RA(+) and CD62L(+)) CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells were the predominant phenotype of the marked CD3(+) T cells detected at early time points. A high level of marking persisted at between 10% and 15% of peripheral blood leukocytes for 4 months and at lower levels past 6 months in some animals. A cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against mCD24 was detected in only 1 animal. This degree of persistent long-lived, high-level gene marking of multiple hematopoietic lineages, including naive T cells, using a nonablative marrow conditioning regimen represents an important step toward the ultimate goal of high-level permanent transduced gene expression in stem cells.  (+info)

Age-associated rapid and Stat6-independent IL-4 production by NK1-CD4+8- thymus T lymphocytes. (4/395)

The source of IL-4 required for priming naive T cells into IL-4-secreting effectors has not been clearly identified. Here we show that upon TCR stimulation, thymus NK1-CD4+8- T cells produced IL-4, the magnitude of which was inversely correlated with age. This IL-4 production response by Th2-prone BALB/c mice was approximately 9-fold that of Th1-prone C57BL/10 mice. More than 90% of activated NK1-CD4+8- thymocytes did not use the invariant V alpha 14-J alpha 281 chain characteristic of typical CD1-restricted NK1+CD4+ T cells. Stat6-null NK1-CD4+8- thymocytes produced bioactive IL-4, with induction of IL-4 mRNA expression within 1 h of stimulation. Our results support the possibility that TCR repertoire-diverse conventional NK1-CD4+ T cells are a potential IL-4 source for directing naive T cells toward Th2/type 2 CD8+ T cell (Tc2) effector development.  (+info)

Integrin leukocyte function-associated antigen-1-mediated cell binding can be activated by clustering of membrane rafts. (5/395)

The leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) integrin (CD11a/CD18) is an important adhesion molecule for lymphocyte migration and the initiation of an immune response. At the cell surface, LFA-1 activity can be regulated by divalent cations that enhance receptor affinity but also by membrane clustering induced by treatment of cells with substances such as phorbol esters. Membrane clustering leads to increased LFA-1 avidity. We report here that LFA-1-mediated binding of mouse thymocytes or activated T lymphocytes to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 can be rapidly induced by clustering of membrane rafts using antibodies to the glycosylphophatidylinositol-anchored molecule CD24 or cholera toxin (CTx). CD24 and CD18 were found to co-localize in rafts and cross-linking with CTx lead to enhanced LFA-1 clustering. We observed that disruption of raft integrity by lowering the membrane cholesterol content abolished the CTx and the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced LFA-1 binding but left the ability to activate LFA-1 with Mg(2+)/EGTA unimpaired. In contrast to activation with Mg(2+)/EGTA, activation via raft clustering was dependent on PI3-kinase, required cytoskeletal mobility, and was accompanied by Tyr phosphorylation of a 18-kDa protein. Our results support the notion that rafts as preformed adhesion platforms could be important for the rapid regulation of lymphocyte adhesion.  (+info)

Transmission of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 tax to rabbits by tax-only-positive human cells. (6/395)

The human T-cell lymphrotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is causally related to adult T-cell leukemia and lymphoma and the neurodegenerative diseases tropical spastic paraparesis and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. In the United States the prevalence of infection has been estimated to range from 0.016 to 0.1% on the basis of serologic tests for antibodies to the viral structural proteins. Blood from donors positive for antibodies to HTLV-1 or HTLV-2 is not used for transfusion. However, patients with the cutaneous T-cell lymphoma mycosis fungoides (MF) are HTLV-1 and -2 seronegative yet harbor proviral sequences identical to those that encode the HTLV-1 transactivating and transforming gene product p40tax in their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and they usually have antibodies to p40(tax). Moreover, a study of 250 randomly selected blood donors revealed that approximately 8% of these seronegative individuals also had HTLV-1 tax sequences and antibodies to p40(tax), while they lacked sequences and antibodies related to gag, pol, or env. Thus, it seemed important to determine whether the "tax-only" state can be transmitted by transfusion. To this end, PBMCs from HTLV-1 and -2 seronegative tax-only-positive MF patients or from healthy tax-only-positive blood donors were injected into adult rabbits, an established animal model for HTLV-1 infection. The PBMCs of all injected rabbits became tax sequence positive. These observations suggest that HTLV-1 tax can be transmitted by tax-only-positive mononuclear cells.  (+info)

Functional assessment of precursors from murine bone marrow suggests a sequence of early B lineage differentiation events. (7/395)

Most lineage marker-negative (Lin-)TdT+ cells from murine marrow lack CD34 but display c-kit at low density as well as IL-7Ralpha and Flk-2/Flt-3 receptors. Single cells with these characteristics generated CD45RA+CD19- as well as CD19+ lymphocytes in culture. CD45RA+CD19- marrow cells were resolved into three nonoverlapping subsets. One subset, lacking DX5 and Ly-6C antigens, yielded CD19+ cells in culture. Further analysis demonstrated CD24 on most Lin-TdT+ cells and all CD45R+CD19-DX5-Ly-6C- cells. Mac-1/CD11b was absent from these two subsets of B lineage precursors, while IL-7Ralpha was retained during subsequent differentiation to a CD19+ and stromal cell-independent stage. These findings contrast with previous descriptions of B lymphocyte precursors and suggest a sequence of early differentiation events.  (+info)

The heat-stable antigen determines pathogenicity of self-reactive T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (8/395)

Induction of myelin-specific CD4 T cells is a pivotal event in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Other checkpoints in EAE pathogenesis have not been clearly defined, although multiple genetic loci are known to influence EAE development. We report here that targeted mutation of the heat-stable antigen (HSA) abrogates development of EAE despite a complete lack of effect on induction of autoimmune T cells. To test whether T-cell expression of HSA is sufficient, we created transgenic mice in which HSA is expressed exclusively in the T-cell lineage. We found that these mice remain resistant to EAE induction. Adoptive transfer studies demonstrate that both T cells and non-T cells must express HSA in order for the pathogenic T cells to execute their effector function. Moreover, HSAIg, a fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of the HSA and the Fc portion of immunoglobulin, drastically ameliorates the clinical sign of EAE even when administrated after self-reactive T cells had been expanded. Thus, identification of HSA as a novel checkpoint, even after activation and expansion of self-reactive T cells, provides a novel approach for immunotherapy of autoimmune neurologic diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.  (+info)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in virtually all biological processes, including stem cell maintenance, differentiation, and development. The dysregulation of miRNAs is associated with many human diseases including cancer. We have identified a set of miRNAs differentially expressed between human breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) and non-tumorigenic cancer cells. In addition, these miRNAs are similarly upregulated or downregulated in normal mammary stem/progenitor cells. In this review, we mainly describe the miRNAs that are dysregulated in human breast CSCs directly isolated from clinical specimens. The miRNAs and their clusters, such as the miR-200 clusters, miR-183 cluster, miR-221-222 cluster, let-7, miR-142 and miR-214, target the genes and pathways important for stem cell maintenance, such as the self-renewal gene BMI1, apoptosis, Wnt signaling, Notch signaling, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In addition, the current evidence shows that metastatic breast CSCs acquire a phenotype that is
Human Breast Cancer Stem Cell (Plated cells are also available). 120 Population doublings or up to 12 passages. One million viable cells upon thawing of frozen cells, frozen vial of cells shipped in dry-ice. Cell Cultures from single donors, 1000 different cell cultures available, please indicate which lots you require from the 1000 donors. Source: Human Breast Cancer tissue Positive Markers: CD133, CD44, SSEA3/4, Oct4, Tumorigenicity (,1000 cells), Alkaline Phosphatase, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Telomerase For non-academic use, please inquire for pricing. Cells are only guaranteed with purchase of Creative Bioarray Media and Creative Bioarray Extra Cellular Matrix for appropriate cell culture, for 30 days from the date of shipment ...
Signal transducer CD24 also known as cluster of differentiation 24 or heat stable antigen CD24 (HSA) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD24 gene. CD24 is a cell adhesion molecule. CD24 is a glycoprotein expressed at the surface of most B lymphocytes and differentiating neuroblasts. This gene encodes a sialoglycoprotein that is expressed on mature granulocytes and in many B cells. The encoded protein is anchored via a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) link to the cell surface. The protein also contributes to a wide range of downstream signaling networks and is crucial for neural development. CD24 gene is found on chromosome 6 (6q21) An alignment of this genes sequence finds genomic locations with similarity on chromosomes 1p36, 3p26, 15q21.3, 20q11.2 and Yq11.222. Whether transcription, and corresponding translation, occurs at each of these other genomic locations needs to be experimentally determined (source: NCBI). GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000272398 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...
The heat stable antigen (HSA, or murine CD24) is a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-linked surface glycoprotein expressed on immature cells of most, if not all, major hematopoietic lineages, as well as in developing neural and epithelial cells. It has been widely used to stage the maturation of B and T lymphocytes because it is strongly induced and then repressed again during their maturation. Terminally differentiated lymphocytes, as well as most myeloid lineages, are negative for HSA. Erythrocytes are an exception in that they maintain high levels of HSA expression. HSA on naive B cells has been shown to mediate cell-cell adhesion, while HSA on antigen-presenting cells has been shown to mediate a costimulatory signal important for activating T lymphocytes during an immune response. Here, we characterize mice that lack a functional HSA gene, constructed by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. While T-cell and myeloid development appears normal, these mice show a leaky block in B-cell ...
|strong|Monoclonal antibody with a broad spectrum of inhibitory effects on the expansion of T cells induced via TCR.|/strong| |strong|Background and Research
The researchers performed a variety of experiments on human breast cancer stem cells. These are cells that are able to divide and become any type of cell the tumour needs in order to grow. Cancer stem cells are different from most normal cells in that they can produce energy from glucose through a variety of pathways. This is one of the reasons theyre able to grow and replicate better than normal cells. Most also have an increased number of mitochondria - the powerhouse of cells - which can convert glucose into energy using oxygen. And one of the side effects of doxycycline is it inhibits the production of proteins required by mitochondria. Previous research has suggested that by stopping the protein production, doxycycline could kill the cancer cells because they wouldnt be able to make energy. But because cancer cells are good at adapting, there were concerns that some cancer cells would become drug resistant by using a different pathway to create energy, such as glycolysis. This happens ...
It seems my supply has been fluctuating. I have been stressed. Could that be it? For example, while we were traveling it seemed low (breasts extra soft, decreased pumping output, etc.). The very next day it was up again - maybe because wed arrived at our destination and I could relax? Now were traveling again and my supply has dipped. Ive been doing pumped bottles because Im going back to work next week. Usually my pumping output it good - I pumped for 12 months with DS. Anyways, why
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Wnt signaling through β-catenin and the lymphoid-enhancing factor 1/T-cell factor (LEF1/TCF) family of transcription factors maintains stem cell properties in both normal and malignant tissues; however, the underlying molecular pathway involved in this process has not been completely defined. Using a microRNA microarray screening assay, we identified the let-7 miRNAs as downstream targets of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Expression studies indicated that Wnt/β-catenin pathway suppresses mature let-7 miRNAs but not the primary transcripts, which suggests a posttranscriptional regulation of repression. Furthermore, we identified Lin28, a negative let-7 biogenesis regulator, as a novel direct downstream target of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Loss of function of Lin28 impairs the Wnt/β-catenin pathway-mediated let-7 inhibition and breast cancer stem cell expansion; enforced expression of let-7 blocks the Wnt/β-catenin pathway-stimulated breast cancer stem cell phenotype. Finally, we demonstrated that ...
miR-1 inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer stem cells by targeting EVI-1 Lei Wu,1 Tianyi Wang,2 Dongning He,2 Xiaoxi Li,1 Youhong Jiang1 1Molecular Oncology Laboratory of Cancer Research Institute, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China; 2Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou 121001, China Purpose: Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have been regarded as the key factor for treatment failure in breast cancer. The abnormal expression of miRNAs plays a significant role in different tumor types. However, the role of miR-1 in breast cancer remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of miR-1 on the proliferation and apoptosis of BCSCs. Materials and methods: CD44+/CD24-/low/epithelial-specific antigen+ BCSCs were isolated by flow cytometry. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the expression of miRNAs, mRNAs, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT
Washington, Nov 24 (ANI): Scientists have discovered a novel way to halt the expansion of breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs), the aggressive cells thought to be resistant to current anti-cancer therapies and which promote
It is postulated that breast cancer stem cells (bCSCs) mediate disease recurrence and drive formation of distant metastases - the principal cause of mortality in breast cancer patients. Therapeutic targeting of bCSCs, however, is hampered by their heterogeneity and resistance to existing therapeutics. In order to identify strategies to selectively remove bCSCs from breast cancers, irrespective of their clinical subtype, we sought an apoptosis mechanism that would target bCSCs yet would not kill normal cells. Suppression of the apoptosis inhibitor cellular FLICE-Like Inhibitory Protein (c-FLIP) partially sensitizes breast cancer cells to the anti-cancer agent Tumour Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL). Here we demonstrate in breast cancer cell lines that bCSCs are exquisitely sensitive to the de-repression of this pro-apoptotic pathway, resulting in a dramatic reduction in experimental metastases and the loss of bCSC self-renewal. Suppression c-FLIP was performed by siRNA (FLIPi) in
The researchers identified a receptor, CXCR1, on the cancer stem cells which triggers growth of stem cells in response to inflammation and tissue damage. A drug originally developed to prevent organ transplant rejection blocks this receptor, killing breast cancer stem cells and preventing their metastasis in mice, according to the study.. Cancer stem cells, the small number of cells that fuel a tumors growth, are believed to be resistant to current chemotherapies and radiation treatment, which researchers say may be the reason cancer so often returns after treatment.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Breast cancer stem cells and intrinsic subtypes. T2 - Controversies rage on. AU - Nakshatri, Harikrishna. AU - Srour, Edward F.. AU - Badve, Sunil. PY - 2009/10/12. Y1 - 2009/10/12. N2 - Heterogeneity is a well-documented phenomenon in breast cancer; one of the explanations for this phenomenon is the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) with the capacity to differentiate along divergent pathways. These CSCs undergo asymmetric and symmetric division resulting in both expansion of the stem cell pool and the production of morphologically and functionally distinct differentiated daughter cells. Breast cancer cells that express the cell surface molecule CD44 but lack the expression of CD24 have been described as CSCs. Breast cancer cells expressing elevated levels of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) are also described as CSCs with ALDH1+/CD44+/CD24- subpopulation displaying highest tumorigenic potential in NOD/SCID models. The CSC hypothesis for tumor heterogeneity raises three ...
Reactivation of the stem cell programme in breast cancer is significantly associated with persistent cancer progression and therapeutic failure. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are involved in the...
Cell surface protein GD2 blows potent tumor-generating cells cover. The first single marker of breast cancer stem cells also is targetable by a drug in preclinical tests.
TY - JOUR. T1 - NK cells preferentially target tumor cells with a cancer stem cell phenotype. AU - Ames, Erik. AU - Canter, Robert J.. AU - Grossenbacher, Steven K.. AU - Mac, Stephanie. AU - Chen, Mingyi. AU - Smith, Rachel C.. AU - Hagino, Takeshi. AU - Perez-Cunningham, Jessica. AU - Sckisel, Gail D.. AU - Urayama, Shiro. AU - Monjazeb, Arta M.. AU - Fragoso, Ruben C.. AU - Sayers, Thomas J.. AU - Murphy, William J.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are resistant to antiproliferative therapies, able to repopulate tumor bulk, and seed metastasis. NK cells are able to target stem cells as shown by their ability to reject allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells but not solid tissue grafts. Using multiple preclinical models, including NK coculture (autologous and allogeneic) with multiple human cancer cell lines and dissociated primary cancer specimens and NK transfer in NSG mice harboring orthotopic pancreatic cancer ...
Researchers then identified two signals from a cytokine network - a type of protein that affects how cells communicate - that were responsible for stem cell regulation. These same cytokines play a role in inflammation and drugs that block them have already been approved for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. By blocking these cytokine signals, researchers hope that they can successfully target the cancer stem cell population providing a more effective treatment for breast cancer ...
The researchers then used triptolide, a known inhibitor of GD3 synthase, to treat immune-deficient mice injected with breast cancer cells. Of the mice treated, 50 percent did not develop breast cancer and the other half had smaller tumors than the control mice. The treated mice also lived longer than the controls. GD2s function in cancer stem cells remains unclear. As GD2 is an immune suppressant, it would be needed by cancer stem cells to counter immune cells during metastases, said first author Venkata Lokesh Battula, Ph.D., of MD Andersons Department of Leukemia. Inhibition of GD2 expression in cancer cells may enhance the inherent ability of immune cells to kill cancer cells.. Co-authors with Andreeff, Mani and Battula are Yuexi Shi, Rui-Yu Wang, M.D., Ph.D., Erika Spaeth, Ph.D., Rodrigo Jacamo, and Frank Marini, Ph.D., all of MD Andersons Department of Leukemia, Section of Molecular Hematology and Therapy; Kurt Evans, of the Department of Molecular Pathology; Aysegul Sahin, M.D., of ...
We recently showed that two different ALDH+ and CD44+/CD24-/low breast cancer stem cells (BSCSs) exhibited stem cell characteristics that include self-renewal, extensive proliferation, the ability to form non-adherent spherical clusters, chemotherapy resistance and high Notch1 expression. We have identified a compound compound: 6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) coumestrol (Pso) and treatment with Pso resulted in growth inhibition and an EMT phenotype in both BCSCs and BC cells. Oral Pso administration at physiologically achievable doses (25 mg/kg/BW) suppressed the growth of BCSCs and BC xenografts without toxicity. In the current studies, we identified several novel Pso-derived analogs that may be more potent than the parent compound. One such compound, 1-methoxyphaseollidin (1MP), obtained via three main functional group changes: (i) translocation of the isoprenyl moiety from the phenyl ring fused to the pyran ring (as in Pso) to the phenyl ring adjacent to the furan ring, (ii) removal of the carbonyl ...
Screens for agents that specifically kill epithelial cancer stem cells (CSCs) have not been possible due to the rarity of these cells within tumor cell populations and their relative instability in culture. We describe here an approach to screening for agents with epithelial CSC-specific toxicity. We implemented this method in a chemical screen and discovered compounds showing selective toxicity for breast CSCs. One compound, salinomycin, reduces the proportion of CSCs by >100-fold relative to paclitaxel, a commonly used breast cancer chemotherapeutic drug. Treatment of mice with salinomycin inhibits mammary tumor growth invivo and induces increased epithelial differentiation of tumor cells. In addition, global gene expression analyses show that salinomycin treatment results in the loss of expression of breast CSC genes previously identified by analyses of breast tissues isolated directly from patients. This study demonstrates the ability to identify agents with specific toxicity for epithelial ...
Cancer stem cell studies may improve understanding of tumor pathophysiology and identify more effective strategies for cancer treatment. In a variety of organisms, Piwil2 has been implicated in multiple roles including stem cell self-renewal, RNA silencing, and translational control. In this study, we documented specific expression of the stem cell protein Piwil2 in breast cancer with predominant expression in breast cancer stem cells. In patients who were evaluated, we determined that 90% of invasive carcinomas and 81% of carcinomas in situ exhibited highest expression of Piwil2. In breast cancer cells, Piwil2 silencing suppressed the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, a pivotal regulator of Bcl-XL and cyclin D1, whose downregulation paralleled a reduction in cell proliferation and survival. Our findings define Piwil2 and its effector signaling pathways as key factors in the proliferation and survival of breast cancer stem cells. Cancer Res; 70(11); OF1-11. ©2010 ...
A novel way of targeting breast cancer cells that are resistant to current treatments have been discovered by scientists at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Centre.
Women may find great relevance to this vital piece of news as it is regarding breast cancer. Study authors from the University of Michigan Comprehensive
The gene, HER2, causes cancer stem cells to multiply and spread, explaining why HER2 has been linked to a more aggressive type of breast cancer and to metastatic disease, in which the cancer has spread beyond the breast, the researchers say.. Further, the drug Herceptin, which is used to treat HER2-positive breast cancer, was found to target and destroy the cancer stem cells. This work suggests that the reason drugs that target HER2, such as Herceptin and Lapatanib, are so effective in breast cancer is that they target the cancer stem cell population. This finding provides further evidence for the cancer stem cell hypothesis, says study author Max S. Wicha, M.D., Distinguished Professor of Oncology and director of the U-M Comprehensive Cancer Center.. The cancer stem cell hypothesis says that tumors originate in a small number of cells, called cancer stem cells, and that these cells are responsible for fueling a tumors growth. These cells represent fewer than 5 percent of the cells in a ...
This study provides highly selective molecules to target the CSC niche, a potential interesting advance for drug development to prevent cancer resistance. PMID: 32083773 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]...
HER2 Drives Luminal Breast Cancer Stem Cells in the Absence of HER2 Amplification: Implications for Efficacy of Adjuvant Trastuzumab
Women who have diabetes during pregnancy may also have a lower supply of breast milk after giving birth, says a study carried out at Cincinnati Childrens Hospital.
Chang C, Goel HL, Gao H, Pursell B, Shultz LD, Greiner DL, Ingerpuu S, Patarroyo M, Cao S, Lim E, Mao J, McKee KK, Yurchenco PD, Mercurio AM. A laminin 511 matrix is regulated by TAZ and functions as the ligand for the a6Bß1 integrin to sustain breast cancer stem cells. Genes Dev. 2015 Jan 01; 29(1):1-6 ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Targeting treatment-resistant breast cancer stem cells with FKBPL and Its peptide derivative, AD-01, via the CD44 pathway. AU - McClements, Lana. AU - Yakkundi, Anita. AU - Papaspyropoulos, Angelos. AU - Harrison, Hannah. AU - Ablett, Matthew P.. AU - Jithesh, Puthen V.. AU - McKeen, Hayley D.. AU - Bennett, Rachel. AU - Donley, Christopher. AU - Kissenpfennig, Adrien. AU - McIntosh, Stuart. AU - McCarthy, Helen O.. AU - ONeill, Eric. AU - Clarke, Robert B.. AU - Robson, Tracy. PY - 2013/7/15. Y1 - 2013/7/15. N2 - Purpose: FK506-binding protein like (FKBPL) and its peptide derivative, AD-01, have already shown tumor growth inhibition and CD44-dependent antiangiogenic activity. Here, we explore the ability of AD-01 to target CD44-positive breast cancer stem cells (BCSC). Experimental Design: Mammosphere assays and flow cytometry were used to analyze the effect of FKBPL overexpression/knockdown and AD-01 treatment ± other anticancer agents on BCSCs using breast cancer cell lines ...
The manifestation of shellfish allergies can be highly variable with symptoms ranging from hives, tingling or swelling of the lips, tongue or throat, chest tightness, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, nausea and vomiting, to full-blown anaphylaxis (Cleveland Clinic,2012). The allergens associated with shellfish allergies are not well characterized and thus management of such an allergy is often simply limited to avoidance or dietary elimination of shellfish. Additionally, treatment is restricted to emergency care following exposure (Lieberman et al.,2010). So far, it is known that there are heat stable antigens within shellfish that bind to human IgE, an immunoglobulin or antibody that likely originally evolved as a defense against internal parasites such as helminthes and now significantly contributes to immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Once bound to an allergen, IgE initiates intracellular signaling, leading to the degranulation of immune cells. Degranulation is the ...
ANN ARBOR, Mich. - Cancer treatments designed to block the growth of blood vessels were found to increase the number of cancer stem cells in breast tumors in mice, suggesting a possible explanation for why these drugs dont lead to longer survival, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center.. Max S. Wicha, M.D.. The drugs Avastin and Sutent have been looked at as potential breast cancer treatments. But while they do shrink tumors and slow the time till the cancer progresses, the effect does not last, and the cancer eventually regrows and spreads.. This study provides an explanation for the clinical trial results demonstrating that in women with breast cancer antiangiogenic agents such as Avastin delay the time to tumor recurrence but do not affect patient survival. If our results apply to the clinic, it suggests that in order to be effective, these agents will need to be combined with cancer stem cell inhibitors, an approach now being ...
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition program becomes activated during malignant progression and can enrich for cancer stem cells (CSCs). We report that inhibition of protein kinase C α (PKCα) specifically targets CSCs but has little effect on non-CSCs. The formation of CSCs from non-stem cells invo …
JIMT-1 breast cancer cells were treated with three C20-O-acylated analogs, the C1-methyl ester of salinomycin, and salinomycin. The effects of treatment on the CSC-related CD44(+)/CD24(-) and the aldehyde dehydrogenase positive (ALDH(+)) populations were determined using flow cytometry. The survival ability of CSCs after treatment was investigated with a colony formation assay under serum free conditions. The effect of the compounds on cell migration was evaluated using wound-healing and Boyden chamber assays. The expression of vimentin, related to mesenchymal traits and expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin, related to the epithelial traits, were investigated using immunofluorescence microscopy ...
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, due to the fact that chemoresistance develops in nearly all patients l...
Evgen Pharma is now preparing to initiate a number of patient trials in the UK and US. These include clinical trials in breast cancer, prostate cancer, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) and Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (SAH). Sulforadex has also recently produced compelling preclinical efficacy data in animal models for osteoarthritis and COPD. Whilst the market, and current drug pipeline, for advanced prostate cancer is extremely competitive, Evgen is initially targeting patients diagnosed with early-stage indolent prostate cancer that elect active surveillance. There are currently no approved drugs for this large population of men, representing approximately 30% of all diagnoses. In the breast cancer field, Sulforadex® has recently been demonstrated by Evgen Pharma to be a potent agent against breast cancer stem cells derived from patients. Cancer stem cells are believed to be a major factor behind the recurrence of many cancers and are thus targets of major interest to large biotechnology and ...
Brain metastasis from breast cancer is a growing problem, due in part to improved therapies for metastatic disease and the inability of many drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier. McGowan and colleagues investigated the role of cancer stem-like cells and a potential regulator, Notch, on the formation of brain metastases by using a γ-secretase inhibitor and specific Notch1 silencing. Cells with a reduced stem-like phenotype formed fewer metastases. Notch1 shRNA or DAPT treatment reduced the proportion of stemlike cells and the number of metastases formed in vivo. These data suggest that the cancer stem cell phenotype contributes to the development of brain metastases from breast cancer and that this may arise in part from increased Notch activity.. ...
Dr. Weeks Comment: If your oncologist is still treating your cancer TUMOR cells, she or he is either negligent or powerless to advocate for you against the standard of care - cut, burn, poison (surgery, radiation or chemotherapy). Has he or she even mentioned that your cancer STEM cells are the more lethal target and that chemotherapy and radiation make your cancer STEM cells more numerous and virulent? What ever happened to First Do No Harm?. So it is up to you to take care of yourself. (It always has been thus!). So get reading.. (this was epublished June 12th 2016 -a month ago…sorry to be so slow getting this to you….). ...
Killing malignant mitochondria is one of the most promising approaches in the development of new anticancer drugs. Scientists from the UK have now synthesized a copper-containing peptide that is readily taken up by mitochondria in breast cancer stem cells, where it effectively induces apoptosis. The study, which has been published in the journal Angewandte Chemie, also highlights the powerful therapeutic potential of the metallopeptides.
The tumour hierarchical model proposes origin of cancer from a small population of cells having properties of stemness like self renewal and pluripotency. Although, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in leukemia and solid tumours by surface markers, there is variability in their specificity for isolation of CSCs in a specific tumour. This study aims at a composite
Nowadays many people suffer from cancers and they find cancer stem cell killing foods so much more.find a way that able to kill cancer..
The gene mutations driving cancer have been tracked for the first time in patients back to a distinct set of cells at the root of cancer - cancer stem cells.
Discover the global market for cancer stem cells, its related technologies and market dynamincs, by market type and by region for the next five years.
Background: The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) or cancer stem-like cells in a tumor mass is believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence because of their intrinsic and extrinsic drug-resistance characteristics ...
When your life is on the line, getting the best treatment can mean the difference between life or death. And when faced with a diagnosis of cancer, you
Full Text - Gomisin M2 isolated from Schisandra viridis A. C. Smith has potential anti-tumor effects on certain cancers, including breast cancer. However, only a few investigations have been conducted on the effects of Gomisin M2 on breast cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have the ability to self-renew and differentiate, as a possible strategy to resolve cancer cell resistance to apoptosis and to improve treatments. It is essential to investigate the effects of Gomisin M2 on breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). In this study, we enriched breast cancer stem cells with CD44+/CD24- from MDA-MB-231 and HCC1806 cells through magnetic-activated cell sorting and cultured these in serum-free medium. The ability of Gomisin M2 to kill breast cancer stem cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Gomisin M2 significantly inhibited the proliferation of the triple-negative breast cancer cell lines and mammosphere formation in breast CSCs and downregulated the Wnt/β-catenin self-renewal pathway.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antiangiogenic agents increase breast cancer stem cells via the generation of tumor hypoxia. AU - Conley, Sarah J.. AU - Gheordunescu, Elizabeth. AU - Kakarala, Pramod. AU - Newman, Bryan. AU - Korkaya, Hasan. AU - Heath, Amber N.. AU - Clouthier, Shawn G.. AU - Wicha, Max S.. PY - 2012/2/21. Y1 - 2012/2/21. N2 - Antiangiogenic therapy has been thought to hold significant potential for the treatment of cancer. However, the efficacy of such treatments, especially in breast cancer patients, has been called into question, as recent clinical trials reveal only limited effectiveness of antiangiogenic agents in prolonging patient survival. New research using preclinical models further suggests that antiangiogenic agents actually increase invasive and metastatic properties of breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that by generating intratumoral hypoxia in human breast cancer xenografts, the antiangiogenic agents sunitinib and bevacizumab increase the population of cancer stem cells. In ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cancer stem cell marker CD90 inhibits ovarian cancer formation via β3 integrin. AU - Chen, Wei Ching. AU - Hsu, Hui Ping. AU - Li, Chung Yen. AU - Yang, Ya Ju. AU - Hung, Yu Hsuan. AU - Cho, Chien Yu. AU - Wang, Chih Yang. AU - Weng, Tzu Yang. AU - Lai, Ming Derg. PY - 2016/11/1. Y1 - 2016/11/1. N2 - Cancer stem cell (CSC) markers have been identified for CSC isolation and proposed as therapeutic targets in various types of cancers. CD90, one of the characterized markers in liver and gastric cancer, is shown to promote cancer formation. However, the underexpression level of CD90 in ovarian cancer cells and the evidence supporting the cellular mechanism have not been investigated. In the present study, we found that the DNA copy number of CD90 is correlated with mRNA expression in ovarian cancer tissue and the ovarian cancer patients with higher CD90 have good prognosis compared to the patients with lower CD90. Although the expression of CD90 in human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells ...
Dysregulation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R)/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway was shown to correlate with breast cancer disease progression. Cancer stem cells are a subpopulation within cancer cells that participate in tumor initiation, radio/chemoresistance and metastasis. In breast cancer, breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) were identified as CD24-CD44+ cells or cells with high intracellular aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH+). Elucidation of the role of IGF-1R in BCSCs is crucial to the design of breast cancer therapies targeting BCSCs. IGF-1R expression in BCSCs and noncancer stem cells sorted from xenografts of human primary breast cancers was examined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation. The role of IGF-1R in BCSCs was assessed by IGF-1R blockade with chemical inhibitor and gene silencing. Involvement of PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) as the downstream pathway was studied by their
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The invasive, mesenchymal phenotype of CD44posCD24neg breast cancer cells has made them a promising target for eliminating the metastatic capacity of primary tumors. It has been previously demonstrated that CD44neg/lowCD24pos breast cancer cells lack the ability to give rise to their invasive CD44posCD24neg counterpart. Here we demonstrate that noninvasive, epithelial-like CD44posCD24pos cells readily give rise to invasive, mesenchymal CD44posCD24neg progeny in vivo and in vitro. This interconversion was found to be dependent upon Activin/Nodal signaling. Breast cancer cell lines were sorted into CD44posCD24pos and CD44posCD24neg populations to evaluate their progeny for the expression of CD44, CD24, and markers of a mesenchymal phenotype. The populations, separated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) were injected into immunocompromised mice to evaluate their tumorigenicity and invasiveness of the resulting xenografts. CD24 expression was dynamically regulated in vitro in all evaluated breast
Glycans are essential for the maintenance of normal biological function, with alterations in glycan expression being a hallmark of cancer. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subset of cells within a tumour capable of self-renewal, cellular differentiation and resistances to conventional therapies. As is the case with stem cells, marker proteins present on the cell surface are frequently used to identify and enrich CSCs, with the expression of these markers statistical correlating with the likelihood of cancer recurrence and overall patient survival. As such CSC markers are of high clinical relevance. The majority of markers currently used to identify CSC populations are glycoproteins, and although the diverse biological roles for many of these markers are known, the nature and function of the glycan moiety on these glycoproteins remains to be fully elucidated. This mini-review summarises our current knowledge regarding the types and extent of CSC marker glycosylation, and the various roles that ...
Regulation of Human Glioma Cell Migration, Tumor Growth, and Stemness Gene Expression Using a Lck Targeted Inhibitor The authors developed a dorsal root ganglion axon-oligodendrocyte-human glioma cell (hGC) co-culture to study in real time the migration and interaction of hGCs with their microenvironment. Treatment of human glioma stem cells with Lck inhibitor, resulted in significant inhibition of self-renewal and tumor-sphere formation. [Oncogene] Full Article The SCRIB Paralog LANO/LRRC1 Regulates Breast Cancer Stem Cell Fate through WNT/β-Catenin Signaling Scientists demonstrated that Lano/LRRC1-depleted cells secreted increased levels of WNT ligands, which acted in a paracrine manner to positively deregulate the WNT/β-catenin pathway in breast CSCs. [Stem Cell Reports] Full Article A Unique Non-Saccharide Mimetic of Heparin Hexasaccharide Inhibits Colon Cancer Stem Cells via p38 MAP Kinase Activation G2.2 reduced CSCs induced HT-29 and HCT 116 colon xenografts growth in a dose-dependent ...
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1. Clarke MF, Dick JE, Dirks PB, et al., Cancer stem cells-perspectives on current status and future directions: AACR Workshop on cancer stem cells, Cancer Res, 2006;66:9339-44. 2. Clevers H, The cancer stem cell: premises, promises and challenges, Nat Med, 2011;17:313-9. 3. Sampieri K, Fodde R, Cancer stem cells and metastasis, Semin Cancer Biol, 2012;22:187-93. 4. Ricci-Vitiani L, Lombardi DG, Pilozzi E, et al., Identification and expansion of human colon-cancer-initiating cells, Nature, 2007;445:111-5. 5. OBrien CA, Pollett A, Gallinger S, Dick JE, A human colon cancer cell capable of initiating tumour growth in immunodeficient mice, Nature, 2007;445:106-10. 6. Heath JP, Epithelial cell migration in the intestine, Cell Biol Int, 1996;20:139-46. 7. Shih IM, Wang TL, Traverso G, et al., Top-down morphogenesis of colorectal tumors, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2001;98:2640-5. 8. Schwitalla S, Fingerle AA, Cammareri P, et al., Intestinal tumorigenesis initiated by dedifferentiation and acquisition ...
Sales, means the sales volume of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) and Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) Revenue, means the sales value of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) and Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) This report studies sales (consumption) of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) and Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) in Global market, especially in USA, China, Europe, Japan, India and Southeast Asia, focuses on top players i
Here are ten natural bioactive compounds such as sulforaphanes, turmeric, lycopene, ursolic acid, resverarol, 6-gingerol, piperine and EGCG, that have important effects against supposedly indestructible cancer stem cells, according to research.. On this CANCERactive Website we have covered a great many research studies on which natural compounds have been shown to attack and help fight cancer stem cells. These are the core cells at the heart of a cancer. And, be clear: No known chemotherapy drugs kill them off. This is why your cancer drugs may knock the tumour back 50, 60 or 70% but in the end that tumour may regrow.. What is a cancer stem cell? They are unlike normal cancer cells because the can promote cancer tumour re-growth, promote metastases, promote inflammation, cancer progression and cancer cell invasion. These cells are totally self-sufficient and do not use the same signalling pathways that normal cancer cells do. Think of them rather like the queen bee in the hive.. But natural ...
Accumulating data suggests that many human tumors are organized in cellular hierarchies initiated and maintained by a small population of self-renewing so called cancer stem cells. This was first demonstrated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but during recent years, cancer stem cells have also been demonstrated in other cancer types. These cells are not killed by conventional cancer therapy and thus it is critical to identify those cancer stem cells to be able to improved diagnostics and treatment of cancer.
Long-term tumor-initiating cells (LT-TICs) are viewed as a quantifiable target for colon cancer therapy owing to their extensive self-renewal and tumorigenic and metastatic capacities. However, it is unknown which subpopulation of colon cancer cells contains LT-TICs. Here, based on the methods for isolating and identifying cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the functional features of LT-TICs, we aimed to identify a subpopulation of LT-TICs. Among the six cell lines assessed, our results showed that CD133 and CD44 coexpression was only detected in HCT116 and HT29 cell lines. In HCT116 and HT29 cells, CD133+CD44+ cells not only shared the extensive tumorigenic potential of LT-TICs but also functionally reproduced the behaviors of LT-TICs that drive tumor metastasis formation, suggesting that CD133+CD44+ cells are a typical representation of LT-TICs in colon cancer. Mechanistically, the enhanced capacity of CD133+CD44+ cells to drive metastasis involves the upregulated expression of Wnt-, EMT-, and ...
Solid tumours are an enormous cancer burden and a major therapeutic challenge. The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis provides an attractive cellular mechanism to account for the therapeutic refractoriness and dormant behaviour exhibited by many of these tumours. There is increasing evidence that diverse solid tumours are hierarchically organized and sustained by a distinct subpopulation of CSCs. Direct evidence for the CSC hypothesis has recently emerged from mouse models of epithelial tumorigenesis, although alternative models of heterogeneity also seem to apply. The clinical relevance of CSCs remains a fundamental issue but preliminary findings indicate that specific targeting may be possible ...
Mitochondrial metabolism in cancer stem cells: a therapeutic target for colon cancer - Colon cancer;Cancer stem cells;Peroxiredoxin 3;CD133;FOXM1;
A team of researchers has revealed that oestrogen can reduce the risk of breast cancer. Their work shows that oestrogen is capable of reducing the number of breast cancer stem cells, which may explain the lower aggression of the tumour and, as a consequence, the possibility of a better prognosis.
The cancer stem cell concept is evolving and causing great debate in the scientific and medical world. People are discussing these three most important questions: Do cancer stem cells (CSC) exist and is the concept valid? How can we identify
For prostate cancer (PrCa) tumor-initiating cells (PrTICs) enrichment, scientists induced cancer stem cell (CSC) properties in PrCa cells by transducing three defined factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, and KLF4), followed by culture with conventional serum-containing medium. The CSC properties in the transduced cells were evaluated by proliferation, cell cycle, side population assay, drug sensitivity technology, in vivo tumorigenicity, and molecular marker analysis of PrCSCs compared with parental cells and spheroids. [Tumor Biol ...
Gliomas remain one of the most challenging solid organ tumors to treat and are marked clinically by invariable recurrence despite multimodal intervention (surgery, chemotherapy, radiation). This recurrence perhaps, is as a consequence of the failure to eradicate a tumor cell subpopulation, termed cancer stem cells. Isolating, characterizing, and understanding these tumor-initiating cells through cellular and molecular markers, along with genetic and epigenetic understanding will allow for selective targeting through therapeutic agents and holds promise for decreasing glioma recurrence ...
The cancer stem cell theory proposes that there is a small but constant subpopulation of cancer cells with stem cell properties responsible for the self renewal capacity ..
An explanation of Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) and how they are used to predict cancer or tumour growth with Tumour-initiating cells and the cancer stochastic model
To see if a limited sampling of tumor tissue from human subjects is a feasible way to gather adequate tissue for cancer stem cell quantification.
In a study published in the December issue of Cancer Cell, the team showed that stem and progenitor cells are susceptible to a specific error during cell division that can result in severe chromosomal defects. This susceptibility may explain how a tumor-initiating cell, also known as a cancer stem cell, arises from a normal cell. It may also explain how a cancer stem cell acquires additional mutations that increase tumor malignancy ...
Lookup HS Codes for Taiwan xiv 71.02.10 Diamond, unsorted. Avalara LandedCosts helps determine your duty rates and other import taxes for Taiwan.
CD44 variant 9 を発現する癌幹細胞の誘導は、chemoradioselection(=化学放射線療法による選別)の有効性を減弱させ、進行頭頸部癌患者の予後を悪化させる可能性があ ...
Cancer is the 2nd leading cause of death in the industrialized world. One out of three people will be diagnosed with cancer in their lifetime. Despite advances in cancer treatment, 25 - 40 % of these will not survive five years depending on cancer type and where the patient lives.
Stanford researchers have identified the source of tumor cells associated with chronic leukemia. A drug that kills the cells would wipe out the disease efficiently. By Kristen Philipkoski.
Note: If you reading this, you must be interested in patents. I would appreciate input of this site and its effectivenss. Simply send me an email to the address below. Thanks for your interest and I hope you find this site interesting and useful. RDC ...
... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.098 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776.395.550 ... antigens, cd43 MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.650.264 - antigens, cd164 The list continues at List of MeSH codes (D12.776) § MeSH ... antigens, cd146 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.175 - antigens, cd164 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.200 - cadherins MeSH D12.776.395.550. ... antigens, cd56 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.520.578 - neural cell adhesion molecule l1 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.275 - integrin ...
... forssman antigen MeSH D23.050.285.018 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.285.025 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.285.040 - antigens, ... antigens, cd20 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.122 - antigens, cd22 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.124 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.301.264 ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D23.050.301.350.098 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.301.350.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.050.301.350.150 - ... antigens, cd20 MeSH D23.101.100.110.122 - antigens, cd22 MeSH D23.101.100.110.124 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.101.100.110.126 - ...
... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776.543.550 ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 - receptors, antigen, t- ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 - antigens, cd40 MeSH ... antigens, cd11a MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.150 - antigens, cd11b MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.200 - antigens, cd11c ...
All transitional B cells are high in heat-stable antigen (HSA) relative to their mature counterparts and express the phenotypic ... defined by the expression of high levels of CD24, CD38 and CD10. Overall there is general agreement on the markers used to ... "Transitional Type 1 and 2 B Lymphocyte Subsets Are Differentially Responsive to Antigen Receptor Signaling". J. Biol. Chem. 277 ...
Antigen-activated T cells produce IL-2 which then acts on IL-2 receptors on regulatory T cells alerting them to the fact that ... There was found population of CD24 low Foxp3+ in thymus with increased expression of IL-1R2 (Il1r2) compared with peripheral ... The Tregs within the gut are differentiated from naïve T cells after antigen is introduced. An important question in the field ... Most tumors elicit an immune response in the host that is mediated by tumor antigens, thus distinguishing the tumor from other ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
"Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of ...
CD24−, CD19−, CD80−, CD14−, CD23−, Ly49c−, CD122−, CD11c−, Gr-1−, NK1.1−, B220−, CD3−, γδTCR−, αβTCR−, α4 and β4-integrin ... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ...
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11.[5] CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... CD44 are reported as cell surface markers for some breast and prostate cancer stem cells.In breast cancer research CD44+/CD24- ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
Tissue Antigens (англ.)русск. : journal. - 2007. - Vol. 68, no. 6. - P. 509-517. - DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00726.x. - PMID ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... CD24 • CD25 • CD26 • CD27 • CD28 • CD29 • CD30 • CD31 • CD32 (A, B) • CD33 • CD34 • CD35 • CD36 • CD37 • CD38 • CD39 • CD40 • ... 2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
... uveitis antigens induce CXCR3- and CXCR5-expressing lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells to migrate (англ.) // Blood (англ ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
... is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Leucocyte typing: human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
1991). „Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID ... CD24 • CD25 • CD26 • CD27 • CD28 • CD29 • CD30 • CD31 • CD32 (A, B) • CD33 • CD34 • CD35 • CD36 • CD37 • CD38 • CD39 • CD40 • ... 2003). „Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". Int. J. Hematol. 75 ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
CD24 • CD25 • CD26 • CD27 • CD28 • CD29 • CD30 • CD31 • CD32 (A, B) • CD33 • CD34 • CD35 • CD36 • CD37 • CD38 • CD39 • CD40 • ... 1996). "CD88 antibodies specifically bind to C5aR on dermal CD117+ and CD14+ cells and react with a desmosomal antigen in human ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... Hamann J, Wishaupt JO, van Lier RA, Smeets TJ, Breedveld FC, Tak PP (Apr 1999). "Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and ... Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004325.x. PMID 11380941.. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)".. *^ May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; ... CD61+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
CD64+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
"Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26". Science. 261 (5120): 466-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
CD24 • CD25 • CD26 • CD27 • CD28 • CD29 • CD30 • CD31 • CD32 (A, B) • CD33 • CD34 • CD35 • CD36 • CD37 • CD38 • CD39 • CD40 • ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
CD24 • CD25 • CD26 • CD27 • CD28 • CD29 • CD30 • CD31 • CD32 (A, B) • CD33 • CD34 • CD35 • CD36 • CD37 • CD38 • CD39 • CD40 • ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet degranulation. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling ...
antigen binding. • virus receptor activity. • protein binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • identical protein ...
CD24−, CD19−, CD80−, CD14−, CD23−, Ly49c−, CD122−, CD11c−, Gr-1−, NK1.1−, B220−, CD3−, γδTCR−, αβTCR−, α4 and β4-integrin ... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ...
T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell. • T cell antigen ... CD24 · CD25 · CD26 · CD27 · CD28 · CD29 · CD30 · CD31 · CD32 (A, B) · CD33 · CD34 · CD35 · CD36 · CD37 · CD38 · CD39 · CD40 · ...
CD24" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, CD24" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... "Antigens, CD24" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD24" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Antigens, CD24". ...
B-cell maturation in chimaeric mice deficient for the heat stable antigen (HSA/mouse CD24). ... B-cell maturation in chimaeric mice deficient for the heat stable antigen (HSA/mouse CD24). Transgenic Research, 4(3):173-183. ... The murine differentiation marker heat stable antigen (HSA) is a GPI-anchored surface glycoprotein showing strong expression on ... The murine differentiation marker heat stable antigen (HSA) is a GPI-anchored surface glycoprotein showing strong expression on ...
The only difference in the coding sequence, between cluster-4 and CD24 antigens is the substitution of a single base pair ... Here we demonstrate that the nucleotide substitution which distinguishes the cluster-4 and CD24 antigen genes is due to an ... we identified by Southern blotting and PCR of DNA from somatic human x hamster hybrid cell lines homologues of cluster-4/CD24 ... it is noteworthy that homozygosity for cluster-4 was found in only one case whereas heterozygosity and homozygosity for CD24 ...
CD24 is a 35-45 kD protein also known as Heat Stable Antigen (HSA), Ly-52, or Nectadrin. ... CD24 is a 35-45 kD protein also known as Heat Stable Antigen (HSA), Ly-52, or Nectadrin. It is a GPI-linked sialoglycoprotein ... Antigen References 1. Barclay A, et al. 1997. The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook Academic Press.. 2. Aigner S, et al. 1997. Blood ... Heat Stable Antigen (HSA), Ly-52, Nectadrin Isotype Rat IgG2b, κ Ave. Rating Submit a Review Product Citations publications ...
Antigens, CD19 / immunology * Antigens, CD19 / metabolism * B-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology* * B-Lymphocyte Subsets / ... In addition, CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) SLE B cells isolated from the peripheral blood of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) ... CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells exhibit regulatory capacity in healthy individuals but are functionally impaired in systemic ... After CD40 stimulation, CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells suppressed the differentiation of T helper 1 cells, partially via the ...
The heat stable antigen (CD24) is not required for the generation of CD4+ effector and memory T cells by dendritic cells in ... The heat stable antigen (CD24) is not required for the generation of CD4+ effector and memory T cells by dendritic cells in ... CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells control T helper cell type 1 responses to foreign antigens induced by mature dendritic cells in ...
Specific aim 1 is to test the hypothesis that CD24 is required for the generation of myelin antigen, but not foreign antigen ... We will inject OVA to CD24-deficient OT2 mice (OT2/CD24-/-) to determine if thymocytes from OT2/CD24-/- mice are more sensitive ... CD24 and thymic generation of myelin antigen specific T cells Bai, Xue-Feng Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States ... mice and generated CD24-deficient, TCR transgenic mice (2D2/CD24-/-). 2D2/CD24-/- mice have atrophic thymi and mature 2D2 T ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about CD24 Rat anti-Mouse, FITC, Clone: 30-F1, eBioscience 100 µg; FITC 100 ... CD24 antigen (small cell lung carcinoma cluster 4 antigen); CD24A; FLJ22950; FLJ43543; MGC75043. ... CD24 is a variably glycosylated molecule resulting in heterogeneity of molecular mass of this antigen on cells of different ... Description: The 30-F1 monoclonal antibody reacts with the mouse CD24 molecule, also known as Heat Stable Antigen (HSA). This ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about CD24 Rat anti-Mouse, PE-Cyanine5, Clone: M1/69, eBioscience :: 50 µg; ... CD24 is a variably glycosylated molecule resulting in heterogeneity of molecular mass of this antigen on cells of different ... Description: The M1/69 monoclonal antibody reacts with the mouse CD24 molecule, also known as Heat Stable Antigen (HSA). This ... The expression of CD24 has been used to resolve stages of B lymphopoiesis in mouse bone marrow. It has been reported that P- ...
CD24 Antigen / analysis* * Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / etiology* * Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology ... A rare population of CD24(+)ITGB4(+)Notch(hi) cells drives tumor propagation in NSCLC and requires Notch3 for self-renewal ... CD24(+)ITGB4(+)Notch(hi) cells are capable of propagating tumor growth in both a clonogenic and an orthotopic serial ...
Since CD24 comprises only a short protein core of approximately 30 amino acids and ... The cell adhesion molecule CD24 is a highly glycosylated glycoprotein that plays important roles in the central nervous system ... Antigens, CD24 / immunology, metabolism*. Antigens, CD57 / immunology. Brain*. Carbohydrate Sequence. Epitopes / immunology. ... 0/Antigens, CD24; 0/Antigens, CD57; 0/Epitopes; 0/Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1; 0/Polysaccharides; 0/Sugar Alcohols; 31103- ...
Wenger, R. H., Rochelle, J. M., Seldin, M. F., Köhler, G., & Nielsen, P. J. (1993). The heat stable antigen (mouse CD24) gene ... The heat stable antigen (mouse CD24) gene is differentially regulated but has a housekeeping promoter. Journal of Biological ... The heat stable antigen (mouse CD24) gene is differentially regulated but has a housekeeping promoter. / Wenger, Roland H.; ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The heat stable antigen (mouse CD24) gene is differentially regulated but has a ...
Knockout validated mouse monoclonal CD24 antibody [ALB 9] validated for IHC, ICC, Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Referenced in 3 ... then a heat mediated antigen retrieval step was performed using citrate buffer pH 6 (20 minutes). Samples were then incubated ... CD24 expression can also be observed in the cytoplasm.. ab31622 binds to the non-glycosylated GPI anchor of the protein core of ... Note=Polymorphisms in CD24 may act as a genetic modifier for susceptibility and progression of MS in some populations, perhaps ...
Anti-CD24 antibody conjugated to Biotin [30-F1] validated for IP, Flow Cyt and tested in Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to the ... CD24 antigen (small cell lung carcinoma cluster 4 antigen) antibody. *CD24 antigen antibody ... Note=Polymorphisms in CD24 may act as a genetic modifier for susceptibility and progression of MS in some populations, perhaps ... Signaling could be triggered by the binding of a lectin-like ligand to the CD24 carbohydrates, and transduced by the release of ...
Furthermore, the cloned cluster-w4 antigen expressed on COS cells was shown to react with a comprehensive panel of CD24- ... We have cloned a complementary DNA encoding the cluster-w4 antigen from COS-1 fibroblasts transfected with a SW2 small cell ... antigen confirmed both the presence of the phosphatidylinositol tail and the extensive glycosylation reported for the CD24 ... Northern blot hybridization indicated the presence of several transcript sizes for the cluster-w4 antigen that were greatly ...
Antigens, CD24 / metabolism. Antigens, CD44 / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents / chemistry, pharmacology*, therapeutic use*. ... 0/Antigens, CD24; 0/Antigens, CD44; 0/Antineoplastic Agents; 0/Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0/Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 ... Apoptosis associated gene bcl-2 and caspase-3, tumor metastasis associated gene ?-catenin, but not E-cadherin, and CD24, but ... CD24, and CD44. RESULTS: Continuous exposure to HSS for 48 h produced cytotoxic effects on both cell lines in a concentration ...
0 (BET1L protein, human); 0 (CD24 Antigen); 0 (Eukaryotic Initiation Factors); 0 (Homeodomain Proteins); 0 (ING1 protein, human ... Ant geno CD24/gen tica. Ant geno CD24/metabolismo. Hip xia Celular. Linhagem Celular Tumoral. Prolifera o Celular. DNA ... It was shown that hypoxia leads to up-regulation of the expression of IL13RA2, CD24, ING1, ING2, ENDOG, and POLG genes and to ... Changes for ING1 and CD24 genes were more significant. At the same time, inhibition of IRE1 modifies the effect of hypoxia on ...
CD24 expression by pleural effusion cells as detected by antibodies SWA11 and ML5. Cells isolated from pleural effusions were ... In these experiments, cells were sometimes gated for epithelial specific antigen-positive (ESA+) cells, and there was a ... Using the same CD24 antibody used by Al Hajj and colleagues [12] (ML5) and the same CD44 antibody, we found that only some ... Using the same CD24 antibody used by Al Hajj and colleagues [12] (ML5) and the same CD44 antibody, we found that only some ...
CD24 Heat-stable antigen (HSA) CD14 CD29 β1 integrin CD144 VE-cadherin ... Lin antigens consist of the following group of lineage markers: CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, NK1.1, B220, Ter-119, and Gr-1 ( ... Thymus cell antigen-1 (Thy-1) CD56 Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) ... neuronal nuclear antigen; Ngn-3, neurogenin 3; Nkx2.5, NK2 homeobox 5; OCN, osteocalcin; OPN, osteopontin; Pax-6, paired box ...
CD22 antigen K06468 FCER2; low affinity immunoglobulin epsilon Fc receptor K06469 CD24; CD24 antigen K05068 IL2RA; interleukin ... CD79A antigen K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen K05412 CD80; CD80 antigen K06508 CD81; CD81 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K06510 ... CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06721 CLEC10A; C-type lectin ... CD96 antigen K08446 ADGRE5; CD97 antigen K06519 SLC3A2; solute carrier family 3, member 2 K06520 CD99; CD99 antigen K06521 ...
CD24 is a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored cell adhesion molecule which is also known as Heat-stable antigen (HSA) or ... Clone REA405 recognizes the rat CD24 antigen which is expressed on the surface of cells committed to the B lineage but not on ... CD24 is a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored cell adhesion molecule which is also known as Heat-stable antigen (HSA) or ... CD24 is a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored cell adhesion molecule which is also known as Heat-stable antigen (HSA) or ...
... which is also known as heat-stable antigen (HSA). CD24 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked sialoglycoprotein that is ... The CD24 antibody can be used, for example, to differentiate CD44+ CD24- breast cancer stem cells from CD24+ expressing cells ... CD24 has been identified to be a negative marker for breast cancer stem cells and a positive marker for ovarian or pancreatic ... Furthermore, CD24 is found on follicular dendritic cells and different epithelial and hematopoietic cell types. Additional ...
F) Cytometry of CD11b+ DC1 and CD103+ DC2 populations (gated on CD45+, Ly6C− MHCII+, CD24+) between ectopic B16-F10, B16-GMCSF ... It is well understood that antigen-presenting cells (APCs) within tumors typically do not maintain cytotoxic T cell (CTL) ... Dissecting the tumor myeloid compartment reveals rare activating antigen-presenting cells critical for T cell immunity.. Broz ... Dissecting the Tumor Myeloid Compartment Reveals Rare Activating Antigen Presenting Cells, Critical for T cell Immunity ...
CD24 antigen (CD24) (1:100; Santa Cruz Biotechnology), polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) (1:100; AbCys, ... c, Red signals indicate HUC/D. d, Red signals indicate CD24. b, Arrow points at a GFAP-positive cell. c, Arrow points at an HUC ... 7c, arrowhead) and CD24 (Fig. 7d), which is present in ependymal cells and type A neuroblasts (Calaora et al., 1996). ... Chuang W, Lagenaur CF (1990) Central nervous system antigen P84 can serve as a substrate for neurite outgrowth. Dev Biol 137: ...
CD24a antigen) for FACS, IHC-Fr, WB, Depletion. Anti-CD24 mAb (GTX14559) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... CD24a antigen. Synonyms. Cd24a Antibody , Ly-52 Antibody , HSA Antibody , nectadrin Antibody , Cd24 Antibody , CD24a antigen ...
Analysis of CD44high/CD24low/epithelial-specific antigen-positive (ESA+) population. Cells were trypsinized, washed with PBS ... CD44high/CD24low/epithelial-specific antigen (ESA)+], aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) activity, and ability to form ... Results shown are mean ± SD (n = 6). D, bar graph shows the percentage of CD44high/CD24low population normalized to respective ... 5C) and CD44high/CD24low population (Fig. 5D) was significantly attenuated by overexpression of Ron and sfRon. Moreover, the ...
CD24 Molecule Pseudogene 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... CD24 Molecule-Like 2 2 3 * CD24 Antigen-Like 2 2 3 ... Design optimal peptide antigens. *CloneReady with Over 120,000 ... Mapping of CD24 and homologous sequences to multiple chromosomal loci. (PMID: 7959762) Hough MR … Humphries RK (Genomics 1994) ... No data available for Gene Families , Protein Domains , Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CD24P2 ...
CD24 antigen. -3.80. Table 2 Genes associated with DNA and protein damage ... Paunesku T, Mittal S, Protic M, Oryhon J, Korolev SV, Joachimiak A, Woloschak GE: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): ... However, leukotriene B4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase which also plays a role in antioxidative function [55], CD24 involved in ... Tissue Antigens 2000, 55(3):206-211. 10.1034/j.1399-0039.2000.550303.xView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ...
Invitrogen Anti-CD24 Monoclonal (eBioSN3 (SN3 A5-2H10)), eBioscience™, Catalog # 13-0247-82. Tested in Flow Cytometry (Flow) ... Protein Aliases: CD24; CD24 antigen (small cell lung carcinoma cluster 4 antigen); FLJ22950; FLJ43543; MGC75043; Signal ... B , Confocal images of these four subsets of MCF7 cells (Green: CD44 + /CD24 -/low ; Red: CD44 - /CD24 + ; Yellow: CD44 + /CD24 ... b Percentage of CD44 + /CD24 low/- , CD44 + /CD24 + , CD44 - /CD24 + cells after HOXC8 knockdown as measured by FACS analysis. ...
Heat stable antigen (mouse CD24) supports myeloid cell binding to endothelial and platelet P-selectin. Int Immunol 1995;7:1557- ... Antigen retrieval was achieved by pressure cooking in 0.01 mol/L citrate buffer for 5 minutes. The primary CD24 antibody (Ab-2 ... Heat-stable antigen (CD24) as ligand for mouse P-selectin. Int Immunol 1994;6:1027-36. ... The human B cell-associated antigen CD24 is a single chain sialoglycoprotein. J Immunol 1986;136:3779-84. ...
  • Description: The 30-F1 monoclonal antibody reacts with the mouse CD24 molecule, also known as Heat Stable Antigen (HSA). (fishersci.com)
  • Description: The M1/69 monoclonal antibody reacts with the mouse CD24 molecule, also known as Heat Stable Antigen (HSA). (fishersci.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: CD24 Monoclonal Antibody (eBioSN3 (SN3 A5-2H10)), Biotin, eBioscience™ from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 13-0247-82, RRID AB_657706. (thermofisher.com)
  • 7. A process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the tumor cells are from breast carcinoma, lung carcinoma, or neuroblastoma, and the antibody composition contains antibodies specific for antigens expressed on the surface of cells from breast carcinoma, lung carcinoma, or neuroblastoma. (google.com)
  • CD44 + cells are subsequently isolated from the CD24 low/- population by positive selection using a biotinylated human CD44 antibody, streptavidin-conjugated magnetic beads, and a MagCellect magnet (Catalog # MAG997 , or equivalent). (rndsystems.com)
  • Primary breast carcinomas (201) with a mean clinical follow-up time of 53 months were immunostained using a monoclonal CD24 antibody (Ab-2, clone 24C02). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The monoclonal CD24 antibody (Ab-2, clone 24C02/SN3b) was purchased from Neomarkers (Fremont, CA). Staining of the cells with this antibody and phycoerythrin-conjugated goat antibodies to mouse immunoglobulins (SERVA, Heidelberg, Germany) has been performed as described (39) and was analyzed with a FACScan (Becton Dickinson, Heidelberg, Germany). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The ELISA analytical biochemical technique of the MBS2021939 kit is based on CD24 antibody-CD24 antigen interactions (immunosorbency) and an HRP colorimetric detection system to detect CD24 antigen targets in samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • IgG-switched memory B cells in IL-6 knock-in mice displayed a diverse antibody repertoire and high specificity against immunized antigen. (bloodjournal.org)
  • However, the existing models cannot support robust adaptive immune responses, especially the generation of class-switched, antigen-specific antibody responses. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 2 ⇓ - 4 However, the generation of class-switched, antigen-specific antibody responses by human B cells is still a major challenge. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Although antigen-specific human IgM antibody responses are generated, the achievement of affinity maturation and class-switching from the IgM to the IgG isotype has been particularly difficult. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The antibody SN3 reacts with CD24, a 35-45 kDa heavily glycosylated cell surface antigen. (exbio.cz)
  • We show here that the depletion of CD301b + DCs specifically enhanced the development of Tfh cells, germinal center B cells and antibody responses against protein antigens. (elifesciences.org)
  • Through presenting processed antigens on their MHC molecules, dendritic cells (DCs) are primarily responsible for initiating T cell-mediated cellular immunity, which is also required for T cell-dependent antibody responses. (elifesciences.org)
  • It has been reported that P-selectin (CD62P) binds to CD24.Applications Reported: The SN3 antibody has been reported for use in flow cytometric analysis.Applications Tested: This eBioSN3 (SN3 A5-2H10) antibody has been pre-titrated and tested by flow cytometric analysis of normal human peripheral blood cells. (fishersci.co.uk)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 15 CD24a Antigen (CD24A) ELISA Kits from 5 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping CD24a Antigen Antibodies (22) and CD24a Antigen Proteins (2) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • A total of 39 CD24a Antigen products are currently listed. (antibodies-online.com)
  • CD24 is a 35-45 kD protein also known as Heat Stable Antigen (HSA), Ly-52, or Nectadrin. (biolegend.com)
  • CD24 (heat stable antigen, nectadrin), a novel keratinocyte differentiation marker, is preferentially expressed in areas of the hair follicle containing the colony-forming cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CD24 is a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored cell adhesion molecule which is also known as Heat-stable antigen (HSA) or Nectadrin. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • CD24 serves as an adhesion or costimulatory molecule involved in T and B lymphocyte activation and differentiation by homophilic binding or binding to CD62P. (biolegend.com)
  • CD24 is a variably glycosylated molecule resulting in heterogeneity of molecular mass of this antigen on cells of different lineages and different antibodies to CD24 exhibit subtle differences in staining level on lymphocyte populations. (fishersci.com)
  • The cell adhesion molecule CD24 is a highly glycosylated glycoprotein that plays important roles in the central nervous system, the immune system and in tumor biology. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our present study provides evidence that interaction of CD24 with the cell adhesion molecule L1 is mediated by O-linked glycans carrying alpha2,3-linked sialic acid. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CD24, a signal-transducing molecule expressed on human B cells, is a major surface antigen on small cell lung carcinomas. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The sequence of the cluster-w4 complementary DNA encodes an unusually short (80-amino acid) protein identical to that recently reported for the leukocyte activation molecule CD24 except for a single valine-alanine substitution due to a single-base polymorphism within the region of the gene coding for the extracellular domain. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Biochemical analyses of the cloned cluster-w4 antigen confirmed both the presence of the phosphatidylinositol tail and the extensive glycosylation reported for the CD24 molecule. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 1993) Gene expression of CD24 core peptide molecule in developing brain and developing non-neural tissues. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • CD24P2 (CD24 Molecule Pseudogene 2) is a Pseudogene. (genecards.org)
  • CD24 is a cell adhesion molecule that has been implicated in metastatic tumor progression of various solid tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We believe that CD24 is a key molecule of metastatic progression in the EMT phenomenon and a promising therapeutic target for advanced ovarian cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 1] CD24 is a cell adhesion molecule. (ipscell.com)
  • 1] CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell adhesion molecule), Pgp-1 (phagocyticglycoprotein-1), Hermes antigen, lymphocyte homing receptor, ECM-III, and HUTCH-1. (ipscell.com)
  • 15. The nucleic acid molecule of claim 1, wherein said nucleic acid molecule comprises a nucleotide sequence encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), wherein said CAR comprises at least one of said co-stimulatory domains. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Today, the HLDA Workshop meeting has been held 10 times and has over 371 CD antigens molecule have been identified. (sinobiological.com)
  • A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. (umassmed.edu)
  • B-cell maturation in chimaeric mice deficient for the heat stable antigen (HSA/mouse CD24). (uzh.ch)
  • The murine differentiation marker heat stable antigen (HSA) is a GPI-anchored surface glycoprotein showing strong expression on immature B- and T-lymphocytes and gradually reduced expression during maturation. (uzh.ch)
  • DI-fusion The heat stable antigen (CD24) is not required for the. (ac.be)
  • The heat stable antigen (CD24) is not required for the generation of CD4+ effector and memory T cells by dendritic cells in vivo. (ac.be)
  • Expression of the mouse heat stable antigen (HSA or mouse CD24) shows tissue-specific as well as developmental regulation. (elsevier.com)
  • Nielsen, Peter J. / The heat stable antigen (mouse CD24) gene is differentially regulated but has a housekeeping promoter . (elsevier.com)
  • Clone REA832 recognizes the human CD24 antigen, which is also known as heat-stable antigen (HSA). (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • 1. What is CD 24 "Signal transducer CD24 also known as cluster of differentiation 24 or heat stable antigen CD24 (HSA) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD24gene. (ipscell.com)
  • CD24 , also known as heat-stable antigen (HSA) or nectadorin, is a small mucin-like GPI-anchored extracellular membrane glycoprotein expressed on several cell types, including B cells. (exbio.cz)
  • The heat stable antigen (HSA, or murine CD24) is a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-linked surface glycoprotein expressed on immature cells of most, if not all, major hematopoietic lineages, as well as in developing neural and epithelial cells. (uzh.ch)
  • CD24 expression varies during T and B cell differentiation and is a useful marker for delineating various lymphocyte developmental stages. (biolegend.com)
  • This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. (cancerindex.org)
  • We have cloned a complementary DNA encoding the cluster-w4 antigen from COS-1 fibroblasts transfected with a SW2 small cell carcinoma library, by panning with a mixture of the cluster-w4-specific monoclonal antibodies SWA11, SWA21, and SWA22. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Furthermore, the cloned cluster-w4 antigen expressed on COS cells was shown to react with a comprehensive panel of CD24-specific monoclonal antibodies, as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence staining. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CD24 expression by pleural effusion cells as detected by antibodies SWA11 and ML5. (nih.gov)
  • They are B cells, which react with monoclonal antibodies against B cells (CD20, CD22 and CD24). (medscape.com)
  • The efficiency of enrichment can be assessed by staining the recovered cells with fluorochrome-conjugated anti-human CD24 and CD44 detection antibodies which are also provided in the kit. (rndsystems.com)
  • Includes fluorochrome-conjugated CD24 and CD44 antibodies for analysis of recovered cells. (rndsystems.com)
  • CD24 low/- CD44 + cells (upper left quadrant), before ( A ) and after ( B ) enrichment, were detected by double-staining with APC-conjugated Mouse Anti-Human CD24 and PE-conjugated Mouse Anti-Human CD44 Detection Antibodies (both provided in the kit). (rndsystems.com)
  • Bispecific antibodies that can simultaneously bind to cell surface antigens and payloads are a very ideal delivery system for therapeutic use. (mdpi.com)
  • The key point of bispecific antibodies is that they can bind two antigens simultaneously. (mdpi.com)
  • Infusion of murine monoclonal antibodies specific for human B cell membrane antigens CD21, CD24, and CD23 was effective in 80% of animals, against two of the three cell lines preventing tumor development or inducing remission according to the time of treatment. (nih.gov)
  • The same anti-CD21 and anti-CD24 antibodies had been used to treat the three patients, and shown similar degrees of effectiveness as in the scid mouse model. (nih.gov)
  • CD antigens for cluster of differentiation, which indicates a defined subset of cellular surface receptors (epitopes) that identify cell type and stage of differentiation, and which are recognized by antibodies. (sinobiological.com)
  • In these experiments, cells were sometimes gated for epithelial specific antigen-positive (ESA+) cells, and there was a suggestion that the ESA+ subset of CD44+/CD24low/- cells were more tumorigenic. (nih.gov)
  • bCSC), characterized by expression of different markers [CD44 high /CD24 low /epithelial-specific antigen (ESA)+], aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) activity, and ability to form mammospheres under ultra-low attachment culture conditions, are suspected to evade conventional therapies leading to disease recurrence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD44 + /CD24 - / low /epithelial-specific antigen + BCSCs were isolated by flow cytometry. (dovepress.com)
  • Stro-1 and epithelial-specific antigen (ESA) CAMs. (ipscell.com)
  • C57BL/6 splenocytes were stained with CD24 (clone M1/69) Brilliant Violet 421™ (filled histogram) or with rat IgG2b Brilliant Violet 421™ isotype control (open histogram). (biolegend.com)
  • Clone REA405 recognizes the rat CD24 antigen which is expressed on the surface of cells committed to the B lineage but not on cells of other hematopoietic lineages. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Our results show that apart from an increase in the CD44 + /CD24 - population, proliferation and clone formation, but not migration, were enhanced after recovery from apoptosis induced by two pulses of staurosporine (STS). (jcancer.org)
  • Mammosphere formation frequency and CD44 high /CD24 low /ESA+ and/or ALDH1+ populations in cultured MCF-7 (estrogen receptor-positive) and SUM159 (triple-negative) human breast cancer cells were decreased significantly in the presence of plasma achievable concentrations of BITC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD24 functions as an alternative ligand of P-selectin, an adhesion receptor expressed on activated endothelial cells and platelets, and could thus enhance the metastatic potential of CD24-expressing tumor cells ( 12 - 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD24 has also been reported to be a ligand for P-selectin, an adhesion receptor on activated endothelial cells and platelets ( 12 , 13 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • For example, disclosed herein are genetically-modified cells comprising a chimeric antigen receptor or an inducible regulatory construct incorporating the co-stimulatory domains disclosed herein. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • While immunotherapy with chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells has shown much promise in haematological malignancies, their efficacy for solid tumours is challenged by the lack of tumour-specific antigens required to avoid on-target, off-tumour effects. (bmj.com)
  • Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has demonstrated remarkable clinical success in haematological diseases. (bmj.com)
  • CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells control T helper cell type 1 responses to foreign antigens induced by mature dendritic cells in vivo. (ac.be)
  • Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for human multiple sclerosis (MS). The development of EAE relies on the generation of an autoimmune T cell repertoire and the activation of myelin antigen-specific T cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs. (grantome.com)
  • We have recently found that CD24 is critically involved in the thymic generation of MOGspecific T cells. (grantome.com)
  • Specific aim 1 is to test the hypothesis that CD24 is required for the generation of myelin antigen, but not foreign antigen specific T cells. (grantome.com)
  • 2D2/CD24-/- mice have atrophic thymi and mature 2D2 T cells were almost undetectable in their peripheral lymphoid organs. (grantome.com)
  • Additionally, we will compare CD24-/-BALB/c mice with CD24+/+BALB/c mice for the frequencies of viral super antigen specific T cells. (grantome.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate that human CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells possessed regulatory capacity. (nih.gov)
  • After CD40 stimulation, CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells suppressed the differentiation of T helper 1 cells, partially via the provision of interleukin-10 (IL-10), but not transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and their suppressive capacity was reversed by the addition of CD80 and CD86 mAbs. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) SLE B cells isolated from the peripheral blood of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients were refractory to further CD40 stimulation, produced less IL-10, and lacked the suppressive capacity of their healthy counterparts. (nih.gov)
  • CD24 is a two-chain glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein expressed at multiple stages of B-cell development, beginning with the bone marrow pro-B-cell compartment and continuing through mature, surface Ig positive B-cells. (fishersci.com)
  • CD24(+)ITGB4(+)Notch(hi) cells are capable of propagating tumor growth in both a clonogenic and an orthotopic serial transplantation assay. (nih.gov)
  • Northern blot hybridization indicated the presence of several transcript sizes for the cluster-w4 antigen that were greatly overexpressed in small cell carcinoma cell lines, compared with normal hemopoietic cells and CD24-positive cell lines. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CD24 enhances DNA damage-induced apoptosis by modulating NF-κB signaling in CD44-expressing breast cancer cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CONCLUSION: HSS has a potential cytotoxic effect on human ovarian cancer cells, which was mediated by multiple signal molecules including bcl-2, caspase-3, beta-catenin, and CD24. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Dissecting the tumor myeloid compartment reveals rare activating antigen-presenting cells critical for T cell immunity. (nih.gov)
  • It is well understood that antigen-presenting cells (APCs) within tumors typically do not maintain cytotoxic T cell (CTL) function, despite engaging them. (nih.gov)
  • Several techniques have been proposed to isolate or enrich for tumorigenic breast cancer stem cells, including (a) culture of cells in non-adherent non-differentiating conditions to form mammospheres and (b) sorting of the cells by their surface phenotype (expression of CD24 and CD44). (nih.gov)
  • Expression of CD24 and CD44 on uncultured cells and mammospheres derived from the pleural effusions was documented. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of surface expression of CD24 and CD44 on uncultured cells from 21 of the samples showed that the cells from some samples separated into two populations, but some did not. (nih.gov)
  • Uncultured cells from a highly tumorigenic sample (PE14) were uniformly negative for surface expression of both CD24 and CD44. (nih.gov)
  • CD24 has been identified to be a negative marker for breast cancer stem cells and a positive marker for ovarian or pancreatic cancer stem cells. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Furthermore, CD24 is found on follicular dendritic cells and different epithelial and hematopoietic cell types. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Findings indicate that CD24(+) antigen (show CD24 ELISA Kits ) cells play a role in tumor migration and metastasis and support Janus kinase 2 (show JAK2 ELISA Kits ) protein ( JAK2 (show JAK2 ELISA Kits )) as a therapeutic target in ovarian cancer. (antibodies-online.com)
  • CD24 (show CD24 ELISA Kits ) in non-immune cells might be crucialfor the guidance and recruitment of leukocytes. (antibodies-online.com)
  • To compare identification of circulating breast cancer cells (CBCCs) in blood or pleural or peritoneal fluid by a novel technique using stem cell marker retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and surface antigen expression (CD44+, CD24-) to the standard technique using the CellSearch® system in women with metastatic breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • OUTLINE: Patients undergo sample collection to help develop a new technique using stem cell marker retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and surface antigen expression (CD44+, CD24-) in isolating circulating breast cancer cells (CBCCs) from blood and pleural or peritoneal fluid. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cells are stained against surface antigens that provide specific expression patterns for CBCCs (CD44, CD24). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cells are analyzed on a fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) Calibur flow cytometer and sequentially gated (ALDHhigh→CD44+ vs CD24-/low or CD44+ vs CD24-/low→ALDHhigh) for detection of CBCCs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For further confirmation of epithelial origin, ALDHhighCD44+CD24-/low cells are isolated using a FACSAria flow sorter, cytocentrifuged onto glass slides then stained for the expression of epithelial-specific cytokeratins 5, 8, 14, 18 and 19 by standard immunohistochemical techniques. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • [ 2 , 3 ] This zone contains postfollicular memory B cells derived after stimulation of recirculating cells by T-cell-dependent antigen. (medscape.com)
  • To better understand how cancer stem-like cells induce relapse after fractionated chemotherapy, we examined changes in the CD44 + /CD24 - cancer stem-like cells population and behavior using the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. (jcancer.org)
  • Sorted CD44 + /CD24 - stem-like cells from MCF-7 cells recovered from STS treatment possessed greater proliferation abilities. (jcancer.org)
  • Why use Both Positive (CD44) and Negative (CD24) Selection to Isolate Breast Cancer Stem Cells? (rndsystems.com)
  • R&D Systems MagCellect CD24 - CD44 + Breast Cancer Stem Cell Isolation Kit (Catalog # MAGH111) enriches for a small population of human breast cancer cells, which can form new tumors in mice. (rndsystems.com)
  • Briefly, CD24 low/- cells are initially enriched by negative selection whereby unwanted CD24 + cells are tagged and magnetically removed. (rndsystems.com)
  • Isolates CD24 low/- CD44 + cells which have been shown to form tumors in mice. (rndsystems.com)
  • A small population of CD24 low/- CD44 + cells was isolated from MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells using the MagCellect CD24 - CD44 + Breast Cancer Stem Cell Isolation Kit (Catalog # MAGH111). (rndsystems.com)
  • A histogram profiling the enrichment of CD24 low/- cells (filled histogram) from the original cell population (open histogram) is shown ( C ). (rndsystems.com)
  • Breast cancer-initiating cells have been recently identified in breast carcinoma as CD44 + /CD24 −/low cells, which exclusively retain tumorigenic activity and display stem cell-like properties. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, cultured cells were CD44 + /CD24 − and Cx43 − , overexpressed neoangiogenic and cytoprotective factors, expressed the putative stem cell marker Oct-4, and gave rise to new tumors when as few as 10 3 cells were injected into the mammary fat pad of SCID mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 6 ), who prospectively identified putative breast cancer tumorigenic cells as CD44 + /CD24 −/low cells capable to drive tumor formation when a few hundreds cells were injected into the mammary fat pad of NOD/SCID mice, we tried to isolate and propagate in vitro breast cancer-initiating cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • By applying a previously described procedure for the culturing of mammary gland stem/progenitor cells, we obtained cultures of CD44 + /CD24 − cells with stem/progenitor cells properties, which were able to form new tumors when as few as 10 3 cells were injected into SCID mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) form a network of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that shape immune responses by linking innate and adaptive immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, T cells recognizing tumor-specific antigens and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) that can be targeted by vaccination have been described in the context of cancer ( 1 , 4 , 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In order to instruct naïve T cells into the required functional profile, DCs must present tumor antigens via MHC class I and II molecules (signal 1), express co-stimulatory ligands (signal 2), and inflammatory mediators (signal 3) such as IL-12 or type I interferons (IFNs) ( 8 , 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • To illustrate BRIM, we localized CD44 hi /CD24 lo cells in DCIS pathology samples. (nature.com)
  • For example, note that the parallel increases in CD44 and CD24 intensity seen in the region labeled "high noise" in Fig. 1D ,E cancel out during ratioing, thus highlighting CD44 hi /CD24 lo cells. (nature.com)
  • However, CD44 hi /CD24 lo cells could not be observed in a sub-population DCIS samples (see below). (nature.com)
  • Recent studies have challenged the view that Langerhans cells (LCs) constitute the exclusive antigen-presenting cells of the skin and suggest that the dermal dendritic cell (DDC) network is exceedingly complex. (rupress.org)
  • This image is part of a large collection of immunohistochemistry images of cell-surface antigens generated by the SCGAP Urologic Epithelial Stem Cells (UESC) Project. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • We herein examined the functions of CD24 in human ovarian cancer cell lines and evaluated how it contributes to the molecular mechanism underlying the regeneration of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) through the EMT mechanism in ovarian carcinoma. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • ALDH(high)/CD44(+)/CD24(+) or ALDH(low)/CD44(+)/CD24(+) phenotypes do not appear to significantly contribute to tumor formation at low numbers of inoculated tumor cells. (nih.gov)
  • Three key terms antigen presentation (be it protein or cell-cell interaction) potency (blastomere pluripotent stem cells are the gold standard) and migration (or in cancer know as metastasis) and a possible answer to your question of Cancer Stem cell and what are they? (ipscell.com)
  • Highly tumorigenic subpopulation of cancer cells expressing or lacking the cell surface markers CD10, CD24, CD44, CD133. (ipscell.com)
  • 3. CD10 this is the blast state of the immature cells "Neprilysin, also known as membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME), neutral endopeptidase (NEP),cluster of differentiation 10 (CD10), and common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MME gene. (ipscell.com)
  • We prospectively identified and isolated the tumorigenic cells as CD44 + CD24 −/low Lineage − in eight of nine patients. (pnas.org)
  • The tumorigenic subpopulation could be serially passaged: each time cells within this population generated new tumors containing additional CD44 + CD24 −/low Lineage − tumorigenic cells as well as the phenotypically diverse mixed populations of nontumorigenic cells present in the initial tumor. (pnas.org)
  • The present disclosure provides novel co-stimulatory domains useful in genetically-modified cells to promote cell proliferation and/or promote cytokine secretion after antigen recognition. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Central and peripheral tolerance prevent autoimmunity by deleting the most aggressive CD8 + T cells but they spare cells that react weakly to tissue-restricted antigen (TRA). (rupress.org)
  • In contrast to high avidity cells, low avidity T cells persist in the antigen-positive periphery with no signs of anergy, unresponsiveness, or prior activation. (rupress.org)
  • Together, these thymic and peripheral mechanisms ensure that T cells are negatively selected against all self-antigens. (rupress.org)
  • In the present study we characterized the EpCAM + cells for their cancer stem cell properties in vitro and evaluated EpCAM co-expression with cancer stem cell-like markers, such as cluster determinant (CD)44, CD24, and ABCG2, in fresh primary retinoblastoma tumors. (molvis.org)
  • The double positive (CD24+ESA+) and double negative (CD24-ESA-) pancreatic cancer cells were isolated from PANC-1 and L3.6pl, and their self-renewal ability, tumorigenicity as well as sensitivity to gemcitabine were then evaluated. (jcancer.org)
  • CD24+ESA+ pancreatic cancer cells exhibited increased tumorigenicity and decreased chemosensitivity to gemcitabine as compared to CD24-ESA- cells. (jcancer.org)
  • Furthermore, silencing of Pim-3 in pancreatic cancer cells leads to decreased proportions of both single positive (CD24+ and ESA+) and double positive (CD24+ESA+) pancreatic cancer cells. (jcancer.org)
  • Both cross-presenting antigen presenting cells within the tumor and tumor cells directly presenting antigen activated these functional CD8 effectors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Antigen-experienced CD8 T cells specific for tumor antigens can be recovered from the blood, lymphoid organs, and tumors of both cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Moreover, although islet-infiltrating B-cells seem to be antigen experienced, they can only induce islet-infiltrating T-cell proliferation when they act as accessory cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Among these cells, B-cells are essential in the onset and progression of type 1 diabetes (rev. in 3 ), and although it is not fully understood when and how these cells participate in type 1 diabetes, it is known that they produce autoantibodies against many β-cell autoantigens (rev. in 4 ) and act as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CD24 is expressed by granulocytes, B lymphocytes and by some activated T cells and T cell malignancies. (exbio.cz)
  • When B cells are activated and induced to further maturation, however, CD24 begins to disappear. (exbio.cz)
  • CD24 triggering induces apoptosis of B cell precursors but not in mature resting B cells, where it instead inhibits their ability to proliferate in response to activation. (exbio.cz)
  • Suzuki T, Kiyokawa N, Taguchi T, Sekino T, Katagiri YU, Fujimoto J: CD24 induces apoptosis in human B cells via the glycolipid-enriched membrane domains/rafts-mediated signaling system. (exbio.cz)
  • Schabath H, Runz S, Joumaa S, Altevogt P: CD24 affects CXCR4 function in pre-B lymphocytes and breast carcinoma cells. (exbio.cz)
  • Maliar A, Servais C, Waks T, Chmielewski M, Lavy R, Altevogt P, Abken H, Eshhar Z: Redirected T cells that target pancreatic adenocarcinoma antigens eliminate tumors and metastases in mice. (exbio.cz)
  • Fischer GF, Majdic O, Gadd S, Knapp W. Signal transduction in lymphocytic and myeloid cells via CD24, a new member of phosphoinositol-anchored membrane molecules. (exbio.cz)
  • Switchable CAR-T cells whereby activity of the CAR-T cell is controlled by dosage of a tumour antigen-specific recombinant Fab-based 'switch' to afford a fully tunable response may overcome this translational barrier. (bmj.com)
  • Design In this present study, we have used conventional and switchable CAR-T cells to target the antigen HER2, which is upregulated on tumour cells, but also present at low levels on normal human tissue. (bmj.com)
  • CLL lymphocytes are clonal B-cells arrested in the B-cell differentiation pathway at some intermediate stage between the pre-B-cell and mature B-cell, perhaps in the "activated, antigen-experienced" B-cell subset. (intechopen.com)
  • HSA on naive B cells has been shown to mediate cell-cell adhesion, while HSA on antigen-presenting cells has been shown to mediate a costimulatory signal important for activating T lymphocytes during an immune response. (uzh.ch)
  • A total of 150 combinations of markers were reduced to a panel of three-CD44, CD24, and Epcam-which selected, in three ovarian cancer cell lines, those cells which best formed colonies. (harvard.edu)
  • Cells expressing CD44, CD24, and Epcam exhibited stem cell characteristics of shorter tumor-free intervals in vivo after limiting dilution, and enhanced migration in invasion assays in vitro. (harvard.edu)
  • Most importantly, the time-resolved QTiPs data set showed the transition of CD11b+, Ly6G-, Ly6Chigh-low cells into M2-like macrophages, which displayed increased antigen-presentation capacities and bioenergetic demands late in infection. (stanford.edu)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen-presenting cells that have a notable role in the initiation and regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. (stanford.edu)
  • The CD antigens are protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells. (sinobiological.com)
  • Non peptide antigen presentation to T-cell receptors on NKT cells. (sinobiological.com)
  • In combination with other markers of hematopoietic progenitor cells such as Thy-1, Sca-1, c-Kit, CD43, and CD24, the bone marrow Lymphoid-Committed Progenitors (CLP) can be segregated into more primitive and more differentiated subsets based on expression of AA4.1. (thermofisher.com)
  • Correlated expression of surface IgM (sIgM), CD23, and AA4.1 antigen has also been used to define three nonproliferative subpopulations of immature/transitional peripheral B cells designated: T1 (AA4.1+/CD23-/sIgMhi), T2 (AA4.1+/CD23+/sIgMhi), and T3 (AA4.1+/CD23+/sIgMlo). (thermofisher.com)
  • The only difference in the coding sequence, between cluster-4 and CD24 antigens is the substitution of a single base pair leading to a substitution of Val by Ala near the putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchorage sites of the mature protein. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We will further determine whether the thymus atrophy/T cell deletion phenotype can be found in CD24-deficient, myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific CD4 and CD8 TCR transgenic mice. (grantome.com)
  • Since CD24 comprises only a short protein core of approximately 30 amino acids and low conservation among species, it has been proposed that the functions of CD24 are mediated by its glycosylation pattern. (biomedsearch.com)
  • ab31622 binds to the non-glycosylated GPI anchor of the protein core of the cluster w4/CD24. (abcam.com)
  • CD24 is a small, heavily glycosylated, mucin-like cell surface protein ( 8 - 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To date, only limited data on CD24 RNA expression in colon cancer have been published ( 16 , 17 ) and, to our knowledge, no data on CD24 protein levels are available. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We aimed to investigate the expression patterns of CD24 protein in colon cancer cell lines and human colorectal carcinomas and to correlate our findings to clinicopathologic variables including patient survival times. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We aimed to evaluate CD24 protein expression in breast cancer and to correlate to clinicopathological data including patient survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In colorectal cancer, 68.7% of the tumors showed membranous CD24 staining, whereas 84.4% showed cytoplasmic staining. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In previous works, we have described CD24 as a new prognostic marker in solid tumors ( 3 - 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD24 (show CD24 ELISA Kits ) cell surface expression may serve as a valuable biomarker in order to identify mammary tumors that will positively respond to targeted IGF1R (show IGF1R ELISA Kits ) therapies. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Purpose: CD24 is expressed in hematological malignancies as well as in a large variety of solid tumors including breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Flow cytometry was used to study the co-expression of EpCAM with putative cancer stem cell markers, such as CD44, CD24, and ABCG2, in RB primary tumors. (molvis.org)
  • EpCAM was co-expressed with all cancer stem cell markers (CD44, CD24, and ABCG2) in primary RB tumors. (molvis.org)
  • This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of CD24. (mybiosource.com)
  • Cluster-4 and CD24 cDNA's have recently been cloned from the small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell line SW2 and from the erythroleukemia cell line K562, respectively. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We will inject OVA to CD24-deficient OT2 mice (OT2/CD24-/-) to determine if thymocytes from OT2/CD24-/- mice are more sensitive to deletion/apoptosis than that of OT2/CD24+/+ mice. (grantome.com)
  • In addition, AHP3 and 3-Cl-AHPC inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in spheres derived from the CD44 + /CD24 + (CD133 + /EpCAM + ) stem-like cell population isolated from the pancreatic cancer cell lines. (hindawi.com)
  • This is the site where initial antigen sampling and activation of APCs take place, including different subsets of DCs. (frontiersin.org)
  • CD44 and CD24 are cell surface adhesive proteins participating in proliferation and differentiation 17 . (nature.com)
  • This paper reviews recent findings in murine models regarding the antitumoral mechanisms of DC-based vaccination, covering issues related to antigen sources, the use of adjuvants and maturing agents, and the role of DC subsets and their interaction in the initiation of antitumoral immune responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • No significant cross-reactivity or interference between CD24 and analogues was observed. (mybiosource.com)
  • Knowledge of this extra reactivity is important because it could be, and already has been, mistakenly interpreted to support the view that antigen transfer can occur between LCs and DDCs. (rupress.org)
  • For example, the relationship of CD24 expression to MGSC isolated under different conditions has remained unclear, as are the identities of possible additional stem cell markers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These considerations underscore the need to identify additional cell surface markers and to characterize the expression patterns of known markers, such as CD24, by populations of MGSC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They did not express pluripotent-associated markers but displayed MSC surface antigens and differentiated into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. (scialert.net)
  • Pancreatic CSCs were isolated based on cell surface markers (CD24, CD44 and ESA) for the first time in 2007, and proved to be high tumorigenic [ 6 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • The DiI+/SCC population, showed only a partial overlap with the CSC markers CD24 + /CD44 + , CD133 + and ALDH but they survived chemotherapeutic treatment, and were able to recreate the initial heterogeneous tumor cell population. (springer.com)
  • Among the markers in our panel, CD58 and CD59 on reticulocytes, CD24/66b, and eventually FLAER on granulocytes as well as CD14 on monocytes were most effective for flow cytometric diagnosis of GPI deficiency. (springer.com)
  • Recently, CD24 has been shown to be a prognostic marker in gastric adenocarcinoma ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tissue section of human prostate containing adenocarcinoma that has been immunostained for the cell-surface antigen CD24. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Small volumes of CD24 elisa kit vial(s) may occasionally become entrapped in the seal of the product vial during shipment and storage. (mybiosource.com)
  • MBS2021939 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Cluster Of Differentiation 24 (CD24) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • The ELISA Kit is designed to detect native, not recombinant, CD24. (mybiosource.com)
  • The Human CD24 cd24 (Catalog # MBS704170 ) is an ELISA Kit and is intended for research purposes only. (mybiosource.com)
  • The MBS704170 ELISA Kit recognizes Human (General) CD24. (mybiosource.com)
  • The small cell lung cancer antigen cluster-4 and the leukocyte antigen CD24 are allelic isoforms of the same gene (CD24) on chromosome band 6q21. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11. (ipscell.com)
  • This application is inspired by our finding that CD24 is required for the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) induced EAE. (grantome.com)
  • Very important and "CD24 is a glycoprotein expressed at the surface of most B lymphocytes and differentiating neuroblasts. (ipscell.com)
  • CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. (ipscell.com)
  • Note=Polymorphisms in CD24 may act as a genetic modifier for susceptibility and progression of MS in some populations, perhaps by affecting the efficiency of CD24 expression on the cell surface. (abcam.com)
  • Cell lines derived from human small cell carcinoma of the lung express high levels of a surface polypeptide termed the cluster-w4 antigen, which was previously identified as a potential target for toxin-based immunotherapy of lung cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A panel of eight was initially selected from 95 human cell surface antigens as each was shared among human ovarian primary cancers, ovarian cancer cell lines, and normal fimbria. (harvard.edu)
  • The expression of CD24 detected by 30-F1 has been used to resolve stages of B lymphopoiesis in mouse bone marrow. (fishersci.com)
  • We aimed to investigate the expression of CD24 in a larger tumor collection of breast cancer and to evaluate its prognostic significance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We demonstrated that CD24 was expressed in 70.1% of primary ovarian carcinoma tissues, which were obtained from 174 patients, and that the expression of CD24 was an independent predictor of survival in patients with ovarian cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The expression of CD24 has been found to be correlated with the FIGO stage, presence of peritoneal and lymph node metastasis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The CD antigens / Cluster of differentiation nomenclature was established in the 1st International Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA), which was held in Paris in 1982. (sinobiological.com)
  • CD24 is commonly up-regulated in colorectal cancer and is a new independent prognostic marker which corroborates the importance of CD24 in tumor progression of this disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Signaling could be triggered by the binding of a lectin-like ligand to the CD24 carbohydrates, and transduced by the release of second messengers derived from the GPI-anchor. (abcam.com)
  • The thymus atrophy/T cell deletion phenotype was not found in CD24-deficient, OT2 and OT1 TCR transgenic mice (TCRs recognize chicken ovalbumin, OVA). (grantome.com)
  • We will breed 2D2/CD24-/- mice with MOG-/- mice to generate MOG/CD24 double deficient mice to determine whether the thymus atrophy/T cell deletion phenotype in 2D2/CD24-/- mice is MOG antigen dependent. (grantome.com)
  • While no obvious role was found for CD24 in the normal development and maintenance of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system in mice, it may have a role in mediating the neuroprotective aspects of GDNF in this system. (antibodies-online.com)
  • mice negative or positive for CD24 (show CD24 ELISA Kits ) did not differ in terms of tumor initiation and burden in 3 mammary and prostate tumor models tested, except for Apc1572T/+ mice, in which lack of CD24 (show CD24 ELISA Kits ) reduced the mammary tumor burden slightly but significantly. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Loss of CD24 (show CD24 ELISA Kits ) in Mice Leads to Metabolic Dysfunctions and a Reduction in White Adipocyte Tissue. (antibodies-online.com)
  • 5 , 6 Several reports demonstrated that antigen-specific human IgG can be detected in humanized mice by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (bloodjournal.org)
  • This activity may be more relevant in the genesis and/or development of type 1 diabetes, since an impaired B-cell-mediated antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II results in a resistance to spontaneous type 1 diabetes development in NOD mice ( 8 - 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Runz S, Mierke CT, Joumaa S, Behrens J, Fabry B, Altevogt P: CD24 induces localization of beta1 integrin to lipid raft domains. (exbio.cz)
  • 147 colorectal carcinomas and two colon carcinoma cell lines were immunostained for CD24. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In invasive breast carcinomas, CD24 expression was observed in 84.6% of cases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD24-positive ovarian carcinomas have been shown to have a greater potential for intra-abdominal tumor cell dissemination in in vivo models. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • CD24 expression is associated with invasiveness and poorer prognosis of carcinomas and is a marker of exosomes secreted into urine and amniotic fluid. (exbio.cz)
  • Given the aberrant expression of specific genes in a variety of cancer types, restricted in testis or selected in normal tissue, cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) have emerged as efficient specific tumor targets which spare normal tissue from incurring damage during treatment 3 . (nature.com)
  • This image is part of a large collection of images generated from numerous specimens to characterize the distribution of CD24 in human prostate tissue. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • By comparison of P CK/AS and P AS/ASAC , the DAVID genes functional classification was found to be changed from "immune response" to "response to steroid hormone stimulus", and the GO term "antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen" disappeared in P AS/ASAC . (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study analysed the usefulness of a flow cytometric panel with CD58, CD59 on reticulocytes and erythrocytes, CD24/CD66b and CD16, FLAER on granulocytes and CD14, and CD48 on monocytes. (springer.com)
  • ALDH(high) and ALDH(low) cell populations were further examined for co-expression of CD44 and/or CD24. (nih.gov)
  • CD24 may play a role in regulation of B-cell proliferation and maturation, and control of autoimmunity. (fishersci.com)
  • Our findings suggest that CD24 induced the EMT phenomenon in ovarian cancer, and that CD24 amplified cell growth-related intracellular signaling via the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways by affecting the EMT signal pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • CD24 (show CD24 ELISA Kits ) is a conserved marker for tracking divergent states in both reprogramming and standard pluripotent culture. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Our data suggest that CD24 expression in primary breast cancer as detected by immunohistochemistry might be a new marker for a more aggressive breast cancer biology. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Under physiological conditions, CD24 was initially identified as a B cell marker ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)