Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell: An extranodal neoplasm, usually possessing an NK-cell phenotype and associated with EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS. These lymphomas exhibit a broad morphologic spectrum, frequent necrosis, angioinvasion, and most commonly present in the midfacial region, but also in other extranodal sites.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.

Combining SSH and cDNA microarrays for rapid identification of differentially expressed genes. (1/395)

Comparing patterns of gene expression in cell lines and tissues has important applications in a variety of biological systems. In this study we have examined whether the emerging technology of cDNA microarrays will allow a high throughput analysis of expression of cDNA clones generated by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). A set of cDNA clones including 332 SSH inserts amplified by PCR was arrayed using robotic printing. The cDNA arrays were hybridized with fluorescent labeled probes prepared from RNA from ER-positive (MCF7 and T47D) and ER-negative (MDA-MB-231 and HBL-100) breast cancer cell lines. Ten clones were identified that were over-expressed by at least a factor of five in the ER-positive cell lines. Northern blot analysis confirmed over-expression of these 10 cDNAs. Sequence analysis identified four of these clones as cytokeratin 19, GATA-3, CD24 and glutathione-S-transferase mu-3. Of the remaining six cDNA clones, four clones matched EST sequences from two different genes and two clones were novel sequences. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence confirmed that CD24 protein was over-expressed in the ER-positive cell lines. We conclude that SSH and microarray technology can be successfully applied to identify differentially expressed genes. This approach allowed the identification of differentially expressed genes without the need to obtain previously cloned cDNAs.  (+info)

Statistically significant differences in the number of CD24 positive muscle fibers and satellite cells between sarcoglycanopathy and age-matched Becker muscular dystrophy patients. (2/395)

OBJECT: The aim of this study was to reveal variations in the patterns of expression of the cell surface proteins in regenerating fibers and those in the number of satellite cells to gain an understanding of the pathological processes involved in sarcoglycanopathy. METHODS: We have reported that there is a reduction of the beta-1 subunit of laminin, heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), and HCAM (CD44) in Japanese patients with sarcoglycanopathy. Here, we investigated immunohistochemically the expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), which is a marker for human regenerating muscle and satellite cell, and CD24, which appears to be expressed in the early stages of the regeneration process. PATIENTS: We investigated six Japanese patients with sarcoglycanopathy, and compared to age-matched Becker muscular dystrophy. RESULTS: We found that the incidences of muscle fibers with increased NCAM were not statistically different between the two groups. However, the incidences of muscle fibers with increased CD24 and those of NCAM positive satellite cells were very low in sarcoglycanopathy and were statistically different between sarcoglycanopathy and age-matched Becker muscular dystrophies. CONCLUSION: The poor expression of CD24 and the fewer satellite cells in sarcoglycanopathy without significant difference in the number of total regenerating fibers suggest that a different regeneration process is involved in sarcoglycanopathy compared to that in other types of muscular dystrophy.  (+info)

Efficient and durable gene marking of hematopoietic progenitor cells in nonhuman primates after nonablative conditioning. (3/395)

Optimization of mobilization, harvest, and transduction of hematopoietic stem cells is critical to successful stem cell gene therapy. We evaluated the utility of a novel protocol involving Flt3-ligand (Flt3-L) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells and retrovirus transduction using hematopoietic growth factors to introduce a reporter gene, murine CD24 (mCD24), into hematopoietic stem cells in nonhuman primates. Rhesus macaques were treated with Flt3-L (200 microgram/kg) and G-CSF (20 microgram/kg) for 7 days and autologous CD34(+) peripheral blood stem cells harvested by leukapheresis. CD34(+) cells were transduced with an MFGS-based retrovirus vector encoding mCD24 using 4 daily transductions with centrifugations in the presence of Flt3-L (100 ng/mL), human stem cell factor (50 ng/mL), and PIXY321 (50 ng/mL) in serum-free medium. An important and novel feature of this study is that enhanced in vivo engraftment of transduced stem cells was achieved by conditioning the animals with a low-morbidity regimen of sublethal irradiation (320 to 400 cGy) on the day of transplantation. Engraftment was monitored sequentially in the bone marrow and blood using both multiparameter flow cytometry and semi-quantitative DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our data show successful and persistent engraftment of transduced primitive progenitors capable of giving rise to marked cells of multiple hematopoietic lineages, including granulocytes, monocytes, and B and T lymphocytes. At 4 to 6 weeks posttransplantation, 47% +/- 32% (n = 4) of granulocytes expressed mCD24 antigen at the cell surface. Peak in vivo levels of genetically modified peripheral blood lymphocytes approached 35% +/- 22% (n = 4) as assessed both by flow cytometry and PCR 6 to 10 weeks posttransplantation. In addition, naive (CD45RA(+) and CD62L(+)) CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells were the predominant phenotype of the marked CD3(+) T cells detected at early time points. A high level of marking persisted at between 10% and 15% of peripheral blood leukocytes for 4 months and at lower levels past 6 months in some animals. A cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against mCD24 was detected in only 1 animal. This degree of persistent long-lived, high-level gene marking of multiple hematopoietic lineages, including naive T cells, using a nonablative marrow conditioning regimen represents an important step toward the ultimate goal of high-level permanent transduced gene expression in stem cells.  (+info)

Age-associated rapid and Stat6-independent IL-4 production by NK1-CD4+8- thymus T lymphocytes. (4/395)

The source of IL-4 required for priming naive T cells into IL-4-secreting effectors has not been clearly identified. Here we show that upon TCR stimulation, thymus NK1-CD4+8- T cells produced IL-4, the magnitude of which was inversely correlated with age. This IL-4 production response by Th2-prone BALB/c mice was approximately 9-fold that of Th1-prone C57BL/10 mice. More than 90% of activated NK1-CD4+8- thymocytes did not use the invariant V alpha 14-J alpha 281 chain characteristic of typical CD1-restricted NK1+CD4+ T cells. Stat6-null NK1-CD4+8- thymocytes produced bioactive IL-4, with induction of IL-4 mRNA expression within 1 h of stimulation. Our results support the possibility that TCR repertoire-diverse conventional NK1-CD4+ T cells are a potential IL-4 source for directing naive T cells toward Th2/type 2 CD8+ T cell (Tc2) effector development.  (+info)

Integrin leukocyte function-associated antigen-1-mediated cell binding can be activated by clustering of membrane rafts. (5/395)

The leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) integrin (CD11a/CD18) is an important adhesion molecule for lymphocyte migration and the initiation of an immune response. At the cell surface, LFA-1 activity can be regulated by divalent cations that enhance receptor affinity but also by membrane clustering induced by treatment of cells with substances such as phorbol esters. Membrane clustering leads to increased LFA-1 avidity. We report here that LFA-1-mediated binding of mouse thymocytes or activated T lymphocytes to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 can be rapidly induced by clustering of membrane rafts using antibodies to the glycosylphophatidylinositol-anchored molecule CD24 or cholera toxin (CTx). CD24 and CD18 were found to co-localize in rafts and cross-linking with CTx lead to enhanced LFA-1 clustering. We observed that disruption of raft integrity by lowering the membrane cholesterol content abolished the CTx and the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced LFA-1 binding but left the ability to activate LFA-1 with Mg(2+)/EGTA unimpaired. In contrast to activation with Mg(2+)/EGTA, activation via raft clustering was dependent on PI3-kinase, required cytoskeletal mobility, and was accompanied by Tyr phosphorylation of a 18-kDa protein. Our results support the notion that rafts as preformed adhesion platforms could be important for the rapid regulation of lymphocyte adhesion.  (+info)

Transmission of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 tax to rabbits by tax-only-positive human cells. (6/395)

The human T-cell lymphrotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is causally related to adult T-cell leukemia and lymphoma and the neurodegenerative diseases tropical spastic paraparesis and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. In the United States the prevalence of infection has been estimated to range from 0.016 to 0.1% on the basis of serologic tests for antibodies to the viral structural proteins. Blood from donors positive for antibodies to HTLV-1 or HTLV-2 is not used for transfusion. However, patients with the cutaneous T-cell lymphoma mycosis fungoides (MF) are HTLV-1 and -2 seronegative yet harbor proviral sequences identical to those that encode the HTLV-1 transactivating and transforming gene product p40tax in their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and they usually have antibodies to p40(tax). Moreover, a study of 250 randomly selected blood donors revealed that approximately 8% of these seronegative individuals also had HTLV-1 tax sequences and antibodies to p40(tax), while they lacked sequences and antibodies related to gag, pol, or env. Thus, it seemed important to determine whether the "tax-only" state can be transmitted by transfusion. To this end, PBMCs from HTLV-1 and -2 seronegative tax-only-positive MF patients or from healthy tax-only-positive blood donors were injected into adult rabbits, an established animal model for HTLV-1 infection. The PBMCs of all injected rabbits became tax sequence positive. These observations suggest that HTLV-1 tax can be transmitted by tax-only-positive mononuclear cells.  (+info)

Functional assessment of precursors from murine bone marrow suggests a sequence of early B lineage differentiation events. (7/395)

Most lineage marker-negative (Lin-)TdT+ cells from murine marrow lack CD34 but display c-kit at low density as well as IL-7Ralpha and Flk-2/Flt-3 receptors. Single cells with these characteristics generated CD45RA+CD19- as well as CD19+ lymphocytes in culture. CD45RA+CD19- marrow cells were resolved into three nonoverlapping subsets. One subset, lacking DX5 and Ly-6C antigens, yielded CD19+ cells in culture. Further analysis demonstrated CD24 on most Lin-TdT+ cells and all CD45R+CD19-DX5-Ly-6C- cells. Mac-1/CD11b was absent from these two subsets of B lineage precursors, while IL-7Ralpha was retained during subsequent differentiation to a CD19+ and stromal cell-independent stage. These findings contrast with previous descriptions of B lymphocyte precursors and suggest a sequence of early differentiation events.  (+info)

The heat-stable antigen determines pathogenicity of self-reactive T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (8/395)

Induction of myelin-specific CD4 T cells is a pivotal event in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Other checkpoints in EAE pathogenesis have not been clearly defined, although multiple genetic loci are known to influence EAE development. We report here that targeted mutation of the heat-stable antigen (HSA) abrogates development of EAE despite a complete lack of effect on induction of autoimmune T cells. To test whether T-cell expression of HSA is sufficient, we created transgenic mice in which HSA is expressed exclusively in the T-cell lineage. We found that these mice remain resistant to EAE induction. Adoptive transfer studies demonstrate that both T cells and non-T cells must express HSA in order for the pathogenic T cells to execute their effector function. Moreover, HSAIg, a fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of the HSA and the Fc portion of immunoglobulin, drastically ameliorates the clinical sign of EAE even when administrated after self-reactive T cells had been expanded. Thus, identification of HSA as a novel checkpoint, even after activation and expansion of self-reactive T cells, provides a novel approach for immunotherapy of autoimmune neurologic diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.  (+info)

*CD24

... Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... Signal transducer CD24 also known as cluster of differentiation 24 or heat stable antigen CD24 (HSA) is a protein that in ... description of CD24 expression CD24 human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. CD24 human gene details in the UCSC Genome ... "The CD24 surface antigen in neural development and disease". Neurobiology of Disease. 99: 133-144. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2016.12. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.395)

... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.098 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... 395.550.200.170 -- antigens, cd146 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.175 -- antigens, cd164 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.200 -- cadherins ... antigens, cd43 MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.650.264 -- antigens, cd164. ... ca-15-3 antigen MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.300 -- gastric mucin MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.650 -- sialomucins MeSH D12.776.395.560. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... cd24 MeSH D23.050.285.025 --- antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.285.040 --- antigens, cd147 MeSH D23.050.285.050 --- antigens, tumor- ... antigens, cd20 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.122 --- antigens, cd22 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.124 --- antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D23.050.301.350.098 --- antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.301.350.131 --- antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.050.301.350.150 ... antigens, cd20 MeSH D23.101.100.110.122 --- antigens, cd22 MeSH D23.101.100.110.124 --- antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.101.100.110.126 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 -- receptors, antigen, ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 -- antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 -- antigens, cd40 ... antigens, cd11a MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.150 -- antigens, cd11b MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.200 -- antigens, cd11c ...

*SIGLEC10

It is also reported to bind to Vascular adhesion protein 1 (VAP-1) and to the co-stimulatory molecule CD24 also known as HSA ( ... Heat-stable antigen). SIGLECs are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily that are expressed on the cell surface. Most ...

*DHRS7B

In breast cancer cells expressing CD44 and CD24, DHRS7B expression was observed to be down regulated. CD44 is an antigen found ... CD24 is associated with B-cells, epithelial cells, and dendritic cells, functioning as an adhesion molecule and shown to ... "The CD44+/CD24- phenotype is enriched in basal-like breast tumors". Breast Cancer Res. 10 (3): R53. doi:10.1186/bcr2108. PMC ...

*Cancer stem cell

Both CD44+CD24− and CD44+CD24+ cell populations are tumor initiating cells; however, CSC are most highly enriched using the ... stage-specific embryonic antigen-1), EGFR and CD44. The use of CD133 for identification of brain tumor stem-like cells may be ... CD24 (HSA) is a glycosylated glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored adhesion molecule, which has co-stimulatory role in B and T ... It is possible that CD44+CD24−/low cells initially metastasize and in the new site change their phenotype and undergo limited ...

*Outline of immunology

Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... CD24 CD44 CD146 CD164 CD69 Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors S1PR1 S1PR2 S1PR3 S1PR4 S1PR5 Co-stimulatory molecules CD80 - ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... B cells Antigen receptor - B cell receptor (BCR) Subunits- Immunoglobulin heavy chain / Immunoglobulin light chain Co-receptors ...

*Transitional B cells

All transitional B cells are heat-stable antigen (HSA) relative to their mature counterparts and express the phenotypic surface ... defined by the expression of high levels of CD24, C38 and CD10. Overall there is general agreement on the markers used to ...

*Basophil

CD24−, CD19−, CD80−, CD14−, CD23−, Ly49c−, CD122−, CD11c−, Gr-1−, NK1.1−, B220−, CD3−, γδTCR−, αβTCR−, α4 and β4-integrin ... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ...

*CD48

... antigen (Cluster of Differentiation 48) also known as B-lymphocyte activation marker (BLAST-1) or signaling lymphocytic ... Suzuki T, Kiyokawa N, Taguchi T, Sekino T, Katagiri YU, Fujimoto J (2001). "CD24 induces apoptosis in human B cells via the ... Smith GM, Biggs J, Norris B, Anderson-Stewart P, Ward R (1998). "Detection of a soluble form of the leukocyte surface antigen ... Killeen N, Moessner R, Arvieux J, Willis A, Williams AF (October 1988). "The MRC OX-45 antigen of rat leukocytes and ...

*CD44

The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. In humans, the ... CD44 are reported as cell surface markers for some breast and prostate cancer stem cells.In breast cancer research CD44+/CD24- ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH Articles at IHOP. Human CD44 genome ... Thomas SN, Zhu F, Schnaar RL, Alves CS, Konstantopoulos K (Jun 2008). "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms ...

*Regulatory B cells

Markers of peripheral blood Bregs were molecules CD24 and CD38. However, peripheral blood Bregs were mostly CD24 and CD27 ... "IgG4 production is confined to human IL-10-producing regulatory B cells that suppress antigen-specific immune responses". The ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in virtually all biological processes, including stem cell maintenance, differentiation, and development. The dysregulation of miRNAs is associated with many human diseases including cancer. We have identified a set of miRNAs differentially expressed between human breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) and non-tumorigenic cancer cells. In addition, these miRNAs are similarly upregulated or downregulated in normal mammary stem/progenitor cells. In this review, we mainly describe the miRNAs that are dysregulated in human breast CSCs directly isolated from clinical specimens. The miRNAs and their clusters, such as the miR-200 clusters, miR-183 cluster, miR-221-222 cluster, let-7, miR-142 and miR-214, target the genes and pathways important for stem cell maintenance, such as the self-renewal gene BMI1, apoptosis, Wnt signaling, Notch signaling, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In addition, the current evidence shows that metastatic breast CSCs acquire a phenotype that is
Human Breast Cancer Stem Cell (Plated cells are also available). 120 Population doublings or up to 12 passages. One million viable cells upon thawing of frozen cells, frozen vial of cells shipped in dry-ice. Cell Cultures from single donors, 1000 different cell cultures available, please indicate which lots you require from the 1000 donors. Source: Human Breast Cancer tissue Positive Markers: CD133, CD44, SSEA3/4, Oct4, Tumorigenicity (,1000 cells), Alkaline Phosphatase, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Telomerase For non-academic use, please inquire for pricing. Cells are only guaranteed with purchase of Creative Bioarray Media and Creative Bioarray Extra Cellular Matrix for appropriate cell culture, for 30 days from the date of shipment ...
Signal transducer CD24 also known as cluster of differentiation 24 or heat stable antigen CD24 (HSA) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD24 gene. CD24 is a cell adhesion molecule. CD24 is a glycoprotein expressed at the surface of most B lymphocytes and differentiating neuroblasts. This gene encodes a sialoglycoprotein that is expressed on mature granulocytes and in many B cells. The encoded protein is anchored via a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) link to the cell surface. The protein also contributes to a wide range of downstream signaling networks and is crucial for neural development. CD24 gene is found on chromosome 6 (6q21) An alignment of this genes sequence finds genomic locations with similarity on chromosomes 1p36, 3p26, 15q21.3, 20q11.2 and Yq11.222. Whether transcription, and corresponding translation, occurs at each of these other genomic locations needs to be experimentally determined (source: NCBI). GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000272398 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...
The heat stable antigen (HSA, or murine CD24) is a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-linked surface glycoprotein expressed on immature cells of most, if not all, major hematopoietic lineages, as well as in developing neural and epithelial cells. It has been widely used to stage the maturation of B and T lymphocytes because it is strongly induced and then repressed again during their maturation. Terminally differentiated lymphocytes, as well as most myeloid lineages, are negative for HSA. Erythrocytes are an exception in that they maintain high levels of HSA expression. HSA on naive B cells has been shown to mediate cell-cell adhesion, while HSA on antigen-presenting cells has been shown to mediate a costimulatory signal important for activating T lymphocytes during an immune response. Here, we characterize mice that lack a functional HSA gene, constructed by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. While T-cell and myeloid development appears normal, these mice show a leaky block in B-cell ...
|strong|Monoclonal antibody with a broad spectrum of inhibitory effects on the expansion of T cells induced via TCR.|/strong| |strong|Background and Research
The researchers performed a variety of experiments on human breast cancer stem cells. These are cells that are able to divide and become any type of cell the tumour needs in order to grow. Cancer stem cells are different from most normal cells in that they can produce energy from glucose through a variety of pathways. This is one of the reasons theyre able to grow and replicate better than normal cells. Most also have an increased number of mitochondria - the powerhouse of cells - which can convert glucose into energy using oxygen. And one of the side effects of doxycycline is it inhibits the production of proteins required by mitochondria. Previous research has suggested that by stopping the protein production, doxycycline could kill the cancer cells because they wouldnt be able to make energy. But because cancer cells are good at adapting, there were concerns that some cancer cells would become drug resistant by using a different pathway to create energy, such as glycolysis. This happens ...
It seems my supply has been fluctuating. I have been stressed. Could that be it? For example, while we were traveling it seemed low (breasts extra soft, decreased pumping output, etc.). The very next day it was up again - maybe because wed arrived at our destination and I could relax? Now were traveling again and my supply has dipped. Ive been doing pumped bottles because Im going back to work next week. Usually my pumping output it good - I pumped for 12 months with DS. Anyways, why
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In cancer stem cell theory, breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are postulated to be the root cause of recurrence and metastasis in breast cancer. Discovery of new biomarkers and development of BCSC-targeted therapy are practical issues that urgently need to be addressed in the clinic. However, few breast cancer stem cell targets are known. Given that there are few BCSCs, performing transcriptome sequencing on them thus far has not been possible. With the emergence of single-cell sequencing technology, we have now undertaken such a study. We prepared single-cell suspensions, which were sorted using flow cytometry from breast tumor tissue and adjacent normal breast tissue from two HER2-positive patients. We obtained BCSCs, breast cancer cells, mammary cells, and CD44+ mammary cells. Transcriptome sequencing was then performed on these four cell types. Using bioinformatics, we identified 404 differentially expressed BCSC genes from the HER2-positive tumors and preliminary explored transcriptome ...
Wnt signaling through β-catenin and the lymphoid-enhancing factor 1/T-cell factor (LEF1/TCF) family of transcription factors maintains stem cell properties in both normal and malignant tissues; however, the underlying molecular pathway involved in this process has not been completely defined. Using a microRNA microarray screening assay, we identified the let-7 miRNAs as downstream targets of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Expression studies indicated that Wnt/β-catenin pathway suppresses mature let-7 miRNAs but not the primary transcripts, which suggests a posttranscriptional regulation of repression. Furthermore, we identified Lin28, a negative let-7 biogenesis regulator, as a novel direct downstream target of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Loss of function of Lin28 impairs the Wnt/β-catenin pathway-mediated let-7 inhibition and breast cancer stem cell expansion; enforced expression of let-7 blocks the Wnt/β-catenin pathway-stimulated breast cancer stem cell phenotype. Finally, we demonstrated that ...
miR-1 inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer stem cells by targeting EVI-1 Lei Wu,1 Tianyi Wang,2 Dongning He,2 Xiaoxi Li,1 Youhong Jiang1 1Molecular Oncology Laboratory of Cancer Research Institute, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China; 2Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou 121001, China Purpose: Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have been regarded as the key factor for treatment failure in breast cancer. The abnormal expression of miRNAs plays a significant role in different tumor types. However, the role of miR-1 in breast cancer remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of miR-1 on the proliferation and apoptosis of BCSCs. Materials and methods: CD44+/CD24-/low/epithelial-specific antigen+ BCSCs were isolated by flow cytometry. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the expression of miRNAs, mRNAs, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT
Washington, Nov 24 (ANI): Scientists have discovered a novel way to halt the expansion of breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs), the aggressive cells thought to be resistant to current anti-cancer therapies and which promote
It is postulated that breast cancer stem cells (bCSCs) mediate disease recurrence and drive formation of distant metastases - the principal cause of mortality in breast cancer patients. Therapeutic targeting of bCSCs, however, is hampered by their heterogeneity and resistance to existing therapeutics. In order to identify strategies to selectively remove bCSCs from breast cancers, irrespective of their clinical subtype, we sought an apoptosis mechanism that would target bCSCs yet would not kill normal cells. Suppression of the apoptosis inhibitor cellular FLICE-Like Inhibitory Protein (c-FLIP) partially sensitizes breast cancer cells to the anti-cancer agent Tumour Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL). Here we demonstrate in breast cancer cell lines that bCSCs are exquisitely sensitive to the de-repression of this pro-apoptotic pathway, resulting in a dramatic reduction in experimental metastases and the loss of bCSC self-renewal. Suppression c-FLIP was performed by siRNA (FLIPi) in
The researchers identified a receptor, CXCR1, on the cancer stem cells which triggers growth of stem cells in response to inflammation and tissue damage. A drug originally developed to prevent organ transplant rejection blocks this receptor, killing breast cancer stem cells and preventing their metastasis in mice, according to the study.. Cancer stem cells, the small number of cells that fuel a tumors growth, are believed to be resistant to current chemotherapies and radiation treatment, which researchers say may be the reason cancer so often returns after treatment.. ...
Reactivation of the stem cell programme in breast cancer is significantly associated with persistent cancer progression and therapeutic failure. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are involved in the...
Cell surface protein GD2 blows potent tumor-generating cells cover. The first single marker of breast cancer stem cells also is targetable by a drug in preclinical tests.
TY - JOUR. T1 - NK cells preferentially target tumor cells with a cancer stem cell phenotype. AU - Ames, Erik. AU - Canter, Robert J.. AU - Grossenbacher, Steven K.. AU - Mac, Stephanie. AU - Chen, Mingyi. AU - Smith, Rachel C.. AU - Hagino, Takeshi. AU - Perez-Cunningham, Jessica. AU - Sckisel, Gail D.. AU - Urayama, Shiro. AU - Monjazeb, Arta M.. AU - Fragoso, Ruben C.. AU - Sayers, Thomas J.. AU - Murphy, William J.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are resistant to antiproliferative therapies, able to repopulate tumor bulk, and seed metastasis. NK cells are able to target stem cells as shown by their ability to reject allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells but not solid tissue grafts. Using multiple preclinical models, including NK coculture (autologous and allogeneic) with multiple human cancer cell lines and dissociated primary cancer specimens and NK transfer in NSG mice harboring orthotopic pancreatic cancer ...
Researchers then identified two signals from a cytokine network - a type of protein that affects how cells communicate - that were responsible for stem cell regulation. These same cytokines play a role in inflammation and drugs that block them have already been approved for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. By blocking these cytokine signals, researchers hope that they can successfully target the cancer stem cell population providing a more effective treatment for breast cancer ...
The researchers then used triptolide, a known inhibitor of GD3 synthase, to treat immune-deficient mice injected with breast cancer cells. Of the mice treated, 50 percent did not develop breast cancer and the other half had smaller tumors than the control mice. The treated mice also lived longer than the controls. GD2s function in cancer stem cells remains unclear. "As GD2 is an immune suppressant, it would be needed by cancer stem cells to counter immune cells during metastases," said first author Venkata Lokesh Battula, Ph.D., of MD Andersons Department of Leukemia. "Inhibition of GD2 expression in cancer cells may enhance the inherent ability of immune cells to kill cancer cells.". Co-authors with Andreeff, Mani and Battula are Yuexi Shi, Rui-Yu Wang, M.D., Ph.D., Erika Spaeth, Ph.D., Rodrigo Jacamo, and Frank Marini, Ph.D., all of MD Andersons Department of Leukemia, Section of Molecular Hematology and Therapy; Kurt Evans, of the Department of Molecular Pathology; Aysegul Sahin, M.D., of ...
We recently showed that two different ALDH+ and CD44+/CD24-/low breast cancer stem cells (BSCSs) exhibited stem cell characteristics that include self-renewal, extensive proliferation, the ability to form non-adherent spherical clusters, chemotherapy resistance and high Notch1 expression. We have identified a compound compound: 6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) coumestrol (Pso) and treatment with Pso resulted in growth inhibition and an EMT phenotype in both BCSCs and BC cells. Oral Pso administration at physiologically achievable doses (25 mg/kg/BW) suppressed the growth of BCSCs and BC xenografts without toxicity. In the current studies, we identified several novel Pso-derived analogs that may be more potent than the parent compound. One such compound, 1-methoxyphaseollidin (1MP), obtained via three main functional group changes: (i) translocation of the isoprenyl moiety from the phenyl ring fused to the pyran ring (as in Pso) to the phenyl ring adjacent to the furan ring, (ii) removal of the carbonyl ...
Screens for agents that specifically kill epithelial cancer stem cells (CSCs) have not been possible due to the rarity of these cells within tumor cell populations and their relative instability in culture. We describe here an approach to screening for agents with epithelial CSC-specific toxicity. We implemented this method in a chemical screen and discovered compounds showing selective toxicity for breast CSCs. One compound, salinomycin, reduces the proportion of CSCs by >100-fold relative to paclitaxel, a commonly used breast cancer chemotherapeutic drug. Treatment of mice with salinomycin inhibits mammary tumor growth invivo and induces increased epithelial differentiation of tumor cells. In addition, global gene expression analyses show that salinomycin treatment results in the loss of expression of breast CSC genes previously identified by analyses of breast tissues isolated directly from patients. This study demonstrates the ability to identify agents with specific toxicity for epithelial ...
The cancer stem cell (CSC) theory was first proposed to explain the fact that only a small proportion of leukemia or solid tumor cells have the capacity to induce growing tumors in immunodeficient mice.[1,2] 1
Cancer stem cell studies may improve understanding of tumor pathophysiology and identify more effective strategies for cancer treatment. In a variety of organisms, Piwil2 has been implicated in multiple roles including stem cell self-renewal, RNA silencing, and translational control. In this study, we documented specific expression of the stem cell protein Piwil2 in breast cancer with predominant expression in breast cancer stem cells. In patients who were evaluated, we determined that 90% of invasive carcinomas and 81% of carcinomas in situ exhibited highest expression of Piwil2. In breast cancer cells, Piwil2 silencing suppressed the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, a pivotal regulator of Bcl-XL and cyclin D1, whose downregulation paralleled a reduction in cell proliferation and survival. Our findings define Piwil2 and its effector signaling pathways as key factors in the proliferation and survival of breast cancer stem cells. Cancer Res; 70(11); OF1-11. ©2010 ...
A novel way of targeting breast cancer cells that are resistant to current treatments have been discovered by scientists at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Centre.
The gene, HER2, causes cancer stem cells to multiply and spread, explaining why HER2 has been linked to a more aggressive type of breast cancer and to metastatic disease, in which the cancer has spread beyond the breast, the researchers say.. Further, the drug Herceptin, which is used to treat HER2-positive breast cancer, was found to target and destroy the cancer stem cells. "This work suggests that the reason drugs that target HER2, such as Herceptin and Lapatanib, are so effective in breast cancer is that they target the cancer stem cell population. This finding provides further evidence for the cancer stem cell hypothesis," says study author Max S. Wicha, M.D., Distinguished Professor of Oncology and director of the U-M Comprehensive Cancer Center.. The cancer stem cell hypothesis says that tumors originate in a small number of cells, called cancer stem cells, and that these cells are responsible for fueling a tumors growth. These cells represent fewer than 5 percent of the cells in a ...
This study provides highly selective molecules to target the CSC niche, a potential interesting advance for drug development to prevent cancer resistance. PMID: 32083773 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]...
HER2 Drives Luminal Breast Cancer Stem Cells in the Absence of HER2 Amplification: Implications for Efficacy of Adjuvant Trastuzumab
Women who have diabetes during pregnancy may also have a lower supply of breast milk after giving birth, says a study carried out at Cincinnati Childrens Hospital.
Chang C, Goel HL, Gao H, Pursell B, Shultz LD, Greiner DL, Ingerpuu S, Patarroyo M, Cao S, Lim E, Mao J, McKee KK, Yurchenco PD, Mercurio AM. A laminin 511 matrix is regulated by TAZ and functions as the ligand for the a6Bß1 integrin to sustain breast cancer stem cells. Genes Dev. 2015 Jan 01; 29(1):1-6 ...
Log message: Sort PLIST files. Unsorted entries in PLIST files have generated a pkglint warning for at least 12 years. Somewhat more recently, pkglint has learned to sort PLIST files automatically. Since pkglint 5.4.23, the sorting is only done in obvious, simple cases. These have been applied by running: pkglint -Cnone,PLIST -Wnone,plist-sort -r -F ...
Log message: Sort PLIST files. Unsorted entries in PLIST files have generated a pkglint warning for at least 12 years. Somewhat more recently, pkglint has learned to sort PLIST files automatically. Since pkglint 5.4.23, the sorting is only done in obvious, simple cases. These have been applied by running: pkglint -Cnone,PLIST -Wnone,plist-sort -r -F ...
The manifestation of shellfish allergies can be highly variable with symptoms ranging from hives, tingling or swelling of the lips, tongue or throat, chest tightness, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, nausea and vomiting, to full-blown anaphylaxis (Cleveland Clinic,2012). The allergens associated with shellfish allergies are not well characterized and thus management of such an allergy is often simply limited to avoidance or dietary elimination of shellfish. Additionally, treatment is restricted to emergency care following exposure (Lieberman et al.,2010). So far, it is known that there are heat stable antigens within shellfish that bind to human IgE, an immunoglobulin or antibody that likely originally evolved as a defense against internal parasites such as helminthes and now significantly contributes to immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Once bound to an allergen, IgE initiates intracellular signaling, leading to the degranulation of immune cells. Degranulation is the ...
ANN ARBOR, Mich. - Cancer treatments designed to block the growth of blood vessels were found to increase the number of cancer stem cells in breast tumors in mice, suggesting a possible explanation for why these drugs dont lead to longer survival, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center.. Max S. Wicha, M.D.. The drugs Avastin and Sutent have been looked at as potential breast cancer treatments. But while they do shrink tumors and slow the time till the cancer progresses, the effect does not last, and the cancer eventually regrows and spreads.. "This study provides an explanation for the clinical trial results demonstrating that in women with breast cancer antiangiogenic agents such as Avastin delay the time to tumor recurrence but do not affect patient survival. If our results apply to the clinic, it suggests that in order to be effective, these agents will need to be combined with cancer stem cell inhibitors, an approach now being ...
The most effective techniques to resolve low breast milk supply and to boost your breast milk production are those THAT ADDRESS THE MOST LIKELY CAUSES.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, due to the fact that chemoresistance develops in nearly all patients l...
Targeting and killing specific cells discriminately has been the goal of targeted therapy dating back to the era of Paul Ehrlich. The discovery of cancer stem cells has caused a paradigm shift within the cancer field and provided an opportunity to use targeted therapies such as targeted toxins to bind and kill these cells selectively. A number of targeted toxins have been developed against recently identified cancer stem cell markers. In this review we discuss the development and current status of these exciting novel drugs and their potential use to combat drug-refractory relapse.
Evgen Pharma is now preparing to initiate a number of patient trials in the UK and US. These include clinical trials in breast cancer, prostate cancer, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) and Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (SAH). Sulforadex has also recently produced compelling preclinical efficacy data in animal models for osteoarthritis and COPD. Whilst the market, and current drug pipeline, for advanced prostate cancer is extremely competitive, Evgen is initially targeting patients diagnosed with early-stage indolent prostate cancer that elect active surveillance. There are currently no approved drugs for this large population of men, representing approximately 30% of all diagnoses. In the breast cancer field, Sulforadex® has recently been demonstrated by Evgen Pharma to be a potent agent against breast cancer stem cells derived from patients. Cancer stem cells are believed to be a major factor behind the recurrence of many cancers and are thus targets of major interest to large biotechnology and ...
Brain metastasis from breast cancer is a growing problem, due in part to improved therapies for metastatic disease and the inability of many drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier. McGowan and colleagues investigated the role of cancer stem-like cells and a potential regulator, Notch, on the formation of brain metastases by using a γ-secretase inhibitor and specific Notch1 silencing. Cells with a reduced stem-like phenotype formed fewer metastases. Notch1 shRNA or DAPT treatment reduced the proportion of stemlike cells and the number of metastases formed in vivo. These data suggest that the cancer stem cell phenotype contributes to the development of brain metastases from breast cancer and that this may arise in part from increased Notch activity.. ...
Dr. Weeks Comment: If your oncologist is still treating your cancer TUMOR cells, she or he is either negligent or powerless to advocate for you against the standard of care - "cut, burn, poison" (surgery, radiation or chemotherapy). Has he or she even mentioned that your cancer STEM cells are the more lethal target and that chemotherapy and radiation make your cancer STEM cells more numerous and virulent? What ever happened to "First Do No Harm?". So it is up to you to take care of yourself. (It always has been thus!). So get reading.. (this was epublished June 12th 2016 -a month ago…sorry to be so slow getting this to you….). ...
Cancer stem cells (CSCs, or tumor initiating cells) are responsible for tumor initiation. If cancer treatment kills most of cancer cells in the stage of transit amplifying and differentiation without killing the stem cells, the surviving CSCs will ev
Full Text - Gomisin M2 isolated from Schisandra viridis A. C. Smith has potential anti-tumor effects on certain cancers, including breast cancer. However, only a few investigations have been conducted on the effects of Gomisin M2 on breast cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have the ability to self-renew and differentiate, as a possible strategy to resolve cancer cell resistance to apoptosis and to improve treatments. It is essential to investigate the effects of Gomisin M2 on breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). In this study, we enriched breast cancer stem cells with CD44+/CD24- from MDA-MB-231 and HCC1806 cells through magnetic-activated cell sorting and cultured these in serum-free medium. The ability of Gomisin M2 to kill breast cancer stem cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Gomisin M2 significantly inhibited the proliferation of the triple-negative breast cancer cell lines and mammosphere formation in breast CSCs and downregulated the Wnt/β-catenin self-renewal pathway.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antiangiogenic agents increase breast cancer stem cells via the generation of tumor hypoxia. AU - Conley, Sarah J.. AU - Gheordunescu, Elizabeth. AU - Kakarala, Pramod. AU - Newman, Bryan. AU - Korkaya, Hasan. AU - Heath, Amber N.. AU - Clouthier, Shawn G.. AU - Wicha, Max S.. PY - 2012/2/21. Y1 - 2012/2/21. N2 - Antiangiogenic therapy has been thought to hold significant potential for the treatment of cancer. However, the efficacy of such treatments, especially in breast cancer patients, has been called into question, as recent clinical trials reveal only limited effectiveness of antiangiogenic agents in prolonging patient survival. New research using preclinical models further suggests that antiangiogenic agents actually increase invasive and metastatic properties of breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that by generating intratumoral hypoxia in human breast cancer xenografts, the antiangiogenic agents sunitinib and bevacizumab increase the population of cancer stem cells. In ...
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The invasive, mesenchymal phenotype of CD44posCD24neg breast cancer cells has made them a promising target for eliminating the metastatic capacity of primary tumors. It has been previously demonstrated that CD44neg/lowCD24pos breast cancer cells lack the ability to give rise to their invasive CD44posCD24neg counterpart. Here we demonstrate that noninvasive, epithelial-like CD44posCD24pos cells readily give rise to invasive, mesenchymal CD44posCD24neg progeny in vivo and in vitro. This interconversion was found to be dependent upon Activin/Nodal signaling. Breast cancer cell lines were sorted into CD44posCD24pos and CD44posCD24neg populations to evaluate their progeny for the expression of CD44, CD24, and markers of a mesenchymal phenotype. The populations, separated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) were injected into immunocompromised mice to evaluate their tumorigenicity and invasiveness of the resulting xenografts. CD24 expression was dynamically regulated in vitro in all evaluated breast
The invasive, mesenchymal phenotype of CD44posCD24neg breast cancer cells has made them a promising target for eliminating the metastatic capacity of primary tumors. It has been previously demonstrated that CD44neg/lowCD24pos breast cancer cells lack the ability to give rise to their invasive CD44posCD24neg counterpart. Here we demonstrate that noninvasive, epithelial-like CD44posCD24pos cells readily give rise to invasive, mesenchymal CD44posCD24neg progeny in vivo and in vitro. This interconversion was found to be dependent upon Activin/Nodal signaling. Breast cancer cell lines were sorted into CD44posCD24pos and CD44posCD24neg populations to evaluate their progeny for the expression of CD44, CD24, and markers of a mesenchymal phenotype. The populations, separated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) were injected into immunocompromised mice to evaluate their tumorigenicity and invasiveness of the resulting xenografts. CD24 expression was dynamically regulated in vitro in all evaluated breast
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Purpose: Pharmacology-based target identification has become a novel stratey leading to the discovery of novel pathological biomarkers. Ellagic acid (EA), a dietary polyphenol compound, exhibits potent anticancer activities, whereas the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study sought to determine the role and regulation of ACTN4 expression in human breast cancer metastasis and EA-based therapy.. Experimental Design: The anti-metastasis ability of EA was validated by MMTV-PyMT mice and in vitro cell models. Drug affiity responsive target stability (DARTS) was utilized to identify ACTN4 as the direct target of EA in breast breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). The metastatic regulated mechanisms of ACTN4 were assessed by CSC-related assays including mammosphere formation, tumorigenic ability, reattachment differentiation and signaling pathway analysis. The clinical significance of ACTN4 was based on human tissue microarray analysis and TCGA database exploration.. Results: EA inhibited breast ...
Sales, means the sales volume of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) and Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) Revenue, means the sales value of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) and Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) This report studies sales (consumption) of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) and Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) in Global market, especially in USA, China, Europe, Japan, India and Southeast Asia, focuses on top players i
Here are ten natural bioactive compounds such as sulforaphanes, turmeric, lycopene, ursolic acid, resverarol, 6-gingerol, piperine and EGCG, that have important effects against supposedly indestructible cancer stem cells, according to research.. On this CANCERactive Website we have covered a great many research studies on which natural compounds have been shown to attack and help fight cancer stem cells. These are the core cells at the heart of a cancer. And, be clear: No known chemotherapy drugs kill them off. This is why your cancer drugs may knock the tumour back 50, 60 or 70% but in the end that tumour may regrow.. What is a cancer stem cell? They are unlike normal cancer cells because the can promote cancer tumour re-growth, promote metastases, promote inflammation, cancer progression and cancer cell invasion. These cells are totally self-sufficient and do not use the same signalling pathways that normal cancer cells do. Think of them rather like the queen bee in the hive.. But natural ...
Accumulating data suggests that many human tumors are organized in cellular hierarchies initiated and maintained by a small population of self-renewing so called cancer stem cells. This was first demonstrated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but during recent years, cancer stem cells have also been demonstrated in other cancer types. These cells are not killed by conventional cancer therapy and thus it is critical to identify those cancer stem cells to be able to improved diagnostics and treatment of cancer.
CANCER STEM CELLS Effective Elimination of Cancer Stem Cells By a Novel Drug Combination Strategy SHUQIANG YUAN, a,b FENG WANG, a,b GANG CHEN, b HUI ZHANG, b LI FENG, b LEI WANG, c HOWARD COLMAN, d MICHAEL
Solid tumours are an enormous cancer burden and a major therapeutic challenge. The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis provides an attractive cellular mechanism to account for the therapeutic refractoriness and dormant behaviour exhibited by many of these tumours. There is increasing evidence that diverse solid tumours are hierarchically organized and sustained by a distinct subpopulation of CSCs. Direct evidence for the CSC hypothesis has recently emerged from mouse models of epithelial tumorigenesis, although alternative models of heterogeneity also seem to apply. The clinical relevance of CSCs remains a fundamental issue but preliminary findings indicate that specific targeting may be possible ...
Mitochondrial metabolism in cancer stem cells: a therapeutic target for colon cancer - Colon cancer;Cancer stem cells;Peroxiredoxin 3;CD133;FOXM1;
A team of researchers has revealed that oestrogen can reduce the risk of breast cancer. Their work shows that oestrogen is capable of reducing the number of breast cancer stem cells, which may explain the lower aggression of the tumour and, as a consequence, the possibility of a better prognosis.
The cancer stem cell concept is evolving and causing great debate in the scientific and medical world. People are discussing these three most important questions: Do cancer stem cells (CSC) exist and is the concept valid? How can we identify
For prostate cancer (PrCa) tumor-initiating cells (PrTICs) enrichment, scientists induced cancer stem cell (CSC) properties in PrCa cells by transducing three defined factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, and KLF4), followed by culture with conventional serum-containing medium. The CSC properties in the transduced cells were evaluated by proliferation, cell cycle, side population assay, drug sensitivity technology, in vivo tumorigenicity, and molecular marker analysis of PrCSCs compared with parental cells and spheroids. [Tumor Biol ...
Gliomas remain one of the most challenging solid organ tumors to treat and are marked clinically by invariable recurrence despite multimodal intervention (surgery, chemotherapy, radiation). This recurrence perhaps, is as a consequence of the failure to eradicate a tumor cell subpopulation, termed cancer stem cells. Isolating, characterizing, and understanding these tumor-initiating cells through cellular and molecular markers, along with genetic and epigenetic understanding will allow for selective targeting through therapeutic agents and holds promise for decreasing glioma recurrence ...
The cancer stem cell theory proposes that there is a small but constant subpopulation of cancer cells with stem cell properties responsible for the self renewal capacity ..
An explanation of Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) and how they are used to predict cancer or tumour growth with Tumour-initiating cells and the cancer stochastic model
To see if a limited sampling of tumor tissue from human subjects is a feasible way to gather adequate tissue for cancer stem cell quantification.
In a study published in the December issue of Cancer Cell, the team showed that stem and progenitor cells are susceptible to a specific error during cell division that can result in severe chromosomal defects. This susceptibility may explain how a tumor-initiating cell, also known as a cancer stem cell, arises from a normal cell. It may also explain how a cancer stem cell acquires additional mutations that increase tumor malignancy ...
Lookup HS Codes for Taiwan xiv 71.02.10 Diamond, unsorted. Avalara LandedCosts helps determine your duty rates and other import taxes for Taiwan.
CD44 variant 9 を発現する癌幹細胞の誘導は、"chemoradioselection(=化学放射線療法による選別)"の有効性を減弱させ、進行頭頸部癌患者の予後を悪化させる可能性があ ...
Isolate cells anytime, whenever samples come in. Separate cells independently of flow sorting facilities. Large choice of cell surface markers for isolation.
Cancer is the 2nd leading cause of death in the industrialized world. One out of three people will be diagnosed with cancer in their lifetime. Despite advances in cancer treatment, 25 - 40 % of these will not survive five years depending on cancer type and where the patient lives.
Stanford researchers have identified the source of tumor cells associated with chronic leukemia. A drug that kills the cells would wipe out the disease efficiently. By Kristen Philipkoski.
Note: If you reading this, you must be interested in patents. I would appreciate input of this site and its effectivenss. Simply send me an email to the address below. Thanks for your interest and I hope you find this site interesting and useful. RDC ...
Women who suffer from morning sickness while pregnant may have a 30% lower risk of later developing breast cancer than women who remain nausea-free, research shows.. Scientists are not sure of the exact mechanisms responsible for pregnancy nausea, but suggest it may result from changing levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone, which may also protect against cancer. "Pregnancy is a time of drastic physiological changes, including rapid development and alterationg in the breast tissue," says lead study author, David Jaworowicz. "The rapidly changing anatomy of the breast makes it more susceptible to errors in DNA replication and or repair, which may translate into breast cancer.". The scientists compared the pregnancies of 1,001 women with primary breast cancer with those of 1,917 women without breast cancer. They found that as nausea symptoms worsened or if they persisted for longer, womens risk of developing breast cancer reduced. Jaworowicz says future studies will investigate the ...
Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are resistant to antiproliferative therapies, able to repopulate tumor bulk, and seed metastasis. NK cells are able to target stem cells as shown by their ability to reject allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells but not solid tissue grafts. Using multiple preclinical models, including NK coculture (autologous and allogeneic) with multiple human cancer cell lines and dissociated primary cancer specimens and NK transfer in NSG mice harboring orthotopic pancreatic cancer xenografts, we assessed CSC viability, CSC frequency, expression of death receptor ligands, and tumor burden. We demonstrate that activated NK cells are capable of preferentially killing CSCs identified by multiple CSC markers (CD24+/CD44+, CD133+, and aldehyde dehydrogenasebright) from a wide variety of human cancer cell lines in vitro and dissociated primary cancer specimens ex vivo. We observed comparable effector function of allogeneic and autologous NK ...
Hartmut Beug1,*. 1The Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr. Bohrgasse 7, A 1030 Vienna, Austria. *Correspondence: [email protected] DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2009.08.007. During metastasis, migrating breast cancer stem cells undergo a loss of polarity leading to an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Gupta et al. (2009) use this attribute of cancer stem cells to develop a high-throughput screen, which successfully identifies small molecules that specifically inhibit cancer stem cell proliferation through the induction of differentiation.. Although tumor metastases are the cause of death in more than 80% of human cancer patients, the molecular mechanisms underpinning metastasis are still poorly understood. However, one theme that has emerged from recent work is that metastasis involves defects in the molecularmachines responsible for epithelial polarity and hence for the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) (Kalluri and Weinberg, 2009). Epithelial cell polarity is established by multiple ...
Cancer stem cells (CSC) play an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis and prognosis. The study aimed at examining the expression of CD24, CD44, and CD133 in human PDAC and CP in order to evaluate its clinicopathological correlations and the clinical significance. Surgical specimens from 23 patients with PDAC and 15 patients with chronic pancreatitis after pancreatic resection were stained with CD24, CD44, and CD133 antibodies. The intensity of staining was scored from 0 (negative) to 3 (strongly positive). Results. Mean CD24 staining score in PDAC was 1.38 ± 0.76 and was significantly higher than that in CP: 0.70 ± 0.53 (p | 0.01); CD44 score in PDAC was 2.23 ± 0.42 and was significantly higher than that in CP: 1.87 ± 0.55 (p | 0.05); CD133 score 0.93 ± 0.58 was not different from CP: 0.71 ± 0.43 (p | 0.05). CD44 immunoreactivity was significantly higher (p | 0.05) in pT1 and pT2 patients together as regards pT3: 2.45 ± 0.37 versus 2.06 ± 0.38 as well as in N0 patients compared to N1
Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center researchers have again proven that injecting multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into tumors and heating them with a quick, 30-second laser treatment can kill them.
MYC deregulation is common in human cancer and has a role in sustaining the aggressive cancer stem cell populations. MYC mediates a broad transcriptional response controlling normal biological programmes, but its activity is not clearly understood. We address MYC function in cancer stem cells through the inducible expression of Omomyc-a MYC-derived polypeptide interfering with MYC activity-taking as model the most lethal brain tumour, glioblastoma. Omomyc bridles the key cancer stemlike cell features and affects the tumour microenvironment, inhibiting angiogenesis. This occurs because Omomyc interferes with proper MYC localization and itself associates with the genome, with a preference for sites occupied by MYC This is accompanied by selective repression of master transcription factors for glioblastoma stemlike cell identity such as OLIG2, POU3F2, SOX2, upregulation of effectors of tumour suppression and differentiation such as ID4, MIAT, PTEN, and modulation of the expression of microRNAs that target
Current dogma favors elimination of therapy-resistant cancer stem cells for chemoprevention of breast cancer. We showed recently that mammary cancer development in a transgenic mouse model (mouse mammary tumor virus-neu; MMTV-neu) was inhibited significantly upon treatment with withaferin A (WA), a steroidal lactone derived from a medicinal plant. Herein, we demonstrate that the mammary cancer prevention by WA is accompanied by in vivo suppression of breast cancer stem cells (bCSC). In vitro mammosphere formation was dose-dependently inhibited by WA treatment in MCF-7 and SUM159 human breast cancer cells. Other markers of bCSC, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity and CD44high/CD24low/epithelial-specific antigen-positive (ESA+) fraction, were also decreased significantly in the presence of plasma achievable doses of WA. However, WA exposure resulted in cell line-specific changes in Oct4, SOX-2, and Nanog mRNA expression. WA administration to MMTV-neu mice (0.1 mg/mouse, 3 ...
In breast cancer it has been proposed that the presence of cancer stem cells may drive tumor initiation, progression and recurrences. IL-8, up-regulated in breast cancer, and associated with poor prognosis, increases CSC self-renewal in cell line models. It signals via two cell surface receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2. Recently, the IL-8/CXCR1 axis was proposed as an attractive pathway for the design of specific therapies against breast cancer stem cells. Reparixin, a powerful CXCR1 inhibitor, was effective in reducing in vivo the tumour-initiating population in several NOD/SCID mice breast cancer models, showing that the selective targeting of CXCR1 and the combination of reparixin and docetaxel resulted in a concomitant reduction of the bulk tumour mass and CSC population ...
Figure 2. E2 increased the infiltration of human neutrophils via TGFβ1 in MCF-7 mammospheres. A, MCF-7 cells were cultured in monolayer or as mammospheres. Western blot was performed for detection of ERα expression; lane 1 represents cells from monolayer culture and lane 2 cells from mammosphere culture. Mammosphere size increased in the presence of E2 (n = 12 in each group). M, molecular weight marker; ****, P , 0.0001. B, Freshly isolated human neutrophils at 1 × 105 were added to MCF-7 mammospheres and treated for 5 days with E2 and the antiestrogen fulvestrant (Fulv). Infiltrated neutrophils were counted (n = 5 in each group); *, P , 0.05 compared with control; ++, P , 0.01 compared with E2. Scale bar, 200 μm. C, Orthogonal projection of MCF-7 mammosphere in E2 treatment showing the localization of neutrophils within the mammospheres. Scale bar, 200 μm. D, Culture medium from neutrophil-infiltrated MCF-7 mammospheres treated ± E2 and fulvestrant (Fulv) for 5 days was analyzed for ...
During pregnancy, certain hormones trigger specialized mammary stem cells to create milk-producing cells essential to lactation. Scientists at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center have found that mammary stem cells associated with the pregnant mammary gland are related to stem cells found in breast cancer.
...Many breast cancer patients are treated with a drug called tamoxifen. ... Resistances to drugs are the main reason why therapies fail and disea...By treating breast cancer cells in vitro with regular doses of tamoxif...If microRNA 375 levels are low breast cancer cells increase the produ...,MicroRNA,controls,malignancy,and,resistance,of,breast,cancer,cells,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
New breast cancer stem cell clues may help develop therapeutics Researchers have identified a new regulatory pathway that may play an important role in basal-like breast cancer, a particularly aggressive form of breast cancer often referred to as triple negative. This pathway may serve as a target for the development of an effective therapeutic. ...
Visvader: It is important to note that the cell of origin, the normal cell that acquires the first cancer-promoting mutation(s), is not necessarily related to the cancer stem cell (CSC), the cellular subset within the tumour that uniquely sustains malignant growth. That is, the cell-of-origin and CSC concepts refer to cancer-initiating cells and cancer-propagating cells, respectively. Although the tumourinitiating cell and the CSC have been used interchangeably, the tumour-initiating cell more aptly denotes the cell of origin. There is considerable evidence that several diverse cancers, both leukaemias and solid tumours, are hierarchically organized and sustained by a subpopulation of self-renewing cells that can generate the full repertoire of tumour cells (both tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells). The cell of origin, the nature of the mutations acquired, and/ or the differentiation potential of the cancer cells are likely to determine whether a cancer follows a CSC model. In most instances, ...
Two fundamental issues regarding colorectal carcinogenesis remain unanswered. First, the level of differentiation in the initiating neoplastic cell has not been well described i.e. colonic stem cell vs. differentiated mature colonic mucosal epithelial cell. Second, since tumors are well known to be composed of a heterogeneous group of cells, the specific identity of tumor cells that lead to lymph-node involvement, and metastatic disease is not well characterized.20 Recently, attempts to address both of these issues pragmatically, which are critical to our understanding of tumor biology, have resulted in the description of cancer stem cells. While the stochastic model of tumorigenesis holds that every cell within the tumor population is capable of tumor initiation and propagation, the cancer stem cell model proposes that only a small fraction of cells possesses the ability to initiate cancer growth and promote metastatic dissemination20.. There are various methods of CSC identification in vitro; ...
Researchers carried out genetic sequencing of the colon cancer stem cells and performed functional studies using both mouse models and 3D cell cultures from patient-derived cancer cells. Their research revealed that cancer stem cell survival is controlled by a specific feature of the Hedgehog signaling pathway..
Since the discovery of a stem cell phenotype in cancer, specific tumour cells with this phenotype, often called cancer stem cells (CSCs), are now widely accepted as the progenitors of oncogenesis, proliferation, treatment resistance and metastasis. For this reason a lot of research is focused on the characterisation of these cells and their exact roles in the stages of cancer ...
CD24, also known as heat-stable antigen (HSA) or nectadorin, is a small mucin-like GPI-anchored extracellular membrane glycoprotein expressed on several cell types, including B cells. When B cells are activated and induced to further maturation, however, CD24 begins to disappear. CD24 seems to act as a gate-keeper for lipid rafts, thereby regulating the activity of integrins and other proteins such as the chemokine receptor CXCR4; it is also a ligand for P-selectin. CD24 triggering induces apoptosis of B cell precursors but not in mature resting B cells, where it instead inhibits their ability to proliferate in response to activation. CD24 expression is associated with invasiveness and poorer prognosis of carcinomas and is a marker of exosomes secreted into urine and amniotic fluid ...
When brain cancer stem cells were first discovered, we all realized rapidly that we would need to find drugs that attack these cells specifically, because theyre resistant to our conventional therapies," Kornblum said. "We needed a way to kill these stem cells.". UCLAs high-throughput screening technology is capable of screening as many as 100,000 compounds in a single day. Researchers generally develop cancer cells lines and then create an assay, a procedure in molecular biology to test or measure the activity of a drug or biochemical compound in an organic sample, in this case the cancer cells.. The cells are loaded into plates with 384 wells each and the drugs are added. The plates are about the size of the palm of an adult hand. The computerized, robotic screening system executes the process from start to finish, adding the compounds sitting in the tiny wells in the plates to the cancer cells, located in corresponding assay plates.. In this study, Kornblum and his team had a few clues to ...
Washington, Dec 22 (ANI): Stem cells - commonly known as a source of biological rejuvenation might be responsible for the growth and spread of cancer, for scientists have located cancer stem cells amongst the wildly dividing cells of a
Discovered: Caffeine helps Parkinson's sufferers; cancer stem cells drive tumor growth; the features of super intelligent brains; some Peruvians have developed rabies resistance.
Johns Hopkins scientist Charles Eberhart discusses recent research on blocking pathways that contribute to brain cancer stem cell growth. Credit: JHU. ...
The fully differentiated cells of the rat mammary parenchyma, the ductal epithelial, alveolar, and myoepithelial cells, are distinguished by their ultrastructure and by their accumulation of immunocytochemically detectable marker proteins. The differ
Inhibitory effect of DC120 on cancer stem-like SP cells(A) Freshly sorted SP and NSP cells of CNE-2-S-18 and CNE-1 cells were treated with increasing concentrat
Traditionally, cancer was thought to be caused by changes in DNA sequence, or mutations, that allowed for uncontrolled cell growth. Thats still true. However, theres also increasing interest in the role played by epigenetics, in which such factors as diet, environmental toxins, and lifestyle affect the expression of genes -- not just in cancer, but also cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and neurological disorders ...
In the first study of its kind, Rice University researchers have mapped how information flows through the genetic circuits that cause cancer cells to become metastatic. The research reveals a common pattern in the decision-making ...
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One contributing factor to the increased ability of more stable antigens to elicit immune responses is that the restricted susceptibility to lysosomal proteolysis favored the production of peptide-MHC class II complexes by DCs, at least in vitro (Fig. 2 E and Fig. 4 D). In addition, and just as important in an in vivo setting, we found that the increased stability to lysosomal proteolysis also favored the retention of antigens captured by DCs to lymphoid organs. 16 h after a single intradermal injection, the stable forms of RNase (Alexa 488-RNase-A) could be detected in CD11c+ DCs in the draining lymph nodes (Fig. 1 D). In contrast, the rapidly degraded form (Alexa 647-RNase-S) was barely detectable under the same conditions (Fig. 1 D). Combined with the fact that differential immunogenicity was observed by adoptively transferring DCs containing either RNase-A or RNase-S (Fig. 2 D), these results strongly suggest that at least one effect of decreased susceptibility to proteolysis is to ...
The FOXA family of transcription factors regulates chromatin structure and gene expression especially during embryonic development. In normal breast tissue FOXA1 acts throughout mammary development; whereas in breast carcinoma its expression promotes luminal phenotype and correlates with good prognosis. However, the role of FOXA2 has not been previously studied in breast cancer. Our purpose was to analyze the expression of FOXA2 in breast cancer cells, to explore its role in breast cancer stem cells, and to correlate its mRNA expression with clinicopathological features and outcome in a series of patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma. We analyzed FOXA2 mRNA expression in a retrospective cohort of 230 breast cancer patients and in cell lines. We also knocked down FOXA2 mRNA expression by siRNA to determine the impact on cell proliferation and mammospheres formation using a cancer stem cells culture assay. In vitro studies demonstrated higher FOXA2 mRNA expression in Triple-Negative/Basal-like ...
0041] As used herein, the terms "treat", "treatment", and "treating" in the context of the administration of a therapy to a subject refer to the reduction or inhibition of the progression and/or duration of cancer, the reduction or amelioration of the severity of cancer, and/or the amelioration of one or more symptoms thereof resulting from the administration of one or more therapies. In a specific embodiment, a patient that is at a high risk for developing cancer is treated, i.e., a patient that has been diagnosed with a AurKa or Limk1 positive precancerous lesion. In specific embodiments, such terms refer to one, two, or three or more results following the administration of one, two, three or more therapies: (1) a stabilization, reduction or elimination of the cancer stem cell population; (2) a stabilization, reduction or elimination in the cancer cell population; (3) a stabilization or reduction in the growth of a tumor or neoplasm; (4) an impairment in the formation of a tumor; (5) ...
The authors of the study, from Stanford University and the University of Michigan, said theyre already working to make the findings available to doctors and their patients. The findings are published in the Jan. 18 issue of theNew England Journal of Medicine.. A small number of cells within breast cancer are believed to be the ones that actually cause the cancer to grow. These cancer stem cells were first identified in 2003.. The authors of the new study compared the gene expression profile of breast cancer stem cells with that of normal breast cells. From that data, the researchers culled a list of 186 genes that comprised an invasiveness gene signature. This signature was then evaluated to see how it related to overall survival as well as metastasis-free (no cancer spread) survival in patients.. As it turned out, there was a strong correlation between the gene signature and both overall and metastasis-free survival, the researchers said.. The gene signature was then combined with ...
Targeting MUC1-C with silencing or an inhibitor downregulates p-HER2 activation in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Moreover, MUC1-C has been linked to regulation of downstream RTK signaling, such as the PI3K→AKT and MEK→ERK pathways. MUC1-C is also imported into the nucleus by importin-β, where it interacts with transcription factors and contributes to their transactivating function. In this regard, MUC1-C associates with NF-κB p65 and induces activation of the ZEB1 gene by a NF-κB-mediated mechanism. In turn, MUC1-C binds to ZEB1 and suppresses miR-200c expression with the resulting induction of EMT. In addition, MUC1-C interacts with the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) on the ALDH1A1 gene promoter and induces C/EBPβ-mediated ALDH1A1 expression. The available evidence thus links MUC1-C to the induction of EMT and ALDH activity, both characteristics of breast cancer stem-like cell populations. Overexpression of MUC1, as found in breast cancer cells, is also ...
CD24, also known as heat-stable antigen (HSA) in mice, is a small heavily glycosylated cell-surface protein that is linked to the membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI-) anchor (Pierres et al., 1987; Kay et al., 1990; Alterman et al., 1990). Mouse CD24 has a protein core of 27 amino acids with seven potential glycosylation sites, whereas human CD24 consists of 31 amino acids with 16 potential O- and N-glycosylation sites. Owing to this extensive glycosylation, CD24 has mucin-like characteristics (reviewed by Kristiansen et al., 2004b).. CD24 is expressed in mouse hematopoietic cell subpopulations including B lymphocytes, the majority of thymocytes, erythrocytes and neutrophils. Because of its lineage-specific and developmentally regulated expression, CD24 was traditionally used as a differentiation marker for B- and T-cell ontogeny (Poncet et al., 1996; Egerton et al., 1990; Lu et al., 1998). Later studies revealed that CD24 is not exclusively expressed by hematopoietic cells but is ...
Ovarian cancer, the leading cause of gynaecologic cancer deaths in the western world is characterised by high rates of chemoresistant recurrence. While in primary cases, differentiation status of the tumour is considered a primary prognostic indicator, in recurrent disease this is no longer the case. Recurrent disease could be explained by the cancer stem cell theory. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a minority population of cancer cells with stem like properties including enhanced proliferation. CSCs are considered a potential source of recurrent disease ...
Adult stem cells are found in numerous tissues of the body and play a role in tissue development, replacement and repair. Evidence shows that breast stem cells are multipotent and can self renew, which are key characteristics of stem cells, and a single cell enriched with cell surface markers has the ability to grow a fully functional mammary gland in vivo. Many groups have extrapolated the cancer stem cell hypothesis from the haematopoietic system to solid cancers, where using in vitro culture techniques and in vivo transplant models have established evidence of cancer stem cells in colon, pancreas, prostate, brain and breast cancers. In the report we describe the evidence for breast cancer stem cells; studies consistently show that stem cell like and breast cancer initiating populations can be enriched using cell surface makers CD44+/CD24- and have upregulated genes which include Notch. Notch signalling has been highlighted as a pathway involved in the development of the breast and is frequently
There is increasing evidence for the involvement of miRNAs in mammalian biology and breast cancer. For instance, the levels of MiR-206 have been found to be higher in ERalpha-negative MB-MDA-231 cells than in ERalpha-positive MCF-7 cells [12], and enforced expression of miR-125a or miR-125b leads to coordinate suppression of ERBB2 and ERBB3 in the human breast cancer cell line SKBR3 [13]. Furthermore, MiR-27b, which is expressed in MCF-7 cells, may be one of the causes of high expression of the drug-metabolising enzyme CYP1B1 in cancerous tissues [14]. Finally, as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer cells, miR-17-5p regulates breast cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting the translation of AIB1 mRNA [15].. Research on the roles of BCSC-related miRNAs in breast cancer has great significance. Ponti [16] isolated tumorigenic breast cancer cells with stem/progenitor cell properties from a breast cancer cell line, and Huang [17] screened side population (SP) cells from a breast cancer cell line. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complex oncogenic signaling networks regulate brain tumor-initiating cells and their progenies. T2 - Pivotal roles of wild-type EGFR, EGFRvIII mutant and hedgehog cascades and novel multitargeted therapies. AU - Mimeault, Murielle. AU - Batra, Surinder Kumar. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - Complex signaling cross-talks between different growth factor cascades orchestrate the primary brain cancer development. Among the frequent deregulated oncogenic pathways, the ligand-activated wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), constitutively activated EGFRvIII mutant and sonic hedgehog pathways have attracted much attention because of their pivotal roles in pediatric medulloblastomas and adult glioblastoma multiformes (GBM) brain tumors. The enhanced expression levels and activation of EGFR, EGFRvIII mutant and hedgehog signaling elements can provide key roles for the sustained growth, migration and local invasion of brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) and their progenies, ...
An inverse association between dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables and cancer risk has been established for different types of malignancies, including breast cancer. The anticarcinogenic effect of cruciferous vegetables has been attributed to chemicals with an isothiocyanate (ITC) functional moiety. Research over the past three decades has provided extensive preclinical evidence for the efficacy of various ITCs against cancer in preclinical models. Benzyl Isothiocyanate (BITC) is one such compound with the ability to inhibit chemically-induced cancer, oncogenic-driven tumor formation, and human tumor xenografts in rodent cancer models. Prior work also has established that BITC has the ability to influence carcinogen metabolism and signaling pathways relevant to tumor progression and invasion. In this issue, Kim et al. show that BITC inhibits breast cancer stem cell growth, both in vitro and in vivo, in association with suppression of the full-length receptor tyrosine kinase RON as well as ...

The small cell lung cancer antigen cluster-4 and the leukocyte antigen CD24 are allelic isoforms of the same gene (CD24) on...The small cell lung cancer antigen cluster-4 and the leukocyte antigen CD24 are allelic isoforms of the same gene (CD24) on...

The only difference in the coding sequence, between cluster-4 and CD24 antigens is the substitution of a single base pair ... Here we demonstrate that the nucleotide substitution which distinguishes the cluster-4 and CD24 antigen genes is due to an ... we identified by Southern blotting and PCR of DNA from somatic human x hamster hybrid cell lines homologues of cluster-4/CD24 ... it is noteworthy that homozygosity for cluster-4 was found in only one case whereas heterozygosity and homozygosity for CD24 ...
more infohttps://www.rdm.ox.ac.uk/publications/102775

DI-fusion The heat stable antigen (CD24) is not required for the...DI-fusion The heat stable antigen (CD24) is not required for the...

The heat stable antigen (CD24) is not required for the generation of CD4+ effector and memory T cells by dendritic cells in ... The heat stable antigen (CD24) is not required for the generation of CD4+ effector and memory T cells by dendritic cells in ... CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells control T helper cell type 1 responses to foreign antigens induced by mature dendritic cells in ...
more infohttp://difusion.ulb.ac.be/vufind/Record/ULB-DIPOT:oai:dipot.ulb.ac.be:2013/51633/Details

B-cell maturation in chimaeric mice deficient for the heat stable antigen (HSA/mouse CD24).  - Zurich Open Repository and...B-cell maturation in chimaeric mice deficient for the heat stable antigen (HSA/mouse CD24). - Zurich Open Repository and...

B-cell maturation in chimaeric mice deficient for the heat stable antigen (HSA/mouse CD24). ... B-cell maturation in chimaeric mice deficient for the heat stable antigen (HSA/mouse CD24). Transgenic Research, 4(3):173-183. ... The murine differentiation marker heat stable antigen (HSA) is a GPI-anchored surface glycoprotein showing strong expression on ... The murine differentiation marker heat stable antigen (HSA) is a GPI-anchored surface glycoprotein showing strong expression on ...
more infohttp://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/1257/

Cytotoxicity of natural extract from Tegillarca granosa on ovarian cancer cells is mediated by multiple molecules.Cytotoxicity of natural extract from Tegillarca granosa on ovarian cancer cells is mediated by multiple molecules.

Antigens, CD24 / metabolism. Antigens, CD44 / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents / chemistry, pharmacology*, therapeutic use*. ... 0/Antigens, CD24; 0/Antigens, CD44; 0/Antineoplastic Agents; 0/Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0/Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 ... Apoptosis associated gene bcl-2 and caspase-3, tumor metastasis associated gene ?-catenin, but not E-cadherin, and CD24, but ... CD24, and CD44. RESULTS: Continuous exposure to HSS for 48 h produced cytotoxic effects on both cell lines in a concentration ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Cytotoxicity-natural-extract-from-Tegillarca/19796578.html

O-glycosylation pattern of CD24 from mouse brain.O-glycosylation pattern of CD24 from mouse brain.

Since CD24 comprises only a short protein core of approximately 30 amino acids and ... The cell adhesion molecule CD24 is a highly glycosylated glycoprotein that plays important roles in the central nervous system ... Antigens, CD24 / immunology, metabolism*. Antigens, CD57 / immunology. Brain*. Carbohydrate Sequence. Epitopes / immunology. ... 0/Antigens, CD24; 0/Antigens, CD57; 0/Epitopes; 0/Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1; 0/Polysaccharides; 0/Sugar Alcohols; 31103- ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/O-glycosylation-pattern-CD24-from/19284289.html

KEGG BRITE: CD Molecules - Homo sapiens (human)KEGG BRITE: CD Molecules - Homo sapiens (human)

CD22 antigen K06468 FCER2; low affinity immunoglobulin epsilon Fc receptor K06469 CD24; CD24 antigen K05068 IL2RA; interleukin ... CD79A antigen K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen K05412 CD80; CD80 antigen K06508 CD81; CD81 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K06510 ... CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06721 CLEC10A; C-type lectin ... CD96 antigen K08446 ADGRE5; CD97 antigen K06519 SLC3A2; solute carrier family 3, member 2 K06520 CD99; CD99 antigen K06521 ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?hsa04090+4486

A microarray study of MPP+-treated PC12 Cells: Mechanisms of toxicity (MOT) analysis using bioinformatics tools | BMC...A microarray study of MPP+-treated PC12 Cells: Mechanisms of toxicity (MOT) analysis using bioinformatics tools | BMC...

CD24 antigen. -3.80. Table 2 Genes associated with DNA and protein damage ... Paunesku T, Mittal S, Protic M, Oryhon J, Korolev SV, Joachimiak A, Woloschak GE: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): ... However, leukotriene B4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase which also plays a role in antioxidative function [55], CD24 involved in ... Tissue Antigens 2000, 55(3):206-211. 10.1034/j.1399-0039.2000.550303.xView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ...
more infohttps://bmcbioinformatics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2105-6-S2-S8

CD24 expression by pleural effusion cells as detected b | Open-iCD24 expression by pleural effusion cells as detected b | Open-i

CD24 expression by pleural effusion cells as detected by antibodies SWA11 and ML5. Cells isolated from pleural effusions were ... In these experiments, cells were sometimes gated for epithelial specific antigen-positive (ESA+) cells, and there was a ... Using the same CD24 antibody used by Al Hajj and colleagues [12] (ML5) and the same CD44 antibody, we found that only some ... Using the same CD24 antibody used by Al Hajj and colleagues [12] (ML5) and the same CD44 antibody, we found that only some ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2481500_bcr2106-2&req=4

CD24P2 Gene - GeneCards | CD24P2 PseudogeneCD24P2 Gene - GeneCards | CD24P2 Pseudogene

CD24 Molecule Pseudogene 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... CD24 Molecule-Like 2 2 3 * CD24 Antigen-Like 2 2 3 ... Design optimal peptide antigens. *CloneReady with Over 120,000 ... Mapping of CD24 and homologous sequences to multiple chromosomal loci. (PMID: 7959762) Hough MR … Humphries RK (Genomics 1994) ... No data available for Gene Families , Protein Domains , Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CD24P2 ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CD24P2

Plus itPlus it

CD24 antigen (CD24) (1:100; Santa Cruz Biotechnology), polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) (1:100; AbCys, ... c, Red signals indicate HUC/D. d, Red signals indicate CD24. b, Arrow points at a GFAP-positive cell. c, Arrow points at an HUC ... 7c, arrowhead) and CD24 (Fig. 7d), which is present in ependymal cells and type A neuroblasts (Calaora et al., 1996). ... Chuang W, Lagenaur CF (1990) Central nervous system antigen P84 can serve as a substrate for neurite outgrowth. Dev Biol 137: ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/24/26/5982

ALDH activity and expression in L3.6pl pancreatic cance | Open-iALDH activity and expression in L3.6pl pancreatic cance | Open-i

ALDH(high)/CD44(+)/CD24(+) or ALDH(low)/CD44(+)/CD24(+) phenotypes do not appear to significantly contribute to tumor formation ... Antigens, CD/metabolism*. *Glycoproteins/metabolism*. *Isoenzymes/metabolism*. *Neoplastic Stem Cells/enzymology*/pathology* ... ALDH(high)/CD44(+)/CD24(+) or ALDH(low)/CD44(+)/CD24(+) phenotypes do not appear to significantly contribute to tumor formation ... cell populations were further examined for co-expression of CD44 and/or CD24. We demonstrate that unlike cell populations ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3113804_pone.0020636.g001&req=4

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

CD24 - Cluster of differentiation antigen 24 Current Synonym true false 54990010 Lymphocyte antigen CD24 Current Synonym true ... Cluster of differentiation antigen 24 Current Synonym true false 1228019013 ... Lymphocyte antigen CD24 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD24 (substance). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=32943000

Gastrointestinal Tract - Pancreas Development - EmbryologyGastrointestinal Tract - Pancreas Development - Embryology

CD24 - Cluster of differentiation 24 or heat stable antigen CD24 (HSA) a protein encoded in humans by the CD24 gene. CD24 is a ...
more infohttps://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Gastrointestinal_Tract_-_Pancreas_Development

CD24 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - LatvijaCD24 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Latvija

The CD24 antibody can be used, for example, to differentiate CD44+ CD24- breast cancer stem cells from CD24+ expressing cells ... CD24 has been identified to be a negative marker for breast cancer stem cells and a positive marker for ovarian or pancreatic ... The human CD24 antigen is also known as heat-stable antigen (HSA). ... The human CD24 antigen is also known as heat-stable antigen (HSA). CD24 has been identified to be a negative marker for breast ...
more infohttps://www.miltenyibiotec.com/LV-en/products/macs-flow-cytometry/antibodies/primary-antibodies/cd24-antibodies-human-32d12-1-11.html

CD24 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi BiotecCD24 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec

The CD24 antibody can be used, for example, to differentiate CD44+ CD24- breast cancer stem cells from CD24+ expressing cells ... CD24 has been identified to be a negative marker for breast cancer stem cells and a positive marker for ovarian or pancreatic ... The human CD24 antigen is also known as heat-stable antigen (HSA). ... The human CD24 antigen is also known as heat-stable antigen (HSA). CD24 has been identified to be a negative marker for breast ...
more infohttps://www.miltenyibiotec.com/UN-en/products/macs-flow-cytometry/antibodies/primary-antibodies/cd24-antibodies-human-32d12.html

Characterization and functional analysis of a slow cycling stem cell-like subpopulation in pancreas adenocarcinoma |...Characterization and functional analysis of a slow cycling stem cell-like subpopulation in pancreas adenocarcinoma |...

In particular cells that are either positive for the surface antigens CD24 and CD44, CD133 or display ALDH activity have been ... Results show no correlation of DiI intensity to CD24 expression in DiI+/SCC, but rather an overlap of the CD24−/CD44+ and CD24+ ... Interestingly, although all cells are CD44+, only a fraction of the DiI+/SCC are CD24+, while others remain CD24−.. Open image ... Additionally, the DiI+/SCC population was segregated to CD24−/CD44+ (P8) and CD24+/CD44+ (P10) subpopulations and the location ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10585-009-9260-0

Anti-CD24 Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody | VWRAnti-CD24 Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody | VWR

Learn more about Anti-CD24 Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process ... Antigen: CD24. Clonality: Polyclonal. Clone: Conjugation: Epitope: Host: Rabbit. Isotype: Reactivity: Human. ...
more infohttps://us.vwr.com/store/product/16650289/anti-cd24-rabbit-polyclonal-antibody

WikiGenes - MNX1 - motor neuron and pancreas homeobox 1WikiGenes - MNX1 - motor neuron and pancreas homeobox 1

Monoclonal antibodies VIB-E3, IB5 and HB9 to the leucocyte/epithelial antigen CD24 resemble BA-1 in recognizing sialic acid- ... Monoclonal antibodies VIB-E3, IB5 and HB9 to the leucocyte/epithelial antigen CD24 resemble BA-1 in recognizing sialic acid- ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/3110.html

CD24, a signal-transducing molecule expressed on human B cells, is a major surface antigen on small cell lung carcinomas. -...CD24, a signal-transducing molecule expressed on human B cells, is a major surface antigen on small cell lung carcinomas. -...

Furthermore, the cloned cluster-w4 antigen expressed on COS cells was shown to react with a comprehensive panel of CD24- ... We have cloned a complementary DNA encoding the cluster-w4 antigen from COS-1 fibroblasts transfected with a SW2 small cell ... antigen confirmed both the presence of the phosphatidylinositol tail and the extensive glycosylation reported for the CD24 ... Northern blot hybridization indicated the presence of several transcript sizes for the cluster-w4 antigen that were greatly ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/CD24-a-signal-transducing-molecule-expressed-on-hu-Jackson-Waibel/81f6fedc06f134ba0c231cc8dc6b395512f94a31

Use of serial analysis of gene expression to reveal the specific regulation of gene expression profile in asthmatic rats...Use of serial analysis of gene expression to reveal the specific regulation of gene expression profile in asthmatic rats...

CD24: CD24 antigen; Mgp: matrix Gla protein; Rpl31: ribosomal protein L31. Abbreviations of the four down-regulated genes: ... antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen, antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen, ... CD24, referred to as heat-stable antigen, is an important co-stimulatory molecule in immunity [30]. Previous studies have ... Magnaldo T, Barrandon Y: CD24 (heat stable antigen, nectadrin), a novel keratinocyte differentiation marker, is preferentially ...
more infohttps://jbiomedsci.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1423-0127-16-46

Anti-CD24 antibody [ALB 9]| KO Validated | AbcamAnti-CD24 antibody [ALB 9]| KO Validated | Abcam

Knockout validated mouse monoclonal CD24 antibody [ALB 9] validated for IHC, ICC, Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Referenced in 3 ... then a heat mediated antigen retrieval step was performed using citrate buffer pH 6 (20 minutes). Samples were then incubated ... CD24 expression can also be observed in the cytoplasm.. ab31622 binds to the non-glycosylated GPI anchor of the protein core of ... Note=Polymorphisms in CD24 may act as a genetic modifier for susceptibility and progression of MS in some populations, perhaps ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/cd24-antibody-alb-9-ab31622.html

Anti-CD24 antibody (Biotin) [30-F1] | AbcamAnti-CD24 antibody (Biotin) [30-F1] | Abcam

Anti-CD24 antibody conjugated to Biotin [30-F1] validated for IP, Flow Cyt and tested in Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to the ... CD24 antigen (small cell lung carcinoma cluster 4 antigen) antibody. *CD24 antigen antibody ... Note=Polymorphisms in CD24 may act as a genetic modifier for susceptibility and progression of MS in some populations, perhaps ... Signaling could be triggered by the binding of a lectin-like ligand to the CD24 carbohydrates, and transduced by the release of ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/CD24-antibody-30-F1-Biotin-ab25215.html

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Lymphocyte positive for CD24 antigen (cell). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte positive for CD24 antigen (cell). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=117569002

IJMS  | Free Full-Text | Bispecific Antibodies as a Development Platform for New Concepts and Treatment Strategies | HTMLIJMS | Free Full-Text | Bispecific Antibodies as a Development Platform for New Concepts and Treatment Strategies | HTML

Bispecific antibodies that can simultaneously bind to cell surface antigens and payloads are a very ideal delivery system for ... targeting the tumor-associated antigen CD24 to form a fusion protein rG7S-MICA to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [65]. ... based molecules usually target tumor-associated antigens with one antigen binding site and target leukocyte antigens with ... Unlike the BiTEs, TandAb has two binding sites for one antigen and another two binding sites for the second antigen. TandAb ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/18/1/48/htm

OriGene -Protein Listing By Pathway/FamilyOriGene -Protein Listing By Pathway/Family

CD24. CD24 (untagged)-Human CD24 antigen (small cell lung carcinoma cluster 4 antigen), mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:75043 IMAGE: ...
more infohttp://www.origene.com/protein/listByPathways.aspx?p=0&Fk=F12
  • catenin, but not E-cadherin, and CD24, but not CD44, were involved in the effect of growth inhibition induced by HSS. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Several techniques have been proposed to isolate or enrich for tumorigenic breast cancer stem cells, including (a) culture of cells in non-adherent non-differentiating conditions to form mammospheres and (b) sorting of the cells by their surface phenotype (expression of CD24 and CD44). (nih.gov)
  • Expression of CD24 and CD44 on uncultured cells and mammospheres derived from the pleural effusions was documented. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of surface expression of CD24 and CD44 on uncultured cells from 21 of the samples showed that the cells from some samples separated into two populations, but some did not. (nih.gov)
  • Uncultured cells from a highly tumorigenic sample (PE14) were uniformly negative for surface expression of both CD24 and CD44. (nih.gov)
  • ALDH(high) and ALDH(low) cell populations were further examined for co-expression of CD44 and/or CD24. (nih.gov)
  • ALDH(high)/CD44(+)/CD24(+) or ALDH(low)/CD44(+)/CD24(+) phenotypes do not appear to significantly contribute to tumor formation at low numbers of inoculated tumor cells. (nih.gov)
  • The DiI+/SCC population, showed only a partial overlap with the CSC markers CD24 + /CD44 + , CD133 + and ALDH but they survived chemotherapeutic treatment, and were able to recreate the initial heterogeneous tumor cell population. (springer.com)
  • CD24 enhances DNA damage-induced apoptosis by modulating NF-κB signaling in CD44-expressing breast cancer cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • bCSC), characterized by expression of different markers [CD44 high /CD24 low /epithelial-specific antigen (ESA)+], aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) activity, and ability to form mammospheres under ultra-low attachment culture conditions, are suspected to evade conventional therapies leading to disease recurrence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mammosphere formation frequency and CD44 high /CD24 low /ESA+ and/or ALDH1+ populations in cultured MCF-7 (estrogen receptor-positive) and SUM159 (triple-negative) human breast cancer cells were decreased significantly in the presence of plasma achievable concentrations of BITC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In these experiments, cells were sometimes gated for epithelial specific antigen-positive (ESA+) cells, and there was a suggestion that the ESA+ subset of CD44+/CD24low/- cells were more tumorigenic. (nih.gov)
  • Cluster-4 and CD24 cDNA's have recently been cloned from the small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell line SW2 and from the erythroleukemia cell line K562, respectively. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The only difference in the coding sequence, between cluster-4 and CD24 antigens is the substitution of a single base pair leading to a substitution of Val by Ala near the putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchorage sites of the mature protein. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we demonstrate that the nucleotide substitution which distinguishes the cluster-4 and CD24 antigen genes is due to an allelic polymorphism on chromosome band 6q21. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In addition, we identified by Southern blotting and PCR of DNA from somatic human x hamster hybrid cell lines homologues of cluster-4/CD24 on the Y chromosome and chromosome 15. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, it is noteworthy that homozygosity for cluster-4 was found in only one case whereas heterozygosity and homozygosity for CD24 both contribute up to 50% of the samples examined. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cell lines derived from human small cell carcinoma of the lung express high levels of a surface polypeptide termed the cluster-w4 antigen, which was previously identified as a potential target for toxin-based immunotherapy of lung cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Northern blot hybridization indicated the presence of several transcript sizes for the cluster-w4 antigen that were greatly overexpressed in small cell carcinoma cell lines, compared with normal hemopoietic cells and CD24-positive cell lines. (semanticscholar.org)
  • ab31622 binds to the non-glycosylated GPI anchor of the protein core of the cluster w4/CD24. (abcam.com)
  • CD24 expression can also be observed in the cytoplasm. (abcam.com)
  • By comparison of P CK/AS and P AS/ASAC , the DAVID genes functional classification was found to be changed from "immune response" to "response to steroid hormone stimulus", and the GO term "antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen" disappeared in P AS/ASAC . (biomedcentral.com)
  • CD24 gene is found on chromosome 6 (6q21) An alignment of this gene's sequence finds genomic locations with similarity on chromosomes 1p36, 3p26, 15q21.3, 20q11.2 and Yq11.222. (wikipedia.org)
  • O-glycosylation pattern of CD24 from mouse brain. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Since CD24 comprises only a short protein core of approximately 30 amino acids and low conservation among species, it has been proposed that the functions of CD24 are mediated by its glycosylation pattern. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSION: HSS has a potential cytotoxic effect on human ovarian cancer cells, which was mediated by multiple signal molecules including bcl-2, caspase-3, beta-catenin, and CD24. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) for the CD15(-)/CD29(LO)/CD24(HI) profile reduced proliferative cell types in human embryonic stem cell differentiation. (mblwhoilibrary.org)