Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Patterns of A2A extracellular adenosine receptor expression in different functional subsets of human peripheral T cells. Flow cytometry studies with anti-A2A receptor monoclonal antibodies. (1/945)

Signaling through A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR) regulates T lymphocyte expansion and modulates T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated effector functions in vitro. To understand the role of A2ARs in the regulation of immune response, we investigated the expression levels of this receptor in different functional lymphocyte subsets. Monoclonal anti-A2AR antibody was used to develop a flow cytometric assay to quantify the expression A2ARs on lymphocytes. We report that detectable levels of expression of A2ARs are much higher among T cells than B cells. More CD4(+) than CD8(+) T cells express A2ARs, but activation of T cells increases A2AR expression, predominantly in CD8(+) T cells. No significant differences were found in the proportion of A2AR+ cells between CD8(low) and CD8(high) T cells or between TCR/CD3(low) and TCR/CD3(high) T cells. Studies of T helper cell subsets (TH1 and TH2) reveal that lymphokine-producing cells are much more likely to express A2ARs than are cells that do not produce lymphokines. These results suggest that A2ARs are variably expressed on T cell subsets and may regulate cytokine production in activated T lymphocytes.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical analysis of arterial wall cellular infiltration in Buerger's disease (endarteritis obliterans). (2/945)

PURPOSE: The diagnosis of Buerger's disease has depended on clinical symptoms and angiographic findings, whereas pathologic findings are considered to be of secondary importance. Arteries from patients with Buerger's tissue were analyzed histologically, including immunophenotyping of the infiltrating cells, to elucidate the nature of Buerger's disease as a vasculitis. METHODS: Thirty-three specimens from nine patients, in whom Buerger's disease was diagnosed on the basis of our clinical and angiographic criteria between 1980 and 1995 at Nagoya University Hospital, were studied. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin-embedded tissue with a labeled streptoavidin-biotin method. RESULTS: The general architecture of vessel walls was well preserved regardless of the stage of disease, and cell infiltration was observed mainly in the thrombus and the intima. Among infiltrating cells, CD3(+) T cells greatly outnumbered CD20(+) B cells. CD68(+) macrophages or S-100(+) dendritic cells were detected, especially in the intima during acute and subacute stages. All cases except one showed infiltration by the human leukocyte antigen-D region (HLA-DR) antigen-bearing macrophages and dendritic cells in the intima. Immunoglobulins G, A, and M (IgG, IgA, IgM) and complement factors 3d and 4c (C3d, C4c) were deposited along the internal elastic lamina. CONCLUSION: Buerger's disease is strictly an endarteritis that is introduced by T-cell mediated cellular immunity and by B-cell mediated humoral immunity associated with activation of macrophages or dendritic cells in the intima.  (+info)

Plasma cell development in synovial germinal centers in patients with rheumatoid and reactive arthritis. (3/945)

Plasma cells are found surrounding the inflammatory infiltrates of macrophages, T, and B cells in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid and reactive arthritis. This characteristic arrangement suggests that in the synovial tissue CD20+ B cells differentiate into plasma cells. To examine clonal relationships, we have used micromanipulation to separately isolate CD20+ B cells and plasma cells from single infiltrates. DNA was extracted, and from both populations the VH/VL gene repertoires was determined. The data show that in the inflamed synovial tissue activated B cells are clonally expanded. During proliferation in the network of follicular dendritic cells, V gene variants are generated by the hypermutation mechanism. Surprisingly, we do not find identical rearrangements between CD20+ B cells and plasma cells. Nevertheless, the finding of clonally related plasma cells within single infiltrates suggests that these cells underwent terminal differentiation in the synovial tissue. These results indicate that B cell differentiation in the synovial tissue is a dynamic process. Whereas CD20+ B cells may turnover rapidly, plasma cells may well be long lived and thus accumulate in the synovial tissue. The analysis of individual B cells recovered from synovial tissue opens a new way to determine the specificity of those cells that take part in the local immune reaction. This will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid or reactive arthritis.  (+info)

Histopathologic features and expression of Bcl-2 and p53 proteins in primary gastric lymphomas. (4/945)

The aim of this study is to present a histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of primary gastric lymphomas which were reclassified according to the concept of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). The resected specimens from 41 patients with primary gastric lymphoma were investigated retrospectively. Immunohistochemical study was done to analyze the immunophenotype and bcl-2 and p53 proteins expression. Twenty three of the cases had tumors mainly located in the antrum. Histologically, 12 were low grade and 20 were high grade B-cell lymphoma of MALT, 9 other B-cell nonHodgkin's lymphomas. Helicobacter pylori was identified in 72% of the cases. According to Musshoff's modification, most of the MALT lymphoma cases had stage I or II disease. There was significant difference between low and high grade cases, in respect to depth of invasion in gastric wall. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells in all MALT lymphomas expressed B-cell phenotype. Bcl-2 protein was found to be expressed in 59% and p53 protein expression was detected in 72% of cases. Among the B-cell lymphoma of MALT, bcl-2 positivity decreased and p53 positivity increased significantly as the histological grade advanced. So, an inverse correlation was observed between the expression of bcl-2 and p53. In conclusion, most primary gastric lymphomas are low or high grade B-cell MALT lymphomas and appear to arise in MALT acquired as a reaction to Helicobacter pylori infection. Expression of bcl-2 and p53 in gastric lymphomas may be associated with transformation from low-grade to high-grade disease.  (+info)

Therapy of B-cell lymphoma with anti-CD20 antibodies can result in the loss of CD20 antigen expression. (5/945)

Rituximab is a chimeric antibody with human gamma-1 and kappa constant regions and murine variable regions. It recognizes the CD20 antigen, a pan B-cell marker. Therapeutic trials in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) have shown significant efficacy with a primary response rate of 50%, and a secondary response rate of 44% after repeat treatments in prior responders. The selection for proliferating tumor cells that no longer express CD20 may compromise repeated treatment. We have identified a patient who developed a transformed NHL that lost CD20 protein expression after two courses of therapy with rituximab. In a pretreatment lymph node biopsy, 83% of B cells (as defined by CD19 and surface immunoglobulin) expressed surface CD20. A biopsy from the recurrent tumor after two courses of rituximab revealed a diffuse large cell NHL where 0% of B cells expressed CD20 with no evidence of bound rituximab. Cytoplasmic staining showed no CD20 protein. Sequencing of immunoglobulin heavy chain cDNA identified identical variable sequences in the initial and recurrent lymphomas, confirming the association between the two tumors. Literature and database review suggests that approximately 98% of diffuse large cell lymphomas express CD20, which suggests that these tumors rarely survive without CD20. This is the first identified case of loss of CD20 expression in a lymphoma that has relapsed after rituximab therapy, although several other cases have since been identified. Considering the significant number of patients treated with anti-CD20 antibodies, this may occur only rarely and is unlikely to preclude recurrent therapy with anti-CD20 antibodies in the majority of patients. However, because many patients have relapsed after anti-CD20 antibody therapy and have not been biopsied to identify clones with down-regulated CD20 antigen, we do not currently know the true frequency of this phenomenon. When possible, patients should undergo evaluation for CD20 expression before repeated courses of anti-CD20 therapy.  (+info)

Molecular analysis of single B cells from T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma shows the derivation of the tumor cells from mutating germinal center B cells and exemplifies means by which immunoglobulin genes are modified in germinal center B cells. (6/945)

T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma (TCRBCL) belongs to the group of diffuse large cell lymphomas (DLL). It is characterized by a small number of tumor B cells among a major population of nonmalignant polyclonal T cells. To identify the developmental stage of the tumor progenitor cells, we micromanipulated the putative neoplastic large CD20(+) cells from TCRBCLs and amplified and sequenced immunoglobulin (Ig) V gene rearrangements from individual cells. In six cases, clonal Ig heavy, as well as light chain, gene rearrangements were amplified from the isolated B cells. All six cases harbored somatically mutated V gene rearrangements with an average mutation frequency of 15.5% for heavy (VH) and 5.9% for light (VL) chains and intraclonal diversity based on somatic mutation. These findings identify germinal center (GC) B cells as the precursors of the transformed B cells in TCRBCL. The study also exemplifies various means how Ig gene rearrangements can be modified by GC B cells or their malignant counterparts in TCRBCL: In one case, the tumor precursor may have switched from kappa to lambda light chain expression after acquiring a crippling mutation within the initially functional kappa light chain gene. In another case, the tumor cells harbor two in-frame VH gene rearrangements, one of which was rendered nonfunctional by somatic mutation. Either the tumor cell precursor entered the GC with two potentially functional in-frame rearrangements or the second VHDHJH rearrangement occurred in the GC after the initial in-frame rearrangement was inactivated by somatic mutation. Finally, in each of the six cases, at least one cell contained two (or more) copies of a clonal Ig gene rearrangement with sequence variations between these copies. The presence of sequence variants for V region genes within single B cells has so far not been observed in any other normal or transformed B lymphocyte. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) points to a generalized polyploidy of the tumor cells.  (+info)

Distribution of lymphocytes and adhesion molecules in human cervix and vagina. (7/945)

Knowledge of the histological distribution of leucocytes and adhesion molecules in the human genital tract is scarce although local immunity in this region is important. Using immunohistochemical methods, we here describe the organization of CD3+, CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, CD19+ B cells, CD38+ plasma cells, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II+ antigen-presenting cells and CD14+ monocytes, as well as the expression of endothelial addressins in normal human ecto-cervical and vaginal mucosa. T cells were clustered in a distinct band beneath the epithelium and were also dispersed in the epithelium and the lamina propria, whereas CD38+ plasma cells were present only in the lamina propria. MHC class II+ cells were numerous in the lamina propria and in the epithelium, where they morphologically resembled dendritic cells. Lymphoid aggregates containing CD19+ and CD20+ B cells as well as CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells were also found in the cervix. The mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) was not expressed on the vascular endothelium in the cervical or vaginal mucosa. In contrast, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) and P-selectin were expressed in all tissue samples, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin were found in four of seven samples. We conclude that the distribution of leucocytes and adhesion molecules is very similar in the ecto-cervical and the vaginal mucosa and that the regulation of lymphocyte homing to the genital tract is different from that seen in the intestine. Our results also clearly suggest that the leucocytes are not randomly scattered in the tissue but organized in a distinct pattern.  (+info)

Characterization of scFv-Ig constructs generated from the anti-CD20 mAb 1F5 using linker peptides of varying lengths. (8/945)

The heavy (VH) and light (VL) chain variable regions of the murine anti-human CD20 mAb 1F5 were cloned, and four single-chain Ab (scFv) molecules were constructed using linker peptides of variable lengths to join the VH and VL domains. Three constructs were engineered using linker peptides of 15, 10, and 5 aa residues consisting of (GGGGS)3, (GGGGS)2, and (GGGGS)1 sequences, respectively, whereas the fourth was prepared by joining the VH and VL domains directly. Each construct was fused to a derivative of human IgG1 (hinge plus CH2 plus CH3) to facilitate purification using staphylococcal protein A. The aggregation and CD20 binding properties of these four 1F5 scFv-Ig derivatives produced were investigated. Both size-exclusion HPLC column analysis and Western blots of proteins subjected to nonreducing SDS-PAGE suggested that all four 1F5 scFv-Ig were monomeric with m.w. of approximately 55 kDa. The CD20 binding properties of the four 1F5 scFv-Ig were studied by ELISA and flow cytometry. The 1F5 scFv-Ig with the 5-aa linker (GS1) demonstrated significantly superior binding to CD20-expressing target cells, compared with the other scFv-Ig constructs. Scatchard analysis of the radiolabeled monovalent GS1 scFv-Ig revealed a binding avidity of 1.35 x 108 M-1 compared with an avidity of 7.56 x 108 M-1 for the native bivalent 1F5 Ab. These findings suggest that the GS1 scFv-Ig with a short linker peptide of approximately 5 aa is the best of the engineered constructs for future studies.  (+info)

The first study of veltuzumab given IV weekly in NHL patients (IM-T-hA20-01) has shown excellent tolerability and even efficacy at weekly intravenous doses as low as 80-120 mg/m2 over 4 consecutive weeks. These clinical results confirm experiments laboratory studies. Laboratory studies using Veltuzumab administered subcutaneously showed potent activity based on B-cell depletion. The current studys goal is to determine if a subcutaneous (SC) dosing schedule of veltuzumab can be established in patients with NHL or ...
通用名】 ARZERRA 【英文名】ARZERRA(ofatumumab)Injection 【中文名】奥法木单抗ARZERRA 【生产厂家】 葛兰素史克公司 【规 格 .... ...
The treatment regimen consists of 2 elements. The first element is represented by one courses of veltuzumab (4 weekly injections of 200 mg/m2). 90Y-epratuzumab will be given as 2 injections at escalating doses 1 week apart and administered starting one week following the 4th veltuzumab injection.. After confirming eligibility and undergoing baseline assessments, the treatment starts with an imaging study using 111In-epratuzumab (5-mCi 111In-DOTA-epratuzumab co-infused with a total of 1.5 mg/kg unlabeled epratuzumab). Blood samples (~7 samples, 5 mL each) for pharmacokinetic analysis will be collected over 5-7 days, and patients will be imaged on 4 separate occasions (e.g., the day of injection (Day 0), Day 1, Day 3, 4, or 5, and day 6 or 7).. The patient will then initiate veltuzumab treatments starting 7 days after the 111In-epratuzumab injection. Veltuzumab is given in 4 weekly doses, each 200 mg/m2. A single blood sample will be taken before each veltuzumab dose to assess residual veltuzumab ...
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Treatment with the chimerical monoclonal antibody rituximab results in CD20-directed B cell depletion. Although this depletion is almost complete in the peripheral blood of nearly all patients with...
Ofatumumab is a human monoclonal antibody for the CD20 protein. Ofatumumab binds specifically to both the small and large extracellular loops of the CD20 molecule. The CD20 molecule is expressed on normal B lymphocytes (pre-B- to mature B-lymphocyte) and on B-cell CLL. The Fab domain of ofatumumab binds to the CD20 molecule and the Fc domain mediates immune effector functions to result in B-cell lysis in vitro. Ofatumumab received FDA approval on April 17, 2014, for use in combination with chlorambucil, for the treatment of previously untreated patients with CLL for whom fludarabine-based therapy is considered inappropriate. Ofatumumab was also approved by Health Canada on August 13th, 2012.
After three months of Chemo, the Fludarabine/Mitoxantrone is really kicking his bone marrow but its not doing a whole lot to the cancerous lymphocytes, so the new plan is to add Rituxan. Rituxan is a monoclonal antibody which specifically targets mature B Lymphocytes (as opposed to ordinary chemo which kills a lot of "innocent bystander" cells.) This is good news, in my opinion - I was hoping they would try Rituxan soon. But of course, Rituxan has its own sticky wickets, and the first one comes up tomorrow when Dave gets his first dose of Rituxan ...
Patients with CD22(+) B-cell lymphomas will be treated with escalating doses as a 192 hr infusion of immunotoxin in a Phase I study to determine dose li
Monoclonal antibody therapy targeted therapy that can be used to treat colon cancer and other cancers. Find out about how it works and side effects.
The main purpose of this study is to examine how two separate groups of 17p deletion Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) participants respond to sequenti
The goal of this clinical research study is to learn if ofatumumab can help to control CLL/SLL that has not yet been treated. The safety of this drug will also be studied.
This month I had my first two infusions of Rituxan to treat my RRMS and I am wondering how long before I feel better? Should it be immediate - once the B cells are targeted/depleted? Or is there a delay ...
I know the side effects to look for while infusing Rituxan. My question is how does it effect the red count (H&H) after the infusion? Does it lower it as much as some other chemotherapy drugs or
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD45RB Antibody (BRA-11 (same as BRA-11G)) [DyLight 488]. B-Cell Marker. Validated: WB, ELISA, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Monkey (Negative). 100% Guaranteed.
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Rituximab Coupon- Get your Free Rituximab coupon & Discount Drug Card. Access thousands of free medicine coupons for instant savings.
maybe its important to test and treat active infections before one starts rituximab and knocks out part of the immune system. active infections would...
Ռիտուքսիմաբը հայտնաբերվել է գիտնական Նաբիլ Հաննայի և նրա աշխատակիցների կողմից IDEC դեղագործական կազմակերպությունում IDEC-C2B8 անվան տակ։ Դեղի արտոնագիրը տրամադրվել է 1998-ին և վերջացել 2015թ-ին[39]։ Կլինիկական հետազոտություններում իր արդյունավետության և անվտանգության շնորհիվ[40], ռիտուքսիմաբը 1997թ-ին հաստատվեց սննդի և դեղերի վերահսկման կազմակերպության կողմից B բջջային ոչ-Հոջկինյան լիմֆոմաների՝ այլ քիմիոթերապիաների նկատմամբ կայուն ձևերի բուժման համար[41]։ Ռիտուքսիմաբը CHOP սխեմայի հետ միասին ավելի արդյունավետ է, քան CHOP սխեման առանձին տարածուն մեծ B բջջային ...
This open-label, randomized study will compare the efficacy of GDC-0199 plus rituximab (GDC-0199+R) with bendamustine plus MabThera/Rituxan (Rituximab) (B+R) in patients with relapsed or resistant chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Patients will be randomized 1:1 into the two arms. Patients randomized to GDC-0199+R will be given GDC-0199 daily (oral, target dose 400 mg) and will receive 6 cycles of rituximab infused intravenously (IV) on Day 1 of each 28-day cycle (Cycle 1: 375 mg/m2; Cycles 2-6: 500 mg/m2).. Patients randomized to B+R will receive 6 cycles of treatment consisting of a rituximab infusion (Cycle 1: 375 mg/m2; Cycles 2-6: 500 mg/m2) on Day 1 and bendamustine infusions (70 mg/m2) on Days 1 and 2 of each 28-day cycle.. Patients in the GDC-0199+R arm will continue GDC-0199 treatment until disease progression or 2 years since treatment start, whichever comes first. Anticipated time on study is up to 5 years.. ...
Paediatric onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) is characterized by high inflammatory activity. No disease modifying treatment has been approved for POMS. The objective of this report was to report the use of rituximab, a B cell depleting monoclonal anti-CD20-antibody, in POMS. This is a retrospective case series at four specialized MS centres in Sweden. Participants were identified through the Swedish MS-registry and our own patient stocks. Data were collected through medical charts review. We identified 14 POMS patients treated with i.v. rituximab 500-1000 mg every 6th to 12th months. Median age at disease onset was 14.7 years, median age at rituximab treatment initiation was 16.5 years, and median treatment duration was 23.6 months. No relapses were reported, and the EDSS scores remained stable or decreased in 13 of 14 cases during rituximab treatment. Beyond 6 months from initiating rituximab treatment, only one new lesion was detected on MRI. No serious AEs were reported. The drug survival was ...
WALTHAM, Mass., Nov. 6 /PRNewswire/ -- Decision Resources, one of the worlds leading research and advisory firms focusing on pharmaceutical and healthcare issues, finds that surveyed U.S. rheumatologists anticipate using Bristol-Myers Squibbs Orencia and Biogen Idec/Genentech/ Chugai/Zenyaku Kogyos Rituxan, also marketed as Roches MabThera, more frequently in first- and second-line biologic therapy through 2010 for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. "Currently, surveyed rheumatologists prescribe Orencia in earlier lines of therapy than Rituxan - 78 percent of them most commonly prescribe Orencia as a third-line biologic, whereas 51 percent of them use Rituxan as a fourth-line biologic," stated Madhuri Borde, Ph.D., analyst at Decision Resources. "Surveyed rheumatologists contend that physician familiarity, concern about the long-term effects of B-cell depletion with Rituxan and preference for Orencias mechanism of action influences physicians to prescribe Orencia instead of ...
Conclusions: Ofatumumab (up to 700 mg) given 2 weeks apart was not associated with any unexpected safety concerns and was well tolerated in patients with RRMS. MRI data suggest a clinically meaningful effect of ofatumumab for all doses studied. Results warrant further exploration of ofatumumab in RRMS. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that in patients with RRMS, ofatumumab compared with placebo does not increase the number of serious adverse events and decreases the number of new MRI lesions. (Source: Neurology)
Monoclonal human IgG1 antibody against human CD20 Anti-hCD20-hIgG1 features the constant region of the human IgG1 isotype and the variable region of rituximab. Rituximab is a mouse/human chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets the CD20 antigen found on the surface of malignant and normal B lymphoc
Three patients enrolled in this study had non-follicular lymphoma histologies. One with small lymphocytic lymphoma achieved a complete response, currently ongoing now 72 weeks after treatment. The other 2 patients (one SLL, one MZL) entered with high levels of circulating B cells and failed to achieve an objective response. We have reported that in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the same subcutaneous doses and dosing schedule of veltuzumab used here also failed to achieve meaningful clinical benefit, but had evidence of pharmacological activity with transient decreases in the high levels of circulating leukemic B cells.32 For subcutaneous injections, more frequent or extended dosing or combination therapy with other agents will likely be required to overcome the higher antigen burden in these settings, consistent with the experience of other anti-CD20 antibodies which are given intravenously at much higher doses for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.21. Compared to ...
The decline in the numbers of inflammatory cells and adhesion molecules in synovial tissue after CD4+ cell depletion supports the view that CD4+ T cells orchestrate local cellular infiltration. The lack of clinical effect of anti-CD4 therapy might be explained by an insufficient decrease in the numb …
Significant peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell depletion has been observed after a first cycle of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen, which is currently used in rheumatoid arthritis. Of note, an absence of CD4+ T-cell decrease has been observed in non-responders. Herein, we describe CD4+ T-cell changes over repeated cycles of rituximab and their relationship with clinical outcomes.. METHODS ...
This study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of rituximab for the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis in patients with incomplete B cell depletion
Summary Phase III Pivotal Study of Ofatumumab in Refractory CLL Meets Primary Endpoint Genmab A S (OMX GEN) and GlaxoSmithKline announced today positive top-lin
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - updated results of a phase III trial finds that idelalisib combined with ofatumumab is safe and effective in relapsed patients
1 Answer - Posted in: rituxan, skin, infusion - Answer: I develop raised hives, used lotion, ice, 2 Benadryl, hydrocortisone cream.
This phase II trial studies how well acalabrutinib, lenalidomide, and rituximab work in treating patients with CD20 positive stage III-IV, grade 1-3a...
Rituximab Helps in Sjgrens Syndrome By Nancy Walsh, Contributing Writer, MedPage Today Published: April 06, 2010 Reviewed by Dori F. Zaleznik, MD;...
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In the clinic, BCDT can markedly ameliorate the course of autoimmune diseases in patients, but the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are poorly understood, as they are thought, in many cases, to operate irrespective of autoantibody levels. Here, we demonstrate that IL-6 production is the major mechanism of B cell-mediated pathogenesis during EAE, and we show that this inflammatory pathway is markedly increased in RR-MS patients. Autoantibody levels were unaffected by IL-6 production by B cells. This is the first demonstration of a nonantibody-mediated mechanism of B cell pathogenesis in EAE and MS. Remarkably, the elevated production of IL-6 by B cells from MS patients was effectively normalized by Rituximab treatment. In both patients and mice the reduced disease severity after B cell depletion was accompanied by a decrease in the autoreactive Th17 response, and so we believe that B cells are making an all-important contribution to the IL-6-dependent promotion of pathogenic Th17 ...
Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody frequently used for the treatment of non-Hodgkins lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. In addition, rituximab has recently been increasingly used as an off-label treatment in a number of inflammatory and systemic autoimmune diseases. It is advised that rituximab infusion may cause infusion reactions and adverse cardiac effects including arrhythmia and angina, especially in patients with prior history of cardiovascular diseases. However, its detailed cardiotoxicity profile and effects on cardiac function were not well described. We report a 51-year-old man who developed non-ischemic cardiomyopathy after rituximab treatment for membranous nephropathy. The patient experienced reduced cardiac functions within 48 hours after the initial infusion, which remained markedly reduced at 9-month follow-up. As the utility of rituximab expands, physicians must be
BACKGROUND: The clinical and immunological relevance of a positive B-cell flow-cytometry (B-FCXM) crossmatch in renal transplantation is still controversial. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 145 consecutive cadaveric renal transplantations performed from May 1991 to September 1995 in our institution. All grafts were transplanted following a negative IgG T-cell complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch (T-CDCXM). Concomitantly to CDCXM, B-cell and T-cell FCXM were performed and results were expressed as a mean fluorescence index (FI). Two groups were compared: 116 recipients grafted with a negative B-FCXM vs a group of 19 patients grafted with a positive B-FCXM. RESULTS: The two groups were similar for length of cold ischaemia, donor and recipients age and degree of HLA mismatching. The proportion of patients with pre-transplant anti-HLA class I antibodies or a retransplantation was significantly increased in the positive B-FCXM group vs the negative B-FCXM group. Recipient survival at 48 ...
What is the mechanism of action? Tositumomab and I131 tositumomab is a type of agent called a radioimmunotherapeutic. It is comprised of two different portions: a monoclonal antibody designed to recognize a specific target (tositumomab) and a radioactive isotope as a source of radiation (I131). The monoclonal antibody portion has been developed through laboratory processes to bind to B-cells which comprise the majority of cancerous cells in non-Hodgkins lymphoma. It is thought that this binding action stimulates the immune system to attack the cancer cells. In addition, the radioisotope that is attached to the monoclonal antibody emits radiation, killing the cancer cells in a second manner.. How is tositumomab given (administered)? Tositumomab and I131 tositumomab are administered into a vein (intravenous). The regimen is administered in two steps; the dosimetric step, in which the therapeutic dose is determined, and the therapeutic step, where the patient actually receives the dose for ...
The present study provides evidence demonstrating that chemoresistance and Fas resistance in B-NHL cell lines are commonly regulated by constitutive NF-κB activation. However, downstream of NF-κB, chemoresistance and Fas resistance are differentially regulated by Bcl-xL and YY1, respectively. Rituximab-mediated inhibition of NF-κB activity resulted in both the inhibition of Bcl-xL expression and chemosensitization and the inhibition of the transcription repressor YY1 and sensitization to CH-11-induced apoptosis. These differentially regulated mechanisms for chemo- and CH-11-induced apoptosis emanated from findings making use of both biologically engineered cell lines and specific chemical inhibitors. Treatment with rituximab or specific inhibitors of NF-κB sensitized NHL cells to both drug- and CH-11-induced apoptosis. The role of Bcl-xL expression in the regulation of drug resistance, but not Fas resistance, was demonstrated by the failure of rituximab to sensitize Bcl-xL-overexpressing ...
We thank Dr Wallace et al for their response to our recently published article Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis prevents severe/life-threatening infections following rituximab in antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated vasculitis, highlighting some methodological limitations of our study.1 2 One of the limitations mentioned by Wallace and colleagues is the inclusion of incident and prevalent cases and since only 15 out of 192 patients were incident cases, generalisability of our findings for this subset of patients may not be possible. We agree that the use of immunosuppression prior to initiation of rituximab likely confers a risk to develop infectious complications after rituximab administration. Cyclophosphamide was used to control disease in 62 patients the year before rituximab was initiated. Among these, 53 patients had no severe infection (median cyclophosphamide exposure 7 g, range 0.66-45 g), while 9 patients receiving cyclophosphamide the index year before had a severe ...
This meta-analysis showed that patients receiving chemotherapy plus rituximab benefit in terms of OS as well as PFS compared to those with chemotherapy alone. Therefore, it supports the recommendation of rituximab in combination with FluC as an option for the first-line treatment as well as for the …
... Summary: Phase III Pivotal Study of Ofatumumab in Refractory CLL Me... Primary Endpoint ...COPENHAGEN July 31 /- Genmab A/S (OMX: GEN) an...The activity of ofatumumab was evaluated in 154 patients in thisinter...,Genmab,and,GlaxoSmithKline,Announce,Positive,Top-Line,Results,in,Ofatumumab,Chronic,Lymphocytic,Leukemia,Pivotal,Study,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
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Results. In patients with pSS, frequencies of circulating TFH cells and Th17 cells were increased at baseline compared with HC, whereas frequencies of Th1 and Th2 cells were unchanged. B cell depletion therapy resulted in a pronounced decrease in circulating TFH cells, whereas Th17 cells were only slightly lowered. Frequencies of IL-21-producing and IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells and serum levels of IL-21 and IL-17 were also reduced. Importantly, the decrease in circulating TFH cells was associated with lower systemic disease activity over time, as measured by the European League Against Rheumatism Sjögrens Syndrome Disease Activity Index scores and serum IgG levels. ...
Most adverse experiences (AEs) were transient grade 1 or 2 events occurring during the treatment period. Clinically significant myelosuppression was not observed; hematologic toxicity was generally mild and reversible. No patient developed human antichimeric antibodies after treatment. The type, frequency, and severity of AEs in this study were not apparently different from those reported in the phase III trial of rituximab. The overall response rate in 57 assessable patients was 40% (11% complete response and 30% partial responses). Median time to progression (TTP) in responders and median duration of response (DR) have not been reached, but Kaplan-Meier estimated medians are 17.8 months (range, 5.4+ to 26.6 months) and 16.3 months (range, 3.7+ to 25.1 months), respectively. These estimated medians are longer than the medians achieved in the patients prior course of rituximab (TTP and DR of 12.4 and 9.8 months, respectively, P: ,.1) and in a previously reported phase III trial (TTP in ...
This trial is investigating the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and tolerability of bendamustine + ofatumumab versus ofatumumab in patients with previously untreated
Contraindications: Patients should not become pregnant while undergoing tositumomab therapy and therapy should not be given before pregnancy is ruled out. Contraception should be used by males and females during and 12 months after treatment has ended. Patients who have already received murine proteins and may have mounted an anti-mouse immune response are at a higher risk for a reaction of this sort. In some patients hypothyroidism (reduced thyroid gland function) may occur. For this reason thyroid blocking agents must be administered with tositumomab. Treatment and screening for hypothyroidism should continue on an annual basis after treatment ends. Because this therapy includes a radioactive material that is inside the body for some period of time, patients should be given special instructions and precautions to prevent harm to any other person.1. ...
Genentech has been searching for years to find a way to improve upon rituximab (Rituxan), which set a gold standard 15 years ago as part of the first gener
A new study looking at the uses and side effects of Actemra, Enbrel and Rituxan suggests that observational studies may be a better predictor of drug effectiveness and safety than clinical trials.
D02994 Rituximab (USAN/INN); Rituximab (genetical recombination) (JAN); Rituximab (genetical recombination) [Rituximab biosimilar 1] (JAN ...
Despite a faster time to complete remission, the addition of rituximab (Rituxan) to ibrutinib (Imbruvica) did not improve PFS or overall survival OS compared with ibrutinib alone in patients with CLL. 
This finding is in contrast to the more pronounced effect in patients who were RF/anti-CCP seropositive observed in a previous study.11 However, the superior response of patients who were seropositive strengthened over time, as shown by greater decreases in disease activity and enhanced ACR responses at week 48 in rituximab-treated patients who were seropositive compared with patients who were seronegative ...
Patients with a type of leukemia that had relapsed who received the new drug Venclexta in combination with Rituxan went significantly longer without the disease worsening than those treated with Rituxan and Treanda, according to interim results from a pivotal late stage study released on Tuesday.
Terrible news for those of us suffering from primary progressive. Im beyond words... http://biz.yahoo.com/bw/080414/20080414006526.html?.v=1
http://svetanyc.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/IMG_0610_2-190x143.jpg. Friday - Tuesday, November 28- December 2, 2014 I started the last weekend of November with another round of chemotherapy - my 3rd cycle. I was staying again in 10th Central, but my room, unlike on all other occasions was by the door and not the window. Everything went according to plan, Rituxan was given first (with no side effects), then four 24- hour bags (luckily, 2 last bags were speeded up to the rate of 55 ml/h) and the very last 1-hour bag. This cycle took only 95 continuous hours of chemo. By now, I am also quite familiar with the chemo protocol. I come to the 10th floor of the NY Presbyterian hospital, nurses put me …. ...
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Abstract: We performed a prospective pilot study on 12 patients to evaluate the efficacy of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in relapsed idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Inclusion criteria were relapse of ITP with a thrombocyte count ,20 000 µL−1 and unsuccessful corticosteroid treatment. Eleven patients had a previous splenectomy, five patients had unsuccessful cytotoxic treatment, and six patients were refractory to intravenous immunoglobulins before rituximab therapy. Response criteria were as follows. Complete remission (CR): normalization of thrombocyte count for at least 30 d. Partial remission (PR): an increase of thrombocytes to above 30 000 µL−1 for at least 30 d. Minor response (MR): any increase above 30 000 µL−1 for less than 30 d but more than 10 d. No response (NR): failure to achieve any of the above responses. Treatment plan: We administered 375 mg m−2 of rituximab once weekly on up to four consecutive weeks, unless there was early CR. Five ...
article{8038961, author = {BONROY, CAROLIEN and Smith, Vanessa and Deschepper, Ellen and De Keyser, Filip and Devreese, Katrien}, issn = {0315-162X}, journal = {JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY}, language = {eng}, number = {1}, pages = {247--249}, title = {Specific antinuclear antibody level changes after B cell depletion therapy in systemic sclerosis are associated with improvement of skin thickening}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.150105}, volume = {43}, year = {2016 ...
A Randomized, Open Label Study of Ofatumumab and Bendamustine Combination Therapy Compared With Bendamustine Monotherapy in Indolent B-cell Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma Unresponsive to Rituximab or a Rituximab-Containing Regimen During or Within Six Months of Treatment
Disclosed herein are therapeutic treatment protocols designed for the treatment of B cell lymphoma. These protocols are based upon therapeutic strategies which include the use of administration of immunologically active mouse/human chimeric anti-CD20 antibodies, radiolabeled anti-CD20 antibodies, and cooperative strategies comprising the use of chimeric anti-CD20 antibodies and radiolabeled anti-CD20 antibodies.
The Company reserves the right to modify the Dosing and Frequency Requirements listed in this Policy to ensure consistency with the most recently published recommendations for the use of rituximab infusion or related biosimilars, or rituximab/hyaluronidase human for subcutaneous injection (Rituxan Hycela ). Changes to these guidelines are based on a consensus of information obtained from resources such as, but not limited to: the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA); Company-recognized authoritative pharmacology compendia; or published peer-reviewed clinical research. The professional provider must supply supporting documentation (i.e., published peer-reviewed literature) in order to request coverage for an amount of rituximab infusion or related biosimilars, or rituximab/hyaluronidase human for subcutaneous injection (Rituxan Hycela ) outside of the Dosing and Frequency Requirements listed in this Policy. For a list of Company-recognized pharmacology compendia, view our policy on off-label ...
Ofatumumab (oh" fa toom ue mab) is a human monoclonal IgG1 antibody to the cell surface antigen CD20 (also known as human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen: Bp35), which is found on mature B cells as well as 90% of neoplastic B cell such as occur in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. CD20 is not present on pro-B cells, hematopoietic stem cells, normal plasma cells or other normal lymphocytes, circulating cells or tissues. Engagement of ofatumumab with CD20 leads to B cell lysis and depletion of circulating and tissue B cells for an extended period, up to 6 to 8 months. There is an accompanying mild decrease in IgM, but no change in IgG or IgA levels. ...
First, upon my arrival to the infusion center my authorization was not in the system. Instead of calling upstairs to get the information, they made me go upstairs to find the employee responsible. Why it couldnt have been handled by a phone call Ill never know. Just another part of the process where the systems and staff dont seem to have an open line of communication. Insurance issues are handled in an entirely separate department and no one knows how to navigate it outside of a few people. Thankfully, the problem was fixed with a phone call down to the infusion center from the authorization staff.. When signing all the paperwork to do Rituxan last Tuesday, I had to take a pregnancy test to process the orders. It took my doctor a good ten minutes of navigating the EHR system to determine which of the tests was needed for Rituxan. At no point was a Hepatitis B panel shown, but apparently I needed that too. Unfortunately when I went to infuse today, my treatment was almost cancelled because I ...
This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center, randomized trial will evaluate the effect of rituximab on disease progression in subjects with SSc-PAH receiving concurrent stable-dose standard medical therapy with a prostanoid, endothelin receptor antagonist, and/or phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor. The study will focus on assessment of clinical response and safety measures longitudinally. In addition, the effects of treatment with rituximab on the underlying immune mechanisms associated with B-cell dysregulation and pathogenic autoantibody response in this disease will be investigated. 1000 mg of rituximab or placebo will be administered as two IV infusions given two weeks apart. Clinical assessments and sample collection will occur at monthly visits through Week 48. If a participant has not recovered B cells by Week 48, B cell studies will be conducted quarterly until reconstitution is documented or for 2 years after initial treatment. Five patients will be recruited ...
Amines, aminooxy (also known as oxylamine), hydrazide, azide, alkyne, BCN, and tyramide reactive dyes, as well as dye free acids, are generally stable in aqueous solution when stored at -20°C for 6-12 months or longer, as long as no compounds are present that may react with the dyes functional group. See the product information sheets for specific reactive dyes more information.. Coelenterazines and D-luciferin. Coelenterazines are stable in solid form when stored as recommended; they are not stable in aqueous solution. Concentrated coelenterazine stock solutions (typically 1-100 mg/mL) should be prepared in ethanol or methanol; do not use DMSO or DMF to dissolve coelenterazines, because these solvents will oxidize the compounds. Ethanol or methanol stocks of coelenterazine can be stored at -20°C or below for six months or longer; alcohol stocks may evaporate during storage, so use tightly sealing screw cap vials and wrap the vials with Parafilm for long term storage. Propylene glycol also ...
Amines, aminooxy (also known as oxylamine), hydrazide, azide, alkyne, BCN, and tyramide reactive dyes, as well as dye free acids, are generally stable in aqueous solution when stored at -20°C for 6-12 months or longer, as long as no compounds are present that may react with the dyes functional group. See the product information sheets for specific reactive dyes more information.. Coelenterazines and D-luciferin. Coelenterazines are stable in solid form when stored as recommended; they are not stable in aqueous solution. Concentrated coelenterazine stock solutions (typically 1-100 mg/mL) should be prepared in ethanol or methanol; do not use DMSO or DMF to dissolve coelenterazines, because these solvents will oxidize the compounds. Ethanol or methanol stocks of coelenterazine can be stored at -20°C or below for six months or longer; alcohol stocks may evaporate during storage, so use tightly sealing screw cap vials and wrap the vials with Parafilm for long term storage. Propylene glycol also ...
Iodine i-131 tositumomab; non-hodgkins-lymphoma; b-cell lymphoma; refractory low-grade; multicenter phase-ii; pretargeted radioimmunotherapy; follicular lymphoma; follow-up; antibody; ...
VIENNA-Patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may benefit from treatment with Rituxan (rituximab), a B-cell depleting agent approved for the treatment of non-Hodgkins lymphoma.
May 26,2010- Lymphoma Foundation Canada applauds Ontarios decision to fund Rituxan(R) for
the most common type of adult leukemia.
More than 160 key abstracts confirm MabThera/Rituxan as the standard of care in hematological cancers, , , , Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY) announced today that updated results of the pivotal phase II...
Bulgular: Rituksimab tedavisinin ba lad s rada ortalama ya ( SD) 46,6 11,3 y ld r. Rituksimab tedavisi ncesinde ortalama trombosit say s ( SD) 17,400 8878/mm3 d r. Erken ve ge yan t edilen olgularda rituksimab ba lang c ile yan ta kadar ge en ortalama s re ( SD) s ras yla 1,8 1,3 hafta ve 10 2,8 hafta olarak saptanm t r. EY ve GY elde edilen olgularda ortalama yan t s resi s ras yla 51 47,2 ay ve 6 4,2 ayd r. On be olgunun 7 sinde (%46,7) rituximab tedavisine ba lang ta yan t elde edilmi tir (5 EY, 2 GY). SY oran %26,7 dir (4/15). Rituksimab tedavisine yan t veren olgular aras nda 3 (3/7, %42,9) yan t n bir y ldan fazla ve 2 si (2/7, %28,6) yan t n 5 y ldan fazla s rd rm t r. Yedi olgunun ikisi (%28,6) rituksimab ba lang c ndan 98 ay sonra halen yan t n korumaktad r. Ba lang ta yan t veren 5 olgunun hepsi relaps sonras nda ard k tedavilere yan t vermi tir (3 TY, 2 PY ...
Bulgular: Rituksimab tedavisinin ba lad s rada ortalama ya ( SD) 46,6 11,3 y ld r. Rituksimab tedavisi ncesinde ortalama trombosit say s ( SD) 17,400 8878/mm3 d r. Erken ve ge yan t edilen olgularda rituksimab ba lang c ile yan ta kadar ge en ortalama s re ( SD) s ras yla 1,8 1,3 hafta ve 10 2,8 hafta olarak saptanm t r. EY ve GY elde edilen olgularda ortalama yan t s resi s ras yla 51 47,2 ay ve 6 4,2 ayd r. On be olgunun 7 sinde (%46,7) rituximab tedavisine ba lang ta yan t elde edilmi tir (5 EY, 2 GY). SY oran %26,7 dir (4/15). Rituksimab tedavisine yan t veren olgular aras nda 3 (3/7, %42,9) yan t n bir y ldan fazla ve 2 si (2/7, %28,6) yan t n 5 y ldan fazla s rd rm t r. Yedi olgunun ikisi (%28,6) rituksimab ba lang c ndan 98 ay sonra halen yan t n korumaktad r. Ba lang ta yan t veren 5 olgunun hepsi relaps sonras nda ard k tedavilere yan t vermi tir (3 TY, 2 PY ...
Rituximab - Get up-to-date information on Rituximab side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Rituximab
Ocrevus does not enter the nervous system or grow nervous tissue, so your improvement is just coincidental. Many people with MS improve spontaneously without treatment...including people with progressive MS. In the clinical trial in PPMS with Ocrevus (ORATORIO), the average patient declined rather than improved. MS is not like ALS where people tend to uniformly decline-there is a lot of variation. Also, there is an essentially identical drug in existence (rituxan), so why would someone be entitled to specifically receive ocrevus. Rituxan should be the preferred agent based on lower cost and longer safety history. Just remember: someone has to be deprived of medical care they could benefit from in order for you to get Ocrevus instead of rituxan. Do you care, or is it all about you?. Delete ...
In this report, we present our results of the biochemotherapy combination of rituximab (Rituxan), a monoclonal antibody against CD20, with fludarabine (Fludara) and cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan, Neosar). 1
Thanks for coming over Cheryle. I was hoping you could give Deb a little insight on Rituxan and how you all came to the decision to try that after your thyroid cancer and what the docs thought about side effects of Rituxan. Have you just had one/two rounds of it? Hoping you can get your pred dose down more, I know how hard it is to taper. I had to do it by about two month stints and it took a long time, over a year to get down from 10 or even 7.5. Off just a short time so will have to see how it goes. I dont know if your poor rotator cuff can wait that long though. Do or can you take NSAIDs and tylenol arthritis? Or plaquenil? Those in the right combos have helped me a great deal in dealing with the pain and the pain of getting of prednisone. The test will be if I can stay off of it this fall/winter. But I went off in anticipation of future surgery ...
Thanks for coming over Cheryle. I was hoping you could give Deb a little insight on Rituxan and how you all came to the decision to try that after your thyroid cancer and what the docs thought about side effects of Rituxan. Have you just had one/two rounds of it? Hoping you can get your pred dose down more, I know how hard it is to taper. I had to do it by about two month stints and it took a long time, over a year to get down from 10 or even 7.5. Off just a short time so will have to see how it goes. I dont know if your poor rotator cuff can wait that long though. Do or can you take NSAIDs and tylenol arthritis? Or plaquenil? Those in the right combos have helped me a great deal in dealing with the pain and the pain of getting of prednisone. The test will be if I can stay off of it this fall/winter. But I went off in anticipation of future surgery ...
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are receiving this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.. Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.. ...
Results: Within a mean period of observation of 11 (1-37) months, 21 (58 %) pemphigus patients showed complete, 13 (36 %) partial, and 2 (6 %) no response to rituximab treatment. This correlates with a mean improvement of the visual analog scale for well-being of 34 (20-60) at baseline to 75 (40-95) at the last control visit. In 4 (11 %) patients, severe adverse events were recorded including 1 (3 %) serious infection.. ...
rituximab: mouse/human chimeric mAB; a genetically engineered anti-CD20 antibody for the treatment of B-cell lymphoma; has immunosuppressive activity
Access important resources on REVLIMID® + rituximab for you and yourpatients. Please see full Prescribing Information, including BoxedWARNINGS on fetal tox, hem tox & blood clots.
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高い抗原親和性、特異性と安定した品質を兼ね備えたアブカムのウサギ・モノクローナル抗体 RabMAb® ab92726 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P,Flow Cyt,ICC/IF
Art Carney, who created televisions first memorable wacky neighbor and would win an Academy Award more than 20 years after the debut of his character Ed Norton, died Sunday at his home in Westport, Conn. He was 85 and had been ill for some time. He was buried Tuesday, the day news of his death was released.
RnRMarketResearch.com adds report "B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2014" to its store.. B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2014. Summary. GlobalDatas clinical trial report, "B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2014″ provides data on the B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma clinical trial scenario. This report provides elemental information and data relating to the clinical trials on B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. It includes an overview of the trial numbers and their recruitment status as per the site of trial conduction across the globe. The databook offers a preliminary coverage of disease clinical trials by their phase, trial status, prominence of the sponsors and also provides briefing pertaining to the number of trials for the key drugs for treating B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. This report is built using data and information sourced from proprietary databases, primary and secondary research and in-house analysis ...
Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY) announced today that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Rituxan Hycela™ (rituximab and hyaluronidase human) for subcutaneous (under the skin) injection, for the treatment of adults with the following blood cancers: previously untreated and relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma, previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and previously untreated and previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). This new treatment includes the same monoclonal antibody as intravenous Rituxan® (rituximab) in combination with hyaluronidase human, an enzyme that helps to deliver rituximab under the skin.. "With todays approval of Rituxan Hycela, people with three of the most common blood cancers now have a new treatment option which provides efficacy comparable with intravenous Rituxan and can be delivered under the skin in minutes instead of hours through IV infusion," said Sandra Horning, MD, Roches Chief Medical Officer and Head ...
SD nephrotic syndrome carries a high risk of toxicity from steroids or standard steroid-sparing agents. Therefore, alternative treatment options are needed. Although recent studies support the use of rituximab as a steroid-sparing and CNI-sparing agent in SD-INS, benefits may be suboptimal, especially in complicated forms of the disease. The new anti-CD20 ofatumumab may be more effective than rituximab in controlling the disease, due to its stronger affinity for the CD20. Moreover, due to its fully humanised structure, it may be used in larger doses with minimal risk of side effects. These considerations motivated the use of an active comparator to test the effects of different agents blocking the CD20 antigen pathway.. This is the first randomised controlled trial comparing the effects of two anti-CD20 antibodies on the risk of relapse of INS following steroid and CNI withdrawal. Strengths in the design of this trial include: objective and clinical important outcomes, identification of a ...
Whether my decisions ultimately are proved wise will be written in these pages. I began using single-agent rituximab (Rituxan) in 2004, adding the steroid methylprednisolone in March 2007 to combat AIHA. In October 2007, after a severe AIHA relapse that left me steroid refractory, I was treated with Rituxan + cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednsione (R-CVP). In January 2009, when AIHA and hemolysis of red blood cells returned, I had Rituxan + cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (R-CD). I used this a few times to control the condition, with shorter and shorter periods until AIHA relapse. Starting in February 2010 I used Arzerra (ofatumumab) and Revlimid (lenalidomide), and then for a year and a half maintained control of the disease -- and the AIHA -- with Revlimid alone. Alas, the Revlimid came at a high price in terms of blood clotting issues, and as of 2012 I was treated with bendamustine and rituximab, which gave me a CR in the marrow and blood, leaving some swollen lymph nodes behind ...
Rituximab is a therapy no used in both indolent and aggressive B cell lymphomas. What is the mechanism of action of Rituximab? List the major disorders for which Rituximab is approved for use.. Recall that CD20 is expressed on over 90% of B cells and is a protein that is not shed or internalized.. Rituximab is an anti-CD20 chimeric monoclonal antibody that on contact to CD20 on the surface of a B cell causes cytotoxicity mediated by compliment and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.. Indications for Rituximab use:. ...
Genentech, affiliated to Swiss drug major Roche Group (RHHBY), announced Thursday that the Phase III PEMPHIX Study with Rituxan (Rituximab) in patients with Pemphigus Vulgaris or PV met the primary and secondary endpoints.
Relapsed/Refractory (R/R) Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): two-year follow-up of the phase III RESONATE trial of ofatumumab compared to ibrutinib
Campath-1H is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeted against the CDw52 membrane antigen of lymphocytes, which causes complement and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Campath-1H has...
Ilias N. Lazarou, Axel Finckh, Lara Fischer, Camillo Ribi, Danielle Gascon, Jörg D. Seebach, Pierre-André Guerne, Un faible nombre préalable de lymphocytes B nest pas un facteur de risque dinfection chez les patients traités par rituximab pour des maladies auto-immunes : étude observationnelle, Revue du Rhumatisme, 2017, 84, 2, ...
Bei mehr als 4% der Patienten mit rheumatoider Arthritis können pulmonale Rheumaknoten nachgewiesen werden. Diagnostisch müssen diese Knoten von malignen und infektiösen Prozessen abgegrenzt werden. In vorliegendem Fall wird ein gutes Ansprechen eines pulmonalen Rheumaknotens auf Rituximab beschrieben. Pulmonary rheumatoid nodules can be found in over 4% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Diagnostically they have to be differentiated from malignant and infectious processes. The present article describes a case of pulmonary rheumatoid nodule which responded well to Rituximab therapy.
Rituximab (Rituxan) therapy is successfully used to treat many B-cell malignancies. Absent or diminished CD20 expression on certain B-cell tumors may limit the efficacy of CD20-directed serotherapies 1
Our study compared exacerbation and lung function outcomes of benralizumab treatment with outcomes for other IL-5-directed biologics for severe, uncontrolled asthma. Results of the comparison between benralizumab and mepolizumab demonstrated comparable efficacy in reducing the annual rate of clinically significant exacerbations and exacerbations leading to ED visits or hospitalisation and improving pre-bronchodilator FEV1. In most comparisons, benralizumab was numerically better than mepolizumab after matching adjustment balanced baseline characteristics between the two populations, although there were no significant differences. This analysis extends findings from recent systematic review methods [26] and expands upon evidence from a recent ITC of IL-5-directed monoclonal antibody treatments by Cabon et al. [15] that did not include the key benralizumab phase 3 SIROCCO [9] and CALIMA [11] trials used in our analysis and did not adjust for differences in baseline patient characteristics. Cabon ...
Results The peak of rituximab levels was observed at 30 days after initiating each course. Rituximab levels ranged from 13000 to115000 ng/ml at 30d. At 90d levels decreased significantly, but they were still detectable in 80% of patients. Those patients with higher levels in the first course of the treatment presented also higher levels in the second and third courses. No anti-rituximab antibodies were detected during follow-up. To analyze the association of rituximab levels with clinical and immunological parameters, patients were segregated in two groups according to 30d-rituximab levels: group H ( ,56000 pg/ml) (52% of patients) and group L (,55000pg/ml) (48% of patients) (Table 1). Both groups of patients were comparable before treatment. EULAR response was achieved in 63.4% of Group H patients and 88.9% of group L patients. The decrease of DAS28 was 42% higher in Group L than in group H patients at 90d. Group L patients were also associated with a higher decrease of ESR (p,0.038) at 180d. ...
The FDA has approved use of rituximab (Rituxan) as maintenance therapy for advanced follicular lymphoma in patients with an initial response to induction therapy with the drug plus chemotherapy, its m
B-cell-associated antigens such as CD19, CD20, CD22, and CD79a are usually expressed. In contrast to small lymphocytic lymphoma ... Rituximab, the anti-CD20 chimeric antibody, is a key component of therapy. Responses vary from 55% to 77% with monotherapy and ...
Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the mammalian immune system. In cancer treatment they aid cancer antigen ... Although the function of CD20 is relatively unknown, CD20 may be a calcium channel involved in B-cell activation. The ... Cancer vaccine Antigen 5T4 Chimeric antigen receptor Coley's Toxins Combinatorial ablation and immunotherapy Cryoimmunotherapy ... Antigens can be added to the antibody and can induce the dendritic cells to mature and provide immunity to the tumor. Dendritic ...
Nofetumomab is an antibody fragment that recognises the pancarcinoma glycoprotein antigen EpCAM. and/or CD20/MS4A1 It is the ...
... is a murine IgG2a lambda monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen, produced in mammalian cells. ... or Transformed CD20 Positive Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Who Have Not Received Prior Rituximab; BEXXAR. ...
Tedder TF, Streuli M, Schlossman SF, Saito H (1988). "Isolation and structure of a cDNA encoding the B1 (CD20) cell-surface ... antigen of human B lymphocytes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85 (1): 208-12. doi:10.1073/pnas.85.1.208. PMC 279513 . PMID ... Szepetowski P, Gaudray P (1994). "FCER1B, a candidate gene for atopy, is located in 11q13 between CD20 and TCN1". Genomics. 19 ... Kanzaki M, Lindorfer MA, Garrison JC, Kojima I (1997). "Activation of the calcium-permeable cation channel CD20 by alpha ...
Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... such as CD19 and CD20. Instead, plasma cells are identified through flow cytometry by their additional expression of CD138, ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ... Pieces of the antigen (which are now known as antigenic peptides) are loaded onto MHC II molecules, and presented on its ...
With respect to diagnosing BNS, flow cytometry analyzes CSF contents for B-cells expressing the pan antigens CD19 and CD20, ...
AME-133v is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting the CD20 antigen on both healthy and malignant B-lymphocytes, ... The antibody is engineered for enhanced affinity to the CD20 antigen on B-lymphocytes, increased antibody-dependent cell- ... In pre-clinical studies, ocaratuzumab was shown to have 13 to 20 fold greater affinity for CD20 and 6 fold more potent ADCC as ... "Results of a Phase 1 Study of AME-133v (LY2469298), an Fc-Engineered Humanized Monoclonal Anti-CD20 Antibody, in FcγRIIIa- ...
This high mutation rate makes them prone to the selection of B-cells lacking the CD20 antigen following treatment with CD20- ... "Therapy of B-cell lymphoma with anti-CD20 antibodies can result in the loss of CD20 antigen expression". Clinical Cancer ... B-cells that have not encountered an antigen are called naive B cells. When naïve B-cells encounter an antigen, one of the ... Approximately 95% of B-cell lymphomas express CD20, but CD20 is not critical for B-cell survival. Clonal B-cells spontaneously ...
Bone marrow tumour cells express the following antigen targets CD20 (98.3%), CD22 (88.3%), CD40 (83.3%), CD52 (77.4%), IgM ( ... "Expression of serotherapy target antigens in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia: therapeutic applications and considerations". ...
They are largely built from parts of antibodies (immunoglobulins), and like them have a binding site for antigens that could be ... Examples are TRU-015, a CD20 targeting SMIP under research for rheumatoid arthritis, and TRU-016, a CD37 targeting potential ... Rubbert-Roth, A. (2010). "TRU-015, a fusion protein derived from an anti-CD20 antibody, for the treatment of rheumatoid ... A monoclonal antibody targeting the desired antigen can be developed the classical way, using hybridoma technology. The scFv is ...
... is not routinely used to treat Hodgkin's lymphoma due to the lack of CD20 surface antigens in most cases. The use of rituximab ... For the other forms, although the traditional B-cell markers (such as CD20) are not expressed on all cells, Reed-Sternberg ... Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma expresses CD20, and is not currently considered a form of classical Hodgkin's ... which is a monoclonal antibody against CD20) ...
Adoptive T-cell therapies with T-cells modified with chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-T) also causes CRS. It appears that ... rituximab against CD20 also used to treat blood cancers and auto-immune disorders, all cause CRS. ...
... but express B cell markers like CD20, CD22, and CD79a and also express the common leukocyte antigen CD45, which is uncommon on ... The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody Rituximab has been used in lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma with encouraging results ... Rituximab has specific use in treatment of NLPHL as it is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20. Studies ... Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma (NLPHL) is an indolent CD20(+) form of lymphoma. Some people no longer ...
For example: pPCL plasma cells more often express CD20 antigen, which is considered important in anchoring plasma cells to the ... 17%); pPCL plasma cells often lack CD56 antigen which is present on the majority of plasma cells taken form multiple myeloma ... Examination of plasma cell immunophenotype by measuring certain of their cell surface antigens, particularly Cluster of ...
... b-lymphocyte surface antigens CD19, CD20, CD22, CD79a and FMC7, and weak expression of CD5 and CD23. Due to the similarities ... B-lymphocytes have two responsibilities: Production of antibodies - In response to antigens, B-lymphocytes produce and release ... one of its key identifiers is the absence in expression of the surface antigens CD10, CD11c, CD25, CD103 and cyclin D1 - an ... it is directed against the surface protein CD20. Case studies have documented successful treatment of B-PLL solely with ...
The IL-2a (CD25, T-cell activation antigen, TAC) is expressed only by the already-activated T lymphocytes. Therefore, it is of ... anti-CD20 monoclonals). Heterologous polyclonal antibodies are obtained from the serum of animals (e.g., rabbit, horse), and ... Past this period CD3 blocks the TCR-antigen binding and causes conformational change or the removal of the entire TCR3/CD3 ... The antilymphocyte (ALG) and antithymocyte antigens (ATG) are being used. They are part of the steroid-resistant acute ...
... antigens, cd18 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.119 --- antigens, cd19 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.120 --- antigens, cd20 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd5 MeSH D23.050.301.264.051.119 --- antigens, cd19 MeSH D23.050.301.264.051.120 --- antigens, cd20 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd18 MeSH D23.101.100.110.119 --- antigens, cd19 MeSH D23.101.100.110.120 --- antigens, cd20 MeSH D23.101.100.110.122 ... antigens, cd5 MeSH D23.101.100.150.119 --- antigens, cd19 MeSH D23.101.100.150.120 --- antigens, cd20 MeSH D23.101.100.150.140 ...
The antibody binds to the CD20 antigen found on the surface of normal and malignant B cells (but not B cell precursors), ...
... kills normal and malignant B cells that bear the CD20 antigen or the proteasome inhibitor, Bortezomib. Patients suffering type ... These mutations are made in an effort to make a gene encoding a protein that binds the instigating antigen. The next step in ... processing of these antigens. As they are stimulated to become plasma cells, B cells refashion parts of their genome in efforts ... the immunoglobulin light chain antigen binding locus gene which is on the short arm of chromosome 22 at position 22q11.2; and c ...
... antibody directed against CD20 surface antigen-bearing lymphocytes) in patients with Waldenstroms macroglobulonemia). Treatment ... and hepatitic C antigen. Biopsies of skin lesions and, where indicated, kidney or other tissues can help in determining the ...
... including deparaffinization and antigen retrieval. For formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, antigen-retrieval is often ... Identification of B-cell lymphomas using CD20 Identification of T-cell lymphomas using CD3 A variety of molecular pathways are ... Visualising an antibody-antigen interaction can be accomplished in a number of ways. In the most common instance, an antibody ... "IHC Tip 1: Antigen retrieval - should I do PIER or HIER?". AbD Serotec. Pohanka, Miroslav (2009). "Monoclonal and polyclonal ...
... directed at B-cell surface antigen CD20 (D)examethasone, a glucocorticoid hormone (H)igh-dose (A)ra-C - cytarabine, an ... In combination with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody Rituximab (Rituxan, Mabthera) it is called R-DHAP or DHAP-R. [R]-DHAP regimen ...
B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 or CD20 is an activated-glycosylated phosphoprotein expressed on the surface of all B-cells beginning ... appears to recognise a conformational variant of CD20 also known as the FMC7 antigen. CD20 is the target of the monoclonal ... CD20 antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) representations of the shape are found here ... Stamenkovic I, Seed B (June 1988). "Analysis of two cDNA clones encoding the B lymphocyte antigen CD20 (B1, Bp35), a type III ...
Loss of tumor antigen expression is another cause of escape from immune recognition. This occurs because most tumor antigens ... Vaccinations may help the immune system locate certain oncoantigens such as MET, RET, CD20 and CD22. However; cells that evade ... Most tumor antigens are not oncoantigens, either because they are intracellular molecules, like cancer-testis antigen such as ... like the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or the prostate specific antigen (PSA). Novel strategies will be required to identify ...
Surface antigens[edit]. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... common pan-B cell markers, such as CD19 and CD20. Instead, plasma cells are identified through flow cytometry by their ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ...
Despite the clinical success of CD20-specific antibody rituximab, malignancies of B-cell origin continue to present a major ... CD20 scFv antibody Natural killer cell Chimeric antigen receptor Adoptive therapy Electronic supplementary material. The online ... and CD20-positive NIH3T3-CD20(eGFP), and eGFP- and CD20-negative NIH3T3 cells before addition of NK cells is shown. Exemplary ... Expression of a CD20-specific chimeric antigen receptor enhances cytotoxic activity of NK cells and overcomes NK-resistance of ...
CD20" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, CD20" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... "Antigens, CD20" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD20" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Antigens, CD20". ...
The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocyte ... CD20 is a human B-lymphocyte surface molecule that spans the membrane four times and is expressed on both normal and malignant ... The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocytes and ... Western Blot: CD20 Antibody. Expression and biochemistry studies with the CD20 antibody from Uchidas lab at Duke were ...
Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells immunotherapy is rapidly developed in treating cancers, especially relapsed or ... CD20-specific adoptive immunotherapy for lymphoma using a chimeric antigen receptor with both CD28 and 4-1BB domains: pilot ... The efficacy and safety of anti-CD19/CD20 chimeric antigen receptor- T cells immunotherapy in relapsed or refractory B-cell ... Anti-CD20 antibody therapy for B-cell lymphomas. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(21):2008-16.View ArticleGoogle Scholar. ...
Rituximab Maintenance Therapy in Aggressive CD20 (Cluster of Differentiation Antigen 20) Positive Lymphoma and Mantle Cell ... Clinical trial focusing on CD20 positive lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma. ... Clinical Trial: Rituximab Maintenance Therapy in Aggressive CD20 (Cluster of Differentiation Antigen 20) Positive Lymphoma and ... Clinical Trial: Rituximab Maintenance Therapy in Aggressive CD20 (Cluster of Differentiation Antigen 20) Positive Lymphoma and ...
Analysis of two cDNA clones encoding the B lymphocyte antigen CD20 (B1, Bp35), a type III integral membrane protein. I ... Two cDNA clones encoding the pan-B cell CD20 antigen were isolated from a COS cell expression library. The two clones bear ... I Stamenkovic, B Seed; Analysis of two cDNA clones encoding the B lymphocyte antigen CD20 (B1, Bp35), a type III integral ... The predicted CD20 sequence is 297 residues long and contains three hydrophobic domains, one of which is long enough to span ...
... antigen)) (mouse monoclonal clone B1R1 γ2a-chain), disulfide with mouse monoclonal clone B1R1 λx-chain, dimer, iodine-131I salt ... CA Index Name: Immunoglobulin G2a, anti-(human CD20 (antigen)) (mouse monoclonal clone B1R1 γ2a-chain), disulfide with mouse ...
Development of a Mimotope-Based Vaccine Against CD20 Antigen. Author(s): Meng Li, Wei Han, Quiyang Zhang, Xiaochang Xue, Zenglu ... CD20, a B-cell-specific protein, is a primary target for immunotherapy of B-cell lymphomas. We used a mimotopes of CD20 to ... Abstract: CD20, a B-cell-specific protein, is a primary target for immunotherapy of B-cell lymphomas. We used a mimotopes of ... Keywords: CD20, mimotope, vaccine, B-cell lymphoma, immunotherapy, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) ...
CD20, CD56) - This anti-Human Lineage Cocktail is optimized for the detection of human lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and ... This cocktail is composed of CD3, CD14, CD19, CD20, and CD56. CD3 is the antigen mainly found on T cells; CD14 is expressed on ... Antigen References 1. Zola H, et al. Eds. 2007. Leukocyte and Stromal Cell Molecules. New Jersey. 2. Olweus J, et al. 1997. P. ... CD19 and CD20 are expressed on B lymphocytes. CD56 is expressed on activated and resting NK lymphocytes. Cell Type T cells, ...
Antigen Receptor Allelic Exclusion: An Update and Reappraisal. Brenna L. Brady, Natalie C. Steinel, and Craig H. Bassing. J ... CD20+ B Cells: The Other Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes. Brad H. Nelson. J Immunol 2010 185: 4977-4982 ... Landscape of Tumor Antigens in T Cell Immunotherapy. Sadia Ilyas and James C. Yang. J Immunol 2015 195: 5117-5122 ... Unique Human Tumor Antigens: Immunobiology and Use in Clinical Trials. Giorgio Parmiani, Annamaria De Filippo, Luisa Novellino ...
Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CARs) are engineered proteins that can be used in a therapeutic capacity when expressed by an ... First in class CAR treatment targeting both CD19 and CD20 simultaneously. *Simultaneous targeting of two antigens decreases the ... B Cell Malignancies, Leukemia, Lymphoma, CD19, CD20, Bicistronic, Adoptive Cell Therapy, ACT, Chimeric Antigen Receptor, CAR, ... Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CARs) are engineered proteins that can be used in a therapeutic capacity when expressed by an ...
... dc.contributor.advisor. Deans, ... Petrie, R. J. (2002). Involvement of lipid rafts in the membrane dynamics of CD20 and the B cell antigen receptor (Unpublished ... Involvement of lipid rafts in the membrane dynamics of CD20 and the B cell antigen receptor. ...
NOTCH1 mutations have been associated with clinical resistance to the anti-CD20 rituximab, although the mechanisms behind this ... Antigens, CD20 * Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors * Immunoglobulin J Recombination Signal Sequence-Binding Protein ... were characterized by lower CD20 expression and lower relative lysis induced by anti-CD20 exposure in vitro. Consistently, CD20 ... In conclusion, NOTCH1 mutations are associated with low CD20 levels in CLL and are responsible for a dysregulation of HDAC- ...
Consistently, we observed that human CD20 is a high immunogenic antigen because human CD20-expressing A20 tumors were ... Rituximab is a murine-human chimeric IgG1 Ab that recognizes the human CD20 antigen on B cells, with a primary response rate ... To determine whether the cross-presentation function of APC is enhanced after anti-CD20 treatment, we transfected an antigen ... Production of anti-mouse CD20 Ab. The V region of the heavy chain and light chain of anti-mouse CD20 Ab was linked with a ...
CD20-like family (IPR007237) *Membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (IPR030417) *B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 (IPR030418) ... MS4A1 (B-lymphocyte antigen CD20) [PMID: 20038800], MS4A2 (high affinity IgE receptor subunit beta) [PMID: 16272347, PMID: ... Membrane-spanning four-domains subfamily A (MS4A) includes B-cell-specific antigen CD20 (MS4A1), high affinity immunoglobulin ... CD20 deficiency in humans results in impaired T cell-independent antibody responses.. J. Clin. Invest. 120 214-22 2010 ...
CD20 was chosen as the target tumor antigen for initial proof-of-concept studies as rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody, has been ... CD20-2GL-SIRPα HC: (GGGGS)2, CD20-4GL-SIRPα HC: (GGGGS)4, SIRPα-γ-CD20 HC: ASTKGPSVFPLAP. Plasmids containing each chain were ... with SIRPα-γ-CD20 HC having an approximately 20-fold reduction and CD20-2GL-SIRPα HC and CD20-4GL-SIRPα HC having more than 50- ... In contrast, CD20-2GL-SIRPα HC and CD20-4GL-SIRPα HC each had reduced binding to CD47 relative to SIRPα-Fc, presumably due to ...
Antigen Expression CD19 +; CD20 +; CD21 +; CD22 +; Hle-1 +; HLA DQ +; HLA DR +; CD25 -; T cell receptor (TCR) - ...
Antigen Expression CD11a +; CD19 +; CD20 +; CD38 -; CD49e +. Receptor Expression growth hormone receptor ...
Antigen Expression CD30 +; CD38 +; CD45 +; CD 54 +; CD71 +; HLA-DR +; EMA + (epithelial membrane antigen); CD2 -; CD3 -; CD4 ... CD5 -, CD8 -; CD19 -; CD20 -; CD21 -; CD22 -. Comments The BC-3 cell line contains the viral genome for Kaposis sarcoma- ... The cells do not express B-cell lineage restricted antigens or kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chains or T-cell lineage- ...
Influence of FCGR3A-158V/F Genotype and Baseline CD20 Antigen Count on Target-Mediated Elimination of Rituximab in Patients ... The purpose of this study was to quantify the influence of both CD20 antigenic mass and the FcγRIIIA genetic polymorphism on ... Target-mediated elimination rate constant increased with the baseline CD20 count on circulating B cells (p = 0.00046) and in ... Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody approved in the first-line treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic ...
Phase II trial of co-administration of CD19- and CD20-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T cells for relapsed and refractory ... patients mainly due to antigen loss. The authors performed a phase Ⅱ trial by coadministration of anti-CD19 and anti-CD20 CAR-T ... The patients were conditioned with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide before the infusion of anti-CD19 and anti-CD20 CAR-T cells ... PURPOSE: Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has demonstrated remarkable efficacy for refractory and ...
Target Antigen Density Governs the Efficacy of Anti-CD20-CD28-CD3 zeta Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified Effector CD8(+) T ... Target Antigen Density Governs the Efficacy of Anti-CD20-CD28-CD3 zeta Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified Effector CD8(+) T ... T1 - Target Antigen Density Governs the Efficacy of Anti-CD20-CD28-CD3 zeta Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified Effector CD8(+) ... Target Antigen Density Governs the Efficacy of Anti-CD20-CD28-CD3 zeta Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified Effector CD8(+) T ...
CD20 antigen. *TNF-? antagonists. *Rheumatoid Arthritis Therapeutics Sales Channel Outlook (Revenue, USD Million, 2014 - 2025) ...
Antigen Expression HLA A1, A33/31, B7, B18, DRw1, DRw2; CD11a +; CD19 +; CD20 + CD28 -; CD38 + ...
Mouse monoclonal CD20 antibody [B-H20]. Validated in Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to tissue, cells or ... recurrent bacterial infections and an inability to mount an antibody response to antigen. The defect results from a failure of ... also called antibody deficiency due to CD20 defect. CVID5 is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by antibody deficiency, ...
  • CD19 and CD20 are promising targets for the treatment of B-Cell malignancies. (cancer.gov)
  • This suggests that a therapeutic with the ability to simultaneously target both CD19 and CD20 could represent a solution to the drawbacks of current therapies. (cancer.gov)
  • Researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) have developed the current invention which is an expression construct for a CAR that targets both CD19 and CD20. (cancer.gov)
  • The result is a more efficient and simultaneous targeting of both CD19 and CD20 by the same T cell. (cancer.gov)
  • Examination of plasma cell immunophenotype by measuring certain of their cell surface antigens, particularly Cluster of differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on hydrophobicity data and the lack of a signal sequence, CD20 is predicted to have intracellular N- and C-termini, four transmembrane spans (TM1-4), and an extracellular domain between TM3 and TM4 ( 18 , 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Studies have demonstrated that CD20-initiated intracellular signals involve tyrosine kinase activation and that CD20 is tightly associated with both serine and tyrosine kinases. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The zeta chain plays an important role in coupling antigen recognition to several intracellular signal-transduction pathways. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • SMIP therapeutics are mono-specific (they recognize and attach to single antigen targets and initiate biological activity). (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of a novel testis-specific human four-transmembrane gene related to CD20 and FcepsilonRI-beta. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Patients must have evidence that their tumor tissue expresses the CD20 antigen. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Accurate, reliable localization of two or more antigens on the same tissue section is a powerful research tool that can be easily applied in standard laboratory settings. (vectorlabs.com)
  • Vector Laboratories offers many solutions for the localization of two or more antigens in the same tissue section. (vectorlabs.com)
  • In general, immunoenzymatic methods can be used to stain two or more antigens in the same tissue section when the antigens are located in different cell types or different compartments of the same cell. (vectorlabs.com)
  • Matching certain types of tissue antigens is important for the success of an organ transplant. (tabers.com)
  • Depending on the method of fixation and tissue preservation, the sample may require additional steps to make the epitopes available for antibody binding, including deparaffinization and antigen retrieval. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the tissue type and the method of antigen detection, endogenous biotin or enzymes may need to be blocked or quenched, respectively, prior to antibody staining. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quality control should as a minimum include a tissue known to express the antigen as a positive control and negative controls of tissue known not to express the antigen, as well as the test tissue probed in the same way with omission of the primary antibody (or better, absorption of the primary antibody). (wikipedia.org)
  • An animal's exposure to the antigens of a different member of the same or similar species is allostimulation, and the tissue is allogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are immune-mediated biliary diseases that demonstrate prominent and restricted genetic association with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. (nih.gov)
  • In humans MHC is also called human leukocyte antigen (HLA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ease of use and versatility also enable the VECTASTAIN ® ABC kits and ImmPRESS ™ reagents to be incor- porated into applications such as multiple antigen labeling, without requiring significant pro- cedural alterations or additional reagents. (vectorlabs.com)