Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Patterns of A2A extracellular adenosine receptor expression in different functional subsets of human peripheral T cells. Flow cytometry studies with anti-A2A receptor monoclonal antibodies. (1/945)

Signaling through A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR) regulates T lymphocyte expansion and modulates T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated effector functions in vitro. To understand the role of A2ARs in the regulation of immune response, we investigated the expression levels of this receptor in different functional lymphocyte subsets. Monoclonal anti-A2AR antibody was used to develop a flow cytometric assay to quantify the expression A2ARs on lymphocytes. We report that detectable levels of expression of A2ARs are much higher among T cells than B cells. More CD4(+) than CD8(+) T cells express A2ARs, but activation of T cells increases A2AR expression, predominantly in CD8(+) T cells. No significant differences were found in the proportion of A2AR+ cells between CD8(low) and CD8(high) T cells or between TCR/CD3(low) and TCR/CD3(high) T cells. Studies of T helper cell subsets (TH1 and TH2) reveal that lymphokine-producing cells are much more likely to express A2ARs than are cells that do not produce lymphokines. These results suggest that A2ARs are variably expressed on T cell subsets and may regulate cytokine production in activated T lymphocytes.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical analysis of arterial wall cellular infiltration in Buerger's disease (endarteritis obliterans). (2/945)

PURPOSE: The diagnosis of Buerger's disease has depended on clinical symptoms and angiographic findings, whereas pathologic findings are considered to be of secondary importance. Arteries from patients with Buerger's tissue were analyzed histologically, including immunophenotyping of the infiltrating cells, to elucidate the nature of Buerger's disease as a vasculitis. METHODS: Thirty-three specimens from nine patients, in whom Buerger's disease was diagnosed on the basis of our clinical and angiographic criteria between 1980 and 1995 at Nagoya University Hospital, were studied. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin-embedded tissue with a labeled streptoavidin-biotin method. RESULTS: The general architecture of vessel walls was well preserved regardless of the stage of disease, and cell infiltration was observed mainly in the thrombus and the intima. Among infiltrating cells, CD3(+) T cells greatly outnumbered CD20(+) B cells. CD68(+) macrophages or S-100(+) dendritic cells were detected, especially in the intima during acute and subacute stages. All cases except one showed infiltration by the human leukocyte antigen-D region (HLA-DR) antigen-bearing macrophages and dendritic cells in the intima. Immunoglobulins G, A, and M (IgG, IgA, IgM) and complement factors 3d and 4c (C3d, C4c) were deposited along the internal elastic lamina. CONCLUSION: Buerger's disease is strictly an endarteritis that is introduced by T-cell mediated cellular immunity and by B-cell mediated humoral immunity associated with activation of macrophages or dendritic cells in the intima.  (+info)

Plasma cell development in synovial germinal centers in patients with rheumatoid and reactive arthritis. (3/945)

Plasma cells are found surrounding the inflammatory infiltrates of macrophages, T, and B cells in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid and reactive arthritis. This characteristic arrangement suggests that in the synovial tissue CD20+ B cells differentiate into plasma cells. To examine clonal relationships, we have used micromanipulation to separately isolate CD20+ B cells and plasma cells from single infiltrates. DNA was extracted, and from both populations the VH/VL gene repertoires was determined. The data show that in the inflamed synovial tissue activated B cells are clonally expanded. During proliferation in the network of follicular dendritic cells, V gene variants are generated by the hypermutation mechanism. Surprisingly, we do not find identical rearrangements between CD20+ B cells and plasma cells. Nevertheless, the finding of clonally related plasma cells within single infiltrates suggests that these cells underwent terminal differentiation in the synovial tissue. These results indicate that B cell differentiation in the synovial tissue is a dynamic process. Whereas CD20+ B cells may turnover rapidly, plasma cells may well be long lived and thus accumulate in the synovial tissue. The analysis of individual B cells recovered from synovial tissue opens a new way to determine the specificity of those cells that take part in the local immune reaction. This will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid or reactive arthritis.  (+info)

Histopathologic features and expression of Bcl-2 and p53 proteins in primary gastric lymphomas. (4/945)

The aim of this study is to present a histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of primary gastric lymphomas which were reclassified according to the concept of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). The resected specimens from 41 patients with primary gastric lymphoma were investigated retrospectively. Immunohistochemical study was done to analyze the immunophenotype and bcl-2 and p53 proteins expression. Twenty three of the cases had tumors mainly located in the antrum. Histologically, 12 were low grade and 20 were high grade B-cell lymphoma of MALT, 9 other B-cell nonHodgkin's lymphomas. Helicobacter pylori was identified in 72% of the cases. According to Musshoff's modification, most of the MALT lymphoma cases had stage I or II disease. There was significant difference between low and high grade cases, in respect to depth of invasion in gastric wall. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells in all MALT lymphomas expressed B-cell phenotype. Bcl-2 protein was found to be expressed in 59% and p53 protein expression was detected in 72% of cases. Among the B-cell lymphoma of MALT, bcl-2 positivity decreased and p53 positivity increased significantly as the histological grade advanced. So, an inverse correlation was observed between the expression of bcl-2 and p53. In conclusion, most primary gastric lymphomas are low or high grade B-cell MALT lymphomas and appear to arise in MALT acquired as a reaction to Helicobacter pylori infection. Expression of bcl-2 and p53 in gastric lymphomas may be associated with transformation from low-grade to high-grade disease.  (+info)

Therapy of B-cell lymphoma with anti-CD20 antibodies can result in the loss of CD20 antigen expression. (5/945)

Rituximab is a chimeric antibody with human gamma-1 and kappa constant regions and murine variable regions. It recognizes the CD20 antigen, a pan B-cell marker. Therapeutic trials in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) have shown significant efficacy with a primary response rate of 50%, and a secondary response rate of 44% after repeat treatments in prior responders. The selection for proliferating tumor cells that no longer express CD20 may compromise repeated treatment. We have identified a patient who developed a transformed NHL that lost CD20 protein expression after two courses of therapy with rituximab. In a pretreatment lymph node biopsy, 83% of B cells (as defined by CD19 and surface immunoglobulin) expressed surface CD20. A biopsy from the recurrent tumor after two courses of rituximab revealed a diffuse large cell NHL where 0% of B cells expressed CD20 with no evidence of bound rituximab. Cytoplasmic staining showed no CD20 protein. Sequencing of immunoglobulin heavy chain cDNA identified identical variable sequences in the initial and recurrent lymphomas, confirming the association between the two tumors. Literature and database review suggests that approximately 98% of diffuse large cell lymphomas express CD20, which suggests that these tumors rarely survive without CD20. This is the first identified case of loss of CD20 expression in a lymphoma that has relapsed after rituximab therapy, although several other cases have since been identified. Considering the significant number of patients treated with anti-CD20 antibodies, this may occur only rarely and is unlikely to preclude recurrent therapy with anti-CD20 antibodies in the majority of patients. However, because many patients have relapsed after anti-CD20 antibody therapy and have not been biopsied to identify clones with down-regulated CD20 antigen, we do not currently know the true frequency of this phenomenon. When possible, patients should undergo evaluation for CD20 expression before repeated courses of anti-CD20 therapy.  (+info)

Molecular analysis of single B cells from T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma shows the derivation of the tumor cells from mutating germinal center B cells and exemplifies means by which immunoglobulin genes are modified in germinal center B cells. (6/945)

T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma (TCRBCL) belongs to the group of diffuse large cell lymphomas (DLL). It is characterized by a small number of tumor B cells among a major population of nonmalignant polyclonal T cells. To identify the developmental stage of the tumor progenitor cells, we micromanipulated the putative neoplastic large CD20(+) cells from TCRBCLs and amplified and sequenced immunoglobulin (Ig) V gene rearrangements from individual cells. In six cases, clonal Ig heavy, as well as light chain, gene rearrangements were amplified from the isolated B cells. All six cases harbored somatically mutated V gene rearrangements with an average mutation frequency of 15.5% for heavy (VH) and 5.9% for light (VL) chains and intraclonal diversity based on somatic mutation. These findings identify germinal center (GC) B cells as the precursors of the transformed B cells in TCRBCL. The study also exemplifies various means how Ig gene rearrangements can be modified by GC B cells or their malignant counterparts in TCRBCL: In one case, the tumor precursor may have switched from kappa to lambda light chain expression after acquiring a crippling mutation within the initially functional kappa light chain gene. In another case, the tumor cells harbor two in-frame VH gene rearrangements, one of which was rendered nonfunctional by somatic mutation. Either the tumor cell precursor entered the GC with two potentially functional in-frame rearrangements or the second VHDHJH rearrangement occurred in the GC after the initial in-frame rearrangement was inactivated by somatic mutation. Finally, in each of the six cases, at least one cell contained two (or more) copies of a clonal Ig gene rearrangement with sequence variations between these copies. The presence of sequence variants for V region genes within single B cells has so far not been observed in any other normal or transformed B lymphocyte. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) points to a generalized polyploidy of the tumor cells.  (+info)

Distribution of lymphocytes and adhesion molecules in human cervix and vagina. (7/945)

Knowledge of the histological distribution of leucocytes and adhesion molecules in the human genital tract is scarce although local immunity in this region is important. Using immunohistochemical methods, we here describe the organization of CD3+, CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, CD19+ B cells, CD38+ plasma cells, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II+ antigen-presenting cells and CD14+ monocytes, as well as the expression of endothelial addressins in normal human ecto-cervical and vaginal mucosa. T cells were clustered in a distinct band beneath the epithelium and were also dispersed in the epithelium and the lamina propria, whereas CD38+ plasma cells were present only in the lamina propria. MHC class II+ cells were numerous in the lamina propria and in the epithelium, where they morphologically resembled dendritic cells. Lymphoid aggregates containing CD19+ and CD20+ B cells as well as CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells were also found in the cervix. The mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) was not expressed on the vascular endothelium in the cervical or vaginal mucosa. In contrast, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) and P-selectin were expressed in all tissue samples, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin were found in four of seven samples. We conclude that the distribution of leucocytes and adhesion molecules is very similar in the ecto-cervical and the vaginal mucosa and that the regulation of lymphocyte homing to the genital tract is different from that seen in the intestine. Our results also clearly suggest that the leucocytes are not randomly scattered in the tissue but organized in a distinct pattern.  (+info)

Characterization of scFv-Ig constructs generated from the anti-CD20 mAb 1F5 using linker peptides of varying lengths. (8/945)

The heavy (VH) and light (VL) chain variable regions of the murine anti-human CD20 mAb 1F5 were cloned, and four single-chain Ab (scFv) molecules were constructed using linker peptides of variable lengths to join the VH and VL domains. Three constructs were engineered using linker peptides of 15, 10, and 5 aa residues consisting of (GGGGS)3, (GGGGS)2, and (GGGGS)1 sequences, respectively, whereas the fourth was prepared by joining the VH and VL domains directly. Each construct was fused to a derivative of human IgG1 (hinge plus CH2 plus CH3) to facilitate purification using staphylococcal protein A. The aggregation and CD20 binding properties of these four 1F5 scFv-Ig derivatives produced were investigated. Both size-exclusion HPLC column analysis and Western blots of proteins subjected to nonreducing SDS-PAGE suggested that all four 1F5 scFv-Ig were monomeric with m.w. of approximately 55 kDa. The CD20 binding properties of the four 1F5 scFv-Ig were studied by ELISA and flow cytometry. The 1F5 scFv-Ig with the 5-aa linker (GS1) demonstrated significantly superior binding to CD20-expressing target cells, compared with the other scFv-Ig constructs. Scatchard analysis of the radiolabeled monovalent GS1 scFv-Ig revealed a binding avidity of 1.35 x 108 M-1 compared with an avidity of 7.56 x 108 M-1 for the native bivalent 1F5 Ab. These findings suggest that the GS1 scFv-Ig with a short linker peptide of approximately 5 aa is the best of the engineered constructs for future studies.  (+info)

The first study of veltuzumab given IV weekly in NHL patients (IM-T-hA20-01) has shown excellent tolerability and even efficacy at weekly intravenous doses as low as 80-120 mg/m2 over 4 consecutive weeks. These clinical results confirm experiments laboratory studies. Laboratory studies using Veltuzumab administered subcutaneously showed potent activity based on B-cell depletion. The current studys goal is to determine if a subcutaneous (SC) dosing schedule of veltuzumab can be established in patients with NHL or ...
Find everything you need to know about Ofatumumab (Arzerra), including what it is used for, warnings, reviews, side effects, and interactions. Learn more about Ofatumumab (Arzerra) at
通用名】 ARZERRA 【英文名】ARZERRA(ofatumumab)Injection 【中文名】奥法木单抗ARZERRA 【生产厂家】 葛兰素史克公司 【规 格 .... ...
The treatment regimen consists of 2 elements. The first element is represented by one courses of veltuzumab (4 weekly injections of 200 mg/m2). 90Y-epratuzumab will be given as 2 injections at escalating doses 1 week apart and administered starting one week following the 4th veltuzumab injection.. After confirming eligibility and undergoing baseline assessments, the treatment starts with an imaging study using 111In-epratuzumab (5-mCi 111In-DOTA-epratuzumab co-infused with a total of 1.5 mg/kg unlabeled epratuzumab). Blood samples (~7 samples, 5 mL each) for pharmacokinetic analysis will be collected over 5-7 days, and patients will be imaged on 4 separate occasions (e.g., the day of injection (Day 0), Day 1, Day 3, 4, or 5, and day 6 or 7).. The patient will then initiate veltuzumab treatments starting 7 days after the 111In-epratuzumab injection. Veltuzumab is given in 4 weekly doses, each 200 mg/m2. A single blood sample will be taken before each veltuzumab dose to assess residual veltuzumab ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The epitope specificity and tissue reactivity of four murine monoclonal anti-CD22 antibodies. AU - Li, Jia Ling. AU - Shen, Guo Liang. AU - Ghetie, Maria Ana. AU - May, Richard D.. AU - Till, Mark. AU - Ghetie, Victor. AU - Uhr, Jonathan W.. AU - Janossy, George. AU - Thorpe, Philip E.. AU - Amlot, Peter. AU - Vitetta, Ellen S.. PY - 1989/1. Y1 - 1989/1. N2 - The CD22 antigen is expressed on the surface of normal human B cells and some neoplastic B cell lines and tumors. Previous cross-blocking studies using a panel of monoclonal anti-CD22 antibodies have defined four epitope groups, termed A-D. In the present studies, we have further dissected the epitopes recognized by four monoclonal anti-CD22 antibodies using immunopre-cipitation and cross-blocking techniques, immunofluorescence analyses with a variety of cell lines, and immunoperoxidase analyses of 36 normal human tissues. Two of the antibodies, HD6 and RFB4, have been described previously, and two, UV22-1 and UV22-2, are ...
I think the new pms-rituxan studies are exploring the possibility that the treatment failed because IV administration barely penetrates the cns. The assumption is that it works in rrms because the bbb is open and therefore the rituxan can get into the cns. I believe this logic is also part of the suitability criteria for hsct relapses, no joy or something like that. The new studies all have an IT component. There is conflicting information out there regarding the usefulness of rituxan in the cns. Some claim the cns B cells arent cleared out by IT rituxan. Others claim they do. Based on successful use of IT rituxan for CNS lymphomas that were NOT managed by IV rituxan, I think the cns B cells are cleaned up by IT rituxan. Im not a doctor though...just a rampant speculator ...
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Mechanism and therapeutic strategy of secondary failure to anti-tumor necrosis factor-α monoclonal antibody treatment for crohns disease. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Treatment with the chimerical monoclonal antibody rituximab results in CD20-directed B cell depletion. Although this depletion is almost complete in the peripheral blood of nearly all patients with...
In a Phase 2 study, Ahmadi and colleagues demonstrate reasonably high response rates in rituximab-resistant indolent lymphoma patients sequentially treated with lenalidomide/dexamethasone (Part 1; 2 monthly cycles) followed by lenalidomide/dexamethasone + weekly rituximab (Part 2; 3 monthly cycles).
Ofatumumab is a human monoclonal antibody for the CD20 protein. Ofatumumab binds specifically to both the small and large extracellular loops of the CD20 molecule. The CD20 molecule is expressed on normal B lymphocytes (pre-B- to mature B-lymphocyte) and on B-cell CLL. The Fab domain of ofatumumab binds to the CD20 molecule and the Fc domain mediates immune effector functions to result in B-cell lysis in vitro. Ofatumumab received FDA approval on April 17, 2014, for use in combination with chlorambucil, for the treatment of previously untreated patients with CLL for whom fludarabine-based therapy is considered inappropriate. Ofatumumab was also approved by Health Canada on August 13th, 2012.
After three months of Chemo, the Fludarabine/Mitoxantrone is really kicking his bone marrow but its not doing a whole lot to the cancerous lymphocytes, so the new plan is to add Rituxan. Rituxan is a monoclonal antibody which specifically targets mature B Lymphocytes (as opposed to ordinary chemo which kills a lot of innocent bystander cells.) This is good news, in my opinion - I was hoping they would try Rituxan soon. But of course, Rituxan has its own sticky wickets, and the first one comes up tomorrow when Dave gets his first dose of Rituxan ...
Patients with CD22(+) B-cell lymphomas will be treated with escalating doses as a 192 hr infusion of immunotoxin in a Phase I study to determine dose li
My immune system has been depleted to super low levels by years of Rituxan and other medications and yet, I am still having a WG flare and need to get on a primary immune suppressant. Methotrexate and prednisone alone is not getting the job done. My doctor has ordered a Rituxan infusion. Im wondering what would be the smallest dose that might be effective. What have other people done? If you have been on a smaller than normal dose I would like to hear about your experience. Perhaps
Linfomas são doenças originárias do sistema linfático, descritos por Thomas Hodgkin em 1932. São tradicionalmente classificados em dois grupos básicos: doenças de Hodgkin e linfomas do tipo não hodgkin...
Efficacy and safety information from the PePRS Trial, which studied RITUXAN® (rituximab) induction and follow-up treatment of pediatric patients with GPA and MPA. Please see Important Safety Information including Boxed Warning and Full Prescribing Information for more information.
RITUXAN® (rituximab) patient resources including FAQs, infusion center locators and downloadable forms to help support your patients on their GPA & MPA treatment journey. Please see Important Safety Information including Boxed Warning and Full Prescribing Information for more information.
Monoclonal antibody therapy targeted therapy that can be used to treat colon cancer and other cancers. Find out about how it works and side effects.
The main purpose of this study is to examine how two separate groups of 17p deletion Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) participants respond to sequenti
The goal of this clinical research study is to learn if ofatumumab can help to control CLL/SLL that has not yet been treated. The safety of this drug will also be studied.
This month I had my first two infusions of Rituxan to treat my RRMS and I am wondering how long before I feel better? Should it be immediate - once the B cells are targeted/depleted? Or is there a delay ...
I know the side effects to look for while infusing Rituxan. My question is how does it effect the red count (H&H) after the infusion? Does it lower it as much as some other chemotherapy drugs or
Has anyone tried Rituxan (form of chemo) for there RA? I had one infusion then had to stop because i have a blocked artery and can resume taking it after i have...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD45RB Antibody (BRA-11 (same as BRA-11G)) [DyLight 488]. B-Cell Marker. Validated: WB, ELISA, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Monkey (Negative). 100% Guaranteed.
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Rituximab Coupon- Get your Free Rituximab coupon & Discount Drug Card. Access thousands of free medicine coupons for instant savings.
maybe its important to test and treat active infections before one starts rituximab and knocks out part of the immune system. active infections would...
Ռիտուքսիմաբը հայտնաբերվել է գիտնական Նաբիլ Հաննայի և նրա աշխատակիցների կողմից IDEC դեղագործական կազմակերպությունում IDEC-C2B8 անվան տակ։ Դեղի արտոնագիրը տրամադրվել է 1998-ին և վերջացել 2015թ-ին[39]։ Կլինիկական հետազոտություններում իր արդյունավետության և անվտանգության շնորհիվ[40], ռիտուքսիմաբը 1997թ-ին հաստատվեց սննդի և դեղերի վերահսկման կազմակերպության կողմից B բջջային ոչ-Հոջկինյան լիմֆոմաների՝ այլ քիմիոթերապիաների նկատմամբ կայուն ձևերի բուժման համար[41]։ Ռիտուքսիմաբը CHOP սխեմայի հետ միասին ավելի արդյունավետ է, քան CHOP սխեման առանձին տարածուն մեծ B բջջային ...
Read more about the safety and tolerability profile of KESIMPTA and learn about possible adverse reactions. See full prescribing and safety information.
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Rituximab (RTX) may favorably affect skin and lung fibrosis in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc); however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We aimed to explore the hypothesis that RTX may mediate its antifibrotic effects by regulating the expression of Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), an inhibitor of the Wnt pathway. Fourteen patients with SSc and five healthy subjects were recruited. Dkk-1 expression was immunohistochemically assessed in skin biopsies obtained from 11 patients with SSc (8 treated with RTX and 3 with standard treatment), whereas DKK1 gene expression was assessed in 3 patients prior to and following RTX administration. In baseline biopsies obtained from all patients with SSc but not in healthy subjects, Dkk-1 was undetectable in skin fibroblasts. Following RTX treatment, four out of eight patients had obvious upregulation of Dkk-1 skin expression. Similarly, RTX treatment correlated with a significant 4.8-fold upregulation of DKK1 gene expression (p = 0.030). In contrast,
This open-label, randomized study will compare the efficacy of GDC-0199 plus rituximab (GDC-0199+R) with bendamustine plus MabThera/Rituxan (Rituximab) (B+R) in patients with relapsed or resistant chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Patients will be randomized 1:1 into the two arms. Patients randomized to GDC-0199+R will be given GDC-0199 daily (oral, target dose 400 mg) and will receive 6 cycles of rituximab infused intravenously (IV) on Day 1 of each 28-day cycle (Cycle 1: 375 mg/m2; Cycles 2-6: 500 mg/m2).. Patients randomized to B+R will receive 6 cycles of treatment consisting of a rituximab infusion (Cycle 1: 375 mg/m2; Cycles 2-6: 500 mg/m2) on Day 1 and bendamustine infusions (70 mg/m2) on Days 1 and 2 of each 28-day cycle.. Patients in the GDC-0199+R arm will continue GDC-0199 treatment until disease progression or 2 years since treatment start, whichever comes first. Anticipated time on study is up to 5 years.. ...
Paediatric onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) is characterized by high inflammatory activity. No disease modifying treatment has been approved for POMS. The objective of this report was to report the use of rituximab, a B cell depleting monoclonal anti-CD20-antibody, in POMS. This is a retrospective case series at four specialized MS centres in Sweden. Participants were identified through the Swedish MS-registry and our own patient stocks. Data were collected through medical charts review. We identified 14 POMS patients treated with i.v. rituximab 500-1000 mg every 6th to 12th months. Median age at disease onset was 14.7 years, median age at rituximab treatment initiation was 16.5 years, and median treatment duration was 23.6 months. No relapses were reported, and the EDSS scores remained stable or decreased in 13 of 14 cases during rituximab treatment. Beyond 6 months from initiating rituximab treatment, only one new lesion was detected on MRI. No serious AEs were reported. The drug survival was ...
WALTHAM, Mass., Nov. 6 /PRNewswire/ -- Decision Resources, one of the worlds leading research and advisory firms focusing on pharmaceutical and healthcare issues, finds that surveyed U.S. rheumatologists anticipate using Bristol-Myers Squibbs Orencia and Biogen Idec/Genentech/ Chugai/Zenyaku Kogyos Rituxan, also marketed as Roches MabThera, more frequently in first- and second-line biologic therapy through 2010 for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Currently, surveyed rheumatologists prescribe Orencia in earlier lines of therapy than Rituxan - 78 percent of them most commonly prescribe Orencia as a third-line biologic, whereas 51 percent of them use Rituxan as a fourth-line biologic, stated Madhuri Borde, Ph.D., analyst at Decision Resources. Surveyed rheumatologists contend that physician familiarity, concern about the long-term effects of B-cell depletion with Rituxan and preference for Orencias mechanism of action influences physicians to prescribe Orencia instead of ...
The depletion of CD19+ B cells by CD19-targeted CAR CD8+ T cells effectively eliminated autoantibody production and deferred or reversed disease manifestations of experimental lupus in two mouse models. These results contrast with previous results in the same mouse models, which showed resistance to anti-CD20 antibody-mediated B cell depletion (11-13). We propose that CD19-targeted CAR T cells have superior efficacy because cytotoxic T cells induce target cell death by a direct mechanism, whereas antibody-mediated cytotoxicity requires the buildup of bound antibody for complement-dependent target cell lysis, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, or clearance by phagocytes. Previous studies indicated that in models of lupus, the increased abundance of endogenous antibodies and immune complexes impairs B cell depletion by macrophages (12). Thus, anti-CD20 antibody was only effective if given repeatedly and at high doses to autoimmune mice. CD19-targeted CAR T cells, in contrast, kill B cells ...
Conclusions: Ofatumumab (up to 700 mg) given 2 weeks apart was not associated with any unexpected safety concerns and was well tolerated in patients with RRMS. MRI data suggest a clinically meaningful effect of ofatumumab for all doses studied. Results warrant further exploration of ofatumumab in RRMS. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that in patients with RRMS, ofatumumab compared with placebo does not increase the number of serious adverse events and decreases the number of new MRI lesions. (Source: Neurology)
Hi Everyone. What an interesting topic - Ill throw in what I know for now if thats ok?. In the UK were told generally that Rituxan / Rituximab has no side effects except for during the actual infusion process. These effects include flushing, closing of the throat or tight chest sensations, chills, palps and feelings of fever. Also BP can go up or down.. Generally if they slow down the infusion these problems go away. My infusion used to take 6 to 8 hours each time! (everyone else was about 1 - 2 hours). Were told that there should be no after effects other than maybe an elevated Uric Acid level as the Rituxan kills off the bad cells and the body trys to flush them out - were usually given an Anti-Gout medication here (allopurinol) to counter act those effects.. Its interesting that you all speak of a rash and itching sensation as I had that really badly twice in the last year BUT have been off Rituxan for over 2 years! My GP said it was an allergic reaction to something and since a new ...
Monoclonal human IgG1 antibody against human CD20 Anti-hCD20-hIgG1 features the constant region of the human IgG1 isotype and the variable region of rituximab. Rituximab is a mouse/human chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets the CD20 antigen found on the surface of malignant and normal B lymphoc
Three patients enrolled in this study had non-follicular lymphoma histologies. One with small lymphocytic lymphoma achieved a complete response, currently ongoing now 72 weeks after treatment. The other 2 patients (one SLL, one MZL) entered with high levels of circulating B cells and failed to achieve an objective response. We have reported that in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the same subcutaneous doses and dosing schedule of veltuzumab used here also failed to achieve meaningful clinical benefit, but had evidence of pharmacological activity with transient decreases in the high levels of circulating leukemic B cells.32 For subcutaneous injections, more frequent or extended dosing or combination therapy with other agents will likely be required to overcome the higher antigen burden in these settings, consistent with the experience of other anti-CD20 antibodies which are given intravenously at much higher doses for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.21. Compared to ...
The decline in the numbers of inflammatory cells and adhesion molecules in synovial tissue after CD4+ cell depletion supports the view that CD4+ T cells orchestrate local cellular infiltration. The lack of clinical effect of anti-CD4 therapy might be explained by an insufficient decrease in the numb …
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is thought to be an immunologically mediated disease resulting in the complete destruction of the insulin-producing i
Significant peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell depletion has been observed after a first cycle of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen, which is currently used in rheumatoid arthritis. Of note, an absence of CD4+ T-cell decrease has been observed in non-responders. Herein, we describe CD4+ T-cell changes over repeated cycles of rituximab and their relationship with clinical outcomes.. METHODS ...
GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and Genmab A/S (OMX: GEN) announced today the submission of a Biologics License Application (BLA) to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Arzerra™(ofatumumab) to treat patients whose chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is resistant (refractory) to previous therapies. If approved, ofatumumab would be the first anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody available for this patient population.
Background: The PRIMA study showed that 2 years of R-M therapy after immunochemotherapy as first line treatment of follicular lymphoma reduced the risk of disease progression compared to OBS (Salles et al, Lancet 2011). Per-protocol analyses showed that R-M did not adversely affect patient-reported quality of life.
Monoclonal antibody therapy is a type of treatment for cancer that is given in medicines to attack certain parts of cancer cells. Learn more about how this treatment works.
This study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of rituximab for the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis in patients with incomplete B cell depletion
The UAE Ministry of Health and Prevention (MoHAP) has approved Sotrovimab, which is produced by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), after conducting local evaluati..
Summary Phase III Pivotal Study of Ofatumumab in Refractory CLL Meets Primary Endpoint Genmab A S (OMX GEN) and GlaxoSmithKline announced today positive top-lin
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - updated results of a phase III trial finds that idelalisib combined with ofatumumab is safe and effective in relapsed patients
Available by prescription only, ofatumumab is a drug used for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This article from the eMedTV Web site explains how this chemotherapy medication works, provides dosing information, describes potential side effects, and more.
1 Answer - Posted in: rituxan, skin, infusion - Answer: I develop raised hives, used lotion, ice, 2 Benadryl, hydrocortisone cream.
Clinicians developed a model for distributing COVID-19 neutralizing monoclonal antibody treatments that they said may be useful for other large health systems.In an article published in Open Forum Infectious Diseases, they examined the allocation and administration of antibody treatments in 35 hospitals and several senior community facilities, skilled nursing facilities and outpatient providers
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both extremely valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. Treatment protocols for physicians are available from the FLCCC. ...
This phase II trial studies how well acalabrutinib, lenalidomide, and rituximab work in treating patients with CD20 positive stage III-IV, grade 1-3a...
Rituximab Helps in Sjgrens Syndrome By Nancy Walsh, Contributing Writer, MedPage Today Published: April 06, 2010 Reviewed by Dori F. Zaleznik, MD;...
OK.. I read this last night and had to post about it. Two Norwegian Drs have made a major breakthrough in CFS. They have discovered that a drug (Rituximab) used to treat certain cancers, significantly helped 2 out of 3 cases of CFS, and even completely cured some. While it may not be the answer…
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... including deparaffinization and antigen retrieval. For formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, antigen-retrieval is often ... Identification of B-cell lymphomas using CD20. Identification of T-cell lymphomas using CD3. PIN-4 cocktail, targeting p63, CK- ... "IHC Tip 1: Antigen retrieval - should I do PIER or HIER?". AbD Serotec. Archived from the original on 2016-04-23. Retrieved ... Visualising an antibody-antigen interaction can be accomplished in a number of ways, mainly either of the following: ...
B-cell-associated antigens such as CD19, CD20, CD22, and CD79a are usually expressed. In contrast to small lymphocytic lymphoma ... Rituximab, the anti-CD20 chimeric antibody, is a key component of therapy. Responses vary from 55% to 77% with monotherapy and ...
Nofetumomab is an antibody fragment that recognises the pancarcinoma glycoprotein antigen EpCAM. and/or CD20/MS4A1 It is the ...
... is a murine monoclonal antibody which targets the CD20 antigen produced in mammalian cell. It was combined with ... or Transformed CD20 Positive Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Who Have Not Received Prior Rituximab; BEXXAR". Federal Register. 23 ...
Tedder TF, Streuli M, Schlossman SF, Saito H (1988). "Isolation and structure of a cDNA encoding the B1 (CD20) cell-surface ... antigen of human B lymphocytes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85 (1): 208-12. doi:10.1073/pnas.85.1.208. PMC 279513. PMID ... Szepetowski P, Gaudray P (1994). "FCER1B, a candidate gene for atopy, is located in 11q13 between CD20 and TCN1". Genomics. 19 ... Kanzaki M, Lindorfer MA, Garrison JC, Kojima I (1997). "Activation of the calcium-permeable cation channel CD20 by alpha ...
... is a chimeric monoclonal antibody targeted against CD20 which is a surface antigen present on B cells. Therefore, it ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... It tends to stick to one side of B cells, where CD20 is, forming a cap and drawing proteins over to that side. The presence of ... ofatumumab (HuMax-CD20) a fully human B cell-depleting agent. Third-generation anti-CD20s such as obinutuzumab have a ...
Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... such as CD19 and CD20. Instead, plasma cells are identified through flow cytometry by their additional expression of CD138, ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen-presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ... Pieces of the antigen (which are now known as antigenic peptides) are loaded onto MHC II molecules, and presented on its ...
... a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the CD20 B-cell antigen, has therapeutic activity in diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma5. ... the loss of tumor antigens and other molecules essential for antigen processing and presentation). Chemotherapy can promote ...
With respect to diagnosing BNS, flow cytometry analyzes CSF contents for B-cells expressing the pan antigens CD19 and CD20, ...
AME-133v is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting the CD20 antigen on both healthy and malignant B-lymphocytes, ... The antibody is engineered for enhanced affinity to the CD20 antigen on B-lymphocytes, increased antibody-dependent cell- ... In pre-clinical studies, ocaratuzumab was shown to have 13 to 20 fold greater affinity for CD20 and 6 fold more potent ADCC as ... March 2012). "Results of a phase 1 study of AME-133v (LY2469298), an Fc-engineered humanized monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody, in ...
This high mutation rate makes them prone to the selection of B-cells lacking the CD20 antigen following treatment with CD20- ... "Therapy of B-cell lymphoma with anti-CD20 antibodies can result in the loss of CD20 antigen expression". Clinical Cancer ... B-cells that have not encountered an antigen are called naive B cells. When naïve B-cells encounter an antigen, one of the ... Approximately 95% of B-cell lymphomas express CD20, but CD20 is not critical for B-cell survival. Clonal B-cells spontaneously ...
The DLBCL cells have found to express B-cell antigens such as CD19, CD20, and CD22 as well as the transcription factors PAX5, ... CD20 is especially relevant in diagnostics as well as therapeutics because it is the target of the Rituximab humanized ... Two promising immunotherapy approaches against diffuse large B-cell lymphoma are chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy ...
Addition of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against the CD20 antigen expressed on B cells, may be added to this or other ... The EBV+ large B cells in these lesions often have reduced expression of the CD20 antigen and contain genetic abnormalities ... The lymphocytes are primarily B cells (e.g., express CD20 and CD10 markers) with rare T cells evident only in the background. ... The EBV+ NK cells express CD56 antigen and are malignant with EBV in its latency II phase. The NK cells expression relatively ...
Depending on the antigen used and the genetic make-up of the animal, rodents can display a monophasic bout of EAE, a relapsing- ... "Anti-CD20 Therapy Down-Regulates Lesion Formation And Microglial Activation In Pattern I And Pattern II Rat Models Of Multiple ... Some key differences between EAE in mice, and MS in humans include: B-cells: Some research points to anti-CD20 B-cells being ... The most commonly used antigens in rodents are spinal cord homogenate (SCH), purified myelin, myelin protein such as MBP, PLP, ...
They are largely built from parts of antibodies (immunoglobulins), and like them have a binding site for antigens that could be ... Examples are TRU-015, a CD20 targeting SMIP under research for rheumatoid arthritis, and TRU-016, a CD37 targeting potential ... Rubbert-Roth, A. (2010). "TRU-015, a fusion protein derived from an anti-CD20 antibody, for the treatment of rheumatoid ... A monoclonal antibody targeting the desired antigen can be developed the classical way, using hybridoma technology. The scFv is ...
For example: pPCL plasma cells more often express CD20 antigen, which is considered important in anchoring plasma cells to the ... 17%); pPCL plasma cells often lack CD56 antigen which is present on the majority of plasma cells taken form multiple myeloma ... Examination of plasma cell immunophenotype by measuring certain of their cell surface antigens, particularly Cluster of ...
The IL-2a (CD25, T-cell activation antigen, TAC) is expressed only by the already-activated T lymphocytes. Therefore, it is of ... anti-CD20 monoclonals). Heterologous polyclonal antibodies are obtained from the serum of animals (e.g., rabbit, horse), and ... Past this period CD3 blocks the TCR-antigen binding and causes conformational change or the removal of the entire TCR3/CD3 ... The antilymphocyte (ALG) and antithymocyte antigens (ATG) are being used. They are part of the steroid-resistant acute ...
... b-lymphocyte surface antigens CD19, CD20, CD22, CD79a and FMC7, and weak expression of CD5 and CD23. Due to the similarities ... B-lymphocytes have two responsibilities: Production of antibodies - In response to antigens, B-lymphocytes produce and release ... one of its key identifiers is the absence in expression of the surface antigens CD10, CD11c, CD25, CD103 and cyclin D1 - an ... it is directed against the surface protein CD20. Case studies have documented successful treatment of B-PLL solely with ...
... is not routinely used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma due to the lack of CD20 surface antigens in most cases. The use of rituximab in ... such as CD20) are not expressed on all cells, Reed-Sternberg cells are usually of B cell origin. Although Hodgkin's is now ... lymphoma distinct from Classical Hodgkin lymphoma and is characterized by the presence of popcorn cells which express CD20. Due ... which is a monoclonal antibody against CD20) ...
... but express B cell markers like CD20, CD22, and CD79a and also express the common leukocyte antigen CD45, which is uncommon on ... The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody Rituximab has been used in lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma with encouraging results. ... Rituximab has specific use in treatment of NLPHL as it is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20. Studies ... Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is an indolent CD20(+) form of lymphoma. Some medical organizations no ...
... antigens, cd5 MeSH D23.050.301.264.051.119 - antigens, cd19 MeSH D23.050.301.264.051.120 - antigens, cd20 MeSH D23.050.301.264. ... antigens, cd18 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.119 - antigens, cd19 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.120 - antigens, cd20 MeSH D23.050.301.264 ... antigens, cd18 MeSH D23. - antigens, cd19 MeSH D23. - antigens, cd20 MeSH D23. - ... antigens, cd5 MeSH D23. - antigens, cd19 MeSH D23. - antigens, cd20 MeSH D23. - ...
The antibody binds to the CD20 antigen found on the surface of normal and malignant B cells (but not B cell precursors), ...
... kills normal and malignant B cells that bear the CD20 antigen or the proteasome inhibitor, Bortezomib. Patients suffering type ... processing of these antigens. As they are stimulated to become plasma cells, B cells refashion parts of their genome in efforts ... and the immunoglobulin light chain antigen binding locus on the q arm of chromosome 22 at position 11.2 (i.e. 22 q11.2) by ... and recombine various genes at the immunoglobulin heavy chain antigen-binding locus on the long (i.e. "q") arm of human ...
... antibody directed against CD20 surface antigen-bearing lymphocytes) in patients with Waldenstroms macroglobulonemia). Treatment ... and hepatitic C antigen. Biopsies of skin lesions and, where indicated, kidney or other tissues can help in determining the ...
... deacetylases and histone-modifying genes are de-regulated.Bone marrow tumour cells express the following antigen targets CD20 ( ... "Expression of serotherapy target antigens in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia: therapeutic applications and considerations". ...
... directed at B-cell surface antigen CD20 (D)examethasone, a glucocorticoid hormone (H)igh-dose (A)ra-C - cytarabine, an ... In combination with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab (Rituxan, Mabthera) it is called R-DHAP or DHAP-R. [R]-DHAP regimen ...
B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 or CD20 is expressed on the surface of all B-cells beginning at the pro-B phase (CD45R+, CD117+) and ... appears to recognise a conformational variant of CD20 also known as the FMC7 antigen. CD20 is the target of the monoclonal ... CD20+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) representations of the shape are found here ... Stamenkovic I, Seed B (June 1988). "Analysis of two cDNA clones encoding the B lymphocyte antigen CD20 (B1, Bp35), a type III ...
B1b cells seem to recognize more types of antigens including intracellular antigens. Previously, B1b cell antigen recognition ... Human B1 cells have been found to have marker profile of CD20+CD27+CD43+CD70- and could either be CD5+ or CD5-, which has been ... making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen-presenting cells. These B1 cells are commonly found in peripheral ... Hence, there appears to be a role for self or foreign antigen in shaping the repertoire of the B-1 B cell compartment. B1 B ...
Loss of tumor antigen expression is another cause of escape from immune recognition. This occurs because most tumor antigens ... Vaccinations may help the immune system locate certain oncoantigens such as MET, RET, CD20 and CD22. However; cells that evade ... Most tumor antigens are not oncoantigens, either because they are intracellular molecules, like cancer-testis antigen such as ... like the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or the prostate specific antigen (PSA). Novel strategies will be required to identify ...
Dendritic cells (DC) can be stimulated to activate a cytotoxic response towards an antigen. Dendritic cells, a type of antigen- ... The use of monoclonal antibodies in cancer therapy was first introduced in 1997 with rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody for ... causing them to display the antigen. Upon transfusion into the person, these activated cells present the antigen to the ... March 2005). "CD8+ T cell immunity against a tumor/self-antigen is augmented by CD4+ T helper cells and hindered by naturally ...
Surface antigens[edit]. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... common pan-B cell markers, such as CD19 and CD20. Instead, plasma cells are identified through flow cytometry by their ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ...
CD20 • CD21 • CD22 • CD23 • CD24 • CD25 • CD26 • CD27 • CD28 • CD29 • CD30 • CD31 • CD32 (A, B) • CD33 • CD34 • CD35 • CD36 • ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... CD20, CD21 and Immunoglobulin), natural killer cells and monocytes (CD15+), as well as activation markers (HLA-DR, CD25, CD80 ( ... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
CD20 (Afutuzumab, Ocrelizumab, Pascolizumab) • CD23 (Lumiliksimab) • CD40 (Teneliksimab, Toralizumab) • CD62L/L-selektin ( ... Induction of Potent and Long-Lasting T-Cell Responses against Cancer Antigens". Cancer Research 62: 1477-1480. ... "A divalent major histocompatibility complex/IgG1 fusion protein induces antigen-specific T cell activation in vitro and in ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
The antibody will be targeted at a preferentially expressed protein in the tumour cells (known as a tumor antigen) or on cells ... lymphoid: CD20 (Ibritumomab. *Ofatumumab. *Rituximab. *Tositumomab), CD30 (Brentuximab), CD52 (Alemtuzumab). *myeloid: CD33 ( ... They bind to the tumor antigen and are internalised, where the linker releases the drug into the cell. These specially targeted ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
The protein also carries the Jr(a) antigen, which defines the Junior blood group system.[9] ...
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
"Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
"Guiding the selection of human antibodies from phage display repertoires to a single epitope of an antigen". Bio/Technology. 12 ... drug were found by guiding the selection of human antibodies from phage display repertoires to a single epitope of an antigen ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
CD20 • CD21 • CD22 • CD23 • CD24 • CD25 • CD26 • CD27 • CD28 • CD29 • CD30 • CD31 • CD32 (A, B) • CD33 • CD34 • CD35 • CD36 • ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
Rituksimab, brend Rituxan® i MabThera®, je anti-CD20 monoklonalno antitelo koje je ranije korišćeno protiv carcinoma. Pokazano ... veoma kasan antigen -4). Rezultati faze IIa su objavljeni. ... a second-generation anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, for the ... Usled nepovoljnog profila nuspojava i postojanja boljih anti-CD20 lekova[20], dalja ispitivanja Rituksimaba su bila ograničena ... Hutas G (November 2008). "Ocrelizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD20 for inflammatory disorders and B-cell ...
Unlike virtually all other mammals, humans and other primates do not make αGal, and in fact recognize it as an antigen.[12] ... Monoclonal anti-CD20 antibodies *Rituximab. Blood transfer[edit]. Cases refractory to immunosuppressive or antibody therapy are ... An animal's exposure to the antigens of a different member of the same or similar species is allostimulation, and the tissue is ... In the living donor, such presentation of self antigens helped maintain self tolerance.) Thereupon, the T cell receptors (TCRs ...
CD20 (Afutuzumab, Ocrelizumab, Pascolizumab) • CD23 (Lumiliksimab) • CD40 (Teneliksimab, Toralizumab) • CD62L/L-selektin ( ... ćelije bile identifikovane kao najpotentniji proizvođači tipa I interferona u odgovoru na antigen, i bile su nazvani prirodne ...
"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)".. *^ May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; ... CD61+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
An anti-CD20 antibody, rituximab, inhibits B cells and has been shown to provoke C-peptide responses three months after ... that suppress activation of the immune system and thereby maintain immune system homeostasis and tolerance to self-antigens.[26 ...
... s gegen den B-Zell-Böverflachenmarker CD20 kennt blots naive (d.h. de noch keen Antigen kennt hebbt) un Gedächtnis-B- ... De hoge Spezifität, mit de Antikörpers jemehr Antigen kennt, warrt in de Biologie utnütt, üm dat Antigen, wat in de meisten ... Antigen - Antikörper - Binnen. Literatur[ännern , Bornkood ännern]. *Alexander H. Lucas (2001): Immunoglobulin Gene ... Antigen-Antikörper-Binnen[ännern , Bornkood ännern]. Antikörpers binnt mit jemehr A(ntigen)B(inding)-Rebeet „jemehr" Epitop ...
CD20 (Afutuzumab, Ocrelizumab, Pascolizumab) • CD23 (Lumiliksimab) • CD40 (Teneliksimab, Toralizumab) • CD62L/L-selektin ( ... Nakon presađivanja (transplantacije) organa, telo skoro uvek „odbaci" novi organ usled razlike ljudskih leukocit antigen ...
... is not routinely used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma due to the lack of CD20 surface antigens in most cases. The use of rituximab in ... For the other forms, although the traditional B-cell markers (such as CD20) are not expressed on all cells,[23] Reed-Sternberg ... The common non-Hodgkin treatment, rituximab (which is a monoclonal antibody against CD20) ... lymphoma distinct from Classical Hodgkin lymphoma and is characterized by the presence of popcorn cells which express CD20.[22] ...
"Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26". Science. 261 (5120): 466-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet degranulation. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling ...
Despite the clinical success of CD20-specific antibody rituximab, malignancies of B-cell origin continue to present a major ... CD20 scFv antibody Natural killer cell Chimeric antigen receptor Adoptive therapy Electronic supplementary material. The online ... and CD20-positive NIH3T3-CD20(eGFP), and eGFP- and CD20-negative NIH3T3 cells before addition of NK cells is shown. Exemplary ... Expression of a CD20-specific chimeric antigen receptor enhances cytotoxic activity of NK cells and overcomes NK-resistance of ...
CD20" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, CD20" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... "Antigens, CD20" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD20" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Antigens, CD20". ...
The CD20 (Bp35) antigen is involved in activation of B cells from the G0 to the G1 phase of the cell cycle.. J T Golay, E A ... The CD20 (Bp35) antigen is involved in activation of B cells from the G0 to the G1 phase of the cell cycle. ... The CD20 (Bp35) antigen is involved in activation of B cells from the G0 to the G1 phase of the cell cycle. ... The CD20 (Bp35) antigen is involved in activation of B cells from the G0 to the G1 phase of the cell cycle. ...
Association of tyrosine and serine kinases with the B cell surface antigen CD20. Induction via CD20 of tyrosine phosphorylation ... Association of tyrosine and serine kinases with the B cell surface antigen CD20. Induction via CD20 of tyrosine phosphorylation ... Association of tyrosine and serine kinases with the B cell surface antigen CD20. Induction via CD20 of tyrosine phosphorylation ... Association of tyrosine and serine kinases with the B cell surface antigen CD20. Induction via CD20 of tyrosine phosphorylation ...
The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocyte ... CD20 is a human B-lymphocyte surface molecule that spans the membrane four times and is expressed on both normal and malignant ... The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocytes and ... Western Blot: CD20 Antibody. Expression and biochemistry studies with the CD20 antibody from Uchidas lab at Duke were ...
Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells immunotherapy is rapidly developed in treating cancers, especially relapsed or ... CD20-specific adoptive immunotherapy for lymphoma using a chimeric antigen receptor with both CD28 and 4-1BB domains: pilot ... The efficacy and safety of anti-CD19/CD20 chimeric antigen receptor- T cells immunotherapy in relapsed or refractory B-cell ... Anti-CD20 antibody therapy for B-cell lymphomas. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(21):2008-16.View ArticleGoogle Scholar. ...
Rituximab Maintenance Therapy in Aggressive CD20 (Cluster of Differentiation Antigen 20) Positive Lymphoma and Mantle Cell ... Clinical trial focusing on CD20 positive lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma. ... Clinical Trial: Rituximab Maintenance Therapy in Aggressive CD20 (Cluster of Differentiation Antigen 20) Positive Lymphoma and ... Clinical Trial: Rituximab Maintenance Therapy in Aggressive CD20 (Cluster of Differentiation Antigen 20) Positive Lymphoma and ...
Home , A bispecific antibody targeting CD47 and CD20 selectively binds and eliminates dual antigen expressing lymphoma cells ... 2015) A bispecific antibody targeting CD47 and CD20 selectively binds and eliminates dual antigen expressing lymphoma cells. ...
Analysis of two cDNA clones encoding the B lymphocyte antigen CD20 (B1, Bp35), a type III integral membrane protein. I ... Two cDNA clones encoding the pan-B cell CD20 antigen were isolated from a COS cell expression library. The two clones bear ... I Stamenkovic, B Seed; Analysis of two cDNA clones encoding the B lymphocyte antigen CD20 (B1, Bp35), a type III integral ... The predicted CD20 sequence is 297 residues long and contains three hydrophobic domains, one of which is long enough to span ...
... antigen)) (mouse monoclonal clone B1R1 γ2a-chain), disulfide with mouse monoclonal clone B1R1 λx-chain, dimer, iodine-131I salt ... CA Index Name: Immunoglobulin G2a, anti-(human CD20 (antigen)) (mouse monoclonal clone B1R1 γ2a-chain), disulfide with mouse ...
Development of a Mimotope-Based Vaccine Against CD20 Antigen. Author(s): Meng Li, Wei Han, Quiyang Zhang, Xiaochang Xue, Zenglu ... CD20, a B-cell-specific protein, is a primary target for immunotherapy of B-cell lymphomas. We used a mimotopes of CD20 to ... Abstract: CD20, a B-cell-specific protein, is a primary target for immunotherapy of B-cell lymphomas. We used a mimotopes of ... Keywords: CD20, mimotope, vaccine, B-cell lymphoma, immunotherapy, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) ...
CD20 is a 33-37 kD, four transmembrane spanning protein, also known as B1 and Bp35. ... Antigen References 1. Hultin L, et al. 1993. Cytometry 14:196.. 2. Tedder T, et al. 1994. Immunol. Today 15:450. ... CD20 is a 33-37 kD, four transmembrane spanning protein, also known as B1 and Bp35. CD20 is expressed on pre-B-cells, resting ... CD20 is heavily phosphorylated on activated B cells and malignant B cells. Homo-oligomeric complexes of CD20 are thought to ...
CD20, CD56) - This anti-Human Lineage Cocktail is optimized for the detection of human lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and ... This cocktail is composed of CD3, CD14, CD19, CD20, and CD56. CD3 is the antigen mainly found on T cells; CD14 is expressed on ... Antigen References 1. Zola H, et al. Eds. 2007. Leukocyte and Stromal Cell Molecules. New Jersey. 2. Olweus J, et al. 1997. P. ... CD19 and CD20 are expressed on B lymphocytes. CD56 is expressed on activated and resting NK lymphocytes. Cell Type T cells, ...
These data support the concept that in B-CLL rituximab treatment may not lead to the emergence of CD20(-) leukemic variants. ... Antigens, CD20 / genetics* * Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use* * Base Sequence * DNA Primers * Gene Expression ... Results: Cytotoxicity of rituximab in vitro did not depend on the protein levels of CD20. During therapy with rituximab CD20 ... After treatment, the initial CD20(+) B-CLL cell clone reexpanded. CD20(-) B-CLL cells retained their capacity to synthesize the ...
Rituximab, a chimaeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has been demonstrated to be highly effective for in vivo B-cel … ... Antigens, CD20 / immunology* * B-Lymphocytes / immunology * Female * Humans * Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / administration & ... Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (Rituximab) for life-threatening autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in a patient with systemic lupus ... Rituximab, a chimaeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has been demonstrated to be highly effective for in vivo B-cell depletion ...
Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CARs) are engineered proteins that can be used in a therapeutic capacity when expressed by an ... First in class CAR treatment targeting both CD19 and CD20 simultaneously. *Simultaneous targeting of two antigens decreases the ... B Cell Malignancies, Leukemia, Lymphoma, CD19, CD20, Bicistronic, Adoptive Cell Therapy, ACT, Chimeric Antigen Receptor, CAR, ... Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CARs) are engineered proteins that can be used in a therapeutic capacity when expressed by an ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about CD20 Mouse anti-Human, Biotin, Clone: 2H7, eBioscience 100 µg; Biotin ... employing CD20 conformational change, and/or BCR (B cell antigen receptor) aggregation. After the receptor ligation, BCR and ... CD20 has been detected at low levels on a small subset of mature T cells. It is suggested that CD20 plays a role in B-cell ... CD20 is expressed on mature and most maligt B cells, in a subpopulation of T lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells. CD20 ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about CD20, Mouse anti-Human, Clone: 2H7, BV650, BD 25 Tests; BV650 25 Tests ... Antigen. CD20. Format. Affinity Purified. Immunogen. Human 6.16c1.3 B cell line. ...
... dc.contributor.advisor. Deans, ... Petrie, R. J. (2002). Involvement of lipid rafts in the membrane dynamics of CD20 and the B cell antigen receptor (Unpublished ... Involvement of lipid rafts in the membrane dynamics of CD20 and the B cell antigen receptor. ...
Consistently, we observed that human CD20 is a high immunogenic antigen because human CD20-expressing A20 tumors were ... Rituximab is a murine-human chimeric IgG1 Ab that recognizes the human CD20 antigen on B cells, with a primary response rate ... To determine whether the cross-presentation function of APC is enhanced after anti-CD20 treatment, we transfected an antigen ... Production of anti-mouse CD20 Ab. The V region of the heavy chain and light chain of anti-mouse CD20 Ab was linked with a ...
CD20-like family (IPR007237) *Membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (IPR030417) *B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 (IPR030418) ... MS4A1 (B-lymphocyte antigen CD20) [PMID: 20038800], MS4A2 (high affinity IgE receptor subunit beta) [PMID: 16272347, PMID: ... Membrane-spanning four-domains subfamily A (MS4A) includes B-cell-specific antigen CD20 (MS4A1), high affinity immunoglobulin ... CD20 deficiency in humans results in impaired T cell-independent antibody responses.. J. Clin. Invest. 120 214-22 2010 ...
CD20 was chosen as the target tumor antigen for initial proof-of-concept studies as rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody, has been ... CD20-2GL-SIRPα HC: (GGGGS)2, CD20-4GL-SIRPα HC: (GGGGS)4, SIRPα-γ-CD20 HC: ASTKGPSVFPLAP. Plasmids containing each chain were ... with SIRPα-γ-CD20 HC having an approximately 20-fold reduction and CD20-2GL-SIRPα HC and CD20-4GL-SIRPα HC having more than 50- ... In contrast, CD20-2GL-SIRPα HC and CD20-4GL-SIRPα HC each had reduced binding to CD47 relative to SIRPα-Fc, presumably due to ...
CD20 antigen homolog. CD20 antigen-like protein. IgE receptor beta chain. IgE receptor beta subunit. hematopoietic cell 4 ... Cloning of the cDNA for a hematopoietic cell-specific protein related to CD20 and the beta subunit of the high-affinity IgE ...
... including deparaffinization and antigen retrieval. For formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, antigen-retrieval is often ... Identification of B-cell lymphomas using CD20. Identification of T-cell lymphomas using CD3. PIN-4 cocktail, targeting p63, CK- ... "IHC Tip 1: Antigen retrieval - should I do PIER or HIER?". AbD Serotec. Archived from the original on 2016-04-23. Retrieved ... Visualising an antibody-antigen interaction can be accomplished in a number of ways, mainly either of the following: ...
Antigen Expression CD19 +; CD20 +; CD21 +; CD22 +; Hle-1 +; HLA DQ +; HLA DR +; CD25 -; T cell receptor (TCR) - ...
Antigen Expression CD30 +; CD38 +; CD45 +; CD 54 +; CD71 +; HLA-DR +; EMA + (epithelial membrane antigen); CD2 -; CD3 -; CD4 ... CD5 -, CD8 -; CD19 -; CD20 -; CD21 -; CD22 -. Comments The BC-3 cell line contains the viral genome for Kaposis sarcoma- ... The cells do not express B-cell lineage restricted antigens or kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chains or T-cell lineage- ...
Mouse monoclonal CD20 antibody [B-H20]. Validated in Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to tissue, cells or ... recurrent bacterial infections and an inability to mount an antibody response to antigen. The defect results from a failure of ... also called antibody deficiency due to CD20 defect. CVID5 is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by antibody deficiency, ...
Mouse monoclonal CD20 antibody [2H7] conjugated to PerCP. Validated in Flow Cyt and tested in Human, Non human primates. Cited ... recurrent bacterial infections and an inability to mount an antibody response to antigen. The defect results from a failure of ... Anti-CD20 antibody [2H7], prediluted (Allophycocyanin) (ab134334) *Anti-CD20 antibody [2H7], prediluted (PerCP/Cy5.5®) ( ... Rapid redistribution of CD20 to a low density detergent-insoluble membrane compartment.. J Biol Chem 273:344-8 (1998). Read ...
... marneffei infection in 4 hematology patients without AIDS who received targeted therapy with monoclonal antibodies against CD20 ... A serum cryptococcal antigen test result was negative. He was empirically given intravenous imipenem/cilastatin and oral ... D. Recent emergence of disseminated T. marneffei infection is most likely because of targeted therapies, such as anti-CD20 ... Rituximab and obinutuzumab (used by case-patients cases 1 and 2) are mAbs against CD20 that predominantly target B cells. ...
Influence of FCGR3A-158V/F Genotype and Baseline CD20 Antigen Count on Target-Mediated Elimination of Rituximab in Patients ... The purpose of this study was to quantify the influence of both CD20 antigenic mass and the FcγRIIIA genetic polymorphism on ... Target-mediated elimination rate constant increased with the baseline CD20 count on circulating B cells (p = 0.00046) and in ... Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody approved in the first-line treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic ...
  • Two monoclonal antibodies, 1F5 and B1, directed against the CD20 (Bp35) antigen were found to have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on B cells. (
  • CD20 is a B cell-specific 35/37 kDa integral membrane protein which modulates proliferation and differentiation of normal resting B cells when stimulated by CD20 antibodies. (
  • Then T cells are activated with anti-human CD3/CD28 antibody-coated beads, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies, and/or artificial antigen-presenting cells(APCs). (
  • Agents that block the CD47-SIRPα interaction synergize with pro-phagocytic FcR-activating antibodies, including the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab, for potent phagocytic elimination of tumor cells. (
  • Our bispecific antibodies incorporate a blocking component with weak affinity for CD47, rendering them unable to bind normal cells expressing CD47 alone, and require simultaneous binding to CD20 for high avidity binding to dual antigen-expressing tumor cells. (
  • Such bispecific antibodies targeting CD47 along with tumor-associated antigens may be an effective strategy for selectively eliminating tumor cells that can be broadly applied to cancer. (
  • It involves the process of selectively identifying antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. (
  • Although antibodies show preferential avidity for specific epitopes, they may partially or weakly bind to sites on nonspecific proteins (also called reactive sites) that are similar to the cognate binding sites on the target antigen. (
  • Primary antibodies are raised against an antigen of interest and are typically unconjugated (unlabeled), while secondary antibodies are raised against immunoglobulins of the primary antibody species. (
  • We report disseminated T. marneffei infection in 4 hematology patients without AIDS who received targeted therapy with monoclonal antibodies against CD20 or kinase inhibitors during the past 2 years. (
  • MAB therapy is a form of passive immunity that uses genetically engineered antibodies directed against antigens on the surface of tumor cells. (
  • In vitro effects of CD20-specific antibodies on resting B cells indicate that CD20 is able to transduce an extracellular signal affecting the G0/G1 cell cycle transition. (
  • No antibodies against prostate-specific antigen were detected. (
  • Doctors can also use other monoclonal antibodies that target CD20. (
  • Examples are lymphoma antibodies hitting CD20, CD30, CD52. (
  • Those antibodies also kill the normal lymphocytes with those antigens, with the ill effects dependent on how important those normal ones are. (
  • We consider the implications of this case series and outline potential considerations in the long-term use of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies in NMO and other neuroinflammatory diseases. (
  • ), a drug development company commercializing the next generation of monoclonal antibodies based on its Dynamic Cross Linking (DXL(TM)) technology, announces the completion of a large scale primate study confirming effectiveness and safety of its lead candidate DXL625 (CD20). (
  • All monoclonal antibodies directed to the extracellular domain of the CD20 molecule are likely to bind closely related epitopes. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies are chimeric murine-human monoclonal antibodies directed against CD20 on B lymphocytes. (
  • Cell surface antigens can stimulate the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes and cytotoxic responses by white blood cells, e.g., granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes. (
  • This exposure activates the lymphocytes to produce antibodies, which are immune system factors that target and attack specific foreign proteins (antigens). (
  • Toxins attached to growth factors, antibodies and other cell targeting molecules can be used to kill harmful cells bearing specific receptors or antigens (Pastan et al. (
  • Despite the clinical success of CD20-specific antibody rituximab, malignancies of B-cell origin continue to present a major clinical challenge, in part due to an inability of the antibody to activate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in some patients, and development of resistance in others. (
  • The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) rituximab (RTX) was the first chimeric mAb approved for therapy. (
  • A paper discussing mechanisms of action as well as resistance to rituximab cites use of the CD20 antibody (2). (
  • More detailed rituximab resistance studies from Henry et al employed the CD20 antibody to analyze alternative CD20 transcripts that encode a newly identified DeltaCD20 protein that may play an important role in resistance (3). (
  • In the present study, we investigated whether rituximab therapy may select for CD20(-) subclones. (
  • Cytotoxicity of rituximab in vitro did not depend on the protein levels of CD20. (
  • During therapy with rituximab CD20(+) B-CLL cells were depleted and CD20(-) leukemic cells emerged. (
  • These data support the concept that in B-CLL rituximab treatment may not lead to the emergence of CD20(-) leukemic variants. (
  • Rituximab, a chimaeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has been demonstrated to be highly effective for in vivo B-cell depletion. (
  • Rituximab (anti-CD20 antibody), the first mAb used for cancer therapy, was approved by the FDA for treating non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma nearly 20 years ago. (
  • Influence of FCGR3A-158V/F Genotype and Baseline CD20 Antigen Count on Target-Mediated Elimination of Rituximab in Patients with Chronic Lymphocyti. (
  • Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody approved in the first-line treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). (
  • Rituximab pharmacokinetics shows a time dependency possibly related to changes in the target antigen amount over time. (
  • The purpose of this study was to quantify the influence of both CD20 antigenic mass and the FcγRIIIA genetic polymorphism on rituximab pharmacokinetics in CLL. (
  • Rituximab pharmacokinetics was described in 118 CLL patients using a semi-mechanistic model including a latent target antigen turnover, which allowed the estimation of rituximab target-mediated elimination in addition to the endogenous clearance. (
  • A pharmacokinetic model including target-mediated elimination accurately described rituximab concentrations in CLL and showed that rituximab 'consumption' (target-mediated elimination) increases with increasing baseline antigen count on circulating B cells and in FCGR3A-158VV patients. (
  • Rituximab is a genetically engineered chimeric murine/human monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen found on the surface of normal and malignant B lymphocytes. (
  • 3 12 - 18 Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against CD20, a B cell-specific surface marker. (
  • To evaluate changes in cluster of differentiation (CD)20 antigen expression and density of expression in patients receiving Pegfilgrastim and rituximab. (
  • Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen on the surface of pre-B and mature B-lymphocytes. (
  • Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets B-cell surface antigen CD20 and can cross the placenta. (
  • Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against B-cell surface antigen CD20. (
  • Rituximab administration results in depletion of peripherally circulating CD20-expressing B cells. (
  • Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) associated with the CD20 antigen regulates the rituximab-induced proliferation inhibition in B-cell lymphoma cells. (
  • Rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the CD20 antigen, has been approved since 2006 for the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • Rituxan/Mabthera (rituximab) is a chimeric human/murine monoclonal antibody targeting the CD20 antigen expressed on the surface of B cells. (
  • Rituximab was the first approved anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. (
  • Rituximab binds to CD20, a protein found on B cells, resulting in the killing of cancer cells. (
  • The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes at all stages of maturation (except for plasma cells). (
  • Low CD20 antigen expression levels have been detected on normal T-lymphocytes. (
  • Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were stained with anti-CD20 (clone 2H7) Alexa Fluor® 700 (filled histogram), or mouse IgG2b, κ Alexa Fluor® 700 (open histogram). (
  • CD19 and CD20 are expressed on B lymphocytes. (
  • CD20 is expressed on mature and most maligt B cells, in a subpopulation of T lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells. (
  • The mouse monoclonal antibody 2H7 recognizes CD20 (B1, Bp35), a 33-37 kDa non-glycosylated membrane receptor with four transmembrane domains, expressed on pre-B lymphocytes, resting and activated B cells (not plasma cells), follicular dendritic cells, and at low levels on peripheral blood T lymphocytes. (
  • Ofatumumab is a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) that specifically binds to the human CD20 antigen, which is expressed only in B lymphocytes. (
  • The identification of tumor-specific antigens, lymphocytes, and T-cell responses in cancer patients led to immunotherapies designed to enhance antitumor immune response. (
  • Binds to the CD20 antigen which is found on mature B lymphocytes. (
  • The complementarity-determining regions of Ibritumomab bind to the CD20 antigen on B lymphocytes. (
  • The candidate was effective in completely eliminating all lymphocytes with a CD20 marker within hours at the lowest dose tested. (
  • CD20 is expressed by B lymphocytes and by a small subset of normal circulating T lymphocytes. (
  • The CD20 molecule is present on all B lymphocytes whatever the hematopoietic tissue where they are found (peripheral blood, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsil, or bone marrow). (
  • The CD20 antigen may be weakly expressed on a subset of resting T lymphocytes. (
  • TG-1101 is a novel, third generation chimeric monoclonal antibody targeting a unique epitope on the CD20 antigen found on B-lymphocytes. (
  • TGTX-1101 (ublituximab) is a novel, third generation monoclonal antibody that targets a specific and unique epitope on the CD20 antigen found on mature B-lymphocytes, currently in clinical development for patients with relapsed and refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (
  • In lymph nodes, lymphocytes receive their initial exposure to foreign substances (antigens), such as bacteria or other microorganisms. (
  • CD20 (pan-B cell) antigen is expressed at a low level on a subpopulation of human T lymphocytes. (
  • Here we have generated genetically modified NK cells carrying a chimeric antigen receptor that consists of a CD20-specific scFv antibody fragment, via a flexible hinge region connected to the CD3ζ chain as a signaling moiety. (
  • Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells immunotherapy is rapidly developed in treating cancers, especially relapsed or refractory B-cell malignancies. (
  • Recently, chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells immunotherapy is rapidly developed. (
  • CD20 is also associated with lipid rafts, but the intensity of this association depends on extracellular triggering, employing CD20 conformational change, and/or BCR (B cell antigen receptor) aggregation. (
  • After the receptor ligation, BCR and CD20 colocalize and then rapidly dissociate before BCR endocytosis, whereas CD20 remains at the cell surface. (
  • Membrane-spanning four-domains subfamily A (MS4A) includes B-cell-specific antigen CD20 (MS4A1), high affinity immunoglobulin epsilon receptor beta chain (MS4A2), hematopoietic-cell-specific protein HTm4 (MS4A3), and related proteins. (
  • Identification of a new multigene four-transmembrane family (MS4A) related to CD20, HTm4 and beta subunit of the high-affinity IgE receptor. (
  • Cloning of the cDNA for a hematopoietic cell-specific protein related to CD20 and the beta subunit of the high-affinity IgE receptor: evidence for a family of proteins with four membrane-spanning regions. (
  • PURPOSE: Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has demonstrated remarkable efficacy for refractory and relapsed diffuse large B cell lymphoma (R/R DLBCL). (
  • Chimeric antigen receptor T cells (also known as CAR T cells) are T cells that have been genetically engineered to produce an artificial T-cell receptor for use in immunotherapy. (
  • Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, also known as chimeric immunoreceptors, chimeric T cell receptors or artificial T cell receptors) are receptor proteins that have been engineered to give T cells the new ability to target a specific protein. (
  • The receptors are chimeric because they combine both antigen-binding and T-cell activating functions into a single receptor. (
  • A first generation CAR containing a CD4 extracellular domain and a CD3ζ intracellular domain was used in the first clinical trail of chimeric antigen receptor T cells by the biotechnology company Cell Genesys in the mid 1990s, allowing adoptively transferred T cells to target HIV infected cells, although it failed to show any clinical improvement. (
  • Just as heat-seeking missiles race toward the infrared signatures of their targets, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells home in on cancer-associated or -specific antigens. (
  • The vector of anti-CD20 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is constructed for the engineering of T cells to target human CD20. (
  • CD28 is the receptor for CD80 (B7.1) and CD86 (B7.2) proteins which are expressed on antigen-presenting cells(APC). (
  • We highlight cutting-edge immunotherapeutic strategies in preclinical and clinical development such as adoptive NK cell transfer, chimeric antigen receptor-expressing NK cells (CAR-NKs), bispecific and trispecific killer cell engagers (BiKEs and TriKEs), checkpoint blockade, and oncolytic virotherapy. (
  • CD20 may also exist on the cell surface as a homo-oligomeric complex forming with other molecules a multimeric receptor complex. (
  • The principle of both Rituxan ADCC and CDC assays is that the relevant target cells, typically Raji, Daudi, or Ramos cells, expressing the CD20 protein are prepared in cell plates using a procedure designed to optimize receptor expression. (
  • An autologous form of cellular immunotherapy - chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy - is currently under investigation. (
  • The CD20 (Bp35) antigen is involved in activation of B cells from the G0 to the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (
  • Analysis of two cDNA clones encoding the B lymphocyte antigen CD20 (B1, Bp35), a type III integral membrane protein. (
  • CD20 is a 33-37 kD, four transmembrane spanning protein, also known as B1 and Bp35. (
  • The CD20 antigen (Bp35) is an integral non-glycosylated membrane protein with four transmembrane domains. (
  • Supplementary Fig. S1 Recombinant scFv(Leu-16) binds to CD20 expressing lymphoma cells. (
  • Ig (binds antigen) -- IgM and IgD are 1st. (
  • NO:7 and a heavy chain variable region comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:9, wherein said humanized antibody binds prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), and wherein administration of said humanized antibody to a subject diagnosed with prostate cancer decreases tumor growth to a greater extent than treatment with the murine 1G8 monoclonal antibody. (
  • c Binding of recombinant scFv molecules to CD20 expressing but ErbB2-negative Raji lymphoma cells (upper panel), and ErbB2 expressing but CD20-negative SKBR3 breast carcinoma cells was analyzed by flow cytometry with Myc-tag specific Mab 9E10 and FITC-conjugated secondary antibody. (
  • For clone 1412: This clone specifically recognizes cytoplasmic domain of CD20 and thus can only be used for intracellular flow cytometry. (
  • Levels of CD20 protein and mRNA were determined using flow cytometry and real-time PCR, respectively. (
  • Expression of chimeric antigen receptors in effector cells operative in ADCC might allow to bypass insufficient activation via FcγRIII and other resistance mechanisms that limit natural killer (NK)-cell activity. (
  • Additionally, the CD20 antibody allowed Berzi's lab to probe the role of brain-derived growth factor (BDNF) and its associated receptors in determining thymus cell fate (5). (
  • Unlike physiological T cell receptors (TCR), scFv can recognize antigen directly without major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction. (
  • Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CARs) are engineered proteins that can be used in a therapeutic capacity when expressed by an immune cell (e.g., a T cell). (
  • Unfortunately, killer T cells often fail to distinguish cancer cells-which is why T cells are being equipped with synthetic receptors known as chimeric antigen receptors, or CARs, that are designed to latch onto antigens that stud cancer cells but are seldom (or never) seen on healthy cells. (
  • The invention relates to bispecific tetravalent receptors of the formula I ##STR1## or formula II ##STR2## against a tumor-associated antigen and against an agent active against tumors. (
  • b The presence of ErbB2-specific control protein scFv(FRP5) (lane 1) and CD20-specific scFv(Leu-16) (lane 2) in periplasmic extracts was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis with FLAG-tag specific Mab M2. (
  • however, differences in phosphoproteins induced by anti-IgM and anti-CD20 were detected using a fynSH2-fusion protein. (
  • A Czech group examined the role of the adaptor protein Lck-interacting molecule (LIME) in CD4 and CD8 signaling through CD20 antibody immunoblotting (4). (
  • COS cells transfected with either CD20 clone express an immunoreactive protein of 33 kD. (
  • CD20, a B-cell-specific protein, is a primary target for immunotherapy of B-cell lymphomas. (
  • Meng Li, Wei Han, Quiyang Zhang, Xiaochang Xue, Zenglu Wang and Yingqi Zhang, " Development of a Mimotope-Based Vaccine Against CD20 Antigen", Protein & Peptide Letters (2007) 14: 610. (
  • Unfortunately, some clinical studies have shown that there is a loss of CD19 or CD20 expression in various cases of lymphomas and leukemias, particularly after treatment with an agent that targets CD19 (e.g., anti-CD19 CAR-T). However, studies have shown that expression of one protein is retained when the other is lost. (
  • Description: The 2H7 monoclonal antibody reacts with human CD20, a 33-36 kDa transmembrane protein. (
  • Clone REA1087 recognizes an intracytoplasmic epitope localized on the CD20 antigen, which is a non-glycosylated transmembrane protein of 33-37 kDa that is expressed on B lineage cells from the pre-B cell stage to the B cell lymphoblast stage. (
  • LT20 recognizes the CD20 antigen, a non-glycosylated transmembrane protein of 33-37 kDa that is expressed on B lineage cells from the pre-B cell stage to the B cell lymphoblast stage. (
  • The protein marker in the Rh group of antigens that stimulates the greatest immune response. (
  • Rituxan mediates its activity through the interaction with the protein CD20, found on the surface of B cells. (
  • Expression and biochemistry studies with the CD20 antibody from Uchida's lab at Duke were performed to define a mouse animal model for studying in vivo CD20 function to test potential targets for anti-CD20 immunotherapy (1). (
  • By exploiting the immunocompetent mouse model, we have further revealed that the adaptive immune system is essential for the adaptive resistance to anti-CD20 in advanced B-cell lymphoma, opening up a new avenue to combine anti-CD20 with immunotherapy to overcome the resistance of advanced B-cell lymphoma in the clinic. (
  • They used a murine model of T1D to demonstrate that antigen-specific immunotherapy delivered to the fetus is a very effective approach to preventing T1D. (
  • Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is expressed in the majority of prostate cancer patients, making it an ideal target for cancer immunotherapy. (
  • CD19 and CD20 are promising targets for the treatment of B-Cell malignancies. (
  • This suggests that a therapeutic with the ability to simultaneously target both CD19 and CD20 could represent a solution to the drawbacks of current therapies. (
  • Researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) have developed the current invention which is an expression construct for a CAR that targets both CD19 and CD20. (
  • The result is a more efficient and simultaneous targeting of both CD19 and CD20 by the same T cell. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Coadministration of anti-CD19 and CD20 CAR-T cells therapy for DLBCL is feasible with manageable toxicity. (
  • While activity of the retargeted NK-92 against CD20-negative targets remained unchanged, the gene modified NK cells displayed markedly enhanced cytotoxicity toward NK-sensitive CD20 expressing cells. (
  • Importantly, in contrast to parental NK-92, CD20-specific NK cells efficiently lysed CD20 expressing but otherwise NK-resistant established and primary lymphoma and leukemia cells, demonstrating that this strategy can overcome NK-cell resistance and might be suitable for the development of effective cell-based therapeutics for the treatment of B-cell malignancies. (
  • NK-92-scFv(Leu-16)-ζ cells were incubated with 100 μM of the serine protease inhibitor DCI (3,4-dichloroisocoumarin) (Roche, Mannheim, Germany) in X-VIVO 10 medium for 1 h at 37°C, before their cytotoxic activity towards CD20 expressing NIH3T3-CD20 cells was analyzed in a 3 h MTT cytotoxicity assay as described in the methods section (E/T ratio of 10:1). (
  • CD20 is a human B-lymphocyte surface molecule that spans the membrane four times and is expressed on both normal and malignant cells. (
  • CD20 is expressed on pre-B-cells, resting and activated B cells (not plasma cells), some follicular dendritic cells, and at low levels on a T cell subset. (
  • CD20 is heavily phosphorylated on activated B cells and malignant B cells. (
  • Homo-oligomeric complexes of CD20 are thought to form Ca 2+ conductive ion channels in the plasma membrane of B cells. (
  • CD20(-) B-CLL cells retained their capacity to synthesize the CD20 molecule. (
  • CD20 is expressed by developing B cells as well as mature B cells but not plasma cells. (
  • CD20 has been detected at low levels on a small subset of mature T cells. (
  • CD20 expression on B cells is synchronous with the expression of surface IgM and it regulates transmembrane calcium conductance, cell cycle progression and B-cell proliferation. (
  • CD20 serves as a useful target for antibody-mediated therapeutic depletion of B cells, as it is expressed at high levels on most B-cell maligcies, but does not become internalized or shed from the plasma membrane following monoclonal antibody treatment. (
  • The purpose of this study was to explore whether T cells are involved in mediating the effects of anti-CD20 therapy and what factors contribute to adaptive immune response-related resistance. (
  • Using a syngeneic mouse B-cell lymphoma model, we investigated the role of CD8 + T cells in anti-CD20-mediated tumor regression. (
  • CD8 + T cells played an essential role in anti-CD20-mediated tumor regression. (
  • A potential limitation of therapeutic CD47-SIRPα antagonists is that expression of CD47 on normal cells may create sites of toxicity or an "antigen sink. (
  • SIRPabodies selectively bound to dual antigen-expressing tumor cells in the presence of a large antigen sink. (
  • We developed bispecific antibody variants targeting CD47 and CD20 to combine these two functions into a single molecule that recapitulated the potent synergistic effect of combination therapy with no toxic effects on normal cells. (
  • The cells do not express B-cell lineage restricted antigens or kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chains or T-cell lineage-restricted antigens. (
  • The cells do express activation antigens. (
  • Target-mediated elimination rate constant increased with the baseline CD20 count on circulating B cells (p = 0.00046) and in patients with the FCGR3A-158VV genotype (p = 0.0016). (
  • The authors performed a phase Ⅱ trial by coadministration of anti-CD19 and anti-CD20 CAR-T cells treatment for R/R DLBCL and evaluated its efficacy and toxicity. (
  • The patients were conditioned with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide before the infusion of anti-CD19 and anti-CD20 CAR-T cells. (
  • Peak levels of anti-CD19 and anti-CD20 CAR cells were associated with response (P = .007 and .002). (
  • The agents in this class target specific antigens in carcinoma cells and induce cytotoxicity. (
  • Once isolated from a person, these T cells are genetically engineered to express a specific CAR, which programs them to target an antigen that is present on the surface of tumors. (
  • For safety, CAR-T cells are engineered to be specific to an antigen expressed on a tumor that is not expressed on healthy cells. (
  • When they come in contact with their targeted antigen on a cell, CAR-T cells bind to it and become activated, then proceed to proliferate and become cytotoxic. (
  • Similar early clinical trials of CAR T cells in solid tumors in the 1990s using first generation CARs targeting a solid tumor antigens such as MUC1 did not show long term persistence of the transferred T cells or result in significant remissions. (
  • 1 T cells are potent cellular effectors of the immune system and have a memory that responds if rechallenged by the same antigen. (
  • Once the antigens are engaged, CAR T cells let fly with cytotoxic flak, granules containing perforin and granzymes, while activating supplementary tumor-killing mechanisms such as stromal sensitization and macrophage polarization. (
  • In addition, activation of T cells is partially controlled by B cell antigen presentation. (
  • CD20 is present on B cells from early development through maturity until the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells. (
  • The antigen is further expressed on most malignant B cells. (
  • CD20 is not found on early B cell progenitors or plasma cells. (
  • Because many such antigens may also be present in normal prostate epithelial cells as well as PCA cells, one major therapeutic challenge for induction of anti-PCA immune responses may be the need to overcome immune tolerance against normal prostate antigens. (
  • Irradiated GM-CSF-secreting cancer cell vaccines induce antitumor immune responses by recruiting antigen-presenting cells, such as DCs, to immunization sites. (
  • This approach, termed antigen-specific immunosuppression, involves vaccinating with β-cell proteins so that β-cell-specific T cells do not subsequently respond to and attack them ( 6 ). (
  • This inspired our hypothesis that an immunocytokine that targets CD20 and a second highly expressed antigen on such malignant cells could be even more efficacious. (
  • The bispecific immunocytokine may be particularly effective in the elimination of the putative cancer stem cells associated with myeloma, which are resistant to current therapy regimens and reportedly express CD20. (
  • Pre- and mature B-cells, characterized by CD20 antigen expression, play an important role in the inflammatory process. (
  • The T cells are genetically modified through transduction with a lentiviral vector expressing scFv of anti-CD20 antibody linked to CD28 transmembrane domain/ endodomain and CD3-zeta signaling domains. (
  • The current study assessed the impact of various selenocompounds on the expression of HLA class I molecules in THP-1 cells, an apparent proficient antigen that pres. (
  • CD4 + cells from OT-II Thy1.1 + mice or CD8 + cells from OT-I Thy1.1 + mice were CFSE-labeled and transferred into Thy1.2 + recipients that had been treated with CD20 or control mAb 7 days earlier. (
  • Your doctor will get your lymphoma cells tested to see if they have certain markers -- proteins called antigens. (
  • You'll get a monoclonal antibody drug that aims at the antigens found on your lymphoma cells. (
  • They're designed to lock onto certain antigens that cancer cells make too much of. (
  • They then carry these cell-killing materials to the cancer cells and lock onto the antigen. (
  • This leads to the death of the cancer cells, with little to no effect on your normal cells that don't have the antigen. (
  • You might get a monoclonal antibody that targets a different antigen that's found on your lymphoma cells. (
  • For instance, you may get alemtuzumab (Campath) if your cells have the CD52 antigen. (
  • Your lymphoma cells might have the CD30 antigen, in which case brentuximab vedotin ( Adcetris ), a monoclonal antibody attached to chemo, might be part of your treatment plan. (
  • The problem with this is that cancer cells are very diverse, so it's very difficult to find a cancer-specific antigen that's found in all cancer cells. (
  • However, cancer cells are derived from non-cancer cells, which *do* have specific antigens that can be used. (
  • This is contingent upon two things - (1) that specific tissues can be targeted, and (2) that cancer cells retain tissue specific antigens. (
  • After infusion into a patient, the monoclonal antibody targets the CD20 antigen, which is found on the surface of mature B cells and B-cell tumors. (
  • This study confirms that DXL625 is specific to the CD20 antigen present on NHL tumor cells and is a major milestone in our plan for clinical and commercial success," said Jeff Morhet, CEO and Chairman of InNexus. (
  • The CD20 marker is the same as that found on tumors cells in patients with Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma patients. (
  • The expression of CD20 is restricted to B-lineage cells. (
  • However, CD20 is not expressed on other leucocyte subsets including NK cells, monocytes and granulocytes. (
  • Antigens on the body's own cells are called autoantigens. (
  • Antigens on all other cells are called foreign antigens. (
  • Reactions to antigens by T and B cells are part of the specific immune response. (
  • The commitment of naive CD8 T cells to effector or memory cell fates can occur after a single day of antigenic stimulation even though virus-derived antigens (Ags) are still presented by DCs long after acute infection is resolved. (
  • Antigen (Ag) processing and presentation is essential for the activation and differentiation of T cells. (
  • Cellular antigens are proteins or oligosaccharides that mark and identify the cell surface as self or nonself . (
  • CVID5 is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by antibody deficiency, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections and an inability to mount an antibody response to antigen. (
  • Generally, CAR consists of tumor associated antigen (TAA) binding domain, hinge domain, transmembrane domain and signaling domain. (
  • Isolation, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of a novel testis-specific human four-transmembrane gene related to CD20 and FcepsilonRI-beta. (
  • Furthermore it appears that Mouse anti Human CD20 antibody, clone 2H7 only recognizes human CD20 in its native oligomeric form (Polyak et al. (
  • Recognizes the human CD20 cell surface antigen, a 33-37kD phosphoprotein. (
  • Both phospholipase C-gamma 1 and -gamma 2 were phosphorylated on tyrosine after cross-linking of CD20-bound mAb, and this correlated with increases in intracellular calcium that were partially resistant to depletion of extracellular calcium with EGTA. (
  • Studies have demonstrated that CD20-initiated intracellular signals involve tyrosine kinase activation and that CD20 is tightly associated with both serine and tyrosine kinases. (
  • The zeta chain plays an important role in coupling antigen recognition to several intracellular signal-transduction pathways. (
  • a For periplasmic expression of CD20-specific scFv(Leu-16) under control of the IPTGinducible tac promoter, cDNA fragments encoding heavy (VH) and light chain variable domains (VL) of monoclonal antibody Leu-16 were connected by a flexible linker sequence and fused to the ompA signal peptide (SP) in the bacterial expression vector pSW50. (
  • Loss of intra-islet CD20 expression may complicate efficacy of B-cell-directed type 1 diabetes therapies. (
  • Two cDNA clones encoding the pan-B cell CD20 antigen were isolated from a COS cell expression library. (
  • A case of a follicular lymphoma transformed into a CD20+ is described which progressed with the loss of CD20 expression after 8 cycles of R-CHOP. (
  • A monoclonal antibody against the extracellular domain of mouse and human epithelial V-like antigen 1 reveals a restricted expression pattern among CD4- CD8- thymocytes. (
  • The long-term success of cancer vaccines is limited by the diminished expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules in the tumor microenvironment. (
  • CHO-Anti-Human CD20 F(ab) stable cell line is clonally-derived from a CHO cell line, which has been transfected with an anti-human CD20 F(ab) gene to allow expression of the F(ab). (
  • Ease of use and versatility also enable the VECTASTAIN ® ABC kits and ImmPRESS ™ reagents to be incor- porated into applications such as multiple antigen labeling, without requiring significant pro- cedural alterations or additional reagents. (
  • Diseases associated with CD20 dysfunction include Ms4a1-related common variable immune deficiency. (
  • Here we demonstrate that anti-CD20 mediated induction of c-myc mRNA is inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A, that CD20 is associated with both tyrosine and serine kinase activity, and that tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple substrates is induced within minutes upon ligation of CD20 with mAb. (
  • However, adaptive immune response-related resistance has not been well studied in anti-CD20-mediated tumor control, and adaptive immunity has long been underestimated. (
  • However, the role of the adaptive immune system in anti-CD20-mediated tumor regression has been ignored until recently. (
  • This study reveals the essential role of adaptive immunity for anti-CD20-mediated tumor regression and its underlying mechanism. (
  • Authors: Babaer D, Zheng M, Ivy MT, Zent R, Tiriveedhi V Abstract Previous phase I DNA-vaccine based clinical trials using Mammaglobin-A (Mam-A), a human breast tumor associated antigen (TAA), demonstrated that this agent was safe and efficient at treating patients with stage IV breast cancer. (
  • Previously, using DNL, we generated a novel immunocytokine named 20-2b-2b, formerly 20-2b, which comprises four IFNα2b groups tethered to the humanized anti-CD20 MAb, veltuzumab (v-mab), and showed potent in vitro cytotoxicity and superior therapeutic efficacy in human NHL xenograft models ( 10 ). (
  • Both the function of CD20 and the mechanisms of action of Rituxan are not fully understood. (
  • All enrolled patients will be relapsed or refractory to a prior anti-CD20 antibody containing regimen (Rituxan® and/or Arzerra®), and in most cases multiple other lines of therapy. (
  • The epitope recognized by clone 2H7 has been mapped to the sequence YNCEPANPSEKNSPST which lies in the large extracellular loop of human CD20. (
  • The tracer targets the antigen CD20, which is expressed extensively in lymph nodes. (
  • This drug targets the CD20 antigen, which many types of lymphoma make too much of. (
  • The CD20 molecule is involved in B-cell activation and is associated with various Src family kinases (Lyn, Lck, Fyn). (
  • CD20 antibody LS-C13100 is an FITC-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to CD20 from human. (
  • Furthermore, we revealed how the tumor-specific T-cell response was initiated by anti-CD20. (
  • Importantly, macrophages were also necessary for the increase in the tumor-specific CTL response after anti-CD20 treatment, via the production of type I IFN to activate DC function. (
  • The therapeutic function of anti-CD20 depends on tumor-specific CD8 + T-cell responses initiated by anti-CD20 through macrophages and DCs. (
  • CARs are genetically engineered to combine antigen- or tumor-specific-binding with T-cell activating domains. (
  • The purpose of the study is to assess the response rate of patients with relapsed or refractory low-grade or transformed low-grade, CD20-positive, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma to Iodine-131 (I-131) tositumomab (Bexxar) therapy plus local palliative radiation therapy (XRT). (
  • NEW YORK, Dec. 7, 2012 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- TG Therapeutics, Inc. (OTCBB:TGTX) today announced that it has initiated a Phase I/II trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of TG-1101, the company's novel third-generation anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, in combination with lenalidomide (Revlimid®) for patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell lymphoid malignancies who were previously treated with anti-CD20 antibody therapy. (
  • What is the difference between two anti human CD20 clones 2H7 and 1412? (
  • A great amount of non-specific binding causes high background staining which will mask the detection of the target antigen. (
  • Real mutated cancer antigens exist. (
  • True weird freaky cancer antigens certainly exist in great variety. (
  • Cancer antigens are used in clinical medicine to screen body fluids for tumors or to follow the response of tumors to treatment. (
  • All of them hit normal tissue antigens that are either overexpressed on cancer or more important to cancer. (
  • Matching certain types of tissue antigens is important for the success of an organ transplant. (
  • Association of tyrosine and serine kinases with the B cell surface antigen CD20. (
  • CD20 is a non-glycosylated surface phosphoprotein that has a molecular weight range of 33-37 kDa depending on the degree of phosphorylation. (
  • Viral serology for HIV, Hepatitis B surface antigen, and Hepatitis C were negative. (
  • Australian antigen A term formerly used for hepatitis B surface antigen. (
  • The original term for the Australian antigen, now called hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). (
  • An antigen that occurs in some individuals of the same species. (
  • Possible explanations for the dual activities of 1F5 and implications for the role of the CD20 antigen in B cell differentiation are discussed. (
  • Induction via CD20 of tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 and PLC phospholipase C-gamma 2. (
  • The ready-to-use lentiviral particles of Lenti-CD20 CAR (scFv-28OXζ, 1F5)-VP is packaged using 3rd generation of lentiviral packaging system, in which the gene of CAR will be driven by a CMV promotor. (