Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

T-cell stimulation through the T-cell receptor/CD3 complex regulates CD2 lateral mobility by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent mechanism. (1/607)

T lymphocyte activation through the T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex alters the avidity of the cell surface adhesion receptor CD2 for its ligand CD58. Based on the observations that activation-associated increases in intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) strengthen interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells, and that the lateral mobility of cell surface adhesion receptors is an important regulator of cellular adhesion strength, we postulated that [Ca2+]i controls CD2 lateral mobility at the T cell surface. Human Jurkat T leukemia cells were stimulated by antibody-mediated cross-linking of the TCR/CD3 complex. CD2 was labeled with a fluorescently conjugated monoclonal antibody. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy techniques were used to measure [Ca2+]i and CD2 lateral mobility. Cross-linking of the TCR/CD3 complex caused an immediate increase in [Ca2+]i and, 10-20 min later, a decrease in the fractional mobility of CD2 from the control value of 68 +/- 1% to 45 +/- 2% (mean +/- SEM). One to two hours after cell stimulation the fractional mobility spontaneously returned to the control level. Under these and other treatment conditions, the fraction of cells with significantly elevated [Ca2+]i was highly correlated with the fraction of cells manifesting significantly reduced CD2 mobility. Pretreatment of cells with a calmodulin inhibitor or a calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor prevented Ca2+-mediated CD2 immobilization, and pretreatment of cells with a calcineurin phosphatase inhibitor prevented the spontaneous reversal of CD2 immobilization. These data suggest that T cell activation through the TCR/CD3 complex controls CD2 lateral mobility by a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent mechanism, and that this mechanism may involve regulated phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of CD2 or a closely associated protein.  (+info)

The association between CD2+ peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and the relapse of bladder cancer in prophylactically BCG-treated patients. (2/607)

We investigated the potential existence of differences in the distribution of T-lymphocyte subsets and in the proliferative response of these CD2+ cells to polyclonal mitogens in patients with transitional cell bladder carcinoma (SBTCC) treated with prophylactic intracavitary instillations of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) according to their clinical response to this treatment. Before BCG treatment, different subset distribution (CD8+ and CD3+ CD56+), activation antigen expression (CD3+ HLA- DR+) and proliferative response to mitogenic signals were found in CD2+ cells from SBTCC patients prophylactically treated with BCG who remained free of disease or those who had recurrence of tumour. Otherwise, the prophylactic intracavitary BCG instillations in SBTCC patients are associated with a transitory variation of T-lymphocyte subset distribution (CD4 and CD8) and activation antigens expression (CD25).  (+info)

Inhibitory effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) on certain functions of intraepithelial lymphocytes. (3/607)

Human intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), CD8+ lymphocytes located between epithelial cells, are likely to be influenced by the immunosuppressive cytokine, TGF-beta, secreted by epithelial cells. This study evaluates the effects of TGF-beta on IEL functions. IEL were derived from proximal jejunum of patients undergoing gastric bypass operations for morbid obesity. Proliferation was determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation; IL-2 production, by ELISA; expression of IL-2 receptor, CD2, HML1, CD16, and CD56, by immunofluorescence; binding, by adherence of radiolabelled cells; and cytotoxicity by 51Cr-release assay. TGF-beta (> or = 1 ng/ml) inhibited the mitosis of IEL to mitogens, IL-7, and stimuli of the CD2 and CD3 pathways. The blocking effect did not target the activation events of IL-2 production and receptor generation. Rather, it reduced cell division after activation when added 24 h after initiating the culture. Antibody neutralization of naturally occurring TGF-beta increased IEL proliferation to IL-2, but not to the other stimuli. Of the multiple surface markers tested, only CD2 and HML1 expression increased with TGF-beta and decreased with antibody to TGF-beta, although the cytokine and the neutralizing antibody had no effects on IEL binding to colon cancer. TGF-beta reduced the number of CD56+ IEL and the lymphokine-activated killing when co-cultured with IL-7 but not with IL-2 or IL-15. TGF-beta inhibits certain IEL functions: the reduction in cell division rather than activation and a decline in IL-7-mediated lysis of colon cancer due to a lowering of the number of natural killer cells.  (+info)

Crystal structure of the CD2-binding domain of CD58 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3) at 1.8-A resolution. (4/607)

The binding of the cell surface molecule CD58 (formerly lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3) to its ligand, CD2, significantly increases the sensitivity of antigen recognition by T cells. This was the first heterophilic cell adhesion interaction to be discovered and is now an important paradigm for analyzing the structural basis of cell-cell recognition. The crystal structure of a CD2-binding chimeric form of CD58, solved to 1.8-A resolution, reveals that the ligand binding domain of CD58 has the expected Ig superfamily V-set topology and shares several of the hitherto unique structural features of CD2, consistent with previous speculation that the genes encoding these molecules arose via duplication of a common precursor. Nevertheless, evidence for considerable divergence of CD2 and CD58 is also implicit in the structures. Mutations that disrupt CD2 binding map to the highly acidic surface of the AGFCC'C" beta-sheet of CD58, which, unexpectedly, lacks marked shape complementarity to the equivalent, rather more basic CD58-binding face of human CD2. The specificity of the very weak interactions of proteins mediating cell-cell recognition may often derive largely from electrostatic complementarity, with shape matching at the protein-protein interface being less exact than for interactions that combine specificity with high affinity, such as those involving antibodies.  (+info)

Oligosaccharide analysis and molecular modeling of soluble forms of glycoproteins belonging to the Ly-6, scavenger receptor, and immunoglobulin superfamilies expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (5/607)

Most cell surface molecules are glycoproteins consisting of linear arrays of globular domains containing stretches of amino acid sequence with similarities to regions in other proteins. These conserved regions form the basis for the classification of proteins into superfamilies. Recombinant soluble forms of six leukocyte antigens belonging to the Ly-6 (CD59), scavenger receptor (CD5), and immunoglobulin (CD2, CD48, CD4, and Thy-1) superfamilies were expressed in the same Chinese hamster ovary cell line, thus providing an opportunity to examine the extent to which N-linked oligosaccharide processing might vary in a superfamily-, domain-, or protein-dependent manner in a given cell. While we found no evidence for superfamily-specific modifications of the glycans, marked differences were seen in the types of oligosaccharides attached to individual proteins within a given superfamily. The relative importance of local protein surface properties versus the overall tertiary structure of the molecules in directing this protein-specific variation was examined in the context of molecular models. These were constructed using the 3D structures of the proteins, glycan data from this study, and an oligosaccharide structural database. The results indicated that both the overall organization of the domains and the local protein structure can have a large bearing on site-specific glycan modification of cells in stasis. This level of control ensures that the surface of a single cell will display a diverse repertoire of glycans and precludes the presentation of multiple copies of a single oligosaccharide on the cell surface. The glycans invariably shield large regions of the protein surfaces although, for the glycoproteins examined here, these did not hinder the known active sites of the molecules. The models also indicated that sugars are likely to play a role in the packing of the native cell surface glycoproteins and to limit nonspecific protein-protein interactions. In addition, glycans located close to the cell membrane are likely to affect crucially the orientation of the glycoproteins to which they are attached.  (+info)

A model for the origin of TCR-alphabeta+ CD4-CD8- B220+ cells based on high affinity TCR signals. (6/607)

The origin of TCR-alphabeta+ CD4-CD8- cells is unclear, yet accumulating evidence suggests that they do not represent merely a default pathway of unselected thymocytes. Rather, they arise by active selection as evidenced by their absence in mice lacking expression of class I MHC. TCR-alphabeta+ CD4-CD8- cells also preferentially accumulate in mice lacking expression of Fas/APO-1/CD95 (lpr) or Fas-ligand (gld), suggesting that this subset might represent a subpopulation destined for apoptosis in normal mice. Findings from mice bearing a self-reactive TCR transgene support this view. In the current study we observe that in normal mice, TCR-alphabeta+ CD4-CD8- thymocytes contain a high proportion of cells undergoing apoptosis. The apoptotic subpopulation is further identified by its expression of B220 and IL2Rbeta and the absence of surface CD2. The CD4-CD8- B220+ phenotype is also enriched in T cells that recognize endogenous retroviral superantigens, and can be induced in TCR transgenic mice using peptide/MHC complexes that bear high affinity, but not low affinity, for TCR. A model is presented whereby the TCR-alphabeta+ CD2- CD4-CD8- B220+ phenotype arises from high intensity TCR signals. This model is broadly applicable to developing thymocytes as well as mature peripheral T cells and may represent the phenotype of self-reactive T cells that are increased in certain autoimmune conditions.  (+info)

Diminished IL-2 responses and alteration of CD2 expression on CD8+ T cells are associated with a lack of cytotoxic T cell responses during Theileria annulata infection. (7/607)

Theileria annulata is a tick-borne protozoan parasite which causes the disease bovine tropical theileriosis. In immunized or drug-treated animals, the pathogenic macroschizont stage of the parasite is destroyed by MHC class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Here we show that although CD8+ T cells increase greatly in number and display activation markers during an acute infection, they exhibit no killing of infected cells. During the ineffectual response, efferent lymph cells' ability to proliferate to IL-2 drops, coinciding with loss of MoAb binding to CD2 by CD8+ cells. When animals were treated with the anti-parasite drug 'Butalex', IL-2 responses, anti-CD2 antibody binding by CD8+ cells and strong CTL activity were restored within 24 h. The initial activation of CD4+ T cells by parasite-infected cells altering the IL-2 production in the draining lymph node is the likely cause of the failure of CTL responses.  (+info)

CD28 costimulation augments IL-2 secretion of activated lamina propria T cells by increasing mRNA stability without enhancing IL-2 gene transactivation. (8/607)

The pathways leading to activation in lamina propria (LP) T cells are different from peripheral T cells. LP T cells exhibit enhanced IL-2 secretion when activated through the CD2 pathway. Coligation of CD28 leads to synergistic enhancement of IL-2 secretion. Previous studies have characterized the CD28 augmentation of TCR-mediated signaling in peripheral blood T cells through transcriptional activation of an IL-2 promoter CD28 response element (CD28RE), along with enhanced mRNA stability. This study characterized molecular events involved in CD28 costimulation of IL-2 production in LP mononuclear cells (LPMC). LPMC exhibited increased IL-2 production in response to CD28 costimulation, compared with cells activated through CD2 alone. IL-2 secretion was paralleled by increased expression of IL-2 mRNA, resulting from enhanced IL-2 mRNA stability. In contrast to transcriptional activation in PBMC, EMSA revealed that CD28 coligation of CD2-activated LPMC does not result in increased binding of trans-factors to the CD28RE, nor did Western blots detect changes in I-kappaBalpha or I-kappaBbeta levels following CD28 coligation. Furthermore, CD28 coligation fails to enhance IL-2 promoter-reporter or RE/AP construct expression in CD2-activated LPMC. The results reported herein indicate that the molecular mechanisms involved in CD28 cosignaling and regulation of IL-2 secretion in LP T cells are unique to that compartment and differ from those seen in peripheral blood T cells. These observations suggest a biological significance for different mechanisms of IL-2 activation in initiation and maintenance of the cytokine repertoire found in the mucosa.  (+info)

Activating genes for reprogramming factors for a short time transforms large numbers of differentiated cells into multipotent forms that could be useful for cell-based therapies.. 0 Comments. ...
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EUGENE, Oregon (AP) - Rafael Nadal beat Roger Federer 7-5 in an exhibition match Tuesday to warm up for the upcoming BNP Paribas Open in Indian Wells, California.. Joining Nadal, the No. 1 player in the world, and Federer, who is No. 2, at the Clash of the Champions were Maria Sharapova and Victoria Azarenka, who also played a match at the University of Oregons new $227 million basketball arena. All are Nike-sponsored athletes.. The foursome then played a set of mixed doubles.. The Matthew Knight Arena was built with the financial backing of Nike co-founder and University of Oregon Ducks supporter Phil Knight.. Weve had many big battles over the years and also had some wonderful moments in exhibition play, Federer said of his many matches against Nadal. Weve played in some amazing places and this is obviously very special doing it for Nike in a place that means a lot to Phil. Were very happy to be here tonight.. John McEnroe was a surprise guest at the event.. Knight contributed $100 ...
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The M290 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD103 also known as integrin αE (ITGAE). CD103 is an integrin protein that binds integrin beta 7 to form the complete heterodimeric integrin molecule αEβ7. CD103 is expressed widely on intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) T cells (both αβ T cells and γδ T cells) and on some peripheral regulatory T cells. It has also been reported on lamina propria T cells. A subset of dendritic cells in the gut mucosa and in mesenteric lymph nodes also expresses CD103. The main ligand for CD103 is E-cadherin, an adhesion molecule expressed by epithelial cells. CD103 is thought to facilitate the interactions of T cells with epithelial cells during T cell maturation and effector functions. The M290 antibody is reported to neutralize CD103 |em|in vivo|/em|.
The purpose of the study is to better understand the mechanism of action of an FDA approved drug (alefacept). Subjects enrolled will be given alefacept 7.5 mg intravenously on a weekly basis for 12 weeks. Response is assessed by improvement in the PASI score. The responders will get no further treatment and the nonresponders will receive additional 4 weeks of therapy. Skin biopsies will be obtained throughout the study and T-cell apoptosis will be correlated to clinical response. There is no placebo group. The duration of the study is approximately 1 year ...
Mouse anti Rat CD11a antibody, clone WT.1 reacts with rat CD11a, a glycoprotein of 160-170 kDa, associated with CD18. CD11a is one of the
Although both infliximab and etanercept showed powerful TNF-alpha neutralization, only infliximab was able to bind to PBL and lamina propria T cells and subsequently to induce apoptosis of activated lymphocytes. These data may provide a biological basis for the difference in efficacy of the 2 TNF-al …
MANCHESTER, NH--(Marketwired - Jun 8, 2015) - Boston Therapeutics, Inc. (OTCQB: BTHE) (Boston Therapeutics or the Company), a developer of complex carbohydrate therapeutics to treat diabetes and inflammatory diseases, will present data on BTI-320, its novel, non-systemic, non-hypoglycemic drug candidate to manage blood glucose, as a poster presentation at the...
The effect of polyclonal (anti alpha and beta chain) and monoclonal (anti alpha-chain) antibodies against lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) on T cell activation was studied. When added at the beginning of activation but not after 24 h or later the antibodies as well as the F(ab)2 or Fab fragments of polyclonal antibodies inhibited concanavalin A (Con A)-induced proliferation, interleukin 2 (IL-2) production, and the expression of receptors for IL-2 and transferrin. The inhibitory effect reached a maximum at the same time as optimal proliferation (72 h). Inhibition of proliferation lasted for 5 days or longer, although IL-2 production was only inhibited during the first 48 h of culture. Receptors for IL-2 and transferrin were re-expressed to the original level after 3 days of activation. Addition of external IL-2 at the beginning of the anti-LFA-1 containing culture prevented the inhibition of IL-2 receptor expression, while inhibition of transferrin receptor expression was unaffected,
Background CD2 interacts with lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-3) and CD48/BCM1 to mediate adhesion between T-cells and other cell types. CD2 is implicated in the triggering of T-cells, the cytoplasmic domain is...
Mouse anti Rat CD45 antibody, clone OX-29 recognizes rat CD45, also known as Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C, Leukocyte commo
Role of γ/δ T cell surface molecules and soluble mediators in DC maturation. (A) CD40 ligand cell surface expression by JR.2. γ/δ T cells. CD40 ligand expre
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The I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 contains an intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and ICAM-3 binding site, but the relationship of this site to regulated adhesion is unknown. To study the adhesive properties of the LFA-1 I domain, we stably expressed a GPI-anchored form of this I domain (I-GPI) on the surface of baby hamster kidney cells. I-GPI cells bound soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) with a low avidity and affinity. Flow cell experiments demonstrated a specific rolling interaction of I-GPI cells on bilayers containing purified full length ICAM-1 or ICAM-3. The LFA-1 activating antibody MEM-83, or its Fab fragment, decreased the rolling velocity of I-GPI cells on ICAM-1-containing membranes. In contrast, the interaction of I-GPI cells with ICAM-3 was blocked by MEM-83. Rolling of I-GPI cells was dependent on the presence of Mg2+. Mn2+ only partially substituted for Mg2+, giving rise to a small fraction of rolling cells and increased rolling velocity. This suggests that the
Rat CD40 / TNFRSF5 protein (8229-CD) is manufactured by R&D Systems, over 95% purity. Reproducible results in bioactivity assays. Learn More...
For Kinsey Millhone, the investigation started with a surprise visit from an ex-colleague at California Fidelity - the company that had fired her nine months previously.|br>|br> Five hours later she was on a plane to Mexico, hot on the trail of a sui
The mechanism by which low affinity adhesion molecules function to produce stable cell-cell adhesion is unknown. In solution, the interaction of human CD2 with its ligand CD58 is of low affinity (500 mM-1) and the interaction of rat CD2 with its ligand CD48 is of still lower affinity (40 mM-1). At the molecular level, however, the two systems are likely to be topologically identical. Fluorescently labeled glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored CD48 and CD58 were prepared and incorporated into supported phospholipid bilayers, in which the ligands were capable of free lateral diffusion. Quantitative fluorescence imaging was used to study the binding of cell surface human and rat CD2 molecules to the fluorescent ligands in contact areas between Jurkat cells and the bilayers. These studies provide two major conclusions. First, CD2/ligand interactions cooperate to align membranes with nanometer precision leading to a physiologically effective two-dimensional affinity. This process does not require the intact
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Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is a human gene which functions in the immune system. It is involved in cellular adhesion and costimulatory signaling. It is the target of the drug efalizumab.. ITGAL encodes the integrin alpha L chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a central role in leukocyte intercellular adhesion through interactions with its ligands, ICAMs 1-3 (intercellular adhesion molecules 1 through 3), and also functions in lymphocyte costimulatory signaling.[1]. CD11a is one of the two components, along with CD18, which form lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.. Efalizumab acts as an immunosuppressant by binding to ...
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory joint disease associated with psoriasis. Alefacept (a lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-3 Ig fusion protein that binds to CD2 and functions as an antagonist to T-cell activation) has been shown to result in improvement in psoriasis but has limited effectiveness in PsA. Interleukin-20 (IL-20) is a key proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The effects of alefacept treatment on IL-20 expression in the synovium of patients with psoriasis and PsA are currently unknown. Eleven patients with active PsA and chronic plaque psoriasis were treated with alefacept (7.5 mg per week for 12 weeks) in an open-label study. Skin biopsies were taken before and after 1 and 6 weeks, whereas synovial biopsies were obtained before and 4 and 12 weeks after treatment. Synovial biopsies from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 10) were used as disease controls. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to detect IL-20 expression, and
transplant organs such as kidneys. They respond by recognising foreign antigens or peptides in the lymph nodes or sites of infection in the body. This leads to the proliferation of T cells and the expansion of reactive cells. The ability to respond depends on the movement of T-cells and length of time that T-cells spend attached to antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) that present the foreign antigen. Ligation of the antigen-receptor (also called the T-cell receptor or TCR) sends intracellular signals (termed the inside-out pathway) that slow T-cell motility allowing them to make stable contacts with DCs. Although essential for T cell function, the identity of the T cell receptor inside-out pathway for lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) adhesion has proved elusive.. As published this month in Immunity, the Rudd lab reports the identification of a novel inside-out pathway that is mediated by N-terminal SKAP1 (SKAP-55) domain binding to the C-terminal ...
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IPR003596 T-cell surface antigen CD2 InterPro: IPR013285 ACAM; ACAN; ADAMTSL1; AGC1; AMICA1; BCAM; BCAN; BGP; BGPc; BT3.3; ... CD2; CD226; CD274; CD276; CD300A; CD300C; CD300D; CD300E; CD300LB; CD300LF; CD300LG; CD33; CD3G; CD7; CD79A; CD79B; CD80; CD83 ... in several T-cell receptors such as CD2 (Cluster of Differentiation 2), CD4, CD80, and CD86; in myelin membrane adhesion ...
Monoclonal antibody to inhibit T lymphocyte activation by binding to CD2 portion of human leukocyte function antigen-3.. IM. B ... including loss of tolerance to various oxidised antigens, which includes topoisomerase I. B cells mature into plasma cells, ...
CD2 antigen cytoplasmic tail-binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD2BP2 gene. CD2BP2 has been shown ... "Entrez Gene: CD2BP2 CD2 (cytoplasmic tail) binding protein 2". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma ... Nishizawa K, Freund C, Li J, Wagner G, Reinherz EL (Jan 1999). "Identification of a proline-binding motif regulating CD2- ... 2003). "Dynamic interaction of CD2 with the GYF and the SH3 domain of compartmentalized effector molecules". EMBO J. 21 (22): ...
C2-set domains are found primarily in the mammalian T-cell surface antigens CD2 (Cluster of Differentiation 2), CD4 and CD80, ... CD2 mediates T-cell adhesion via its ectodomain, and signal transduction utilising its 117-amino acid cytoplasmic tail. CD2 ... "An African swine fever virus gene with similarity to the T-lymphocyte surface antigen CD2 mediates hemadsorption". Virology. ... CD2 CD4 VCAM1 Smith DK, Xue H (1997). "Sequence profiles of immunoglobulin and immunoglobulin-like domains". J. Mol. Biol. 274 ...
... antigen. Evidence for genetic duplication giving rise to the BCM1 region on mouse chromosome 1 and the CD2/LFA3 region on mouse ... "The MRC OX-45 antigen of rat leukocytes and endothelium is in a subset of the immunoglobulin superfamily with CD2, LFA-3 and ... CD48 interaction with CD2 has been shown to promote lipid raft formation, T cell activation and the formation of caveolae for ... The affinity of CD244 for CD48 is at K D {\displaystyle K_{D}} = 8 μM which is about 5 - 10 times stronger than for CD2. CD48 ...
... and the neoplastic cells are typically positive for pan-T antigens CD2, CD3, and CD7 and negative for TdT and CD1a. The ...
Probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX17 CD2 antigen cytoplasmic tail-binding protein 2 (CD2BP2) Poly(rC)-binding protein 1 ( ...
... antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.103 - antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.103.800 - receptor-cd3 complex, antigen, t- ... antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.095 - antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.095.800 - receptor-cd3 complex, antigen, t- ... antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.101.100.110.103 - antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.101.100.110.103.800 - receptor-cd3 complex, antigen, t-cell ... antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.101.100.894.095 - antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.101.100.894.095.800 - receptor-cd3 complex, antigen, t-cell ...
... +Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... The great majority of T cell lymphomas and leukaemias also express CD2, making it possible to use the presence of the antigen ... Seed B, Aruffo A (1987). "Molecular cloning of the CD2 antigen, the T-cell erythrocyte receptor, by a rapid immunoselection ... In addition to its adhesive properties, CD2 also acts as a co-stimulatory molecule on T and NK cells. CD2 is a specific marker ...
... are antigens found on all T cells. They include CD2, CD3, CD5 and CD7. Mario Roederer (October 2004). Cytometry ...
"Molecular cloning of the CD2 antigen, the T-cell erythrocyte receptor, by a rapid immunoselection procedure.". Proc. Natl. Acad ... O CD2 interacciona co CD2BP2,[5] Lck[6] e PSTPIP1.[7] Notas[editar , editar a fonte]. *↑ Uniprot database entry for CD2 ( ... interacts with the CD2 cytoplasmic domain and regulates CD2-triggered adhesion". EMBO J. (ENGLAND) 17 (24): 7320-36. ISSN 0261- ... "Molecular cloning of the human T-lymphocyte surface CD2 (T11) antigen.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 (22): 8718-22. PMC ...
... (LFA) may refer to: LFA-1 CD2, LFA-2 CD58, LFA-3 This disambiguation page lists articles ... associated with the title Lymphocyte function-associated antigen. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the ...
... but had to be clarified by attaching the term antigen or molecule to the designation (e.g., CD2 molecule). Currently, "CD2" is ... White Cell Differentiation Antigens. Oxford University Press. Knapp, W; et al. (1989). Leucocyte Typing IV. Oxford University ... "CD Antigens" (PDF). abcam. 2009. Retrieved 2014-11-22. Passlick B, Flieger D, Ziegler-Heitbrock HW (1989). "Identification and ... In the example of CD4 & CD8, these molecules are critical in antigen recognition. Others (e.g., CD135) act as cell surface ...
... s are a CD2-related surface receptor expressed by activated phagocytes, T helper cells ... Homophilic binding between SLAMs is involved in cell-to-cell adhesion during antigen presentation. ... SLAMF9 SLAMFs are CD2-related surface receptors expressed by activated B and T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic ...
Krensky AM, Robbins E, Springer TA, and Burakoff SJ: LFA-1, LFA-2, and LFA-3 antigens are involved in CTL-target conjugation. J ... CD2), and LFA-3 (CD58). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1982; 79: 7489-7493. "NIH Director Selects Dr. Alan M. Krensky as NIH Deputy ... Krensky AM, Weiss A, Crabtree G, Davis M, Parham P: Mechanisms of disease: T lymphocyte - antigen interactions in transplant ... Sanchez-Madrid F, Krensky AM, Ware CF, Robbins E, Strominger JL, Burakoff SJ, Springer TA: Three distinct antigens associated ...
It binds to CD2 (LFA-2) on T cells and is important in strengthening the adhesion between the T cells and Professional Antigen ... CD58, or lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3), is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on Antigen Presenting Cells ( ... CD58+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e. ... Selvaraj P, Plunkett ML, Dustin M, Sanders ME, Shaw S, Springer TA (1987). "The T lymphocyte glycoprotein CD2 binds the cell ...
CD2, CD4, CD8, CD28, Lck, and Fyn. p-SMAC (peripheral-SMAC) within which the lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) ... Firstly, the sialyl Lewis X present on the surface of target cell is recognized by CD2 on NK cell. If the KIR receptors of NK ... The process of formation begins when the T-cell receptor (TCR) binds to the peptide:MHC complex on the antigen-presenting cell ... Play media In immunology, an immunological synapse (or immune synapse) is the interface between an antigen-presenting cell or ...
These cells are EBV+ cytotoxic T cells and express CD8, CD3, CD2, TAI1, and granzyme but not CD56. Rarely and mostly in the ... The EBV+ NK cells express CD56 antigen and are malignant with EBV in its latency II phase. The NK cells expression relatively ... The malignant cells express markers characteristic of NK and/or T cells (e.g. CD2, CD56, CD38), granzyme B, perforin, TIA1, and ... Addition of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against the CD20 antigen expressed on B cells, may be added to this or other ...
Those antibodies are e.g. targeted to CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, NK1.1, B220, TER-119, and Gr-1 in mice and CD3 (T lymphocytes), ... Certain antibodies can be used to detect or purify cells with these markers by binding to their surface antigens. A standard ...
Cell surface A33 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPA33 gene. The glycoprotein encoded by this gene is a ... The sequence of the extracellular region contains 2 domains characteristic of the CD2 subgroup of the immunoglobulin (Ig) ... 2007). "Human leukocyte antigen alleles and haplotypes associated with chronicity of hepatitis B virus infection in Koreans". ... 2002). "Analysis of the regulation of the A33 antigen gene reveals intestine-specific mechanisms of gene expression". J. Biol. ...
Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... adhesion molecule BT-IGSF CAR VSIG ESAM Nectins PVRL1 PVRL2 PVRL3 Nectin-4 CADM1 CADM3 NECL3 NECL4 NECL5 CD2 family CD2 CD58 ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... CD18 Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Integrin alphaXbeta2 (CR4) - Heterodimer: CD11c / CD18 Very late ...
Signals transmitted through the IL-12 receptor combined with CD2 and MHC class I-binding receptor provide a three-prong ... These surface molecules in turn can transmit important antigen-sensing signals during infection. CD49a+NKG2C+ NK cells are the ... This so-called memory-like functionality is antigen-unspecific and characterized by an increased proliferative capacity, long- ... Importantly, both memory-like functionalities are antigen-unspecific and mean "remembering" a previous state of increased ...
"Evidence for an association between the T cell receptor/CD3 antigen complex and the CD5 antigen in human T lymphocytes". Eur. J ... Carmo AM, Castro MA, Arosa FA (1999). "CD2 and CD3 associate independently with CD5 and differentially regulate signaling ... CD5+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD5 genome location and CD5 gene ... Raab M, Yamamoto M, Rudd CE (1994). "The T-cell antigen CD5 acts as a receptor and substrate for the protein-tyrosine kinase ...
1990). "The human leucocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein structurally similar to the CD37 and MRC OX-44 antigens". ... It contributes to the transduction of CD2-generated signals in T cells and natural killer cells and has been suggested to play ... Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... A pan-leukocyte antigen related to membrane transport proteins". J. Immunol. 145 (12): 4322-5. PMID 2258620. Dianzani U, ...
The surface antigen CD319 (SLAMF7) is a robust marker of normal plasma cells and malignant plasma cells in multiple myeloma. In ... Boles KS, Mathew PA (Feb 2001). "Molecular cloning of CS1, a novel human natural killer cell receptor belonging to the CD2 ... related to CD2 is expressed on activated lymphocytes and promotes homotypic B-cell adhesion". The Biochemical Journal. 361 (Pt ... "Activation of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity by a SAP-independent receptor of the CD2 family". Journal of Immunology. 167 (10): ...
1990). "The CD59 antigen is a structural homologue of murine Ly-6 antigens but lacks interferon inducibility". Eur. J. Immunol ... 1992). "Overlapping but nonidentical binding sites on CD2 for CD58 and a second ligand CD59". Science. 256 (5065): 1805-1807. ... CD59+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD59 genome location and CD59 gene ... 1990). "Isolation and expression of the full-length cDNA encoding CD59 antigen of human lymphocytes". DNA Cell Biol. 9 (3): 213 ...
Némorin JG, Duplay P (May 2000). "Evidence that Llck-mediated phosphorylation of p56dok and p62dok may play a role in CD2 ... "Mediation by the protein-tyrosine kinase Tec of signaling between the B cell antigen receptor and Dok-1". J. Biol. Chem. 275 ( ... Némorin JG, Duplay P (2000). "Evidence that Llck-mediated phosphorylation of p56dok and p62dok may play a role in CD2 signaling ...
Members of the CD2 (see MIM 186990) subgroup of the Ig superfamily, such as CD84, have similar patterns of conserved disulfide ... de la Fuente MA, Pizcueta P, Nadal M, Bosch J, Engel P (Sep 1997). "CD84 leukocyte antigen is a new member of the Ig ... Krause SW, Rehli M, Heinz S, Ebner R, Andreesen R (Mar 2000). "Characterization of MAX.3 antigen, a glycoprotein expressed on ... Tissue Antigens. 64 (2): 132-44. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2004.00247.x. PMID 15245368. Nanda N, Andre P, Bao M, Clauser K, ...
Li HL, Davis W, Puré E (April 1999). "Suboptimal cross-linking of antigen receptor induces Syk-dependent activation of p70S6 ... Davis SJ, van der Merwe PA (April 1996). "The structure and ligand interactions of CD2: implications for T-cell function". ... Isakov N (January 1997). "Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), a unique module linking antigen and Fc ... June 2010). "Constitutively active Lck kinase in T cells drives antigen receptor signal transduction". Immunity. 32 (6): 766-77 ...
Tsuge I, Utsumi KR, Ueda R, Takamoto S, Takahashi T (1985). "Assignment of gene coding human T-cell differentiation antigen, ... augmentation by the CD4 and CD2 coreceptors". J. Exp. Med. 177 (1): 219-23. doi:10.1084/jem.177.1.219. PMC 2190871. PMID ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P30203 (Human T-cell differentiation antigen CD6) ... "Involvement of CD166 in the activation of human gamma delta T cells by tumor cells sensitized with nonpeptide antigens". J. ...
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
Human Antibodies Against Cell Surface Tumor Antigens Selected From Repertoires Displayed on T Cell Chimeric Antigen Receptors" ... CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7, CD8 - + TdT + + CytogeneticsEdit. Cytogenetic analysis has shown different proportions and frequencies ... TdT is a protein expressed early in the development of pre-T and pre-B cells, whereas CALLA is an antigen found in 80% of ALL ... Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been developed as a promising immunotherapy for ALL. This technology uses a single chain ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
"Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)".. *^ May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; ... CD61+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
... such as CD2 and CD4) are occasionally expressed.[26] However, this may be an artifact of the ambiguity inherent in the ... is not routinely used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma due to the lack of CD20 surface antigens in most cases. The use of rituximab in ...
"Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26". Science. 261 (5120): 466-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet degranulation. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling ...
Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of ...
... uveitis antigens induce CXCR3- and CXCR5-expressing lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells to migrate (англ.) // Blood (англ ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
2005). "Immunomodulatory effects of the HIV-1 gp120 protein on antigen presenting cells: implications for AIDS pathogenesis.". ... "Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a putative cytokine which is induced by stimulation via the CD2 structure on ...
antigen binding. • virus receptor activity. • protein binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • identical protein ... interactions of the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome gene product SAP with cytoplasmic domains of members of the CD2 ...
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... 1996). "CD88 antibodies specifically bind to C5aR on dermal CD117+ and CD14+ cells and react with a desmosomal antigen in human ...
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... 1991). „Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID ... 2003). „Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". Int. J. Hematol. 75 ...
Tissue Antigens (англ.)русск. : journal. - 2007. - Vol. 68, no. 6. - P. 509-517. - DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00726.x. - PMID ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
CD2 is implicated in the triggering of T-cells, the cytoplasmic domain is implicated in the signaling function. ... CD2 interacts with lymphocyte function-associated antigen CD58 (LFA-3) and CD48/BCM1 to mediate adhesion between T-cells and ... sp,P06729,CD2_HUMAN T-cell surface antigen CD2 OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=CD2 PE=1 SV=2 ... T-cell surface antigen CD2Add BLAST. 327. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical ...
CD2 is implicated in the triggering of T-cells, the cytoplasmic domain is implicated in the signaling function. ... CD2 interacts with lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-3) to mediate adhesion between T-cells and other cell types. ... sp,P37998,CD2_HORSE T-cell surface antigen CD2 OS=Equus caballus GN=CD2 PE=2 SV=1 ... CD2 interacts with lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-3) to mediate adhesion between T-cells and other cell types. CD2 ...
... direct presentation of MHC antigens and costimulation by ligands for human CD2 and CD28.. Murray AG1, Khodadoust MM, Pober JS, ... Furthermore, PAECs bind CTLA-4-Ig and costimulate human T cells by both the CD2 and CD28 pathways. In contrast, HUVECs do not ... Species-specific monoclonal antibodies suggest that PAECs directly present swine MHC antigens to human T cells and that human ...
Purified lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 (LFA-3) activates human thymocytes via the CD2 pathway.. S M Denning, M L ... Purified lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 (LFA-3) activates human thymocytes via the CD2 pathway. ... Purified lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 (LFA-3) activates human thymocytes via the CD2 pathway. ... Purified lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 (LFA-3) activates human thymocytes via the CD2 pathway. ...
Expression of a functional CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor in the absence of surface CD2. Analysis with clonal Jurkat cell mutants. ... Expression of a functional CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor in the absence of surface CD2. Analysis with clonal Jurkat cell mutants. ... To investigate the requirement for CD2 expression in activation of T lymphocytes via the CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor complex, ... we produced and characterized a series of CD2- Jurkat variants. These mutants lack detectable surface CD2 as determined by ...
where to buy 288392-69-8(Immunoglobulin G1,anti-(human CD2 (antigen)) (human-rat monoclonal MEDI-507 g1-chain), disulfide ... human CD2 (antigen)) (human-rat monoclonal MEDI-507 g1-chain), disulfide withhuman-rat monoclonal MEDI-507 light chain, dimer) ... human CD2 (antigen)) (human-rat monoclonal MEDI-507 g1-chain), disulfide withhuman-rat monoclonal MEDI-507 light chain, dimer) ... Immunoglobulin G1,anti-(human CD2 (antigen)) (human-rat monoclonal MEDI-507 g1-chain), disulfide withhuman-rat monoclonal MEDI- ...
CD2 antigen explanation free. What is CD2 antigen? Meaning of CD2 antigen medical term. What does CD2 antigen mean? ... Looking for online definition of CD2 antigen in the Medical Dictionary? ... CD2 antigen , definition of CD2 antigen by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/CD2+antigen ... CD2 antigen. CD2 antigen. A complex found on some bone marrow stem cells and on pre-thymocytes. The genes are on chromosome 1. ...
Anti-Lymphocyte Function Antigen 2 Antibody, CD2 Antibody, Lymphocyte Function Antigen 2 Antibody, BH1, 36-3462, FACS, IF ... also designated CD2 ligand) to mediate cell adhesion. CD2/CD58 binding can enhance antigen-specific T cell activation. CD2 is a ... T-cell surface antigen CD2; T-cell surface antigen T11/Leu-5; T11. ... Anti-CD2 / Lymphocyte Function Antigen 2 (LFA-2) Monoclonal Antibody(Clone: BH1)-CF488. Product code: 36-3462. *specify in mg ...
T-cell surface antigen CD2; T-cell surface antigen CD2; T-cell surface antigen CD2; LFA-3 receptor; rosette receptor; ... T-cell surface antigen T11/Leu-5; CD2 antigen (p50), sheep red blood cell receptor; CD2 molecule; Erythrocyte receptor; LFA-2; ... LFA-3 receptor; Rosette receptor; T-cell surface antigen T11/Leu-5; CD_antigen: CD2 ... Antigens are peptides or recombinant or native dependent on the production method.For cells, cell lines and tissues in culture ...
Interaction of CD2 with its ligands. CD58 (in humans) and CD48 (in mice and rats), contributes to antigen recognition by T ... Modelling CD48 onto the CD2 structure reveals that the CD2-CD48 complex spans approximately the same distance (134 A) as ... indicate that the amino-terminal immunoglobulin domains of CD2 and CD48 bind each other in the same orientation as the CD2-CD2 ... which has been proposed to be a model for the interactions of CD2 with its ligands. RESULTS: We show that the CD2-binding site ...
T11TS and CD2 known to inhibit CD2-ligand interaction. In addition, purified LFA-3 and T11TS, when added at ng amounts to ... This finding is discussed with regard to a physiological role of CD2-LFA-3 interaction in T cell activation. ... which bind to CD2 via T11TS in E-rosette formation, and human autologous monocytes, which express the LFA-3 molecule, both ... as well as the purified LFA-3 and T11TS molecules themselves to study their effects on T cell activation via the CD2-mediated ...
RNA blot-hybridization analysis demonstrated hybridization only in those T cells that were positive for surface CD2 antigen. ... cDNA clones encoding CD2 have been isolated by using the purified, denatured CD2 to raise a rat antiserum. Positive clones were ... is a surface antigen of the human T-lymphocyte lineage. ... followed by a region that matched all 25 residues of the CD2 N ... CD2 (T11, sheep erythrocyte receptor) is a surface antigen of the human T-lymphocyte lineage. cDNA clones encoding CD2 have ...
... rat and mouse CD2 antigens. Cross-depletion experiments showed that the CD2 monoclonal antibody OKT11 and purified CD2-300 ... When employed to stain murine tissues, the CD2-300 Ab gave the anticipated pattern of distribution for the CD2 antigen, ... The results of immunoprecipitation analyses indicated that the purified CD2-300 Ab were specific for human and mouse CD2, and ... that the CD2-300 peptide competitively and specifically inhibited precipitation by CD2-300 Ab in both species. ...
... the CD2 (T11) antigen] was used as a probe to define the chromosomal location of the gene. The signal, revealed by ... The location of the CD2 gene to 1p13 was confirmed by in situ hybridisation. ... A cDNA clone encoding the human T lymphocyte sheep erythrocyte receptor [the CD2 (T11) antigen] was used as a probe to define ... The gene coding for the human T-lymphocyte CD2 antigen is located on chromosome 1p. ...
Chemical Differences in the Antigen-Binding Sites in Human Immunoglobulin.jpg 597 × 813; 49 KB. ...
The OD value is proportional to the concentration of Monkey LFA-2/CD2. You can calculate the concentration of Monkey LFA-2/CD2 ... The micro ELISA plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Monkey LFA-2/CD2. Standards or ... Only those wells that contain Monkey LFA-2/CD2, biotinylated detection antibody and Avidin-HRP conjugate will appear blue in ... Then a biotinylated detection antibody specific for Monkey LFA-2/CD2 and Avidin-Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) conjugate are ...
It has been suggested that CD2 regulates an antigen-independent pathway of activation or that signals delivered via CD2 are an ... or the CD2 molecule; see ref. 1 for a review. Activation signals generated by antigen binding to the antigen-specific alpha/ ... Functional interaction between the Ti-CD3 complex and the CD2 antigen suggests that these T-lymphocyte cell-surface structures ... Thus, mutant T-cell lines expressing CD2, but not Ti-CD3, on the cell surface cannot be activated via the CD2 molecules. ...
Immunotoxicity of poly-drug use: abnormalities in the active and high-affinity CD2 antigen (E-rosette receptor) bearing T- ... Immunotoxicity of poly-drug use: abnormalities in the active and high-affinity CD2 antigen (E-rosette receptor) bearing T- ... Immunotoxicity of poly-drug use : abnormalities in the active and high-affinity CD2 antigen (E-rosette receptor) bearing T- ... Immunotoxicity of poly-drug use : abnormalities in the active and high-affinity CD2 antigen (E-rosette receptor) bearing T- ...
... a possible CD2/lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 functional association in humans, Immunology, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 440- ... a possible CD2/lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 functional association in humans. In: Immunology. 2000 ; Vol. 99, No. 3 ... a possible CD2/lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 functional association in humans. Immunology, 99(3), 440-450. ... a possible CD2/lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 functional association in humans. Immunology. 2000 Mar 1;99(3):440-450. ...
Functional data suggest that LFA-3, a widely distributed cell surface glycoprotein, may be the biological ligand of CD2. We ... LFA-3 bound specifically to CD2+ cells, and this binding was inhibited by CD2 mAb. Conversely, purified LFA-3 inhibited binding ... of CD2 mAb to cells, and the concentration required for this effect suggests that LFA-3 half-saturated CD2 at 1-5 nM LFA-3. ... These data demonstrate that LFA-3 is a ligand for CD2 and that LFA-3 can mediate T lymphocyte adhesion. ...
Signaling via the T-cell antigen receptor heterodimer and the CD2 antigen. A novel, synergistic pathway for activation of T- ... Suthanthiran, M 1989, Signaling via the T-cell antigen receptor heterodimer and the CD2 antigen: A novel, synergistic pathway ... Signaling via the T-cell antigen receptor heterodimer and the CD2 antigen: A novel, synergistic pathway for activation of T- ... Suthanthiran, M. (1989). Signaling via the T-cell antigen receptor heterodimer and the CD2 antigen: A novel, synergistic ...
"Molecular cloning of the CD2 antigen, the T-cell erythrocyte receptor, by a rapid immunoselection procedure.". Proc. Natl. Acad ... O CD2 interacciona co CD2BP2,[5] Lck[6] e PSTPIP1.[7] Notas[editar , editar a fonte]. *↑ Uniprot database entry for CD2 ( ... interacts with the CD2 cytoplasmic domain and regulates CD2-triggered adhesion". EMBO J. (ENGLAND) 17 (24): 7320-36. ISSN 0261- ... "Molecular cloning of the human T-lymphocyte surface CD2 (T11) antigen.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 (22): 8718-22. PMC ...
Antigen-Presenting Cells * Antigens, CD / metabolism* * CD2 Antigens / biosynthesis * CD3 Complex / metabolism ... APC contact by stimulating T cells with APCs that express the CD48 ligand CD2. We demonstrate that CD2:CD48 interactions ...
Decrease of CD2 and CD3 antigen expression.. Vivier E, Salem P, Dulioust A, Praseuth D, Metezeau P, Benveniste J, Thomas Y. ... Heterogeneity of mouse Thy 1.2 antigen expression revealed by monoclonal antibodies.. Del Guercio P, Motta I, Metezeau P, ... The activation of protein kinase C is not necessary for the monoclonal antibody-induced modulation of CD3 and CD4 antigens. ... The gene for catalase is assigned between the antigen loci MIC4 and MIC11. ...
Antigen Expression CD30 +; CD38 +; CD45 +; CD 54 +; CD71 +; HLA-DR +; EMA + (epithelial membrane antigen); CD2 -; CD3 -; CD4 ... The cells do not express B-cell lineage restricted antigens or kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chains or T-cell lineage- ...
A distinct cytoplasmic domain of CD2 regulates ligand avidity and T-cell responsiveness to antigen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. ... The 4F2 antigen heavy chain induces uptake of neutral and dibasic amino acids in Xenopus oocytes. J. Biol. Chem. ...
12481 Cd2; CD2 antigen 12503 Cd247; CD247 antigen 12493 Cd37; CD37 antigen 12505 Cd44; CD44 antigen 12508 Cd53; CD53 antigen ... MHC class II antigen K06752 MHC2; MHC class II antigen K06449 CD2; T-cell surface glycoprotein CD2 K06453 CD3Z; CD3Z antigen, ... CD44 antigen K06489 CD53; CD53 antigen K04008 CD59; CD59 antigen K04008 CD59; CD59 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K05413 ... 12509 Cd59a; CD59a antigen 333883 Cd59b; CD59b antigen 12521 Cd82; CD82 antigen 12524 Cd86; CD86 antigen 26364 Adgre5; adhesion ...
Signaling through the leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) molecule has previously been shown to induce homotypic ... 0/Alkaloids; 0/Antigens, CD2; 0/Antigens, CD3; 0/Antigens, CD44; 0/Enzyme Inhibitors; 0/Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen- ... Antigens, CD2 / metabolism. Antigens, CD3 / physiology. Antigens, CD44 / physiology*. Cell Membrane / ultrastructure. Cell Size ... Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 / physiology*. Protein Kinase C / antagonists & inhibitors, physiology. Signal ...
CD2 Antigens); 0 (CD3 Complex); 0 (CD4 Antigens); 0 (FAS protein, human); 0 (Glucocorticoids); 0 (HLA-DR Antigens); 0 ( ... Ant genos CD2/gen tica. Ant genos CD2/imunologia. Complexo CD3/gen tica. Complexo CD3/imunologia. Ant genos CD4/gen tica. Ant ... 0 (CD40 Antigens); 0 (FAS protein, human); 0 (OX40 Ligand); 0 (RNA, Messenger); 0 (Receptors, OX40); 0 (fas Receptor); 126547- ... 0 (5-(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester); 0 (Antigens, CD); 0 (FAS protein, human); 0 (Fas Ligand Protein); 0 ...
  • Expression of a functional CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor in the absence of surface CD2. (rupress.org)
  • To investigate the requirement for CD2 expression in activation of T lymphocytes via the CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor complex, we produced and characterized a series of CD2- Jurkat variants. (rupress.org)
  • Assuming that the Jurkat cell line is representative of normal cycling human T lymphocytes, we conclude that the presence of the CD2 molecule on the plasma membrane is not in itself a requirement for an operational CD3-Ti-alpha/beta receptor. (rupress.org)
  • BioTransplant says MEDI-507 is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds specifically to the CD2 antigen receptor found on T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Interaction between CD2 and its counter receptor LFA3 (CD58) on opposing cells optimizes immune system recognition, thereby facilitating communication between helper T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells, as well as between cytolytic effectors and target cells. (abeomics.com)
  • Modelling CD48 onto the CD2 structure reveals that the CD2-CD48 complex spans approximately the same distance (134 A) as predicted for the complex between the T-cell receptor and the peptide-bound major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The similar dimensions predicted for the CD2-CD48 complex and the complex between the T-cell receptor and the peptide-bound MHC molecule suggest that one of the functions of CD2 may be to position the plasma membranes of the T cell and the antigen-presenting (or target) cell at the optimal distance for the low-affinity interaction between the T-cell receptor and the peptide-bound MHC molecule. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD2 (T11, sheep erythrocyte receptor) is a surface antigen of the human T-lymphocyte lineage. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A cDNA clone encoding the human T lymphocyte sheep erythrocyte receptor [the CD2 (T11) antigen] was used as a probe to define the chromosomal location of the gene. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The CD2 antigen associates with the T-cell antigen receptor CD3 antigen complex on the surface of human T lymphocytes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD2 is a T lymphocyte glycoprotein that functions in adhesion of T lymphocytes and also as a putative receptor for activation signals. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Suthanthiran, M 1989, ' Signaling via the T-cell antigen receptor heterodimer and the CD2 antigen: A novel, synergistic pathway for activation of T-cells ', Transplantation Proceedings , vol. 21, no. 1 I, pp. 340-341. (elsevier.com)
  • Structure and function of the erythrocyte receptor CD2 on human T lymphocytes: a review. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning of the CD2 antigen, the T-cell erythrocyte receptor, by a rapid immunoselection procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Description: The RPA-2.10 monoclonal antibody reacts with human CD2, a 50 kDa cell surface receptor expressed by a majority of thymocytes, all mature T cells and subset of NK cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies directed against CD2 inhibit the formation of rosettes with sheep erythrocytes, indicating that CD2 is the erythrocyte receptor or is closely associated with it. (thermofisher.com)
  • LT2 recognizes the human CD2 antigen, a 50 kDa single-chain transmembrane glycoprotein also known as LFA-2 or receptor for sheep erythrocytes. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • CD2 functions as a costimulatory molecule on T and natural killer (NK) cells and is a receptor for other adhesion molecules, such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 (LFA-3/CD58). (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The CD4 antigen acts as a coreceptor with the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte to recognize antigens displayed by an antigen presenting cell in the context of class II MHC molecules. (genecards.org)
  • The CD4 antigen is also a primary receptor for entry of the human immunodeficiency virus through interactions with the HIV Env g. (genecards.org)
  • Interacts simultaneously with the T-cell receptor (TCR) and the MHC class II presented by antigen presenting cells (APCs). (genecards.org)
  • It is also a receptor for CD48, CD59 and CD15, which binds to the multimeric form of CD2. (beckman.com)
  • It has also been called T-cell surface antigen T11/Leu-5, LFA-2, LFA-3 receptor, erythrocyte receptor and rosette receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, markers recently developed for PDCs, including CD123 (the interleukin-3 receptor), blood dendritic cell antigen 2 (BDCA2/CD303), (5) and T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 1 (TCL1) and CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), (6) were rarely tested in the literature published prior to 2008. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We are additionally studying the mechanisms by which CD72-deficiency leads to a partial abrogation of B cell anergic tolerance in mice in which all B cells express a transgenic B cell receptor specific for hen-egg lysozyme (HEL) and in which the antigen HEL is expressed in the serum. (stanford.edu)
  • Expression of T-cell surface proteins which are involved in regulating antigen-specific T-cell activation is coordinated by the T-cell receptor (TCR). (asm.org)
  • CD6 and CD5 are unusual in that their extracellular regions are comprised of scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains instead of the more-common immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains found in other T-cell surface proteins, such as CD2, CD4, CD8, etc. (asm.org)
  • CD2 is a 50 kD type I transmembrane glycoprotein also known as LFA-2, T11, and sheep red blood cell receptor (SRBC-R). This immunoglobulin superfamily member is expressed on thymocytes, T lymphocytes, NK cells, and thymic B cell subsets. (biolegend.com)
  • CD2, also known as LFA-2, T11 and sheep red blood cell receptor (SRBC-R), is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein. (fluidigm.com)
  • Activation of T-cells is initiated by interaction of the T-cell receptor with the antigen/major histocompatibility complex on the antigen-presenting cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Co-stimulatory interactions occur secondarily, including binding of the T-cell CD2 receptor to the antigen-presenting cell ligand LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 CD58). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Alefacept is a bioengineered LFA-3/Immunoglobulin fusion protein that binds to the CD2 T-cell receptor and interferes with the ligation of LFA-3. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Binding of the immunoglobulin portion of the fusion protein to the FCy receptor on antigen-presenting cells potentiates apoptosis of CD-2 T-cells to thereby reduce the population of activated T-cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Evidence for the T3-associated 90K heterodimer as the T-cell antigen receptor. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Yang SY, Chouaib S, Dupont B. A common pathway for T lymphocyte activation involving both the CD3-Ti complex and CD2 sheep erythrocyte receptor determinants. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Suthanthiran M. T-cell differentiation antigen cluster 2 (CD2) is a receptor for accessory cells and can generate and/or transduce accessory signals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Characteristics of a monoclonal antibody (WT-31) that recognizes a common epitope on the human T cell receptor for antigen. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 3. Kato K, Koyanagi M, Okada H, Takanashi T, Wong YW, Williams AF, Okumura K, Yagita H. CD48 is a counter-receptor for mouse CD2 and is involved in T cell activation. (hcdm.org)
  • Whereas LFA-3 Ag alone did not induce thymocyte proliferation, LFA-3 Ag in combination with the anti-CD2 antibody, CD2.1, and rIL-2 induced marked thymocyte proliferation. (jimmunol.org)
  • These mutants lack detectable surface CD2 as determined by indirect immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation analysis, and specific radiolabeled antibody binding assay, but nevertheless, expressed normal numbers of CD3-Ti receptors. (rupress.org)
  • productone is a polyclonal antibody of high purity and binding affinity for the antigen that it is risen against. (anigenetics.com)
  • Cross-depletion experiments showed that the CD2 monoclonal antibody OKT11 and purified CD2-300 antibodies (Ab) precipitated the same molecules from the surface of human T lymphoblasts. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The micro ELISA plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Monkey LFA-2/CD2. (abkit.com.br)
  • Then a biotinylated detection antibody specific for Monkey LFA-2/CD2 and Avidin-Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) conjugate are added successively to each micro plate well and incubated. (abkit.com.br)
  • Only those wells that contain Monkey LFA-2/CD2, biotinylated detection antibody and Avidin-HRP conjugate will appear blue in color. (abkit.com.br)
  • There are currently no images for CD2 Antibody (NB100-65225PCP). (novusbio.com)
  • This antibody recognises a unique epitope of CD2 antigen implicated in T cell activation. (abcam.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: CD2 Monoclonal Antibody (RPA-2.10), Super Bright 645, eBioscience™ from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 64-0029-42, RRID AB_2717075. (thermofisher.com)
  • The CD2 antibody reacts with 80-90 % of peripheral blood lymphocytes and more than 95 % of thymocytes. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The monoclonal antibody recognizes human CD2, a surface antigen of the human Tlymphocyte lineage that is expressed on all peripheral blood T cells. (cellsciences.com)
  • It has been used as a CD2 reference monoclonal antibody during HLDA 6 (ref 6T-CD2.7). (beckman.com)
  • We report an increased incidence of EBV-induced B-cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) in patients treated with siplizumab, an anti-CD2 antibody. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We conducted a single-institution phase I dose-escalation trial of siplizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to CD2, in 29 patients with T-cell malignancies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This antibody detects CD2 antigen CD19 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and has two Ig like domains. (fishersci.com)
  • This antibody is a monoclonal mixture of FITC-conjugated CD2 (clone T6.3, isotype IgG2a) and PE-conjugated CD19 (clone 1G9, isotype IgG1). (fishersci.com)
  • Flow cytometry surface staining pattern of human peripheral blood stained using anti-human CD2 (TS1/8) purified antibody (low endotoxin, concentration in sample 4 μg/ml) GAM APC. (exbio.cz)
  • Separation of human CD2 positive lymphocytes (red-filled) from neutrophil granulocytes (black-dashed) in flow cytometry analysis (surface staining) of human peripheral whole blood stained using anti-human CD2 (TS1/8) purified antibody (low endotoxin, concentration in sample 4 μg/ml) GAM APC. (exbio.cz)
  • This is a monoclonal antibody with a human IgG1, kappa directed to CD2. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Catalog number key for antibody number 0600, Anti-CD2 (LFA2/600) The prefix indicates conjugation, followed by the antibody number and size suffix. (biotium.com)
  • Small volumes of anti-CD2 antibody vial(s) may occasionally become entrapped in the seal of the product vial during shipment and storage. (mybiosource.com)
  • Flow cytometric analysis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes using Anti-CD2 Antibody, followed by anti-mouse IgG PE. (mybiosource.com)
  • NCI: A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the human CS1 (CD2 subset 1, CRACC, SLAMF7) antigen with potential antineoplastic activity. (nih.gov)
  • Elotuzumab binds to the CS1 antigen, which may trigger antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in cells expressing CS1. (nih.gov)
  • Mouse anti Human CD2 antibody, clone RPA-2.10 recognizes the human CD2 cell surface antigen. (mybiosource.com)
  • Topology of the CD2-CD48 cell-adhesion molecule complex: implications for antigen recognition by T cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • BACKGROUND: The T-lymphocyte cell-surface molecule, CD2, was the first heterophilic cell-adhesion molecule to be discovered and has become an important paradigm for understanding the structural basis of cell adhesion. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results, together with recent structural studies of CD2, provide the first indication of the specific topology of a cell-adhesion molecule complex. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Sheep red blood cells, which bind to CD2 via T11TS in E-rosette formation, and human autologous monocytes, which express the LFA-3 molecule, both induce proliferation of resting T cells in the presence of per se submitogenic concentrations of anti-T11(2) plus anti-T11(3) monoclonal antibodies (mAb). (ox.ac.uk)
  • The OX-44 molecule couples to signaling pathways and is associated with CD2 on rat T lymphocytes and a natural killer cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling through the leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) molecule has previously been shown to induce homotypic aggregation in T cells and to induce cytoskeletal changes in T lymphoma cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CD2 (cluster of differentiation 2) is a cell adhesion molecule found on the surface of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to its adhesive properties, CD2 also acts as a co-stimulatory molecule on T and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD2 interacts with lymphocyte function-associated antigen CD58 (LFA-3) and CD48/BCM1 to mediate adhesion between T-cells and other cell types. (uniprot.org)
  • CD2 interacts throµgh its amino-terminal domain with the extracellular domain of CD58 (also designated CD2 ligand) to mediate cell adhesion. (abeomics.com)
  • CD2/CD58 binding can enhance antigen-specific T cell activation. (abeomics.com)
  • CD58 (in humans) and CD48 (in mice and rats), contributes to antigen recognition by T cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD2, CD48 and CD58 are closely related members of the immunoglobulin superfamily and their extracellular regions are predicted to have very similar structures. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Interacciona con outras moléculas de adhesión celular, como o antíxeno-3 asociado a función de linfocitos (LFA-3/ CD58 ) en humanos, ou CD48 en roedores, que se expresan nas superficies doutras células. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1992). "Overlapping but nonidentical binding sites on CD2 for CD58 and a second ligand CD59. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD2 is a ligand for CD58 in the human and is involved in adhesion and activation of T cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • The interaction betwee CD2 and CD58 stabilizes adhesion between T cells and antigen presenting or target cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • Relatively low affinity of CD2 to CD58 (as measured in solution) is compensated within the two-dimensional cell-cell interface to provide tight adhesion. (thermofisher.com)
  • Moreover, T cell activation induces increased CD2 expression and its lateral mobility, making easier contact between CD2 and CD58. (thermofisher.com)
  • It interacts with other adhesion molecules, such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 (LFA-3/CD58) in humans, or CD48 in rodents, which are expressed on the surfaces of other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zhu DM, Dustin ML, Cairo CW, Thatte HS, Golan DE: Mechanisms of Cellular Avidity Regulation in CD2-CD58-Mediated T Cell Adhesion. (exbio.cz)
  • The major ligand for CD2 is CD58 (also known as LFA-3). (biolegend.com)
  • The principal ligand for human CD2 is leukocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3, also known as CD58). (fluidigm.com)
  • Human CD2 binds human CD58 on antigen-presenting cells to induce co-stimulating signals in T cells. (rndsystems.com)
  • Crystal structure of the CD2-binding domain of CD58 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3) at 1.8-A resolution. (hcdm.org)
  • Structure of a heterophilic adhesion complex between the human CD2 and CD58 (LFA-3) counterreceptors. (hcdm.org)
  • As expected, the combination of anti-CD2 antibodies, termed anti-T112 and anti-T113, which are mitogenic for resting T lymphocytes, failed to stimulate activation of these variants. (rupress.org)
  • CD2 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed on peripheral blood T lymphocytes, NK cells and thymocytes. (abeomics.com)
  • 1992). "The antigen-specific induction of normal human lymphocytes in vitro is down-regulated by a conserved HIV p24 epitope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Association of CD2 and CD45 on human T lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we show that CD2 enhancer-driven expression of crmA in T lymphocytes of transgenic mice (CD2-crmA mice) reduces CD95 (Fas/APO-1)-transduced apoptosis in vitro to the level seen in CD95-deficient mutant lpr mice, but does not protect against gamma-radiation or corticosteroid-induced cell death. (nih.gov)
  • CD2 is one of the earliest T-cell markers, being present on more than 95% of thymocytes and it is also found on some natural killer cells, but not on B lymphocytes. (thermofisher.com)
  • CD2 is present on the majority of normal human peripheral blood T lymphocytes and a high percentage of NK cells. (beckman.com)
  • CD2 presents on 78+8% normal peripheral lymphocytes and 100% of thymocytes. (fishersci.com)
  • In T lymphocytes, PIP2 regulates the cytoskeleton reorganization events necessary for lymphocyte polarization and migration, the formation of stable T: antigen-presenting cell (APC) conjugates and the further clustering of TCR, co-stimulatory and signaling molecules at the immunological synapse (IS) ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The CD2/LFA-3 interaction is a key co-stimulatory signal in the activation of T-lymphocytes central to the pathophysiology of psoriasis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Activation of T Lymphocytes via Monoclonal Antibodies Against Rat Cell Surface Antigens With Particular Reference to CD2 Antigen. (cuny.edu)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that initiate the immune response by activating T lymphocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • CD2 is expressed by T lymphocytes and by NK cells. (mybiosource.com)
  • The cellular infiltrate primarily consists of activated T-lymphocytes and antigen-presenting Langerhans cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Townsend A, Bodmer H. Antigen recognition by class I-restricted T lymphocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Species-specific monoclonal antibodies suggest that PAECs directly present swine MHC antigens to human T cells and that human CD4 and CD8 molecules participate in this interaction. (nih.gov)
  • The inhibits rosetting with SRBC and stains cells in primary and secondary lymphoid organs in patterns consistent with those seen by human CD2 monoclonal antibodies. (novusbio.com)
  • Polymorphism in mitogenic effect of IgG1 monoclonal antibodies against T3 antigen on human T cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Functional data suggest that LFA-3, a widely distributed cell surface glycoprotein, may be the biological ligand of CD2. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The CD2 antigen (LFA-2) is a monomeric 50 kDa glycoprotein. (beckman.com)
  • CD2 is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the Ig superfamily and is expressed on T, NK, B and some antigen presenting cells. (rndsystems.com)
  • CS1 is a cell surface glycoprotein belonging to the CD2 subset of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) and is highly expressed by multiple myeloma cells, but minimally expressed by normal cells. (nih.gov)
  • Purified lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 binds to CD2 and mediates T lymphocyte adhesion. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The drug binds to the T-lymphocyte antigen CD2 and blocks its interaction with LFA-3 on antigen presenting cells in the body. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The protein encoded by this gene binds to the cytoplasmic tail of CD2, an effector of T cell activation and adhesion, negatively affecting CD2-triggered T cell activation. (abnova.com)
  • 1992). "The lymphocyte-specific tyrosine protein kinase p56lck is endocytosed in Jurkat cells stimulated via CD2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the crucial role of dendritic cells in adaptive immunity and their potent activity in animal tumor models, numerous pilot studies have evaluated immunotherapy with dendritic cells loaded with antigen in the form of peptide, protein, DNA, mRNA, tumor lysates, tumor fusions, and viral vectors ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Alefacept is a dimeric fusion protein containing the CD2 extracellular binding region of human leukocyte function antigen-3 (LFA-3) linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • CD2 is a type 1 protein with two immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) domains. (hcdm.org)
  • CD2 and the nature of protein interactions mediating cell-cell recognition. (hcdm.org)
  • CD2BP1 modulates CD2-dependent T cell activation via linkage to protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST. (hcdm.org)
  • CD2 is implicated in the triggering of T-cells, the cytoplasmic domain is implicated in the signaling function. (uniprot.org)
  • Porcine aortic endothelial cells activate human T cells: direct presentation of MHC antigens and costimulation by ligands for human CD2 and CD28. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, PAECs bind CTLA-4-Ig and costimulate human T cells by both the CD2 and CD28 pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Antigens are peptides or recombinant or native dependent on the production method.For cells, cell lines and tissues in culture till half confluency. (anigenetics.com)
  • RNA blot-hybridization analysis demonstrated hybridization only in those T cells that were positive for surface CD2 antigen. (ox.ac.uk)
  • When employed to stain murine tissues, the CD2-300 Ab gave the anticipated pattern of distribution for the CD2 antigen, although there was some nonspecific labeling of non-T cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These two subsets of CD2-antigen-bearing T-cells are considered as immunocompetent surveillance cells. (elsevier.com)
  • LFA-3 bound specifically to CD2+ cells, and this binding was inhibited by CD2 mAb. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Conversely, purified LFA-3 inhibited binding of CD2 mAb to cells, and the concentration required for this effect suggests that LFA-3 half-saturated CD2 at 1-5 nM LFA-3. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We investigated the consequences of recruiting GPI-linked CD48 and associated rafts to the site of T cell:APC contact by stimulating T cells with APCs that express the CD48 ligand CD2. (nih.gov)
  • 1997). "CD2 induced apoptosis of peripheral T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of tyrosine phosphorylation in human T cells via the CD2 pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells do not express B-cell lineage restricted antigens or kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chains or T-cell lineage-restricted antigens. (atcc.org)
  • The cells do express activation antigens. (atcc.org)
  • Leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and CD44 are signalling molecules for cytoskeleton-dependent morphological changes in activated T cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Expression of leukocyte differentiation antigens during the differentiation of HL-60 cells induced b. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CD2 (LFA-2) is a monomeric surface antigen (MW range 45-58 kDa) of the human T-lymphocyte lineage that is expressed on all peripheral blood T cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • A carbohydrate structure associated with CD15 (Lewis x) on myeloid cells is a novel ligand for human CD2. (biotium.com)
  • CD2 is a specific marker for T cells and NK cells, and can therefore be used in immunohistochemistry to identify the presence of such cells in tissue sections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reductions in CD4 + and CD8 + cell count numbers in response to therapy were seen in all patients, but in those patients developing EBV-LPD a significantly greater reduction in natural killer (NK) cell number and CD2 expression on T cells was seen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD2 is found on the majority of human T and NK cells. (fishersci.com)
  • Rat CD2 derived in Human Cells. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We are currently pursuing new mass spectrometry approaches to identify peptides arrayed on individual types of antigen-presenting cells, and defining at a molecular level the extent of T cell recognition of individual immunodominant epitopes as well as non-immunodominant epitopes.In the next year, we expect to apply these tools and approaches for characterizing human immune recognition to the area of tumor immunology. (dana-farber.org)
  • During positive selection, both TCR and a number of T-cell surface proteins, including CD6, CD5, and CD2, are upregulated and remain expressed on mature T cells ( 36 , 40 ). (asm.org)
  • CD6 is highly expressed on resting T cells, whereas CD166 is expressed on antigen-presenting cells, consistent with engagement of CD6 by CD166 being necessary for optimal antigen-specific T-cell activation ( 19 ). (asm.org)
  • In this phase I study, we administered one or two cycles of four triweekly s.c./intradermal injections of ex vivo generated dendritic cells modified with a recombinant fowlpox vector encoding carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and a triad of costimulatory molecules [rF-CEA(6D)-TRICOM]. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A common goal of cancer vaccines in development is the activation of high levels of antigen-specific T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To overcome these limitations, we have been studying strategies for genetic modification of dendritic cells with viral vectors encoding full length tumor antigens and costimulatory molecules. (aacrjournals.org)
  • PIP2 is indeed a pivotal regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, thus controlling T cell polarization and migration, stable adhesion to antigen-presenting cells, spatial organization of the immunological synapse, and co-stimulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • CD2, a glycosylated T-cell specific membrane component, was identified as being involved in monocyte activation in the case of the Jurkat cells whereas the identity of the activating structure on K562 cells is still unknown. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • 3 DCs are the "true professional" antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and thus the most efficient initiators of primary immune responses. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Mature DCs have a reduced phagocytic and endocytic activity, a higher surface expression of costimulatory and MHC II molecules, an enhanced cytokine-secreting activity, and high ability to activate naive antigen-specific T cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • CD2 is a surface antigen of the human T-lymphocyte lineage that is expressed on all peripheral blood T cells (summarized by Sewell et al. (mybiosource.com)
  • The current case is unique in its extremely late onset of 17 years and in that two distinct components of lymphoma with different morphology and immunophenotypes coexist in the same isolated location with the conventional diffuse large B-cell lymphoma portion being EBV negative while the anaplastic looking component which expresses T-cells antigens is EBV positive. (hindawi.com)
  • T-PLL has the immunophenotype of a mature (post-thymic) T-lymphocyte, and the neoplastic cells are typically positive for pan-T antigens CD2, CD3, and CD7 and negative for TdT and CD1a. (wikipedia.org)
  • A novel model for antigen-dependent activation of normal human T cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Transmembrane signaling of normal human T cells was explored with mAbs directed at TCR, CD2, CD4, CD5, or CD8 antigens and highly purified CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our first demonstration that crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen induces proliferation of normal human CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, in addition to revealing a novel activation mechanism utilizable by the two major subsets of T cells, suggest that the CD2 antigen might be targeted for the regulation of antigen-specific T cell immunity (e.g., organ transplantation). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1 - 3 Based on the expression of lineage-specific antigens and the presence of lineage-specific gene rearrangements, ALL cells are known to be derived from either B- or T-cell precursors. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The gene coding for the human T-lymphocyte CD2 antigen is located on chromosome 1p. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The location of the CD2 gene to 1p13 was confirmed by in situ hybridisation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CHO-Anti-Human CD2 MAb stable cell line is clonally-derived from a CHO cell line, which has been transfected with an anti-human CD2 MAb gene to allow expression of the MAb. (creativebiomart.net)
  • NCBI/Uniprot data below describe general gene information for CD2 . (mybiosource.com)
  • T-lymphocyte recognition of antigen in association with gene products of the major histocompatibility complex. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Uniprot database entry for CD2 (accession number P06729) Wilkins AL, Yang W, Yang JJ (2003). (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, T cell activation via the CD2 (alternative, Ag independent) pathway is considered an important mechanism for intrathymic T cell proliferation. (jimmunol.org)
  • To study the relevance of CD2/LFA-3 interactions to human thymocyte activation, we have used purified LFA-3 Ag in several in vitro assays of thymocyte proliferation. (jimmunol.org)
  • These data suggest that interaction of LFA-3 molecules with thymocyte CD2 molecules may provide a component of the stimulus for normal intrathymic thymocyte activation leading to thymocyte proliferation. (jimmunol.org)
  • This finding is discussed with regard to a physiological role of CD2-LFA-3 interaction in T cell activation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Activation signals generated by antigen binding to the antigen-specific alpha/beta heterodimer (Ti) are thought to be transduced via the invariant CD3 gamma, epsilon and delta chains, and the associated zeta and eta subunits. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It has been suggested that CD2 regulates an antigen-independent pathway of activation or that signals delivered via CD2 are an integral part of the antigen-specific pathway. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In addition, we have derived further detail about CD4 and CD8 coreceptors and their binding to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules of class II and class I, respectively.Recently, we have shown that agonist mAbs footprint to the membrane distal CD3epsilon lobe which they approach diagonally, adjacent to the lever-like Cbeta FG loop that facilitates antigen (pMHC)-triggered activation. (dana-farber.org)
  • CD2 plays a critical role in alternative T cell activation, T cell signaling, and cell-cell adhesion. (biolegend.com)
  • CD2 plays a role in intercellular adhesion, signal transduction, and alternative T cell activation. (fluidigm.com)
  • A Role for the Cytoplasmic Domain and Activation by Antigen. (cuny.edu)
  • 3. King PD, Sadra A, Teng JM, Bell GM, Dupont B. CD2-mediated activation of the Tec-family tyrosine kinase ITK is controlled by proline-rich stretch-4 of the CD2 cytoplasmic tail. (hcdm.org)
  • We have previously shown that the CD2/LFA-3 adhesion pathway is important in the interaction of thymocytes with a variety of LFA-3+ nonlymphoid thymic microenvironment cell types. (jimmunol.org)
  • Purified LFA-3 reconstituted into planar membranes mediated efficient CD2-dependent adhesion of T lymphoblasts. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These data demonstrate that LFA-3 is a ligand for CD2 and that LFA-3 can mediate T lymphocyte adhesion. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD2 belongs to the Ig superfamily and is involved in cell signaling and lymphocyte adhesion. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Direct measurements of heterotypic adhesion between the cell surface proteins CD2 and CD48. (hcdm.org)
  • Flow cytometry analysis (surface staining) of CD2 in human peripheral blood with anti-CD2 (TS1/8) PE-Cy™7. (exbio.cz)
  • Purified lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 (LFA-3) activates human thymocytes via the CD2 pathway. (jimmunol.org)
  • Molecular cloning of the human T-lymphocyte surface CD2 (T11) antigen. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A rabbit polyclonal antiserum was raised against a synthetic peptide, termed CD2-300, comprizing 18 amino acid resides which are conserved among the cytoplasmic domains of the human, rat and mouse CD2 antigens. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The results of immunoprecipitation analyses indicated that the purified CD2-300 Ab were specific for human and mouse CD2, and that the CD2-300 peptide competitively and specifically inhibited precipitation by CD2-300 Ab in both species. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Recognizes the bovine homologue of human CD2. (novusbio.com)
  • Tested positive against native human antigen. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Both have been engineered to express tumor antigen, such as CEA, and have been tested in murine ( 10 ) and human ( 11 , 12 ) studies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recognises human CD2. (mybiosource.com)
  • Modulating Effects By Trichinella Spiralis Sensu Stricto Excretory/Secretory Antigens of Human Neutrophil Functions," Wiadomosci Parazytologizne 35:391-399 (1989). (patentgenius.com)
  • The three-dimensional crystal structure of this region of CD2 has been determined, revealing two immunoglobulin domains with the ligand-binding site situated on an exposed beta sheet in the membrane-distal domain. (ox.ac.uk)
  • RESULTS: We show that the CD2-binding site on rat CD48 lies on the equivalent beta-sheet of its membrane-distal immunoglobulin domain. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These results indicate that the amino-terminal immunoglobulin domains of CD2 and CD48 bind each other in the same orientation as the CD2-CD2 crystal lattice interaction, strongly supporting the suggestion that CD2 interacts head-to-head with its ligand. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Purified lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 and T11 target structure are active in CD2-mediated T cell stimulation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Interaction of CD2 with its ligands. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This GFCC'C" beta sheet is also involved in a homophilic 'head-to-head' interaction in the CD2 crystal lattice, which has been proposed to be a model for the interactions of CD2 with its ligands. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cell surface ligands for CD2 and CD6 have been identified (Fig. 1A ), and there is evidence that CD5 mediates cell-cell contact (reference 11 and references therein). (asm.org)
  • The antigens presented by class II peptides are derived from extracellular proteins while class I peptides are derived from cytosolic proteins. (genecards.org)
  • Species conservation of the T cell lymphocyte CD2 cell surface antigen. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The physiological role of the interaction of CD2 with its homologous cell-surface associated ligand LFA-3 remains to be fully elucidated. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, mutant T-cell lines expressing CD2, but not Ti-CD3, on the cell surface cannot be activated via the CD2 molecules. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Functional interaction between the Ti-CD3 complex and the CD2 antigen suggests that these T-lymphocyte cell-surface structures are physically associated. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we use a digitonin-based solubilization procedure to explore this possibility and show that 40% of the cell-surface CD2 molecules can be specifically co-precipitated in association with the Ti-CD3 complex. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A Role in Transmembrane Signaling for the Cytoplasmic Domain of the CD2 T Lymphocyte Surface Antigen. (cuny.edu)
  • CD45 has been reported to be associated with several other cell surface antigens including CD1, CD2, CD3, and CD4. (biolegend.com)
  • To determine the safety and immunologic and clinical efficacy of a dendritic cell vaccine modified to hyperexpress costimulatory molecules and tumor antigen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 8. Freund C, Kühne R, Yang H, Park S, Reinherz EL, Wagner G. Dynamic interaction of CD2 with the GYF and the SH3 domain of compartmentalized effector molecules. (hcdm.org)
  • This effect is blocked by mAb to LFA-3, T11TS and CD2 known to inhibit CD2-ligand interaction. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These proteins regulate antigen-specific responses through cell-cell contact and have substantial cytoplasmic regions which link to intracellular signaling machinery (Fig. 1A ). (asm.org)
  • Leukemia phenotype studies have demonstrated that the earliest and broadest B cell restricted antigen is the CD19 antigen. (fishersci.com)
  • In contrast, HUVECs do not bind CTLA-4-Ig and only use the CD2 pathway. (nih.gov)
  • The 4F2 antigen heavy chain induces uptake of neutral and dibasic amino acids in Xenopus oocytes. (harvard.edu)
  • 1 , 4 In peripheral tissues, immature DCs are specialized to capture and process antigens for major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-associated presentation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Several recent studies have indicated a requirement for the Ti-CD3 complex in CD2 signalling. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A distinct cytoplasmic domain of CD2 regulates ligand avidity and T-cell responsiveness to antigen. (harvard.edu)
  • Aruffo and Seed, "Molecular cloning of a two CD7 (T-cell leukemia antigen) cDNAs by a COS cell expression system," The EMBO Journal 6:3313-3316 (1987). (patentgenius.com)