Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

T-cell stimulation through the T-cell receptor/CD3 complex regulates CD2 lateral mobility by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent mechanism. (1/607)

T lymphocyte activation through the T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex alters the avidity of the cell surface adhesion receptor CD2 for its ligand CD58. Based on the observations that activation-associated increases in intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) strengthen interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells, and that the lateral mobility of cell surface adhesion receptors is an important regulator of cellular adhesion strength, we postulated that [Ca2+]i controls CD2 lateral mobility at the T cell surface. Human Jurkat T leukemia cells were stimulated by antibody-mediated cross-linking of the TCR/CD3 complex. CD2 was labeled with a fluorescently conjugated monoclonal antibody. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy techniques were used to measure [Ca2+]i and CD2 lateral mobility. Cross-linking of the TCR/CD3 complex caused an immediate increase in [Ca2+]i and, 10-20 min later, a decrease in the fractional mobility of CD2 from the control value of 68 +/- 1% to 45 +/- 2% (mean +/- SEM). One to two hours after cell stimulation the fractional mobility spontaneously returned to the control level. Under these and other treatment conditions, the fraction of cells with significantly elevated [Ca2+]i was highly correlated with the fraction of cells manifesting significantly reduced CD2 mobility. Pretreatment of cells with a calmodulin inhibitor or a calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor prevented Ca2+-mediated CD2 immobilization, and pretreatment of cells with a calcineurin phosphatase inhibitor prevented the spontaneous reversal of CD2 immobilization. These data suggest that T cell activation through the TCR/CD3 complex controls CD2 lateral mobility by a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent mechanism, and that this mechanism may involve regulated phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of CD2 or a closely associated protein.  (+info)

The association between CD2+ peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and the relapse of bladder cancer in prophylactically BCG-treated patients. (2/607)

We investigated the potential existence of differences in the distribution of T-lymphocyte subsets and in the proliferative response of these CD2+ cells to polyclonal mitogens in patients with transitional cell bladder carcinoma (SBTCC) treated with prophylactic intracavitary instillations of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) according to their clinical response to this treatment. Before BCG treatment, different subset distribution (CD8+ and CD3+ CD56+), activation antigen expression (CD3+ HLA- DR+) and proliferative response to mitogenic signals were found in CD2+ cells from SBTCC patients prophylactically treated with BCG who remained free of disease or those who had recurrence of tumour. Otherwise, the prophylactic intracavitary BCG instillations in SBTCC patients are associated with a transitory variation of T-lymphocyte subset distribution (CD4 and CD8) and activation antigens expression (CD25).  (+info)

Inhibitory effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) on certain functions of intraepithelial lymphocytes. (3/607)

Human intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), CD8+ lymphocytes located between epithelial cells, are likely to be influenced by the immunosuppressive cytokine, TGF-beta, secreted by epithelial cells. This study evaluates the effects of TGF-beta on IEL functions. IEL were derived from proximal jejunum of patients undergoing gastric bypass operations for morbid obesity. Proliferation was determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation; IL-2 production, by ELISA; expression of IL-2 receptor, CD2, HML1, CD16, and CD56, by immunofluorescence; binding, by adherence of radiolabelled cells; and cytotoxicity by 51Cr-release assay. TGF-beta (> or = 1 ng/ml) inhibited the mitosis of IEL to mitogens, IL-7, and stimuli of the CD2 and CD3 pathways. The blocking effect did not target the activation events of IL-2 production and receptor generation. Rather, it reduced cell division after activation when added 24 h after initiating the culture. Antibody neutralization of naturally occurring TGF-beta increased IEL proliferation to IL-2, but not to the other stimuli. Of the multiple surface markers tested, only CD2 and HML1 expression increased with TGF-beta and decreased with antibody to TGF-beta, although the cytokine and the neutralizing antibody had no effects on IEL binding to colon cancer. TGF-beta reduced the number of CD56+ IEL and the lymphokine-activated killing when co-cultured with IL-7 but not with IL-2 or IL-15. TGF-beta inhibits certain IEL functions: the reduction in cell division rather than activation and a decline in IL-7-mediated lysis of colon cancer due to a lowering of the number of natural killer cells.  (+info)

Crystal structure of the CD2-binding domain of CD58 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3) at 1.8-A resolution. (4/607)

The binding of the cell surface molecule CD58 (formerly lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3) to its ligand, CD2, significantly increases the sensitivity of antigen recognition by T cells. This was the first heterophilic cell adhesion interaction to be discovered and is now an important paradigm for analyzing the structural basis of cell-cell recognition. The crystal structure of a CD2-binding chimeric form of CD58, solved to 1.8-A resolution, reveals that the ligand binding domain of CD58 has the expected Ig superfamily V-set topology and shares several of the hitherto unique structural features of CD2, consistent with previous speculation that the genes encoding these molecules arose via duplication of a common precursor. Nevertheless, evidence for considerable divergence of CD2 and CD58 is also implicit in the structures. Mutations that disrupt CD2 binding map to the highly acidic surface of the AGFCC'C" beta-sheet of CD58, which, unexpectedly, lacks marked shape complementarity to the equivalent, rather more basic CD58-binding face of human CD2. The specificity of the very weak interactions of proteins mediating cell-cell recognition may often derive largely from electrostatic complementarity, with shape matching at the protein-protein interface being less exact than for interactions that combine specificity with high affinity, such as those involving antibodies.  (+info)

Oligosaccharide analysis and molecular modeling of soluble forms of glycoproteins belonging to the Ly-6, scavenger receptor, and immunoglobulin superfamilies expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (5/607)

Most cell surface molecules are glycoproteins consisting of linear arrays of globular domains containing stretches of amino acid sequence with similarities to regions in other proteins. These conserved regions form the basis for the classification of proteins into superfamilies. Recombinant soluble forms of six leukocyte antigens belonging to the Ly-6 (CD59), scavenger receptor (CD5), and immunoglobulin (CD2, CD48, CD4, and Thy-1) superfamilies were expressed in the same Chinese hamster ovary cell line, thus providing an opportunity to examine the extent to which N-linked oligosaccharide processing might vary in a superfamily-, domain-, or protein-dependent manner in a given cell. While we found no evidence for superfamily-specific modifications of the glycans, marked differences were seen in the types of oligosaccharides attached to individual proteins within a given superfamily. The relative importance of local protein surface properties versus the overall tertiary structure of the molecules in directing this protein-specific variation was examined in the context of molecular models. These were constructed using the 3D structures of the proteins, glycan data from this study, and an oligosaccharide structural database. The results indicated that both the overall organization of the domains and the local protein structure can have a large bearing on site-specific glycan modification of cells in stasis. This level of control ensures that the surface of a single cell will display a diverse repertoire of glycans and precludes the presentation of multiple copies of a single oligosaccharide on the cell surface. The glycans invariably shield large regions of the protein surfaces although, for the glycoproteins examined here, these did not hinder the known active sites of the molecules. The models also indicated that sugars are likely to play a role in the packing of the native cell surface glycoproteins and to limit nonspecific protein-protein interactions. In addition, glycans located close to the cell membrane are likely to affect crucially the orientation of the glycoproteins to which they are attached.  (+info)

A model for the origin of TCR-alphabeta+ CD4-CD8- B220+ cells based on high affinity TCR signals. (6/607)

The origin of TCR-alphabeta+ CD4-CD8- cells is unclear, yet accumulating evidence suggests that they do not represent merely a default pathway of unselected thymocytes. Rather, they arise by active selection as evidenced by their absence in mice lacking expression of class I MHC. TCR-alphabeta+ CD4-CD8- cells also preferentially accumulate in mice lacking expression of Fas/APO-1/CD95 (lpr) or Fas-ligand (gld), suggesting that this subset might represent a subpopulation destined for apoptosis in normal mice. Findings from mice bearing a self-reactive TCR transgene support this view. In the current study we observe that in normal mice, TCR-alphabeta+ CD4-CD8- thymocytes contain a high proportion of cells undergoing apoptosis. The apoptotic subpopulation is further identified by its expression of B220 and IL2Rbeta and the absence of surface CD2. The CD4-CD8- B220+ phenotype is also enriched in T cells that recognize endogenous retroviral superantigens, and can be induced in TCR transgenic mice using peptide/MHC complexes that bear high affinity, but not low affinity, for TCR. A model is presented whereby the TCR-alphabeta+ CD2- CD4-CD8- B220+ phenotype arises from high intensity TCR signals. This model is broadly applicable to developing thymocytes as well as mature peripheral T cells and may represent the phenotype of self-reactive T cells that are increased in certain autoimmune conditions.  (+info)

Diminished IL-2 responses and alteration of CD2 expression on CD8+ T cells are associated with a lack of cytotoxic T cell responses during Theileria annulata infection. (7/607)

Theileria annulata is a tick-borne protozoan parasite which causes the disease bovine tropical theileriosis. In immunized or drug-treated animals, the pathogenic macroschizont stage of the parasite is destroyed by MHC class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Here we show that although CD8+ T cells increase greatly in number and display activation markers during an acute infection, they exhibit no killing of infected cells. During the ineffectual response, efferent lymph cells' ability to proliferate to IL-2 drops, coinciding with loss of MoAb binding to CD2 by CD8+ cells. When animals were treated with the anti-parasite drug 'Butalex', IL-2 responses, anti-CD2 antibody binding by CD8+ cells and strong CTL activity were restored within 24 h. The initial activation of CD4+ T cells by parasite-infected cells altering the IL-2 production in the draining lymph node is the likely cause of the failure of CTL responses.  (+info)

CD28 costimulation augments IL-2 secretion of activated lamina propria T cells by increasing mRNA stability without enhancing IL-2 gene transactivation. (8/607)

The pathways leading to activation in lamina propria (LP) T cells are different from peripheral T cells. LP T cells exhibit enhanced IL-2 secretion when activated through the CD2 pathway. Coligation of CD28 leads to synergistic enhancement of IL-2 secretion. Previous studies have characterized the CD28 augmentation of TCR-mediated signaling in peripheral blood T cells through transcriptional activation of an IL-2 promoter CD28 response element (CD28RE), along with enhanced mRNA stability. This study characterized molecular events involved in CD28 costimulation of IL-2 production in LP mononuclear cells (LPMC). LPMC exhibited increased IL-2 production in response to CD28 costimulation, compared with cells activated through CD2 alone. IL-2 secretion was paralleled by increased expression of IL-2 mRNA, resulting from enhanced IL-2 mRNA stability. In contrast to transcriptional activation in PBMC, EMSA revealed that CD28 coligation of CD2-activated LPMC does not result in increased binding of trans-factors to the CD28RE, nor did Western blots detect changes in I-kappaBalpha or I-kappaBbeta levels following CD28 coligation. Furthermore, CD28 coligation fails to enhance IL-2 promoter-reporter or RE/AP construct expression in CD2-activated LPMC. The results reported herein indicate that the molecular mechanisms involved in CD28 cosignaling and regulation of IL-2 secretion in LP T cells are unique to that compartment and differ from those seen in peripheral blood T cells. These observations suggest a biological significance for different mechanisms of IL-2 activation in initiation and maintenance of the cytokine repertoire found in the mucosa.  (+info)

*Immunoglobulin V-set domain

IPR003596 T-cell surface antigen CD2 InterPro: IPR013285 ACAM; ACAN; ADAMTSL1; AGC1; AMICA1; BCAM; BCAN; BGP; BGPc; BT3.3; ... CD2; CD226; CD274; CD276; CD300A; CD300C; CD300D; CD300E; CD300LB; CD300LF; CD300LG; CD33; CD3G; CD7; CD79A; CD79B; CD80; CD83 ... in several T-cell receptors such as CD2 (Cluster of Differentiation 2), CD4, CD80, and CD86; in myelin membrane adhesion ...

*Immunoglobulin C2-set domain

C2-set domains are found primarily in the mammalian T-cell surface antigens CD2 (Cluster of Differentiation 2), CD4 and CD80, ... CD2 mediates T-cell adhesion via its ectodomain, and signal transduction utilising its 117-amino acid cytoplasmic tail. CD2 ... "An African swine fever virus gene with similarity to the T-lymphocyte surface antigen CD2 mediates hemadsorption". Virology. ... CD2; CD4; VCAM1; Smith DK, Xue H (1997). "Sequence profiles of immunoglobulin and immunoglobulin-like domains". J. Mol. Biol. ...

*CD2BP2

CD2 antigen cytoplasmic tail-binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD2BP2 gene. CD2BP2 has been shown ... "Entrez Gene: CD2BP2 CD2 (cytoplasmic tail) binding protein 2". Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, et al. (2007). "Large-scale mapping ... 2003). "Dynamic interaction of CD2 with the GYF and the SH3 domain of compartmentalized effector molecules". EMBO J. 21 (22): ... "LIGHT is constitutively expressed on T and NK cells in the human gut and can be induced by CD2-mediated signaling". J. Immunol ...

*T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia

... and the neoplastic cells are typically positive for pan-T antigens CD2, CD3, and CD7 and negative for TdT and CD1a. The ...

*CD2

... Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... The great majority of T cell lymphomas and leukaemias also express CD2, making it possible to use the presence of the antigen ... Seed B, Aruffo A (1987). "Molecular cloning of the CD2 antigen, the T-cell erythrocyte receptor, by a rapid immunoselection ... In addition to its adhesive properties, CD2 also acts as a co-stimulatory molecule on T and NK cells. CD2 is a specific marker ...

*WBP11

Probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX17 CD2 antigen cytoplasmic tail-binding protein 2 (CD2BP2) Poly(rC)-binding protein 1 ( ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.101.100.110.103 --- antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.101.100.110.103.800 --- receptor-cd3 complex, antigen, t-cell ... antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.101.100.894.095 --- antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.101.100.894.095.800 --- receptor-cd3 complex, antigen, t-cell ... antigens, cd1 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.102 --- antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.103 --- antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd1 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.090 --- antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.095 --- antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.050. ...

*CD48

... antigen. Evidence for genetic duplication giving rise to the BCM1 region on mouse chromosome 1 and the CD2/LFA3 region on mouse ... "The MRC OX-45 antigen of rat leukocytes and endothelium is in a subset of the immunoglobulin superfamily with CD2, LFA-3 and ... CD48 interaction with CD2 has been shown to promote lipid raft formation, T cell activation and the formation of caveolae for ... The affinity of CD244 for CD48 is at K D {\displaystyle K_{D}} = 8 μM which is about 5 - 10 times stronger than for CD2. CD48 ...

*Pan-T antigens

... are antigens found on all T cells. They include CD2, CD3, CD5 and CD7. Mario Roederer (October 2004). Cytometry ...

*CD59 antigen

... in T cell activation and appears to have some role in cell adhesion through CD2 (controversial). CD59 associates with C9, ... CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. CD antigens nomenclature is updated at Protein Reviews On The Web (http ... CD59 antigen (also called 1F-5Ag, H19, HRF20, MACIF, MIRL, P-18 or protectin) inhibits formation of membrane attack complex ( ...

*Alan M. Krensky

Krensky AM, Robbins E, Springer TA, and Burakoff SJ: LFA-1, LFA-2, and LFA-3 antigens are involved in CTL-target conjugation. J ... CD2), and LFA-3 (CD58). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1982; 79: 7489-7493. "NIH Director Selects Dr. Alan M. Krensky as NIH Deputy ... Krensky AM, Weiss A, Crabtree G, Davis M, Parham P: Mechanisms of disease: T lymphocyte - antigen interactions in transplant ... Sanchez-Madrid F, Krensky AM, Ware CF, Robbins E, Strominger JL, Burakoff SJ, Springer TA: Three distinct antigens associated ...

*CD58

It binds to CD2 (LFA-2) on T cells and is important in strengthening the adhesion between the T cells and Professional Antigen ... CD58, or lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3), is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on Antigen Presenting Cells ( ... Selvaraj P, Plunkett ML, Dustin M, Sanders ME, Shaw S, Springer TA (1987). "The T lymphocyte glycoprotein CD2 binds the cell ... This adhesion occurs as part of the transitory initial encounters between T cells and Antigen Presenting Cells before T cell ...

*Immunological synapse

CD2, CD4, CD8, CD28, Lck, and Fyn. p-SMAC (peripheral-SMAC) within which the lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) ... The process of formation begins when the T-cell receptor (TCR) binds to the peptide:MHC complex on the antigen-presenting cell ... Play media In immunology, an immunological synapse (or immune synapse) is the interface between an antigen-presenting cell or ...

*Lineage markers

Those antibodies are e.g. targeted to CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, NK1.1, B220, TER-119, and Gr-1 in mice and CD3 (T lymphocytes), ... Certain antibodies can be used to detect or purify cells with these markers by binding to their surface antigens. A standard ...

*GPA33

Cell surface A33 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPA33 gene. The glycoprotein encoded by this gene is a ... The sequence of the extracellular region contains 2 domains characteristic of the CD2 subgroup of the immunoglobulin (Ig) ... 2007). "Human leukocyte antigen alleles and haplotypes associated with chronicity of hepatitis B virus infection in Koreans". ... 2002). "Analysis of the regulation of the A33 antigen gene reveals intestine-specific mechanisms of gene expression". J. Biol. ...

*Outline of immunology

Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... CD2 family CD2 CD58 Signaling lymphocytic activation molecules (SLAMs) SLAMF1 (CD150) SLAMF2 (CD48) SLAMF3 (CD229, LY9) SLAMF4 ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... B cells Antigen receptor - B cell receptor (BCR) Subunits- Immunoglobulin heavy chain / Immunoglobulin light chain Co-receptors ...

*CD5 (protein)

"Evidence for an association between the T cell receptor/CD3 antigen complex and the CD5 antigen in human T lymphocytes". Eur. J ... Carmo AM, Castro MA, Arosa FA (1999). "CD2 and CD3 associate independently with CD5 and differentially regulate signaling ... CD5 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD5 genome location and CD5 gene ... Raab M, Yamamoto M, Rudd CE (1994). "The T-cell antigen CD5 acts as a receptor and substrate for the protein-tyrosine kinase ...

*CD53

1990). "The human leucocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein structurally similar to the CD37 and MRC OX-44 antigens". ... It contributes to the transduction of CD2-generated signals in T cells and natural killer cells and has been suggested to play ... Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... A pan-leukocyte antigen related to membrane transport proteins". J. Immunol. 145 (12): 4322-5. PMID 2258620. Dianzani U, ...

*SLAMF7

The surface antigen CD319 (SLAMF7) is a robust marker of normal plasma cells and malignant plasma cells in multiple myeloma. In ... Boles KS, Mathew PA (Feb 2001). "Molecular cloning of CS1, a novel human natural killer cell receptor belonging to the CD2 ... related to CD2 is expressed on activated lymphocytes and promotes homotypic B-cell adhesion". The Biochemical Journal. 361 (Pt ... "Activation of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity by a SAP-independent receptor of the CD2 family". Journal of Immunology. 167 (10): ...

*CD59

1990). "The CD59 antigen is a structural homologue of murine Ly-6 antigens but lacks interferon inducibility". Eur. J. Immunol ... 1992). "Overlapping but nonidentical binding sites on CD2 for CD58 and a second ligand CD59". Science. 256 (5065): 1805-1807. ... CD59 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD59 genome location and CD59 gene ... 1990). "Isolation and expression of the full-length cDNA encoding CD59 antigen of human lymphocytes". DNA Cell Biol. 9 (3): 213 ...

*Thymocyte

The ability of T cells to recognize foreign antigens is mediated by the T cell receptor (TCR), which is a surface protein able ... Early, double negative thymocytes express (and can be identified by) CD2, CD5 and CD7. Still during the double negative stage, ... This allows single positive thymocytes to be exposed to a more complex set of self-antigens than is present in the cortex, and ... Cells which do not have a high affinity for self-antigens survive negative selection. At this stage, some cells are also ...

*DOK1

Némorin JG, Duplay P (May 2000). "Evidence that Llck-mediated phosphorylation of p56dok and p62dok may play a role in CD2 ... "Mediation by the protein-tyrosine kinase Tec of signaling between the B cell antigen receptor and Dok-1". J. Biol. Chem. 275 ( ... Némorin JG, Duplay P (2000). "Evidence that Llck-mediated phosphorylation of p56dok and p62dok may play a role in CD2 signaling ...

*Lck

Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (May 1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ... Lck has been shown to interact with: ADAM15, CD2, CD44, CD4, COUP-TFII, DLG1, NOTCH1, PIK3CA, PTPN6, PTPRC, UNC119, SYK, UBE3A ... When the T cell receptor is engaged by the specific antigen presented by MHC, Lck acts to phosphorylate the intracellular ... "The SH3 domain of p56lck binds to proline-rich sequences in the cytoplasmic domain of CD2". The Journal of Experimental ...

*CD84

Members of the CD2 (see MIM 186990) subgroup of the Ig superfamily, such as CD84, have similar patterns of conserved disulfide ... de la Fuente MA, Pizcueta P, Nadal M, Bosch J, Engel P (Sep 1997). "CD84 leukocyte antigen is a new member of the Ig ... Krause SW, Rehli M, Heinz S, Ebner R, Andreesen R (Mar 2000). "Characterization of MAX.3 antigen, a glycoprotein expressed on ... Tissue Antigens. 64 (2): 132-44. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2004.00247.x. PMID 15245368. Nanda N, Andre P, Bao M, Clauser K, ...

*Sema domain

CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. CD antigens nomenclature is updated at Protein Reviews On The Web (http ... CD100 increases PMA, CD3 and CD2 induced T cell proliferation, increases CD45 induced T cell adhesion, induces B cell homotypic ...

*Hodgkin's lymphoma

Although Hodgkin's is now frequently grouped with other B-cell malignancies, some T-cell markers (such as CD2 and CD4) are ... is not routinely used to treat Hodgkin's lymphoma due to the lack of CD20 surface antigens in most cases. The use of rituximab ...
Activating genes for reprogramming factors for a short time transforms large numbers of differentiated cells into multipotent forms that could be useful for cell-based therapies.. 0 Comments. ...
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The purpose of the study is to better understand the mechanism of action of an FDA approved drug (alefacept). Subjects enrolled will be given alefacept 7.5 mg intravenously on a weekly basis for 12 weeks. Response is assessed by improvement in the PASI score. The responders will get no further treatment and the nonresponders will receive additional 4 weeks of therapy. Skin biopsies will be obtained throughout the study and T-cell apoptosis will be correlated to clinical response. There is no placebo group. The duration of the study is approximately 1 year ...
The purpose of the study is to better understand the mechanism of action of an FDA approved drug (alefacept). Subjects enrolled will be given alefacept 7.5 mg intravenously on a weekly basis for 12 weeks. Response is assessed by improvement in the PASI score. The responders will get no further treatment and the nonresponders will receive additional 4 weeks of therapy. Skin biopsies will be obtained throughout the study and T-cell apoptosis will be correlated to clinical response. There is no placebo group. The duration of the study is approximately 1 year ...
Mouse anti Rat CD11a antibody, clone WT.1 reacts with rat CD11a, a glycoprotein of 160-170 kDa, associated with CD18. CD11a is one of the
The binding of the cell surface molecule CD58 (formerly lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3) to its ligand, CD2, significantly increases the sensitivity of antigen recognition by T cells. This was the first heterophilic cell adhesion interaction to be discovered and is now an important paradigm for analyzing the structural basis of cell-cell recognition. The crystal structure of a CD2-binding chimeric form of CD58, solved to 1.8-A resolution, reveals that the ligand binding domain of CD58 has the expected Ig superfamily V-set topology and shares several of the hitherto unique structural features of CD2, consistent with previous speculation that the genes encoding these molecules arose via duplication of a common precursor. Nevertheless, evidence for considerable divergence of CD2 and CD58 is also implicit in the structures. Mutations that disrupt CD2 binding map to the highly acidic surface of the AGFCCC beta-sheet of CD58, which, unexpectedly, lacks marked shape complementarity to the equivalent
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The effect of polyclonal (anti alpha and beta chain) and monoclonal (anti alpha-chain) antibodies against lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) on T cell activation was studied. When added at the beginning of activation but not after 24 h or later the antibodies as well as the F(ab)2 or Fab fragments of polyclonal antibodies inhibited concanavalin A (Con A)-induced proliferation, interleukin 2 (IL-2) production, and the expression of receptors for IL-2 and transferrin. The inhibitory effect reached a maximum at the same time as optimal proliferation (72 h). Inhibition of proliferation lasted for 5 days or longer, although IL-2 production was only inhibited during the first 48 h of culture. Receptors for IL-2 and transferrin were re-expressed to the original level after 3 days of activation. Addition of external IL-2 at the beginning of the anti-LFA-1 containing culture prevented the inhibition of IL-2 receptor expression, while inhibition of transferrin receptor expression was unaffected,
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Mouse anti Rat CD45 antibody, clone OX-29 recognizes rat CD45, also known as Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C, Leukocyte commo
This study investigated the pharmacodynamics of alefacept in patients with psoriasis. The primary endpoints was the effect on apoptosis in circulating T cells
Role of γ/δ T cell surface molecules and soluble mediators in DC maturation. (A) CD40 ligand cell surface expression by JR.2. γ/δ T cells. CD40 ligand expre
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The I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 contains an intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and ICAM-3 binding site, but the relationship of this site to regulated adhesion is unknown. To study the adhesive properties of the LFA-1 I domain, we stably expressed a GPI-anchored form of this I domain (I-GPI) on the surface of baby hamster kidney cells. I-GPI cells bound soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) with a low avidity and affinity. Flow cell experiments demonstrated a specific rolling interaction of I-GPI cells on bilayers containing purified full length ICAM-1 or ICAM-3. The LFA-1 activating antibody MEM-83, or its Fab fragment, decreased the rolling velocity of I-GPI cells on ICAM-1-containing membranes. In contrast, the interaction of I-GPI cells with ICAM-3 was blocked by MEM-83. Rolling of I-GPI cells was dependent on the presence of Mg2+. Mn2+ only partially substituted for Mg2+, giving rise to a small fraction of rolling cells and increased rolling velocity. This suggests that the
This trial will investigate the tolerability of alefacept [Amevive; Astellas Pharma] in women with psoriasis. The primary aim is to evaluate pattern or increase
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Substance P (SP), one of the most prevalent neuropeptides in gut, has been reported to have potent immune modulatory effects as a proinflammatory agent. The synthesis of SP and SP receptor expression in intraepithelial and lamina propria T lymphocytes of mouse intestine was investigated. Using RT-PCR analysis, it was demonstrated that SP receptor mRNA was exclusively expressed in intraepithelial and lamina propria T lymphocytes as well as their purified CD4+, CD8+ and CD4-CD8-CD3+ subsets. Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for the two precursors of SP, β and γ-preprotachykinin-A, were also detected. These results were consistent in lymphocytes from both epithelium and lamina propria of small and large intestines, although the frequencies and/or intensities of mRNA expression varied. However, none of the findings could be repeated in splenic T lymphocytes. Activation of splenocytes with anti-CD3ε-chain mAb and PMA did not induce expression of SP or its receptor mRNAs. Furthermore, both cytoplasmic and ...
The mechanism by which low affinity adhesion molecules function to produce stable cell-cell adhesion is unknown. In solution, the interaction of human CD2 with its ligand CD58 is of low affinity (500 mM-1) and the interaction of rat CD2 with its ligand CD48 is of still lower affinity (40 mM-1). At the molecular level, however, the two systems are likely to be topologically identical. Fluorescently labeled glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored CD48 and CD58 were prepared and incorporated into supported phospholipid bilayers, in which the ligands were capable of free lateral diffusion. Quantitative fluorescence imaging was used to study the binding of cell surface human and rat CD2 molecules to the fluorescent ligands in contact areas between Jurkat cells and the bilayers. These studies provide two major conclusions. First, CD2/ligand interactions cooperate to align membranes with nanometer precision leading to a physiologically effective two-dimensional affinity. This process does not require the intact
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CD2 is a T lymphocyte glycoprotein that functions in adhesion of T lymphocytes and also as a putative receptor for activation signals. Functional data suggest that LFA-3, a widely distributed cell surface glycoprotein, may be the biological ligand of CD2. We have purified LFA-3 from human erythrocytes and characterized the purified protein functionally. LFA-3 bound specifically to CD2+ cells, and this binding was inhibited by CD2 mAb. Conversely, purified LFA-3 inhibited binding of CD2 mAb to cells, and the concentration required for this effect suggests that LFA-3 half-saturated CD2 at 1-5 nM LFA-3. Purified LFA-3 inhibited rosetting of human and sheep erythrocytes with CD2+ T lymphoma cells and T lymphocytes, and mediated aggregation of a CD2+ T lymphoma cell line. Purified LFA-3 reconstituted into planar membranes mediated efficient CD2-dependent adhesion of T lymphoblasts. These data demonstrate that LFA-3 is a ligand for CD2 and that LFA-3 can mediate T lymphocyte adhesion.
Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is a human gene which functions in the immune system. It is involved in cellular adhesion and costimulatory signaling. It is the target of the drug efalizumab.. ITGAL encodes the integrin alpha L chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a central role in leukocyte intercellular adhesion through interactions with its ligands, ICAMs 1-3 (intercellular adhesion molecules 1 through 3), and also functions in lymphocyte costimulatory signaling.[1]. CD11a is one of the two components, along with CD18, which form lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.. Efalizumab acts as an immunosuppressant by binding to ...
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory joint disease associated with psoriasis. Alefacept (a lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-3 Ig fusion protein that binds to CD2 and functions as an antagonist to T-cell activation) has been shown to result in improvement in psoriasis but has limited effectiveness in PsA. Interleukin-20 (IL-20) is a key proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The effects of alefacept treatment on IL-20 expression in the synovium of patients with psoriasis and PsA are currently unknown. Eleven patients with active PsA and chronic plaque psoriasis were treated with alefacept (7.5 mg per week for 12 weeks) in an open-label study. Skin biopsies were taken before and after 1 and 6 weeks, whereas synovial biopsies were obtained before and 4 and 12 weeks after treatment. Synovial biopsies from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 10) were used as disease controls. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to detect IL-20 expression, and
transplant organs such as kidneys. They respond by recognising foreign antigens or peptides in the lymph nodes or sites of infection in the body. This leads to the proliferation of T cells and the expansion of reactive cells. The ability to respond depends on the movement of T-cells and length of time that T-cells spend attached to antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) that present the foreign antigen. Ligation of the antigen-receptor (also called the T-cell receptor or TCR) sends intracellular signals (termed the inside-out pathway) that slow T-cell motility allowing them to make stable contacts with DCs. Although essential for T cell function, the identity of the T cell receptor inside-out pathway for lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) adhesion has proved elusive.. As published this month in Immunity, the Rudd lab reports the identification of a novel inside-out pathway that is mediated by N-terminal SKAP1 (SKAP-55) domain binding to the C-terminal ...
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T-cell surface antigen CD2 (P06729) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIT-cell surface antigen CD2 (P06729) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/P06729

CD2 - T-cell surface antigen CD2 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - CD2 gene & proteinCD2 - T-cell surface antigen CD2 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - CD2 gene & protein

CD2 is implicated in the triggering of T-cells, the cytoplasmic domain is implicated in the signaling function. ... CD2 interacts with lymphocyte function-associated antigen CD58 (LFA-3) and CD48/BCM1 to mediate adhesion between T-cells and ... sp,P06729,CD2_HUMAN T-cell surface antigen CD2 OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=CD2 PE=1 SV=2 ... T-cell surface antigen CD2Add BLAST. 327. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P06729

CD2 - T-cell surface antigen CD2 precursor - Equus caballus (Horse) - CD2 gene & proteinCD2 - T-cell surface antigen CD2 precursor - Equus caballus (Horse) - CD2 gene & protein

CD2 is implicated in the triggering of T-cells, the cytoplasmic domain is implicated in the signaling function. ... CD2 interacts with lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-3) to mediate adhesion between T-cells and other cell types. ... sp,P37998,CD2_HORSE T-cell surface antigen CD2 OS=Equus caballus GN=CD2 PE=2 SV=1 ... CD2 interacts with lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-3) to mediate adhesion between T-cells and other cell types. CD2 ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P37998

CD2 antigen | definition of CD2 antigen by Medical dictionaryCD2 antigen | definition of CD2 antigen by Medical dictionary

CD2 antigen explanation free. What is CD2 antigen? Meaning of CD2 antigen medical term. What does CD2 antigen mean? ... Looking for online definition of CD2 antigen in the Medical Dictionary? ... CD2 antigen , definition of CD2 antigen by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/CD2+antigen ... CD2 antigen. CD2 antigen. A complex found on some bone marrow stem cells and on pre-thymocytes. The genes are on chromosome 1. ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/CD2+antigen

CAS No.288392-69-8,Immunoglobulin G1,anti-(human CD2 (antigen)) (human-rat monoclonal MEDI-507 g1-chain), disulfide withhuman...CAS No.288392-69-8,Immunoglobulin G1,anti-(human CD2 (antigen)) (human-rat monoclonal MEDI-507 g1-chain), disulfide withhuman...

where to buy 288392-69-8(Immunoglobulin G1,anti-(human CD2 (antigen)) (human-rat monoclonal MEDI-507 g1-chain), disulfide ... human CD2 (antigen)) (human-rat monoclonal MEDI-507 g1-chain), disulfide withhuman-rat monoclonal MEDI-507 light chain, dimer) ... human CD2 (antigen)) (human-rat monoclonal MEDI-507 g1-chain), disulfide withhuman-rat monoclonal MEDI-507 light chain, dimer) ... Immunoglobulin G1,anti-(human CD2 (antigen)) (human-rat monoclonal MEDI-507 g1-chain), disulfide withhuman-rat monoclonal MEDI- ...
more infohttps://www.lookchem.com/cas-288/288392-69-8.html

Signaling via the T-cell antigen receptor heterodimer and the CD2 antigen: A novel, synergistic pathway for activation of T...Signaling via the T-cell antigen receptor heterodimer and the CD2 antigen: A novel, synergistic pathway for activation of T...

Signaling via the T-cell antigen receptor heterodimer and the CD2 antigen. A novel, synergistic pathway for activation of T- ... Suthanthiran, M 1989, Signaling via the T-cell antigen receptor heterodimer and the CD2 antigen: A novel, synergistic pathway ... Signaling via the T-cell antigen receptor heterodimer and the CD2 antigen: A novel, synergistic pathway for activation of T- ... Suthanthiran, M. (1989). Signaling via the T-cell antigen receptor heterodimer and the CD2 antigen: A novel, synergistic ...
more infohttps://qfrd.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/signaling-via-the-t-cell-antigen-receptor-heterodimer-and-the-cd2

Porcine aortic endothelial cells activate human T cells: direct presentation of MHC antigens and costimulation by ligands for...Porcine aortic endothelial cells activate human T cells: direct presentation of MHC antigens and costimulation by ligands for...

... direct presentation of MHC antigens and costimulation by ligands for human CD2 and CD28.. Murray AG1, Khodadoust MM, Pober JS, ... Furthermore, PAECs bind CTLA-4-Ig and costimulate human T cells by both the CD2 and CD28 pathways. In contrast, HUVECs do not ... Species-specific monoclonal antibodies suggest that PAECs directly present swine MHC antigens to human T cells and that human ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7889399?dopt=Abstract

Expression of a functional CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor in the absence of surface CD2. Analysis with clonal Jurkat cell mutants....Expression of a functional CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor in the absence of surface CD2. Analysis with clonal Jurkat cell mutants....

Expression of a functional CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor in the absence of surface CD2. Analysis with clonal Jurkat cell mutants. ... Expression of a functional CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor in the absence of surface CD2. Analysis with clonal Jurkat cell mutants. ... To investigate the requirement for CD2 expression in activation of T lymphocytes via the CD3-Ti antigen/MHC receptor complex, ... we produced and characterized a series of CD2- Jurkat variants. These mutants lack detectable surface CD2 as determined by ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/168/6/2077

Blood and Lymph Unit 3 Flashcards by Kristen Stahl | BrainscapeBlood and Lymph Unit 3 Flashcards by Kristen Stahl | Brainscape

T lymphoblasts express T lineage antigens CD2, 3, 7. may express CD4, 8. often express antigens only seen in mature T cells ( ... Cross reaction of foreign antigen with self: foreign+self antigen. would be good if we could identify antigens that start rxn. ... Often by the time symptoms show up, triggering antigen is long gone. Coupling Self antigen with Foreign Antigen "carrier": have ... worms shed antigen that diffuse to mast cells. -Mast cells FceR are loaded then with anti-helminth IgE. -antigen cross links ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/blood-and-lymph-unit-3-4806757/packs/6999439

Immunoglobulin V-set domain - WikipediaImmunoglobulin V-set domain - Wikipedia

IPR003596 T-cell surface antigen CD2 InterPro: IPR013285 ACAM; ACAN; ADAMTSL1; AGC1; AMICA1; BCAM; BCAN; BGP; BGPc; BT3.3; ... CD2; CD226; CD274; CD276; CD300A; CD300C; CD300D; CD300E; CD300LB; CD300LF; CD300LG; CD33; CD3G; CD7; CD79A; CD79B; CD80; CD83 ... in several T-cell receptors such as CD2 (Cluster of Differentiation 2), CD4, CD80, and CD86; in myelin membrane adhesion ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immunoglobulin_V-set_domain

Purified lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 binds to CD2 and mediates T lymphocyte adhesion. - Nuffield Department of...Purified lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 binds to CD2 and mediates T lymphocyte adhesion. - Nuffield Department of...

Functional data suggest that LFA-3, a widely distributed cell surface glycoprotein, may be the biological ligand of CD2. We ... LFA-3 bound specifically to CD2+ cells, and this binding was inhibited by CD2 mAb. Conversely, purified LFA-3 inhibited binding ... of CD2 mAb to cells, and the concentration required for this effect suggests that LFA-3 half-saturated CD2 at 1-5 nM LFA-3. ... These data demonstrate that LFA-3 is a ligand for CD2 and that LFA-3 can mediate T lymphocyte adhesion. ...
more infohttps://www.ndorms.ox.ac.uk/publications/482724

Immunoglobulin C2-set domain - WikipediaImmunoglobulin C2-set domain - Wikipedia

C2-set domains are found primarily in the mammalian T-cell surface antigens CD2 (Cluster of Differentiation 2), CD4 and CD80, ... CD2 mediates T-cell adhesion via its ectodomain, and signal transduction utilising its 117-amino acid cytoplasmic tail. CD2 ... "An African swine fever virus gene with similarity to the T-lymphocyte surface antigen CD2 mediates hemadsorption". Virology. ... CD2; CD4; VCAM1; Smith DK, Xue H (1997). "Sequence profiles of immunoglobulin and immunoglobulin-like domains". J. Mol. Biol. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immunoglobulin_C2-set_domain

What are the diagnostic criteria for Sézary syndrome in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL)?What are the diagnostic criteria for Sézary syndrome in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL)?

... loss of any or all of the T-cell antigens CD2, CD3, CD4, and CD5; or loss of both CD4 and CD5) ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/answers/2139720-89969/202677-overview

Leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and CD44 are signalling molecules for cytoskeleton-dependent morphological...Leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and CD44 are signalling molecules for cytoskeleton-dependent morphological...

Signaling through the leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) molecule has previously been shown to induce homotypic ... 0/Alkaloids; 0/Antigens, CD2; 0/Antigens, CD3; 0/Antigens, CD44; 0/Enzyme Inhibitors; 0/Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen- ... Antigens, CD2 / metabolism. Antigens, CD3 / physiology. Antigens, CD44 / physiology*. Cell Membrane / ultrastructure. Cell Size ... Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 / physiology*. Protein Kinase C / antagonists & inhibitors, physiology. Signal ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Leukocyte-function-associated-antigen-1/7595055.html

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

CD2 Antigens); 0 (CD3 Complex); 0 (CD4 Antigens); 0 (FAS protein, human); 0 (Glucocorticoids); 0 (HLA-DR Antigens); 0 ( ... Ant genos CD2/gen tica. Ant genos CD2/imunologia. Complexo CD3/gen tica. Complexo CD3/imunologia. Ant genos CD4/gen tica. Ant ... 0 (CD40 Antigens); 0 (FAS protein, human); 0 (OX40 Ligand); 0 (RNA, Messenger); 0 (Receptors, OX40); 0 (fas Receptor); 126547- ... 0 (5-(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester); 0 (Antigens, CD); 0 (FAS protein, human); 0 (Fas Ligand Protein); 0 ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=D12.776.543.750.690.500

anti-CD2 antibody | Mouse anti-Human CD2 Monoclonal Antibody-NP 001758.2anti-CD2 antibody | Mouse anti-Human CD2 Monoclonal Antibody-NP 001758.2

Mouse anti-Human CD2 Monoclonal Antibody-NP_001758.2 (MBS8213079) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. ... UniProt Comments for CD2 CD2: CD2 interacts with lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-3) and CD48/BCM1 to mediate ... Anti-CD2 Antibody. Product Synonym Names SRBC; T-cell surface antigen CD2; Erythrocyte receptor; LFA-2; LFA-3 receptor; Rosette ... NCBI Summary for CD2 CD2 is a surface antigen of the human T-lymphocyte lineage that is expressed on all peripheral blood T ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/prods/Antibody/Monoclonal/CD2/datasheet.php?products_id=8213079

Mouse Monoclonal anti-CD2 (HuLy-m1) | BiotiumMouse Monoclonal anti-CD2 (HuLy-m1) | Biotium

... also designated CD2 ligand) to mediate cell adhesion. CD2/CD58 binding can enhance antigen-specific T cell activation. CD2 is a ... Activation of human T lymphocytes via the CD2 antigen results in tyrosine phosphorylation of T cell antigen receptor zeta- ... T-cell surface antigen CD2; T-cell surface antigen T11/Leu-5; T11 ... Mouse Monoclonal anti-CD2 (HuLy-m1) CD2 interacts through its ... Purified lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 binds to CD2 and mediates T lymphocyte adhesion. J Exp Med 1987, 165:677-692 ...
more infohttps://biotium.com/product/monoclonal-anti-cd2-huly-m1/

anti-CD2 antibody | Mouse CD2 Monoclonal Antibody (Clone RPA-2.10)-NP 001758.2anti-CD2 antibody | Mouse CD2 Monoclonal Antibody (Clone RPA-2.10)-NP 001758.2

Mouse CD2 Monoclonal Antibody (Clone RPA-2.10)-NP_001758.2 (MBS219663) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. ... T-cell surface antigen CD2; CD2 antigen (p50), sheep red blood cell receptor; LFA-3 receptor; T-cell surface antigen T11/Leu-5 ... UniProt Comments for CD2 CD2: CD2 interacts with lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-3) and CD48/BCM1 to mediate ... Mouse anti Human CD2 antibody, clone RPA-2.10 recognizes the human CD2 cell surface antigen. CD2 is expressed by T lymphocytes ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/prods/Antibody/Monoclonal/CD2/datasheet.php?products_id=219663

Purified lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 and T11 target structure are active in CD2-mediated T cell stimulation. -...Purified lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 and T11 target structure are active in CD2-mediated T cell stimulation. -...

T11TS and CD2 known to inhibit CD2-ligand interaction. In addition, purified LFA-3 and T11TS, when added at ng amounts to ... This finding is discussed with regard to a physiological role of CD2-LFA-3 interaction in T cell activation. ... which bind to CD2 via T11TS in E-rosette formation, and human autologous monocytes, which express the LFA-3 molecule, both ... as well as the purified LFA-3 and T11TS molecules themselves to study their effects on T cell activation via the CD2-mediated ...
more infohttps://www.ndorms.ox.ac.uk/publications/482718

Human CD2BP2 peptide (ab45594) | AbcamHuman CD2BP2 peptide (ab45594) | Abcam

CD2 antigen (cytoplasmic tail) binding protein 2. *CD2 antigen cytoplasmic tail-binding protein 2 ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/human-cd2bp2-peptide-ab45594.html

Physical and Functional Bivalency Observed Among TCR/CD3 Complexes Isolated from Primary T Cells | The Journal of ImmunologyPhysical and Functional Bivalency Observed Among TCR/CD3 Complexes Isolated from Primary T Cells | The Journal of Immunology

Molecular associations between the T-lymphocyte antigen receptor complex and the surface antigens CD2, CD4, or CD8 and CD5. ... Structure of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR): two CD3 epsilon subunits in a functional TCR/CD3 complex. J. Exp. Med. 173: 7- ... Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo. Science 250: 1720-1723. ... A role for CD8 in the developmental tuning of antigen recognition and CD3 conformational change. J. Immunol. 180: 3900-3909. ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/187/2/870.full

CD5 Expression Is Developmentally Regulated By T Cell Receptor (TCR) Signals and TCR Avidity | JEMCD5 Expression Is Developmentally Regulated By T Cell Receptor (TCR) Signals and TCR Avidity | JEM

1992) Molecular associations between the T-lymphocyte antigen receptor complex and the surface antigens CD2, CD4, or CD8 and ... 1990) Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+ TCRlothymocytes in vivo. Science 250:1720-1723, pmid:2125367.. ... 1995) Of ITAMs and ITIMs: turning on and off the B cell antigen receptor. J Exp Med 181:1953-1956, pmid:7539033.. ... 1993) T cell development in mice that lack the ζ chain of the T cell antigen receptor complex. Science 261:918-921, pmid: ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/188/12/2301

Characterization of monocyte-activating tumour cell membrane structures  - University of Regensburg Publication ServerCharacterization of monocyte-activating tumour cell membrane structures - University of Regensburg Publication Server

Antigens, CD2. MESH. Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/immunology. MESH. Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate/ ... CD2, a glycosylated T-cell specific membrane component, was identified as being involved in monocyte activation in the case of ...
more infohttps://epub.uni-regensburg.de/21156/

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

CD2 - Cluster of differentiation antigen 2 Current Synonym true false 1222195011 Cluster of differentiation antigen 2 Current ... Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-2 Current Synonym true false 1222200019 T11 - T-cell lineage 11 Current Synonym true ... LFA-2 - Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-2 Current Synonym true false 1222198013 Ortho Kung T11 Current Synonym true ... Lymphocyte antigen CD2 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD2 (substance). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=18853002

KEGG BRITE: Protein Phosphatases and Associated Proteins - Monomorium pharaonis (pharaoh ant)KEGG BRITE: Protein Phosphatases and Associated Proteins - Monomorium pharaonis (pharaoh ant)

105829893 CD2 antigen cytoplasmic tail-binding protein 2 homolog 105838275 kinesin-related protein 4 105836635 uncharacterized ... CD2 antigen cytoplasmic tail-binding protein 2 K11498 CENPE; centromeric protein E K16725 CEP192; centrosomal protein CEP192 ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?mpha01009+105834798
  • These mutants lack detectable surface CD2 as determined by indirect immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation analysis, and specific radiolabeled antibody binding assay, but nevertheless, expressed normal numbers of CD3-Ti receptors. (rupress.org)
  • Sheep red blood cells, which bind to CD2 via T11TS in E-rosette formation, and human autologous monocytes, which express the LFA-3 molecule, both induce proliferation of resting T cells in the presence of per se submitogenic concentrations of anti-T11(2) plus anti-T11(3) monoclonal antibodies (mAb). (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD2 displays structural and functional similarities with African swine fever virus (ASFV) LMW8-DR, a protein that is involved in cell-cell adhesion and immune response modulation, suggesting a possible role in the pathogenesis of ASFV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Putative CD5 ligands include CD72, a pan-B cell antigen, and CD5L, a recently described protein expressed on activated splenocytes, B cells, and activated murine T cell clones (( 5 ), ( 6 )), suggesting that CD5 may be involved in regulating immune cell interactions. (rupress.org)
  • CD2 is a type 1 protein with two immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) domains. (hcdm.org)
  • CD2 and the nature of protein interactions mediating cell-cell recognition. (hcdm.org)
  • CD2BP1 modulates CD2-dependent T cell activation via linkage to protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST. (hcdm.org)
  • Porcine aortic endothelial cells activate human T cells: direct presentation of MHC antigens and costimulation by ligands for human CD2 and CD28. (nih.gov)
  • This finding is discussed with regard to a physiological role of CD2-LFA-3 interaction in T cell activation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD2, a glycosylated T-cell specific membrane component, was identified as being involved in monocyte activation in the case of the Jurkat cells whereas the identity of the activating structure on K562 cells is still unknown. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Species-specific monoclonal antibodies suggest that PAECs directly present swine MHC antigens to human T cells and that human CD4 and CD8 molecules participate in this interaction. (nih.gov)
  • 8. Freund C, Kühne R, Yang H, Park S, Reinherz EL, Wagner G. Dynamic interaction of CD2 with the GYF and the SH3 domain of compartmentalized effector molecules. (hcdm.org)
  • Direct measurements of heterotypic adhesion between the cell surface proteins CD2 and CD48. (hcdm.org)
  • In contrast, HUVECs do not bind CTLA-4-Ig and only use the CD2 pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Physical association of the cytoplasmic domain of CD2 with the tyrosine kinases p56lck and p59fyn. (hcdm.org)