Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Expression of the cell adhesion molecules on leukocytes that demarginate during acute maximal exercise. (1/1480)

The pulmonary vascular bed is an important reservoir for the marginated pool of leukocytes that can be mobilized by exercise or catecholamines. This study was designed to determine the phenotypic characteristics of leukocytes that are mobilized into the circulation during exercise. Twenty healthy volunteers performed incremental exercise to exhaustion [maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max)] on a cycle ergometer. Blood was collected at baseline, at 3-min intervals during exercise, at VO2 max, and 30 min after exercise. Total white cell, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN), and lymphocyte counts increased with exercise to VO2 max (P < 0.05). Flow cytometric analysis showed that the mean fluorescence intensity of L-selectin on PMN (from 14.9 +/- 1 at baseline to 9.5 +/- 1.6 at VO2 max, P < 0.05) and lymphocytes (from 11.7 +/- 1.2 at baseline to 8 +/- 0.8 at VO2 max, P < 0.05) decreased with exercise. Mean fluorescence intensity of CD11b on PMN increased with exercise (from 10.2 +/- 0.6 at baseline to 25 +/- 2.5 at VO2 max, P < 0.002) but remained unchanged on lymphocytes. Myeloperoxidase levels in PMN did not change with exercise. In vitro studies showed that neither catecholamines nor plasma collected at VO2 max during exercise changed leukocyte L-selectin or CD11b levels. We conclude that PMN released from the marginated pool during exercise express low levels of L-selectin and high levels of CD11b.  (+info)

Androgen influence on lacrimal gland apoptosis, necrosis, and lymphocytic infiltration. (2/1480)

PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown that ovariectomy and hypophysectomy cause regression of the lacrimal gland and have implicated androgens as trophic hormones that support the gland. The purposes of this study were to test the hypothesis that glandular regression after ovariectomy is due to apoptosis, to identify the cell type or types that undergo apoptosis, to survey the time course of the apoptosis, and to determine whether ovariectomy-induced apoptosis could be prevented by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment. METHODS: Groups of sexually mature female New Zealand White rabbits were ovariectomized and killed at various time periods up to 9 days. Additional groups of ovariectomized rabbits were treated with 4 mg/kg DHT per day. At each time period, sham-operated rabbits were used as controls. Lacrimal glands were removed and processed for analysis of apoptosis as assessed by DNA fragmentation and for morphologic examination. DNA fragmentation was determined using the TdT-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling assay and by agarose gel electrophoresis. Labeled nuclei were quantified by automated densitometry. Sections were also stained for RTLA (rabbit thymic lymphocyte antigen), rabbit CD18, and La antigen. Morphology was evaluated by both light and electron microscopy. RESULTS: The time course of apoptosis exhibited two phases, a rapid and transient phase and a second prolonged phase. A transient phase peaked at approximately 4 to 6 hours after ovariectomy. The values for degraded DNA as a percentage of total nuclear area were 4.29%+/-0.79% and 4.26%+/-0.54%, respectively. The values for sham-operated controls examined at the same time periods were 1.77%+/-0.08% and 0.82%+/-0.21%, respectively. The percentage of degraded DNA at 24 hours after ovariectomy was not different from controls examined at the same interval after sham operation. The percentage of degraded DNA 6 days after ovariectomy was significantly increased (8.5%+/-2.4%), compared with sham-operated animals at the same time period (0.68%+/-0.03%). DNA laddering was more pronounced after ovariectomy. Dihydrotestosterone treatment in ovariectomized rabbits suppressed the increase in DNA degradation. Morphologic examination of lacrimal gland sections indicated that ovariectomy caused apoptosis of interstitial cells rather than acinar or ductal epithelial cells. Tissue taken 4 hours and 6 days after ovariectomy showed nuclear chromatin condensation principally in plasma cells. Increased numbers of macrophages were also evident. Significant levels of cell degeneration and cell debris, characteristic of necrosis, were observed in acinar regions 6 days after ovariectomy. Dihydrotestosterone prevented this necrosis. Increased numbers of RTLA+, CD18+, and La+ interstitial cells were also evident 6 days after ovariectomy. In addition, ovariectomy increased La expression in ductal cells. Dihydrotestosterone treatment prevented the increase in numbers of lymphoid cells and La expression. Dihydrotestosterone also promoted the appearance of mitotic figures in acinar cells and increased the sizes of acini by 43% (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Glandular atrophy observed after ovariectomy is likely to proceed by necrosis of acinar cells rather than apoptosis. This process begins with an apparent time lag after a rapid phase of interstitial cell apoptosis. These processes are accompanied by increased lymphocytic infiltration. These results suggest that a critical level of androgen is necessary to maintain lacrimal gland structure and function and that a decrease in available androgen below this level could trigger lacrimal gland apoptosis and necrosis, and an autoimmune response. Because apoptotic and necrotic cell fragments may be sources of autoantigens that can be processed and presented to initiate an autoimmune reaction, we surmise that cell death triggered by androgen withdrawal may trigger an autoimmune response such as that encountered in Sjogren's syndrome. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)  (+info)

Antibodies to CD18 influence neutrophil migration through extracellular matrix. (3/1480)

Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) is known to be involved in neutrophil (PMN) adhesion to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix. Although antibodies to CD 18 are being tested for therapy in humans, their role in PMN migration through the extracellular matrix is unknown. We used direct visualization to quantify PMN motility through reconstituted, three-dimensional gels of collagen type I. Gels were prepared with different concentrations of collagen (ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/mL) and PMN migration was examined in the presence and absence of antibodies to CD18 (anti-CD18), with and without stimulation by N-formyl peptides. In low-concentration gels (<0.6 mg/mL), anti-CD18 had a significant influence on PMN migration, increasing motility in unstimulated PMN by 90% at 0.3 mg/mL collagen, and decreasing motility in N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-stimulated PMN by 70% at 0.4 mg/mL collagen. But antiCD18 had no effect on the rate of cell migration through high-concentration collagen gels (>0.6 mg/mL). PMN migration through collagen gels is CD18-dependent but only under conditions of high hydration, suggesting that CD18-mediated effects (e.g., adhesion to gel fibers) are only important when the fiber density is relatively low. Anti-CD18 inhibited, but did not eliminate, the adhesion of fMLP-stimulated PMN to the surface of collagen gels, suggesting that cells use multiple mechanisms for gaining traction within the gel. Because of the multiple modes of interaction between motile cells and the deformable fiber matrix, blockade of one component, such as CD18, can enhance the rate of cell migration under one set of conditions, and inhibit under another.  (+info)

Characterization of beta2 (CD18) integrin phosphorylation in phorbol ester-activated T lymphocytes. (4/1480)

Integrins are transmembrane proteins involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular-matrix interactions. The affinity and avidity of integrins for their ligands change in response to cytoplasmic signals. This 'inside-out' activation has been reported to occur also with beta2 integrins (CD18). The beta2 integrin subunit has previously been shown to become phosphorylated in T lymphocytes on cytoplasmic serine and the functionally important threonine residues after treatment with phorbol esters or on triggering of T-cell receptors. We have now characterized the phosphorylation of beta2 integrins in T-cells in more detail. When T-cells were activated by phorbol esters the phosphorylation was mainly on Ser756. After inhibition of serine/threonine phosphatases, phosphorylation was also found in two of the threonine residues in the threonine triplet 758-760 of the beta2 cytoplasmic domain. Activation of T-cells by phorbol esters resulted in phosphorylation in only approx. 10% of the integrin molecules. Okadaic acid increased this phosphorylation to approx. 30% of the beta2 molecules, assuming three phosphorylation sites. This indicates that a strong dynamic phosphorylation exists in serine and threonine residues of the beta2 integrins.  (+info)

Differential regulation of beta1 integrins by chemoattractants regulates neutrophil migration through fibrin. (5/1480)

Chemoattractants differ in their capacity to stimulate neutrophils to adhere to and to migrate through matrices containing fibrin. Formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (fMLP) stimulates neutrophils to adhere closely to, but not to migrate into, fibrin gels. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) stimulates neutrophils to adhere loosely to and to migrate through fibrin gels. We report that alpha5beta1 integrins regulate the different migratory behaviors on fibrin gels of neutrophils in response to these chemoattractants. fMLP, but not LTB4, activated neutrophil beta1 integrins, as measured by binding of mAb 15/7 to an activation epitope on the beta1 integrins. Antibodies or peptides that block alpha5beta1 integrins prevented fMLP-stimulated neutrophils from forming zones of close apposition on fibrin and reversed fMLP's inhibitory effect on neutrophil chemotaxis through fibrin. In contrast, neither peptides nor antibodies that block beta1 integrins affected the capacity of LTB4-stimulated neutrophils to form zones of loose apposition or to migrate through fibrin gels. These results suggest that chemoattractants generate at least two different messages that direct neutrophils, and perhaps other leukocytes, to accumulate at specific anatomic sites: a general message that induces neutrophils to crawl and a specific message that prepares neutrophils to stop when they contact appropriate matrix proteins for activated beta1 integrins.  (+info)

Monocyte activation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA): increased integrin, Fc gamma and complement receptor expression and the effect of glucocorticoids. (6/1480)

The aim of this work was to study the expression of beta 1- and beta 2-integrins, CR1, CD44 and Fc gamma receptors on peripheral blood monocytes in RA. The expression of these receptors was measured by flow cytometry, before and after treatment with low-dose prednisolone. Expression of the same receptors was also measured before and after treatment with metyrapone, a substance that inhibits the synthesis of cortisol in the adrenals. The expression of the beta 2-integrins CD11a, CD11b and CD18, of CD35 (CR1), and of Fc gamma RII and Fc gamma RI (CD32 and CD64) on monocytes was elevated in the RA patients compared with healthy controls, while the expression of the beta 1-integrins (CD29, CD49d, CD49f) was unaffected. A significant correlation between monocyte expression of CD64 and C-reactive protein (CRP), and blood platelet count, respectively, was found in the group of patients with RA. After 4-6 weeks of treatment with low-dose prednisolone, the expression on the monocytes of CD11a, CD11b, CD18, CD35, CD32 and CD64 was normalized. A significant correlation (r = 0.64, P = 0.02) was found between the decrease in expression of CD11b and clinical improvement after prednisolone treatment. Two days of metyrapone treatment, which significantly lowered the serum cortisol levels, elevated the expression of CD35 and CD49f. Priming of peripheral monocytes seems to be one of the mechanisms behind the recruitment of monocytes to the rheumatoid synovium. One reason for the good clinical effects of prednisolone in RA could be a down-regulation of adhesion and phagocytosis receptors on monocytes.  (+info)

Specific activation of leukocyte beta2 integrins lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 and Mac-1 by chemokines mediated by distinct pathways via the alpha subunit cytoplasmic domains. (7/1480)

We show that CC chemokines induced a sustained increase in monocyte adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 that was mediated by Mac-1 (alphaMbeta2) but not lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1; alphaLbeta2). In contrast, staining for an activation epitope revealed a rapid and transient up-regulation of LFA-1 activity by monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in monocytes and Jurkat CCR2 chemokine receptor transfectants or by stromal-derived factor-1alpha in Jurkat cells. Differential kinetics for activation of Mac-1 (sustained) and LFA-1 (transient) avidity in response to stromal-derived factor-1alpha were confirmed by expression of alphaM or alphaL in alphaL-deficient Jurkat cells. Moreover, expression of chimeras containing alphaL and alphaM cytoplasmic domain exchanges indicated that alpha cytoplasmic tails conferred the specific mode of regulation. Coexpressing alphaM or chimeras in mutant Jurkat cells with a "gain of function" phenotype that results in constitutively active LFA-1 demonstrated that Mac-1 was not constitutively active, whereas constitutive activity was mediated via the alphaL cytoplasmic tail, implying the presence of distinct signaling pathways for LFA-1 and Mac-1. Transendothelial chemotaxis of monocytes in response to MCP-1 was dependent on LFA-1; however, Mac-1 was involved at MCP-1 concentrations stimulating its avidity, showing differential contributions of beta2 integrins. Our data suggest that a specific regulation of beta2 integrin avidity by chemokines may be important in leukocyte extravasation and may be triggered by distinct activation pathways transduced via the alpha subunit cytoplasmic domains.  (+info)

Lipopolysaccharide-coated erythrocytes activate human neutrophils via CD14 while subsequent binding is through CD11b/CD18. (8/1480)

Interaction of LPS with monocytes and neutrophils is known to occur via CD14 and is strongly enhanced by LPS-binding protein (LBP). Integrins as well as CD14 play a role in the interaction of erythrocytes (E) coated with LPS or whole Gram-negative bacteria with phagocytes. We reasoned that the density of LPS on a particle is an important determinant in these interactions. Therefore, E were coated with different concentrations of LPS (ELPS). The binding of these ELPS to neutrophils was evaluated by flow cytometry. Simultaneously, we measured fMLP receptor expression to evaluate neutrophil activation. ELPS only bound to neutrophils in the presence of LBP. Blocking CD14 inhibited both activation and binding, whereas blocking complement (C) receptor 3 (CR3) inhibited binding but not activation. TNF activation restored ELPS binding in CD14-blocked cells but not in cells in which CR3 was blocked. Salmonella minnesota did bind to neutrophils independent of CR3 or CD14. The addition of LBP enhanced binding twofold, and this surplus was dependent upon CD14 but not on CR3. We conclude that ELPS interact with neutrophils via CD14, initially giving rise to cell activation; subsequently, binding is solely mediated by activated CR3.  (+info)

*Macrophage-1 antigen

CR3 CD11b/CD18 Macrophage 1 antigen (Mac-1) Macrophage Todd R (1996). "The continuing saga of complement receptor type 3 (CR3 ... and CD18 (integrin β2). It binds to iC3b and C4b. Complement receptor 3 (CR3)(CD11b/CD18) is a human cell surface receptor ... Macrophage-1 antigen (or integrin αMβ2 or macrophage integrin or Mac-1) is a complement receptor ("CR3") consisting of CD11b ( ... Wagner C, Hänsch GM, Stegmaier S, Denefleh B, Hug F, Schoels M (April 2001). "The complement receptor 3, CR3 (CD11b/CD18), on T ...

*CD18

... antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGB2 Info with links in the Cell Migration ... Integrin beta-2 (CD18) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITGB2 gene. CD18 plays significant roles in cellular ... CD18 has been shown to interact with: FHL2, GNB2L1, ICAM-1, and PSCD1. leukocyte adhesion deficiency integrin GRCh38: Ensembl ... In humans, lack of CD18 causes Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency, a disease defined by a lack of leukocyte extravasation from blood ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd14 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.115 --- antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.118 --- antigens, cd18 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd8 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.113 --- antigens, cd13 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.118 --- antigens, cd18 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd14 MeSH D23.101.100.110.115 --- antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.110.118 --- antigens, cd18 MeSH D23.101.100.110.119 ... antigens, cd8 MeSH D23.101.100.894.113 --- antigens, cd13 MeSH D23.101.100.894.118 --- antigens, cd18 MeSH D23.101.100.894.126 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... antigens, cd18 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.200.500 -- antigens, cd29 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.200.750 -- integrin beta3 ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 -- receptors, antigen, ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 -- antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 -- antigens, cd40 ...

*CD11a

... is one of the two components, along with CD18, which form lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1. Efalizumab acts as an ... Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is ... antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide)". Lu C, Takagi J, Springer TA (May 2001). " ... CD11a Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGAL Info with links in the Cell ...

*Intercellular adhesion molecule

They are known to bind to leucocyte integrins CD11/CD18 such as LFA-1 and Macrophage-1 antigen, during inflammation and in ...

*RTX toxin

In host cells expressing the CD11b/CD18 integrin receptor (macrophage-1 antigen, αMβ2 integrin), CyaA binds the αMβ2 integrin ...

*Outline of immunology

CD18 Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Integrin alphaXbeta2 (CR4) - Heterodimer: CD11c / CD18 Very late ... Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... ITGB3 Fibrinogen receptor Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Fibronectin receptor: Integrin alpha2beta1 ... CD18 CR4 - Heterodimer: CD11c / CD18 CRIg (Complement receptor of the immunoglobulin family) Anaphylatoxin receptors C3a ...

*Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1

LFA-1 is part of the family of leukocyte integrins that are recognised by their common β-chains (β2, CD18). LFA-1 also has a ... "Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1): a surface antigen distinct from Lyt-2,3 that participates in T lymphocyte- ... Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is found on all T-cells and also on B-cells, macrophages, neutrophils and NK ... It binds to ICAM-1 on antigen-presenting cells and functions as an adhesion molecule. LFA-1 is the first to bind T-cells to ...

*CD11

... b/CD18) present on macrophages that is also called Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) and αmβ2 integrin. CD11c/CD18 also called ... For example, LFA1 (CD11a/CD18) short representation of Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen 1, also called αLβ2 integrin Mac1 ... CD11 is the α (alpha) component of various integrins, especially ones in which the β (beta) component is CD18 (β2) and mediate ...

*Leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1

Flow cytometry with monoclonal antibodies is used to screen for deficiencies of CD18. Because the CD18 gene has been cloned and ... including lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1), complement receptor 3 (CR-3), and complement receptor 4 (CR-4). The ... This gene encodes CD18, a protein present in several cell surface receptor complexes found on white blood cells, ...

*Gamma delta T cell

CD18, CD54). Thus activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells behave like APCs (γδ T-APC) and present antigens to αβ T cells. This leads to turn ... The antigens recognized by non-Vδ2 T cells expanded in the above infectious contexts have not been characterized, but the fact ... It is still not clear whether these non-peptidic antigens bind directly to the Vγ9/Vδ2 TCR or if a presenting element exists. ... However, none of the known antigen-presenting molecules like MHC class I and II or CD1 are required for γδ T cell activation ...

*Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

Leukotoxin A (LtxA); kills PMNs, monocytes, and other leukocytes expressing integrin beta-2 (CD18) Cytolethal distending toxin ... T-suppressor cells Inhibition of PMN functions Resistant to complement-mediated killing Lipopolysaccharides Surface antigens ...

*Integrin alpha M

Integrin alphaM at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... Todd RF, Petty HR (May 1997). "Beta 2 (CD11/CD18) integrins can serve as signaling partners for other leukocyte receptors". The ... Schymeinsky J, Mócsai A, Walzog B (August 2007). "Neutrophil activation via beta2 integrins (CD11/CD18): molecular mechanisms ... The second chain of αMβ2 is the common integrin β2 subunit known as CD18, and integrin αMβ2 thus belongs to the β2 subfamily ( ...

*ICAM-1

It binds to integrins of type CD11a / CD18, or CD11b / CD18 and is also exploited by rhinovirus as a receptor. ICAM-1 is a ... Katz FE, Parkar M, Stanley K, Murray LJ, Clark EA, Greaves MF (Jan 1985). "Chromosome mapping of cell membrane antigens ... Huang C, Springer TA (Aug 1995). "A binding interface on the I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) ... ICAM-1 has been shown to interact with CD11a, EZR and CD18. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000090339 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...

*FHL2

... has been shown to interact with: Androgen receptor, BRCA1, CTNNB1, CD18, CD29, CD49c, CREB1, EIF6, FHL3, IGFBP5, ITGA7, ... rise in circulatory prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels after surgical or radiography treatment) FHL2 expression is ...

*CD90

It was originally named theta (θ) antigen, then Thy-1 (THYmocyte differentiation antigen 1) due to its prior identification in ... It has been shown to interact with the leukocyte integrin Mac1 (CD11b/CD18) and may play a role in leukocyte homing and ... The antigen Thy-1 was the first T cell marker to be identified. Thy-1 was discovered by Reif and Allen in 1964 during a search ... "The AKR thymic antigen and its distribution in leukemias and nervous tissue". J. Exp. Med. 120: 413-433. doi:10.1084/jem.120.3. ...

*CD63

1991). "CD63 antigen. A novel lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, cloned by a screening procedure for intracellular antigens in ... Skubitz KM, Campbell KD, Iida J, Skubitz AP (1996). "CD63 associates with tyrosine kinase activity and CD11/CD18, and transmits ... CD63 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD63 gene. CD63 is mainly associated with membranes of intracellular ... However, an association between CD63Wt and β2 integrin (CD18) was shown by co-internalisation of these proteins. Interactions ...

*CD11c

... Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... 1995). "CD23 regulates monocyte activation through a novel interaction with the adhesion molecules CD11b-CD18 and CD11c-CD18". ... Bilsland CA, Diamond MS, Springer TA (1994). "The leukocyte integrin p150,95 (CD11c/CD18) as a receptor for iC3b. Activation by ... Valentin A, Lundin K, Patarroyo M, Asjö B (1990). "The leukocyte adhesion glycoprotein CD18 participates in HIV-1-induced ...

*C-C chemokine receptor type 6

Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... 2002). "CCR6 colocalizes with CD18 and enhances adhesion to activated endothelial cells in CCR6-transduced Jurkat T cells". J. ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...

*ICAM5

... and characterization of its interaction with the leukocyte integrin CD11a/CD18". Eur. J. Immunol. 30 (3): 810-8. doi:10.1002/ ... chromosomal localization of the human telencephalin and its distinctive interaction with lymphocyte function-associated antigen ...

*CD23

The antigen is then transferred from CD23+ B cells to CD11c+ antigen presenting cells. The CD11c+ cells in turn present the ... "CD23 regulates monocyte activation through a novel interaction with the adhesion molecules CD11b-CD18 and CD11c-CD18". Immunity ... Antigens which enter the blood stream can be captured by antigen specific IgE antibodies. The IgE immune complexes that are ... "IgE-mediated enhancement of CD4+ T cell responses in mice requires antigen presentation by CD11c+ cells and not by B cells". ...

*Salmonella

The serotype or serovar, is a classification of Salmonella into subspecies based on antigens that the organism presents. It is ... Salmonellae are also able to breach the intestinal barrier via phagocytosis and trafficking by CD18-positive immune cells, ... and flagellar H antigens (the Kauffman-White classification). The full name of a serotype is given as, for example, Salmonella ...
Clone REA1074 reacts with mouse and rat CD29 antigen, a 110-120 kDa integrin family member, also known as integrin ß1. Integrins are cell-surface receptors, expressed as heterodimers essential in various processes mediating intercellular or cell-matrix interaction. CD29 associates non‐covalently with the alpha integrins CD49a-f to form the VLA-1 through VLA-6, and CD51 to form αvß1 complexes. CD29 is broadly expressed on various tissues, including leukocytes, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells. Additional information: Clone REA1074 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - España
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD), is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by immunodeficiency resulting in recurrent infections. LAD is currently divided into three subtypes: LAD1, LAD2, and the recently described LAD3, also known as LAD-1/variant. In LAD3, the immune defects are supplemented by a Glanzmann thrombasthenia-like bleeding tendency. LAD was first recognized as a distinct clinical entity in the 1970s. The classic descriptions of LAD included recurrent bacterial infections, defects in neutrophil adhesion, and a delay in umbilical cord sloughing. The adhesion defects result in poor leukocyte chemotaxis, particularly neutrophil, inability to form pus and neutrophilia. Individuals with LAD suffer from bacterial infections beginning in the neonatal period. Infections such as omphalitis, pneumonia, gingivitis, and peritonitis are common and often life-threatening due to the infants inability to properly destroy the invading pathogens. These individuals do not form ...
The disease-gene associations are derived from automatic text mining of the biomedical literature, manually curated database annotations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies. The confidence of each association is signified by stars, where ★★★★★ is the highest confidence and ★☆☆☆☆ is the lowest.. Developed by Sune Frankild, Albert Pallejà, Kalliopi Tsafou, and Lars Juhl Jensen from the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research.. ...
CD11b (integrin alphaM subunit) is a 165-170 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein that non-covalently associates with integrin beta2 subunit (CD18); expression of the CD11b chain on the cell surface requires the presence of the CD18 antigen. CD11b/CD18 integrin (Mac-1, CR3) is highly expressed on NK cells, neutrophils, monocytes and less on macrophages. CD11b/CD18 integrin is implicated in various adhesive interactions of monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes, facilitating their diapedesis, as well as it mediates the uptake of complement coated particles, serving as a receptor for the iC3b fragment of the third complement component ...
CD11c is a member of the leukocyte integrin family of adhesion proteins. t is reported to be expressed in normal tissues, mainly on myeloid cells eg.
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We have previously reported a newly discovered congenital disorder of neutrophil adhesion, leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome type 2 (LAD II). The clinical manifestations of this syndrome are similar to those seen in the classic leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome, now designated type 1 (LAD I), but the two syndromes differ in the molecular basis of their adhesion defects. LAD I is caused by a deficiency in the CD18 integrin adhesion molecules while LAD II patients are deficient in expression of sialyl-Lewis X (SLeX), a carbohydrate ligand for selectins. In this report we demonstrate that neutrophils from a LAD II patient bind minimally or not at all to recombinant E-selectin, purified platelet P-selectin, or P-selectin expressed on histamine-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells, but have normal levels of L-selectin and CD11b/CD18 integrin, and adhere to and migrate across endothelium when CD11b/CD18 is activated. We compare LAD I and LAD II patient neutrophil function in ...
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I (LAD I) is a failure to express CD18, which composes the common ß2 subunit of LFA1 family (ß2 integrins ...
Macrophage infiltration is a hallmark of psoriasis. In the psoriasiform skin disease, activated macrophages were significantly increased in lesional skin as well as in inflamed skin draining lymph nodes (DLNs) of affected CD18hypo mice and were identified to be an important source of TNF-alpha. In vivo both depletion of macrophages and neutralization of TNF-alpha resulted in a significant reduction of the psoriasiform dermatitis. The injection of combination of recombinant JE/MCP-1 and recombinant TNF-alpha elicited skin lesion in healthy PL/J CD18hypo mice. To shed light on the mechanisms that mediate Treg cells suppression of autoimmunity, the functions of Treg and Tresp cells were examined in CD18hypo mice. Low expression of CD18 is responsible for the disruption of cell-cell contacts between dendritic cells and CD4+CD25+ Treg cells. This disruption of cell-cell contacts results in an impaired suppressor function of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells on pathogenic responder T cells. Reduced expression of ...
ITGB2 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_001120963), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. The product of this gene belongs to the integrin beta chain family of proteins. Integrins are integral cell-surface proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This gene encodes the integrin beta chain beta 2. A given chain may combine with multiple partners resulting in different integrins. For example, beta 2 combines with the alpha L chain to form the integrin LFA-1, and combines with the alpha M chain to form the integrin Mac-1. Integrins are known to participate in cell adhesion as well as cell-surface mediated signalling. Defects in this gene are the cause of leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I (LAD1). Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene.
When rolling adherent neutrophils are stimulated, they rapidly immobilize through activation of integrin CD11b/CD18, and then modulate attachment through this integrin to allow migration. We investigated links between cytoskeletal rearrangement and changes in function of integrin CD11b/CD18 in neutrophils stimulated with formyl peptide (fMLP). Neutrophils treated with the actin-polymerizing agent jasplakinolide became rolling adherent on monolayers of activated platelets, but could not use CD11b/CD18 to become immobilised when fMLP was perfused over them. If treated with jasplakinolide after fMLP, the cells stopped migrating but could not detach when fMLP was removed. Jasplakinolide did not inhibit changes in intracellular Ca(2+) seen after fMLP treatment, or inhibit neutrophil immobilisation induced by externally added Mn(2+). Thus cytoskeletal rearrangement was directly implicated in upregulation and, later, downregulation of CD11b/CD18 binding. Inhibition of RhoA with C3-transferase caused a ...
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Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency type I (LAD-I) is a primary immune deficiency caused by mutations in the CD18 subunit of β2 integrins. Affected individuals suffer from recurrent mucocutaneous infections and pathologic inflammation in certain mucosal barriers, including the periodontium, skin and the colon. Our laboratory has recently dissected the mechanistic basis of LAD-I-associated periodontitis but the mechanisms underlying LAD-I- associated colitis are yet to be defined. To answer this question, we utilized as model the CD18−/− mice after demonstrated that CD18 deficiency renders mice highly susceptible to Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis, a widely used model of human colitis caused by enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Strikingly, we found that CD18−/− mice displayed significantly reduced IL-22 production and IL-22 producing Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s). Therapeutic delivery of recombinant IL-22 (rIL-22) protected CD18−/− mice from C. ...
Rare leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II (LAD II) is due to an inborn error in fucose metabolism caused by mutations in the guanosine diphosphate-fucose transporter gene. There is a failure to express the ligand for E and P selectin, sialyl Lewis-X (CD15s), which is expressed on leukocytes. The patients are unable to fucosylate other glycoproteins, including the H blood group polysaccharide, so they are Bombay phenotype, ie, negative for the O and H blood group antigens and capable of making anti-H antibody. The immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) heavy chains also are not fucosylated, although IgM and IgG are present in normal amounts. ...
The 5 previously reported cases of LADII were of Middle Eastern descent.16 Four Arab patients from Israel and one Turkish patient from Germany shared similar characteristic clinical features, including severe mental retardation, profound leukocytosis with recurrent infectious episodes, defective selectin ligand formation with normal β2 integrin function, and Bombay phenotype on erythrocytes. The Bombay phenotype [deficiency in Fuc α (1,2) linkages forming the H antigen] and the absence of the sLeX antigen [in which Fuc α (1,3) linkage is a critical component] suggested that these patients had a broad defect in fucose metabolism and not a specific deficit in a fucosyltransferase.9 A subsequent study27 indeed showed impaired import of GDP-fucose in LADII-derived Golgi-enriched vesicles, a step required before high-energy fucose is incorporated into various glycoconjugate acceptors by fucosyltransferases.28 29 Major advances have recently been made in the therapy and understanding of this ...
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The cord should separate by about day 8 but delayed separation has been linked with an increased incidence of omphalitis as well as a number of immune disorders such as leucocyte adhesion deficiency.. Immediate versus delayed cord clamping. When the baby is delivered about a third of the fetal-placental blood remains in the placenta (around 30 mls/kg) so with delayed cord clamping the infant gains around 25-30mls/kg of blood via a placental transfusion. The majority of this transfusion occurs within a minute if the neonate is held at the level of the uterus and is almost complete by three minutes.. A recent Cochrane review suggested that delayed cord clamping (by 1 to 3 minutes) is "likely to be beneficial as long as access to treatment for jaundice requiring phototherapy is available". This review suggested no difference in adverse events such as severe maternal post-partum haemorrhage, low Apgar scores or worsening neonatal mortality figures when compared to immediate clamping. There did ...
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The integrin receptors attach cells to the extracellular matrix and transmit mechanical and chemical signals to the cell interior. Certain integrins are able to cooperate with growth factor receptors to activate signaling pathways necessary for cell proliferation, whereas other integrins are not able to do so or even deliver inhibitory signals. In a similar fashion, integrin-specific signals dictate whether adhesion to the matrix promotes cell survival or apoptotic cell death and stable adhesion or cell migration. Dominant mutations in oncogenes and recessive mutations in tumor suppressor genes enable neoplastic cells to survive, proliferate, and migrate independently of the positional constrains operating on normal cells. It is increasingly clear that the upregulation of integrins that promote cell survival, proliferation, and migration and the downregulation of integrins that mediate stable adhesion play a key role in tumor invasion and metastasis.. A major objective of the Giancotti ...
The leukocyte integrins play a critical role in a number of cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. We describe here the isolation and characterization of the chicken beta 2 (CD18) subunit, common to the leukocyte integrin family. The deduced 748-amino-acid sequence reveals a transmembrane protein with 65% and 64% identity with its human and murine homologues, respectively. The chicken beta 2 can associate on the cell surface with the human alpha subunit of LFA-1 and yields a hybrid molecule capable of binding to purified ICAM-1 and ICAM-3 ...
Anogen is a Canadian biopharmaceutical company, who has been producing antibody products for research, diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
CD11c is a member of the leukocyte integrin family of adhesion proteins. t is reported to be expressed in normal tissues, mainly on myeloid cells eg.
OBJECTIVES: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency is a rare primary immune disorder caused by defects of the CD18 beta-integrin molecule on immune cells. The condition usually presents in early infancy and is characterized by deep tissue infections, leukocytosis with impaired formation of pus, and delayed wound healing. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation offers the possibility of curative therapy, and with patient numbers at any individual center being limited, we surveyed the transplant experience at 14 centers worldwide. METHODS: The course of 36 children with a confirmed diagnosis of leukocyte adhesion deficiency who underwent hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation between 1993 and 2007 was retrospectively analyzed. Data were collected by the registries of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies/European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 62 months (extending to 14 ...
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency/congenital disorder of glycosylation IIc (LAD II/CDG IIc) is a genetic disease characterized by a decreased expression of fucose in glycoconjugates, resulting in leukocyte adhesion deficiency and severe morphological and neurological abnormalities. The biochemical defect is a reduced transport of guanosine diphosphate-L-fucose (GDP-L-fucose) from cytosol into the Golgi compartment, which reduces its availability as substrate for fucosyltransferases. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a limited supply of GDP-L-fucose inside the Golgi on core fucosylation (a1,6-fucose linked to core N-acetylglucosamine [GlcNAc]) of N-linked glycans in LAD II fibroblasts. The results showed that, although [3H]fucose incorporation was generally reduced in LAD II cells, core fucosylation was affected to a greater extent compared with other types of fucosylation of N-linked oligosaccharides. In particular, core fucosylation was found to be nearly absent in biantennary ...
We report that a subpopulation (10%) of the Mac-1 (CD1 1b/CD18) molecules on activated neutrophils mediates adhesion to ICAM-1 and fibrinogen. We describe a novel mAb (CBRM1/5) that binds to an activation-specific neoepitope on a subset of Mac-1 molecules on neutrophils and monocytes after stimulation with chemoattractants or phorobol esters but does not recognize Mac-1 on resting myeloid cells. CBRM1/5 immunoprecipitates a subpopulation of Mac-1 molecules from detergent lysates of neutrophils, binds to immunoaffinity-purified Mac-1, and localizes to the I domain on the alpha chain of Mac-1. Because CBRM1/5 recognizes a fraction of Mac-1 on activated neutrophils, but still blocks Mac-1-dependent adhesion to fibrinogen and ICAM-1, we suggest that only a small subset of Mac-1 molecules is competent to mediate adhesion. ...
Bernard Chera, T.H. , Sing Chana, H. , Kleinb, G. F. , Jabkowskib, J. , Schadenböck-Kranzlc, G. , Zachd, O. , Roca, X., Alex Law, S.K. (2011) A novel 3′ splice-site mutation and a novel gross deletion in leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD)-1star, open. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 404 (4). pp. 1099-1104. ISSN 0006-291X ...
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Mouse anti bovine CD13, clone CC81, recognises bovine CD13, a 150 kDa type II membrane protein shown to be a metallopeptidase in humans. I
The laboratory has demonstrated that Rac GTPases are key regulators of the engraftment and mobilization functions of hematopoietic stem cells. Increasing focus has been on the dysregulated function of these key molecular switches in leukemia. Recent data from the Williams laboratory implicates both Rac and RhoH in acute and chronic leukemias and current efforts include development of new inhibitors of these molecular targets and validation studies of these molecules in leukemia model systems. In addition, this basic work has helped to define the molecular abnormalities in two rare immunodeficiency diseases, Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Type IV (due to RAC2 mutations) and Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis (due to mutations in RHOH).. Much of the basic information derived from these studies is also being applied to improve the methods of gene transfer into hematopoietic stem cells using retrovirus and lentivirus vectors.. Dr. Williams is serving as sponsor/investigator for a number of human gene ...
We have identified amino acid residues within the evolutionarily conserved I domain of the alpha-chain (CD11a) of the leukocyte integrin leukocyte function-associated antigen (LFA) 1 that are critical for intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) 3 (CD50) binding. ICAM-3, a ligand of LFA-1, is thought to mediate intercellular adhesion essential for the initiation of immune responses. Using a panel of human/murine I domain chimeras and point mutants, we observed that the Ile-Lys-Gly-Asn motif, located in the NH2-terminal part of the CD11a I domain, is required for ICAM-3 but not ICAM-1 binding. These findings demonstrate that the I domain of CD11a contains distinct functional subdomains for ligand specific binding. An aspartic acid located at position 137, which is essential to ICAM-1/LFA-1 interactions (Edwards, C.P., M. Champe, T. Gonzalez, M.E. Wessinger, S.A. Spencer, L.G. Presta, P.W. Berman, and S.C. Bodary. 1995. J. Biol. Chem. 270:12635-12640), was also critical for ICAM-3 binding, whereas ...
Epidemiological studies prove that incidence of colorectal cancer is increasing. The first line therapy of colorectal cancer is surgical resection of the primary tumor and elimination of regional and remote metastases.The aim of the study was to determine expression of adhesion molecules CD134 and CD137 in the peripheral blood in colorectal cancer patients, depending on clinical cancer stage, size and invasion of the tumor.Material and methods. The study enrolled 72 patients with primary colorectal adenocarcinoma. An average patient age was 64.55 years. Clinical tumor stage was assessed using two scales: Dukes: A and Astler-Coller scale. Expression of adhesion molecules was determined in the peripheral blood collected on the day of the procedure and 10 days after the procedure.Results. An average activity of CD134 molecules (12.66%) was significantly higher than that of CD137 (6.26%) (p,0.001). Clinical tumor stage was assessed on Dukes scale and was unrelated to CD134 activity, while activity ...
Définitions de 1 3 alpha l fucosidase, synonymes, antonymes, dérivés de 1 3 alpha l fucosidase, dictionnaire analogique de 1 3 alpha l fucosidase (anglais)
CD11b (integrin alphaM subunit) is a 165-170 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein that non-covalently associates with integrin beta2 subunit (CD18); expression of the CD11b chain on the cell surface requires the presence of the CD18 antigen. CD11b/CD18 integrin (Mac-1, CR3) is highly expressed on NK cells, neutrophils, monocytes and less on macrophages. CD11b/CD18 integrin is implicated in various adhesive interactions of monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes, facilitating their diapedesis, as well as it mediates the uptake of complement coated particles, serving as a receptor for the iC3b fragment of the third complement component ...
Liste der im Rahmen der Projekte entstandenen Originalarbeiten 1. Rawling, J. S., Gatzka, M., Thomas, P. G., and J.N. Ihle. 2011. Chromatin condensation via the condensin II complex is required for peripheral T cell quiescence. EMBO Journal, 30(2):263-276. IF 9,21 2. Singh, K.*, Gatzka, M.*, Peters, T., Borkner, L., Wang, H., Sindrilaru, A., and K. Scharffetter-Kochanek. 2013. Reduced CD18 levels drive Treg conversion into Th17 cells in the CD18hypo PL/J mouse model of psoriasis. Journal of Immunology, 190(6):2544-2553. * contributed equally IF 5,52 3. Gatzka, M., Hainzl, A., Peters, T., Singh, K., Tasdogan, A., Wlaschek, M., and K. Scharffetter-Kochanek. 2013. Reduction of CD18 promotes expansion of inflammatory gd T cells collaborating with CD4+ T cells in murine chronic psoriasiform dermatitis. Journal of Immunology, 191(11):5477-5488. IF 5,52 4. Gatzka, M., Tasdogan, A., Hainzl, A., Allies, G., Maity, P., Wilms, C., Wlaschek, M., and K. Scharffetter-Kochanek. 2014. Histone deubiquitinase ...
3. B 림프구의 분화단계에 따른 세포막 단백질 ∎ CD(cluster of differentiation) ※ CD19 : 성숙 B 세포의 표면에 지속적으로 존재하는항원 ( panmarker ). 4. 성숙 B cell 의 활성화 ∎ 활성화된 B cell - plasma cell( IgM ) 로 분화 - ...
αvβ3 integrin-dependent invasion of C8161.9 cells. A) Cell surface expression levels of αvβ3 (clear bar) and αvβ5 (black bar) integrins in two metastatic
Band cells are younger than segmented cells. Neutrophils with more than four constrictions are regarded as hypersegmented. The ratio of band neutrophils to segmented neutrophils is normally around 1 to 4 (the rule of filament), respectively 1 to 12-15 (the rule of one third). If the ratio shifts and there are more band neutrophils, it is called shift to the left or immaturity.. The normal range of band neutrophils is 0.1 to 1.8 x 109/L, that of segmented neutrophils 1.3 to 7.0 x 109/L. According to the rule of filament, this represents 3 to 17% band neutrophils and/or 37 to 67% segmented neutrophils.. Clinical Significance: ...
I recently found my C&C CD, "In Keeping Secrets of Silent Earth: 3", and I wish I hadnt lost it. Im falling in love with it all over again. Definately good stuff. Especially this guys voice. I suppose at times it can be a bit annoying, but I rather enjoy it ...
I recently found my C&C CD, "In Keeping Secrets of Silent Earth: 3", and I wish I hadnt lost it. Im falling in love with it all over again. Definately good stuff. Especially this guys voice. I suppose at times it can be a bit annoying, but I rather enjoy it ...
Although it has previously been reported that resident macrophages disappear from the inflamed site within the first hour of thioglycollate injection to the peritoneum, resident macrophages do participate in the production of proinflammatory agonists (such as TNF-α, GM-CSF, IL-8, and other chemokines) that activate neutrophils (57, 58). We reported previously that neutrophil influx into the peritoneum is increased in response to thioglycollate in Lsp1−/− mice which harbor increased levels of resident peritoneal macrophages. Therefore, it was important to study the role of LSP1 in neutrophil migration in vivo, independently from changes in resident cell levels to distinguish between intrinsic vs environmental factors influencing the migration of activated neutrophils. In this study, we found that in unstimulated knee joints the number of the synoviocytes was indistinguishable between the two genotypes while the accumulation in the synovial fluid of Lsp1−/− neutrophils was significantly ...
Effect of blocking αvβ3 integrins on tenascin- C-dependent smooth muscle cell morphology, attachment efficiency, and survival. (A) Representative phase c
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The I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 contains an intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and ICAM-3 binding site, but the relationship of this site to regulated adhesion is unknown. To study the adhesive properties of the LFA-1 I domain, we stably expressed a GPI-anchored form of this I domain (I-GPI) on the surface of baby hamster kidney cells. I-GPI cells bound soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) with a low avidity and affinity. Flow cell experiments demonstrated a specific rolling interaction of I-GPI cells on bilayers containing purified full length ICAM-1 or ICAM-3. The LFA-1 activating antibody MEM-83, or its Fab fragment, decreased the rolling velocity of I-GPI cells on ICAM-1-containing membranes. In contrast, the interaction of I-GPI cells with ICAM-3 was blocked by MEM-83. Rolling of I-GPI cells was dependent on the presence of Mg2+. Mn2+ only partially substituted for Mg2+, giving rise to a small fraction of rolling cells and increased rolling velocity. This suggests that the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Supraceliac, but not infrarenal, aortic cross-clamping upregulates neutrophil integrin CD11b. AU - Hill, Gary E.. AU - Mihalakakos, Paul J.. AU - Spurzem, John R.. AU - Baxter, Timothy B.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Objective: To evaluate the effects of supraceliac and infrarenal aortic cross-clamping on the expression of neutrophil integrin CD11b (a marker of systemic cytokine release). Design: Two groups, determined by anatomic placement of aortic cross-clamp. Laboratory personnel were blinded as to group assignment. Setting: University teaching and community hospitals. Laboratory facilities used were university and Veterans Affairs medical centers. Participants: Patients scheduled for aortic surgery. Interventions: Blood sampling was performed at baseline, after 30 minutes of aortic cross-clamp duration, 30 and 90 minutes after reperfusion (for tumor necrosis factor-α plasma levels in infrarenal cross-clamp group), and at baseline and 90 minutes reperfusion (for neutrophil ...
Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is a human gene which functions in the immune system. It is involved in cellular adhesion and costimulatory signaling. It is the target of the drug efalizumab.. ITGAL encodes the integrin alpha L chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a central role in leukocyte intercellular adhesion through interactions with its ligands, ICAMs 1-3 (intercellular adhesion molecules 1 through 3), and also functions in lymphocyte costimulatory signaling.[1]. CD11a is one of the two components, along with CD18, which form lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.. Efalizumab acts as an immunosuppressant by binding to ...
Neutrophils express receptors for numerous phlogistons which, when occupied, trigger distinct signal-transduction pathways. Previous studies have shown that stimulation of neutrophils with chemoattractants induces shedding of the adhesive molecule L-selectin and increased expression of the beta 2-integrin CD11b/CD18. We determined the effect of ligation of classic, G-protein-linked chemoattractant receptors [C5a, interleukin-8 (IL-8), formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine (FMLP) and substance P], receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (Fc gamma receptors) and receptors for transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) on expression of adhesive molecules by neutrophils and the stimulus-transduction mechanisms thought to mediate these changes. We were surprised to observe that occupancy of Fc gamma receptors by immunocomplexes (BSA-anti-BSA) stimulated increased expression by neutrophils of CD11b/CD18 at concentrations which did not affect L-selectin expression (EC50 9 micrograms/ml versus 350 ...
The leukocyte adhesion cascade is an important paradigm of immunity and mediates leukocyte recruitment in acute or chronic inflammatory responses. Leukocyte recruitment requires several adhesive interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells. The adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelial cell surface is mediated by interactions between leukocyte integrins, such as the beta1-integrin family member VLA-4 (a4b1) or the beta2-integrin family members LFA-1 (aLb2, CD11a/CD18), Mac-1 (aMb2, CD11b/CD18, complement receptor-3), and their endothelial counter-receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) (1). Our lab has made significant contributions to the leukocyte adhesion cascade, including the recent identification of a novel endogenous inhibitor of leukocyte recruitment, the endothelial-derived molecule Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1, Edil3) (2-4).. Mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) from the bone marrow to the periphery takes place upon infection. HSC ...
mice spontaneously developed psoriasiform skin inflammation characterized by T cell and neutrophil infiltration and a Th17-biased cytokine response. Anti-IL-17A treatment ameliorated skin inflammation in vivo. Additionally, phospholipids and cholesterol preferentially accumulated in diseased skin and these autoantigens directly activated CD1b-autoreactive HJ1 T cells. Furthermore, hyperlipidemic serum enhanced IL-6 secretion by CD1b+ DCs and increased IL-17A production by HJ1 T cells. In psoriatic patients, the frequency of CD1b-autoreactive T cells was increased compared with that in healthy controls. Thus, this study has demonstrated the pathogenic role of CD1b-autoreactive T cells under hyperlipidemic conditions in a mouse model of spontaneous skin inflammation. As a large proportion of psoriatic patients are dyslipidemic, this finding is of clinical significance and indicates that self-lipid-reactive T cells might serve as a possible link between hyperlipidemia and psoriasis.. ...
Given its effects on cell spreading and motility, Rap1 was postulated some time ago to be involved in integrin function; however, confirmation of this required alternative cellular models. Leukocytes represented such a model, since the positive effect of GTP-bound Rap1 on integrin-mediated adhesion is easier to see: in blood cells, in contrast to the more traditional, fibroblast and epithelial, adherent cell systems, integrins are normally kept inactive. Upon inside-out signalling elicited by various agonists, leukocyte integrins can rapidly and transiently be converted to a functionally active, ligand-binding state able to trigger the classic outside-in signalling to Rho-like GTPases (Harris et al., 2000; Schoenwaelder and Burridge, 1999).. Rap1 regulates functional activation of several integrin heterodimers:α 4β1 (VLA-4), α5β1 (VLA-5), αLβ2 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18), αMβ2 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) and αIIbβ3 (Reedquist et al., 2000; Caron et al., 2000; Katagiri et al., 2000; Arai et al., 2001; ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [G Liu, J T Link, Z Pei, E B Reilly, S Leitza, B Nguyen, K C Marsh, G F Okasinski, T W von Geldern, M Ormes, K Fowler, M Gallatin].
Homo sapiens integrin, beta 2 (antigen CD18 (p95), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; macrophage antigen 1 (mac-1) beta subunit) (ITGB2), mRNA. (H00003689-R02) - Products - Abnova
Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue ...
4F7C: Crystal Structures of Bovine CD1d Reveal Altered αGalCer Presentation and a Restricted A Pocket Unable to Bind Long-Chain Glycolipids.
The binding of the cell surface molecule CD58 (formerly lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3) to its ligand, CD2, significantly increases the sensitivity of antigen recognition by T cells. This was the first heterophilic cell adhesion interaction to be discovered and is now an important paradigm for analyzing the structural basis of cell-cell recognition. The crystal structure of a CD2-binding chimeric form of CD58, solved to 1.8-A resolution, reveals that the ligand binding domain of CD58 has the expected Ig superfamily V-set topology and shares several of the hitherto unique structural features of CD2, consistent with previous speculation that the genes encoding these molecules arose via duplication of a common precursor. Nevertheless, evidence for considerable divergence of CD2 and CD58 is also implicit in the structures. Mutations that disrupt CD2 binding map to the highly acidic surface of the AGFCCC beta-sheet of CD58, which, unexpectedly, lacks marked shape complementarity to the equivalent
Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is a human gene which functions in the immune system. It is involved in cellular adhesion and costimulatory signaling. It is the target of the drug efalizumab. ITGAL encodes the integrin alpha L chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a central role in leukocyte intercellular adhesion through interactions with its ligands, ICAMs 1-3 (intercellular adhesion molecules 1 through 3), and also functions in lymphocyte costimulatory signaling. CD11a is one of the two components, along with CD18, which form lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1. Efalizumab acts as an immunosuppressant by binding to CD11a but was ...
Signaling through the leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) molecule has previously been shown to induce homotypic aggregation in T cells and to induce cytoskeletal changes in T lymphoma cells. In this study we describe the induction of a d
Rationale: TRPM2 (Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-2) expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) is a cation channel mediating Ca2+ entry in response to intracellular generation of adenosine diphosphoribose (ADPR), the TRPM2 ligand. Objective: Because polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) interaction with endothelial cells (ECs) generates ROS, we addressed the possible role of TRPM2 expressed in ECs in the mechanism of transendothelial migration of PMNs. Methods and Results: We observed defective PMN transmigration in response to LPS challenge in adult mice in which the EC expressed TRPM2 is conditionally deleted (Trpm2iΔEC). PMN interaction with ECs induced the entry of Ca2+ in ECs via the EC-expressed TRPM2. Prevention of generation of ADPR in ECs significantly reduced Ca2+ entry in response to PMN activation of TRPM2 in ECs. PMNs isolated from gp91phox-/- mice significantly reduced Ca2+ entry in ECs via TRPM2 as compared to WT PMNs and failed to induce PMN transmigration. Overexpression of the ...
We are in a climate crisis.. According to the UN IPCC Report, we have less than 12 years left to drastically reduce carbon emissions, or else well face the irreversible tipping point of catastrophic climate change. This will create a domino effect of drought, wild fires, food insecurity, storms, floods, mass migration and societal collapse.. In CBRM, climate change has already caused storms and storm surges, flooding, and infrastructure damage -- and its only going to get worse. By 2100, our shorelines will rise by at least 100 cm. Our land, coastal, and ocean ecosystems will be devastated. The natural beauty and stability of our island is poised to collapse.. This is an existential crisis, but our governments are not taking appropriate action. Governments are STILL subsidizing fossil fuels and allowing new infrastructure that will add to the crisis. We need a massive societal mobilization to pressure government to shift rapidly to renewables and create millions of green jobs.. MAKE CBRM ...
The CD11b antigen is also known as the integrin αM subunit. It combines with the CD18 antigen (integrin β2 subunit) to build the integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18, αMβ2, CR3, iC3bR, Mo-1). CD11b is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein of 170 or 165 kDa under reducing or non-reducing conditions, respectively.
LITGAM (pour « Integrin alpha M »), ou CD11B est une protéine de type intégrine et cluster de différenciation. Son gène est ITGAM porté sur le chromosome 16 humain. Il forme, avec le CD18, le Mac-1 (« Macrophage-1 antigen »). Il inhibe le signal des récepteurs de type Toll par lintermédiaire de lactivation du SYK et du Src. Il contribue au phénomène de tolérance (immunologie) par les lymphocytes B en inhibant son récepteur. Plusieurs variants du gène est corrélé avec une augmentation du risque de survenue dun lupus érythémateux disséminé. Il entraîne alors une dysfonction du Mac-1 au niveau des polynucléaires neutrophiles, altérant ladhésion cellulaire par lICAM-1 et 2. Un variant du gène augmente plus spécifiquement le risque datteinte rénale et de rash de type discoïde. ↑ Han C, Jin J, Xu S, Liu H, Li N, Cao X, Integrin CD11b negatively regulates TLR-triggered inflammatory responses by activating Syk and promoting degradation of MyD88 and TRIF via Cbl-b, ...
Th1 and Th2 cells were analyzed for the expression of different integrins by super array gene array analysis (Super Array). (A) Heatmap analysis of differential expression of α and β integrin molecules in Th1 and Th2 cells. (B) The histogram analysis of super array. Red indicates the minimum and blue indicates the maximum expression in the scale. (C) Venn diagram analysis summarizes the number of integrins upregulated (blue circle), downregulated (red circle), and unaltered (common area) in MBP-primed Th2 cells compared to Th1 cells. The mRNA expression of αV, α4, β1, and β3 in Th1 and Th2 cells was verified by semi-quantitative RT-PCR (D) and realtime PCR (E) analyses. Results represent three independent experiments. ap,0.01, bp,0.05, cp,0.01, and dp,0.05 vs. control expression of αV, α4, β3, and β1 respectively ...
Recent advances in high-resolution microscopy have made it possible to follow the dynamics of single molecules. Establishing the relationship between molecular behaviors and cell-level outputs remains however a major challenge.. We are developing integrated imaging, image analysis, and data analysis frameworks that bridge the gap between the spatial and temporal scales of single-molecule behavior and cell-level events. In collaboration with the Galbraith lab at Oregon Health and Science University, we are applying our analyses to study the dynamics of integrin molecules (key receptors in cell-matrix adhesion) in the context of cell edge protrusion activity. ...
|p|The Cell Sciences Inc.|sup|©|/sup| Human CD62E ELISA is to be used for the |i|in-vitro|/i| quantitative determination of soluble Endothelial Leucocyte Adhesion Molecule ELAM-1, (CD62E) in human serum, plasma, buffered solutions
This product recognizes murine CD107b, also known as MAC-3 and LAMP-2. CD107b is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is associated with lysosomal membranes and is primarily expressed on mononuclear phagocytes. Expression of CD107b does vary between cell populations and the molecular weight of CD107b can vary between 92-120kD. Studies suggest that CD107b may be involved in leucocyte adhesion ...
The cell in this image is typical of other neutrophils on this peripheral blood smear from a patient with sepsis. Which morphologic term describes the cellular morphology in this image?. Please select the single best answer ...
Genetic Disease Testing. In animal breeding, genetic disorders are one of the most important issues for breeders. These are monogenic recessive autosomal defects which causes early embryonic mortality, abortion or death at early age after birth. Widespread use of artificial insemination (AI) and international trading of semen and breeding bulls accelerates the spread of undesirable genes in population. Regular screening of the breeding bulls used for Artificial Insemination reduces the risk of dissemination of these deleterious genes in the animal population. Four major genetic disorders namely Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD), Citrullinaemia, Deficiency of Uridine Monophosphate Synthase (DUMPS) and Factor XI deficiency syndrome are tested in the laboratory.. I. Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD). BLAD is a disease characterized by a reduced expression of the adhesion molecules on neutrophils, called β-integrins. These proteins help the neutrophils to migrate to the site of ...
In India, Holstein and its crosses are being used extensively in breeding programmes and all these breeding bulls are screened for autosomal recessive genes. Blood samples are collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) coated tubes and DNA was isolated by using phenol-chloroform method. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) wereperformed by using bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) specific primersand TaqI restriction enzyme for diagnosis of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) syndrome. The bull was found to be heterozygous for BLAD allele. The PCR product was sequenced by automated sequencer using the ABI big dye Ver 3.1 for detection of mutation at position 383 bp (A/G). Sequence analysis comparison was performed using the codon code aligner 4.0.4 software. The sequence of carrier animal confirmed polymorphism at 383 bp position. The sequence was also compared with sequence of normal Holstein as a control and the sequence available with
Ischemic injury is characterized by neutrophil (PMN)--endothelial cell adhesion and diapedesis associated with thromboxane (TX) generation. Neutrophil-endothelial cell interaction is regulated in part by the leukocyte adhesion receptor CD 18 glycoprotein complex and the endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). This study tests the role of TX in ischemia-induced diapedesis and evaluates whether the diapedesis is regulated by neutrophil or endothelial adhesion receptors. Plasma derived from rabbit hind limbs made ischemic for 3 hours (n = 6) and reperfused for 10 minutes had increased levels of TXB2 3,450 pg/ml, which was higher than sham rabbit (n = 6) values of 653 pg/ml (p less than 0.05). When introduced into abraded skin chambers placed on the dorsum of other normal rabbits (n = 6), this ischemic plasma induced 1,000 pg/ml of new TX synthesis and diapedesis of 1,235 PMN/mm3. The total TX concentration and PMN accumulations in blister fluid were correlated (r = 0.88, p less than ...
Antithrombin-III exerts antiinflammatory effects via ligation of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Here we show in vitro that recombinant human antithrombin-III attenuates CD11b/CD18 expression of activated neutrophils and monocytes in whole blood ex vivo. As leukocyte integrin expression is triggered by extracorporeal circulation, this observation may be of relevance for pharmacological treatment during cardiopulmonary bypass ...
CFP and YFP images of cells in the Cremaster venule of live mouse.. Recent studies of leukocyte trafficking have generated substantial insights into the physiologic and pathologic migration patterns of leukocytes and their role in health and disease. This information has been essential for the development of new anti-inflammatory therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies against leukocyte integrins to treat psoriasis and multiple sclerosis. Among the established techniques to study leukocyte trafficking, direct observation of leukocyte rolling and migration by intravital microscopy (IVM) is one of the most important experimental approaches. One method for studying distinct leukocyte subsets consists of purifying cells from donor mice, labeling them fluorescently in vitro and re-injecting them into a recipient. Transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) or its variants in a cell type-specific fashion are alternatives to ex vivo purified, fluorescently labeled cells.. ...
The surface expression and regulation of the adhesion promoting glycoproteins Mac-1 and L-selectin was measured on monocytes and neutrophils from neonates and adults. A significant decrease in Mac-1 up regulation on both monocytes and neutrophils was found in neonates after both high (10(-7)M) and low (10(-9)M) concentrations of the chemotactic factor N-formyl-methionyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). A significant difference was obtained after incubation for five minutes, which was further enhanced after incubation for 15 minutes. Factors related to bacterial infections, lipopolysaccharides, activated sera (C5a), and aggregated IgG induced an impaired Mac-1 up regulation on both monocytes and neutrophils from neonates compared with adults. The expression of L-selectin was significantly lower on neutrophils from neonates and was less down regulated upon stimulation with a low concentration (10(-12)M) of FMLP. On monocytes from neonates, the expression and down regulation of L-selectin did not differ from ...
Lifitegrast is a non-steroidal, small molecule, integrin antagonist that inhibits lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1; CD11a/CD18), which is being
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Neutrophils were traditionally considered to be a homogeneous population of terminally differentiated cells with very defined roles in inflammation and fighting infections. However, recent advances in neutrophil research challenge this limited view and demonstrate that neutrophils are highly versatile, play different roles in various pathologic scenarios, and are heterogeneous. With this, it is becoming clear that one term-neutrophil-is too general, and more precise nomenclature is urgently required. In this mini review, we discuss the knowns and unknowns in neutrophil terminology and highlight the critical questions that should be addressed for the establishment of clear neutrophil nomenclature.

CD18 - Beckman CoulterCD18 - Beckman Coulter

CD18 is the 95 kDa integrin β2-chain which forms non-covalently-bound heterodimers with one of four α subunits. ... CD11/CD18) are the major adhesion molecule family of leukocytes. Most leukocytes express one or more members of this family. ... CD18 Antigen. The beta2 integrins (CD11/CD18) are the major adhesion molecule family of leukocytes. Most leukocytes express one ... CD18 is the 95 kDa integrin β2-chain which forms non-covalently-bound heterodimers with one of four α subunits. The four alpha ...
more infohttps://www.beckman.com/reagents/coulter-flow-cytometry/antibodies-and-kits/single-color-antibodies/cd18

Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Human Cytomegalovirus Reprograms Monocyte Differentiation toward an M1 Macrophage | The Journal...Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Human Cytomegalovirus Reprograms Monocyte Differentiation toward an M1 Macrophage | The Journal...

Integrin, beta 2 (antigen CD18 (p95)). ITGB2. 37918_at. −1.8. Calcium and integrin binding 1 (calmyrin). CIB1. 1020_s_at. −1.9 ... CD86 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 2, B7-2 antigen). CD86. 36270_at. −3.4. ... CD80 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 1, B7-1 antigen). CD80. 35015_at. 4.7. ... CD209 antigen-like. CD209L. 39270_at. nc. CD36 antigen (collagen type I receptor, thrombospondin receptor). CD36. 36656_at. nc ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/181/1/698/tab-figures-data

Anti-CD18 antibody (PerCP) [GRF1] | AbcamAnti-CD18 antibody (PerCP) [GRF1] | Abcam

Anti-CD18 antibody conjugated to PerCP [GRF1] validated for Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to tissue, ... Leukocyte associated antigens CD18/11A, CD18/11B, CD18/11C antibody. *Leukocyte cell adhesion molecule CD18 antibody ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/cd18-antibody-grf1-percp-ab91154.html

Recombinant Human ITGAX & ITGB2 cell lysate ITGAX & ITGB2-1875HCL - Creative BioMartRecombinant Human ITGAX & ITGB2 cell lysate ITGAX & ITGB2-1875HCL - Creative BioMart

... leukocyte cell adhesion molecule CD18; leukocyte-associated antigens CD18/11A, CD18/11B, CD18/11C; cell surface adhesion ... antigen CD11C (p150), alpha polypeptide); LAD; CD18; MF17; MFI7; LCAMB; LFA-1; MAC-1; integrin beta-2; integrin beta chain, ... myeloid membrane antigen, alpha subunit; leukocyte surface antigen p150,95, alpha subunit; leukocyte adhesion glycoprotein p150 ... CD11C; SLEB6; integrin alpha-X; leu M5, alpha subunit; p150 95 integrin alpha chain; CD11 antigen-like family member C; ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_399646_318.htm

Recombinant Human CD18 protein (ab114284) | AbcamRecombinant Human CD18 protein (ab114284) | Abcam

Buy our Recombinant Human CD18 protein. Ab114284 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ... Leukocyte associated antigens CD18/11A, CD18/11B, CD18/11C. *Leukocyte cell adhesion molecule CD18 ... 12.5% SDS-PAGE analysis of CD18 protein (ab114284). Stained with Coomassie Blue. ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-cd18-protein-ab114284.html

Recombinant Human ITGB2 293 Cell Lysate ITGB2-5125HCL - Creative BioMartRecombinant Human ITGB2 293 Cell Lysate ITGB2-5125HCL - Creative BioMart

... leukocyte cell adhesion molecule CD18; leukocyte-associated antigens CD18/11A, CD18/11B, CD18/11C; cell surface adhesion ... antigen CD18 (p95), lymphocyte function associated antigen 1; macrophage antigen 1 (mac 1) beta subunit) , MFI7; integrin beta- ... Antigen standard for integrin, beta 2 (complement component 3 receptor 3 and 4 subunit) (ITGB2), transcript variant 1 is a ... The antigen control carries a C-terminal Myc/DDK tag for detection.. ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_406791_318.htm

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Lymphocyte antigen CD18 Current Synonym true false 3737295012 CD18 - cluster of differentiation antigen 18 Current Synonym true ... Cluster of differentiation antigen 18 Current Synonym true false 478974015 Beta chain of CD11 a, b and c Current Synonym true ... Lymphocyte antigen CD18 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD18 (substance). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=19009001

Recovery of MCp in the small intestine of BALB/c mice a | Open-iRecovery of MCp in the small intestine of BALB/c mice a | Open-i

MCp concentrations were not altered in the tissues of mice deficient in the alphaE integrin (CD103), the beta2 integrin (CD18 ... Antigens, CD/immunology*. *Chemotaxis/immunology*. *Integrin alpha Chains*. *Integrin beta Chains*. *Integrins/genetics/ ... MCp concentrations were not altered in the tissues of mice deficient in the alphaE integrin (CD103), the beta2 integrin (CD18 ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2195984_010732f4&req=4

CTGA Database Listing - CAGSCTGA Database Listing - CAGS

ITGB2, Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule CD18, CD18, Leukocyte-Associated Antigens CD18/11A, CD18/11B, CD18/11C ...
more infohttp://www.cags.org.ae/ctga/listing.aspx?pg=7&se=Latest

US20080105253A1 - Dispensing Device 
        - Google PatentsUS20080105253A1 - Dispensing Device - Google Patents

108010059108 CD18 Antigens Proteins 0 description 1 * SOELXOBIIIBLRJ-UHFFFAOYSA-M Choline theophyllinate Chemical compound data ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US20080105253A1/en

US7484642B2 - Dispenser 
        - Google PatentsUS7484642B2 - Dispenser - Google Patents

108010059108 CD18 Antigens Proteins 0 description 1 * 229960003821 Choline theophyllinate Drugs 0 description 1 ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US7484642B2/en

Vaccine Therapy Plus QS21 in Treating Patients With Progressive Prostate CancerVaccine Therapy Plus QS21 in Treating Patients With Progressive Prostate Cancer

CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated ... Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TA) is present on erythrocytes, platelets and glomeruli, and it can be activated du... ... Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen-1. An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. ... Immune response to the hepatitis B antigen in the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine, and co-administration with pneumococcal conjugate ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/125921/Vaccine-Therapy-Plus-QS21-in-Treating-Patients-With-Progressive-Prostate-Cancer.html

GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Mass-spectrometric identification and relative quantification...GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Mass-spectrometric identification and relative quantification...

MAC-1; Cell surface adhesion glycoproteins LFA-1_CR3_p150.95 subunit beta; Complement receptor C3 subunit beta; CD18 antigen ... MAC-1; Cell surface adhesion glycoproteins LFA-1_CR3_p150.95 subunit beta; Complement receptor C3 subunit beta; CD18 antigen ... MAC-1; Cell surface adhesion glycoproteins LFA-1_CR3_p150.95 subunit beta; Complement receptor C3 subunit beta; CD18 antigen ... CLIA CD18,Cell surface adhesion glycoproteins LFA-1_CR3_p150,95 subunit beta,Complement receptor C3 subunit beta,Integrin beta- ...
more infohttp://www.antibody-antibodies.com/pubmed-PubMed=19349973-PubMedArticl.html

Cellular Mechanisms of Leukocyte Adhesion | Springer for Research & DevelopmentCellular Mechanisms of Leukocyte Adhesion | Springer for Research & Development

Inhibition by neutrophil pretreatment in vitro with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the CD18 antigen. J Immunol 142:3193-3198 ... Lo SK, Van-Seventer GA, Levin SM, Wright SD (1989c) Two leukocyte receptors (CD11a/CD18 and CD11b/ CD18) mediate transient ... Engagement of the monocyte surface antigen CD 14 induces lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 /intercellular adhesion ... Simms HH, DAmico R (1991) Increased PMN CD11b/ CD18 expression following post-traumatic ARDS. J Surg Res 50:362-367.PubMed ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-76736-4_6

Peptides and Proteins: Novus BiologicalsPeptides and Proteins: Novus Biologicals

Integrin beta 2/CD18 Recombinant Protein Antigen. 0.1 ml Reactivity:. Hu. Species Glossary ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/product-type/peptides-and-proteins?gene_symbol=ITGB2

Frontiers | Purinergic Cooperation Between P2Y2 and P2X7 Receptors Promote Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Control: Involvement of...Frontiers | Purinergic Cooperation Between P2Y2 and P2X7 Receptors Promote Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Control: Involvement of...

... that neutrophil accumulation induced by interleukin-1 requires both local protein biosynthesis and neutrophil CD18 antigen ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01531/full

CD18抗体(Phycoerythrin)[MEM-148]|Abcam中国|Anti-CD18抗体(Phycoerythrin)[MEM-148]CD18抗体(Phycoerythrin)[MEM-148]|Abcam中国|Anti-CD18抗体(Phycoerythrin)[MEM-148]

Leukocyte associated antigens CD18/11A, CD18/11B, CD18/11C antibody. *Leukocyte cell adhesion molecule CD18 antibody ... This antibody recognizes the epitope exposed on free human CD18 chains unassociated with CD11 as well as on high-affinity state ... 小鼠单克隆抗体[MEM-148] to CD18 (Phycoerythrin) ... CD18 antibody. *Cell surface adhesion glycoprotein LFA 1/CR3/ ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.cn/cd18-antibody-mem-148-phycoerythrin-ab64604.html

Cloning and expression of the chicken CD18 cDNA.Cloning and expression of the chicken CD18 cDNA.

Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 * Mice * Molecular Sequence Data Identity. Digital Object Identifier (DOI) * 10.1002/ ... Cloning and expression of the chicken CD18 cDNA. Academic Article * Authors Version ... We describe here the isolation and characterization of the chicken beta 2 (CD18) subunit, common to the leukocyte integrin ...
more infohttp://vivo.mblwhoilibrary.org/display/publication46448

Find Research Outputs
             - Discovery - the University of Dundee Research PortalFind Research Outputs - Discovery - the University of Dundee Research Portal

Horsburgh, K., Wardlaw, J. M., van Agtmael, T., Allan, S. M., Ashford, M. L. J., Bath, P. M., Brown, R., Berwick, J., Cader, M. Z., Carare, R. O., Davis, J. B., Duncombe, J., Farr, T. D., Fowler, J. H., Goense, J., Granata, A., Hall, C. N., Hainsworth, A. H., Harvey, A., Hawkes, C. A. & 26 others, Joutel, A., Kalaria, R. N., Kehoe, P. G., Lawrence, C. B., Lockhart, A., Love, S., Macleod, M. R., Macrae, I. M., Markus, H. S., McCabe, C., McColl, B. W., Meakin, P. J., Miller, A., Nedergaard, M., OSullivan, M., Quinn, T. J., Rajani, R., Saksida, L. M., Smith, C., Smith, K. J., Touyz, R. M., Trueman, R. C., Wang, T., Williams, A., Williams, S. C. R. & Work, L. M., 30 Apr 2018, In : Clinical Science. 132, 8, p. 851-868 18 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
more infohttps://discovery.dundee.ac.uk/en/publications/?showAdvanced=false&allConcepts=true&inferConcepts=true&publicationYear=2011&publicationYear=2012&publicationYear=2013&publicationYear=2014&publicationYear=2015&publicationYear=2016&publicationYear=2017&publicationYear=2018&publicationYear=2019&publicationYear=2020&author=00cc6cd4-6702-4b07-9665-a3998c799444

Gendoo - Relevant featuresGendoo - Relevant features

Antigens, CD18 CD18抗原 Concanavalin A コンカナバリンA Antihypertensive Agents 降圧剤 ...
more infohttp://gendoo.dbcls.jp/cgi-bin/gendoo.cgi?geneid=5322&taxonomy=human

Gendoo - Relevant featuresGendoo - Relevant features

Antigens, CD18 CD18抗原 Proteome プロテオーム Maleimides マレイミド Cell Cycle Proteins 細胞周期蛋白質 ... Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen 増殖性細胞核抗原 ... CA-125 Antigen CA-125抗原 Actin Depolymerizing
more infohttp://gendoo.dbcls.jp/cgi-bin/gendoo.cgi?geneid=3611&taxonomy=human

The CD18 AvaII polymorphic site not associated with Henoch-Schönlein purpura.  - PubMed - NCBIThe CD18 AvaII polymorphic site not associated with Henoch-Schönlein purpura. - PubMed - NCBI

CD18 Antigens. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology - PDF ... The CD18 AvaII polymorphic site not associated with Henoch-Schönlein purpura.. He X1, Li Y, Kang S, Luan J, Wu Y, Liu Z, Yin W. ... CD18, the subunit of integrin beta2 in leukocytes, has essential roles in the expression and function of ITGB2, mediating ... CD18 has been proved to be associated with some systemic vasculitides, such as microscopic polyangiitis and Churg-Strauss ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=59948

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Lymphocyte positive for CD18 antigen (cell). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte positive for CD18 antigen (cell). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=117561004

Genatlas sheetGenatlas sheet

leukocyte-associated antigens CD18/11A, CD18/11B, CD18/11C. Synonym symbol(s) CD18, LFA1B, LAD, MF17, LCAMB, LFA-1, MAC-1, MFI7 ... lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; macrophage antigen 1 (mac-1) beta subunit) ... adhesion , immunity/defense , antigen , receptor SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION plasma membrane basic FUNCTION * cell surface ... FERMT3 is a key lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (ITGB2) coactivator * interacting with CYTH1 (regulates adhesion and ...
more infohttp://genatlas.medecine.univ-paris5.fr/fiche.php?symbol=ITGB2
  • Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TA) is present on erythrocytes, platelets and glomeruli, and it can be activated du. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Immune response to the hepatitis B antigen in the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine, and co-administration with pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in African children: a randomized controlled trial. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Assess postimmunization changes in prostate specific antigen levels and other objective parameters of disease in these patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Predictive value of Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen activation for Streptococcus pneumoniae infection and severity in pediatric lobar pneumonia. (bioportfolio.com)