Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Genomic analysis of a murine cell-surface sialomucin, MGC-24/CD164. (1/25)MGC-24 is a sialomucin originally found in human gastric carcinoma cells, and in human hematopoietic progenitor cells. In the human, soluble and transmembrane forms of MGC-24 are present, and the transmembrane form has been implicated in adhesion of hematopoietic progenitor cells to marrow stroma cells. In the mouse, we found that only the transmembrane form was expressed in many organs. Northern blotting and in situ hybridization analysis showed that MGC-24 mRNA was widely expressed in various adult and embryonic tissues. The mouse MGC-24 gene, which we isolated, spanned about 12 kb and was comprised of six exons. The transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic domain were encoded by a single exon; the finding agrees with the absence of an alternatively spliced product of mouse MGC-24. The minimal promoter of mouse MGC-24 was embedded in GC-rich sequences, in which two Sp1 binding motifs were found, but it lacked TATA and CAAT boxes. That the promoter resembles that of house-keeping genes is consistent with the broad expression of mouse MGC-24 mRNA. (+info)
Endolyn is a mucin-like type I membrane protein targeted to lysosomes by its cytoplasmic tail. (2/25)Endolyn (endolyn-78) is a membrane protein found in lysosomal and endosomal compartments of mammalian cells. Unlike 'classical' lysosomal membrane proteins, such as lysosome-associated membrane protein (lamp)-1, it is also present in a subapical compartment in polarized WIF-B hepatocytes. The structural features that determine sorting of endolyn are unknown. We have identified a rat endolyn cDNA by expression screening. The cDNA encodes a ubiquitously expressed type I membrane protein with a short cytoplasmic tail of 13 amino acids and many putative sites for N- and O-linked glycosylation in the predicted luminal domain. Endolyn is closely related to two human mucin-like proteins, multi-glycosylated core protein (MGC)-24 and CD164 (MGC-24v), expressed in gastric carcinoma cells and bone marrow stromal and haematopoietic precursor cells respectively. The predicted transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail domains of endolyn, as well as parts of its luminal domain, also show some similarities with lamp-1 and lamp-2. Like these and other known lysosomal membrane proteins, endolyn contains a YXXO motif at the C-terminus of its cytoplasmic tail (where O is a bulky hydrophobic amino acid), but with no preceding glycine. Nonetheless, the last ten amino acids of this tail, when transplanted on to human CD8, caused efficient targeting of the chimaeric protein to endosomes and lysosomes in transfected normal rat kidney cells. (+info)
Functionally defined CD164 epitopes are expressed on CD34(+) cells throughout ontogeny but display distinct distribution patterns in adult hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic tissues. (3/25)Three distinct classes of epitopes on human CD164 have been identified. Two of these, recognized by the monoclonal antibodies 105A5 and 103B2/9E10, are the CD164 class I and class II functionally defined epitopes, which cooperate to regulate adhesion and proliferation of CD34(+) cell subsets. In this article, we demonstrate that these 2 CD164 epitopes are expressed on CD34(+) cells throughout ontogeny, in particular on CD34(+ )cell clusters associated with the ventral floor of the dorsal aorta in the developing embryo and on CD34(+) hematopoietic precursor cells in fetal liver, cord blood, and adult bone marrow. While higher levels of expression of these CD164 epitopes occur on the more primitive AC133(hi)CD34(hi)CD38(lo/-) cell population, they also occur on most cord blood Lin(-)CD34(lo/-)CD38(lo/- )cells, which are potential precursors for the AC133(hi)CD34(hi)CD38(lo/-) subset. In direct contrast to these common patterns of expression on hematopoietic precursor cells, notable differences in expression of the CD164 epitopes were observed in postnatal lymphoid and nonhematopoietic tissues, with the class I and class II CD164 epitopes generally exhibiting differential and often reciprocal cellular distribution patterns. This is particularly striking in the colon, where infiltrating lymphoid cells are CD164 class I-positive but class II-negative, while epithelia are weakly CD164 class II-positive. Similarly, in certain lymphoid tissues, high endothelial venules and basal and subcapsular epithelia are CD164 class II-positive, while lymphoid cells are CD164 class I-positive. It therefore seems highly likely that these CD164 class I and II epitopes will mediate reciprocal homing functions in these tissue types. (+info)
The ratio of splicing variants of MGC-24/CD164, a sialomucin, correlates with the metastatic potential of colorectal carcinomas. (4/25)MGC-24/CD164 is a sialomucin expressed in many normal and cancerous tissues. In humans, soluble and transmembrane forms of MGC-24 are produced by alternative splicing. The total MGC-24 RNA level was found to be lower in human colorectal carcinomas as compared with the adjacent normal mucosal tissues. Lower MGC-24 mRNA levels in colon carcinomas and in the adjacent normal mucosa epithelium correlate with lymphatic vessel invasion by the carcinoma. The ratio of the soluble form to the transmembrane form of the mRNA in colorectal carcinomas was determined by ribonuclease protection assay. Higher ratios were correlated with less venous invasion and less remote metastasis, which became evident during postoperative observation. (+info)
CD164 monoclonal antibodies that block hemopoietic progenitor cell adhesion and proliferation interact with the first mucin domain of the CD164 receptor. (5/25)The novel sialomucin, CD164, functions as both an adhesion receptor on human CD34+ cell subsets in bone marrow and as a potent negative regulator of CD34+ hemopoietic progenitor cell proliferation. These diverse effects are mediated by at least two functional epitopes defined by the mAbs, 103B2/9E10 and 105A5. We report here the precise epitope mapping of these mAbs together with that of two other CD164 mAbs, N6B6 and 67D2. Using newly defined CD164 splice variants and a set of soluble recombinant chimeric proteins encoded by exons 1-6 of the CD164 gene, we demonstrate that the 105A5 and 103B2/9E10 functional epitopes map to distinct glycosylated regions within the first mucin domain of CD164. The N6B6 and 67D2 mAbs, in contrast, recognize closely associated and complex epitopes that rely on the conformational integrity of the CD164 molecule and encompass the cysteine-rich regions encoded by exons 2 and 3. On the basis of their sensitivities to reducing agents and to sialidase, O-sialoglycoprotease, and N-glycanase treatments, we have characterized CD164 epitopes and grouped them into three classes by analogy with CD34 epitope classification. The class I 105A5 epitope is sialidase, O-glycosidase, and O-sialoglycoprotease sensitive; the class II 103B2/9E10 epitope is N-glycanase, O-glycosidase, and O-sialoglycoprotease sensitive; and the class III N6B6 and 67D2 epitopes are not removed by such enzyme treatments. Collectively, this study indicates that the previously observed differential expression of CD164 epitopes in adult tissues is linked with cell type specific post-translational modifications and suggests a role for epitope-associated carbohydrate structures in CD164 function. (+info)
Relationship between novel isoforms, functionally important domains, and subcellular distribution of CD164/endolyn. (6/25)Functional analyses have indicated that the human CD164 sialomucin may play a key role in hematopoiesis by facilitating the adhesion of human CD34(+) cells to the stroma and by negatively regulating CD34(+)CD38(lo/-) cell proliferation. We have identified three novel human CD164 variants derived by alternative splicing of bona fide exons from a single genomic transcription unit. The predominant CD164(E1-6) isoform, encoded by six exons, is a type I transmembrane protein containing two extracellular mucin domains (I and II) interrupted by a cysteine-rich non-mucin domain. The 103B2/9E10 and 105A5 epitopes, which specify ligand binding characteristics, are located on the exon 1-encoded mucin domain I. Three human CD164(E1-6) mRNA species, exhibiting differential polyadenylation site usage, are differentially expressed in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic tissues. This study provides additional evidence that human CD164(E1-6) represents the ortholog of murine MGC-24v and rat endolyn. Comparative analysis of murine MGC-24v/CD164(E1-6) with human CD164(E1-6) revealed two potential splice variants and a similar genomic structure. Whereas the human CD164 gene is located on chromosome 6q21, the mouse gene occurs in a syntenic region on chromosome 10B1-B2. By confocal microscopy, human CD164 in CD34(+)CD38(+) hematopoietic progenitor (KG1B) and epithelial cell lines appears to be localized primarily in endosomes and lysosomes, with low concentrations at the cell surface. However, in a minority of KG1B cells, CD164 is more prominently expressed at the plasma membrane and in the recycling endosomes, suggesting that its distribution is regulated in cells of hematopoietic origin. (+info)
Identification of a role for the sialomucin CD164 in myogenic differentiation by signal sequence trapping in yeast. (7/25)Determination and differentiation of skeletal muscle precursors requires cell-cell contact, but the full range of cell surface proteins that mediate this requirement and the mechanisms by which they work are not known. To identify participants in cell contact-mediated regulation of myogenesis, genes that encode secreted proteins specifically upregulated during differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts were identified by the yeast signal sequence trap method (K. A. Jacobs, L. A. Collins-Racie, M. Colbert, M. Duckett, M. Golden-Fleet, K. Kelleher, R. Kriz, E. R. La Vallie, D. Merberg, V. Spaulding, J. Stover, M. J. Williamson, and J. M. McCoy, Gene 198:289-296, 1997), followed by RNA expression analysis. We report here the identification of CD164 as a gene expressed in proliferating C2C12 cells that is upregulated during differentiation. CD164 encodes a widely expressed cell surface sialomucin that has been implicated in regulation of cell proliferation and adhesion during hematopoiesis. Stable overexpression of CD164 in C2C12 and F3 myoblasts enhanced their differentiation, as assessed by both morphological and biochemical criteria. Furthermore, expression of antisense CD164 or soluble extracellular regions of CD164 inhibited myogenic differentiation. Treatment of C2C12 cells with sialidase or O-sialoglycoprotease, two enzymes previously reported to destroy functional epitopes on CD164, also inhibited differentiation. These data indicate that (i) CD164 may play a rate-limiting role in differentiation of cultured myoblasts, (ii) sialomucins represent a class of potential effectors of cell contact-mediated regulation of myogenesis, and (iii) carbohydrate-based cell recognition may play a role in mediating this phenomenon. (+info)
Competing sorting signals guide endolyn along a novel route to lysosomes in MDCK cells. (8/25)We have examined the trafficking of the mucin-like protein endolyn in transfected, polarized MDCK cells using biochemical approaches and immunofluorescence microscopy. Although endolyn contains a lysosomal targeting motif of the type YXXPhi and was localized primarily to lysosomes at steady state, significant amounts of newly synthesized endolyn were delivered to the apical cell surface. Antibodies to endolyn, but not lamp-2, were preferentially internalized from the apical plasma membrane and efficiently transported to lysosomes. Analysis of endolyn-CD8 chimeras showed that the lumenal domain of endolyn contains apical targeting information that predominates over basolateral information in its cytoplasmic tail. Interestingly, surface polarity of endolyn was independent of O-glycosylation processing, but was reversed by disruption of N-glycosylation using tunicamycin. At all times, endolyn was soluble in cold Triton X-100, suggesting that apical sorting was independent of sphingolipid rafts. Our data indicate that a strong, N-glycan-dependent apical targeting signal in the lumenal domain directs endolyn into a novel biosynthetic pathway to lysosomes, which occurs via the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells. (+info)
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.395)
... antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.170 -- antigens, cd146 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.175 -- antigens, cd164 MeSH D12.776. ... antigens, cd43 MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.650.264 -- antigens, cd164. ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.098 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.131 -- ... ca-15-3 antigen MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.300 -- gastric mucin MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.650 -- sialomucins MeSH D12.776.395.560. ...
... Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD164 genome location and CD164 gene ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD164 gene. CD164 functions as a cell adhesion molecule. Sialomucins are a ... CD164 is a type I integral transmembrane sialomucin that functions as an adhesion receptor. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Zannettino AC (2001). "CD164". J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents. 15 (4): 394-6. PMID 11862985. Masuzawa Y, Miyauchi T, Hamanoue ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)
... antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.140 -- antigens, cd146 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.145 -- antigens, cd164 MeSH D12.776. ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 -- receptors, antigen, ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 -- antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 -- antigens, cd40 ... antigens, cd11a MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.150 -- antigens, cd11b MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.200 -- antigens, cd11c ...
Outline of immunology
Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... CD24 CD44 CD146 CD164 CD69 Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors S1PR1 S1PR2 S1PR3 S1PR4 S1PR5 Co-stimulatory molecules CD80 - ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... B cells Antigen receptor - B cell receptor (BCR) Subunits- Immunoglobulin heavy chain / Immunoglobulin light chain Co-receptors ...
List of MeSH codes (D23)
... antigens, cd147 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.264 --- antigens, cd164 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.270 --- antigens, thy-1 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd147 MeSH D184.108.40.206.264 --- antigens, cd164 MeSH D220.127.116.11.270 --- antigens, thy-1 MeSH D18.104.22.168. ... antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.050.301.350.150 --- antigens, cd146 MeSH D23.050.301.350.154 --- antigens, cd164 MeSH D23.050.301.350. ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ...
When activated, some additional surface markers are known to be upregulated (CD13, CD107a, CD164), or surface-exposed (CD63, ... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ... CD164, CD193/ CCR3, CD203c, TLR-4, and FcεRI. ...
The polarity of epithelial cells is critical for proper function. Maintenance of polarity requires sustained proper sorting of proteins and lipids to either apical or basolateral membranes using distinct sorting signals. Compared to basolateral sorting signals, apical signals are not well characterized and can be present within the lumenal, transmembrane, or cytosolic regions of the protein. N-glycosylation has been identified as one of the apical sorting signals. The sialomucin endolyn (CD164) is a transmembrane protein that contains an apical sorting signal (N-glycans) in the lumenal domain and a lysosomal/basolateral targeting signal (YXXØ motif) in its cytoplasmic tail. It cycles between the apical surface and lysosomes of renal epithelial cells and is expressed in embryonic and adult kidney. The first objective of this research was to dissect the specific determinant on N-glycosylation for endolyn apical sorting using a lipofectamine-mediated RNAi approach. The results demonstrated that ...
Official Met Office figures for snowfall on Tuesday showed the worst-hit areas were Tulloch Bridge, Inverness-shire, with 11cm, and Spadeadam, Cumbria, with 10cm. The airports urged people to check the status of their flight before travelling after the Met Office said Britain was facing very significant snowfall this week. Manchester and Liverpool airports have temporarily…
Regulatory Dissociation of Tctex-1 Light Chain from Dynein Complex Is Essential for the Apical Delivery of Rhodopsin - Yeh -...
Supplementary Figure 1: The level of dynein light chain rp3 is unaffected by the overexpression of WT and mutant Tctex-1. Lysates of MDCK cells inducibly expressing Flag-rp3 and Tctex-1 (WT, S82A, S82E), either harvested from the uninduced (Dox+) or the induced (Dox-) condition, were separated by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted with anti-rp3 antibody. rp3 was only detected in Flag-rp3-expressing lines cultured under the induced condition. Supplementary Figure 2: High-speed supernatants prepared from homogenates of induced MDCK cell lines were separated by velocity sedimentation on 5-20% sucrose gradients. Aliquots from all fractions were separated on SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted with the indicated Abs. For the endogenous Tctex-1 detection, protein blots were trimmed so that the regions containing Flag-Tctex-1 were removed to avoid antibody sequestration. Low levels of endogenous Tctex-1 were detected in the 19-20S dynein-containing fractions upon prolonged development. LC8 in MDCK cells was primarily ...
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Principal Investigator：YAMAGUCHI Koji, Project Period (FY)：2000 - 2001, Research Category：Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section：一般, Research Field：Digestive surgery
Complete information for SHROOM2P1 gene (Pseudogene), Shroom Family Member 2 Pseudogene 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Is P. Cubensis considered the most potent shroom or is it just the easiest to grow? And how does P. Weilii rank as far as potentcy?
My views on this (and many other subjects!) happen to coincide with the comic genius, Billy Connelly. He ways that political correctness should be stamped out at any possibility. I totally agree, as I honestly feel that terminology, and peoples uncertainty surrounding the issues causes so many problems. Should it be person with a disability (as in South Africa), as proponents of this term say that it puts the person first? Or should it be (as in Europe) a disabled person? This follows on from the social model of disability, where I am disabled by the environment that I am in. I would lean to the latter (which does not always make me popular in some circles!). But at the end of the day, does it really matter? We are all people reacting individually, but normally, to abnormal situations. Get a group of wheelchair users (riders?) together, and before very long we start to refer to ourselves as "crips"!! People need to stop being so sensitive and precious. So you will notice me using all sorts of ...
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ResearchMoz presents professional and in-depth study of Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2 (T Cell Immunoglobulin And Mucin Domain Containing Protein 3
It was beforehand revealed in mammary and gastric carcinoma cell traces that overexpression of SRSF1 activates the epithelial...
Total, our results help the idea that variations in expression, localization and/or action (by way of phosphorylation) of SRSF1 and SRSF2 proteins get place
I have 2 questions about shroom. First, I bought 2 grams the other night so I could trip for the first time and I didnt feel a thing. Could someone please tell me why? I couldnt understand it cause
GMS | Deutscher Kongress für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie, 75. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie,...
Questionnaire: Tissue engeneering and regenerative medicine approaches are promising approaches to regenerate tissues damaged by trauma or diseases. Several cell types were evaluated based on their „biologic potential", of which cells from adipose tissue, easily harvested subcutaneously. The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) is a heterogeneous mixture of cells obtained by enzymatic digestion of human adipose tissue and depletion of mature adipocytes by centrifugation. It contains multipotent mesenchymal cells, referred to as adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASC), in higher numbers of clonogenic cells than the standardly-used bone marrow-derived cells, as well as hematopoietic and vascular cells. The sialomucin CD34 is a type-I transmembrane glycoprotein, the function of which is still largely unknown, broadly expressed by cells in SVF but rapidly lost by CD90+/CD34+ human ASC expanded in monolayer culture. We thus aimed at defining culture conditions allowing the maintenance of CD34 in ASC to ...
Oh and the idea about the shroom sheep that someone had would be really nice. Maybe nerf it a little bit so that it would not be op. The shroom sheep could be in two different colors. When sheared it will stay a shroom sheep and gives shroom-wool. Either red with white dots or the brown version. If you kill it it will drop shroom meat, a new drop for mooshroms and shroom sheep and maybe some more shroomcreatures. If you add the ability to milk sheep like goats, the shroom sheep cant be milked maybe because of the shroom infection. This way it wouldnt be too op when it would give too much food and instead would be farmed for its unique wool. Maybe add the ability to dye the red shroom-wool, so that you could have blue wool with white dots and so on.. To regrow the shroom-wool a shroom sheep has to eat mycelium like a normal sheep would eat grass.. ...
CD164 Gene - GeneCards | MUC24 Protein | MUC24 Antibody
CD164 Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CD164 Gene. GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:. *Multi-glycosylated core ... GeneCards Summary for CD164 Gene CD164 (CD164 Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CD164 include ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CD164 Gene Domains & Families for CD164 Gene Gene Families for CD164 Gene. HGNC ...https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CD164
Anti-CD164 antibody (STJ92095) St John's Labs
... was developed using a synthesized peptide derived from the C-terminal region of human CD164 at AA range: 110-190. This antibody ... CD antigen CD164. Function. Sialomucin that may play a key role in hematopoiesis by facilitating the adhesion of CD34(+) cells ... CD164 Polyclonal Antibody detects endogenous levels of CD164 protein.. Protein Name. Sialomucin core protein 24 MUC-24 Endolyn ... Nyegaard M, Rendtorff ND, Nielsen MS, et al.. A Novel Locus Harbouring a Functional CD164 Nonsense Mutation Identified in a ...https://www.stjohnslabs.com/anti-cd164-antibody-stj92095.html
Anti-CD164 Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody | VWR
Antigen: CD164. Clonality: Polyclonal. Clone: Conjugation: Unconjugated. Epitope: Host: Rabbit. Isotype: IgG. Reactivity: Human ... CD164 is a type I integral transmembrane sialomucin that functions as an adhesion receptor . Sialomucin CD164 (MUC-24), also ... CD164 may play a key role in hematopoiesis by facilitating the adhesion of CD34+ cells to the stroma and by negatively ... Important role of CD164 in in prostate cancer metastasis, promoting myogenesis and regulating myoblast migration so far have ...https://us.vwr.com/store/product/14052434/anti-cd164-rabbit-polyclonal-antibody
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.395) - Wikipedia
... antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.170 -- antigens, cd146 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.175 -- antigens, cd164 MeSH D12.776. ... antigens, cd43 MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.650.264 -- antigens, cd164. ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.098 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.131 -- ... ca-15-3 antigen MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.300 -- gastric mucin MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.650 -- sialomucins MeSH D12.776.395.560. ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D12.776.395)
CD164 - Wikipedia
CD164 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD164 genome location and CD164 gene ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD164 gene. CD164 functions as a cell adhesion molecule. Sialomucins are a ... CD164 is a type I integral transmembrane sialomucin that functions as an adhesion receptor. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Zannettino AC (2001). "CD164". J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents. 15 (4): 394-6. PMID 11862985. Masuzawa Y, Miyauchi T, Hamanoue ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD164
The Sialomucin CD164 (MGC-24v) Is an Adhesive Glycoprotein Expressed by Human Hematopoietic Progenitors and Bone Marrow Stromal...
This molecule was clustered as CD164 at the recent workshop on human leukocyte differentiation antigens. CD164 was identified ... surface antigen expression62) was examined by Northern blot analysis for the presence of CD164 transcripts. A prominent CD164 ... cells that expressed CD164. Moreover, cells that coexpress the progenitor cell antigen CD34 and CD164 glycoprotein were found ... Expression Cloning of CD164 cDNA. The cDNA encoding the cell surface antigen identified by the MoAbs 103B2/9E10 and 105.A5 were ...http://www.bloodjournal.org/content/92/8/2613?ijkey=6c0fd18119d1c04eba6444a8c3ebe521da801db4&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha&sso-checked=true
NAVER Academic > Search...
Amino Acid Sequence, Antigens, CD, Antigens, CD146, Antigens, CD164, Arachis hypogaea, Base Sequence, Blotting, Northern, ...https://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=JOURNAL+OF+BIOCHEMISTRY+112%EA%B6%8C+5%ED%98%B8
Browse our CD248 ELISA Kits
CD164 sialomucin-like 1 , CD248 antigen, endosialin , endosialin , tumor endothelial marker 1 , 2610111G01Rik ...http://www.antibodies-online.com/abstract/CD248+Molecule%2C+Endosialin+
Recombinant Human CD248 Protein, His-tagged CD248-23H - Creative BioMart
CD248 antigen, endosialin; endosialin; TEM1; tumor endothelial marker 1; 2610111G01Rik; CD164 sialomucin-like 1; CD248 antigen ... Tumor Antigen Proteins CD22 HPSE KLK3 CD24 CD248 PMPCB GPA33 MAGEA1 LCP1 RPLP1 ... Products > Cancer Proteins > Oncoprotein & suppressor & biomarker > Tumor biomarker Proteins > Tumor Antigen Proteins ... CD248; CD248 molecule, endosialin; CD164 sialomucin like 1 , CD164L1, ...https://www.creativebiomart.net/recombinant-human-cd248-protein-his-tagged-480553.htm
KEGG BRITE: CD Molecules - Homo sapiens (human)
CD163 antigen K06545 CD163; CD163 antigen K06546 CD164; CD164 antigen K06547 ALCAM; activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule ... CD79A antigen K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen K05412 CD80; CD80 antigen K06508 CD81; CD81 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K06510 ... CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06721 CLEC10A; C-type lectin ... CD96 antigen K08446 ADGRE5; CD97 antigen K06519 SLC3A2; solute carrier family 3, member 2 K06520 CD99; CD99 antigen K06521 ...https://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?hsa04090+4486
Isolation of functionally distinct mesenchymal stem cell subsets using antibodies against CD56, CD271, and mesenchymal stem...
CD164, and W3D5 antigen were expressed at similar levels on both cell subsets, whereas CD45, CD117, CD133, CD318 were negative ... 1995) in Leucocyte Typing V. White Cell Differentiation Antigens, NK-cell antigens: section report, eds Schlossman SF, Boumsell ... 1995) in Leucocyte Typing-V, Myeloid antigens: section report, eds Schlossman SF, Boumsell L, Gilks W (New York, Tokyo, Oxford ... 26 We also demonstrated that W8B2 antigen31 (here designated mesenchymal stem cell antigen-1; MSCA-1) is selectively expressed ...http://www.haematologica.org/content/94/2/173
Antigens, CD14 | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
Antigens, CD14. *Antigens, CD146. *Antigens, CD147. *Antigens, CD15. *Antigens, CD151. *Antigens, CD164 ... "Antigens, CD14" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD14" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD14" by people in Profiles. ...https://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/Antigens,%20CD14
CD30 Ligand | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
Antigens, CD14. *Antigens, CD146. *Antigens, CD147. *Antigens, CD15. *Antigens, CD151. *Antigens, CD164 ... membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN ...https://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/CD30%20Ligand
FUNCTIONS AND TARGETS OF LET-7 MICRO RNAS - Patent application
CD164 NM_006016 CD164 antigen, sialomucin CDC25A NM_001789 cell division cycle 25A isoform a CDC34 NM_004359 cell division ... CD164 NM_006016 CD164 antigen, sialomucin DUSP16 NM_030640 dual specificity phosphatase 16 FAM96A NM_001014812 hypothetical ... Let-7 also affects the expression of the tumor suppressors BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 (breast cancer antigen 1/2) as well as aurora ... tumor antigen in ovarian carcinoma; mutation in corresponding gene is associated with colon cancer FANCD2 Fanconi anemia ...http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20090163430
Other CD Antigens | ProSpec
ProSpecs CD Antigens include: CD4, CD40, CD10, CD11B, CD14, CD146, CD147, CD1A, CD2, CD21, CD23, CD25, CD29, CD31, CD34, CD38 ... CD164 Sialomucin-Like 2 Human Recombinant. * 5µg ($50). 20µg ($130). 1mg ($2700). ...https://www.prospecbio.com/other_cd_antigens
Antigens, CD146 | Profiles RNS
Antigens, CD14. *Antigens, CD146. *Antigens, CD147. *Antigens, CD15. *Antigens, CD151. *Antigens, CD164 ... "Antigens, CD146" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD146" by people in this website by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD146" by people in Profiles. ...https://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/117333
Antigens, CD20 | Profiles RNS
Antigens, CD151. *Antigens, CD164. *Antigens, CD18. *Antigens, CD19. *Antigens, CD2. *Antigens, CD20 ... "Antigens, CD20" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD20" by people in this website by year, and whether ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD20" by people in Profiles. ...https://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/126546
CD antigens / Cluster of Differentiation
CD antigens found in various immune cell populations like B cells, T cells, Dendritic cells and NK cells.CD antigens can act in ... lot of ways, like as recepters or ligands in terms of physiology.As a siganl, CD antigens is usually initiated, altering the ... What are CD antigens or clusters of differentiation ? ... CD164 antigens. MGC-24, MUC-24. Facilitates the adhesion of ... CD1b antigens. T6. Antigen presenting protein. CD1c antigens. R7, CD1, CD1A, BDCA1. Non peptide antigen presentation to T-cell ...https://kr.sinobiological.com/cd-antigens-cluster-of-differentiation.html
Heterogeneity in primary and metastatic prostate cancer as defined by cell surface CD profile. - PubMed - NCBI
Cluster designation (CD) antigens are cell surface markers that can be used to identify constituent cell populations of an ... Expression of CD57, CD63, CD75s, CD107a, CD107b, CD164, and CD166 by cancer cells is similar to that of secretory cells. ... Prostate basal epithelial cells do not express the CD antigens characteristic of prostate secretory cells; and the basal cell ... Since expression of CD antigens is associated with cellular differentiation, cancer cells may differ from their normal ...https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15509525?dopt=Abstract
Fas Ligand Protein | Profiles RNS
Antigens, CD14. *Antigens, CD146. *Antigens, CD147. *Antigens, CD15. *Antigens, CD151. *Antigens, CD164 ...http://profiles.wakehealth.edu/display/100036
Antigens, CD30 | Profiles RNS
Antigens, CD14. *Antigens, CD146. *Antigens, CD147. *Antigens, CD15. *Antigens, CD151. *Antigens, CD164 ... Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. ... "Antigens, CD30" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD30" by people in this website by year, and whether ...http://profiles.wakehealth.edu/display/102742
Antigens, CD63 | Profiles RNS
Antigens, CD14. *Antigens, CD146. *Antigens, CD147. *Antigens, CD15. *Antigens, CD151. *Antigens, CD164 ... "Antigens, CD63" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD63" by people in this website by year, and whether ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD63" by people in Profiles. ...https://profiles.rush.edu/display/26011
Antigens, CD70 | Profiles RNS
Antigens, CD14. *Antigens, CD146. *Antigens, CD147. *Antigens, CD15. *Antigens, CD151. *Antigens, CD164 ... "Antigens, CD70" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD70" by people in this website by year, and whether ... A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found ...https://profiles.rush.edu/display/2314
Frontiers | Monocytes and Monocyte-Derived Antigen-Presenting Cells Have Distinct Gene Signatures in Experimental Model of...
... and have a significant up-regulation of genes that are critical for antigen presentation. Furthermore, we found that Ccl17, ... and have a significant up-regulation of genes that are critical for antigen presentation. Furthermore, we found that Ccl17, ... Ly6Chi monocytes migrate into the CNS and further differentiate into antigen-presenting cells (APCs) during disease progression ... Ly6Chi monocytes migrate into the CNS and further differentiate into antigen-presenting cells (APCs) during disease progression ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02779/full
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CD164] Sialomucin core protein 24 (MUC-24) (Endolyn) (Multi-glycosylated core protein 24) (MGC-24) (MGC-24v) (CD antigen CD164) ... Cd164] Sialomucin core protein 24 (MUC-24) (Endolyn) (Multi-glycosylated core protein 24) (MGC-24) (MGC-24v) (CD antigen CD164) ... Cd164] Sialomucin core protein 24 (MUC-24) (Endolyn) (Multi-glycosylated core protein 24) (MGC-24) (MGC-24v). [Arhgap27 Camgap1 ...http://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product_det.php?id=1770304&supplier=search&name=Multi%20Sub%20Midi96%20STRETCH,%20UV%20tray%20,%20Comb%20block%20with%2012%20x%208%20sample,%201.5mm%20thick%20combs%20,%20casting%20dams.%20Combs%20have%20one%20marker%20lane
- CD164 (CD164 Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- This molecule was clustered as CD164 at the recent workshop on human leukocyte differentiation antigens. (bloodjournal.org)
- Biochemical and functional characterization of CD164 showed that this protein represents a homodimeric molecule of approximately 160 kD. (bloodjournal.org)
- Moreover, antibody ligation of CD164 on primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells characterized by the cell surface phenotype CD34 BRIGHT CD38 − results in the decreased recruitment of these cells into cell cycle, suggesting that CD164 represents a potent signaling molecule with the capacity to suppress hematopoietic cell proliferation. (bloodjournal.org)
- CD164 functions as a cell adhesion molecule. (wikipedia.org)
- Today, the HLDA Workshop meeting has been held 10 times and has over 371 CD antigens molecule have been identified. (sinobiological.com)
- Sialomucin core protein 24 also known as endolyn or CD164 (cluster of differentiation 164) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD164 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The CD antigens / Cluster of differentiation nomenclature was established in the 1st International Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA), which was held in Paris in 1982. (sinobiological.com)
- CD antigens for cluster of differentiation, which indicates a defined subset of cellular surface receptors (epitopes) that identify cell type and stage of differentiation, and which are recognized by antibodies. (sinobiological.com)
- Since expression of CD antigens is associated with cellular differentiation, cancer cells may differ from their normal counterpart in their CD profile. (nih.gov)
- CD164 Polyclonal Antibody detects endogenous levels of CD164 protein. (stjohnslabs.com)
- Sialomucin CD164 (MUC-24), also referred to multi-glycosylated core protein 24 (MGC24), is known to function as a receptor that regulates stem cell localization to the bone marrow. (vwr.com)
- Both antibodies detected CD164/MGC-24v protein expression by BM stroma and subpopulations of the CD34 + cells, which include the majority of clonogenic myeloid (colony-forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage [CFU-GM]) and erythroid (blast-forming unit-erythroid [BFU-E]) progenitors and the hierarchically more primitive precursors (pre-CFU). (bloodjournal.org)
- A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. (rush.edu)
- An antigen-presenting protein that binds self and non-self lipid and glycolipid antigens and presents them to T-cell receptors on natural killer T-cells. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
- Recently, we described a panel of monoclonal antibodies with superior selectivity for mesenchymal stem cells, including the monoclonal antibodies W8B2 against human mesenchymal stem cell antigen-1 (MSCA-1) and 39D5 against a CD56 epitope, which is not expressed on natural killer cells. (haematologica.org)
- Moreover, monocyte-derived APCs express surface markers associated with both dendritic cells and macrophages, and have a significant up-regulation of genes that are critical for antigen presentation. (frontiersin.org)
- In humans, the carcinoembryonic antigen family consists of 29 genes, 18 of which are normally expressed. (wikidoc.org)
- CD164 may play a key role in hematopoiesis by facilitating the adhesion of CD34+ cells to the stroma and by negatively regulating CD34+CD38(lo/-) cell proliferation. (vwr.com)
- The CD antigens are protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells. (sinobiological.com)
- In a murine model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), Ly6C hi monocytes migrate into the CNS and further differentiate into antigen-presenting cells (APCs) during disease progression. (frontiersin.org)
- CD164 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD164 genome location and CD164 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
- Antigens, CD14" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)