Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

PETA-3/CD151, a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, is localised to the plasma membrane and endocytic system of endothelial cells, associates with multiple integrins and modulates cell function. (1/110)

The Transmembrane 4 Superfamily member, PETA-3/CD151, is ubiquitously expressed by endothelial cells in vivo. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells PETA-3 is present on the plasma membrane and predominantly localises to regions of cell-cell contact. Additionally, this protein is abundant within an intracellular compartment which accounts for up to 66% of the total PETA-3 expressed. Intracellular PETA-3 showed colocalisation with transferrin receptor and CD63 suggesting an endosomal/lysosomal localisation which was supported by immuno-electronmicroscopy studies. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments investigating possible interactions of PETA-3 with other molecules demonstrated associations with several integrin chains including beta1, beta3, beta4, (alpha)2, (alpha)3, (alpha)5, (alpha)6 and provide the first report of Transmembrane 4 Superfamily association with the (alpha)6beta4 integrin. Using 2-colour confocal microscopy, we demonstrated similar localisation of PETA-3 and integrin chains within cytoplasmic vesicles and endothelial cell junctions. In order to assess the functional implications of PETA-3/integrin associations, the effect of anti-PETA-3 antibodies on endothelial function was examined. Anti-PETA-3 mAb inhibited endothelial cell migration and modulated in vitro angiogenesis, but had no detectable effect on neutrophil transendothelial migration. The broad range of integrin associations and the presence of PETA-3 with integrins both on the plasma membrane and within intracellular vesicles, suggests a primary role for PETA-3 in regulating integrin trafficking and/or function.  (+info)

Selective tetraspan-integrin complexes (CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions disrupting tetraspan interactions. (2/110)

The tetraspans are molecules with four transmembrane domains which are engaged in multimolecular complexes (the tetraspan web) containing a subset of beta1 integrins (in particular alpha3beta1, alpha4beta1 and alpha6beta1), MHC antigens and several unidentified molecules. The molecules associated with tetraspans are readily detected after immunoprecipitation performed in mild detergents such as Brij 97 or CHAPS. In this study we show that another classical mild detergent, digitonin, dissociated most of these associated molecules, including integrins, from the tetraspans CD9, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD82, Co-029, Talla-1 and NAG-2. In contrast, reciprocal immunoprecipitations from various cell lines demonstrated that two other tetraspans, CD81 and CD151, formed complexes with integrins not disrupted by digitonin. These complexes were CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1 and CD151/alpha6beta1. Furthermore, a new anti-CD151 monoclonal antibody (mAb), TS151r, was shown to have a restricted pattern of expression, inversely related to the sum of the levels of expression of alpha6beta1 and alpha3beta1. This mAb was unable to co-precipitate integrins in digitonin, suggesting that its epitope is blocked by the association with integrins. Indeed, the binding of TS151r to the cell surface was quantitatively diminished following alpha3beta1 overexpression. Altogether, these data suggest that, among tetraspans, CD81 interacts directly with the integrin alpha4beta1, and CD151 interacts directly with integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1. Because all tetraspan-tetraspan associations are disrupted by digitonin, it is likely that the other tetraspans interact indirectly with integrins, through interactions with CD81 or CD151.  (+info)

Eukaryotic expression cloning with an antimetastatic monoclonal antibody identifies a tetraspanin (PETA-3/CD151) as an effector of human tumor cell migration and metastasis. (3/110)

A monoclonal antibody (mAb), 50-6, generated by subtractive immunization, was found to specifically inhibit in vivo metastasis of a human epidermoid carcinoma cell line, HEp-3. The cDNA of the cognate antigen of mAb 50-6 was isolated by a modified eukaryotic expression cloning protocol from a HEp-3 library. Sequence analysis identified the antigen as PETA-3/CD151, a recently described member of the tetraspanin family of proteins. The cloned antigen was also recognized by a previously described antimetastatic antibody, mAb 1A5. Inhibition of HEp-3 metastasis by the mAbs could not be attributed to any effect of the antibodies on tumor cell growth in vitro or in vivo. Rather, the antibodies appeared to inhibit an early step in the formation of metastatic foci. In a chemotaxis assay, HEp-3 migration was blocked by both antibodies. HeLa cells transfected with and overexpressing PETA-3/CD151 were more migratory than control transfectants expressing little CD151. The increase in HeLa migration was inhibitable by both mAb 50-6 and mAb 1A5. PETA-3 appears not to be involved in cell attachment because adhesion did not correlate with levels of PETA-3 expression and was unaffected by mAb 50-6 or mAb 1A5. The ability of PETA-3 to mediate cell migration suggests a mechanism by which this protein may influence metastasis. These data identify PETA-3/CD151 as the first member of the tetraspanin family to be linked as a positive effector of metastasis.  (+info)

Direct extracellular contact between integrin alpha(3)beta(1) and TM4SF protein CD151. (4/110)

Previously we established that the alpha(3)beta(1) integrin shows stable, specific, and stoichiometric association with the TM4SF (tetraspannin) protein CD151. Here we used a membrane impermeable cross-linking agent to show a direct association between extracellular domains of alpha(3)beta(1) and CD151. The alpha(3)beta(1)-CD151 association site was then mapped using chimeric alpha(6)/alpha(3) integrins and CD151/NAG2 TM4SF proteins. Complex formation required an extracellular alpha(3) site (amino acids (aa) 570-705) not previously known to be involved in specific integrin contacts with other proteins and a region (aa 186-217) within the large extracellular loop of CD151. Notably, the anti-CD151 monoclonal antibody TS151r binding epitope, previously implicated in alpha(3) integrin association, was mapped to the same region of CD151 (aa 186-217). Finally, we demonstrated that both NH(2)- and COOH-terminal domains of CD151 are located on the inside of the plasma membrane, thus confirming a long suspected model of TM4SF protein topology.  (+info)

Transmembrane-4-superfamily proteins CD151 and CD81 associate with alpha 3 beta 1 integrin, and selectively contribute to alpha 3 beta 1-dependent neurite outgrowth. (5/110)

Proteins in the transmembrane-4-superfamily (TM4SF) form many different complexes with proteins in the integrin family, but the functional utility of these complexes has not yet been demonstrated. Here we show that TM4SF proteins CD151, CD81, and CD63 co-distribute with alpha3beta1 integrin on neurites and growth cones of human NT2N cells. Also, stable CD151-alpha3beta1 and CD81-alpha3beta1 complexes were recovered in NT2N detergent lysates. Total NT2N neurite outgrowth on laminin-5 (a ligand for alpha3beta1 integrin) was strongly inhibited by anti-CD151 and -CD81 antibodies either together ( approximately 85% inhibition) or alone ( approximately 45% inhibition). Notably, these antibodies had no inhibitory effect on NT2N neurites formed on laminin-1 or fibronectin, when alpha3beta1integrin was not engaged. Neurite number, length, and rate of extension were all affected by anti-TM4SF antibodies. In summary: (1) these substrate-dependent inhibition results strongly suggest that CD151 and CD81 associations with alpha3beta1 are functionally relevant, (2) TM4SF proteins CD151 and CD81 make a strong positive contribution toward neurite number, length, and rate of outgrowth, and (3) NT2N cells, a well-established model of immature central nervous system neurons, can be a powerful system for studies of integrin function in neurite outgrowth and growth cone motility.  (+info)

The tetraspan molecule CD151, a novel constituent of hemidesmosomes, associates with the integrin alpha6beta4 and may regulate the spatial organization of hemidesmosomes. (6/110)

CD151 is a cell surface protein that belongs to the tetraspan superfamily. It associates with other tetraspan molecules and certain integrins to form large complexes at the cell surface. CD151 is expressed by a variety of epithelia and mesenchymal cells. We demonstrate here that in human skin CD151 is codistributed with alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta4 at the basolateral surface of basal keratinocytes. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that CD151 is concentrated in hemidesmosomes. By immunoprecipitation from transfected K562 cells, we established that CD151 associates with alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta4. In beta4-deficient pyloric atresia associated with junctional epidermolysis bullosa (PA-JEB) keratinocytes, CD151 and alpha3beta1 are clustered together at the basal cell surface in association with patches of laminin-5. Focal adhesions are present at the periphery of these clusters, connected with actin filaments, and they contain both CD151 and alpha3beta1. Transient transfection studies of PA-JEB cells with beta4 revealed that the integrin alpha6beta4 becomes incorporated into the alpha3beta1-CD151 clusters where it induces the formation of hemidesmosomes. As a result, the amount of alpha3beta1 in the clusters diminishes and the protein becomes restricted to the peripheral focal adhesions. Furthermore, CD151 becomes predominantly associated with alpha6beta4 in hemidesmosomes, whereas its codistribution with alpha3beta1 in focal adhesions becomes partial. The localization of alpha6beta4 in the pre-hemidesmosomal clusters is accompanied by a strong upregulation of CD151, which is at least partly due to increased cell surface expression. Using beta4 chimeras containing the extracellular and transmembrane domain of the IL-2 receptor and the cytoplasmic domain of beta4, we found that for recruitment of CD151 into hemidesmosomes, the beta4 subunit must be associated with alpha6, confirming that integrins associate with tetraspans via their alpha subunits. CD151 is the only tetraspan identified in hemidesmosomal structures. Others, such as CD9 and CD81, remain diffusely distributed at the cell surface. In conclusion, we show that CD151 is a major component of (pre)-hemidesmosomal structures and that its recruitment into hemidesmosomes is regulated by the integrin alpha6beta4. We suggest that CD151 plays a role in the formation and stability of hemidesmosomes by providing a framework for the spatial organization of the different hemidesmosomal components.  (+info)

Tetraspanins are localized at motility-related structures and involved in normal human keratinocyte wound healing migration. (7/110)

We have described previously that beta1 integrins, which mediate keratinocyte cell adhesion and migration, are in ligand-occupied conformation at the basal surface but not at the lateral and apical surfaces of keratinocytes. This led us to study the cellular localization and function of tetraspanin molecules, which have been postulated to modulate integrin activity. We found that CD9 and CD81 are highly expressed by keratinocytes clearly delineating filopodia at lateral and apical surfaces. CD63 and CD151 are largely expressed in the intracellular compartment, although some membrane expression is observed. We found accumulation of CD9, CD81, and CD151 together with alpha3 and beta1 integrins at intercellular junctions. In low calcium medium, this intercellular space is crossed by a zipper of filopodia enriched in alpha3beta1 and tetraspanin proteins. Interestingly, the expression of CD9, CD81, and beta1 and alpha3 integrins was detected in the footprints and rippings of motile keratinocytes, suggesting their role in both adhesion to extracellular matrix and keratinocyte motility. beta1 integrins were only partially activated in the rips, whereas cytoskeleton-linking proteins such as talin were completely absent. On the other hand, antitetraspanin antibodies did not stain focal adhesions, which contain talin. The involvement of tetraspanins in keratinocyte motility was assessed in a wound healing migration assay. Inhibition of cell migration was observed with antibodies to CD9, CD81, beta1, and alpha3, and, to a lesser extent, to CD151. Together these results indicate that tetraspanin-integrin complexes might be involved in transient adhesion and integrin recycling during keratinocyte migration, as well as in intercellular recognition.  (+info)

Transmembrane-4 superfamily proteins associate with activated protein kinase C (PKC) and link PKC to specific beta(1) integrins. (8/110)

Translocation of conventional protein kinases C (PKCs) to the plasma membrane leads to their specific association with transmembrane-4 superfamily (TM4SF; tetraspanin) proteins (CD9, CD53, CD81, CD82, and CD151), as demonstrated by reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation and covalent cross-linking experiments. Although formation and maintenance of TM4SF-PKC complexes are not dependent on integrins, TM4SF proteins can act as linker molecules, recruiting PKC into proximity with specific integrins. Previous studies showed that the extracellular large loop of TM4SF proteins determines integrin associations. In contrast, specificity for PKC association probably resides within cytoplasmic tails or the first two transmembrane domains of TM4SF proteins, as seen from studies with chimeric CD9 molecules. Consistent with a TM4SF linker function, only those integrins (alpha(3)beta(1), alpha(6)beta(1), and a chimeric "X3TC5" alpha(3) mutant) that associated strongly with tetraspanins were found in association with PKC. We propose that PKC-TM4SF-integrin structures represent a novel type of signaling complex. The simultaneous binding of TM4SF proteins to the extracellular domains of the integrin alpha(3) subunit and to intracellular PKC helps to explain why the integrin alpha3 extracellular domain is needed for both intracellular PKC recruitment and PKC-dependent phosphorylation of the alpha(3) integrin cytoplasmic tail.  (+info)

*Hemidesmosome

CD151 aids in hemidesmosome formation. BPAG1e is an antigen with multiple isoforms that binds to integrin α6β4, BPAG2 and ... CD151, a protein of the tetraspanin superfamily, resides on the cell surface of keratinocytes and vascular endothelium. ... Type 1 HDs have five main elements: integrin α6β4, plectin in its isoform 1a, i. e. P1a, tetraspanin protein CD151, BPAG1e, or ... The α6 subunit binds to extracellular BP180, CD151 and laminin-322. When integrin α6β4 binds to Plectin 1a and BPAG1, it ...

*CD151

Raph blood group system in the BGMUT blood group antigen gene mutation database Human CD151 genome location and CD151 gene ... CD151 molecule (Raph blood group), also known as CD151 (Cluster of Differentiation 151), is a human gene. The protein encoded ... CD151 CD151 molecule (Raph blood group)". Lozahic S, Christiansen D, Manié S, Gerlier D, Billard M, Boucheix C, Rubinstein E ( ... CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions disrupting tetraspan interactions". Biochem. J. 340 (1): 103-11. doi: ...

*CD37

"The primary structure of the human leukocyte antigen CD37, a species homologue of the rat MRC OX-44 antigen". The Journal of ... CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions disrupting tetraspan interactions". The Biochemical Journal. 340 ( Pt 1 ... Leukocyte antigen CD37 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD37 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of ... Angelisová P, Hilgert I, Horejsí V (1994). "Association of four antigens of the tetraspans family (CD37, CD53, TAPA-1, and R2/ ...

*Cancer stem cell

In prostate cancer, the tumor-initiating cells have been identified in CD44+ cell subset as CD44+α2β1+, TRA-1-60+CD151+CD166+ ... stage-specific embryonic antigen-1), EGFR and CD44. The use of CD133 for identification of brain tumor stem-like cells may be ... "Delineation of a cellular hierarchy in lung cancer reveals an oncofetal antigen expressed on tumor-initiating cells". Cancer ... also known as epithelial specific antigen, ESA).. CD133 (prominin 1) is a five-transmembrane domain glycoprotein expressed on ...

*TSPAN4

1999). "Selective tetraspan-integrin complexes (CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions ... This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein and is similar in sequence to its family member CD53 antigen. It is known ... 2000). "Direct extracellular contact between integrin alpha(3)beta(1) and TM4SF protein CD151". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (13): 9230-8 ...

*TSPAN8

CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions disrupting tetraspan interactions". The Biochemical Journal. 340 ( Pt 1 ... "Molecular cloning of cDNA for the human tumor-associated antigen CO-029 and identification of related transmembrane antigens". ...

*CD9

... antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD9 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... Sincock PM, Mayrhofer G, Ashman LK (1997). "Localization of the transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) member PETA-3 (CD151) in ... Boucheix C, Benoit P, Frachet P, Billard M, Worthington RE, Gagnon J, Uzan G (1991). "Molecular cloning of the CD9 antigen. A ... Higashihara M, Takahata K, Yatomi Y, Nakahara K, Kurokawa K (1990). "Purification and partial characterization of CD9 antigen ...

*CD53

1990). "The human leucocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein structurally similar to the CD37 and MRC OX-44 antigens". ... 1999). "Selective tetraspan-integrin complexes (CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions ... Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... A pan-leukocyte antigen related to membrane transport proteins". J. Immunol. 145 (12): 4322-5. PMID 2258620. Dianzani U, ...

*CD63

1991). "CD63 antigen. A novel lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, cloned by a screening procedure for intracellular antigens in ... Sincock PM, Mayrhofer G, Ashman LK (1997). "Localization of the transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) member PETA-3 (CD151) in ... CD63 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD63 gene. CD63 is mainly associated with membranes of intracellular ... 1992). "Genomic structure of the ME491/CD63 antigen gene and functional analysis of the 5'-flanking regulatory sequences". ...

*CD82 (gene)

1999). "Selective tetraspan-integrin complexes (CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions ... 1992). "C33 antigen recognized by monoclonal antibodies inhibitory to human T cell leukemia virus type 1-induced syncytium ... 1991). "A new superfamily of lymphoid and melanoma cell proteins with extensive homology to Schistosoma mansoni antigen Sm23". ...

*CD81

1999). "Selective tetraspan-integrin complexes (CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions ... 1994). "Mouse homologue of C33 antigen (CD82), a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily: complementary DNA, genomic ... CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions disrupting tetraspan interactions". Biochem. J. 340 (Pt 1): 103-11. doi: ... The tetraspanin family includes CD9, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD81 (this protein), CD82 and CD151. CD81 interacts directly with ...

*CD46

... has been shown to interact with CD9, CD151 and CD29. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000117335 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... NIH/UW entry on Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome OMIM entries on Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome CD46 antigen at the US ...

*PTPRM

The extracellular region contains a meprin-A5 antigen-PTP mu (MAM) domain, an Ig-like domain and four fibronectin type III-like ... α3β1 integrin and the tetraspanin CD151 regulate PTPmu gene expression to promote E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. In ... Chattopadhyay N, Wang Z, Ashman LK, Brady-Kalnay SM, Kreidberg JA (2003). "alpha3beta1 integrin-CD151, a component of the ...

*CD29

CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions disrupting tetraspan interactions". The Biochemical Journal. 340 (Pt 1 ... CD29 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human ITGB1 genome location and ITGB1 gene ... CD29 is an integrin unit associated with very late antigen receptors. It is known to conjoin with alpha-3 subunit to create ... "Entrez Gene: ITGB1 integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12)". Hynes RO (Apr ...
Tetraspanin CD9 is associated with integrin adhesion receptors and it was reported that CD9 regulates integrin-dependent cell migration and invasion. Pro- and anti-migratory effects of CD9 have been linked to adhesion-dependent signalling pathways, including phosphorylation of FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase). In the present paper, we describe a novel mechanism whereby CD9 specifically controls localization of talin1, one of the critical regulators of integrin activation, to focal adhesions: CD9-deficiency leads to impaired localization of talin1 to focal adhesions and correlates with increased motility of breast cancer cells.. ...
Ion channels regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration in normal and neoplastic cells through cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) transmembrane receptors called integrins. K+ flux through the human ether-à-go-go-related gene 1 (hERG1) channel shapes action potential firing in excitable cells such as cardiomyocytes. Its abundance is often aberrantly high in tumors, where it modulates integrin-mediated signaling. We found that hERG1 interacted with the β1 integrin subunit at the plasma membrane of human cancer cells. This interaction was not detected in cardiomyocytes because of the presence of the hERG1 auxiliary subunit KCNE1 (potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E regulatory subunit 1), which blocked the β1 integrin-hERG1 interaction. Although open hERG1 channels did not interact as strongly with β1 integrins as did closed channels, current flow through hERG1 channels was necessary to activate the integrin-dependent phosphorylation of Tyr397 in focal ...
Title: Investigating the molecular mechanism of COPD in tetraspanin CD9/CD81 DKO mice- a new model for ageing. 6/9 Yuko Tsuchiya. 6/16 Special seminar 15:00 ...
3.0.CO;2-X. PMID 10741407. Berditchevski F (2002). "Complexes of tetraspanins with integrins: more than meets the eye". J. Cell Sci. 114 (Pt 23): 4143-51. PMID 11739647. Ashman LK (2003). "CD151". J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents. 16 (3): 223-6. PMID 12456024. Ashman LK, Aylett GW, Mehrabani PA, Bendall LJ, Niutta S, Cambareri AC, Cole SR, Berndt MC (1992). "The murine monoclonal antibody, 14A2.H1, identifies a novel platelet surface antigen". Br. J. Haematol. 79 (2): 263-70. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.1991.tb04531.x. PMID 1958484. Fitter S, Tetaz TJ, Berndt MC, Ashman LK (1995). "Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding a novel platelet-endothelial cell tetra-span antigen, PETA-3". Blood. 86 (4): 1348-55. PMID 7632941. Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Hasegawa H, Utsunomiya Y, Kishimoto K, Yanagisawa K, Fujita S (1996). "SFA-1, a ...
Pierre Fabre Centre dImmunologie (a subsidiary of Pierre Fabre) is developing anti-tetraspanin cluster of differentiation 151 (CD151) antibodies for the
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Clone 11G5a recognizes the human CD151 cell surface antigen, also known as PETA-3. CD151 is expressed by epithelial cells, endothelial
CD53 is a member of the tetraspan family of molecules, and is expressed by all leucocytes, but is absent from red cells and platelets.Most of the…
The report Starch Product Market in Australia to 2019 - Market Size, Development, and Forecasts offers the most up-to-date industry data on the actual market situation, and future outlook for starch products in Australia. The research includes historic data from 2008 to 2014 and forecasts until 2019 which makes the report an invaluable resource for industry executives, marketing, sales and product managers, consultants, analysts, and other people looking for key industry data in a readily accessible document with clearly presented tables and graphs.. The report helps answer the following questions:. - What is the current size of the starch product market in Australia ...
CD9, a member of the tetraspanin superfamily of proteins participates in the regulation of cell adhesive functions such as cell migration. The mechanisms underlying CD9 mediated cell migration are not known. In the current study, we investigated the molecular basis for the CD9 promoted cell migration. Our findings show that the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K) inhibitors, wortamannin and LY294002 inhibited CD9 promoted cell motility in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In contrast, inhibitors targeting protein kinase C or mitogen-activated protein kinase had no effect on CD9 driven CHO cell motility. Furthermore, inhibition of PI-3K activity in CHO cells by dominant/negative PI-3K cDNA transfection abolished CD9 mediated pro-migratory effects. Consistent with these observations, CD9 expression in CHO cells and in the rat aortic smooth muscle (RASM) cells induced enhanced phosphorylation of PI-3K substrate, Akt. In CHO cells, CD9 expression also enhanced protein levels and tyrosine phosphorylation
Despite being implicated in multiple types of human epithelia-origin cancer, laminin-binding (LB) integrins (e.g., α3α1 and α6β4) have rarely been investigated for their roles in human ovarian tumors. More recently, we and others have shown that CD151, a member of the tetraspanin family, not only forms tight surface complexes with these adhesion receptors, but also mediates the malignancy of human carcinomas largely in a LB integrin-dependent manner. Here we report our studies on the role of CD151 in human ovarian cancer. Initially, we stained human ovarian tumor tissue microarrays with CD151-specific antibody. Our data showed that the majority of ovarian tumors exhibited a reduced expression of CD151 protein, compared to the fallopian tube, implying a putative suppressing role of this tetraspanin in ovarian cancer. With this hint we next evaluated the impact of CD151 ablation on the behaviors and proliferation of cultured human ovarian cancer cells. While CD151 removal had a minimal impact ...
THE EL DORADO COUNTY FIRE SAFE COUNCIL IS SEEKING PROPOSALS FROM QUALIFIED CONTRACTORS TO PROVIDE: FUEL REDUCTION, MASTICATION, CHAINSAW AND CHIPPING OR PILE BURNING SERVICES IN THE LOGTOWN AREA EAST OF STATE HIGHWAY 49. Logtown East Side Fuel Break (LT10) 16-SFA-56063) and Logtown East Side Fuel Break (LT 10) Monitor section (sra 5gs15144) Release Date: October 2, 2017,. Required Site visit: October 18, 2017, 0900 at the parking lot of Bobbys Market the corner of Crystal Boulevard and Highway 49. Closing Date: October 27, 2017. Two Grants funding have been obtained to perform Fuels reduction work on 95 acres of land. The project is located off of Highway 49 and Dolomite Drive in El Dorado County, California. The Fire Safe Council is seeking a qualified contractor through a competitive bid process to perform mastication, chipping or pile burning, and chainsaw work.. Please download a complete copy of the two Request for Proposals click here for the federal grant and here for the SRA grant or ...
To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a regulatory function of tetraspanin CD151 in mast cells. Moreover, it is one of the first reports, to our knowledge, addressing the signaling mechanism of modulation of mast cell activation by any member of the tetraspanin family. In the present study, we demonstrated that CD151 deficiency exacerbated late-phase allergic inflammation in mice in vivo and enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production by cultured BMMCs ex vivo. Moreover, BMMCs deficient in CD151 showed enhanced and sustained FcεRI-induced ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation compared with WT cells. Conversely, CD151 deficiency had no effect on mast cell degranulation or the acute phase of PCA. Thus, our data demonstrate that the tetraspanin CD151 functions to selectively inhibit late-phase anaphylaxis responses and the de novo synthesis of cytokines by activated mast cells.. Mast cells possess mechanisms for fine tuning cellular activation that allow initial FcεRI-mediated signaling ...
Two lines of evidence in our current study suggest that surface TEMs can serve as exit gateways for HIV-1. First, most cell surface punctae where either Gag or Env clusters in both HeLa cell and in Jurkat T lymphocytes are also occupied by one of the tetraspanins (Figs. 6-8⇑⇑ and 10). Second, cellular TSG101 and VPS28, the components of the cellular budding machinery responsible for viral egress (Morita and Sundquist, 2004), when recruited to the plasma membrane in cells producing HIV-1, accumulate at CD63-containing TEMs (Fig. 8). Furthermore, we find that distortion of TEM distribution in virus-producing cells by an anti-CD9 antibody (K41) correlates with inhibition of HIV-1 release (unpublished data).. In a study where we used the FlAsH technique for successive dual-color labeling (Gaietta et al., 2002) of Gag in various virus-secreting cell types, we observed localization of newly synthesized Gag at distinct areas on the plasma membrane (Rudner et al., 2005). We also documented that ...
Although tetraspanins are considered to be organizers (in cis) of cellular membranes, their overall job description remains relatively vague. One of the few specific functions that have been clearly established for several members of the tetraspanin family is their regulation (positive or negative) of membrane fusion processes. For example, one of the tetraspanins that we identified to be present at HIV-1 release sites, CD9, is absolutely required for sperm-egg fusion. Although it remains unknown how exactly tetraspanins control fusion processes, it is thought that they do so by manipulating the interactions of fusogenic proteins with other membrane proteins (integral or peripheral). Given these fusion regulation functions, and given that viral infections require the fusion of viral and cellular membranes, we reasoned that tetraspanins might also regulate virus-mediated fusion processes. We thus started to analyse whether overexpression (either transient or stable) or down-regulation of ...
Early studies pointed to the potential of tetraspanins to associate with a wide variety of partner proteins in a tetraspanin web. Not only do tetraspanins associate with each other, but they also associate with many Ig superfamily proteins, proteoglycans, complement regulatory proteins, integrins, growth factors, growth factor receptors, and signaling enzymes (for review see Boucheix and Rubinstein, 2001). Assembly of the tetraspanin web is based on multiple levels of interactions (Serru et al., 1999; Stipp et al., 2001a,b; and references therein). The first level includes primary interactions between specific tetraspanins and other proteins. These interactions are direct, and resist disruption by detergents such as Brij96, digitonin, and/or Triton X-100 (see examples below). Second level interactions are indirect, more numerous, and much more sensitive to disruption by Brij96, digitonin, and/or Triton X-100. Soluble second level complexes (maintained in detergents such as Brij56, Brij99, and ...
The ability of cells to migrate is important for development, neurite formation, immune function, and other processes necessary for the life of an organism. However, the gaining of an inappropriate migratory function, as well as, uncontrolled proliferation and loss of tumor suppression, can lead to cancer. Migration is a multi-step process involving a variety of proteins and other cellular molecules. The basic steps in migration involve: a) filopodia extension and adherence to the extracellular matrix; b) movement of the cell body forward; and c) rear detachment and retraction. (Lauffenburger and Horwitz, 1996) Interactions between tetraspanins and integrins are important in cell adhesion and cell signaling processes in migration. CD9, a member of the tetraspanin family, plays multiple roles in migration, mediating processes like adhesion and filopodia extension though interactions with integrins and other migration associated molecules. One possible model indicates that once an integrin, like ...
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human CD231 antigen: tetraspanin protein; has the unique potential to modulate HIV-1 infectivity through incorporation into released HIV-1 particles
CD9, a member of the tetraspanin family, is highly expressed on platelets (50,000-80,000 copies per platelet). Tetraspanins have been implicated in modulation of integrin function, and it is hypothesized that CD9 will modulate GPIIb-IIIa, the major platelet integrin. The association between CD9 and GPIIb-IIIa was analyzed using immunoprecipitations and confocal microscopy. These two proteins were found to associate with each other, particularly at areas of platelet-platelet contact and at the periphery. Confocal analysis revealed CD9 localization was most intense at platelet-platelet contact, as well as in platelet filopodia and lamellipodia, but there is a lack of CD9 at areas of platelet-matrix contact. Co-localization with F-actin decreased as platelets progressed through the stages of spreading. In order to analyze CD9 contributions to platelet function, a Fab fragment was generated from mAb7, an antibody which binds with high affinity to the large extracellular loop of CD9. Fab fragments were used
Tetraspanins function as molecular organizers of multi-protein complexes by assembling primary complexes of a relatively low mass into extensive networks involved in cellular signalling. In this paper, we summarize our studies performed on the tetraspanin D6.1A/CO-029/TM4SF3 expressed by rat carcinoma cells. Primary complexes of D6.1A are almost indistinguishable from complexes isolated with anti-CD9 antibody. Indeed, both tetraspanins directly associate with each other and with a third tetraspanin, CD81. Moreover, FPRP (prostaglandin F2α receptor-regulatory protein)/EWI-F/CD9P-1), an Ig superfamily member that has been described to interact with CD9 and CD81, is also a prominent element in D6.1A complexes. Primary complexes isolated with D6.1A-specific antibody are clearly different from complexes containing the tetraspanin CD151. CD151 is found to interact only with D6.1A if milder conditions, i.e. lysis with LubrolWX instead of Brij96, are applied to disrupt cellular membranes. CD151 ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
Formation of the nephron depends upon reciprocal signaling of different morphogens between epithelial and mesenchymal cells inside the renal stem/progenitor cell market. interface EMD-1214063 to get hold of epithelial cells. At the websites the plasma membranes of the mesenchymal and an epithelial cell are linked via tunneling nanotubes. Concerning recognized morphological features in conjunction with included morphogens their transportation cannot longer become explained exclusively by diffusion. Rather it must be sorted relating to biophysical properties of morphogens also to recognized environment. Thus the brand new operating hypothesis can be that morphogens with great solubility such as for example glial cell line-derived neurotrophic element (GDNF) or fibroblast development elements (FGFs) are transferred by diffusion. Morphogens with small solubility such as for example bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted and stored for delivery on demand in illustrated extracellular matrix. ...
Tetraspanins are family of small membrane proteins and they are involved in multitude of biological process. Structurally theyare characterized by having four transmembrane domains, short inner and outer loops, one large extra cellular loop containsCCG motif and N and C terminal. Iconic features of these proteins are formation of Tetraspanin Enriched Micro domains(TEMs) by interacting among themselves and with other transmembrane and cytosolic proteins. These domains provide asignaling platform for many important cellular functions such as immune response induction, fertilization, viral infection,maintenance of skin integrity and malignant process. Tetraspanin CD151 is frequently over expressed on cancer cells and isfunctionally linked to cancer metastasis. CD151 forms direct and stable and interaction with integrin molecules and regulatesthe cellular functions. Increasing evidence emerging from in vitro, in vivo and clinical analyses associates that CD151partnership with integrins ?6?1 and ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. The use of alternate polyadenylation sites has been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
TSPAN7 produced in Sf9 Insect cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 110 amino acids(113-213a.a.)and having a molecular mass of 12.6kDa.
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.. A. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.. B. Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audiences knowledge of the topic.. C. Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.. D. Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity ...
Tetraspanins are a superfamily of glycoproteins that function as organisers of membranes by clustering with each other to form tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, into which certain other receptors and signalling proteins are recruited and regulated. Tetraspanin microdomains have been implicated in a range of biological processes including cell signalling, adhesion, intracellular trafficking, cell-cell fusion and viral entry. The tetraspanin CD37 was recently shown to negatively regulate the C-type lectin-like receptor dectin-1, which is essential for innate immune responses to fungal pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to firstly develop a cell line model system to investigate the mechanism by which tetraspanins inhibit dectin-1, and to secondly extend this work to the dectin-1-related CLEC-2, which is essential for platelet thrombus formation and stability. Using a nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) transcriptional reporter assay in the Jurkat T-cell line, transient over-expression ...
Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein that is known to complex with integrins. It contributes to the transduction of CD2-generated signals in T cells and natural killer cells and has been suggested to play a role in growth regulation. Familial deficiency of this gene has been linked to an immunodeficiency associated with recurrent infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi and viruses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. Cluster of differentiation Tetraspanin GRCh38: Ensembl ...
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. Tetraspanin microdomains control localized protein kinase C signaling in B cells.
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein and is similar in sequence to its family member CD53 antigen. It is known to complex with integrins and other transmembrane 4 superfamily proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
One of the key concepts in tetraspanin functions is the formation of a tetraspanin network (or web) by tetraspanins and their partner proteins (Rubinstein et al., 1996; Maecker et al., 1997; Hemler, 2005). Studies have been performed to delineate the levels and strengths of interactions in these networks (Claas et al., 2001; Charrin et al., 2003; Yang et al., 2004). The existing data indicate that there are three levels of interactions: the primary interaction between a tetraspanin and its partner, the secondary interaction between the primary complexes, and the tertiary interaction between these secondary complexes (Hemler, 2003; Levy and Shoham, 2005; Martin et al., 2005). However, most of the existing studies relied on examinations of the tetraspanin complexes based on their detergent resistance, which are relatively nonspecific and insensitive. Our current structural data and molecular model of the UP tetraspanin complexes have revealed in molecular details several levels of interactions in ...
The tetraspanins are a superfamily of transmembrane proteins with diverse functions and can form extended microdomains within the plasma membrane in conjunction with partner proteins, which probably includes receptors for bacterial adhesins. Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal disease, attaches to host nasopharyngeal epithelial cells via type IV pili and opacity (Opa) proteins. We examined the role of tetraspanin function in Neisseria meningitidis adherence to epithelial cells. Tetraspanins CD9, CD63, and CD151 were expressed by HEC-1-B and DETROIT 562 cells. Coincubation of cells with antibodies against all three tetraspanin molecules used individually or in combination, with recombinant tetraspanin extracellular domains (EC2), or with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) significantly reduced adherence of Neisseria meningitidis. In contrast, recombinant CD81, a different tetraspanin, had no effect on meningococcal adherence. Antitetraspanin antibodies reduced the adherence ...
Abstract Our research is aimed at understanding the mechanism of action of tetraspanins. This is a multi-gene family, which has shown remarkable conservation over evolution and whose members are expressed in mammals, insects and nematodes. Tetraspanins are also widely expressed in most cell types, forming molecular associations with different proteins in the different cell types. The tetraspanin CD81 was originally identified in our laboratory as a receptor that controls cell growth. To better define the role of CD81 we created CD81-deficient mice. These mice have impairments in their immune, nervous and reproductive systems. CD81 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of two major human diseases: hepatitis C virus (HCV) and malaria. CD81 is the putative receptor for HCV, CD81 is also required for infection by malaria. Plasmodium sporozoites mature in the liver to merozoites, the stage that infects red blood cells, this maturation step is CD81-dependent.. Recent Studies CD81 is a widely ...
CD82 a widespread transmembrane protein of the tetraspanin family. A metastasis-suppressor whose decreased expression may be involved in malignant progression. Suppresses tumor metastasis of many cancers including cancers of the prostate, bladder, colon, cervix, liver, and lung (NSCLC). It is a target of estrogen receptor-mediated gene repression and is downregulated in primary human breast cancer. May be a prognostic marker for lung cancer and tumor metastatic potential. Interacts with cell surface proteins including integrins, cadherins, CD4, CD8, IGSF8. Modulates EGFR signaling. May suppress invasion by inhibiting integrin-dependent crosstalk with c-Met receptor and Src kinases. Its regulation of c-Met signaling apparently affects cancer cell migration. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB ...
Streamline affinity-based exosome immunopurification. With magnetic beads already pre-coupled to antibodies to the tetraspanin proteins CD63, CD81, and CD9, and delivered in a 32-well format, SBIs Exo-Flow32 Tetra IP Kit simplifies high-throughput, antibody-based exosome isolation. Our magnetic bead-coupled anti-CD9 antibodies are extensively validated, and the high-quality Exo-Flow IP kit components ensure reliable, reproducible affinity-based exosome purification directly from serum or plasma. Exosomes can also be purified from other biofluids such as media, urine, and CSF, but must first be concentrated using either ExoQuick-TC® or ultracentrifugation ...
Streamline affinity-based exosome immunopurification. With magnetic beads already pre-coupled to antibodies to the tetraspanin proteins CD63, CD81, and CD9, and delivered in a 96-well format, SBIs Exo-Flow96 Tetra IP Kit simplifies high-throughput, antibody-based exosome isolation. Our magnetic bead-coupled anti-CD9 antibodies are extensively validated, and the high-quality Exo-Flow IP kit components ensure reliable, reproducible affinity-based exosome purification directly from serum or plasma. Exosomes can also be purified from other biofluids such as media, urine, and CSF, but must first be concentrated using either ExoQuick-TC® or ultracentrifugation ...
A subtype of tetraspanin protein that plays a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. It functions in platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg ...
https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.4896 Pengcheng Zhou, Sonia Erfani, Zeyi Liu, Changhe Jia, Yecang Chen, Bingwei Xu, Xinyu Deng, Jose E. Alfáro, Li Chen, Dana Napier, Michael Lu, Jian-An Huang,...
Since, we have recently established knocked out mice for TI-VAMP (Danglot et al., J Neurosci, 2012) which are viable in contrast to Synaptobrevin KO. We are now planning to unravel the specificity of this two neuronal v-SNARE at both pre and post-synaptic sites. Indeed, these two SNAREs are also expressed in post-synaptic compartments which constitute a place of intense trafficking. However, the membrane compartments and the molecular mechanisms involved are still poorly defined. In epithelial cells, we previously showed that TI-VAMP depletion reduces the cell surface amount of tetraspanins known to control EGF receptor localization in microdomains. Depletion of TI-VAMP or tetraspanin CD82 restrains EGFR diffusion at the cell surface as observed by Quantum dots video-microscopy. This is correlated with an increase recruitment of endocytic machinery and impaired MAPK signaling. These results highlight the role of TI-VAMP in receptor traficking, and support a model in which entry of receptors in ...
We hypothesized that the first two transmembrane domains of tetraspanins might interact with each other because: a) consecutive TM domains frequently associate in known protein 3D structures [35], and b) they both contain a series of highly conserved amino acids - several Gly residues and an Asn residue (Figure 1). Conserved Gly residues are a frequent theme in the organization of interacting transmembrane domains. Analysis of 3D helix packing in polytopic membrane proteins reveals that Gly residues tend to localize in buried positions, especially at the helix-helix interfaces and helix crossing points [37, 38]. Due to the absence of a side chain, Gly provides a flat surface for packing of a side chain from another residue, without loss of side-chain entropy upon interaction. The most common Gly-containing motif is GxxxG [39, 40]. In glycophorin A (GpA), the major glycoprotein in erythrocyte cell membranes, Gly79 and Gly83 are part of the LIxxGVxxGVxxT sequence that promotes homodimerization of ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [S K Tiwari-Woodruff, A G Buznikov, T Q Vu, P E Micevych, K Chen, H I Kornblum, J M Bronstein].
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission takes place primarily through cell-cell contacts known as virological synapses. Formation of these transient adhesions between infected and uninfected cells can lead to transmission of viral particles followed by separation of the cells. Alternatively, the cells can fuse, thus forming a syncytium. Tetraspanins, small scaffolding proteins that are enriched in HIV-1 virions and actively recruited to viral assembly sites, have been found to negatively regulate HIV-1 Env-induced cell-cell fusion. How these transmembrane proteins inhibit membrane fusion, however, is currently not known. As a first step towards elucidating the mechanism of fusion repression by tetraspanins, e.g., CD9 and CD63, we sought to identify the stage of the fusion process during which they operate. Using a chemical epistasis approach, four fusion inhibitors were employed in tandem with CD9 overexpression. Cells overexpressing CD9 were found to be sensitized to inhibitors
The terms exovesicle and extracellular vesicle refer to any biological vesicle extant outside of a cell, regardless of its origin (Raposo & Stoorvogel, 2013). Here I will use the term microvesicle to indicate extracellular vesicles that directly bud from the plasma membrane. "Microvesicle" is synonymous with "ectosome", "shedding vesicle", and "microparticle". In contrast, exosomes originate as ILVs within MVBs that fuse with the plasma membrane. MVBs are also referred to as multivesicular endosomes (MVEs).. The concept of an ESCRT role in exosome biogenesis is not new and seems natural given that exosomes originate in MVBs and that ESCRTs comprise the major machinery for MVB biogenesis. However, several prominent studies employing dominant‐negative VPS4 (Trajkovic et al, 2008) and knockdowns (van Niel et al, 2011) reported negative or mixed findings with respect to ESCRT requirements in exosome biogenesis. The tetraspanin CD63 was consistently observed in exosomes, suggesting that ...
Mechanotransduction is the process by which cells sense external forces and respond with biological activity. In the myocardium, the cardiac myocytes are though...
Complete information for TSPAN33 gene (Protein Coding), Tetraspanin 33, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for TSPAN32 gene (Protein Coding), Tetraspanin 32, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium

DETERMINING AGE RANGES OF SKIN SAMPLES - DERMTECH INTERNATIONALDETERMINING AGE RANGES OF SKIN SAMPLES - DERMTECH INTERNATIONAL

CD151 antigen. 28. 200621_at. cysteine and glycine-rich protein 1. 29. 202592_at. biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2015/0259739.html

CD151 (CD151 molecule (Raph blood group))CD151 (CD151 molecule (Raph blood group))

CD151 molecule (Raph blood group)), Authors: Judith Weidenhofer, Leonie K Ashman. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol ... Resultant protein lacks the integrin binding domain and causes null expression of the CD151/MER2 antigen (Karamatic Crew et al ... CD151 Mutations. ICGC Data Portal. CD151 TCGA Data Portal. CD151 Broad Tumor Portal. CD151. OASIS Portal. CD151 [ Somatic ... CD151 [ NCBI-GEO ] CD151 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ] CD151 [ SEEK ] CD151 [ MEM ] Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse). CD151 [ ...
more infohttp://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/GC_CD151.html

CD72 antigen (CD72) polyclonal antibody - Allele BiotechCD72 antigen (CD72) polyclonal antibody - Allele Biotech

CD5 specifically interacts with CD72 antigen (CD72), a cell-surface protein exclusively expressed in B cells. ... CD151 antigen (CD151) polyclonal antibody $175.00 Quick view Add to Cart CG4750 polyclonal antibody $175.00 ...
more infohttp://www.allelebiotech.com/products/CD72-antigen-%28CD72%29-polyclonal-antibody.html

Global Gene Expression Analysis in a Mouse Model for Norrie Disease: Late Involvement of Photoreceptor Cells | IOVS | ARVO...Global Gene Expression Analysis in a Mouse Model for Norrie Disease: Late Involvement of Photoreceptor Cells | IOVS | ARVO...

CD151 antigen. Cd151 D89290. CD151 Transmembrane signaling and cell adhesion. 11p15.5. (SFA-1, PETA-3) ... Arrestin, retinal S-antigen. Sag M24086. SAG Phototransduction. 2q37.1. Night blindness (Oguchi disease). ... Arrestin, retinal S-antigen. Sag M24086. SAG Phototransduction. 2q37.1. Night blindness (Oguchi disease). ... Meningioma-expressed antigen 5 (hyaluronidase). Mgea5 AK014781. MGEA5 Glycoprotein degradation. 10q24.1-q24.3. ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2162850

Plus itPlus it

Cd151, CD151 antigen; Cox6a2, cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIa polypeptide 2; Ctsd, cathepsin D (lysosomal aspartyl protease); ...
more infohttp://physiolgenomics.physiology.org/content/8/1/15

CD151 - Tetraspanin - Homo sapiens (Human) - CD151 gene & proteinCD151 - Tetraspanin - Homo sapiens (Human) - CD151 gene & protein

CD151 antigen. CD151 antigen (GP27) (Membrane glycoprotein SFA-1) (Platelet-endothelial tetraspan antigen 3, PETA-3) ( ... Name:CD151Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href="/ ... tr,E9PMR4,E9PMR4_HUMAN Tetraspanin OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=CD151 PE=1 SV=1 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/E9PMR4

CD151 Lys Labeled Peptide MS Standard - Creative ProteomicsCD151 Lys Labeled Peptide MS Standard - Creative Proteomics

Human CD151 C13 and N15 (Arg and Lys) Stable Isotope Labeled Peptide standards for MS research. Creative Proteomics Isotope ... CD151. Synonyms. GP27, Membrane glycoprotein SFA-1, Platelet-endothelial tetraspan antigen 3, Tetraspanin-24, CD_antigen=CD151 ... CD151 antigen. Description. Human CD151 C13 and N15 (Arg and Lys) Stable Isotope Labeled Peptide standards for MS research. ... Home > Products > Stable Isotope Labeled MS Peptide Standard > CD151 Lys Labeled Peptide MS Standard ...
more infohttps://www.creative-proteomics.com/product/detail-cpilp18722_7915.htm

HOGENOM: AEDAE 480 PE28HOGENOM: AEDAE 480 PE28

3, Last annotation update) DE SubName: Full=Platelet endothelial tetraspan antigen 3 (AEDAE_480.PE28) DE (Cd151 antigen); . GN ...
more infohttp://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/cgi-bin/acnuc-search-id?query=AEDAE_480_PE28&db=HOGENOM&ident=ACNUC1829

IMP: Integrative Multi-species PredictionIMP: Integrative Multi-species Prediction

Cd151. CD151 antigen. 0.361. Vdr. vitamin D receptor. 0.357. Ikzf1. IKAROS family zinc finger 1. 0.348. ... integrin, alpha 2b (platelet glycoprotein IIb of IIb/IIIa complex, antigen CD41B). 0.047. ...
more infohttp://imp.princeton.edu/predictions/process_ortho/human-context-global/15509/?gene=11843

IMP: Integrative Multi-species PredictionIMP: Integrative Multi-species Prediction

Cd151. CD151 antigen. 0.539. Krt14. keratin 14. 0.538. Vdr. vitamin D receptor. 0.537. ...
more infohttp://imp.princeton.edu/predictions/process_ortho/human-context-global/10362/?gene=8752

RNA-seq liver transcriptome analysis reveals an activated MHC-I pathway and an inhibited MHC-II pathway at the early stage of...RNA-seq liver transcriptome analysis reveals an activated MHC-I pathway and an inhibited MHC-II pathway at the early stage of...

In addition, TAP binding protein, another molecule involved in MHC class I antigen loading [44, 49, 51, 53], and MHC class I ... In MHC-I antigen processing pathway, antigenic peptides are degraded in the cytoplasm by proteasome, then translocated into the ... In mammals, antigen processing and presentation are essential for triggering the downstream cellular and/or humoral immune ... The MHC antigen processing-associated genes from zebrafish have been extensively characterized. However, little is known about ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-13-319

anti-Macrophage Inflammatory Protein Related Protein 1 Primary Antibodiesanti-Macrophage Inflammatory Protein Related Protein 1 Primary Antibodies

... and CD151 antigens. ... 5H9 antigen , BA-2/p24 antigen , CD9 antigen , CD9 antigen (p24 ... Macrophage Inflammatory Protein Related Protein 1 (MRP1) Antigen-Profil Beschreibung des Gens ... cell growth-inhibiting gene 2 protein , leukocyte antigen MIC3 , motility related protein-1 , tetraspanin-29 , C-C motif ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/response-to-water-deprivation-pathway-53/mrp1-antibody-18863/

Structural organization and interactions of transmembrane domains in tetraspanin proteins | BMC Structural Biology | Full TextStructural organization and interactions of transmembrane domains in tetraspanin proteins | BMC Structural Biology | Full Text

CD151 antigen, PETA-3. CD9_HUMAN. P21926. CD9 antigen, p24, MRP-1 ... Analysis of the CD151-alpha3beta1 integrin and CD151- ... 2-4]). Mammalian tetraspanins such as CD9, CD63, CD81, CD82, CD151, rds/peripherin, and uroplakins Ia and Ib have been most ... Kazarov AR, Yang X, Stipp CS, Sehgal B, Hemler ME: An extracellular site on tetraspanin CD151 determines α 3 and α 6 integrin- ... Tetraspanin CD9 forms mostly homodimers, but also a low level of heterodimers with CD81 and CD151 [25]. Thus, mapping the ...
more infohttps://bmcstructbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6807-5-11

CCTα | SpringerLinkCCTα | SpringerLink

Cct1; TCP-1 In the cell, the correct folding of many proteins depends on the function of preexisting ones known as molecular chaperones (for a review see Hartl and Hayer-Hartl 2009). These, were...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-319-67199-4_550

KEGG BRITE: CD Molecules - Homo sapiens (human)KEGG BRITE: CD Molecules - Homo sapiens (human)

... signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 1 K06537 CD151; CD151 antigen K06538 CTLA4; cytotoxic T-lymphocyte- ... CD79A antigen K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen K05412 CD80; CD80 antigen K06508 CD81; CD81 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K06510 ... CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06721 CLEC10A; C-type lectin ... CD96 antigen K08446 ADGRE5; CD97 antigen K06519 SLC3A2; solute carrier family 3, member 2 K06520 CD99; CD99 antigen K06521 ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?hsa04090+4486

anti-CD151 Antikörper (CD151 Molecule (Raph Blood Group))  (Alexa Fluor 647)</span...anti-CD151 Antikörper (CD151 Molecule (Raph Blood Group)) (Alexa Fluor 647)</span...

Jetzt diesen anti-CD151 Antikörper bestellen. , Produkt ABIN4259382 ... Maus Monoklonal CD151 Antikörper für ELISA, FACS, IHC (fro), IHC (p), WB. ... Antigen CD151 Molecule (Raph Blood Group) (CD151) Synonyme für dieses Antigen anzeigen * CD151 ... anti-CD151 Antikörper (CD151 Molecule (Raph Blood Group)) (Alexa Fluor 647) CD151 Antikörper (CD151 Molecule (Raph Blood Group ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/antibody/4259382/anti-CD151+Molecule+Raph+Blood+Group+CD151+antibody+Alexa+Fluor+647/

CD151 Antibody (MM0160-6F40) [Alexa Fluor® 647] (NBP2-12144AF647): Novus BiologicalsCD151 Antibody (MM0160-6F40) [Alexa Fluor® 647] (NBP2-12144AF647): Novus Biologicals

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD151 Antibody (MM0160-6F40) [Alexa Fluor® 647]. Validated: Flow. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% ... Alternate Names for CD151 Antibody (MM0160-6F40) [Alexa Fluor® 647]. *CD151 antigen (Raph blood group) ... Reviews for CD151 Antibody (NBP2-12144AF647) (0) There are no reviews for CD151 Antibody (NBP2-12144AF647). By submitting a ... Blogs on CD151. There are no specific blogs for CD151, but you can read our latest blog posts. ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/cd151-antibody-mm0160-6f40_nbp2-12144af647

Antigens, CD14 | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard CatalystAntigens, CD14 | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

Antigens, CD137. *Antigens, CD14. *Antigens, CD146. *Antigens, CD147. *Antigens, CD15. *Antigens, CD151 ... "Antigens, CD14" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD14" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD14" by people in Profiles. ...
more infohttps://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/Antigens,%20CD14

CD30 Ligand | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard CatalystCD30 Ligand | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

Antigens, CD137. *Antigens, CD14. *Antigens, CD146. *Antigens, CD147. *Antigens, CD15. *Antigens, CD151 ... membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN ...
more infohttps://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/CD30%20Ligand

Antigens, CD146 | Profiles RNSAntigens, CD146 | Profiles RNS

Antigens, CD137. *Antigens, CD14. *Antigens, CD146. *Antigens, CD147. *Antigens, CD15. *Antigens, CD151 ... "Antigens, CD146" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD146" by people in this website by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD146" by people in Profiles. ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/117333

Antigens, CD20 | Profiles RNSAntigens, CD20 | Profiles RNS

Antigens, CD151. *Antigens, CD164. *Antigens, CD18. *Antigens, CD19. *Antigens, CD2. *Antigens, CD20 ... "Antigens, CD20" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD20" by people in this website by year, and whether ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD20" by people in Profiles. ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/126546

Hemidesmosome - WikipediaHemidesmosome - Wikipedia

CD151 aids in hemidesmosome formation. BPAG1e is an antigen with multiple isoforms that binds to integrin α6β4, BPAG2 and ... CD151, a protein of the tetraspanin superfamily, resides on the cell surface of keratinocytes and vascular endothelium. ... Type 1 HDs have five main elements: integrin α6β4, plectin in its isoform 1a, i. e. P1a, tetraspanin protein CD151, BPAG1e, or ... The α6 subunit binds to extracellular BP180, CD151 and laminin-322. When integrin α6β4 binds to Plectin 1a and BPAG1, it ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemidesmosome

CD151 - WikipediaCD151 - Wikipedia

Raph blood group system in the BGMUT blood group antigen gene mutation database Human CD151 genome location and CD151 gene ... CD151 molecule (Raph blood group), also known as CD151 (Cluster of Differentiation 151), is a human gene. The protein encoded ... CD151 CD151 molecule (Raph blood group)". Lozahic S, Christiansen D, Manié S, Gerlier D, Billard M, Boucheix C, Rubinstein E ( ... CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions disrupting tetraspan interactions". Biochem. J. 340 (1): 103-11. doi: ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD151

HLA class I and II antigens are partially co-clustered in the plasma membrane of human lymphoblastoid cells | PNASHLA class I and II antigens are partially co-clustered in the plasma membrane of human lymphoblastoid cells | PNAS

Tetraspanins CD37 and CD151 differentially regulate Ag presentation and T-cell co-stimulation by DC ... HLA class I and II antigens are partially co-clustered in the plasma membrane of human lymphoblastoid cells. Attila Jenei, ... Alteration of antigen-independent immunologic synapse formation between dendritic cells from HLA-B27-transgenic rats and CD4+ T ... Dynamics of molecules involved in antigen presentation: effects of fixation. B.George Barisas, William F Wade, Thomas M Jovin, ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/94/14/7269/tab-article-info
  • CD5 specifically interacts with CD72 antigen (CD72), a cell-surface protein exclusively expressed in B cells. (allelebiotech.com)
  • BPAG2, or (bullous pemphigoid antigen 2), is a transmembrane protein that exists adjacent to integrins, BPAG2 has domains that bind to plectin, integrin β4 subunit in the cytoplasm and integrin α6 and laminin-332 in the extracellular space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens, CD14" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD14" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Antigens, CD14" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD14" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • 2009). CD151 functions in signal transduction through forming direct complexes with integrins particularly alpha3beta1, alpha6beta1, alpha6beta4 and alphaIIbbeta3, thereby influencing a variety of cell functions including motility and adhesion which are outlined further below. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • However, unlike the RBC Blood Groups Systems, the HPA Systems were not named on a per gene or related gene basis with one or more antigens in each system. (bloodantigens.com)
  • Rather, one HPA gene can contain multiple HPA systems so in reality each biallelic antithetical antigen pair is really its own system. (bloodantigens.com)
  • For example, the HPA-1 system contains the antithetical antigens HPA-1a and HPA-1b, but this same gene also contains the HPA-4 system (HPA-4a and HPA-4b). (bloodantigens.com)
  • Several pathways involved in acute phase response, complement activation, immune/defense response, and antigen processing and presentation were remarkably affected at the early stage of WED immunization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ex vivo, FcεRI stimulation of bone marrow-derived mast cells from CD151 −/− mice resulted in significantly enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-13, and TNF-α compared with wild-type controls. (jimmunol.org)
  • Collectively, our data indicate that CD151 exerts negative regulation over IgE-induced late phase responses and cytokine production in mast cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Apostolopoulos, V ., Xing, P.X. and McKenzie, I.F.C. Murine immune response to cells transfected with human MUC1: immunisation with cellular and synthetic antigens. (vassoapostolopoulos.com)
  • Only 3 mutations have been identified in humans to date, two (G533A and C511T), are predicted not to significantly alter CD151 function and are not associated with disease (Karamatic Crew et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • In this study, we show that CD151 deficiency significantly exacerbates the IgE-mediated late phase inflammation in a murine model of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. (jimmunol.org)