Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Inhibition of L-selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling by synthetic glycoprotein mimics. (1/534)

Synthetic carbohydrate and glycoprotein mimics displaying sulfated saccharide residues have been assayed for their L-selectin inhibitory properties under static and flow conditions. Polymers displaying the L-selectin recognition epitopes 3',6-disulfo Lewis x(Glc) (3-O-SO3-Galbeta1alpha4(Fucalpha1alpha3)-6-O-SO3-Glcbeta+ ++-OR) and 3',6'-disulfo Lewis x(Glc) (3, 6-di-O-SO3-Galbeta1alpha4(Fucalpha1alpha3)Glcbeta-OR) both inhibit L-selectin binding to heparin under static, cell-free binding conditions with similar efficacies. Under conditions of shear flow, however, only the polymer displaying 3',6-disulfo Lewis x(Glc) inhibits the rolling of L-selectin-transfected cells on the glycoprotein ligand GlyCAM-1. Although it has been shown to more effective than sialyl Lewis x at blocking the L-selectin-GlyCAM-1 interaction in static binding studies, the corresponding monomer had no effect in the dynamic assay. These data indicate that multivalent ligands are far more effective inhibitors of L-selectin-mediated rolling than their monovalent counterparts and that the inhibitory activities are dependent on the specific sulfation pattern of the recognition epitope. Importantly, our results indicate the L-selectin specificity for one ligand over another found in static, cell-free binding assays is not necessarily retained under the conditions of shear flow. The results suggest that monovalent or polyvalent carbohydrate or glycoprotein mimetics that inhibit selectin binding in static assays may not block the more physiologically relevant process of selectin-mediated rolling.  (+info)

Dual roles of sialyl Lewis X oligosaccharides in tumor metastasis and rejection by natural killer cells. (2/534)

Aberrant expression of cell surface carbohydrates such as sialyl Lewis X is associated with tumor formation and metastasis. In order to determine the roles of sialyl Lewis X in tumor metastasis, mouse melanoma B16-F1 cells were stably transfected with alpha1, 3-fucosyltransferase III to express sialyl Lewis X structures. The transfected B16-F1 cells, B16-FTIII, were separated by cell sorting into three different groups based on the expression levels of sialyl Lewis X. When these transfected cells were injected into tail veins of C57BL/6 mice, B16-FTIII.M cells expressing moderate amounts of sialyl Lewis X in poly-N-acetyllactosamines produced large numbers of lung tumor nodules. Surprisingly, B16-FTIII.H cells expressing the highest amount of sialyl Lewis X in shorter N-glycans died in lung blood vessels, producing as few lung nodules as B16-FTIII.N cells which lack sialyl Lewis X. In contrast, B16-FIII.H cells formed more tumors in beige mice and NK cell-depleted C57BL/6 mice than did B16-FTIII.M cells. B16-FTIII.H cells bound to E-selectin better than did B16-FTIII.M cells, but both cells grew at the same rate. These results indicate that excessive expression of sialyl Lewis X in tumor cells leads to rejection by NK cells rather than tumor formation facilitated by attachment to endothelial cells.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of two zebrafish alpha(1,3)fucosyltransferase genes developmentally regulated in embryogenesis. (3/534)

Some alpha(1,3)fucosylated oligosaccharides serve as counter receptors to lectin-like adhesion proteins or are expressed with temporal precision during embryogenesis, and alpha(1, 3)fucosyltransferase is a key enzyme in the production of these oligosaccharides. Two alpha(1,3)-fucosyltransferase genes, designated zFT1 and zFT2, were cloned from zebrafish. Sequence comparisons with other genes indicated that zFT1 and zFT2 share about 30% amino acid sequence identity with human alpha(1, 3)fucosyltransferases. Although the alpha(1,3)fucosyltransferases cloned so far can be classified into three types-myeloid, Lewis, and leukocyte-by virtue of their amino acid sequences, phylogenetic analysis indicated that neither zFT1 nor zFT2 belongs to any of these categories. The expression of zFT1 or zFT2 in mammalian cells induces alpha(1,3)fucosyltransferase activity to synthesize the Lewis x structure from pyridylaminated lacto-N-neotetraose; however, lacto-N-tetraose does not serve as a substrate. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that zFT1 is transcribed during a restricted period before hatching, whereas the mRNA for zFT2 was detected only after hatching.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of linear polylactosamines containing one and two site-specifically positioned Lewis x determinants: WGA agarose chromatography in fractionation of mixtures generated by random, partial enzymatic alpha3-fucosylation of pure polylactosamines. (4/534)

We report that isomeric monofucosylhexasaccharides, Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1- 3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3) GlcNAc, Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3) GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4 GlcNAc and Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1- 4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4 GlcNAc, and bifucosylhexasaccharides Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3) GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc, Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1- 4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4 (Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc and Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4( Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc can be isolated in pure form from reaction mixtures of the linear hexasaccharide Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1- 3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc with GDP-fucose and alpha1,3-fucosyltransferases of human milk. The pure isomers were characterized in several ways;1H-NMR spectroscopy, for instance, revealed distinct resonances associated with the Lewis x group [Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc] located at the proximal, middle, and distal positions of the polylactosamine chain. Chromatography on immobilized wheat germ agglutinin was crucial in the separation process used; the isomers carrying the fucose at the reducing end GlcNAc possessed particularly low affinities for the lectin. Isomeric monofucosyl derivatives of the pentasaccharides GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1- 4Gl cNAc and Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4G lcN Ac and the tetrasaccharide Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc were also obtained in pure form, implying that the methods used are widely applicable. The isomeric Lewis x glycans proved to be recognized in highly variable binding modes by polylactosamine-metabolizing enzymes, e.g., the midchain beta1,6-GlcNAc transferase (Leppanen et al., Biochemistry, 36, 13729-13735, 1997).  (+info)

Radiation dosimetry of a 99mTc-labeled IgM murine antibody to CD15 antigens on human granulocytes. (5/534)

99mTc-labeled anti-stage specific embryonic antigen-1 (anti-SSEA-1) is an injectable IgM antibody derived from mice. It binds to CD15 antigens on some granulocytic subpopulations of human white blood cells in vivo after systemic administration. The purpose of this study was to measure biodistribution of 99mTc-labeled anti-SSEA-1 and perform radiation dosimetry in 10 healthy human volunteers. METHODS: Transmission scans and whole-body images were acquired sequentially on a dual-head camera for 32 h after the intravenous administration of about 370 MBq (10.0 mCi) of the radiopharmaceutical. Renal excretion fractions were measured from 10 to 14 discrete urine specimens voided over 27.9 +/- 2.0 h. Multiexponential functions were fit iteratively to the time-activity curves for 17 regions of interest using a nonlinear least squares regression algorithm. The curves were integrated numerically to yield source organ residence times. Gender-specific radiation doses were then estimated individually for each subject, using the MIRD technique, before any results were averaged. RESULTS: Quantification showed that the kidneys excreted 39.5% +/- 6.5% of the administered dose during the first 24 h after administration. Image analysis showed that 10%-14% of the radioactivity went to the spleen, while more than 40% went to the liver. Residence times were longest in the liver (3.37 h), followed by the bone marrow (1.09 h), kidneys (0.84 h) and the spleen (0.65 h). The dose-limiting organ in both men and women was the spleen, which received an average of 0.062 mGy/MBq (0.23 rad/mCi, range 0.08-0.30 rad/mCi), followed by the kidneys (0.051 mGy/MBq), liver (0.048 mGy/MBq) and urinary bladder (0.032 mGy/MBq). The effective dose equivalent was 0.018 mSv/MBq (0.068 rem/mCi). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the radiation dosimetry profile for this new infection imaging agent is highly favorable.  (+info)

Developmental platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression suggests multiple roles for a vascular adhesion molecule. (6/534)

Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM) is used extensively as a murine vascular marker. PECAM interactions have been implicated in both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. To better understand the role of PECAM in mammalian development, PECAM expression was investigated during differentiation of murine embryonic stem (ES) cells and in early mouse embryos. Undifferentiated ES cells express PECAM, and as in vitro differentiation proceeds previously unidentified PECAM-positive cells that are distinct from vascular endothelial cells appear. PECAM expression is gradually restricted to endothelial cells and some hematopoietic cells of differentiated blood islands. In embryos, the preimplantation blastocyst contains PECAM-positive cells. PECAM expression is next documented in the postimplantation embryonic yolk sac, where clumps of mesodermal cells express PECAM before the development of mature blood islands. The patterns of PECAM expression suggest that undifferentiated cells, a prevascular cell type, and vascular endothelial cells express this marker during murine development. PECAM expression in blastocysts and by ES cells suggests that PECAM may function outside the vascular/hematopoietic lineage.  (+info)

The flow cytometric pattern of CD34, CD15 and CD13 expression in acute myeloblastic leukemia is highly characteristic of the presence of PML-RARalpha gene rearrangements. (7/534)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Rapid identification of AML patients carrying the t(15;17) translocation for treatment decision-making is currently made on the basis of morphologic screening. However, the existence of both false positives and negatives highlights the need for more objective methods of screening AML cases and further molecular confirmation of the t(15;17) translocation. DESIGN AND METHODS: In the present study we analyzed a total of 111 AML cases in order to investigate whether immunophenotyping based on the assessment of multiple-stainings analyzed at flow cytometry could improve the sensitivity and specificity of morphologic identification of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) carrying the t(15;17) translocation. FISH analysis was used as a complementary technique for cases in which morphology and molecular biology yielded discrepant results. RESULTS: Concordant results between morphology and RT-PCR were found in 102/111 (91.8%) cases: 34 patients had M3/PML-RARalpha+ and 68 non-M3/PML-RARalpha- disease. Nine cases showed discrepants results. Multivariate analysis showed that the best combination of immunologic markers for discriminating between M3/PML-RARalpha+ and non-M3/PML-RARalpha- cases was that of the presence of heterogeneous expression of CD13, the existence of a single major blast cell population, and a characteristic CD34/CD15 phenotypic pattern (p<0.02). A score system based on these parameters was designed, and the 34 M3/PML-RARalpha+ cases showed a score of 3 (presence of the 3 phenotypic characteristics). In contrast, only 1 out of the 68 (1.3%) non-M3/PML-RARalpha- cases had this score, most o these latter cases (53/68, 78%) scoring either 0 or 1. Therefore, among these cases, immunophenotyping showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99% for predicting PML/RARalpha gene rearrangements. Of the 9 cases in which morphology and molecular biology results were discrepant, four cases displayed M3 morphology without PML/RARalpha rearrangements by RT-PCR. In only one of these 4 cases did the immunophenotype score 3, this being the only FISH positive case. From the remaining five discrepant cases (non-M3 morphology while positive for PML/RARalpha) two cases had a phenotypic score of 3 and were FISH positive while the other three were negative by FISH. Upon repeating RT-PCR studies, two of these latter three cases became negative. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that immunophenotyping may be of great value for quick screening of APL with PML/RARalpha rearrangements.  (+info)

UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase: a regulator of cell surface sialylation. (8/534)

Modification of cell surface molecules with sialic acid is crucial for their function in many biological processes, including cell adhesion and signal transduction. Uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase (UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase) is an enzyme that catalyzes an early, rate-limiting step in the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway. UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase was found to be a major determinant of cell surface sialylation in human hematopoietic cell lines and a critical regulator of the function of specific cell surface adhesion molecules.  (+info)

Mickum ML, Rojsajjakul T, Yu Y, Cummings RD. Schistosoma mansoni α1,3-fucosyltransferase-F generates the Lewis X antigen. Glycobiology. 2016;26 (3) :270-85.
Bacterial carbohydrate structures play a central role in mediating a variety of host-pathogen interactions. Glycans can either elicit protective immune response or lead to escape of immune surveillance by mimicking host structures. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component on the surface of Gram-negative bacteria, is composed of a lipid A-core and the O-antigen polysaccharide. Pathogens like Neisseria meningitidis expose a lipooligosaccharide (LOS), which outermost glycans mimick mammalian epitopes to avoid immune recognition. Lewis X (Gal beta 1-4(Fuc alpha 1-3)GlcNAc) antigens of Helicobacter pylori or of the helminth Schistosoma mansoni modulate the immune response by interacting with receptors on human dendritic cells. In a glycoengineering approach we generate human carbohydrate structures on the surface of recombinant Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium that lack O-antigen. A ubiquitous building block in mammalian N-linked protein ...
Lipid rafts enriched in glycosphingolipids (GSLs), cholesterol and signaling molecules play an essential role not only for signal transduction started by ligand binding, but for intracellular events such as organization of actin, intracellular traffic and cell polarity, but their functions in cleavage division of preimplantation embryos are not well known. Here we show that monosialylGb5Cer (MSGb5Cer)-enriched raft domains are involved in development during the cleavage stage of mouse preimplantation embryos. MSGb5Cer preferentially localizes at the interfaces between blastomeres in mouse preimplantation embryos. Live-imaging analysis revealed that MSGb5Cer localizes in cleavage furrows during cytokinesis, and that by accumulating at the interfaces, it thickens them. Depletion of cholesterol from the cell membrane with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbCD) reduced the expression of MSGb5Cer and stopped cleavage. Extensive accumulation of MSGb5Cer at the interfaces by cross-linking with anti-MSGb5Cer Mab (6E2)
FIGURE 1. In vivo Ab production after the intranasal immunization with saline, HSA or sugar-conjugated HSA in BALB/c (A-D) and C57BL/6 (E and F) mice. Serum samples were taken after prime (▦), boost (□), and challenge (▪) as described in Materials and Methods. Ab of IgG (A and E), IgM, IgA, and IgG subclasses (B) specific for HSA were measured by indirect ELISA and estimated by endpoint titer. IgE titers specific for HSA (C and F) and the volume of serum total IgE (D) were determined by sandwich ELISA. Levels of HSA-specific IgE were presented as the absorbance at 450 nm from duplicate wells of 1/4 serum dilution. Results show the mean ± SEM of four individual serum per group. Data are representative of three (A-D) and two (E and F) separate experiments.. ...
Clone 8e11 recognizes the human stage-specific embryonic antigen-5 (SSEA-5) antigen, an oligosaccharide that contains the motif Fucα1-2Galβ1-3GlcNAcβ, also known as the H type-1 (H-1) antigen. SSEA-5 is highly and specifically expressed on undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and pluripotent stem cells. It is also expressed on the surface of cells in the inner cell mass of the human blastocyst during embryogenesis and expression is rapidly down-regulated upon cellular differentiation. - USA
Clone 8e11 recognizes the human stage-specific embryonic antigen-5 (SSEA-5) antigen, an oligosaccharide that contains the motif Fucα1-2Galβ1-3GlcNAcβ, also known as the H type-1 (H-1) antigen. SSEA-5 is highly and specifically expressed on undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and pluripotent stem cells. It is also expressed on the surface of cells in the inner cell mass of the human blastocyst during embryogenesis and expression is rapidly down-regulated upon cellular differentiation. - USA
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Carcino Embryonic Antigen CEA antibody [COL-1] (ab105364) : Flow cytometry protocols, Immunoprecipitation protocols…
Mouse monoclonal Carcino Embryonic Antigen CEA antibody [NCRC16 (AKA 161)] validated for ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication…
The glycosylation of a great number of molecules, glyco-protein or glycolipids, has been of interest for decades. To compare the expressive patterns of the isoantigenic determinants of histo-blood groups ABH and Lewis in squamous and simple epithelium and in precursors and cancers of the cervix. A total of 36 lesions and neoplasms (10 LG-SIL, 16 HG-SIL and 10 invasive carcinomas) have been studied with immunohistochemical techniques, using monoclonal antibodies (MoAb BG1 to BG8) for precursor chains, blood-group ABH and Lewis group Lea, Leb, Lex, and Ley, and four types of lectins. In addition, we have studied the expression of p53 protein and PCNA, establishing the rate of proliferation of each lesion. Using PCR techniques, we have also detected part of the intron of the E6 gene of HPV-16. In the invasive cervical carcinomas, we observed a loss of expression of the Lex antigen (p | 0.01). With regard to the progression of the different lesions studied, we found alterations in the patterns of expression
By solving the solution conformation of a potent selectin antagonist, it was shown that the acid pharmacophore is pre-organized prior to binding by intramolecular interactions of hydrophobic residues. This antagonist showed stronger binding affinities over mimics with a flexible acid moiety. Based on these results, a series of selectin antagonists was designed and synthesized, where the acid pharmacophore is incorporated in a ring system and therefore, locked in the bioactive conformation (Chapter 3.2.1/Manuscript). The synthesis of two additional cyclic selectin antagonist series was not successful. Possible reasons are discussed in chapter 3.2.1.2 ...
MSB inhibits adhesion of sialyl Lewisx (sLex)-expressing HL-60 cells to LSP-activated (E-selectin-expressing) HUVECs in vitro. When MSB was administered to B16/BL6 mice at 20 mg/kg/day, lung metastatic nodules of B16/BL6 mouse melanoma cells (B16/BL6 cells) were significantly decreased (T/C = 45%). Flow cytometry analysis showed that B16/BL6 cells expressed high levels of sLex antigens. Under in vitro conditions, B16/BL6 cells demonstrated a greater degree of adhesion to LSP-activated HUVECs, but adhesion was significantly inhibited by MSB and sLex antibodies. Combined therapy of MSB and cisplatin (CDDP) induced remarkable lung metastasis inhibition without the adverse effects, of CDDP to the host.. ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD15/Lewis X Antibody (BRA4F1) [DyLight 488]. Validated: ELISA, Flow, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Mouse. 100% Guaranteed.
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD15/Lewis X Antibody (28) [PE]. Validated: Flow, IHC, IHC-Fr, IP. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
Register and pay $70.00 for the ATI TEAS test online after creating a user account on the ATI website by visiting www.atitesting.com To take the test at Lex La-Ray, you must select Lex La-Ray Technical Center as your testing site. Applicants may retake the test if a 30 day period has elapsed between testing dates, up two (2) times in a calendar year. Lex La-Ray will accept the ATI TEAS test scores that are less than 1 year old as of April 3, 2018. If taken at another institution, applicants must request an official test transcript to be sent to Lex La-Ray. ...
Watch Lex The Impaler 3 official movie trailer in HD. Jules and Lex return for another Interracial epic! Jenna takes a cock the size of her forearm up her ass! Gina says Youre hitting all my organs.
It may seem odd that only the third Bald to ever be discussed on our site is a fictional character born in 1940 in tri-color pointilism on newsprint, rather than a living breathing human being. Thus is the awful, lasting significance and influence of Lex Luthor, a man whose legacy has been so destructive, whose…
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|p|Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigen-3 (SSEA-3) is an internal core structure of glob-series glycolipids (R-Galß1-3GalNAcß1-3Gala1-4Galß1-R). SSEA-3 is expressed on human teratocarcinoma cells (embryonal carcinoma, EC), embryonic stem cells (ESC), embryonic germ cells (EG), and preimplantation embryo
Transcripts of α-(1,3)-fucosyltransferases in human epithelial cancer and leukemia cell lines were analyzed by Northern blotting and reverse transcriptase mediated-polymerase chain reaction using specific probes and primers which can discriminate between the transcripts derived from the four α-(1,3)-fucosyltransferase genes Fuc-TIII, IV, V, and VI. Flow cytometric analysis of the sialyl Lex and sialyl Lea antigens was also performed on the same cell lines. The sialy Lex antigen was expressed on 14 of 15 epithelial cancer cell lines, and the sialyl Lea antigen was detected on 8 of them. The message of Fuc-TIII was detected in most of the epithelial cancer cell lines (14 of 15), which correlated with the surface expression of these carbohydrate determinants. In addition, the messages of Fuc-TIV and Fuc-TVI were detected in most epithelial cancer cell lines, while the message of Fuc-TV was undetectable in most of them. On the other hand, all leukemia cell lines were positively stained for sialyl ...
Quantity100 testsVolume1ImmunogenHuman granulocytesBackground InformationCD15 (Le(x); Lewis x or SSEA-1; stage specific embryonic antigen-1) is a t...
Antigens: an, Brain: em, im, Endometrium: im, Epididymis: im, Fallopian-Tubes: im, Female, Fetus: im, Germ-Layers: im, Gestational-Age, Glycolipids: an, Kidney: em, im, Male, Mice: em, Postimplantation-Phase, Pregnancy, SUPPORT-NON-U-S-GOVT, SUPPORT-U-S-GOVT-NON-P-H-S, SUPPORT-U-S-GOVT-P-H-S, Teratoma: im. ...
SSEA4, PerCP-eFluor™ 710, clone: eBioMC-813-70 (MC-813-70), eBioscience™ 25 Tests; PerCP-eFluor™ 710 SSEA4, PerCP-eFluor™ 710, clone:...
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CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 is a carbohydrate adhesion molecule that can be expressed on glycoproteins, glycolipids and proteoglycans. CD15 mediates phagocytosis and chemotaxis, found on neutrophils; expressed in patients with Hodgkin disease, some B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias, acute lymphoblastic leukemias, and most acute nonlymphocytic leukemias. It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem cells, in which it plays an important role in adhesion and migration of the cells in the preimplantation embryo. It is synthezised by FUT4 (fucosyltransferase 4) and FUT9. CD15 is present on almost all Reed-Sternberg cells, including their rare mononuclear variants, and, as such, can be used in immunohistochemistry to identify the presence of such cells in biopsies. The presence of these cells is diagnostic of Hodgkins ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sialyl Lewis X-dependent lung colonization of B16 melanoma cells through a selectin-like endothelial receptor distinct from E- or P-selectin. AU - Zhang, Jianing. AU - Nakayama, Jun. AU - Ohyama, Chikara. AU - Suzuki, Masami. AU - Suzuki, Atsushi. AU - Fukuda, Minoru. AU - Fukuda, Michiko N.. PY - 2002/8/1. Y1 - 2002/8/1. N2 - Endothelial carbohydrate binding proteins, E- and P-selectins, are thought to mediate sialyl Lewis A/X-dependent hematogenous cancer metastasis. We tested this hypothesis using sialyl Lewis X-dependent B16 melanoma lung targeting and its inhibition with selectin ligand mimicry peptide, IELLQAR. In E/P-selectin doubly deficient mutant mice, sialyl Lewis X-expressing B16 melanoma cells colonized the lung, and IELLQAR inhibited this colonization. However, tumors grown in E/P-selectin-deficient mice were significantly smaller than those grown in wild-type mice. These results indicate that the IELLQAR peptide receptor expressed in the lung vasculature plays a ...
Amines, aminooxy (also known as oxylamine), hydrazide, azide, alkyne, BCN, and tyramide reactive dyes, as well as dye free acids, are generally stable in aqueous solution when stored at -20°C for 6-12 months or longer, as long as no compounds are present that may react with the dyes functional group. See the product information sheets for specific reactive dyes more information.. Coelenterazines and D-luciferin. Coelenterazines are stable in solid form when stored as recommended; they are not stable in aqueous solution. Concentrated coelenterazine stock solutions (typically 1-100 mg/mL) should be prepared in ethanol or methanol; do not use DMSO or DMF to dissolve coelenterazines, because these solvents will oxidize the compounds. Ethanol or methanol stocks of coelenterazine can be stored at -20°C or below for six months or longer; alcohol stocks may evaporate during storage, so use tightly sealing screw cap vials and wrap the vials with Parafilm for long term storage. Propylene glycol also ...
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Detects SSEA-1 expression in live, unfixed pluripotent stem cell populations by immunocytochemical staining. Live staining from esibio.com.
CA 19-9, 1.0 ml. CA19-9, a carbohydrate epitope expressed on a high MW (| 400kDa) mucin glycoprotein, is a sialyl Lewis|sup|a|/sup| structure which is synthesized from type 1 blood group precursor chains and is present in individuals expressing the
... - Title: CIL II(2).5, - Lex Ursonensis, bronze tablets with municipal law on the foundation of Colonia Iulia Genetiva at Urso. Author: Center for
Helicobacter pylori persistently colonizes about half the human population and contributes to the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. This organism has evolved means to structurally alter its surface characteristics to evade innate and adaptive immune responses. H. pylori produces LIPS O-antigen units that can be posttranslationally fucosylated to generate Lewis antigens, structures also found on human epithelial cells. We demonstrate an extensive diversity of Lewis x and Lewis y expression in LPS O-antigen units, occurring over time and in different regions of the human stomach. Lewis expression patterns were correlated with the on/off status of the three fucosyltransferases (FucT), FutA, FutB, and FutC, which are regulated via slipped-strand mispairing in intragenic polyC tract regions of the corresponding genes. The alpha 1,3-FucT, FutA and FutB, each contain a C-terminal heptad repeat region, consisting of a variable number of DD/NLRV/INY tandem repeats. Variations in the ...
The α-(1,2) fucosyltransferases (Fut1 and Fut2) and α-(1,3) fucosyltransferases (Fut4, Fut9) are responsible for the synthesis of Lewis X (LeX) and Lewis Y (LeY) conjugated to glycoproteins. We recently reported that these fucosyltransferases were differentially expressed in the reproductive tract of male mouse. Here, we studied the effect of androgen on fucosyltransferase expression through the use of mouse castration models. We found that Fut1 mRNA and Fut4 mRNA were upregulated, while Fut2 mRNA and Fut9 mRNA were downregulated by androgen in the caput epididymis. However, in the vas deferens and prostate, only Fut4 mRNA and Fut2 mRNA were respectively upregulated following exposure to androgen. In the seminal vesicle, all fucosyltransferases, with the exception of Fut9, were upregulated. We identified the androgen receptor binding sites (ARBSs) of Fut2, Fut4 and Fut9 in the caput epididymis. Luciferase assay for these ARBSs is able to provide an indication as to why Fut4 and Fut9 are differently
Looking for online definition of ELAM ligand fucosyltransferase in the Medical Dictionary? ELAM ligand fucosyltransferase explanation free. What is ELAM ligand fucosyltransferase? Meaning of ELAM ligand fucosyltransferase medical term. What does ELAM ligand fucosyltransferase mean?
6-sulfo sialyl Lewis X is the common receptor determinant recognized by H5, H6, H7 and H9 influenza viruses of terrestrial poultry. (2008 ...
Meet Lex Luther the Shih Tzu on the Daily Puppy. Read about Lex Luther, the Shih Tzu or any other breed of dog. Connect with other dog owners on DailyPuppy.com.
Complete information for FUT6 gene (Protein Coding), Fucosyltransferase 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for FUT6 gene (Protein Coding), Fucosyltransferase 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization and multilineage differentiation of embryonic stem cells derived from a buffalo parthenogenetic embryo. AU - Sritanaudomchai, Hathaitip. AU - Pavasuthipaisit, Kanok. AU - Kitiyanant, Yindee. AU - Kupradinun, Piengchai. AU - Mitalipov, Shoukhrat. AU - Kusamran, Thanit. PY - 2007/10/1. Y1 - 2007/10/1. N2 - Embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from mammalian embryos have the ability to form any terminally differentiated cell of the body. We herein describe production of parthenogenetic buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) blastocysts and subsequent isolation of an ES cell line. Established parthenogenetic ES (PGES) cells exhibited diploid karyotype and high telomerase activity. PGES cells showed remarkable long-term proliferative capacity providing the possibility for unlimited expansion in culture. Furthermore, these cells expressed key ES cell-specific markers defined for primate species including stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4), tumor rejection antigen-1-81 ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Independently of Cutaneous Lymphocyte of Skin-Homing Properties Occurs E-Selectin Binding CD4 T Cells: Acquisition In Vitro Differentiation from Naive to Mature by Tetsuo Shiohara et al.
E-selectin is an inducible cell adhesion molecule which mediates rolling of neutrophils as well as adhesion of carcinoma cells to endothelium. Inhibition of selectin-mediated interaction is a possible means for controlling inflammation induced diseases and metastatic spread. The purpose of these studies is to identify peptide forms mimicking Lewis X (LeX), sialyl-Lewis X (SA-LeX), sialyl-Lea (SA-Lea), and Lewis Y (LeY) carbohydrate structures to disrupt lectin-ligand interactions and evaluate their properties to block adenocarcinoma cell adhesion to endothelial cells and tumor metastasis in vitro and in vivo. We used recombinant peptide library to identify novel ligands for E-selectin. We have identified five dodeca peptides mimicking SA-Lea carbohydrate, which is one of the E-selectin ligands, via means of random peptide library screening using SA-Lea-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) NS 19-9. Peptides with the highest binding affinity for the MAb will be synthesized and characterized for its anti
3871 Sialyl Lewis x (sLex) antigen is a carbohydrate antigen that is considered not only a marker for cancer but also implicated functionally in the malignant behaviour of cancer cells. Overexpression of sLex is associated with enhanced progression and metastases of many types of cancer including those of the mammary gland. Canine malignant mammary tumours can invade and give rise to metastases via either lymphatic or blood vessels.. E-Cadherin is specifically involved in epithelial cell-to-cell adhesion. In cancer, E-Cadherin underexpression is one of the alterations that characterizes the invasive phenotype and is considered a potent invasion/tumour suppressor gene. Partial or complete loss of E-Cadherin expression correlates with poor prognosis in canine malignant mammary cancer.. The aim of this study was to analyse the sLex expression in canine malignant mammary tumours and to evaluate if the presence of sLex correlates with the expression of E-Cadherin and with clinicopathological ...
Induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes with peptides in vitro: identification of candidate T-cell epitopes in hepatitis B virus X antigen / Mi Kyung Chung; Hee Sik Yoon; Sung Shik Min; Hee Gu Lee; Young Jae Kim; Tae Gyu Lee; Jong Soon Lim; Chang Min Kim; Sue Nie Park , 1999 ...
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Retinal axons undergo several changes in organization as they pass through the region of the optic chiasm and optic tract. We used immunocytochemistry to examine the possible involvement of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) in these changes in retinal axon growth. In the retina, at all ages examined, prominent staining for FGFR was seen in the optic fiber layer and at the optic disk. At embryonic day 15 (E15), FGFR immunoreactivity was also detected in the ganglion cell layer, as defined by immunoreactivity for islet-1. At later developmental stages (E16 to postnatal day 0), FGFR were found in the optic fiber layer and the inner plexiform layer. In the ventral diencephalon, immunostaining for FGFR was first detected at E13 in a group of cells posterior to the chiasm. These cells appeared to match the neurons that are immunopositive for the stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1). FGFR staining was also found on the retinal axons at E13. At E14-E16, when most axons are growing across the
Sialyl Lewis X-i antigen has been used as a tool for the clinical assessment of lung cancers, especially lung adenocarcinoma. However, the carbohydrate antigens including sialyl Lewis X-i antigen are also increased in some patients with non-malignant lung diseases such as IPF without coexistent malignancy.8-12 There is as yet no test to make a specific diagnosis in patients with raised levels of the antigen. When increased serum levels of the antigen are found in patients with IPF without a suspicious mass on the chest CT scan, further invasive and costly tests are often considered to rule out adenocarcinoma originating from other organs. If the core proteins of the antigen in patients with lung adenocarcinoma are not the same as those in patients with IPF, it is expected that the pattern of expression would differ on Western blotting analysis. In order to establish the specific test for a differential diagnosis we evaluated the pattern of expression of the antigen in serum samples of lung ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The antitumor monoclonal antibody MOv2 recognizes the Lewis A hapten. AU - Leoni, F.. AU - Magnani, J. L.. AU - Miotti, S.. AU - Canevari, S.. AU - Pasquali, M.. AU - Sonnino, S.. AU - Colnaghi, M. I.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - Monoclonal antibody MOv2, produced against ovarian carcinoma, was previously found to bind a carbohydrate epitope (CAMOv2) present on mucins, glycoproteins and a neutral glycolipid. In this paper, the structure of the carbohydrate epitope is determined by immunological reactivity with purified glycolipids and oligosaccharides. Using solid-phase radioimmunoassay and immunostaining of thin layer chromatograms, MOv2 binds strongly to Le(a)-active pentasaccharide ceramide. A smaller neutral glycolipid also weakly binds MOv2. Fifty percent inhibition of binding to Le(a)-active pentasaccharide ceramide is achieved with approximately 8 μM concentration of lacto-N-fucopentaose II (LNF II). Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) also partially inhibits at about 103 times higher ...
LEPOR (LEges POpuli Romani) est une base de données en cours délaboration qui, lorsquelle sera achevée, comprendra environ 880 notices, dont chacune sera consacrée à une loi comitiale du peuple romain. Nous entendons par « lois comitiales » les lois et plébiscites votés par le peuple ou par la plèbe et les rogationes qui ont au moins été promulguées. Sont exclues les « lois royales » et les chartes octroyées à des collectivités (souvent appelées leges datae). Les textes législatifs retenus vont de 509 aux lois attribuées à Nerva, et les plébiscites antérieurs à 287 feront lobjet de notices bien quils naient pas encore eu valeur normative pour lensemble du peuple. Le but est de remplacer louvrage toujours utilisé mais bien vieilli maintenant, de Giovanni Rotondi, Leges publicae populi Romani, Milan, 1912. Il ne sagit pas seulement dune mise à jour, puisque la totalité des sources anciennes et de la bibliographie antérieure ou postérieure à Rotondi ont été ...
PURPOSE: Sialyl Tn (STn) antigen is a cancer-associated carbohydrate antigen expressed in cancers of the digestive tract. We compared the proportion of specimens of flat-type colorectal cancers...
6611890DNAC. griseus 1aacagaaact tattttcctg tgtggctaac tagaaccaga gtacaatgtt tccaattctt 60tgagctccga gaagacagaa gggagttgaa actctgaaaa tgcgggcatg gactggttcc 120tggcgttgga ttatgctcat tctttttgcc tgggggacct tattgtttta tataggtggt 180catttggttc gagataatga ccaccctgac cattctagca gagaactctc caagattctt 240gcaaagctgg agcgcttaaa acaacaaaat gaagacttga ggagaatggc tgagtctctc 300cgaataccag aaggccctat tgatcagggg acagctacag gaagagtccg tgttttagaa 360gaacagcttg ttaaggccaa agaacagatt gaaaattaca agaaacaagc taggaatgat 420ctgggaaagg atcatgaaat cttaaggagg aggattgaaa atggagctaa agagctctgg 480ttttttctac aaagtgaatt gaagaaatta aagaaattag aaggaaacga actccaaaga 540catgcagatg aaattctttt ggatttagga catcatgaaa ggtctatcat gacagatcta 600tactacctca gtcaaacaga tggagcaggt gagtggcggg aaaaagaagc caaagatctg 660acagagctgg tccagcggag aataacatat ctgcagaatc ccaaggactg cagcaaagcc 720agaaagctgg tatgtaatat caacaaaggc tgtggctatg gatgtcaact ccatcatgtg 780gtttactgct tcatgattgc ttatggcacc cagcgaacac tcatcttgga atctcagaat 840tggcgctatg ctactggagg ...
Mike Johnson is reporting that former WCW World champion Lex Lugar is still hospitalized at Stanford University Hospital in Palo Alto, California. Fortunat
Wrestler Lex Luger (real name: Lawrence Pfohl) was arrested by Cobb County, Georgia cops in May 2003 after they found illegal bodybuilding drugs in his home while investigating the death of his liv
One of the main benefits of FUT over FUE is that large numbers of follicular units can be transplanted in one session. The greatest number of follicular units transferred during an FUE treatment is about 2,000. On the other hand, an FUT may involve the transfer of 4,000 follicular units. The FUT method also allows for "super sessions", where up to 5,000 follicular units are transferred in one appointment. For patients who need to transplant a large quantity of follicles, these super sessions provide a great convenience, and are often the most economical option. FUT is also the recommended form of treatment for patients who cannot commit to multiple surgery dates. ...
BANDO Terumi , MUGURUMA Naoki , ITO Susumu , MUSASHI Yoko , INAYAMA Kumi , KUSAKA Yoshihiro , TADATSU Masaya , II Kunio , IRIMURA Tatsuro , SHIBAMURA Seiichi , TAKESAKO Kazuhiro Journal of gastroenterology 37(4), 260-269, 2002-04-01 医中誌Web 参考文献31件 被引用文献3件 ...
Martha Lewis News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Martha Lewis From The tribunedigital-baltimoresun
Alexis "Lex" Luthor was born into a middle-class family household supported by his absentee father, a traveling salesman. Because his father was rarely around, it fell to Lex to take care of the family at home and cultivate the familys fields. However, in spite of his humble farmboy lifestyle...
OConnor Honored by Michigan Irish-American Chamber. Monday, March 19. NMU alumnus David OConnor (BS 1996) received the Presidents Leadership Award from the Michigan Irish-American Chamber of Commerce (MIACC) at its annual gala on March 13 in Detroit. Dignitaries who attended included the mayor of County Cork, Ireland. OConnor is founder, past president and board member of the MIACC. The chamber works to advance the business, culture, education and civic welfare of Michigan citizens of Irish descent. It is part of Irish Network USA.. OConnor is an IT security analyst at Ford Motor Company. He established the MIACC in 2012, after moving to metro Detroit for a new career opportunity.. "I was a VIP at the Oakland County International Airport when the governor commemorated the first 100 percent green terminal in the U.S. and noticed Asian-Pacific and Chaldean-American chambers represented there," he said. "It made me wonder if there was an Irish ethnic chamber locally that I could join. I did a ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Extractables and Leachables from Filter Material and their Effect on Human Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (hG-CSF). AU - Wahl, Verena. AU - Mohr, Stefan. AU - Wieser, Juliana. AU - Khinast, Johannes. AU - Paudel, Amrit. PY - 2015/11/11. Y1 - 2015/11/11. M3 - (Altdaten) Vortrag oder Präsentation. ER - ...
Expression of CD137, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, is inducible on vascular endothelial cells by proinflammatory stimuli. Its ligand is expressed as a transmembrane protein on the surface of monocytes, and transmits activating signals into monocytes (reverse signaling) inducing monocyte migration. These findings led to the hypothesis that CD137 expression on activated endothelial cells facilitates recruitment of monocytes into inflammatory tissues including atherosclerotic lesions. Data from this study demonstrate that CD137 expression is inducible on endothelial cells by TNF stimulation. Recombinant CD137 protein and CD137 expressed on activated endothelial cells enhance ICAM-1-mediated adhesion of monocytes under defined flow conditions in vitro. CD137 seems not to play a role in tethering of monocytes since this activity is completely E-selectin-dependent. In addition, LFA-1 affinity and clustering on monocytic cells is enhanced by CD137. In summary, CD137 expression ...
The products we supply are intended for use in accordance with the documentation and manufacturer specifications under the users sole responsibility. Nevertheless, for some specific products (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients), VWR, as a distributor, is not able to fulfill the requirements (European guidelines for GMP Medicinal products for human and veterinary use) and cannot sell the products.. The products we supply cannot be used as active ingredients, in human or veterinary medicine. For use as pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food additives, agricultural aids, pesticides or domestic, the customer must contact the VWR local sales organisation.. Our customers that intend to use these products for a pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food or any other use must carry out their own internal checks and controls to ensure that they are in compliance with their local laws,regulations (e.g. European pharmacopeia, etc.).. In no event VWR International shall be liable if a customer uses a product that does not fit ...
In article ,3lrio2$ig6 at news.duke.edu,, srps at galactose.mc.duke.edu (Steven Pirie-Shepherd) says: , ,I need to know the structure of the tetrasaccharide sialyl Lewis ^x. I NeuAc(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(alpha1-3)Fucose. I think. ================================================================ Bob Lauder R.Lauder at lancaster.ac.uk Division of Biological Sciences Tel +(44)(0)1524 65201 Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK Fax +(44)(0)1524 843854 ...
Apolipoprotein B antibody [F2C3] (apolipoprotein B (including Ag(x) antigen)) for ELISA, IP, RIA. Anti-Apolipoprotein B mAb (GTX15665) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
You should know that the Lex Bronkowitz Orchestra is a project by Alexander Debus. Alexander, Alex or Lex, has been recording Zappa compositions for quite a number of years and has shared these on CDR. In my book, these recordings qualify as some of the most interesting reworkings / rearrangements of Zappa pieces that I have ever heard ...
Cara Zwibel is Acting General Counsel at the Canadian Civil Liberties Association. @CaraZwibel. Lex Gill is an Advocate on the National Security Program at Canadian Civil Liberties Association (CCLA). @Lex_is ...
Kevin took Lex to see the new eye doctor, who is a Pediatric Opthamologist. Kevin said he was really, really nice, but very serious. They did the eye spray to dilate his pupils, did the various eye exams and told Kevin that Lex is farsighted, but the prescription the other doctor gave us was way off. He said that Lexs right eye is wandering to compensate for the farsightedness. He will need to wear his glasses for 2 weeks straight from the time he gets up till the time he goes to bed. Now, for the good news.......it will correct its self!!!!!! YAY!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! I have never been so relieved in my life. Well have to take him back in 3 weeks for a follow up and see how things are then. I am so happy! And Im glad I dont just "take the doctors word for it ...
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Our studies demonstrate that H. pylori LPS stimulates the release of both neutrophil-activating, C-X-C chemokines (IL-8 and ENA-78) and the monocyte-activating C-C chemokine MCP-1 from human monocytes. These chemokines are potent leukocyte chemoattractants and may play an important role in regulating inflammatory cell infiltration of H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa (7, 11, 14, 15,20, 21, 23, 27, 37, 40, 48). We found that H. pyloriLPS is less potent than Salmonella lipid A in inducing monocyte chemokine production. This finding agrees with previous studies showing low potency for H. pylori LPS in the induction of a wide variety of host inflammatory responses (9, 18,19, 34, 36, 38, 39, 42). However, when the actions of H. pylori LPS were specifically inhibited by using either an LPS antagonist or CD14 receptor blockade, the monocyte-activating potential of H. pylori water extract was almost completely abolished. These findings suggest that H. pylori LPS may be the primary monocyte-activating ...
Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is recognized as a cause of gastric cancer. H. pylori adhesion to gastric cells is mediated by bacterial adhesins such as sialic acid-binding adhesin (SabA), which binds the carbohydrate structure sialyl-Lewis x. Sialyl-Lewis x expression in the gastric epithelium is induced during persistent H. pylori infection, suggesting that H. pylori modulates host cell glycosylation patterns for enhanced adhesion. Here, we evaluate changes in the glycosylation-related gene expression profile of a human gastric carcinoma cell line following H. pylori infection. We observed that H. pylori significantly altered expression of 168 of the 1,031 human genes tested by microarray, and the extent of these alterations was associated with the pathogenicity of the H. pylori strain. A highly pathogenic strain altered expression of several genes involved in glycan biosynthesis, in particular that encoding β3 GlcNAc T5 (β3GnT5), a GlcNAc transferase essential for the biosynthesis of ...
Initial attempts to end-label polymers bearing highly polar substituents . (a) Jurkat cell labeled with a fluorescent anti-L-selectin antibody, FITC-DREG-56. added to a solution of triethylene glycol (1; 8.9 ml, 66.6 mmol) in 50% aq NaOH (5.3 ml), .. Sialyl Lewis x liposomes as a multivalent ligand and inhibitor of E-selectin. ...
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The CD15 antigen (Lewis x or Lex) is the lacto-N-(neo) fucopentaose III molecule. This carbohydrate epitope is carried by both glycolipids and glycoproteins expressed on the cell membrane. CD15 antigen is strongly expressed by neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, macrophages, mast cells and normal myeloid precursor cells. It is not expressed on normal erythrocytes, platelets or lymphocytes ...
2001 Lex was talking on his cell phone and didnt see the baling wire in the road until it was almost too late. He swerved to the side and found himself heading straight for a tall boy in flannel standing on the side of the bridge. "Ahh!" Lex cried out in surprise and alarm. The boy turned, apparently hearing the sports car heading right for him. His eyes widened in fear and he, too, opened his mouth to shout something. Lex didnt think. He just acted. Hed been part of Dumbledores Army and hed fought in the Battle for Hogwarts during his last year there. The wand was in his hand without any conscious decision to draw it from its arm holster. "Wingardium Leviosa!" he cast, launching the boy up into the air as the car hurtled through the space he had so very recently occupied. He heard no scrapping against the roof, so Lex assumed the boy had been thrown clear. He didnt really have much time to process that, though, because the river came up to met him and when it did, Lexs head slammed ...
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N2O, or nitrous oxide, has many Lewis dot structures since both nitrogen and oxygen can act as the center atom. In total, there are three valid Lewis dot structures for nitrous oxide....
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Ken Symes serves up a daily jolt of java from "Jack" a.k.a. C.S. Lewis. Get daily inspiration from the author of Narnia and Mere Christianity.
A fibr ma nagyon gyakori b relv ltoz s, tulajdonk ppen egy k t sz vetb l ll j indulat b rn ved k. Az rintettek gyakran h vj k "fut szem lcsnek", a
Schmidl, Martina, Adam, Nadia, Surmann-Schmitt, Cordula, Hattori, Takako, Stock, Michael, Dietz, Uwe, de Crombrugghe, Benoit, Poschl, Ernst and von der Mark, Klaus (2006) Twisted gastrulation modulates BMP- induced collagen II and X expression in chondrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 281. pp. 31790-31800. ISSN 1083-351X Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Find information for part FLQ.150R from the FLQ Series Midget 10x38mm Fuses, or search for Fuses and more Industrial Power Fuses from Littelfuse.
If someone had said to me that ‘in five years time you’ll be writing poems and stories about your son’ I wouldn’t have believed them. I certainly wouldn’t have dreamt of a situation in which I would outlive our beautiful boy Alexander.
View Notes - oldr_exam_answer_key from EGR 012 at Aarhus Universitet. Name: Problem 1 (12 pts) Draw a complete Lewis structure for each of the following molecules or ions and indicate formal charges.
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SCOTRUN, Pa. - Fittingly, Lennox Lewis did not say the words, so much as he bit them off. For a moment, the smile vanished from his face, his eyes went...
Info concerning Lewis University pathology. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly.
Kye Lewis has been a new breed of DJ, Performer and Producer for years. Quick-Cut, Melodic, and Danceable. Upbeat and Fun with a Gritty Edge.
MSNBCs Lawrence ODonnell interviews comedian and Daily Show regular Lewis Black ahead of his new show Lewis Black: Old Yeller.
Welcome to the Hotel Motivation. Lewis Cater brings us a murky, stylized clip in which Leeds band Pulled Apart by Horses generate some truly unfavourable TripAdvisor reviews.
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Studies confirm the prognostic value of ENoG testing performed between 3 and 14 days after onset of complete facial paralysis. ...
... (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 mediates phagocytosis and chemotaxis, found on neutrophils;[2] expressed in patients with Hodgkin disease, some B-cell ...
It catalyzes the synthesis of the non-sialylated antigen, Lewis x (CD15). Goelz SE, Hession C, Goff D, Griffiths B, Tizard R, ... "CD15 expression in mature granulocytes is determined by alpha 1,3-fucosyltransferase IX, but in promyelocytes and monocytes by ...
... and CD15, a monocyte common antigen. Because of the debate and difficulty of staining, pathologic diagnosis often requires ... Marker analysis has also led to debate over the origin of the cell type; it coexpresses CD45, a leukocyte common antigen, ... centers of lymphoid follicles and have an integral role in regulation of the germinal center reaction and present antigens to B ...
2001). "CD15 expression in mature granulocytes is determined by alpha 1,3-fucosyltransferase IX, but in promyelocytes and ... FUT9 is one of several alpha-3-fucosyltransferases that can catalyze the last step in the biosynthesis of Lewis antigen, the ... FUT9 synthesizes the LeX oligosaccharide (CD15), which is expressed in organ buds progressing in mesenchyma during human ...
Unlike classic RSC, the non-classic popcorn-shaped RS cells of NLPHL are CD15 and CD30 negative while positive for the B cell ... and CD79a and also express the common leukocyte antigen CD45, which is uncommon on RSH cells. The LP cells have scant cytoplasm ... RSH cells typically express CD15 and CD30, whereas LP cells lack expression of these markers, but express B cell markers like ...
... antigens, cd15 MeSH D09.400.410.420.025.475 --- gangliosides MeSH D09.400.410.420.025.475.390 --- g(m1) ganglioside MeSH ... o antigens MeSH D09.698.718.594 --- peptidoglycan MeSH D09.698.718.650 --- prodigiozan MeSH D09.698.718.825 --- teichoic acids ...
... antigens, cd15 MeSH D10.390.470.025.475 --- gangliosides MeSH D10.390.470.025.475.390 --- g(m1) ganglioside MeSH D10.390. ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D10.570.877.360.025.475 --- gangliosides MeSH D10.570.877.360.025.475.390 --- g(m1) ganglioside MeSH ...
... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.050.285.050.115 --- ca-15-3 antigen MeSH D23.050.285.050.119 --- ca-19-9 antigen MeSH D23.050.285.050. ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.050.550.325.115 --- ca-15-3 antigen MeSH D23.050.550.325.119 --- ca-19-9 antigen MeSH D23.050.550.325. ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.840.075.115 --- ca-15-3 antigen MeSH D23.101.840.075.119 --- ca-19-9 antigen MeSH D23.101.840.075. ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.050.301.264.900.131 --- antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.050.301.264.920 --- antigens, ly MeSH D23.050.301.264. ...
... including deparaffinization and antigen retrieval. For formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, antigen-retrieval is often ... CD15 and CD30 : used for Hodgkin's disease Alpha fetoprotein: for yolk sac tumors and hepatocellular carcinoma CD117 (KIT): for ... Visualising an antibody-antigen interaction can be accomplished in a number of ways. In the most common instance, an antibody ... "IHC Tip 1: Antigen retrieval - should I do PIER or HIER?". AbD Serotec. Pohanka, Miroslav (2009). "Monoclonal and polyclonal ...
... (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ... Sialyl Lewis X CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Kerr MA, Stocks SC (November ... CD15 is present on almost all Reed-Sternberg cells, including their rare mononuclear variants, and, as such, can be used in ... CD15 is also present in about 50% of adenocarcinoma cells and can be used to distinguish such conditions from mesothelioma, ...
doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-15-0583. PMC 4744527 . PMID 26503962. Curran, Kevin J; Pegram, Hollie J; Brentjens, Renier J (2012). " ... A spacer region links the antigen binding domain to the transmembrane domain. It should be flexible enough to allow the antigen ... Bridgeman, JS; Hawkins RE; Bagley S; Blaylock M; Holland M; Gilham DE (2010). "The Optimal Antigen Response of Chimeric Antigen ... A list of tumors antigens and CARs in in vitro and in vivo trials A list of tumors antigens and CARs in in vitro and in vivo ...
... Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... 2009). "CD15, CD24, and CD29 define a surface biomarker code for neural lineage differentiation of stem cells". Stem Cells. 27 ... "The CD24 surface antigen in neural development and disease". Neurobiology of Disease. 99: 133-144. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2016.12. ... Signal transducer CD24 also known as cluster of differentiation 24 or heat stable antigen CD24 (HSA) is a protein that in ...
doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-15-0583. PMC 4744527 . PMID 26503962. Scholler N, Fu N, Yang Y, Ye Z, Goodman GE, Hellström KE, ... Chang K, Pai LH, Batra JK, Pastan I, Willingham MC (January 1992). "Characterization of the antigen (CAK1) recognized by ... Mesothelin is a tumour differentiation antigen that is normally present on the mesothelial cells lining the pleura, peritoneum ... Chang K, Pastan I (January 1996). "Molecular cloning of mesothelin, a differentiation antigen present on mesothelium, ...
CD15 (Lewis X) Sialyl lewis a Pang, Poh-Choo; Chiu, Lee, Chang; et al. (18 August 2011). "Human Sperm Binding Is Mediated by ... Sialyl Lewis X is also one of the most important blood group antigens and is displayed on the terminus of glycolipids that are ... Sialyl Lewis x is an inflammation-associated antigen on liver cells. It becomes over expressed on diseased liver cells and can ... Defective synthesis of the sialyl Lewis X antigen results in immunodeficiency (leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 2). Defective ...
Mast cell differentiation antigens: expression in normal and malignant cells and use for diagnostic purposes". Eur. J. Clin. ... Characteristically, basophil (e.g. CD11b, CD123) and monocyte markers (CD14, CD15) are absent. The cells usually express CD2 ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... CD30 and CD15 are also expressed on classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Reed-Sternberg cells. CD30 is the target of the FDA approved ... CD30 Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human TNFRSF8 genome location and TNFRSF8 ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ...
Target antigen detection methods[edit]. The direct method is a one-step staining method and involves a labeled antibody (e.g. ... CD15 and CD30 : used for Hodgkin's disease. *Alpha fetoprotein: for yolk sac tumors and hepatocellular carcinoma ... including deparaffinization and antigen retrieval. For formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, antigen-retrieval is often ... Prostate specific antigen (PSA): for prostate cancer. *estrogens and progesterone receptor (ER & PR) staining are used both ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
Tissue Antigens (англ.)русск. : journal. - 2007. - Vol. 68, no. 6. - P. 509-517. - DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00726.x. - PMID ...
CD64+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11.[5] CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ... "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms cooperate to mediate colon carcinoma cell adhesion to E- and L-selectin in ...
CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... CD15 • CD16 (A, B) • CD18 • CD19 • CD20 • CD21 • CD22 • CD23 • CD24 • CD25 • CD26 • CD27 • CD28 • CD29 • CD30 • CD31 • CD32 (A ... 2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
... uveitis antigens induce CXCR3- and CXCR5-expressing lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells to migrate (англ.) // Blood (англ ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
CD15 • CD16 (A, B) • CD18 • CD19 • CD20 • CD21 • CD22 • CD23 • CD24 • CD25 • CD26 • CD27 • CD28 • CD29 • CD30 • CD31 • CD32 (A ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
Monoclonal antibody against Stage-specific embryonic antigen 1/CD15 expressed by for use in FACS, FFPE, Immunofluorescence, ... Antigen: Stage-specific embryonic antigen 1/CD15 Hybridoma Cells Available: No. Antigen Species: Mouse Depositor: Solter, D. / ... Antigen Sequence: Depositors Institution: Institute of Medical Biology, Singapore. Antigen Molecular Weight: Human Protein ... Alternate Antigen Name: Epitope Mapped: Yes. Myeloma Strain: P3-X63-Ag8. Epitope Location or Sequence: SSEA-1 is a carbohydrate ...
CD15 is 3-fucosyl-N-acetyllactosamine (3-FAL) also known as Lewis X, 3-FAL, X-hapten, and SSEA-1. ... Antigen Details Structure Poly-N-acetyllactosamine Distribution Neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes. Function Adhesion Cell ... CD15 is 3-fucosyl-N-acetyllactosamine (3-FAL) also known as Lewis X, 3-FAL, X-hapten, and SSEA-1. CD15 is expressed on ... Antigen References 1. Stocks SC, et al. 1990. Biochem. J. 268:275. ...
CD15 is 3-fucosyl-N-acetyllactosamine (3-FAL) also known as Lewis X, 3-FAL, X-hapten, and SSEA-1. ... Antigen Details Structure Poly-N-acetyllactosamine Distribution Neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes. Function Adhesion Cell ... CD15 is 3-fucosyl-N-acetyllactosamine (3-FAL) also known as Lewis X, 3-FAL, X-hapten, and SSEA-1. CD15 is expressed on ... 1 reviews Alexa Fluor® 488 anti-human CD15 (SSEA-1) Antibody Rated 5 / 5 based on 1 reviews. , Review Me Product Citations ...
Glycosciences.DB structure entry #2174: Lewis X antigen, CD15. ■ Expand all ■ Collapse all ... Stage-specific expression of cancer-associated type 1 and type 2 chain polylactosamine antigens in the developing pancreas of ... Glycolipid antigens of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and the inducible HL-60 myeloid leukemia line ... Changes in glycoconjugates revealed by lectin staining and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 immunostaining in hamster ...
Mouse monoclonal CD15 antibody [MCS-1] conjugated to CF405M. Validated in Flow Cyt and tested in Species independent. ... Anti-CD15 antibody [MCS-1], prediluted (CF405M). See all CD15 primary antibodies. ... CD15 is a carbohydrate adhesion molecule (and not a protein) that mediates phagocytosis and chemotaxis. Synthesis is directed ... Flow cytometry analysis of CD15 expression in Normal Peripheral Blood from a Human Donor using ab123633 at 5 µl/106 cells. ...
Mouse monoclonal CD15 antibody [MEM-158] conjugated to FITC. Validated in Flow Cyt and tested in Species independent. Immunogen ... "The CD15 antigen is expressed on immature bone marrow cells and leukemic cells of the myelo-monocytic lineage and sometimes on ... Does this antibody react against the ssca1 antigen in addition to the Lewis x antigen? ... CD15 is a carbohydrate adhesion molecule (and not a protein) that mediates phagocytosis and chemotaxis. Synthesis is directed ...
CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 mediates phagocytosis and chemotaxis, found on neutrophils;[2] expressed in patients with Hodgkin disease, some B-cell ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD15/Lewis X Antibody (28) [PE]. Validated: Flow, IHC, IHC-Fr, IP. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% ... CD15 is a carbohydrate antigen (also known as Lewis X antigen) found on the cell surface of neutrophils, eosinophils and ... Additional CD15/Lewis X Products. CD15/Lewis X NBP1-28443 * CD15/Lewis X Antibodies ... Home » CD15/Lewis X » CD15/Lewis X Antibodies » CD15/Lewis X Antibody (28) [PE] ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD15/Lewis X Antibody (BRA4F1) [DyLight 488]. Validated: ELISA, Flow, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: ... CD15/Lewis X Antibody (BRA4F1) [DyLight 488] Summary. Immunogen. The antibody reacts with the CD15 antigen. ... Additional CD15/Lewis X Products. CD15/Lewis X NBP1-42198G * CD15/Lewis X Antibodies ... Home » CD15/Lewis X » CD15/Lewis X Antibodies » CD15/Lewis X Antibody (BRA4F1) [DyLight 488] ...
CD15 (Lewis X, Le(x); stage specific embryonic antigen-1, SSEA-1) is a trisacharide determit (3-fucosyl-N-acetyllactosamine) ... stage-specific embryonic antigen 1; CD15; SSEA-1; SSEA1; ELFT; FCT3A; FUC-TIV; FUTIV; LeX. ... Expression of the carbohydrate moiety is also found on mature human granulocytes (on CD15) and some monocytes. SSEA-1 is ... CD15 expression has been extensively used to confirm diagnosis of Hodgkin´s disease. ...
... in solid tumors success has been limited likely due to heterogeneous antigen expression, immunosuppressive networks in the ... in solid tumors success has been limited likely due to heterogeneous antigen expression, immunosuppressive networks in the ... employing engineered T lymphocytes expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has demonstrated promising antitumor effects in ... employing engineered T lymphocytes expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has demonstrated promising antitumor effects in ...
We also summarize some new approaches to overcome these hurdles, including targeting neoantigens and/or multiple antigens at ... We also summarize some new approaches to overcome these hurdles, including targeting neoantigens and/or multiple antigens at ... of CAR T-cell therapy for solid tumors has not reached its full potential because of the lack of specific tumor antigens and ... of CAR T-cell therapy for solid tumors has not reached its full potential because of the lack of specific tumor antigens and ...
Abbreviations: CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen; CK, cytokeratin.. Gale Copyright: Copyright 2009 Gale, Cengage Learning. All ... CD15 (Leu-M1) Somewhat useful. Fifty percent to 70% of lung adenocarcinomas are positive. It is rarely expressed focally in ... In addition, carcinoembryonic antigen may also be useful in the setting when PSC is not in the differential diagnosis. Recently ... In addition, carcinoembryonic antigen may also be useful in the setting when PSC is not in the differential diagnosis. Recently ...
doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-15-0583. PMC 4744527 . PMID 26503962. Curran, Kevin J; Pegram, Hollie J; Brentjens, Renier J (2012). " ... A spacer region links the antigen binding domain to the transmembrane domain. It should be flexible enough to allow the antigen ... Bridgeman, JS; Hawkins RE; Bagley S; Blaylock M; Holland M; Gilham DE (2010). "The Optimal Antigen Response of Chimeric Antigen ... A list of tumors antigens and CARs in in vitro and in vivo trials A list of tumors antigens and CARs in in vitro and in vivo ...
Differential expression of sialyl and non-sialyl-CD15 antigens on Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cells: significance in Hodgkins ... while we used two clones of n-s-CD15 and only one clone of s-CD15 in the second. Since the publication of this s-CD15 paper, ... n-s-CD15) was more significantly expressed in the joint relapse group (p= 0.025) whereas sialyl-CD15 (s-CD15) was less positive ... negative ns-CD15 (A) and s-CD15 (B), performed with the exclusion of control patients. Significance was calculated with the Log ...
CD45, EMA, ALK1, CD3, CD45RO, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD30, CD15 and cytotoxic antigens (TIA1, perforin). ... M) CD15 and (N) CD30 are positive in few atypical cells with both membrane and Golgi staining. Pax 5 stain shows scattered ... M) CD15 and (N) CD30 are positive in few atypical cells with both membrane and Golgi staining. Pax 5 stain shows scattered ... CD15, CD20, CD30, CD43, CD45, ALK, CD57 and EMA. Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. ...
CD45, EMA, ALK1, CD3, CD45RO, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD30, CD15 and cytotoxic antigens (TIA1, perforin). ... CD15, CD20, CD30, CD43, CD45, ALK, CD57 and EMA. Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. ...
CD45, EMA, ALK1, CD3, CD45RO, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD30, CD15 and cytotoxic antigens (TIA1, perforin). ... CD15, CD20, CD30, CD43, CD45, ALK, CD57 and EMA. Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. ... When a primary lymphoid follicle is stimulated by an antigen, a secondary lymphoid follicle is formed. The latter is composed ... This zone contains postfollicular memory B cells derived after stimulation of recirculating cells by T-cell-dependent antigen.[ ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... T. S. Barry, E. S. Jaffe, L. Sorbara, M. Raffeld, and S. Pittaluga, "Peripheral T-cell lymphomas expressing CD30 and CD15," ... melanoma-associated antigens, CEA, and PLAP [1, 2]. In 60%-70% of cases, ALCL carries the epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) ( ... possible T-cell antigen expression, and variable positivity for the leukocyte common antigen/CD45 and epithelial membrane ...
Engagement of the Lewis X Antigen (CD15) Results in Monocyte Activation Siu K. Lo, Douglas T. Golenbock, Philip M. Sass, Azmat ... Myeloma VL and VH Gene Sequences Reveal a Complementary Imprint of Antigen Selection in Tumor Cells Surinder S. Sahota, Regine ...
RD was evaluated by detecting the immature cells showing abnormal antigen expression pattern; CD34(+), CD15(+), CD7(+). ... Other agents include cellular signaling pathway inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies against myeloid-associated antigens. ...
Expression of CD15 (Lewisx) antigen on human sperm and its role in sperm-egg interaction. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. 1997. 37:172- ... Regulation of the B cell response to T-dependent antigens by classical pathway complement. J. Immunol. 1996. 157:549-556. View ... Localization and characterization of the acrosomal antigen recognized by GB24 on human spermatozoa. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 1990. 27: ... Trophoblast/leukocyte-common antigen is expressed by human testicular germ cells and appears on the surface of acrosome-reacted ...
... epithelial membrane antigen (EMA)+/−, and CD15−. CD30 positivity is rare and, when detected, weak (Figure 2). Interestingly, a ... CD15 is another valuable marker for H&RS cells (Figure 1) and is detected in about 80% of patients with cHL [51, 59]. CD15 is ... Antibodies against the nuclear-associated antigens Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) stain most H&RS cells, ... melanoma-associated antigens, carcinoembryonic antigen, and placental alkaline phosphatise [14]. ...
... and CD15; the monocytes exhibited no expression of CD34, CD117, or the analyzed lymphoid antigens. ... It also noted 31% monocytes expressing CD45 (bright), CD13, CD33, CD4, CD64, HLA-DR, CD14 (partial), and CD15 (partial) with ... There were 36% blasts expressing CD45 (dim), CD13, CD117 (partial), CD33, CD4 (partial), and CD15 (partial); the blasts ... and CD15 (partial); the blasts had no significant expression of CD14, CD64, CD10, CD19, CD20, surface immunoglobulin light ...
The assay was shown to measure an antigen that is highly related to the ... the gs antigen, detects an antigenic reactivity in normal murine cells in culture and natural tissues. ... 23846425 - Carb-3 is the superior anti-cd15 monoclonal antibody for immunohistochemistry.. 23970865 - Development of antibody ... Antigens, Viral / analysis*. Cell Line. Cells, Cultured / analysis. Chromatography, Affinity. Female. Humans. Iodine Isotopes. ...
  • CD15 may function as an important signaling molecule capable of initiating proinflammatory events in monocytes that come into contact with activated endothelium. (mybeckman.ca)
  • Flow cytometry surface staining pattern of human peripheral whole blood stained using anti-human CD15 (MEM-158) Pacific Blue™ antibody (4 μl reagent / 100 μl of peripheral whole blood). (exbio.cz)
  • Immature DCs are situated underneath epithelia throughout peripheral tissues, where they are ideally located to acquire antigens of invading pathogens. (rupress.org)
  • Although CAR T cell therapy has made remarkable strides in the treatment of patients with certain hematological cancers, in solid tumors success has been limited likely due to heterogeneous antigen expression, immunosuppressive networks in the tumor microenvironment limiting CAR T cell function and persistence, and suboptimal trafficking to solid tumors. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast to conventional T cell receptors (TCRs), which recognize antigens in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-dependent manner, CARs can potentially redirect the effector functions of a T cell toward any protein or non-protein target expressed on the cell surface. (frontiersin.org)
  • This strategy thereby avoids the requirement of antigen processing and presentation by the target cell and is applicable to non-classical T cell targets like carbohydrates ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • TCR binding to the MHC-antigen peptide complex induces a cascade of intracellular events as follows: phosphorylated TCR recruits intracellular second messengers to provide the first signal, and costimulatory molecules (CD28, CD27, CD134, CD137, or ICOS) at the T-cell surface bind to their corresponding receptors (CD80, CD86, CD137L, or ICOSL) on APCs, which further provides the second signal ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • CD15 is occasionally expressed in large cell lymphomas of both B and T phenotypes which otherwise have a quite distinct histological appearance. (genetex.com)
  • This allows mature DCs to leave the periphery and migrate to the lymph nodes, and endows them with the capacity to present antigen in the context of MHC molecules in order to initiate T cell responses within the lymph nodes ( 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • In other preferred embodiments, the F-18 labeled moiety may comprise a targetable conjugate that may be used in combination with a bispecific or multispecific antibody to target the F-18 to an antigen expressed on a cell or tissue associated with a disease, medical condition, or pathogen. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Tested positive against native human antigen. (creativebiomart.net)
  • To date, the low frequency of these DCs in human blood has essentially prevented functional studies defining their specific contribution to antigen presentation. (rupress.org)
  • FUT9 synthesizes the LeX oligosaccharide (CD15), which is expressed in organ buds progressing in mesenchyma during human embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)