Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Characterization of prethymic progenitors within the chicken embryo. (1/180)

The thymic primordium in both birds and mammals is first colonized by cells emerging from the intra-embryonic mesenchyme but the nature of these precursors is poorly understood. We demonstrate here an early embryonic day 7 prethymic population with T lymphoid potential. Our work is a phenotypic analysis of, to date, the earliest embryonic prethymic progenitors arising in the avian para-aortic area during ontogeny. The phenotype of these cells, expressing the cell surface molecules alpha2beta1 integrin, c-kit, thrombomucin/MEP21, HEMCAM and chL12, reflects functional properties required for cell adhesion, migration and growth factor responsiveness. Importantly, the presence of these antigens was found to correlate with the recolonization of the recipient thymus following intrathymic cell transfers. These intra-embryonic cells were also found to express the Ikaros transcription factor, the molecular function of which is considered to be prerequisite for embryonic lymphoid development.  (+info)

Synovial fluid CD146 (MUC18), a marker for synovial membrane angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis. (2/180)

OBJECTIVE: CD146 (MUC18/MCAM/S-Endo) is a marker of tumor progression and metastasis formation in human melanoma. This molecule has also been identified in smooth muscle, endothelial cells, and activated T lymphocytes. We measured the synovial fluid levels of soluble CD146 in various human joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, we studied the distribution of CD146 in normal and RA synovial tissues. METHODS: CD146 was isolated from MEL-OH melanoma cells and characterized by Coomassie blue staining and Western blotting. Soluble CD146 was measured by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in synovial fluids of 3 healthy individuals and 7 cadavers (controls), as wells as in patients with traumatic joint injury (n = 10), osteoarthritis (OA; n = 10), psoriatic arthritis (PsA; n = 10), other non-RA polyarthritis (NRAP; n = 10), and RA (n = 31). Immunohistochemistry was performed on 3 normal and 3 RA synovial tissues. Flow cytometric, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analyses were performed on enzymatically separated RA synovial tissue cells. RESULTS: Compared with controls (mean +/- SD 10 +/- 2 ng/ml), significantly elevated synovial fluid levels of soluble CD146 were detected in patients with OA, PsA, and RA (17 +/- 7, 21 +/- 11, and 39 +/- 16 ng/ml, respectively; P < 0.02-0.001), but not in patients with traumatic joint injury or NRAP. Patients with early RA (<1 year after diagnosis) revealed the highest levels (51 +/- 15 ng/ml, n = 10; P < 0.001 versus controls). In RA, soluble CD146 correlated significantly with morning stiffness (P < 0.001), the number of tender joints (P < 0.02), and the number of swollen joints (P < 0.005), but not with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P = 0.07) or the C-reactive protein level (P = 0.57). CONCLUSION: Since CD146 is expressed almost exclusively by vascular endothelium, high levels of soluble CD146 found in RA synovial fluid, particularly in patients with early disease, could reflect increased activity of endothelial cells and angiogenesis.  (+info)

Polymerase chain reaction-based detection of circulating melanoma cells as an effective marker of tumor progression. Melanoma Cooperative Group. (3/180)

PURPOSE: Reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with multiple markers has been demonstrated to be highly sensitive in detecting circulating cells from patients with malignant melanoma (MM). We evaluated the clinical significance of the presence in peripheral blood of specific PCR-positive mRNA markers as an expression of circulating melanoma cells. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Total cellular RNA was obtained from the peripheral blood of 235 patients with either localized (n = 154) or metastatic (n = 81) melanoma. We performed RT-PCR using tyrosinase, p97, MUC18, and MelanA/MART1 as gene markers. The PCR products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis and Southern blot hybridization. In addition, 20 healthy subjects and 21 patients with nonmelanoma cancer were used as negative controls. RESULTS: Although detected at various levels among assessable patients, each mRNA marker was significantly correlated with disease stage. A significant correlation with disease stage was demonstrated for patients who were positive to all four markers (P < .0001) or to at least three markers (P < .001). Univariate analysis showed a significant correlation between risk of recurrence (evaluated in stage I, II, and III patients) and increasing number of PCR-positive markers (P = .0002). Logistic regression multivariate analysis indicated that each single marker (except tyrosinase) and, more especially, the presence of four PCR-positive markers remained statistically independent prognostic factors for tumor progression. CONCLUSION: Our data establish the existence of a significant correlation among clinical stages, tumor progression, and presence of circulating melanoma-associated antigens in peripheral blood of MM patients. Preliminary assessment of a subset of patients with a higher risk of recurrence needs longer follow-up and further studies to define the role of RT-PCR in monitoring MM patients.  (+info)

Genomic analysis of a murine cell-surface sialomucin, MGC-24/CD164. (4/180)

MGC-24 is a sialomucin originally found in human gastric carcinoma cells, and in human hematopoietic progenitor cells. In the human, soluble and transmembrane forms of MGC-24 are present, and the transmembrane form has been implicated in adhesion of hematopoietic progenitor cells to marrow stroma cells. In the mouse, we found that only the transmembrane form was expressed in many organs. Northern blotting and in situ hybridization analysis showed that MGC-24 mRNA was widely expressed in various adult and embryonic tissues. The mouse MGC-24 gene, which we isolated, spanned about 12 kb and was comprised of six exons. The transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic domain were encoded by a single exon; the finding agrees with the absence of an alternatively spliced product of mouse MGC-24. The minimal promoter of mouse MGC-24 was embedded in GC-rich sequences, in which two Sp1 binding motifs were found, but it lacked TATA and CAAT boxes. That the promoter resembles that of house-keeping genes is consistent with the broad expression of mouse MGC-24 mRNA.  (+info)

Endolyn is a mucin-like type I membrane protein targeted to lysosomes by its cytoplasmic tail. (5/180)

Endolyn (endolyn-78) is a membrane protein found in lysosomal and endosomal compartments of mammalian cells. Unlike 'classical' lysosomal membrane proteins, such as lysosome-associated membrane protein (lamp)-1, it is also present in a subapical compartment in polarized WIF-B hepatocytes. The structural features that determine sorting of endolyn are unknown. We have identified a rat endolyn cDNA by expression screening. The cDNA encodes a ubiquitously expressed type I membrane protein with a short cytoplasmic tail of 13 amino acids and many putative sites for N- and O-linked glycosylation in the predicted luminal domain. Endolyn is closely related to two human mucin-like proteins, multi-glycosylated core protein (MGC)-24 and CD164 (MGC-24v), expressed in gastric carcinoma cells and bone marrow stromal and haematopoietic precursor cells respectively. The predicted transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail domains of endolyn, as well as parts of its luminal domain, also show some similarities with lamp-1 and lamp-2. Like these and other known lysosomal membrane proteins, endolyn contains a YXXO motif at the C-terminus of its cytoplasmic tail (where O is a bulky hydrophobic amino acid), but with no preceding glycine. Nonetheless, the last ten amino acids of this tail, when transplanted on to human CD8, caused efficient targeting of the chimaeric protein to endosomes and lysosomes in transfected normal rat kidney cells.  (+info)

Elevated levels of shed membrane microparticles with procoagulant potential in the peripheral circulating blood of patients with acute coronary syndromes. (6/180)

BACKGROUND: Apoptotic microparticles are responsible for almost all tissue factor activity of the plaque lipid core. We hypothesized that elevated levels of procoagulant microparticles could also circulate in the peripheral blood of patients with recent clinical signs of plaque disruption and thrombosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 39 patients with coronary heart disease, including 12 patients with stable angina and 27 patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), and 12 patients with noncoronary heart disease. We isolated the circulating microparticles by capture with annexin V and determined their procoagulant potential with a prothrombinase assay. The cell origins of microparticles were determined in an additional 22 patients by antigenic capture with specific antibodies. The level of procoagulant microparticles did not differ between stable angina patients and noncoronary patients (10.1+/-1.6 nmol/L phosphatidylserine [PS] equivalent versus 9.9+/-1.6 nmol/L PS equivalent, respectively). However, procoagulant microparticles were significantly elevated in patients with ACS (22.2+/-2.7 nmol/L PS equivalent) compared with other coronary (P<0.01) or noncoronary (P<0.01) patients. Microparticles of endothelial origin were significantly elevated in patients with ACS (P<0.01), which suggests an important role for endothelial injury in inducing the procoagulant potential. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of procoagulant endothelial microparticles are present in the circulating blood of patients with ACS and may contribute to the generation and perpetuation of intracoronary thrombi.  (+info)

E-cadherin expression in melanoma cells restores keratinocyte-mediated growth control and down-regulates expression of invasion-related adhesion receptors. (7/180)

In human epidermis, functional symbiosis requires homeostatic balance between keratinocytes and melanocytes. Compelling evidence from co-culture studies demonstrated a sophisticated, multileveled regulation of normal melanocytic phenotype orchestrated by undifferentiated, basal-type keratinocytes. Keratinocytes control cell growth and dendricity, as well as expression of melanoma-associated cell surface molecules of normal melanocytes. In contrast, melanoma cells are refractory to the keratinocyte-mediated regulation. The loss of regulatory dominance by keratinocytes occurs in concert with down-regulation of E-cadherin expression in melanoma cells. To investigate the potential role of E-cadherin in melanoma-keratinocyte interaction, we transduced E-cadherin-negative melanoma cells with full-length E-cadherin cDNA using an adenoviral vector. Our results show that functional E-cadherin expression in melanoma cells leads to cell adhesion to keratinocytes rendering them susceptible for keratinocyte-mediated control. In a skin reconstruction model, ectopic E-cadherin expression inhibits invasion of melanoma cells into dermis by down-regulating invasion-related adhesion receptors, MelCAM/MUC18 and beta3 integrin subunit, and by induction of apoptosis. Thus, disruption of the E-cadherin-mediated, normal regulatory control from keratinocytes may represent one of the mechanisms accounting for melanocyte transformation.  (+info)

Functionally defined CD164 epitopes are expressed on CD34(+) cells throughout ontogeny but display distinct distribution patterns in adult hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic tissues. (8/180)

Three distinct classes of epitopes on human CD164 have been identified. Two of these, recognized by the monoclonal antibodies 105A5 and 103B2/9E10, are the CD164 class I and class II functionally defined epitopes, which cooperate to regulate adhesion and proliferation of CD34(+) cell subsets. In this article, we demonstrate that these 2 CD164 epitopes are expressed on CD34(+) cells throughout ontogeny, in particular on CD34(+ )cell clusters associated with the ventral floor of the dorsal aorta in the developing embryo and on CD34(+) hematopoietic precursor cells in fetal liver, cord blood, and adult bone marrow. While higher levels of expression of these CD164 epitopes occur on the more primitive AC133(hi)CD34(hi)CD38(lo/-) cell population, they also occur on most cord blood Lin(-)CD34(lo/-)CD38(lo/- )cells, which are potential precursors for the AC133(hi)CD34(hi)CD38(lo/-) subset. In direct contrast to these common patterns of expression on hematopoietic precursor cells, notable differences in expression of the CD164 epitopes were observed in postnatal lymphoid and nonhematopoietic tissues, with the class I and class II CD164 epitopes generally exhibiting differential and often reciprocal cellular distribution patterns. This is particularly striking in the colon, where infiltrating lymphoid cells are CD164 class I-positive but class II-negative, while epithelia are weakly CD164 class II-positive. Similarly, in certain lymphoid tissues, high endothelial venules and basal and subcapsular epithelia are CD164 class II-positive, while lymphoid cells are CD164 class I-positive. It therefore seems highly likely that these CD164 class I and II epitopes will mediate reciprocal homing functions in these tissue types.  (+info)

  • Human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa, was stained with CD146 (clone P1H12) PE/Dazzle™ 594 (filled histogram) or mouse IgG1, κ PE/Dazzle™ 594 isotype control (open histogram). (biolegend.com)
  • CD146 acts also as surface receptor that triggers tyrosine phosphorylation of FYN and PTK2, and a transient increase in the intracellular calcium concentration. (fishersci.com)
  • DISCUSSION: The enhanced number of CD90 and CD146 cells could explain the increased cell yield because the other tested surface marker were not reduced in lipedema patients. (bireme.br)
  • mesenchymal stem cells with greater differentiation potential express higher levels of CD146 on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • GMSCs were isolated from human gingival tissue and characterized by surface antigen analysis and in vitro multipotent differentiation. (hindawi.com)
  • Flow cytometric analysis revealed that pMSC expressed surface antigens also found on hMSC, including CD90, MSCA-1 (TNAP/W8B2 antigen), CD44, CD29 and SLA class I. Clonogenic outgrowth was significantly enriched following selection of CD271+ cells from BM of human and pig (129 ± 29 and 1961 ± 485 fold, respectively). (wiley.com)
  • For example, a cell that has the receptor stem cell antigen -1, on its surface, is identified as Sca-1. (nih.gov)
  • The Duffy antigen is located on the surface of red blood cells, and is named after the patient in which it was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • One approach to detect and treat cancer is to conjugate imaging and/or therapeutics to molecules which can recognize internalizing antigens, receptors or cell surface markers that are overexpressed on tumor cells, leading to efficient localization and tumor cell killing ( 5, 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, presently there are very few MM-associated cell surface antigens that are overexpressed by all subtypes of MM, especially the SM ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Due to accessibility to externally administered agents, cell surface antigens are attractive targets for the development of therapeutics that require intracellular delivery of payloads ( 18 , 19 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we performed a high-throughput cell surface antigen screen and found that CD146 is enriched in the SP population. (oncotarget.com)
  • Our data demonstrate that CD146 is an effective cell surface marker for enriching TPCs in primary human sarcomas. (oncotarget.com)
  • The CD antigens are protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells. (sinobiological.com)
  • By immunohistochemistry, FACS analysis and cell culture we identified parathyroid cells positive for the haematopoietic/endothelial marker CD34 which expressed surface antigens typical of endothelial progenitors, such as CD146 and CXCR4, but not the haematopoietic and mesenchymal markers, such as CD45, Thy-1/CD90, CD105 and CD117/c-kit. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • In this study, we used different combinations of surface markers (CD51/CD140α, CD271, and STRO-1/CD146) to isolate homogeneous populations of DMSCs from heterogeneous dental pulp cells (DPCs) obtained from DP and compared their capacity to undergo multilineage differentiation. (bvsalud.org)
  • The utilization of stem cell surface antigens provides a means to identify MSCs from various tissues. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, we used three surface marker combinations: CD51/CD140α, CD271, and STRO-1/CD146 for the isolation of homogenous populations of dental mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs) from heterogeneous periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs). (bvsalud.org)
  • CD146 mediates heterophilic cell adhesion and regulates monocyte transendothelial migration. (biolegend.com)
  • CD146 plays a role in cell adhesion, and in cohesion of the endothelial monolayer at intercellular junctions in vascular tissue. (fishersci.com)
  • In addition to inhibiting neoplastic cell adhesion to the endothelium and homotypic aggregation, disrupting this line of intercellular communication using synthetic Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen masking and Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen mimicking compounds greatly affects cancer cell clonogenic survival and growth as well. (aacrjournals.org)
  • During implantation and placentation, CD146 is expressed by the intermediate trophoblast in the placental site and binds to its putative receptor in uterine smooth muscle cells thus limiting trophoblastic invasion in the myometrium. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • CD146 can be induced on all T cells via PHA, recall antigen, superantigen and T cell receptor/CD3 stimulation. (leicabiosystems.com)
  • Despite the fact these two antigens have continued to be used as markers for circulating cells with vascular reparative properties, it was not demonstrated that the infused cells directly formed new blood vessels. (stemcell.com)
  • We found that both hACL stem cells (hACL-SCs) and hMCL stem cells (hMCL-SCs) formed colonies in culture and expressed stem cell markers nucleostemin and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1. A mammalian pericyte having a marker pattern comprising CD146+, CD34−, and CD45−, wherein said pericyte is substantially isolated from cells that are CD146− or CD31+ or CD34+ or CD45+ or CD56+ or NG2− or CD133− or a combination of one or more of such markers. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 10. A method for isolating a human pericyte, the method comprising obtaining tissue from a human donor, dissociating cells within said tissue, assaying for a pericyte which is CD146+, CD34−, and CD45−, separating said pericyte from other cells which are CD146− or CD31+ or CD34+ or CD45+ or CD56+ or NG2− or CD133− or a combination of one or more of such markers, and culturing said pericyte. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The expression levels of stem cell markers importin13, c-kit, CD146, and telomerase are decreased in endometrial polyps. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, expression of the mesenchymal marker CD90 and the endothelial/pericytic marker CD146 was significantly enhanced when isolated from lipedema patients. (bireme.br)
  • the cells could be expanded for greater than 90 population doubling and had mesenchymal stem cell characteristics, expressing CD9, SSEA4, CD44, CD90, CD166, CD73, and CD146 but were negative for STRO-1. (therapeuticsolutionsint.com)
  • CD146 mediates an E-cadherin-to-N-cadherin switch during TGF-ß signaling-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. (abcam.com)
  • This study describes an immunomagnetic separation method for the isolation of mouse renal peritubular endothelial cells using anti-CD146 MicroBeads, followed by co-culture with mouse renal proximal tubular epithelial cells to maintain endothelial phenotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overexpression of CD146 in breast carcinoma cells results in a more cohesive cell growth and in the formation of smaller tumors in nude mice. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Overexpression of CD146 has been correlated with aggressiveness, recurrence rate, and poor overall survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. (thno.org)
  • We conducted an observational clinical study comparing the abundance and molecular/functional characteristics of CD146 + pericytes isolated from the bone marrow of 25 individuals without diabetes and 14 individuals with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes, referring to our Musculoskeletal Research Unit for hip reconstructive surgery. (springer.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed that diabetes causes capillary rarefaction and compression of arteriole size in bone marrow, without changing CD146 + pericyte counts. (springer.com)
  • In this study, the authors aimed to develop gene therapy targeting GSCs using chitosan oligosaccharide lactate (COL) nanoparticles (NPs) conjugated with folic acid-polyethylene glycol (FA-PEG-COL NPs) for in vitro and in vivo delivery of CD146 small-interfering RNA (siCD146) and to determine the effect of CD146 knockdown on tumor growth. (thejns.org)
  • Circulating endothelial cell numbers were quantified in peripheral blood samples of breast cancer patients and healthy controls by four-colour flow cytometry analysis and CD146 real-time PCR, and VEGF plasma concentrations were measured by ELISA. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, the quantification of CEC by CD146 real-time PCR showed equivalent results to the flow cytometry analysis. (nih.gov)
  • The amounts of CEC were quantified in 50 peripheral blood samples of patients and healthy controls by four-colour flow cytometry analysis and CD146 real-time PCR. (nih.gov)
CD146 Rat anti-Mouse, Brilliant Violet 605, Clone: ME-9F1, BD Optibuild
 | Fisher Scientific
CD146 Rat anti-Mouse, Brilliant Violet 605, Clone: ME-9F1, BD Optibuild | Fisher Scientific (fishersci.com)
Antigens, CD146 | Profiles RNS
Antigens, CD146 | Profiles RNS (profiles.umassmed.edu)
Anti-CD146 antibody (ab203118) | Abcam
Anti-CD146 antibody (ab203118) | Abcam (abcam.com)
A reappraisal of the role of circulating (progenitor) cells in the pathobiology of diabetic complications | SpringerLink
A reappraisal of the role of circulating (progenitor) cells in the pathobiology of diabetic complications | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
References Anti-CD146 antibody [EPR3208] KO Tested Recombinant (ab75769) | Abcam
References Anti-CD146 antibody [EPR3208] KO Tested Recombinant (ab75769) | Abcam (abcam.com)
CD146 Mouse anti-Canine, Human, Mouse, Rabbit, eFluor(T) 660, Clone: P1H12,
 | Fisher Scientific
CD146 Mouse anti-Canine, Human, Mouse, Rabbit, eFluor(T) 660, Clone: P1H12, | Fisher Scientific (fishersci.com)
Targeting CD146 using folic acid-conjugated nanoparticles and suppression of tumor growth in a mouse glioma model in: Journal...
Targeting CD146 using folic acid-conjugated nanoparticles and suppression of tumor growth in a mouse glioma model in: Journal... (thejns.org)
CD146 Expression Influences Periapical Cyst Mesenchymal Stem Cell Properties | SpringerLink
CD146 Expression Influences Periapical Cyst Mesenchymal Stem Cell Properties | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
CD146 antibody | acris-antibodies.com
CD146 antibody | acris-antibodies.com (acris-antibodies.com)
Appendix E: Stem Cell Markers | stemcells.nih.gov
Appendix E: Stem Cell Markers | stemcells.nih.gov (stemcells.nih.gov)
CD146 Antibody, anti-human - Hybridomas - MACS Antibodies - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Lëtzebuerg
CD146 Antibody, anti-human - Hybridomas - MACS Antibodies - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Lëtzebuerg (miltenyibiotec.com)
Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Endothelial Cells - Educational Materials - Scientific Resources
Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Endothelial Cells - Educational Materials - Scientific Resources (stemcell.com)
Plus it
Plus it (cancerres.aacrjournals.org)
Plus it
Plus it (mct.aacrjournals.org)
Differential properties of human ACL and MCL stem cells may be responsible for their differential healing capacity | BMC...
Differential properties of human ACL and MCL stem cells may be responsible for their differential healing capacity | BMC... (bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com)
Frontiers | Immunophenotyping Reveals the Diversity of Human Dental Pulp Mesenchymal Stromal Cells In vivo and Their Evolution...
Frontiers | Immunophenotyping Reveals the Diversity of Human Dental Pulp Mesenchymal Stromal Cells In vivo and Their Evolution... (frontiersin.org)
In vivo commitment and functional tissue regeneration using human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal cells | PNAS
In vivo commitment and functional tissue regeneration using human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal cells | PNAS (pnas.org)
Enhanced Lymph Vessel Density, Remodeling, and Inflammation Are Reflected by Gene Expression Signatures in Dermal Lymphatic...
Enhanced Lymph Vessel Density, Remodeling, and Inflammation Are Reflected by Gene Expression Signatures in Dermal Lymphatic... (diabetes.diabetesjournals.org)
Increased circulating endothelial microparticles in COPD patients: a potential biomarker for COPD exacerbation susceptibility |...
Increased circulating endothelial microparticles in COPD patients: a potential biomarker for COPD exacerbation susceptibility |... (thorax.bmj.com)
CD146 - SM1860PS | acris-antibodies.com
CD146 - SM1860PS | acris-antibodies.com (acris-antibodies.com)
Pericytes: Purpose and Function
Pericytes: Purpose and Function (news-medical.net)
Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma | Archivos de Bronconeumología (English Edition)
Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma | Archivos de Bronconeumología (English Edition) (archbronconeumol.org)
JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols (jove.com)
Stem Cells Derived from Dental Tissues | SpringerLink
Stem Cells Derived from Dental Tissues | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Frontiers | Regulation of Malignant Hematopoiesis by Bone Marrow Microenvironment | Oncology
Frontiers | Regulation of Malignant Hematopoiesis by Bone Marrow Microenvironment | Oncology (frontiersin.org)
Dimethyl-2-oxoglutarate improves redox balance and mitochondrial function in muscle pericytes of individuals with diabetes...
Dimethyl-2-oxoglutarate improves redox balance and mitochondrial function in muscle pericytes of individuals with diabetes... (link.springer.com)
Frontiers | The Use of Immunohistochemistry, Fluorescence in situ Hybridization, and Emerging Epigenetic Markers in the...
Frontiers | The Use of Immunohistochemistry, Fluorescence in situ Hybridization, and Emerging Epigenetic Markers in the... (frontiersin.org)
A tissue-engineered humanized xenograft model of human breast cancer metastasis to bone | Disease Models & Mechanisms
A tissue-engineered humanized xenograft model of human breast cancer metastasis to bone | Disease Models & Mechanisms (dmm.biologists.org)
Human hepatic stem cells from fetal and postnatal donors | JEM
Human hepatic stem cells from fetal and postnatal donors | JEM (jem.rupress.org)
Anti-MCAM Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (PE (Phycoerythrin)) [clone: c264] | VWR
Anti-MCAM Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (PE (Phycoerythrin)) [clone: c264] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Isolation of functionally distinct mesenchymal stem cell subsets using antibodies against CD56, CD271, and mesenchymal stem...
Isolation of functionally distinct mesenchymal stem cell subsets using antibodies against CD56, CD271, and mesenchymal stem... (haematologica.org)
Masahiro Nishibori - Research Output
        
     - Okayama University
Masahiro Nishibori - Research Output - Okayama University (okayama.pure.elsevier.com)
JCI Insight -
Human pericytes adopt myofibroblast properties in the microenvironment of the IPF lung
JCI Insight - Human pericytes adopt myofibroblast properties in the microenvironment of the IPF lung (insight.jci.org)
New Mesothelioma Biomarker May Also Improve Treatment | Surviving Mesothelioma
New Mesothelioma Biomarker May Also Improve Treatment | Surviving Mesothelioma (survivingmesothelioma.com)
Bone marrow pericyte dysfunction in individuals with type 2 diabetes | Springer for Research & Development
Bone marrow pericyte dysfunction in individuals with type 2 diabetes | Springer for Research & Development (rd.springer.com)
Hemangiomas (infantile hemangiomas, common hemangiomas, strawberry hemangiomas, capillary hemangiomas) - ONA
Hemangiomas (infantile hemangiomas, common hemangiomas, strawberry hemangiomas, capillary hemangiomas) - ONA (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
Expression of Id-1 is regulated by MCAM/MUC18: A missing link in melanoma progression<...
Expression of Id-1 is regulated by MCAM/MUC18: A missing link in melanoma progression<... (utsouthwestern.pure.elsevier.com)
Molecular mechanisms underlying therapeutic potential of pericytes | Journal of Biomedical Science | Full Text
Molecular mechanisms underlying therapeutic potential of pericytes | Journal of Biomedical Science | Full Text (jbiomedsci.biomedcentral.com)
Application # 2017/0296587. STEM CELL THERAPY OF NEUROLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF A VIRAL INFECTION - Patents.com
Application # 2017/0296587. STEM CELL THERAPY OF NEUROLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF A VIRAL INFECTION - Patents.com (patents.com)
Plus it
Plus it (mcr.aacrjournals.org)
Bone Morphogenetic Protein-9 Induces Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Dental Follicle Stem Cells in P38 and ERK1/2 MAPK...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein-9 Induces Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Dental Follicle Stem Cells in P38 and ERK1/2 MAPK... (medsci.org)
Changes in phenotype and differentiation potential of human mesenchymal stem cells aging in vitro | Stem Cell Research &...
Changes in phenotype and differentiation potential of human mesenchymal stem cells aging in vitro | Stem Cell Research &... (stemcellres.biomedcentral.com)
Impaired NK-mediated regulation of T-cell activity in multiple sclerosis is reconstituted by IL-2 receptor modulation | PNAS
Impaired NK-mediated regulation of T-cell activity in multiple sclerosis is reconstituted by IL-2 receptor modulation | PNAS (pnas.org)
CD Antigens, Recombinant Proteins  | ProMab
CD Antigens, Recombinant Proteins | ProMab (promab.com)
Results for smart00408
Results for smart00408 (bioinf.umbc.edu)
CD146 promotes metastasis and predicts poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma | Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer...
CD146 promotes metastasis and predicts poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma | Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer... (jeccr.biomedcentral.com)
NAVER Academic > Search...
NAVER Academic > Search... (academic.naver.com)