Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Antigens, Viral, Tumor
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
Amino Acid Sequence
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Histocompatibility Antigens Class II
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Blood Group Antigens
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Hepatitis B Antigens
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Herpesvirus 4, Human
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Bone Marrow Cells
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
Hepatitis B Core Antigens
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Mice, Inbred Strains
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Complement Fixation Tests
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Simian virus 40
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
gp100 Melanoma Antigen
Major Histocompatibility Complex
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Killer Cells, Natural
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Burkholderia cepacia is more active than LPS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in stimulating tumor necrosis factor alpha from human monocytes. (1/2131)Whole cells and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) extracted from Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Escherichia coli were compared in their ability to stimulate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) from the human monocyte cell line MonoMac-6. B. cepacia LPS, on a weight-for-weight basis, was found to have TNF-alpha-inducing activity similar to that of LPS from E. coli, which was approximately four- and eightfold greater than the activity of LPSs from P. aeruginosa and S. maltophilia, respectively. The LPS-stimulated TNF-alpha production from monocytes was found to be CD14 dependent. These results suggest that B. cepacia LPS might play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung disease in cystic fibrosis, and in some patients it might be responsible, at least in part, for the sepsis-like cepacia syndrome. (+info)
Signal transduction triggered by lipid A-like molecules in 70Z/3 pre-B lymphocyte tumor cells. (2/2131)The lipid A (endotoxin) moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elicits rapid cellular responses from many cell types, including macrophages, lymphocytes, and monocytes. In CD14 transfected 70Z/3 pre-B lymphocyte tumor cells, these responses include activation of the MAP kinase homolog, p38, activation of NF-kappaB, and transcription of kappa light chains, leading to the assembly of surface IgM. In this work, we explored the specificity of the response with regard to lipid structure, and the requirement for p38 kinase activity prior to NF-kappaB activation in control and CD14 transfected 70Z/3 (CD14-70Z/3) cells. A p38-specific inhibitor, SB203580, was used to block p38 kinase activity in cells. CD14-70Z/3 cells were incubated with 1-50 microM SB203580, and then stimulated with LPS. Nuclear extracts were prepared, and NF-kappaB activation was measured using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. SB203580 did not inhibit LPS induced NF-kappaB activation. In addition, LPS failed to activate p38 tyrosine phosphorylation in 70Z/3 cells lacking CD14, in spite of rapid NF-kappaB activation and robust surface IgM production with appropriate higher doses of LPS. LPS stimulation of p38 phosphorylation, NF-kappaB activation, and surface IgM expression were all blocked completely by lipid A-like endotoxin antagonists whether or not CD14 was present. Acidic glycerophospholipids and ceramides did not mimic lipid A-like molecules either as agonists or antagonists in this system. Our data support the hypothesis that lipid A-mediated activation of cells requires stimulation of a putative lipid A sensor that is downstream of CD14, but upstream of p38 and NF-kappaB. (+info)
Enhanced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 due to prolonged response to lipopolysaccharide in human macrophages infected in vitro with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. (3/2131)Elevated levels of circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 have been detected in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection. The overproduction of these cytokines could contribute to AIDS pathogenesis. Thus, the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in human macrophages infected with HIV-1 was investigated. HIV-1 infection, per se, did not induce any TNF-alpha or IL-6 production or cytokine-specific mRNA expression. In contrast, HIV-1 primed macrophages to a prolonged TNF-alpha and IL-6 response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation with respect to uninfected cells. Time-course analysis and flow cytometry demonstrated that cytokine production stopped at 6 h in uninfected macrophages but continued up to 24 h in HIV-1-infected cells. RNA studies suggested that HIV-1 interfered with late steps of cytokine synthesis. No modulation of membrane CD14 was found to account for the enhanced response to LPS. Finally, the effect of HIV-1 on cytokine response could not be abolished by the antiviral compound U75875. (+info)
Long-term fetal microchimerism in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets in healthy women and women with scleroderma. (4/2131)Fetal CD34(+) CD38(+) cells have recently been found to persist in maternal peripheral blood for many years after pregnancy. CD34(+) CD38(+) cells are progenitor cells that can differentiate into mature immune-competent cells. We asked whether long-term fetal microchimerism occurs in T lymphocyte, B lymphocyte, monocyte, and natural-killer cell populations of previously pregnant women. We targeted women with sons and used polymerase chain reaction for a Y-chromosome-specific sequence to test DNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and from CD3, CD19, CD14, and CD56/16 sorted subsets. We also asked whether persistent microchimerism might contribute to subsequent autoimmune disease in the mother and included women with the autoimmune disease scleroderma. Scleroderma has a peak incidence in women after childbearing years and has clinical similarities to chronic graft-versus-host disease that occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, known to involve chimerism. Sixty-eight parous women were studied for male DNA in PBMC and 20 for PBMC subsets. Microchimerism was found in PBMC from 33% (16 of 48) of healthy women and 60% (12 of 20) women with scleroderma, P =.046. Microchimerism was found in some women in CD3, CD19, CD14, and CD56/16 subsets including up to 38 years after pregnancy. Microchimerism in PBMC subsets was not appreciably more frequent in scleroderma patients than in healthy controls. Overall, microchimerism was found in CD3, CD19, and CD14 subsets in approximately one third of women and in CD56/16 in one half of women. HLA typing of mothers and sons indicated that HLA compatibility was not a requirement for persistent microchimerism in PBMC subsets. Fetal microchimerism in the face of HLA disparity implies that specific maternal immunoregulatory pathways exist that permit persistence but prevent effector function of these cells in normal women. Although microchimerism in PBMC was more frequent in women with scleroderma than healthy controls additional studies will be necessary to determine whether microchimerism plays a role in the pathogenesis of this or other autoimmune diseases. (+info)
Monocytic cell necrosis is mediated by potassium depletion and caspase-like proteases. (5/2131)Apoptosis is a physiological cell death that culminates in mitochondrial permeability transition and the activation of caspases, a family of cysteine proteases. Necrosis, in contrast, is a pathological cell death characterized by swelling of the cytoplasm and mitochondria and rapid plasma membrane disruption. Necrotic cell death has long been opposed to apoptosis, but it now appears that both pathways involve mitochondrial permeability transition, raising the question of what mediates necrotic cell death. In this study, we investigated mechanisms that promote necrosis induced by various stimuli (Clostridium difficile toxins, Staphylococcus aureus alpha toxin, ouabain, nigericin) in THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line, and in monocytes. All stimuli induced typical features of necrosis and triggered protease-mediated release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and CD14 in both cell types. K+ depletion was actively implicated in necrosis because substituting K+ for Na+ in the extracellular medium prevented morphological features of necrosis and IL-1beta release. N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone, a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, prevented morphological features of necrosis, plasma membrane destruction, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, IL-1beta release, and CD14 shedding induced by all stimuli. Thus, in monocytic cells, necrosis is a cell death pathway mediated by passive K+ efflux and activation of caspase-like proteases. (+info)
Pronase destroys the lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 on Kupffer cells. (6/2131)CD14 is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor distributed largely in macrophages, monocytes, and neutrophils; however, the role of CD14 in activation of Kupffer cells by LPS remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine if different methods used to isolate Kupffer cells affect CD14. Kupffer cells were isolated by collagenase (0.025%) or collagenase-Pronase (0.02%) perfusion and differential centrifugation using Percoll gradients and cultured for 24 h before experiments. CD14 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR from Kupffer cell total RNA as well as from peritoneal macrophages. Western blotting showed that Kupffer cells prepared with collagenase possess CD14; however, it was absent in cells obtained by collagenase-Pronase perfusion. Intracellular calcium in Kupffer cells prepared with collagenase was increased transiently to levels around 300 nM by addition of LPS with 5% rat serum, which contains LPS binding protein. This increase in intracellular calcium was totally serum dependent. Moreover, LPS-induced increases in intracellular calcium in Kupffer cells were blunted significantly (40% of controls) when cells were treated with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, which cleaves CD14 from the plasma membrane. However, intracellular calcium did not increase when LPS was added to cells prepared by collagenase-Pronase perfusion even in the presence of serum. These cells were viable, however, because ATP increased intracellular calcium to the same levels as cells prepared with collagenase perfusion. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA was increased in Kupffer cells prepared with collagenase perfusion 1 h after addition of LPS, an effect potentiated over twofold by serum; however, serum did not increase TNF-alpha mRNA in cells isolated via collagenase-Pronase perfusion. Moreover, treatment with Pronase rapidly decreased CD14 on mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) and Kupffer cells. These findings indicate that Pronase cleaves CD14 from Kupffer cells, whereas collagenase perfusion does not, providing an explanation for why Kupffer cells do not exhibit a CD14-mediated pathway when prepared with procedures using Pronase. It is concluded that Kupffer cells indeed contain a functional CD14 LPS receptor when prepared gently. (+info)
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide inhibits dengue virus infection of primary human monocytes/macrophages by blockade of virus entry via a CD14-dependent mechanism. (7/2131)Monocytes/macrophages (MO/Mphi) are the major target cells for both dengue virus (DV) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the aim of this study was to define their interactions. We had found that LPS markedly suppressed DV infection of primary human MO/Mphi when it was added to cultures prior to or together with, but not after, viral adsorption. The inhibitory effect of LPS was direct and specific and was not mediated by LPS-induced secretion of cytokines and chemokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, alpha interferon, MIP-1alpha, and RANTES. In fact, productive DV infection was not blocked but was just postponed by LPS, with a time lag equal to one viral replication cycle. Time course studies demonstrated that LPS was only effective in suppressing DV infection of MO/Mphi that had not been previously exposed to the virus. At various time points after viral adsorption, the level of unbound viruses that remained free in the culture supernatants of LPS-pretreated cultures was much higher than that of untreated controls. These observations suggest that the LPS-induced suppression of DV replication was at the level of virus attachment and/or entry. Blockade of the major LPS receptor, CD14, with monoclonal antibodies MY4 or MoS39 failed to inhibit DV infection but could totally abrogate the inhibitory effect of LPS. Moreover, human serum could significantly enhance the LPS-induced DV suppression in a CD14-dependent manner, indicating that the "binding" of LPS to CD14 was critical for the induction of virus inhibition. Taken together, our results suggest that LPS blocked DV entry into human MO/Mphi via its receptor CD14 and that a CD14-associated cell surface structure may be essential for the initiation of a DV infection. (+info)
Selective activation and functional significance of p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated neutrophils. (8/2131)Activation of leukocytes by proinflammatory stimuli selectively initiates intracellular signal transduction via sequential phosphorylation of kinases. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of human neutrophils is known to result in activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPk); however, the upstream activator(s) of p38 MAPk is unknown, and consequences of p38 MAPk activation remain largely undefined. We investigated the MAPk kinase (MKK) that activates p38 MAPk in response to LPS, the p38 MAPk isoforms that are activated as part of this pathway, and the functional responses affected by p38 MAPk activation. Although MKK3, MKK4, and MKK6 all activated p38 MAPk in experimental models, only MKK3 was found to activate recombinant p38 MAPk in LPS-treated neutrophils. Of p38 MAPk isoforms studied, only p38alpha and p38delta were detected in neutrophils. LPS stimulation selectively activated p38alpha. Specific inhibitors of p38alpha MAPk blocked LPS-induced adhesion, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation, and synthesis of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Inhibition of p38alpha MAPk resulted in a transient decrease in TNF-alpha mRNA accumulation but persistent loss of TNF-alpha synthesis. These findings support a pathway by which LPS stimulation of neutrophils results in activation of MKK3, which in turn activates p38alpha MAPk, ultimately regulating adhesion, NF-kappaB activation, enhanced gene expression of TNF-alpha, and regulation of TNF-alpha synthesis. (+info)
Novel mutant mice secreting soluble CD4 without expression of membrane-bound CD4<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel mutant mice secreting soluble CD4 without expression of membrane-bound CD4. AU - Nagase, Hisashi. AU - Wang, Chrong Reen. AU - Yoshimoto, Takayuki. AU - Sugishita, Chieko. AU - Shiroishi, Toshihiko. AU - Matsuzawa, Akio. AU - Nariuchi, Hideo. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - Mutant mice derived from C57BR/cdJ mice were found to have a novel genetic defect in CD4 expression. Flow-cytometric analysis demonstrated that there were no CD4+ cells in either the thymus or the peripheral lymphoid organs of the mutant mice. Thymocytes of the mutant mice expressed an amount of CD4 mRNA comparable to normal mouse thymocytes, but the mutant CD4 mRNA was slightly smaller in size than normal CD4 mRNA. The sequence analysis of the mutant CD4 cDNA obtained from thymic RNA revealed that the defect in the CD4 expression was attributable to the deletion of the entire exon VIII, encoding a transmembrane domain of the CD4 molecule. Moreover, soluble CD4 was detected both in the culture supernatant ...
125 Monocyte subpopulation counts and functional characteristics predict adverse clinical events post ST elevation myocardial...
125 Monocyte subpopulation counts and functional characteristics predict adverse clinical events post ST elevation myocardial infarction ...
Simultaneous Study of the Recruitment of Monocyte Subpopulations Under Flow In Vitro | Protocol (Translated to Portuguese)
Aqui, apresentamos um protocolo integrado que mede subpopulação de monócitos tráfico sob fluxo in vitro pelo uso de marcadores de...
Publications | Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry
Liu, Y.; Walter, S.; Stagi, M.; Cherny, D. I.; Letiembre, M.; Schulz-Schaeffer, W.; Heine, H.; Penke, B.; Neumann, H.; Fassbender, K.: LPS receptor (CD14): a receptor for phagocytosis of Alzheimers amyloid peptide. Brain 128 (8), doi:10.1093/brain/awh531, pp. 1778 - 1789 (2005 ...
soluble form of CD40LG(sCD40LG), which results from the shedding of membrane-bound CD40LG, plays a key role in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and has been linked to various autoimmune and vascular disorders ...
Interleukin 6, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and interleukin 10 in the prediction of risk and etiologic patterns in...
The aim of our study was to investigate the predictive value of the biomarkers interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) compared with clinical CRB and CRB-65 severity scores in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Samples and data were obtained from patients enrolled into the German CAPNETZ study group. Samples (blood, sputum and urine) were collected within 24 h of first presentation and inclusion in the CAPNETZ study, and CRB and CRB-65 scores were determined for all patients at the time of enrollment. The combined end point representative of a severe course of CAP was defined as mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit treatment and/or death within 30 days. Overall, a total of 1,000 patients were enrolled in the study. A severe course of CAP was observed in 105 (10.5%) patients. The highest IL-6, IL-10 and LBP concentrations were found in patients with CRB-65 scores of 3-4 or CRB scores of 2-3. IL-6 and LBP levels on enrollment in the
Frontiers | Perturbation of the Monocyte Compartment in Human Obesity | Immunology
Circulating monocytes can be divided into classical (CM), intermediate (IM), and non-classical monocytes (NCM), and the classical monocytes also contain CD56+ monocytes and monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSC). The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of the monocyte subpopulations in human obesity. Twenty-seven normal, 23 overweight, and 60 obese individuals (including 17 obese individuals with normal glucose tolerance and 27 with type 2 diabetes) were included into this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from human blood, and surface markers to identify monocyte subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Obese individuals had higher numbers of total monocytes, CM, IM, CD56+ monocytes, and M-MDSCs. The number of CM, IM, CD56+ monocytes, and M-MDSCs, correlated positively with body mass index, body fat, waist circumference, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and HbA1c, and negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Individuals with obesity
Correction: 3LPS-binding protein and its interactions with P. gingivalis LPS modulate pro-inflammatory response and Toll-like...
Correction: 3LPS-binding protein and its interactions with P. gingivalis LPS modulate pro-inflammatory response and Toll-like receptor signaling in human oral keratinocytes. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
CD14dimCD16+ and CD14+CD16+ Monocytes in Obesity and During Weight Loss | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
In the present study, combining subjects with different levels of corpulence (from moderate to severe obesity) and 2 clinical intervention studies inducing weight loss, we showed strong links between fat mass and the frequencies of CD14dimCD16+ monocytes in the population. Indeed, we observed an increase of about twice the percentage of CD16+ monocyte subsets in obesity and a reduction of these cell populations by drastic fat mass loss. A fat mass decrease of at least 5% was sufficient to observe a reduction in the CD14dimCD16+ subpopulation. On the contrary, we could not demonstrate a convincing link with glucose homeostasis in patients involved in clinical trials improving insulin sensitivity. In this context, the only association found with metabolic parameters was with fasting TG.. In healthy humans, 3 monocyte subpopulations have been described (CD14+CD16−, CD14+CD16+, and CD14dimCD16+), differing in phenotype and function.19 Human obesity is characterized by a significant increase in the ...
CD14 Antibody, anti-human - Hybridomas - MACS Antibodies - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Lëtzebuerg
Clone TÜK4 recognizes the human CD14 antigen and cross-reacts with non-human primate CD14. The CD14 antigen is a high affinity receptor for lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and LPS-binding protein (LBP)-complexes. It is part of the functional heteromeric LPS receptor complex comprised of CD14, TLR4, and MD-2.CD14 is strongly expressed on most human monocytes and macrophages in peripheral blood, other body fluids, and various tissues, such as lymph nodes and spleen. CD14 is expressed at high levels, also on a few CD1c (BDCA-1)+ CD2+ myeloid dendritic cells and at low levels on neutrophilic granulocytes. Ex vivo differentiation of monocytes to dendritic cells is associated with down-regulation of CD14 antigen expression. - Lëtzebuerg
Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein inhibits toll-like receptor 2 activation by lipoteichoic acid in human odontoblast-like...
F. Carrouel, M. J Staquet, J. F Keller, C. Baudouin, P. Msika, F. Bleicher, B. Alliot-Licht, and J. C Farges (2013) J Endod, 39(8):1008-14.. ...
Old and new findings on lipopolysaccharide-binding protein: a soluble pattern-recognition molecule | Biochemical Society...
LBP [LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-binding protein] was discovered approximately 25 years ago. Since then, substantial progress has been made towards our understanding of its function in health and disease. Furthermore, the discovery of a large protein family sharing functional and structural attributes has helped in our knowledge. Still, key questions are unresolved, and here an overview on the old and new findings on LBP is given. LBP is an acute-phase protein of the liver, but is also synthesized in other cells of the organism. While LBP is named after the ability to bind to LPS of Gram-negative bacteria, it also can recognize other bacterial compounds, such as lipopeptides. It has been shown that LBP is needed to combat infections; however, the main mechanism of action is still not clear. New findings on natural genetic variations of LBP leading to functional consequences may help in further elucidating the mechanism of LBP and its role in innate immunity and disease. ...
A3 Receptors | Beneficial Effects of RAF Inhibitor i
The bacteriophage vB_YecM-?R1-37 (?R1-37) is a lytic yersiniophage that may propagate naturally in different species carrying the correct lipopolysaccharide receptor. dU-containing genome in a ?KZ-like head. INTRODUCTION Bacteriophages, the viruses that infect bacteria, are the most abundant organisms on Earth, and it is estimated that for each microbial isolate at least 10 different phages exist […]. ...
Shedding as a mechanism of down-modulation of CD14 on stimulated human monocytes. | The Journal of Immunology
CD14, expressed on the surface of monocytes as a phospholipid-linked protein, is a receptor for serum LPS binding protein/LPS complex. It was specifically down-modulated after stimulation of monocytes by physiologic activating/differentiating agents such as bacterial LPS and IFN-gamma, by the pharmacologic agents PMA and calcium ionophore A23187, and by anti-CD14 antibodies. The down-modulation was almost totally blocked at 4 degrees C or at pH 4.5 and markedly inhibited by the protease inhibitors diisopropylfluorophosphate and PMSF. A soluble labeled CD14 was isolated from culture supernatant of surface iodinated monocytes after their activation, indicating that CD14 is shed from the cell surface rather than internalized. The size of the soluble CD14 shed from the monocytes in vitro was smaller than that of either the membrane-bound form or a soluble CD14 cleaved from the cell surface by phosphatidyl inositol-specific phospholipase C, but identical to the size of one of the two major soluble ...
Functional lipopolysaccharide receptors of low affinity are constitutively expressed on mouse bone marrow cells | Research -...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 9301528. Immunology 1997 Jul;91(3):391-8. Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced overproduction of cytokines, involved in the pathogenesis of septic shock, occupies the spotlight of endotoxin research, another LPS effect, the differentiation of various cell types including haematopoietic bone marrow cells (BMC), which is probably related to its radioprotective activity, deserves equal attention. We have previously established that nanomolar concentrations of LPS trigger in human BMC the expression of CD14 by an induction mechanism independent of CD14 or any other molecule anchored to the cell membrane by a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol glycolipid. We now show that this LPS-induced stimulation is triggered by the binding of a small number of LPS molecules (13,000 molecules/cell) to constitutive LPS receptors of low affinity (Kd = 480 nM). This interaction, which was inhibited by a synthetic LPS antagonist, appeared specific, reversible, saturable, time- and ...
Soluble CD4 suppresses T-dependent IgG2a antibody response of CD4 loosing mice by inhibiting IFNγ production<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Soluble CD4 suppresses T-dependent IgG2a antibody response of CD4 loosing mice by inhibiting IFNγ production. AU - Wang, Chrong-Reen. PY - 2001/4/25. Y1 - 2001/4/25. N2 - To analyze the role of soluble CD4 (sCD4) in antibody (Ab) responses in CD4 loosing (CD4L) mice, experiments have been done in comparing CD4L mice with CD4 knockout (CD4KO) mice on the same C57BL/6 background. The CD4L mice have a defect in CD4 expression where CD4 mRNA is alternatively spliced so that a transmembrane portion is deleted and sCD4 are secreted without expression of membrane-bound CD4. Significantly reduced immunoglobulin (Ig) G2a isotype Ab response against a T-dependent antigen (Ag), trinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (TNP-KLH), was found in CD4L mice as compared with those of CD4KO mice. Gamma interferon (IFNγ) production of KLH-stimulated lymph nodes cells was significantly reduced in CD4L mice as compared with those in CD4KO mice. The positive proportion of cells expressing CD40 ligand ...
CD14 - Wikipedia
CD14 (cluster of differentiation 14), also known as CD14, is a human gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the innate immune system. CD14 exists in two forms, one anchored to the membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol tail (mCD14), the other a soluble form (sCD14). Soluble CD14 either appears after shedding of mCD14 (48 kDa) or is directly secreted from intracellular vesicles (56 kDa). The x-ray crystal structure of human CD14 (4GLP.pdb) reveals a monomeric, bent solenoid structure containing a hydrophobic amino-terminal pocket. CD14 was the first described pattern recognition receptor. CD14 acts as a co-receptor (along with the Toll-like receptor TLR 4 and MD-2) for the detection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). CD14 can bind LPS only in the presence of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP). Although LPS is considered its main ligand, CD14 also recognizes other pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as lipoteichoic acid. CD14 is expressed mainly by ...
62 Development and characterisation of anti-peptide antibodies to rat Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein | Biochemical Society...
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Soluble CD14 acts as a shuttle in the neutralization of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by LPS-binding protein and reconstituted high...
We have recently shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) is a lipid transfer protein that catalyzes two distinct reactions: movement of bacterial LPS (endotoxin) from LPS micelles to soluble CD14 (sCD14) and movement of LPS from micelles to reconstituted high density lipoprotein (R-HDL) particles. Here we show that LBP facilitates a third lipid transfer reaction: movement of LPS from LPS-sCD14 complexes to R-HDL particles. This action of LBP is catalytic, with one molecule of LBP enabling the movement of multiple LPS molecules into R-HDL. LBP-catalyzed movement of LPS from LPS-sCD14 complexes to R-HDL neutralizes the capacity of LPS to stimulate polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Our findings show that LPS may be transferred to R-HDL either by the direct action of LBP or by a two-step reaction in which LPS is first transferred to sCD14 and subsequently to R-HDL. We have observed that the two-step pathway of LPS transfer to R-HDL is strongly favored over direct transfer. ...
Lipopolysaccharide recognition: CD14, TLRs and the LPS-activation cluster - ScienceOpen
Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by the innate immune system elicits strong pro-inflammatory responses that can eventually cause a fatal sepsis syndrome in humans. LPS-mediated activation of mammalian cells is believed to involve the interaction of LPS with lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) in the serum and, subsequently with CD14. Although there is no doubt that CD14 binds LPS, CD14 is not capable of initiating a transmembrane activation signal because it is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein. Accumulating evidence has suggested that LPS must interact with a transmembrane receptor(s) that is responsible for signal transduction. Integrins CD11c and/or CD18, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as well as CD55, have been suggested to serve this function. Recently, we have revealed that a signalling complex of receptors is formed following LPS stimulation, which comprises heat-shock proteins (Hsps) 70 and 90, chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and growth differentiation ...
Identification of an IL-10-Producing HLA-DR-Negative Monocyte Subset in the Malignant Ascites of Patients with Ovarian...
Human monocyte populations are heterogeneous in size and morphology, and also in their function. In this study, we have identified, for the first time, a subset of monocytes from the peritoneal cavity of patients with ovarian cancer that were able to suppress T cell responses. These cells, which were CD14 positive, did not express molecules that are associated with activation or costimulation, such as HLA-DR, CD80, or CD86. These monocytes were therefore unlikely to have Ag presenting functions but could represent a population of cells with immunosuppressive functions. The IL-10-producing cells were detected only in the PEC of ovarian cancer patients and were not detected in the peripheral blood of these patients. However, the CD14+/HLA-DR−/IL-10+ cells were detected after in vitro stimulation of PBMC from patients with ovarian cancer utilizing rGM-CSF and rIL-2 (24). Suppressor monocyte populations have been identified in the microenvironment of other tumor systems, notably fibrosarcomas and ...
Structural and Functional Features of a Developmentally Regulated Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein | mBio
In this study, we provide evidence based on both functional assays and structural modeling that is consistent with EsLBP1 functioning as an LBP-like protein. Most notably, EsLBP1 binds Gram-negative bacterial LOS and LPS with nanomolar or higher avidity under in vitro conditions, i.e., when LPS/LOS is presented as part of supramolecular assemblies containing LPS-rich lipid-water interfaces, as in aggregates of purified LPS/LOS. eslbp1 gene expression is regulated by exposure to the peptidoglycan monomer TCT, which synergizes with LPS in the triggering of V. fischeri-induced morphogenesis of the host symbiotic tissues. The gene is expressed and the protein produced across the organs epithelia-from the point where V. fischeri initially gathers, along the path of its migration, to where it takes up permanent residence in the crypts. The protein is also abundant along the apical surfaces of other epithelial tissues, where colonization by bacteria does not occur.. Although EsLBP1 has only ~25% ...
CD14 Antibody, anti-human, REAfinity™ - Recombinant antibodies - MACS Antibodies - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Nederland
Clone REA599 recognizes the human CD14 antigen. CD14 is part of the functional heteromeric LPS receptor complex comprised of at least CD14, TLR4, and MD-2. It up-regulates cell surface molecules, including adhesion molecules. CD14 is strongly expressed on most human monocytes and macrophages in peripheral blood, other bodily fluids, and in various tissues such as lymph nodes and spleen. CD14 is weakly expressed on subpopulations of human neutrophils and myeloid dendritic cells.Additional information: Clone REA599 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Nederland
Welcome to CDC stacks
Assessment of serum concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) has been suggested as a useful biomarker to indicate activation of innate immune responses to microbial products. We investigated LBP concentrations and associations with demographics, lifestyle factors, and common metabolic abnormalities in adults. We also examined if LBP concentrations were associated with common polymorphisms in genes coding for LBP (rs2232618), CD14 (rs2569190), and TLR4 (rs4986790), the molecules responsible for the innate immune response to LPS, or serum levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14) and proinflammatory cytokines ...
KRIBB: Search Results
Lactoferrin works as a new LPS-binding protein in inflammatory activation of macrophages / Y J Na; Sang Bae Han; Jong Soon Kang; Yeo Dae Yoon; Song Kyu Park; Hwan Mook Kim; Kyu-Hwan Yang; C O Joe , 2004 ...
SPR reveals ColN‐R is responsible for LPS binding. Hi | Open-i
SPR reveals ColN‐R is responsible for LPS binding. Histidine‐tagged ColN domain combinations (500 nM) were injected for 60 s at a flow rate of 5 μl m
മോണോസൈറ്റുകൾ - വിക്കിപീഡിയ
മോണോസൈറ്റുകൾ Monocytes വെളുത്ത രക്താണുക്കളുടെ (ലുക്കോസൈറ്റുകൾ) ഒരു വിഭാഗമാണ്. ലൂക്കോസൈറ്റുകളിൽ ഏറ്റവും വലിപ്പമുള്ളവയാണ് ഇവ. അവയെ മാക്രോഫേജുകൾ എന്നും ഡെൻഡ്രിക് കോശങ്ങൾ എന്നും വേർതിരിക്കാം. കശേരുകികളുടെ ആന്തര പ്രതിരോധസംവിധാനത്തിൽ മോണോസൈറ്റുകൾ അനുഗുണമായ പ്രതിരോധത്തെ സ്വാധീനിക്കുന്നുണ്ട്. കുറഞ്ഞത് മൂന്നു ഉപവിഭാഗങ്ങൾ മനുഷ്യരക്തത്തിലെ മോണോസൈറ്റുകൾക്കുണ്ട്. ഫീനോടൈപ്പ് ...
Exploring the LPS/TLR4 signal pathway with small molecules | Biochemical Society Transactions | Portland Press
The identification of the bacterial endotoxin receptors for innate immunity, most notably TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4), has sparked great interest in therapeutic manipulation of the innate immune system. In the present mini-review, several natural and synthetic molecules that modulate the TLR4-mediated LPS (lipopolysaccharide) signalling in animals and humans are considered, and their mechanisms of action are discussed. The process of LPS sensing and signal amplification in humans is based on the sequential action of specific receptors situated in the extracellular side of the innate immunity cells, which bind and transfer LPS to TLR4: LBP (LPS-binding protein), CD14, MD-2 (myeloid differentiation protein 2). We classified the compounds active on TLR4 pathway depending on the specific molecular targets (LPS, LBP, CD14, MD-2 or TLR4). Small molecules developed by our group are described that inhibit LPS-stimulated TLR4 activation by selectively targeting the LPS-CD14 interaction. These compounds ...
Perioperative Dynamics of TLR2, TLR4, and TREM-1 Expression in Monocyte Subpopulations in the Setting of On-Pump Coronary...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
ActoFactor™ Recombinant Human CD14 molecule (CHO) | Creative Bioarray
CD14 (also known lipopolysaccharide [LPS] receptor) is expressed strongly on monocytes and macrophages and weakly on the surface of neutrophils. CD14 (1-201 a.a.) is anchored to cells by linkage to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) and functions as a high affinity receptor for complexes of LPS and LPS binding protein (LBP). Soluble CD14, also binding to LPS, acts at physiological concentrations as an LPS agonist and has, at higher concentrations, an LPS antagonizing effect in cell activation. The myeloid differentiation antigen CD14 acts as the major receptor for bacterial LPS. The dominant form of the recombinant wildtype CD14 is the 50 kDa protein.,The rHuCD14 is produced from human CD14-transfected CHO-cells. Before transfection, the complete human CD14-cDNA was amplified by PCR and cloned into expression vector p-POL-DHFR ...
Bruce Beutler - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Beutler is best known for his pioneering molecular and genetic studies of inflammation and innate immunity. Interested in the mechanism by which lipopolysacchride (LPS) activates mammalian immune cells, Beutler identified the LPS receptor. Identification of the receptor hinged on the positional cloning (a method of gene identification) of the mammalian Lps locus, which had been known since the 1960s as a key gene for biological responses to LPS.. Beutler thus discovered the key sensors of microbial infection in mammals. He found that one of the mammalian toll-like receptors, TLR4, acts as the membrane-spanning component of the mammalian LPS receptor complex. The TLRs work in the perception of microbes. Ten are now known in humans. Each detects signature molecules produced early in an infection. These receptors also work in severe illness, including shock and systemic inflammation as it occurs in the course of an infection. They are also active in sterile inflammatory and autoimmune ...
CD14 Antigens Summary Report | CureHunter
CD14 Antigens: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
How long to stimulate monocytes by LPS?: post #1
How long to stimulate monocytes by LPS? - posted in Immunology: Hi everybody, I am wondering how much time does it take to stimulate peripheral blood monocytes by LPS to see switch in CD markers (from CD14++ to CD14+/CD16+ or CD16++) and other changes in expression of CD80, CD86, CD69 etc. I have already learned I have to stimulate cells by LPS at least 12 better 24 hours to detect cytokine production in supernatants, but how quickly do CD markers react? Thank you for your kind advices. Paja
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Lipopolysaccharide binding protein - Wikipedia
Lipopolysaccharide binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LBP gene. LBP is a soluble acute-phase protein that binds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (or LPS) to elicit immune responses by presenting the LPS to important cell surface pattern recognition receptors called CD14 and TLR4. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the acute-phase immunologic response to gram-negative bacterial infections. Gram-negative bacteria contain a glycolipid, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), on their outer cell wall. Together with bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the encoded protein binds LPS and interacts with the CD14 receptor, probably playing a role in regulating LPS-dependent monocyte responses. Studies in mice suggest that the encoded protein is necessary for the rapid acute-phase response to LPS but not for the clearance of LPS from circulation. This protein is part of a family of structurally and functionally related proteins, including BPI, plasma ...
Genetic regulation of rejection and survival following human lung transplantation by the innate immune receptor CD14<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic regulation of rejection and survival following human lung transplantation by the innate immune receptor CD14. AU - Palmer, S. M.. AU - Klimecki, W.. AU - Yu, L.. AU - Reinsmoen, N. L.. AU - Snyder, L. D.. AU - Ganous, T. M.. AU - Burch, L.. AU - Schwartz, D. A.. PY - 2007/3. Y1 - 2007/3. N2 - We have developed the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms which alter the expression or function of innate immune receptors contribute to the marked interindividual differences in the onset and severity of lung transplant rejection. In this analysis, we considered the effects of a common promotor polymorphism of the lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 associated with increased transcriptional activity upon the development of posttransplant rejection and graft survival. Genotyping was performed in 226 lung transplant recipients well characterized with regards to clinical outcomes. An earlier onset of acute rejection, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and worse posttransplant ...
EXBIO Antibodies Product Data Sheet
CD14 is a 55 kDa GPI-anchored glycoprotein, constitutively expressed on the surface of mature monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils, where serves as a multifunctional lipopolysaccharide receptor; it is also released to the serum both as a secreted and enzymatically cleaved GPI-anchored form. CD14 binds lipopolysaccharide molecule in a reaction catalyzed by lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), an acute phase serum protein. The soluble sCD14 is able to discriminate slight structural differences between lipopolysaccharides and is important for neutralization of serum allochthonous lipopolysaccharides by reconstituted lipoprotein particles. CD14 affects allergic, inflammatory and infectious processes ...
Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein plasma levels in children: effects of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity. - PubMed - NCBI
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Elevated CD14++CD16− Monocytes Predict Cardiovascular EventsClinical Perspective | Circulation: Genomic and Precision Medicine
Here we show that elevated CD14++CD16− monocytes predict cardiovascular events. Elevated CD14++CD16− monocytes predicted CVD risk independently of gender, age, current smoking, HDL cholesterol, and presence of diabetes and hypertension. CD14++CD16− monocytes did not, however, associate with the extent of atherosclerosis at baseline. In contrast, the percentages of monocytes expressing CD16 were negatively associated to carotid IMT at baseline. This seems contradictory but might indicate that different monocyte subsets have different biological functions. CD14++CD16− monocytes might cause inflammation that weakens the fibrous cap covering plaques and thus be associated with increased risk of clinical events, whereas CD16-expressing monocytes might play a greater role in determining the size of the plaque, perhaps even having a protective, or reparative, rather than plaque-promoting function. The chemokine receptors CCR2, CX3CR1, and CCR5 were not differentially expressed between cases and ...
JCI - Association of circulating receptor Fc gamma RIII-positive monocytes in AIDS patients with elevated levels of...
Monocytes in the circulation of normal individuals express two receptors for the constant region of immunoglobulin, Fc gamma RI and Fc gamma RII. In contrast, we have observed that AIDS monocytes express significant levels of a third Fc gamma R, Fc gamma RIII (CD16), which is normally associated with activation or maturation of the monocyte population. By dual-fluorescence analysis using a monoclonal antibody specific for Fc gamma RIII (MAb 3G8), 38.5 +/- 3.2% of the LeuM3 (CD14)-positive monocytes in AIDS patients were CD16 positive as compared to 10.4 +/- 1.0% for healthy individuals (n = 29; P less than 0.005). Furthermore, AIDS monocytes expressed Fc gamma RIII-specific mRNA which is expressed minimally or not at all in control monocytes. As a recently identified inducer of Fc gamma RIII expression on blood monocytes, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) was found to be elevated in the serum and/or plasma of AIDS patients. Moreover, incubation of normal monocytes with AIDS serum or ...
KEGG ORTHOLOGY: K02725
The proteasome as a lipopolysaccharide-binding protein in macrophages: differential effects of proteasome inhibition on lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling events ...
Monocyte-derived intestinal macrophages are major produ | Open-i
Monocyte-derived intestinal macrophages are major producers of IL-1β and IL-23.(a) MP1 and DC1 subsets were isolated from uninfected (uninf) and C. rodentium-i
Peripheral Blood CD14+ Monocytes | ax3413 (5,000,000 cells) | Axol Bioscience
Human CD14 monocytes from peripheral blood of healthy adult donors. Our primary human monocytes are uncultured and have purity |95%.
Monocyte Subsets in Atherosclerosis and Modification with Exercise in Humans<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Monocyte Subsets in Atherosclerosis and Modification with Exercise in Humans. AU - Aw, Ning Hong. AU - Canetti, Elisa. AU - Suzuki, Katsuhiko. AU - Goh, Jorming. PY - 2018/12/19. Y1 - 2018/12/19. N2 - Atherosclerosis is a progressive pathological remodeling of the arteries and one of its hallmarks is the presence of chronic inflammation. Notably, there is an increased proportion and activation state of specific monocyte subsets in systemic blood circulation. Monocyte subsets have distinct contributions to the formation, progression, and destabilization of the atherosclerotic plaque. Strong clinical and epidemiological studies show that regular aerobic exercise mitigates the progression of cardiovascular disease. In fact, aerobic fitness is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular mortality in adults, independent of traditional risk factors such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Acute bouts and chronic exercise training modulate monocyte behavior, ranging from their recruitment ...
JCI - Toll-like receptor 4-mediated lymphocyte influx induces neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis
mice were protected from NEC and transfer of intestinal lymphocytes from NEC mice into naive mice induced intestinal inflammation. The intestinal expression of the lipopolysaccharide receptor TLR4, which is higher in the premature compared with full-term human and mouse intestine, is required for lymphocyte influx through TLR4-mediated upregulation of CCR9/CCL25 signaling. TLR4 also mediates a STAT3-dependent polarization toward increased proinflammatory CD3+CD4+IL-17+ and reduced tolerogenic Foxp3+ Treg lymphocytes (Tregs). Th17 lymphocytes were required for NEC development, as inhibition of STAT3 or IL-17 receptor signaling attenuated NEC in mice, while IL-17 release impaired enterocyte tight junctions, increased enterocyte apoptosis, and reduced enterocyte proliferation, leading to NEC. Importantly, TLR4-dependent Th17 polarization could be reversed by the enteral administration of retinoic acid, which induced Tregs and decreased NEC severity. These findings identify an important role for ...
Level of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and microbial landscape with account of severity of sepsis syndromes in polytrauma ...
In 81% of the critically ill patients with polytrauma the post-traumatic period was accompanied with development of infectious complications, Gram-negative (K. pneumoniae, Acinetobacter spp., E. coli) and Gram-positive (S. Epidermidis, S. aureus). Sepsis was diagnosed on 8 to 10 days in 45% of the patients. The significant increase of LPS-BP was found in the first 3 days of the follow-up, compared with the control values (6.7 times higher in SIRS group (χ2(n = 18, df = 3) = 52.8666, P , 0.001); 9.9 times higher in the group with local infection (χ2(n = 36, df = 3) = 91.6629, P , 0.001); 15.2 times higher in the sepsis group; 20.5 times higher in the severe sepsis group; 47.3 times higher in the septic shock group (χ2(n = 6, df = 3) = 11.0339, P = 0.0115)), whereas the first positive results of the microbiological examination were obtained only on 5 to 7 days. The diagnostic sensitivity of threshold concentration of LBP in blood serum (335 mkg/ml) was 84%, diagnostic specificity was 88% (ROC ...
Childhood nephrotic syndrome in relapse is associated with down-regulation of monocyte CD14 expression and lipopolysaccharide...
Chen, S.P., Cheung, W., Heng, C.K., Yap, H.-K., Jordan, S.C. (2003). Childhood nephrotic syndrome in relapse is associated with down-regulation of monocyte CD14 expression and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor-α production. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 134 (1) : 111-119. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2249.2003.02252. ...
MojoSort Human Pan Monocyte Isolation Kit
MojoSort™ Human Pan Monocyte Isolation Kit - Cell populations other than total monocytes (CD14+ and CD14+CD16+ cells) are depleted by incubating the sample with the biotin antibody cocktail followed by incubation with magnetic Streptavidin Nanobeads.
Anti-TLR3/CD283 antibody (Biotin) [TLR3.7] | Abcam
Anti-TLR3/CD283 antibody conjugated to Biotin [TLR3/CD283.7] validated for WB, IP, IHC, FuncS, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Human and Mouse. Referenced in 2
Human Soluble CD276,sCD276/sB7-H3 ELISA Kit [quantitative, sandwich] (CSB-E14285h) - Cusabio - 2BScientific
Specialist distributor of life science reagents in the UK: Human Soluble CD276,sCD276/sB7-H3 ELISA Kit [quantitative, sandwich] (CSB-E14285h) by Cusabio
They express LCAs (leucocyte common antigens) CD45, CD14, CD33, and CD4 (also expressed by T helper cells). These histiocytes ... Their main activity is antigen presentation; they express Factor XIIIa, CD1c, and Class II Human leukocyte antigens. A subset ... Langerhans cells are antigen-presenting cells but have undergone further differentiation. Skin Langerhans cells express CD1a, ... Phagocytosis is the main process of macrophages and antigen presentation the main property of dendritic cells (so called ...
Plasmacytoid dendritic cell
Unlike myeloid dendritic cells, myeloid antigens like CD11b, CD11c, CD13, CD14 and CD33 are not present on pDC surfaces. ... In humans, pDCs exhibit plasma cell morphology and express CD4, HLA-DR, CD123, blood-derived dendritic cell antigen-2 (BDCA-2 ... Villadangos, José A.; Young, Louise (September 2008). "Antigen-Presentation Properties of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells". ... which allows the cell to optimize its antigen-presenting abilities. MHC class I on pDC surfaces are able to activate CD8+ T ...
... is a cancer/testis antigen that plays a key role in meiotic progression. It has shown to regulate 3 different functions ... doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-14-1092. PMC 4490184. PMID 25770156. Gao Y, Kardos J, Yang Y, Tamir TY, Mutter-Rottmayer E, Weissman B ... HORMA domain-containing protein 1 (HORMAD1) also known as cancer/testis antigen 46 (CT46) is a protein that in humans is ... July 2005). "Identification of CT46/HORMAD1, an immunogenic cancer/testis antigen encoding a putative meiosis-related protein ...
They also lack the expression of markers CD14, CD34, CD45, which can be important in the ability of stromal cells to remain ... Low levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR) make MSC's hypoimmunogenic. MSC's have trilineage differentiation where they are ...
List of MeSH codes (D23)
... cd14 MeSH D126.96.36.1990.050 - antigens, cd15 MeSH D188.8.131.520.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D184.108.40.2060 - antigens, ly ... antigens, cd13 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.114 - antigens, cd14 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.115 - antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.050.301.264 ... antigens, cd14 MeSH D23.050.301.264.900.050 - antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.050.301.264.900.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.050.301.264 ... antigens, cd13 MeSH D220.127.116.11.114 - antigens, cd14 MeSH D18.104.22.168.115 - antigens, cd15 MeSH D22.214.171.124.118 - ...
It enhances MHC class II antigen (extracellular protein complex that interacts exclusively with CD4-T cells as part of the ... CD14, and Mac-1. PRRs can be divided into three classes: signaling PRRs that activate gene transcriptional mechanisms that lead ... Holt PG, Oliver J, Bilyk N, McMenamin C, McMenamin PG, Kraal G, Thepen T (February 1993). "Downregulation of the antigen ... Yersinia enterocolitica has also been shown to releases virulence antigen LcrV, which induces IL-10 through Toll-like receptor- ...
Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14) at the PDBe-KB. CD14+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Simmons DL, Tan S, Tenen DG, Nicholson-Weller A, Seed B (January 1989). "Monocyte antigen CD14 is a phospholipid anchored ... CD14 was the first described pattern recognition receptor. CD14 acts as a co-receptor (along with the Toll-like receptor TLR 4 ... Human CD14 genome location and CD14 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Overview of all the structural information ...
Lymphocyte antigen 96
... and CD14, whereas TLR-4 and MD-2 are not involved". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (18): 15587-94. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Lymphocyte antigen 96 has been shown to interact with TLR 4. When LPS binds to a hydrophobic pocket in MD-2, it directly ... Lymphocyte antigen 96, also known as "Myeloid Differentiation factor 2 (MD-2)," is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... "Entrez Gene: LY96 lymphocyte antigen 96". Park BS, Song DH, Kim HM, Choi BS, Lee H, Lee JO (April 2009). "The structural basis ...
Certain antibodies can be used to detect or purify cells with these markers by binding to their surface antigens. A standard ... CD14 (Monocytes), CD16 (NK cells, granulocytes), CD19 (B lymphocytes), CD20 (B lymphocytes), and CD56 (NK cells) in humans. " ...
2012). "CD14 Cooperates with Complement Receptor 3 to mediate MyD88-Independent Phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi". Proc ... Macrophage-1 antigen (hereafter complement receptor 3 or CR3) (CD11b/CD18) is a human cell surface receptor found on B and T ... Macrophage-1 antigen (or integrin αMβ2 or macrophage integrin or Mac-1) is a complement receptor ("CR3") consisting of CD11b ( ... Macrophage-1+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
Duffy antigen system
This antigen along with other blood group antigens was used to identify the Basque people as a genetically separate group. ... Because the Duffy antigen is uncommon in those of Black African descent, the presence of this antigen has been used to detect ... The Fy4 antigen, originally described on Fy (a-b-) RBCs, is now thought to be a distinct, unrelated antigen and is no longer ... The Duffy antigen is expressed in greater quantities on reticulocytes than on mature erythrocytes. While the Duffy antigen ...
Ming Tatt Cheah
... patents.google.com/patent/EP2471925A1/en CD14-Expressing Cancer Cells Establish the Inflammatory and Proliferative Tumor ... USA 2015, 112, 4725-4730 , https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1424795112 Transcriptional Profiling of Antigen-Dependent Murine B Cell ...
... the local Langerhans cells take up and process microbial antigens to become fully functional antigen-presenting cells. ... However LCH cells stain positive to CD14 which is a monocyte marker and shows a different, hematopoietic origin for the ... T cells are not tolerized by Langerhans cells presenting human papillomavirus antigens in the absence of costimulation". ...
Sano, H; H Chiba; D Iwaki; H Sohma; D R Voelker; Y Kuroki (2000-07-21). "Surfactant proteins A and D bind CD14 by different ... SP-D increases bacterial antigen presentation by dendritic cells whereas SP-A blocs differentation of the immature dendritic ... It can be caused by removing the LPS or by binding the LPS to CD14 receptor on macrophages that can block the inflammatory ... "Surfactant protein D enhances bacterial antigen presentation by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells". American Journal of ...
CD antigens". Immunobiology (5 ed.). New York: Garland. ISBN 978-0-8153-3642-6. Vivier E, Morin P, O'Brien C, Druker B, ... such as CD14 and CD15. Neutrophils are found to be CD14low and CD15high, whereas monocytes are CD14high and CD15low. While ... CD16+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Elghetany MT (March 2002). "Surface antigen changes during normal neutrophilic development: a critical review". Blood Cells, ...
Eventually, the antigen presentation results in the production of antibodies that attach to the antigens of pathogens, making ... can be identified using flow cytometry or immunohistochemical staining by their specific expression of proteins such as CD14, ... the antigen is endocytosed and processed. The processed antigen is then presented in MHCII on the surface of the B-cell. T ... The antigen presentation on the surface of infected macrophages (in the context of MHC class II) in a lymph node stimulates TH1 ...
Globulins - increased due to shunting of bacterial antigens away from the liver to lymphoid tissue. Serum sodium - hyponatremia ... Presepsin soluble CD14 soluble CD163 soluble CD206 (mannose receptor) soluble TREM-1 Ultrasound is routinely used in the ...
CD14+CD16++ monocyte). The intermediate monocyte with high level expression of CD14 and low level expression of CD16 (CD14++ ... These are phagocytosis, antigen presentation, and cytokine production. Phagocytosis is the process of uptake of microbes and ... showed that activated monocytes express high levels of PD-1 which might explain the higher expression of PD-1 in CD14+CD16++ ... After stimulation with microbial products the CD14+CD16++ monocytes produce high amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines like ...
This LPS-LBP complex transfers the LPS to CD14. CD14 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein that binds the ... Morphine causes inflammation by binding to the protein lymphocyte antigen 96, which, in turn, causes the protein to bind to ... It cooperates with LY96 (also referred as MD-2) and CD14 to mediate in signal transduction events induced by lipopolysaccharide ... TLR4 has been shown to interact with: Lymphocyte antigen 96, Myd88, and TOLLIP. Nickel, Intracellular trafficking of TLR4 is ...
... and the LBP-LPS complex then binds to a CD14 receptor on a macrophage. The LBP-LPS binding to CD14 results in cellular ... often in the presence of an antigen, leading to a fever. Whilst they can be a product of external factors like exogenous ...
O antigen is exposed on the very outer surface of the bacterial cell, and, as a consequence, is a target for recognition by ... LPS acts as the prototypical endotoxin because it binds the CD14/TLR4/MD2 receptor complex in many cell types, but especially ... The O antigen is attached to the core oligosaccharide, and comprises the outermost domain of the LPS molecule. The composition ... O-antigens (the outer carbohydrates) are the most variable portion of the LPS molecule, imparting the antigenic specificity. In ...
Mast cell leukemia
Mast cell differentiation antigens: expression in normal and malignant cells and use for diagnostic purposes". Eur. J. Clin. ... Characteristically, basophil (e.g. CD11b, CD123) and monocyte markers (CD14, CD15) are absent. The cells usually express CD2 ...
CD14−, CD23−, Ly49c−, CD122−, CD11c−, Gr-1−, NK1.1−, B220−, CD3−, γδTCR−, αβTCR−, α4 and β4-integrin negative. Recently, ... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ...
When FcαRI monovalently binds monomeric, non-antigen bound IgA, the form most common in serum, the resulting signals result in ... "Intestinal macrophages lack CD14 and CD89 and consequently are down-regulated for LPS- and IgA-mediated activities". Journal of ... and antigen presentation. Despite signaling via ITAMs, which typically initiate activation cascades, FcαRI may either act as an ...
Saxena M, Williams S, Gilman J, Mustelin T (Jun 1998). "Negative regulation of T cell antigen receptor signal transduction by ... "Endotoxin induces rapid protein tyrosine phosphorylation in 70Z/3 cells expressing CD14". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
ATP1B3 - Википедия
Tissue Antigens (англ.)русск. : journal. - 2007. - Vol. 68, no. 6. - P. 509-517. - DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00726.x. - PMID ...
CD64+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
CD14, a recognition receptor present on macrophages, associate with toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is described to be a receptor ... leprae antigen(s) combined with Murabutide and Trat peptide in leprosy patients". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 309 (1-2 ... Yu W, Soprana E, Cosentino G, Volta M, Lichenstein HS, Viale G, Vercelli D (October 1998). "Soluble CD14(1-152) confers ... purified from Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium kansasii induce TNF-alpha and IL-8 secretion by a CD14-toll-like ...
CD74 - Википедия
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
Меланотрансферрин - Википедия
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
The protein also carries the Jr(a) antigen, which defines the Junior blood group system. ...
CLEC12A - Википедия
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
"Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 6
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom. ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
Integrin beta 3
"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)".. *^ May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; ... CD61+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
"Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26". Science. 261 (5120): 466-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
CD36 - Википедия
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet degranulation. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling ...
Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of ...
CXCR5 - Википедия
... uveitis antigens induce CXCR3- and CXCR5-expressing lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells to migrate (англ.) // Blood (англ ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
antigen binding. • virus receptor activity. • protein binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • identical protein ...
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... 1996). "CD88 antibodies specifically bind to C5aR on dermal CD117+ and CD14+ cells and react with a desmosomal antigen in human ...
Eventually, the antigen presentation results in the production of antibodies that attach to the antigens of pathogens, making ... can be identified using flow cytometry or immunohistochemical staining by their specific expression of proteins such as CD14, ... the antigen is endocytosed and processed. The processed antigen is then presented in MHCII on the surface of the B-cell. T ... The antigen presentation on the surface of infected macrophages (in the context of MHC class II) in a lymph node stimulates TH1 ...
Kategori:Rintisan bertopik biokimia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Antigen karsinoembrionik. *Arginase. *Aril-alkohol dehidrogenase. *Aril-alkohol dehidrogenase (NADP+). *Asam 2,4- ...
CD14−, CD23−, Ly49c−, CD122−, CD11c−, Gr-1−, NK1.1−, B220−, CD3−, γδTCR−, αβTCR−, α4 and β4-integrin negative. ... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ...
CD117 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... 1991). „Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID ... 2003). „Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". Int. J. Hematol. 75 ...
positive regulation of antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class II. • positive regulation of ERK1 ... CD14 and Toll-like receptors (e.g., TLR4), and cytokine receptors (e.g., IFNGR1). Engagement of these receptors can also prime ...
Antigens, CD14 | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
CD14" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Antigens, CD14" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Antigens, CD14" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD14" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Antigens, CD14". ...
CD14 - Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 - Cercocebus atys (Sooty mangabey) - CD14 gene & protein
tr,A0A2K5LKS5,A0A2K5LKS5_CERAT Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 OS=Cercocebus atys OX=9531 GN=CD14 PE=4 SV=1 ... Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14UniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14Sequence analysis. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... Name:CD14Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href="/ ...
Cd14 - Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 precursor - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cd14 gene & protein
The lipoproteins act as agonists to modulate antigen presenting cell functions in response to the pathogen (PubMed:19362712). ... sp,P10810,CD14_MOUSE Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Cd14 PE=1 SV=1 ... "CD14 is required for MyD88-independent LPS signaling.". Jiang Z., Georgel P., Du X., Shamel L., Sovath S., Mudd S., Huber M., ... "CD14 is required for MyD88-independent LPS signaling.". Jiang Z., Georgel P., Du X., Shamel L., Sovath S., Mudd S., Huber M., ...
CD14 Antigens Summary Report | CureHunter
CD14 Antigens: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, ... Antigens: 114404*Surface Antigens: 4354*Differentiation Antigens: 1051*CD Antigens: 38*CD14 Antigens: 92 ... Antigens, CD14; CD14 Antigen; CD14 Monocyte Differentiation Antigen; LPS Receptor; Lipoglycan Receptor; Receptor, LPS; Receptor ... CD14 Antigens. Subscribe to New Research on CD14 Antigens Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the ...
Yersinia V-Antigen Exploits Toll-like Receptor 2 and CD14 for Interleukin 10-mediated Immunosuppression | JEM
Yersinia V-Antigen Exploits Toll-like Receptor 2 and CD14 for Interleukin 10-mediated Immunosuppression. Andreas Sing, Dagmar ... PPMs from CD14−/− and isogenic CD14+/+ mice were treated with rLcrV for 2 h. Then IL-10 was determined in the culture ... Yersinia V-Antigen Exploits Toll-like Receptor 2 and CD14 for Interleukin 10-mediated Immunosuppression ... CD14 is required for LcrV-induced immunomodulation. (A) IL-10 induction by rLcrV is virtually absent in CD14 −/− PPMs. PPMs ...
Functional role for the myeloid differentiation antigen CD14 in the activation of human monocytes by IL-2. | The Journal of...
Functional role for the myeloid differentiation antigen CD14 in the activation of human monocytes by IL-2.. M C Bosco, I ... Functional role for the myeloid differentiation antigen CD14 in the activation of human monocytes by IL-2. ... Functional role for the myeloid differentiation antigen CD14 in the activation of human monocytes by IL-2. ... Functional role for the myeloid differentiation antigen CD14 in the activation of human monocytes by IL-2. ...
The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors | Science
CD14 is a myelomonocytic differentiation antigen expressed by monocytes, macrophages, and activated granulocytes and is ... The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ... The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ... The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ...
RePub, Erasmus University Repository: Hepatitis B virus surface antigen activates myeloid dendritic cells via a soluble CD14...
Cd14 - CD14 antigen | International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium
Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 | P2X7
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20039299 - Hexamethylene diisocyanate asthma is associated with genetic polymorphisms of CD14...
For example, serum diisocyanate antigen-specific IgE and IgG have been extensively investigated, but these immunoassays lack ... IL4RA II 1 CD14 CT; and IL4RA II 1 IL13 RR 1 CD14 CT) for distinguishing confirmed DA status (DA1) compared with SIC-negative ... or CD14. Genotypes w(I50V), IL4RA (Q551R), IL4RA (E375A), IL13 (R110Q), and CD14 (C159T) SNPs, as previously described.5 ... the association between DA and the IL4RA II 1 CD14 CT and IL4RA II 1 IL13 RR 1 CD14 CT genotype combinations approached ...
CD14 Mouse Recombinant Protein - CD Antigens - Recombinant Protein - Full-Length Protein - Products | ProMab
Before transfection the complete mouse CD14-cDNA was amplified by PCR and cloned into expression vector p-POL-DHFR). The ... The CD14 is produced from mouse CD14 transfected CHO-cells in serum free medium. ... The CD14 is produced from mouse CD14 transfected CHO-cells in serum free medium. Before transfection the complete mouse CD14- ... It is recommended to reconstitute the lyophilized Mouse CD14 in sterile 18Ω-cm H2O not less than 100μg/ml, which can then be ...
MojoSort Human CD14 Nanobeads
After collection of the CD14,sup,+,/sup, expressing cells, downstream applicat ... expressing cells are either selected or depleted by incubating your sample with the directly conjugated CD14 Nanobeads. The ... Antigen Details Gene ID NA UniProt View information about CD14 on UniProt.org ... MojoSort™ Human CD14 Nanobeads, MojoSort™, Human CD14 Positive Selection, CD14 Positive Selection, Human CD14 Positive ...
Alexa Fluor 647 anti-human CD14 Antibody anti-CD14 - 63D3
CD14 is expressed at high levels on monocytes and macrophages, and at lower levels on granulocytes. Some dendritic cell ... p,CD14 is a 53-55 kD glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked membrane glycoprotein that is also known as the LPS receptor. ... Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14, myeloid cell-specific leucine-rich glycoprotein, LPS receptor Isotype Mouse IgG1, κ Ave ... CD14 is a 53-55 kD glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked membrane glycoprotein that is also known as the LPS receptor. CD14 ...
Increase in CD14+HLA-DR−/low myeloid-derived suppressor cells in hepatocellular carcinoma patients and its impact on prognosis ...
... and it is reported that CD14+HLA-DR−/lowMDSCs are increased in hepatocellular carcinoma... ... Comparative analysis of various tumor-associated antigen-specific t-cell responses in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. ... Increase in CD14+HLA-DR−/low myeloid-derived suppressor cells in hepatocellular carcinoma patients and its impact on prognosis ... Vuk-Pavlović S, Bulur PA, Lin Y, Qin R, Szumlanski CL, Zhao X, Dietz AB (2010) Immunosuppressive CD14 + HLA-DRlow/- monocytes ...
CD14 ELISA & Assay Kits
Compare and order CD14 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products ... monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 , myeloid cell-specific leucine-rich glycoprotein , CD14 antigen , lipopolysaccharide ... CD14 Antigen Profile Beschreibung des Gens The protein encoded by this gene is a surface antigen that is preferentially ... The sensitivity, minimum detectable dose of Human CD14 using this CD14 ELISA kit was found to be Anmelden zum Anzeigen *(4) ...
Cis and trans acting factors involved in human cytomegalovirus experimental and natural latent infection of CD14 (+) monocytes...
Using next generation sequencing we deduced the transcriptome of HCMV latently infected CD14 (+) and CD34 (+) cells in ... latent infection in CD14 (+) and CD34 (+) cells remain poorly identified. ... Antigens, CD34* * Cells, Cultured * Cytomegalovirus / genetics * Cytomegalovirus / metabolism* * Cytomegalovirus Infections / ... Cis and trans acting factors involved in human cytomegalovirus experimental and natural latent infection of CD14 (+) monocytes ...
CD14 is a pattern recognition receptor
Antigens, CD / immunology* * Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / biosynthesis * Antigens, Differentiation, ... CD14 is a pattern recognition receptor Immunity. 1994 Sep;1(6):509-16. doi: 10.1016/1074-7613(94)90093-0. ... We propose that CD14 is a receptor used by mammalian cells to recognize and signal responses to a diverse array of bacterial ... Here we show that CD14 plays a key role in initiating cell activation by a group of bacterial envelope components from Gram- ...
CD14 Rat anti-Mouse, Brilliant Violet 421, Clone: rmC5-3, BD Optibuild | Fisher Scientific
... products and learn more about CD14 Rat anti-Mouse, Brilliant Violet 421, Clone: rmC5-3, BD Optibuild 50µg; Brilliant Violet ... Cd14; CD14 antigen; Myeloid cell-specific leucine-rich glycoprotein. Format. Affinity Purified. ... This staining pattern is similar to that of the alternate anti-mouse CD14 mAb 4C1/CD14, which recognizes a different CD14 ... The rmC5-3 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to residues 308-322 of the hydrophilic region of mouse CD14. CD14 is a 53-55 ...
CD14 Mouse anti-Human, BB700, Clone: MÏ†P9 (also known as MÏ†P-9), BD Horizon | Fisher Scientific
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about CD14 Mouse anti-Human, BB700, Clone: MÏ†P9 (also known as MÏ†P-9), BD ... Antigen. CD14. Clone. MÏ†P9 (also known as MÏ†P-9). Format. Purified. ... CD14 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects CD14 in Human samples. It is validated for Flow Cytometry. ... CD14 Mouse anti-Human, BB700, Clone: MÏ†P9 (also known as MÏ†P-9), BD Horizon ...
Detrimental and protective action of microglial extracellular vesicles on myelin lesions: astrocyte involvement in...
Anti-CD14 antibody [RPA-M1] (ab86895) | Abcam
Mouse monoclonal CD14 antibody [RPA-M1] validated for Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen ... Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 urinary form antibody. *Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14, membrane-bound form ... Toll-like receptor 4 and CD14 expression in human ciliary body and TLR-4 in human iris endothelial cells.. Exp Eye Res 79:203-8 ... Cell surface flow cytometric analysis of CD14 in human monocytes, using 0.1 µg of ab86895 for 106 cells. Anti mouse IgG-FITC ...
Anti-CD14 antibody (ab115634) | Abcam
Rabbit polyclonal CD14 antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide. ... Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 urinary form antibody. *Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14, membrane-bound form ... All lanes : Anti-CD14 antibody (ab115634) at 0.1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Mouse Thymus tissue lysate. Lane 2 : Mouse Spleen tissue ... Synthetic peptide corresponding to Mouse CD14 aa 152-165 (internal sequence).. Sequence: TRDAWLAELQQWLK ...
Anti-Human CD14 Antibody, Clone M5E2
CD14 is a useful marker for distinguising monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes. Clone M5E2 antibody may be used for flow ... Anti-Human CD14 Antibody M5E2,Anti-Human CD14 M5E2,Anti-Human CD14 Clone M5E2,CD14 Clone M5E2,CD14 M5E2,human CD14 Clone M5E2, ... CD14 is also found on tissue macrophages, Langerhans cells and dendritic cells. CD14 functions as a high-affinity receptor for ... Human CD14 Positive Selection Kit and labeled with Anti-Human CD14 Antibody, Clone M5E2, PE. Histograms show labeling of PBMCs ...
CD14 Antibody (M5E2) [DyLight 488] (NB100-77758G): Novus Biologicals
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD14 Antibody (M5E2) [DyLight 488]. Validated: Flow, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Human, ... Alternate Names for CD14 Antibody (M5E2) [DyLight 488]. *CD14 antigen. *CD14 molecule ... Blogs on CD14. Check out the latest blog posts on CD14.. The role of TLR4 in breast cancer. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are ... Reviews for CD14 Antibody (NB100-77758G) (0) There are no reviews for CD14 Antibody (NB100-77758G). By submitting a review you ...
Human CD14 Quantikine ELISA Kit DC140: R&D Systems
Quantikine Human CD14 ELISA Kit(DC140). Sensitivity: 125 pg/mL. Validated for Cell Culture Supernates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, ... CD14 antigen; CD14 molecule; CD14; monocyte differentiation antigen CD14; Myeloid cell-specific leucine-rich glycoprotein ... The CD14 (-159 C/T) SNP is associated with sCD14 levels and allergic asthma, but not with CD14 expression on monocytes Authors ... Background: CD14. CD14 is an acute phase glycoprotein that binds lipopolysaccharide endotoxins (LPS) from Gram-negative ...
CD14 Antibody (M5E2) [FITC] (NB100-77759): Novus Biologicals
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD14 Antibody (M5E2) [FITC]. Validated: Flow. Tested Reactivity: Human, Porcine, Bovine, and more. 100% ... Alternate Names for CD14 Antibody (M5E2) [FITC]. *CD14 antigen. *CD14 molecule. *CD14 ... Blogs on CD14. Check out the latest blog posts on CD14.. The role of TLR4 in breast cancer. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are ... Reviews for CD14 Antibody (NB100-77759) (0) There are no reviews for CD14 Antibody (NB100-77759). By submitting a review you ...
Patent US5849517 - Method and composition for preserving antigens and nucleic acids and process ... - Google Patents
Vaccines and related immunotherapeutic methods utilizing antigens stabilized by the fixative of the present invention are also ... Lymphocytes were gated using CD45-FITC and CD14-PE. Background staining was evaluated using isotope control monoclonal ... Examples of such antigens are the CD antigens present on the surface of hematopoietic cells. Because much of the clinically ... Tumor specific antigens appear labile and antigens must be presented to the immune system while on the tumor cell. Thus, ...
KEGG BRITE: KEGG Orthology (KO) - Rattus norvegicus (rat)
60350 Cd14; monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 precursor 448830 Ly96; lymphocyte antigen 96 precursor 364594 Tlr3; toll-like ... MHC class I antigen K06751 MHC1; MHC class I antigen K06751 MHC1; MHC class I antigen K06751 MHC1; MHC class I antigen K06751 ... MHC class I antigen K06751 MHC1; MHC class I antigen K06751 MHC1; MHC class I antigen K06751 MHC1; MHC class I antigen K06751 ... MHC class I antigen K06751 MHC1; MHC class I antigen K06751 MHC1; MHC class I antigen K06751 MHC1; MHC class I antigen K06751 ...
Human dendritic cell subsets.
Dendritic cells are highly adapted to their role of presenting antigen and directing immune responses. Developmental studies ... Antigens, CD1 / metabolism. Antigens, CD14 / metabolism. Cell Lineage / immunology. Dendritic Cells / classification*, cytology ... 0/Antigens, CD1; 0/Antigens, CD14; 0/CD1C protein, human; 0/Glycoproteins ... CD14+ DCs CD14+DCs found in tissues and lymph nodes are a third subset of CD11c+ myeloid cells originally described as ...
Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14MonocytesAntibodyReceptorMacrophagesMyeloidLeucine-rich glycoproteinMoleculeDendriticAntibodiesGlycoproteinSerumProfessional antigen preseSurface antigenProteinMyelomonocyticCellsSoluble CD14Flow CytometryTLR4SpeciesCytokinesLipoteichoic acidMacrophageSCD14Tumor antigen-specificGeneMeSHTarget AntigenMoleculesNeutrophilsProteinsCancer immunotherapyForeign antigensTransfectionCellLeukocyte
Monocyte differentiation antigen CD141
- Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P08571 (Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14) at the PDBe-KB. (wikipedia.org)
- Functional role for the myeloid differentiation antigen CD14 in the activation of human monocytes by IL-2. (jimmunol.org)
- Preincubation of monocytes with mAbs directed to selected epitopes on CD14 blocked the binding of IL-2 to the cell surface, providing a possible explanation for the inhibition of IL-2-triggered responses. (jimmunol.org)
- CD14 is a myelomonocytic differentiation antigen expressed by monocytes, macrophages, and activated granulocytes and is detectable with the monoclonal antibodies MO2, MY4, and LeuM3. (sciencemag.org)
- PBMCs were prepared to isolate or deplete CD14 + monocytes using the MojoSort™ Human CD14 Nanobeads. (biolegend.com)
- CD14 + monocytes after isolation. (biolegend.com)
- CD14 is expressed at high levels on monocytes and macrophages, and at lower levels on granulocytes. (biolegend.com)
- As a high-affinity receptor for LPS, CD14 is involved in the clearance of gram-negative pathogens and in the upregulation of adhesion molecules and cytokine expression in monocytes and neutrophils. (biolegend.com)
- Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays on experimentally infected CD14 (+) monocytes followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) were employed to demonstrate both UL84 and UL44 proteins interacted with the latent viral genome and overlapped at 5 of the 8 loci identified. (nih.gov)
- ChIP assays show that the viral TR region interacts with factors associated with the pre replication complex and a plasmid subclone containing the HCMV TR element persisted in latently infected CD14 (+) monocytes, strongly suggesting that the TR region mediates viral chromosome maintenance. (nih.gov)
- This staining pattern is similar to that of the alternate anti-mouse CD14 mAb 4C1/CD14, which recognizes a different CD14 epitope, and differs from that of the human, where CD14 expression is characteristic of circulating monocytes and neutrophils. (fishersci.com)
- In agreement with the observations that CD14 is shed from activated human and mouse monocytes, rmC5-3 mAb detects soluble CD14 in the serum of LPS-treated mice in a time-dependent manner. (fishersci.com)
- Cell surface flow cytometric analysis of CD14 in human monocytes, using 0.1 µg of ab86895 for 10 6 cells. (abcam.com)
- The M5E2 antibody reacts with CD14, an ~53 - 55 kDa GPI-anchored transmembrane glycoprotein expressed at high levels on the surface of peripheral blood monocytes and macrophages, and at lower levels on granulocytes. (stemcell.com)
- An ~10-fold difference in expression levels between monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes makes CD14 a useful marker for distinguishing these cell populations. (stemcell.com)
- Perhaps the strongest evidence for the primacy of mCD14 in mediating responses to LPS is the observation that monocytes from CD14-deficient mice show a strongly attenuated cytokine response to LPS ( 9 ). (rupress.org)
- CD14 is expressed on monocytes, interfollicular macrophages and some dendritic cells. (thermofisher.com)
- Complexes of LPS and LBP (LPS-Binding Protein) bind with high affinity to monocytes through the surface CD14. (thermofisher.com)
- CD14 is a 55 kDa GPI-anchored glycoprotein that is constitutively expressed on the surface of mature monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. (thermofisher.com)
- Clone REA934 recognizes the mouse CD14 antigen, a cell surface glycoprotein preferentially expressed on monocytes/macrophages, but also on granulocytes, dendritic cells, Kupffer cells, and hepatocytes. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- However, when monocytes from patients with active TB were restimulated with antigen derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis , less 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 was observed. (hindawi.com)
- The CD14 antigen is found on cells of myelomonocytic lineage and is stronly expressed on monocytes and macrophages. (polysciences.com)
- The mouse monoclonal antibody recognizes human CD14, a surface antigen that is preferentially expressed on monocytes/macrophages. (cellsciences.com)
- The soluble form of the receptor (sCD14) is secreted by the liver and monocytes and is sufficient in low concentrations to confer LPS-responsiveness to cells not expressing CD14. (wikipedia.org)
- CD14 is a surface protein preferentially expressed on monocytes/macrophages. (abnova.com)
- Bacterial sepsis induced immunsuppression via antigen hyporesponsibility increases the risk of nosokomial infections and mortality.Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) might have a central role in the pathophysiology of hyporesponsibility.We found a significant higher expression of Trem-1 and TLR-2 on monocytes and neutrophils in patients compared to healthy volunteers. (nih.gov)
- CD14 antigen is strongly expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and weakly on neutrophils. (beckman.com)
- CD14 is a cell surface anchored glycoprotein that is expressed predominantly by monocytes and tissue macrophages. (creativebiomart.net)
- CD14 is expressed strongly on monocytes and macrophage and weakly on the surface of neutrophils. (biotium.com)
- Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax-infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14(+)CD16- (classical), CD14(+)CD16(+) (inflammatory), and CD14loCD16(+) (patrolling) cells. (jove.com)
- While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16(+) cells, in particular the CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which included chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules. (jove.com)
- Morphologically, CD14(+) were distinguished from CD14lo monocytes by displaying larger and more active mitochondria. (jove.com)
- The rmC5-3 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to residues 308-322 of the hydrophilic region of mouse CD14. (fishersci.com)
- CD14 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects CD14 in Human samples. (fishersci.com)
- red represents anti CD14 antibody. (abcam.com)
- A) Flow cytometry analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) labeled with Anti-Human CD14 Antibody, Clone M5E2, Alexa Fluor® 488 and Anti-Human CD45 Antibody, Clone HI30, APC (Catalog #60018AD). (stemcell.com)
- B) Flow cytometry analysis of human PBMCs processed with the EasySep™ Human CD14 Positive Selection Kit and labeled with Anti-Human CD14 Antibody, Clone M5E2, Alexa Fluor® 488. (stemcell.com)
- There are currently no images for CD14 Antibody (NB100-77758G). (novusbio.com)
- Serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses after pneumococcal vaccinations were examined according to CD14 genotype to compare immune responsiveness across genotypes. (asm.org)
- The following product was used in this experiment: CD14 Monoclonal Antibody (61D3), PerCP-Cyanine5.5, eBioscience™ from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 45-0149-42, RRID AB_1518736. (thermofisher.com)
- Description: The 61D3 monoclonal antibody reacts with human CD14, a 53-55 kDa GPI-linked glycoprotein. (thermofisher.com)
- The following product was used in this experiment: CD14 Monoclonal Antibody (TuK4), Biotin from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MHCD1415, RRID AB_10373107. (thermofisher.com)
- In order to compare the epitope specificity of an antibody, the clone being used is compared with other known clones recognizing the same antigen in a competition assay. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- Cells were incubated with an excess of purified unconjugated CD14 (REA599) antibody followed by staining with fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies of other known clones against the same marker. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human CD14 protein. (abnova.com)
- Western Blot analysis of CD14 expression in transfected 293T cell line ( H00000929-T02 ) by CD14 MaxPab polyclonal antibody. (abnova.com)
- Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
- The antibody MEM-15 also reacts with soluble forms of CD14 found in serum and in the urine of some nephrotic patients. (exbio.cz)
- Catalog number key for antibody number 0654, Anti-CD14 (LPSR/654) The prefix indicates conjugation, followed by the antibody number and size suffix. (biotium.com)
- HL-60 cells were subjected to SDS PAGE followed by western blot with 17000-1-AP (CD14 Antibody) at dilution of 1:600 incubated at room temperature for 1.5 hours. (ptglab.com)
- Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human hepatocirrhosis tissue slide using 17000-1-AP (CD14 antibody) at dilution of 1:2000 (under 10x lens). (ptglab.com)
- Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human hepatocirrhosis tissue slide using 17000-1-AP (CD14 antibody) at dilution of 1:2000 (under 40x lens). (ptglab.com)
- Immunofluorescent analysis of (-20℃ Ethanol) fixed RAW 264.7 cells using 17000-1-AP (CD14 antibody) at dilution of 1:50 and Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated AffiniPure Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG(H+L). (ptglab.com)
- 1X10^6 RAW 264.7 cells were stained with 0.2ug CD14 antibody (17000-1-AP, red) and control antibody (blue). (ptglab.com)
- In vivo DC-targeting strategies, based on Tn-MGL interactions, constitute a promising strategy for enhancing antigen presentation and inducing potent antibody response. (bloodjournal.org)
- However, the anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody MY4 inhibited VEGF induction upon stimulation with LPS in HPC cultures in the presence of 10% FBS but not in the absence of FBS. (asm.org)
- Here we report that recombinant LcrV signals in a CD14- and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent fashion leading to immunosuppression by interleukin 10 induction. (rupress.org)
- Hexamethylene diisocyanate asthma is associated with genetic polymorphisms of CD14, IL-13, and IL-4 receptor alpha. (cdc.gov)
- In 2006, we first reported that DA confirmed by specific inhalation challenge (SIC) testing was significantly associated with cytokine genotype combinations of IL-4 receptor a (IL4RA), IL13, and CD14 SNPs, but exclusively in hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI)-exposed workers. (cdc.gov)
- CD14 is a 53-55 kD glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked membrane glycoprotein that is also known as the LPS receptor. (biolegend.com)
- We propose that CD14 is a receptor used by mammalian cells to recognize and signal responses to a diverse array of bacterial constituents. (nih.gov)
- CD14 serves as a receptor for LPS that can play a role in the cellular production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 and TNF. (fishersci.com)
- Toll-like receptor 4 and CD14 expression in human ciliary body and TLR-4 in human iris endothelial cells. (abcam.com)
- CD14 functions as a high-affinity receptor for complexes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and serum LPS-binding protein and modulates LPS-dependent signal transduction during the immune response to gram-negative pathogens by acting as a co-receptor for TLR 4 and MD-2. (stemcell.com)
- First characterized as the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide receptor ( 53 ), CD14 also appears to be involved in responses to lipoteichoic acid from gram-positive bacteria ( 7 ), peptidoglycan of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria ( 18 ), mycobacteria, and viruses ( 12 ). (asm.org)
- Surprisingly, these animals displayed a defect in the homeostatic maintenance of splenic CD8α + DCs and in the capacity of these cells to cross-present cell corpse-associated antigens to MHC class I-restricted T cells, a property that was associated with defective expression of the T-cell Ig mucin (TIM)-4 receptor. (pnas.org)
- CD14 also serves as a multifunctional lipopolysaccharide receptor, and is released to the serum both as a secreted and enzymatically cleaved GPI-anchored form. (thermofisher.com)
- In association with toll-like receptors TLR 4 and MD-2, CD14 is a highly specific co-receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and for a variety of other pathogen-associated molecular patterns of microbial sources. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- Staphylococcal enterotoxins are classified as superantigens that act by linking T-cell receptor with MHC class II molecules, which are expressed on classical antigen-presenting cells (APC). (frontiersin.org)
- Staphylococcal enterotoxins are superantigens due its properties to induce extensive proliferation of T cells mediated by cross-linking of the variable region of the β chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR) with MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as macrophages and dendritic cells ( Fraser, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
- In this study, CD14 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), integral molecular components of pathogen recognition, were identified and characterised for the first time in a marsupial, the tammar wallaby ( Macropus eugenii ). (biologists.org)
- Functional motifs of tammar CD14 and the toll/interleukin receptor (TIR) domain of TLR4 were highly conserved. (biologists.org)
- Of the membrane glycoproteins involved in pathogen recognition, the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, molecules that are activated by the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) of many microbes, and the co-receptor CD14 are essential. (biologists.org)
- Distinct from pharmacologic immune suppression, we have developed what we believe is a novel, human CD83-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell for GVHD prevention. (jci.org)
- CD14 was the first described pattern recognition receptor. (wikipedia.org)
- CD14 acts as a co-receptor (along with the Toll-like receptor TLR 4 and MD-2) for the detection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (wikipedia.org)
- There is some agreement that the cell surface antigens CD133 and vascular-endothelial growth factor receptor 2, along with LDL uptake and lectin binding, may be used to identify these cells. (asahq.org)
- Macrophage-1 antigen (or integrin αMβ2 or macrophage integrin or Mac-1) is a complement receptor ("CR3") consisting of CD11b (integrin αM) and CD18 (integrin β2). (wikipedia.org)
- Macrophage-1 antigen (hereafter complement receptor 3 or CR3) (CD11b/CD18) is a human cell surface receptor found on B and T lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (mostly neutrophils), NK cells, and mononuclear phagocytes like macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
- Sing A, Rost D, Tvardovskaia N, Roggenkamp A, Wiedemann A, Kirschning CJ, Aepfelbacher M, Heesemann J: Yersinia V-antigen exploits toll-like receptor 2 and CD14 for interleukin 10-mediated immunosuppression. (exbio.cz)
- Recognizes a protein of 55 kDa, identified as CD14 (also known lipopolysaccharide receptor). (biotium.com)
- Journal Article] Bladder cancer-associated cancer-testis antigen-derived long peptides encompassing both CTL and promiscuous HLA class II-restricted Th cell epitopes induced CD4+ T cells expressing converged T-cell receptor genes in vitro. (nii.ac.jp)
- Recombinant sCD14 is a 331 amino acid glycoprotein comprising the extracellular portion of the CD14 receptor. (creativebiomart.net)
- CD14 associates with MD-2 (LY-96) and TLR4 to form a receptor complex, which signals specifically in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding. (creativebiomart.net)
- The CD14/MD-2/TLR4 receptor complex signals via MyD88, TIRAP, and TRAF6, and ultimately activates NF-kappaB. (creativebiomart.net)
- CD14 is anchored to cells by linkage to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) and functions as a high affinity receptor for complexes of LPS and LPS binding protein (LBP). (biotium.com)
- Therefore, MGL acts as an efficient endocytic antigen receptor on dermal DCs in vivo, able to prime Tn-specific T- and B-cell responses. (bloodjournal.org)
- Levels of CD14 expression on Kupffer cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages and dendritic cells of LPS-sensitive mice are increased by in vivo and in vitro LPS treatments, an effect which may be mediated by TNF. (fishersci.com)
- CD14 is also found on tissue macrophages, Langerhans cells and dendritic cells. (stemcell.com)
- Respiratory burst of intestinal macrophages in inflammatory bowel disease is mainly caused by CD14+L1+ monocyte derived cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- CD14 (cluster of differentiation 14) is a human protein made mostly by macrophages as part of the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
- CD14 is expressed mainly by macrophages and (at 10-times lesser extent) by neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
- Low levels of HLA-DR mRNA in whole testicular DLBCL samples were associated with a strong down-regulation of numerous immune-related genes specific for T cells, macrophages, antigen presentation and processing, lymphocyte activation, chemokines and chemokine receptors, and the complement system. (aacrjournals.org)
- At the same time, sublethal infection of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, yields potent, sustained type I interferon-dominant activation in an immunosuppressed microenvironment and promotes the development of tumor antigen-specific T cell responses in vitro and antitumor immunity in vivo. (sciencemag.org)
- In this study, we demonstrate that the myeloid differentiation Ag CD14 participates in monocyte activation by IL-2. (jimmunol.org)
- In addition, the CD14 gene is included in the "critical" region that is frequently deleted in certain myeloid leukemias. (sciencemag.org)
- Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are known as key immune regulators in various human malignancies, and it is reported that CD14 + HLA-DR −/low MDSCs are increased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. (springer.com)
- partial blocking may be observed, as well as EasySep™ HLA Whole Blood CD33 Positive Selection Kit (Catalog #18287HLA), EasySep™ HLA Whole Blood Myeloid Positive Selection Kit (Catalog #18683HLA), and EasySep™ Human Buffy Coat CD14 Positive Selection Kit (Catalog #18088). (stemcell.com)
- CD14 is a 53-55 kDa glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked glycoprotein belonging to the leucine-rich glycoprotein repeat superfamily of cell-surface proteins. (fishersci.com)
- Our data suggest that genetic variation in CD14, a molecule at the interface of innate and adaptive immune responses, plays a key role in the defense against middle ear disease in childhood and in pneumococcal vaccine responsiveness. (asm.org)
- CD14 binds lipopolysaccharide molecule in a reaction catalyzed by lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), an acute phase serum protein. (thermofisher.com)
- Some dendritic cell populations such as interfollicular dendritic cells, reticular dendritic cells, and Langerhans cells have also been reported to express CD14. (biolegend.com)
- Dendritic cells are highly adapted to their role of presenting antigen and directing immune responses. (biomedsearch.com)
- Dendritic cells (DCs) of the immune system are critical for displaying foreign antigens to T lymphocytes, a process called "antigen presentation. (pnas.org)
- The class III PI3K Vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34) plays a role in both canonical and noncanonical autophagy, key processes that control the presentation of antigens by dendritic cells (DCs) to naive T lymphocytes. (pnas.org)
- CD14 is also found on Langerhans cells, follicular dendritic cells and histiocytes and is weakly expressed on B lymphocytes and neutrophils, but not expressed on T lymphocytes, NK cells, red blood cells and platelets. (polysciences.com)
- Recent investigations have demonstrated the efficacy of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with tumor antigens to generate tumor-specific CTLs against cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Journal Article] Generation of Large Numbers of Antigen-Expressing Human Dendritic Cells Using CD14-ML Technology. (nii.ac.jp)
- Efficient vaccination against infectious agents and tumors depends on specific antigen targeting to dendritic cells (DCs). (asm.org)
- This study describes a novel vaccine approach that facilitates delivery of viral or tumor antigens to dendritic cells in vivo . (asm.org)
- In vivo targeting of C-type lectin receptors is an effective strategy for increasing antigen uptake and presentation by dendritic cells (DCs). (bloodjournal.org)
- Recent strategies for improving prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines have focused on the efficient delivery of antigen to dendritic cells (DCs). (bloodjournal.org)
- In this context, considering the disappointing results up to now, the quest for specific and selective tumor antigens for developing tumor-specific cancer vaccines, optimal delivery systems (i.e., dendritic cell [DC]-based vaccines), adjuvants, and strategies to overcome immune tolerance and regulatory T (Treg) cell responses is the main goal for several research groups and leading health care companies. (asm.org)
- The Idoyaga Lab is focused on the function and biology of dendritic cells, which are specialized antigen-presenting cells that initiate and modulate our body?s immune responses. (stanford.edu)
- It contains recombinant human CD14 expressed from CHO cells and antibodies raised against the recombinant factor. (rndsystems.com)
- Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stained with CD14 antibodies and with a suitable counterstaining. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- The antibodies were prepared against human leukocyte differentiation antigens. (polysciences.com)
- Now Offering Over 102,157 Antibodies & 44,722 Antigens! (avivasysbio.com)
- As a parallel development, due to maturation of technology and promising clinical data, the interest in redirecting adoptively transferred T cells by recombinant T cell receptors (TCRs) and chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has moved into the spotlight [ 8 , 9 ], as has the pursuit of cancer-cell surface directed antibodies recruiting and activating immune effectors such as FcR positive immune cells (ADCC) or the complement cascade (CDC). (hindawi.com)
- For example, serum diisocyanate antigen-specific IgE and IgG have been extensively investigated, but these immunoassays lack diagnostic accuracy in identifying workers with confirmed DA. (cdc.gov)
- The CD14 is produced from mouse CD14 transfected CHO-cells in serum free medium. (promab.com)
- The Quantikine Human soluble CD14 Immunoassay is a 4.5 hour solid phase ELISA designed to measure human soluble CD14 in cell culture supernates, serum, and plasma. (rndsystems.com)
- The T allele of the CD14 C-159T polymorphism has been associated with increased serum CD14 levels. (asm.org)
- The serum protein LPS binding protein (LBP) binds to LPS aggregates and transfers monomers to a soluble (s) form of CD14, also present in serum. (rupress.org)
Professional antigen prese3
- These include the use of difficult-to-label target cells, or, regarding reporter gene transfection-based assays, the use of difficult-to-transfect targets such as primary human professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). (hindawi.com)
- DCs are the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells for inducing anticancer immunity both in vitro and in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
- We report here that biosafe coronavirus-based vaccine vectors facilitate delivery of multiple antigens and immunostimulatory cytokines to professional antigen-presenting cells in vitro and in vivo . (asm.org)
- Bazil V, Horejsi V, Baudys M, Kristofova H, Strominger JL, Kostka W, Hilgert I: Biochemical characterization of a soluble form of the 53-kDa monocyte surface antigen. (exbio.cz)
- The virulence- (V-) antigen is a released multifunctional protein ( 4 , 5 ). (rupress.org)
- CD14 was lyophilized from a concentrated protein solution (1 mg/ml) containing phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.2. (promab.com)
- To determine if membrane (m)CD14 directs the movement of LPS to the Golgi apparatus, an mCD14 chimera containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (mCD14-EGFP) was used to follow trafficking of mCD14 and BODIPY-LPS in stable transfectants. (rupress.org)
- The association of CD14 with LPS is mediated by the LPS-binding protein (LBP). (miltenyibiotec.com)
- CD14 can bind LPS only in the presence of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP). (wikipedia.org)
- CD14 has been shown to interact with lipopolysaccharide-binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
- CD14 (AAH10507.1, 1 a.a. ~ 375 a.a) full-length human protein. (abnova.com)
- Our analysis of bone marrow samples from 50 patients with MDS showed aberrant expression of differentiation antigens in the myelomonocytic lineage. (bloodjournal.org)
- These cells are negative for CD14 and unresponsive to IL-2 despite the expression of the beta and gamma subunits of the IL-2R. (jimmunol.org)
- U937 cells acquired the capacity to respond to IL-2 following transfection with the human CD14 cDNA (U937/CD14). (jimmunol.org)
- Stimulation of U937/CD14 cells with IL-2 up-regulated the constitutive levels of IL-8 mRNA, whereas no change in IL-8 mRNA basal expression was observed in control cells transfected with the vector alone (U937/Neo). (jimmunol.org)
- Accordingly, increased secretion of IL-8 by U937/CD14, but not by U937/Neo cells, was detected following exposure to IL-2. (jimmunol.org)
- Expression of IL-1beta was also augmented by IL-2 in U937/CD14 cells. (jimmunol.org)
- These data provide the first evidence that CD14 expression is required for the response of monocytic cells to IL-2. (jimmunol.org)
- Cells were stained with CD4 (clone RPA-T4) Brilliant Violet 421™ and CD14 (clone HCD14) PE. (biolegend.com)
- CD14 + expressing cells are either selected or depleted by incubating your sample with the directly conjugated CD14 Nanobeads. (biolegend.com)
- After collection of the CD14 + expressing cells, downstream applications include functional assays, gene expression, phenotypic characterization, etc. (biolegend.com)
- 10 µl of Human CD14 Nanobeads for 1 x 10 7 cells in 100 µl of buffer. (biolegend.com)
- This kit is designed for the positive selection or depletion of human CD14 + cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). (biolegend.com)
- The parameters involved in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latent infection in CD14 (+) and CD34 (+) cells remain poorly identified. (nih.gov)
- Using next generation sequencing we deduced the transcriptome of HCMV latently infected CD14 (+) and CD34 (+) cells in experimental as well as natural latency settings. (nih.gov)
- These animals displayed defects in the survival and function of a subset of DCs specialized in presenting antigens from dead cells to T cells. (pnas.org)
- Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fluorescently labeled with boron dipyrromethane (BODIPY) first binds to the plasma membrane of CD14-expressing cells and is subsequently internalized. (rupress.org)
- Cells that express plasma membrane-bound (m)CD14, 1 either naturally or through transfection, bind bacterial LPS. (rupress.org)
- Transfer of LPS between CD14 molecules is a rapid process ( 2 ), suggesting that the movement of LPS from sCD14 to mCD14 on mCD14-bearing cells is likely to be more rapid than the movement of LPS from sCD14 to the surfaces of cells that do not express CD14. (rupress.org)
- Thus, mCD14 serves as the initial site of interaction between LPS and the surfaces of CD14-bearing cells. (rupress.org)
- In the current study, we have assessed the effect of allopurinol on antigen-specific and mitogen-driven activation and cytokine production in human T cells. (frontiersin.org)
- Allopurinol markedly decreased the frequency of IFN-γ and IL-2-producing T cells, either after polyclonal or antigen-specific stimulation with Herpes Simplex virus 1, Influenza (Flu) virus, tetanus toxoid and Trypanosoma cruzi -derived antigens. (frontiersin.org)
- Further, CD14 has been shown to bind apoptotic cells, and can affect allergic, inflammatory and infectious processes. (thermofisher.com)
- Human CD14 derived in Human Cells. (creativebiomart.net)
- Demonstrating high efficiency, consistency, and excellent target cell viability, our optimized luciferase IVT RNA is used to transfect dividing and nondividing primary antigen presenting cells. (hindawi.com)
- The ability to cotransfect the IVT RNA of the luciferase reporter and the antigen of interest into the antigen presenting cells and its simple read-out procedure render the assay high-throughput in nature. (hindawi.com)
- Loss of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) expression on tumor cells is frequent in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) arising in immune-privileged sites, such as the testis and central nervous system, and is associated with small homozygous deletions of HLA-DQ/HLA-DR and larger hemizygous deletions of the MHC region. (aacrjournals.org)
- These results suggest that cytokines induce the development of CD14+CD16+ cells in human septicemia and that CD14+CD16+ cells may serve as indicator for previous bouts of excessive inflammation. (uni-regensburg.de)
- Flow cytometry analysis (surface staining) of human peripheral blood cells with anti-human CD14 (MEM-15) PE-CyTM5. (exbio.cz)
- Adherent U373-CD14-EGFP (□) and U373-EGFP (▵) cells cultured in 96-well plates were incubated with LPS-sCD14 complexes (40 ng/ml LPS) at 37°C for the times indicated. (nih.gov)
- U373-CD14-EGFP cells were grown in 96-well tissue culture plates, and both total and intracellular fluorescence was measured before and at various times after exposure to LPS-sCD14 complexes (see Materials and Methods). (nih.gov)
- A decrease of ∼20% in the intracellular fluorescence was observed after a 15-min incubation of U373-CD14-EGFP cells with LPS-sCD14 complexes. (nih.gov)
- In addition, we identified T cells receptors of these tumor antigen-specific helper T cells. (nii.ac.jp)
- Journal Article] 2.An oncofetal antigen, IMP-3-derived long peptides induce immune responses of both helper T cells and CTLs. (nii.ac.jp)
- Moreover, highly efficient antigen delivery to human DCs with recombinant human coronavirus 229E and specific stimulation of human CD8 + T cells revealed that this approach is exceptionally well suited for translation into human vaccine studies. (asm.org)
- When comparing PBMCs before and after Y90-RE, we observed an increase in tumour necrosis factor-α on both the CD8 + and CD4 + T cells as well as an increase in percentage of antigen-presenting cells after Y90-RE, implying a systemic immune activation. (bmj.com)
- 1 , 2 DCs acquire and process antigen and migrate to the lymphoid organs where they present antigen to specific T cells, thereby inducing primary T- and B-cell responses. (bloodjournal.org)
- Cells treated with both TMP and As 2 O 3 expressed far more CD11b antigens, almost 2-fold compared with the control group. (scielo.br)
- Hence, our results provide key information on the mechanism by which CD14(+)CD16(+) cells control parasite burden, supporting the hypothesis that they play a role in resistance to P. vivax infection. (jove.com)
- However, CD15 + Arg1 + granulocytes with MDSC characteristics have been described in renal cell carcinoma ( 16 , 17 ) and CD14 + HLA-DR − cells sharing multiple MDSC features were recently identified in the blood of patients with hepatocellular ( 18 ), ovarian carcinoma ( 19 ), and melanoma ( 20 , 21 ), supporting the concept of MDSC heterogeneity and plasticity. (aacrjournals.org)
- determined that PVSRIPO stimulates anticancer immunity by two mechanisms: lysing tumor cells to release a mix of tumor and viral antigens, as well as sublethally infecting antigen-presenting cells and thereby stimulating an interferon-driven immune response in the tumor microenvironment. (sciencemag.org)
- CD4 + Th1 and CD8 + T cells) immune systems, whose final goal is to kill the antigen-bearing tumor cells. (asm.org)
- BODIPY-LPS presented to the transfectants as complexes with soluble CD14 first colocalized with mCD14-EGFP on the cell surface. (rupress.org)
- Soluble CD14 either appears after shedding of mCD14 (48 kDa) or is directly secreted from intracellular vesicles (56 kDa). (wikipedia.org)
- Juan TS, Hailman E, Kelley MJ, Wright SD, Lichenstein HS: Identification of a domain in soluble CD14 essential for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling but not LPS binding. (exbio.cz)
- Lodrup Carlsen KC, Granum B: Soluble CD14: role in atopic disease and recurrent infections, including otitis media. (exbio.cz)
- Asai Y, Makimura Y, Kawabata A, Ogawa T: Soluble CD14 Discriminates Slight Structural Differences between Lipid As That Lead to Distinct Host Cell Activation. (exbio.cz)
- Soluble CD14, also binding to LPS, acts at physiological concentration as an LPS agonist and has, at higher concentrations, an LPS antagonizing effect in cell activation. (biotium.com)
- LPS augmented the VEGF production in HPC cultures in the presence of recombinant human soluble CD14 (sCD14). (asm.org)
- Expression of Trem-1, TLR2, TLR4, CD14 and HLA-DR on blood monozytes and neutrophils were examined using flow cytometry from 22 patients with E. coli sepsis and 6 healthy controls. (nih.gov)
- Flow cytometry analysis (surface staining) of human peripheral blood leukocytes using anti-human CD14 (clone MEM-18) Alexa Fluor® 700. (exbio.cz)
- CD14 accepts LPS from its initial binding by LBP, and it can further transfer LPS to the TLR4/MD2 complex. (rndsystems.com)
- The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding residues and the TLR4 interaction site of CD14 were conserved in all marsupials. (biologists.org)
- Stimulation of adult tammar leukocytes resulted in the induction of a biphasic pattern of CD14 and TLR4 expression, and coincided with increased production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. (biologists.org)
- Differential patterns of expression of CD14 and TLR4 were observed in tammar pouch young early in development, suggesting that early maturation of the innate immune system in these animals may have developed as an immune survival strategy to protect the marsupial neonate from exposure to microbial pathogens. (biologists.org)
- In the present study, primary sequence, expression patterns and response to stimuli of CD14 and TLR4 from the tammar wallaby ( Macropus eugenii ) were characterised. (biologists.org)
- We report that the functional motifs involved in LPS binding, signalling and homodimerisation of tammar CD14 and the TIR domain of TLR4 are highly conserved. (biologists.org)
- Challenge of adult tammar leukocytes with LPS and LTA revealed that these PAMP induce expression of CD14 and TLR4 in a pattern that coincided with expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). (biologists.org)
- Later, it was shown that the V-antigen (denoted as LcrV) is encoded by pYV and is expressed and released into the environment by all human pathogenic Yersinia species. (rupress.org)
- We found that DCs from these animals have a partially activated phenotype, spontaneously produce cytokines, and exhibit enhanced activity of the classic MHC class I and class II antigen-presentation pathways. (pnas.org)
- Taken together, this novel vaccine platform is well suited to deliver antigens and immunostimulatory cytokines to DCs and to initiate and maintain protective immunity. (asm.org)
- Although LPS is considered its main ligand, CD14 also recognizes other pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as lipoteichoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
- The involvement of CD14 in macrophage responses against purified capsular polysaccharide of S. pneumoniae , the most important bacterial pathogen associated with OM, makes CD14 a biologically plausible candidate to investigate for its function in the immune defense against middle ear infection ( 46 ). (asm.org)
- CR3 CD11b/CD18 Macrophage 1 antigen (Mac-1) Macrophage Todd R (1996). (wikipedia.org)
- To induce efficient immune response, glycosylated tumor-associated Tn antigens were used to target DCs through binding to macrophage galactose-type lectin (MGL). (bloodjournal.org)
- CD14 exists in two forms, one anchored to the membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) tail (mCD14), the other a soluble form (sCD14). (wikipedia.org)
- CD14 also exists in a soluble form, designated as sCD14, which is capable of specifically binding LPS in the extracellular space. (creativebiomart.net)
- Our findings provide mechanistic evidence that PVSRIPO functions as a potent intratumor immune adjuvant that generates tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. (sciencemag.org)
- Human CD14 genome location and CD14 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
- Antigens, CD14" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
- Significant improvements may result from the selection of the appropriate tumor-specific target antigen (to overcome the peripheral immune tolerance) and/or the development of immunization strategies effective at inducing a protective immune response. (asm.org)
- Active immunotherapy is aimed either at eliciting a specific de novo host immune response against selected tumor antigens (Ags) by employing cancer vaccines or at amplifying the existing antitumor immune response by administering nonspecific proinflammatory molecules or adjuvants. (asm.org)
- Preliminary evidence suggests that CD14 may be up-regulated on mouse blood neutrophils. (fishersci.com)
- CD14 also contributes to the response to TLR3 ligands, phosphoinositides, as well as the surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D. (rndsystems.com)
- In this study, to develop more effective cancer immunotherapy for oral cancer patients, we attempted to identify several HLA class II-restricted long peptides derived from some tumor antigens. (nii.ac.jp)
- However, while vaccines have proven to be effective in combating pathogenic microorganisms, based on the immune recognition of these foreign antigens, vaccines aimed at inducing effective antitumor activity are still unsatisfactory. (asm.org)
- Before transfection the complete mouse CD14-cDNA was amplified by PCR and cloned into expression vector p-POL-DHFR). (promab.com)
- Moreover, transfection with mCD14 endows various cell types that do not otherwise express CD14 with the ability either to become responsive to LPS ( 10 ) or to become sensitive to much lower concentrations of LPS ( 11 )( 12 ). (rupress.org)
- A critical role for CD14 in IL-2-mediated monocyte activation was further demonstrated by experiments with the human U937 promonocytic cell line. (jimmunol.org)
- Here we show that CD14 plays a key role in initiating cell activation by a group of bacterial envelope components from Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms, as well as mycobacteria. (nih.gov)
- Cell-ELISA analysis of differentiation antigen expression. (semanticscholar.org)
- In mice, MGL + CD103 − dermal DCs efficiently captured and processed glycosylated Tn antigen in vivo, inducing a potent major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted T-cell response. (bloodjournal.org)
- Definition of cell immunophenotype in acute leukemias is commonly employed to identify malignant line, maturation stage and finally pattern of antigen expression in individual patients what permits better monitoring of treatment and residual disease. (termedia.pl)
- Therefore, data suggests that CD14 expression by leukocyte populations may differ in mice and humans. (fishersci.com)