Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Burkholderia cepacia is more active than LPS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in stimulating tumor necrosis factor alpha from human monocytes. (1/2131)

Whole cells and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) extracted from Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Escherichia coli were compared in their ability to stimulate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) from the human monocyte cell line MonoMac-6. B. cepacia LPS, on a weight-for-weight basis, was found to have TNF-alpha-inducing activity similar to that of LPS from E. coli, which was approximately four- and eightfold greater than the activity of LPSs from P. aeruginosa and S. maltophilia, respectively. The LPS-stimulated TNF-alpha production from monocytes was found to be CD14 dependent. These results suggest that B. cepacia LPS might play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung disease in cystic fibrosis, and in some patients it might be responsible, at least in part, for the sepsis-like cepacia syndrome.  (+info)

Signal transduction triggered by lipid A-like molecules in 70Z/3 pre-B lymphocyte tumor cells. (2/2131)

The lipid A (endotoxin) moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elicits rapid cellular responses from many cell types, including macrophages, lymphocytes, and monocytes. In CD14 transfected 70Z/3 pre-B lymphocyte tumor cells, these responses include activation of the MAP kinase homolog, p38, activation of NF-kappaB, and transcription of kappa light chains, leading to the assembly of surface IgM. In this work, we explored the specificity of the response with regard to lipid structure, and the requirement for p38 kinase activity prior to NF-kappaB activation in control and CD14 transfected 70Z/3 (CD14-70Z/3) cells. A p38-specific inhibitor, SB203580, was used to block p38 kinase activity in cells. CD14-70Z/3 cells were incubated with 1-50 microM SB203580, and then stimulated with LPS. Nuclear extracts were prepared, and NF-kappaB activation was measured using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. SB203580 did not inhibit LPS induced NF-kappaB activation. In addition, LPS failed to activate p38 tyrosine phosphorylation in 70Z/3 cells lacking CD14, in spite of rapid NF-kappaB activation and robust surface IgM production with appropriate higher doses of LPS. LPS stimulation of p38 phosphorylation, NF-kappaB activation, and surface IgM expression were all blocked completely by lipid A-like endotoxin antagonists whether or not CD14 was present. Acidic glycerophospholipids and ceramides did not mimic lipid A-like molecules either as agonists or antagonists in this system. Our data support the hypothesis that lipid A-mediated activation of cells requires stimulation of a putative lipid A sensor that is downstream of CD14, but upstream of p38 and NF-kappaB.  (+info)

Enhanced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 due to prolonged response to lipopolysaccharide in human macrophages infected in vitro with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. (3/2131)

Elevated levels of circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 have been detected in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection. The overproduction of these cytokines could contribute to AIDS pathogenesis. Thus, the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in human macrophages infected with HIV-1 was investigated. HIV-1 infection, per se, did not induce any TNF-alpha or IL-6 production or cytokine-specific mRNA expression. In contrast, HIV-1 primed macrophages to a prolonged TNF-alpha and IL-6 response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation with respect to uninfected cells. Time-course analysis and flow cytometry demonstrated that cytokine production stopped at 6 h in uninfected macrophages but continued up to 24 h in HIV-1-infected cells. RNA studies suggested that HIV-1 interfered with late steps of cytokine synthesis. No modulation of membrane CD14 was found to account for the enhanced response to LPS. Finally, the effect of HIV-1 on cytokine response could not be abolished by the antiviral compound U75875.  (+info)

Long-term fetal microchimerism in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets in healthy women and women with scleroderma. (4/2131)

Fetal CD34(+) CD38(+) cells have recently been found to persist in maternal peripheral blood for many years after pregnancy. CD34(+) CD38(+) cells are progenitor cells that can differentiate into mature immune-competent cells. We asked whether long-term fetal microchimerism occurs in T lymphocyte, B lymphocyte, monocyte, and natural-killer cell populations of previously pregnant women. We targeted women with sons and used polymerase chain reaction for a Y-chromosome-specific sequence to test DNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and from CD3, CD19, CD14, and CD56/16 sorted subsets. We also asked whether persistent microchimerism might contribute to subsequent autoimmune disease in the mother and included women with the autoimmune disease scleroderma. Scleroderma has a peak incidence in women after childbearing years and has clinical similarities to chronic graft-versus-host disease that occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, known to involve chimerism. Sixty-eight parous women were studied for male DNA in PBMC and 20 for PBMC subsets. Microchimerism was found in PBMC from 33% (16 of 48) of healthy women and 60% (12 of 20) women with scleroderma, P =.046. Microchimerism was found in some women in CD3, CD19, CD14, and CD56/16 subsets including up to 38 years after pregnancy. Microchimerism in PBMC subsets was not appreciably more frequent in scleroderma patients than in healthy controls. Overall, microchimerism was found in CD3, CD19, and CD14 subsets in approximately one third of women and in CD56/16 in one half of women. HLA typing of mothers and sons indicated that HLA compatibility was not a requirement for persistent microchimerism in PBMC subsets. Fetal microchimerism in the face of HLA disparity implies that specific maternal immunoregulatory pathways exist that permit persistence but prevent effector function of these cells in normal women. Although microchimerism in PBMC was more frequent in women with scleroderma than healthy controls additional studies will be necessary to determine whether microchimerism plays a role in the pathogenesis of this or other autoimmune diseases.  (+info)

Monocytic cell necrosis is mediated by potassium depletion and caspase-like proteases. (5/2131)

Apoptosis is a physiological cell death that culminates in mitochondrial permeability transition and the activation of caspases, a family of cysteine proteases. Necrosis, in contrast, is a pathological cell death characterized by swelling of the cytoplasm and mitochondria and rapid plasma membrane disruption. Necrotic cell death has long been opposed to apoptosis, but it now appears that both pathways involve mitochondrial permeability transition, raising the question of what mediates necrotic cell death. In this study, we investigated mechanisms that promote necrosis induced by various stimuli (Clostridium difficile toxins, Staphylococcus aureus alpha toxin, ouabain, nigericin) in THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line, and in monocytes. All stimuli induced typical features of necrosis and triggered protease-mediated release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and CD14 in both cell types. K+ depletion was actively implicated in necrosis because substituting K+ for Na+ in the extracellular medium prevented morphological features of necrosis and IL-1beta release. N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone, a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, prevented morphological features of necrosis, plasma membrane destruction, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, IL-1beta release, and CD14 shedding induced by all stimuli. Thus, in monocytic cells, necrosis is a cell death pathway mediated by passive K+ efflux and activation of caspase-like proteases.  (+info)

Pronase destroys the lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 on Kupffer cells. (6/2131)

CD14 is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor distributed largely in macrophages, monocytes, and neutrophils; however, the role of CD14 in activation of Kupffer cells by LPS remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine if different methods used to isolate Kupffer cells affect CD14. Kupffer cells were isolated by collagenase (0.025%) or collagenase-Pronase (0.02%) perfusion and differential centrifugation using Percoll gradients and cultured for 24 h before experiments. CD14 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR from Kupffer cell total RNA as well as from peritoneal macrophages. Western blotting showed that Kupffer cells prepared with collagenase possess CD14; however, it was absent in cells obtained by collagenase-Pronase perfusion. Intracellular calcium in Kupffer cells prepared with collagenase was increased transiently to levels around 300 nM by addition of LPS with 5% rat serum, which contains LPS binding protein. This increase in intracellular calcium was totally serum dependent. Moreover, LPS-induced increases in intracellular calcium in Kupffer cells were blunted significantly (40% of controls) when cells were treated with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, which cleaves CD14 from the plasma membrane. However, intracellular calcium did not increase when LPS was added to cells prepared by collagenase-Pronase perfusion even in the presence of serum. These cells were viable, however, because ATP increased intracellular calcium to the same levels as cells prepared with collagenase perfusion. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA was increased in Kupffer cells prepared with collagenase perfusion 1 h after addition of LPS, an effect potentiated over twofold by serum; however, serum did not increase TNF-alpha mRNA in cells isolated via collagenase-Pronase perfusion. Moreover, treatment with Pronase rapidly decreased CD14 on mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) and Kupffer cells. These findings indicate that Pronase cleaves CD14 from Kupffer cells, whereas collagenase perfusion does not, providing an explanation for why Kupffer cells do not exhibit a CD14-mediated pathway when prepared with procedures using Pronase. It is concluded that Kupffer cells indeed contain a functional CD14 LPS receptor when prepared gently.  (+info)

Bacterial lipopolysaccharide inhibits dengue virus infection of primary human monocytes/macrophages by blockade of virus entry via a CD14-dependent mechanism. (7/2131)

Monocytes/macrophages (MO/Mphi) are the major target cells for both dengue virus (DV) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the aim of this study was to define their interactions. We had found that LPS markedly suppressed DV infection of primary human MO/Mphi when it was added to cultures prior to or together with, but not after, viral adsorption. The inhibitory effect of LPS was direct and specific and was not mediated by LPS-induced secretion of cytokines and chemokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, alpha interferon, MIP-1alpha, and RANTES. In fact, productive DV infection was not blocked but was just postponed by LPS, with a time lag equal to one viral replication cycle. Time course studies demonstrated that LPS was only effective in suppressing DV infection of MO/Mphi that had not been previously exposed to the virus. At various time points after viral adsorption, the level of unbound viruses that remained free in the culture supernatants of LPS-pretreated cultures was much higher than that of untreated controls. These observations suggest that the LPS-induced suppression of DV replication was at the level of virus attachment and/or entry. Blockade of the major LPS receptor, CD14, with monoclonal antibodies MY4 or MoS39 failed to inhibit DV infection but could totally abrogate the inhibitory effect of LPS. Moreover, human serum could significantly enhance the LPS-induced DV suppression in a CD14-dependent manner, indicating that the "binding" of LPS to CD14 was critical for the induction of virus inhibition. Taken together, our results suggest that LPS blocked DV entry into human MO/Mphi via its receptor CD14 and that a CD14-associated cell surface structure may be essential for the initiation of a DV infection.  (+info)

Selective activation and functional significance of p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated neutrophils. (8/2131)

Activation of leukocytes by proinflammatory stimuli selectively initiates intracellular signal transduction via sequential phosphorylation of kinases. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of human neutrophils is known to result in activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPk); however, the upstream activator(s) of p38 MAPk is unknown, and consequences of p38 MAPk activation remain largely undefined. We investigated the MAPk kinase (MKK) that activates p38 MAPk in response to LPS, the p38 MAPk isoforms that are activated as part of this pathway, and the functional responses affected by p38 MAPk activation. Although MKK3, MKK4, and MKK6 all activated p38 MAPk in experimental models, only MKK3 was found to activate recombinant p38 MAPk in LPS-treated neutrophils. Of p38 MAPk isoforms studied, only p38alpha and p38delta were detected in neutrophils. LPS stimulation selectively activated p38alpha. Specific inhibitors of p38alpha MAPk blocked LPS-induced adhesion, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation, and synthesis of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Inhibition of p38alpha MAPk resulted in a transient decrease in TNF-alpha mRNA accumulation but persistent loss of TNF-alpha synthesis. These findings support a pathway by which LPS stimulation of neutrophils results in activation of MKK3, which in turn activates p38alpha MAPk, ultimately regulating adhesion, NF-kappaB activation, enhanced gene expression of TNF-alpha, and regulation of TNF-alpha synthesis.  (+info)

*Histiocyte

They express LCAs (leucocyte common antigens) CD45, CD14, CD33, and CD4 (also expressed by T helper cells). These histiocytes ... Their main activity is antigen presentation; they express Factor XIIIa, CD1c, and Class II Human leukocyte antigens. A subset ... Langerhans cells are antigen-presenting cells but have undergone further differentiation. Skin Langerhans cells express CD1a, ... Phagocytosis is the main process of macrophages and antigen presentation the main property of dendritic cells (so called ...

*Plasmacytoid dendritic cell

... blood-derived dendritic cell antigen-2 (BDCA-2), Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR9 within endosomal compartments, but do not ... express high levels of CD11c or CD14, which distinguishes them from conventional dendritic cells or monocytes, respectively. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd13 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.114 --- antigens, cd14 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.115 --- antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd14 MeSH D23.050.301.264.900.050 --- antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.050.301.264.900.131 --- antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd13 MeSH D23.101.100.110.114 --- antigens, cd14 MeSH D23.101.100.110.115 --- antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.110.118 ... antigens, cd14 MeSH D23.101.100.900.050 --- antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.900.131 --- antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 ...

*CD14

Human CD14 genome location and CD14 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. CD14 Antigens at the US National Library of ... Simmons DL, Tan S, Tenen DG, Nicholson-Weller A, Seed B (January 1989). "Monocyte antigen CD14 is a phospholipid anchored ... CD14 (cluster of differentiation 14), also known as CD14, is a human gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of ... CD14 was the first described pattern recognition receptor. CD14 acts as a co-receptor (along with the Toll-like receptor TLR 4 ...

*Lymphocyte antigen 96

... and CD14, whereas TLR-4 and MD-2 are not involved". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (18): 15587-94. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Lymphocyte antigen 96, also known as "MD2," is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY96 gene. The protein encoded by ... Lymphocyte antigen 96 has been shown to interact with TLR 4. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000154589 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... lymphocyte antigen 96, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...

*Macrophage-1 antigen

2012). "CD14 Cooperates with Complement Receptor 3 to mediate MyD88-Independent Phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi". Proc ... Macrophage-1 antigen (or integrin αMβ2 or macrophage integrin or Mac-1) is a complement receptor ("CR3") consisting of CD11b ( ... Macrophage-1 antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... CR3 CD11b/CD18 Macrophage 1 antigen (Mac-1) Macrophage Todd R (1996). "The continuing saga of complement receptor type 3 (CR3 ...

*Lineage markers

Certain antibodies can be used to detect or purify cells with these markers by binding to their surface antigens. A standard ... CD14 (Monocytes), CD16 (NK cells, granulocytes), CD19 (B lymphocytes), CD20 (B lymphocytes), and CD56 (NK cells) in humans. " ...

*Toll-like receptor

If the ligand is a bacterial factor, the pathogen might be phagocytosed and digested, and its antigens presented to CD4+ T ... CD14 and LPS-Binding Protein (LBP) are known to facilitate the presentation of LPS to MD-2. A set of endosomal TLRs comprising ... Different TLRs can recognize different antigens as listed below. TLR 1: bacterial lipoprotein and peptidoglycans TLR 2: ... to the TLR marks the key molecular events that ultimately lead to innate immune responses and the development of antigen- ...

*Monocyte

CD14+CD16++ monocyte). The intermediate monocyte with high level expression of CD14 and low level expression of CD16 (CD14++ ... These are phagocytosis, antigen presentation, and cytokine production. Phagocytosis is the process of uptake of microbes and ... showed that activated monocytes express high levels of PD-1 which might explain the higher expression of PD-1 in CD14+CD16++ ... After stimulation with microbial products the CD14+CD16++ monocytes produce high amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines like ...

*Langerhans cell

... the local Langerhans cells take up and process microbial antigens to become fully functional antigen-presenting cells. ... However LCH cells stain positive to CD14 which is a monocyte marker and shows a different, hematopoietic origin for the ... Generally, dendritic cells in tissue are active in the capture, uptake and processing of antigens. Once dendritic cells arrive ... Langerhans cells are dendritic cells (antigen-presenting immune cells) of the skin and mucosa, and contain organelles called ...

*Basophil

CD14−, CD23−, Ly49c−, CD122−, CD11c−, Gr-1−, NK1.1−, B220−, CD3−, γδTCR−, αβTCR−, α4 and β4-integrin negative. Recently, ... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ...

*Collectin

It can be caused by removing the LPS or by binding the LPS to CD14 receptor on macrophages that can block the inflammatory ... SP-D increases bacterial antigen presentation by dendritic cells whereas SP-A blocs differentation of the immature dendritic ... "Surfactant proteins A and D bind CD14 by different mechanisms". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (29): 22442-22451. doi ... "Surfactant protein D enhances bacterial antigen presentation by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells". American Journal of ...

*Macrophage

Eventually, the antigen presentation results in the production of antibodies that attach to the antigens of pathogens, making ... can be identified using flow cytometry or immunohistochemical staining by their specific expression of proteins such as CD14, ... the antigen is endocytosed and processed. The processed antigen is then presented in MHCII on the surface of the B-cell. T ... The antigen presentation on the surface of infected macrophages (in the context of MHC class II) in a lymph node stimulates TH1 ...

*LGALS3BP

Aug 1994). "The secreted tumor-associated antigen 90K is a potent immune stimulator". J Biol Chem. 269 (28): 18401-7. PMID ... Yu B, Wright SD (1995). "LPS-dependent interaction of Mac-2-binding protein with immobilized CD14". J. Inflamm. 45 (2): 115-25 ...

*TLR4

This LPS-LBP complex transfers the LPS to CD14. CD14 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein that binds the ... Morphine causes inflammation by binding to the protein lymphocyte antigen 96, which, in turn, causes the protein to bind to ... It cooperates with LY96 (also referred as MD-2) and CD14 to mediate in signal transduction events induced by lipopolysaccharide ... TLR4 has been shown to interact with: Lymphocyte antigen 96, Myd88, and TOLLIP. Nickel, Intracellular trafficking of TLR4 is ...

*Lipopolysaccharide

O antigen is exposed on the very outer surface of the bacterial cell, and, as a consequence, is a target for recognition by ... LPS acts as the prototypical endotoxin because it binds the CD14/TLR4/MD2 receptor complex in many cell types, but especially ... The O antigen is attached to the core oligosaccharide, and comprises the outermost domain of the LPS molecule. The composition ... O-antigens (the outer carbohydrates) are the most variable portion of the LPS molecule, imparting the antigenic specificity. In ...

*Mast cell leukemia

Mast cell differentiation antigens: expression in normal and malignant cells and use for diagnostic purposes". Eur. J. Clin. ... Characteristically, basophil (e.g. CD11b, CD123) and monocyte markers (CD14, CD15) are absent. The cells usually express CD2 ...

*FCAR

When FcαRI monovalently binds monomeric, non-antigen bound IgA, the form most common in serum, the resulting signals result in ... "Intestinal macrophages lack CD14 and CD89 and consequently are down-regulated for LPS- and IgA-mediated activities". Journal of ... and antigen presentation. Despite signaling via ITAMs, which typically initiate activation cascades, FcαRI may either act as an ...

*Basigin

1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...

*ATP1B3 - Википедия

Tissue Antigens (англ.)русск. : journal. - 2007. - Vol. 68, no. 6. - P. 509-517. - DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00726.x. - PMID ...

*MAPK14

Saxena M, Williams S, Gilman J, Mustelin T (Jun 1998). "Negative regulation of T cell antigen receptor signal transduction by ... "Endotoxin induces rapid protein tyrosine phosphorylation in 70Z/3 cells expressing CD14". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...

*CD64 (biology)

CD64+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...

*Lipoarabinomannan

CD14, a recognition receptor present on macrophages, associate with toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is described to be a receptor ... 2008). "Inhibition of apoptosis, activation of NKT cell and upregulation of CD40 and CD40L mediated by M. leprae antigen(s) ... and IL-8 Secretion by a CD14-Toll-Like Receptor 2-Dependent Mechanism". Journal of Immunology. 171 (4): 10989-10994. PMID ...

*CD74 - Википедия

CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...

*CD44

In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11.[5] CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ... "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms cooperate to mediate colon carcinoma cell adhesion to E- and L-selectin in ...

*CD97 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија

CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... 2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...

*Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija

CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...

*CXCR5 - Википедия

... uveitis antigens induce CXCR3- and CXCR5-expressing lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells to migrate (англ.) // Blood (англ ...
soluble form of CD40LG(sCD40LG), which results from the shedding of membrane-bound CD40LG, plays a key role in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and has been linked to various autoimmune and vascular disorders ...
Correction: 3LPS-binding protein and its interactions with P. gingivalis LPS modulate pro-inflammatory response and Toll-like receptor signaling in human oral keratinocytes. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
In the present study, combining subjects with different levels of corpulence (from moderate to severe obesity) and 2 clinical intervention studies inducing weight loss, we showed strong links between fat mass and the frequencies of CD14dimCD16+ monocytes in the population. Indeed, we observed an increase of about twice the percentage of CD16+ monocyte subsets in obesity and a reduction of these cell populations by drastic fat mass loss. A fat mass decrease of at least 5% was sufficient to observe a reduction in the CD14dimCD16+ subpopulation. On the contrary, we could not demonstrate a convincing link with glucose homeostasis in patients involved in clinical trials improving insulin sensitivity. In this context, the only association found with metabolic parameters was with fasting TG.. In healthy humans, 3 monocyte subpopulations have been described (CD14+CD16−, CD14+CD16+, and CD14dimCD16+), differing in phenotype and function.19 Human obesity is characterized by a significant increase in the ...
F. Carrouel, M. J Staquet, J. F Keller, C. Baudouin, P. Msika, F. Bleicher, B. Alliot-Licht, and J. C Farges (2013) J Endod, 39(8):1008-14.. ...
LBP [LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-binding protein] was discovered approximately 25 years ago. Since then, substantial progress has been made towards our understanding of its function in health and disease. Furthermore, the discovery of a large protein family sharing functional and structural attributes has helped in our knowledge. Still, key questions are unresolved, and here an overview on the old and new findings on LBP is given. LBP is an acute-phase protein of the liver, but is also synthesized in other cells of the organism. While LBP is named after the ability to bind to LPS of Gram-negative bacteria, it also can recognize other bacterial compounds, such as lipopeptides. It has been shown that LBP is needed to combat infections; however, the main mechanism of action is still not clear. New findings on natural genetic variations of LBP leading to functional consequences may help in further elucidating the mechanism of LBP and its role in innate immunity and disease. ...
The bacteriophage vB_YecM-?R1-37 (?R1-37) is a lytic yersiniophage that may propagate naturally in different species carrying the correct lipopolysaccharide receptor. dU-containing genome in a ?KZ-like head. INTRODUCTION Bacteriophages, the viruses that infect bacteria, are the most abundant organisms on Earth, and it is estimated that for each microbial isolate at least 10 different phages exist […]. ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 9301528. Immunology 1997 Jul;91(3):391-8. Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced overproduction of cytokines, involved in the pathogenesis of septic shock, occupies the spotlight of endotoxin research, another LPS effect, the differentiation of various cell types including haematopoietic bone marrow cells (BMC), which is probably related to its radioprotective activity, deserves equal attention. We have previously established that nanomolar concentrations of LPS trigger in human BMC the expression of CD14 by an induction mechanism independent of CD14 or any other molecule anchored to the cell membrane by a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol glycolipid. We now show that this LPS-induced stimulation is triggered by the binding of a small number of LPS molecules (13,000 molecules/cell) to constitutive LPS receptors of low affinity (Kd = 480 nM). This interaction, which was inhibited by a synthetic LPS antagonist, appeared specific, reversible, saturable, time- and ...
CD14 (cluster of differentiation 14), also known as CD14, is a human gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the innate immune system. CD14 exists in two forms, one anchored to the membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol tail (mCD14), the other a soluble form (sCD14). Soluble CD14 either appears after shedding of mCD14 (48 kDa) or is directly secreted from intracellular vesicles (56 kDa). The x-ray crystal structure of human CD14 (4GLP.pdb) reveals a monomeric, bent solenoid structure containing a hydrophobic amino-terminal pocket. CD14 was the first described pattern recognition receptor. CD14 acts as a co-receptor (along with the Toll-like receptor TLR 4 and MD-2) for the detection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). CD14 can bind LPS only in the presence of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP). Although LPS is considered its main ligand, CD14 also recognizes other pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as lipoteichoic acid. CD14 is expressed mainly by ...
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We have recently shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) is a lipid transfer protein that catalyzes two distinct reactions: movement of bacterial LPS (endotoxin) from LPS micelles to soluble CD14 (sCD14) and movement of LPS from micelles to reconstituted high density lipoprotein (R-HDL) particles. Here we show that LBP facilitates a third lipid transfer reaction: movement of LPS from LPS-sCD14 complexes to R-HDL particles. This action of LBP is catalytic, with one molecule of LBP enabling the movement of multiple LPS molecules into R-HDL. LBP-catalyzed movement of LPS from LPS-sCD14 complexes to R-HDL neutralizes the capacity of LPS to stimulate polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Our findings show that LPS may be transferred to R-HDL either by the direct action of LBP or by a two-step reaction in which LPS is first transferred to sCD14 and subsequently to R-HDL. We have observed that the two-step pathway of LPS transfer to R-HDL is strongly favored over direct transfer. ...
In this study, we provide evidence based on both functional assays and structural modeling that is consistent with EsLBP1 functioning as an LBP-like protein. Most notably, EsLBP1 binds Gram-negative bacterial LOS and LPS with nanomolar or higher avidity under in vitro conditions, i.e., when LPS/LOS is presented as part of supramolecular assemblies containing LPS-rich lipid-water interfaces, as in aggregates of purified LPS/LOS. eslbp1 gene expression is regulated by exposure to the peptidoglycan monomer TCT, which synergizes with LPS in the triggering of V. fischeri-induced morphogenesis of the host symbiotic tissues. The gene is expressed and the protein produced across the organs epithelia-from the point where V. fischeri initially gathers, along the path of its migration, to where it takes up permanent residence in the crypts. The protein is also abundant along the apical surfaces of other epithelial tissues, where colonization by bacteria does not occur.. Although EsLBP1 has only ~25% ...
Assessment of serum concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) has been suggested as a useful biomarker to indicate activation of innate immune responses to microbial products. We investigated LBP concentrations and associations with demographics, lifestyle factors, and common metabolic abnormalities in adults. We also examined if LBP concentrations were associated with common polymorphisms in genes coding for LBP (rs2232618), CD14 (rs2569190), and TLR4 (rs4986790), the molecules responsible for the innate immune response to LPS, or serum levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14) and proinflammatory cytokines ...
Lactoferrin works as a new LPS-binding protein in inflammatory activation of macrophages / Y J Na; Sang Bae Han; Jong Soon Kang; Yeo Dae Yoon; Song Kyu Park; Hwan Mook Kim; Kyu-Hwan Yang; C O Joe , 2004 ...
SPR reveals ColN‐R is responsible for LPS binding. Histidine‐tagged ColN domain combinations (500 nM) were injected for 60 s at a flow rate of 5 μl m
The identification of the bacterial endotoxin receptors for innate immunity, most notably TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4), has sparked great interest in therapeutic manipulation of the innate immune system. In the present mini-review, several natural and synthetic molecules that modulate the TLR4-mediated LPS (lipopolysaccharide) signalling in animals and humans are considered, and their mechanisms of action are discussed. The process of LPS sensing and signal amplification in humans is based on the sequential action of specific receptors situated in the extracellular side of the innate immunity cells, which bind and transfer LPS to TLR4: LBP (LPS-binding protein), CD14, MD-2 (myeloid differentiation protein 2). We classified the compounds active on TLR4 pathway depending on the specific molecular targets (LPS, LBP, CD14, MD-2 or TLR4). Small molecules developed by our group are described that inhibit LPS-stimulated TLR4 activation by selectively targeting the LPS-CD14 interaction. These compounds ...
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CD14 (also known lipopolysaccharide [LPS] receptor) is expressed strongly on monocytes and macrophages and weakly on the surface of neutrophils. CD14 (1-201 a.a.) is anchored to cells by linkage to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) and functions as a high affinity receptor for complexes of LPS and LPS binding protein (LBP). Soluble CD14, also binding to LPS, acts at physiological concentrations as an LPS agonist and has, at higher concentrations, an LPS antagonizing effect in cell activation. The myeloid differentiation antigen CD14 acts as the major receptor for bacterial LPS. The dominant form of the recombinant wildtype CD14 is the 50 kDa protein.,The rHuCD14 is produced from human CD14-transfected CHO-cells. Before transfection, the complete human CD14-cDNA was amplified by PCR and cloned into expression vector p-POL-DHFR ...
CD14 Antigens: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
How long to stimulate monocytes by LPS? - posted in Immunology: Hi everybody, I am wondering how much time does it take to stimulate peripheral blood monocytes by LPS to see switch in CD markers (from CD14++ to CD14+/CD16+ or CD16++) and other changes in expression of CD80, CD86, CD69 etc. I have already learned I have to stimulate cells by LPS at least 12 better 24 hours to detect cytokine production in supernatants, but how quickly do CD markers react? Thank you for your kind advices. Paja
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CD14 is a 55 kDa GPI-anchored glycoprotein, constitutively expressed on the surface of mature monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils, where serves as a multifunctional lipopolysaccharide receptor; it is also released to the serum both as a secreted and enzymatically cleaved GPI-anchored form. CD14 binds lipopolysaccharide molecule in a reaction catalyzed by lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), an acute phase serum protein. The soluble sCD14 is able to discriminate slight structural differences between lipopolysaccharides and is important for neutralization of serum allochthonous lipopolysaccharides by reconstituted lipoprotein particles. CD14 affects allergic, inflammatory and infectious processes ...
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Here we show that elevated CD14++CD16− monocytes predict cardiovascular events. Elevated CD14++CD16− monocytes predicted CVD risk independently of gender, age, current smoking, HDL cholesterol, and presence of diabetes and hypertension. CD14++CD16− monocytes did not, however, associate with the extent of atherosclerosis at baseline. In contrast, the percentages of monocytes expressing CD16 were negatively associated to carotid IMT at baseline. This seems contradictory but might indicate that different monocyte subsets have different biological functions. CD14++CD16− monocytes might cause inflammation that weakens the fibrous cap covering plaques and thus be associated with increased risk of clinical events, whereas CD16-expressing monocytes might play a greater role in determining the size of the plaque, perhaps even having a protective, or reparative, rather than plaque-promoting function. The chemokine receptors CCR2, CX3CR1, and CCR5 were not differentially expressed between cases and ...
Monocytes in the circulation of normal individuals express two receptors for the constant region of immunoglobulin, Fc gamma RI and Fc gamma RII. In contrast, we have observed that AIDS monocytes express significant levels of a third Fc gamma R, Fc gamma RIII (CD16), which is normally associated with activation or maturation of the monocyte population. By dual-fluorescence analysis using a monoclonal antibody specific for Fc gamma RIII (MAb 3G8), 38.5 +/- 3.2% of the LeuM3 (CD14)-positive monocytes in AIDS patients were CD16 positive as compared to 10.4 +/- 1.0% for healthy individuals (n = 29; P less than 0.005). Furthermore, AIDS monocytes expressed Fc gamma RIII-specific mRNA which is expressed minimally or not at all in control monocytes. As a recently identified inducer of Fc gamma RIII expression on blood monocytes, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) was found to be elevated in the serum and/or plasma of AIDS patients. Moreover, incubation of normal monocytes with AIDS serum or ...
The proteasome as a lipopolysaccharide-binding protein in macrophages: differential effects of proteasome inhibition on lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling events ...
Monocyte-derived intestinal macrophages are major producers of IL-1β and IL-23.(a) MP1 and DC1 subsets were isolated from uninfected (uninf) and C. rodentium-i
Human CD14 monocytes from peripheral blood of healthy adult donors. Our primary human monocytes are uncultured and have purity |95%.
In 81% of the critically ill patients with polytrauma the post-traumatic period was accompanied with development of infectious complications, Gram-negative (K. pneumoniae, Acinetobacter spp., E. coli) and Gram-positive (S. Epidermidis, S. aureus). Sepsis was diagnosed on 8 to 10 days in 45% of the patients. The significant increase of LPS-BP was found in the first 3 days of the follow-up, compared with the control values (6.7 times higher in SIRS group (χ2(n = 18, df = 3) = 52.8666, P , 0.001); 9.9 times higher in the group with local infection (χ2(n = 36, df = 3) = 91.6629, P , 0.001); 15.2 times higher in the sepsis group; 20.5 times higher in the severe sepsis group; 47.3 times higher in the septic shock group (χ2(n = 6, df = 3) = 11.0339, P = 0.0115)), whereas the first positive results of the microbiological examination were obtained only on 5 to 7 days. The diagnostic sensitivity of threshold concentration of LBP in blood serum (335 mkg/ml) was 84%, diagnostic specificity was 88% (ROC ...
MojoSort™ Human Pan Monocyte Isolation Kit - Cell populations other than total monocytes (CD14+ and CD14+CD16+ cells) are depleted by incubating the sample with the biotin antibody cocktail followed by incubation with magnetic Streptavidin Nanobeads.
Anti-TLR3/CD283 antibody conjugated to Biotin [TLR3/CD283.7] validated for WB, IP, IHC, FuncS, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Human and Mouse. Referenced in 2
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The main goal of this project was to investigate the differences in monocyte population and function between pregnant and non-pregnant dairy cows. Evaluating the differences in monocyte function may help to understand the immunosuppression of periparturient dairy cows. Blood was collected from three pregnant cows and four non-pregnant cows. The ... read more peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were incubated in six well plates for 3 hours, after which the monocytes were collected. Each cow was sampled twice, with 2-5 days in between. There was no difference in the total blood monocyte population as a percentage of the circulating PMBCs between pregnant and non-pregnant dairy cows, but pregnant cows showed a slightly increase in CD14+ cells as a percentage of the whole blood monocyte population. Dairy cows in late gestation (270 days) showed a decrease in MHCII expression on the CD14+ subpopulation compared with non-pregnant cows and cows in early gestation (120 days). This project showed ...
CD4+ T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages are important components of the immune system. Blood monocytes are usually targeted for studies of the human macrophage lineage cells because of their accessibility through blood sampling. Most separation techniques currently available to obtain human monocytes either require large volumes of blood or do not yield a monocyte fraction sufficiently depleted of other cell types. We have developed a simple strategy to isolate a highly enriched population of monocytes from small volumes (, 6 ml) of peripheral blood by using an anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody and magnetic microspheres. Yields of monocytes ranged from 75 to 80% of CD14+ cells in peripheral blood. CD4+ T cells were subsequently selected from the monocyte-depleted peripheral blood by using an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody and immunomagnetic beads. The effectiveness of immunomagnetic selection to yield a monocyte population highly depleted of T cells was analyzed by using a sensitive molecular ...
In gram-negative sepsis, free LPS attaches to a circulating LPS-binding protein, and the complex then binds to the CD14 receptor on monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. Engagement of CD14 (even at doses as minute as 10 pg/mL) results in intracellular signaling via an associated "Toll-like receptor" protein 4 (TLR-4). This signaling results in the activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), which leads to transcription of a number of genes that trigger a proinflammatory response. It was the result of significant activation of mononuclear cells and synthesis of effector cytokines. It also results in profound activation of mononuclear cells and the production of potent effector cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α. TLR-mediated activation helps to trigger the innate immune system to efficiently eradicate invading microbes, but the cytokines they produce also act on endothelial cells. There, they have a variety of effects, including reduced synthesis of anticoagulation factors such as ...
The dynamics of skin-draining cells following infection or vaccination provide important insight into the initiation of immune responses. In this study, the local recruitment and activation of immune cells in draining lymph nodes (LNs) was studied in calves in an adjuvant-induced inflammation. A transient but remarkably strong recruitment of monocytes was demonstrated after onset of inflammation, constituting up to 41 % of live cells in the draining LNs after 24 h. Numerous CD14+ cells were visualized in subcutaneous tissues and draining LNs, and the majority of these cells did not express dendritic cell-associated markers CD205 and CD11c. In the LNs, recruited cells were predominately of a CD14++ and CD16+ phenotype, consistent with an intermediate monocyte subset characterized to possess a high inflammatory potential. Moreover, monocytes from the draining lymph node showed a high expression of genes coding for pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, TNFa and TGFβ. Shortly after their
Pal Bhattoa Harjit MD, PhD; Zoltán Mezei MD. Technician: Róza Földesi Varga BSc; Gabriella Szabó Gaál BSc. The human body is constantly attacked by invading pathogenic microorganisms. The evolutionary ancient form of the host defense against these pathogens is the innate immune system. Toll-like receptors and their associated molecules like CD14 or LPS-binding protein (LBP) are the most important pattern recognition receptors of this system. They support the elimination of invading microorganisms, and have an important role in the initiation of the adaptive immune response and even can participate in the development of autoimmune disorders.. One major area of our interest is the characterization of the expression, function and interaction of LBP, CD14 and the associated TLRs in human and mouse experimental systems. Furthermore, we analyze the expression and functions of these molecules in autoimmune diseases (SLE, poly/dermatomyositis, systemic sclerosis) and in immune mediated skin ...
Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) display a complex blood transcriptome whose cellular origin is poorly resolved. Using single-cell RNA-seq, we profiled ~276,000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 33 pediatric SLE, with different disease activity scores, as well as 11 matched healthy controls. Our analysis yielded 20 transcriptionally distinct cell populations, including three monocyte, two B cell, a plasma cell (PC), three CD8+ T cell, and two NK cell clusters. Overall, the SLE signature was comprised of each cell type, although minor populations of PCs and pDCs over contributed. Interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) were expressed within a restricted SLE CD14+ monocyte population, which correlated with disease activity. While the most prevalent ISGs found in SLE patients were restricted to few clusters, those previously associated with flares spread to every cell type. These results will be compared and validated using an adult SLE cohort and will lay a foundation for ...
The normal range for monocytes in white blood cells is 2 to 8 percent; any result higher than 8 is considered abnormal, notes MedlinePlus. Monocytes are one of the five types of white blood cells...
Hello, We are interested in metabolic labeling (using 35S-Met) human monocytes stimulated under various conditions. Has anyone done this? I am looking for recommendations on media to use, length of starvation, labeling, etc. Any input is appreciated. Thanks in advance, Blair R. Renshaw Immunex Corp ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Soluble CD141-152 confers responsiveness to both lipoarabinomannan and lipopolysaccharide in a novel HL-60 cell bioassay. AU - Yu, Weiming. AU - Soprana, Elisa. AU - Cosentino, Giovanna. AU - Volta, Manuela. AU - Lichenstein, Henri S.. AU - Viale, Giovanna. AU - Vercelli, Donata. PY - 1998/10/15. Y1 - 1998/10/15. N2 - CD14 is a pattern recognition receptor involved in the interaction with multiple ligands, including LPS from Gram-negative bacteria and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) from mycobacteria. While the interactions between LPS and soluble CD14 (sCD14) have been analyzed in detail, LAM/CD14 interactions remain uncharacterized due to the lack of suitable functional assays. We describe herein a novel bioassay for the analysis of CD14/ligand interactions. CD14-negative myeloid HL-60 cells up-regulate endogenous CD14 gene expression when stimulated with LPS in the presence of recombinant soluble CD141-348. Using the HL-60 bioassay, we showed that sCD141- 348 confers responsiveness ...
The importance of these results are confirmed by Prof. Ernst Rietschel, Ph.D., chairman of the board of the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), the newly founded joint institute of the Charité and the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine: On one hand inflammation research as an aspect of systems medicine is one of the agreed focus areas of BIH and the findings reported here can be explored in more detail within the new Institute in the future. He adds: On the other hand the results published are exemplary for the concept of translational research aimed at making use of basic research knowledge for immediate use in clinical medicine.. *J.K. Eckert et al.: The Crystal Structure of Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein Reveals the Location of a Frequent Mutation that Impairs Innate Immunity. Immunity, 39, 1, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2013.09.005.. ...
We describe a patient with self-induced disease who presented with repeated urinary tract infection and sepsis due to intravesical and intravenous injection of feces. Sepsis occurred repeatedly such that the patient exhibited 10 bouts of fever , 40 degrees C in a single month. This bacterial challenge led to massive activation of the monocyte system with high levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and monocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). This cytokine response was followed by strong expansion of the novel CD14+CD16+ monocyte subset. These results suggest that cytokines induce the development of CD14+CD16+ cells in human septicemia and that CD14+CD16+ cells may serve as indicator for previous bouts of excessive inflammation. ...
In this study of untreated, HIV-infected patients, sCD14, a marker of microbial translocation and monocyte activation was detectable in both plasma and CSF. High CSF and plasma sCD14 was not explained by higher HIV RNA or lower CD4+ cell counts, while a significant association between plasma sCD14 and LPS was found. Furthermore, significant associations between CSF sCD14 and markers of inflammation and axonal damage in the CSF were found, independent of age, HIV RNA, and CD4+ cell count. Hence, it is possible that elevated monocyte activation, partly driven by microbial translocation, may contribute to the pathogenesis in CNS by promoting inflammation.. Infection of the CNS occurs early during HIV infection [34, 35]. HIV enters the CNS unassisted or in infected monocytes that cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) [36-38]. In the CNS, HIV and migrated immune cells lead to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and further immune activation. Inflammation in the CNS creates a neurotoxic ...
In this study, we functionally characterize a cyanobacterial LPS-like product (CyP) that acts as a potent and selective TLR4-MD-2 receptor antagonist. CyP is nontoxic at high concentrations on both human and mouse cells, and, when added to human DCs, it does not elicit any response detectable by global transcriptional analysis. Furthermore, when given together with LPS, CyP completely inhibits DC activation in vitro as well as endotoxic shock in vivo.. Several reports have described natural and synthetic inhibitors of LPS-induced inflammatory responses in human cells, and some compounds are currently being tested in vivo (38, 39). These fall in two broad categories: receptor antagonists and LPS-neutralizing molecules. Among the first are LPS-like molecules isolated from bacteria (Rhodobacter capsulatus and sphaeroides, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Helicobacter pylori), deacylated LPS, lipid IVa, synthetic Lipid A analogues (including E5531, E5564, DT-5461, and GLA-47), and certain cationic ...
An increasing interest in the role of monocytes in the immune response has yielded findings that monocyte dysregulation is deeply involved in autoimmune diseases such as MS, SLE, and RA. For example, MS monocytes have been reported to be easily activated [30] and to have increased levels of inflammatory cytokine transcription and translation [31] and cell-surface molecule expression [32]. In this study, we hypothesized that NMOSD monocytes are dysregulated in much the same way that MS monocytes are. The data presented here demonstrate that NMOSD monocytes are readily activated and show increased production of inflammatory cytokines, decreased production of IL-10, increased expression of inflammatory surface molecules, and increased frequencies of a non-classical monocyte subset compared to HC monocytes. Interestingly, NMOSD monocytes have an even more inflammatory characteristic in some measures than MS monocytes, which are well-known to be highly inflammatory.. To examine monocyte cytokine ...
Background and Objectives Monocytes can give rise to different cell types including osteoclasts (OC), which play an important role in maintaining bone homeostasis by resorbing bone matrix. Circulating monocytes consist of at least two main functional subsets of immune cells, Ly6Chigh and Ly6Clow monocytes, arising from a common progenitor in the bone marrow. Excessive and prolonged activation of inflammatory LyC6high monocytes is a hallmark of many inflammatory diseases including arthritis. Among key molecular rheostats, micro (mi) RNAs are a class of regulatory RNAs that control basic biological functions and orchestrate inflammatory responses. Among master miRNAs of innate immunity, miR-146a exerts a negative retro-control on inflammation transduction signals and inhibits osteoclastogenesis. Despite aberrant increased expression in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), miR-146a is unable to properly down regulate inflammation, leading to prolonged TNF production and increased OC, two arthritis hallmarks. ...
ABSTRACTPurposeThis study aimed to examine the tracking of physical activity (PA) during a 10-yr period and to investigate whether sex differences in PA trajectories are altered after aligning by maturity instead of age.MethodsThe Iowa Bone Development Study collected accelerometer data on a cohort
The development of obesity and insulin resistance has been extensively studied in the last decades, but the mechanisms underlying these alterations are still not completely understood. The gut microbiota has been identified as a potential contributor to metabolic diseases. It has been shown that obese individuals present different proportions of bacterial phyla compared with lean individuals, with an increase in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria and a decrease in Bacteroidetes. This alteration seems to interfere with intestinal permeability, increasing the absorption of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which reaches circulation and initiates activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and 2 and LPS receptor CD14, leading to increased activation of inflammatory pathways. With these activations, an impairment of the insulin signaling is observed, with decreased phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS) and Akt, as well as increased inhibitory serine phosphorylation of IRS-1. Altered
Results : Body weight, % body fat, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, and NEFA were increased with WD and wheat had no effect on these metabolic parameters. Serum C reactive protein and lipopolysaccharide binding protein were not changed by WD or wheat. WD decreased the SCFA, acetic acid, but adding Gallagher wheat to WD restored levels to control (PWD*Wheat, 0.05). No other SCFA were altered. Histological evaluation revealed reduced villi height (P, 0.05) and area (P, 0.05) in the jejunum with WD and wheat did not alter this response. Within the ileum, Gallagher increased villi area (P, 0.01) relative to control, but no other changes were noted. No effects of WD or wheat on villous atrophy or lymphocyte infiltration within the jejunum, ileum or colon were observed. Overall, gene expression of tight junction proteins was unaffected by WD or wheat, except for a reduction in junction adhesion molecule-3 (Jam3) by WD (P, 0.05). Within the ilial lamina propria, WD increased interferon-γ (IFNg) (P, ...
View R&D Systems research products for *8145-CD OR *6177-CD OR *3899-CD OR *2724-CD OR *3355-CD OR *2640-LM OR *1186-LM OR *1859-DC OR *1756-DC OR *1180-SE OR *954-SE OR *9168-SE OR *3384-B6 OR *3384-B6 OR *611-B6 OR *5668-A4 OR *6054-A4 OR *5397-A3 OR *8615-A3 OR *2319-L3 OR *3328-L3 OR *981-TR OR *546-TR OR *7579-CD
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Pedraza-Sánchez, Sigifredo et al "Reduced Frequency of a CD14+ CD16+ Monocyte Subset with High Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression in Cord Blood Compared to Adult Blood Contributes to Lipopolysaccharide Hyporesponsiveness in Newborns." Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 20.7 (2013): 962-971. Web. 23 Feb. 2020. ...
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购买重组CD32B兔单克隆抗体[EP888Y](ab45143),CD32B抗体经WB验证,可与人样本反应。12篇文献引用,产品出库一年都在质保范围内。中国现货速达。
2001 05 22.20858 16 06 45.68 -20 01 22.4 22.0R 01KG76 807 Cd1817 2001 05 22.28897 16 06 45.29 -20 01 21.3 01KG76 807 Cd1817 2001 06 10.02875 16 05 16.38 -19 57 27.3 22.9R 01KG76 304 Cd1817 2001 06 10.10380 16 05 16.05 -19 57 26.3 01KG76 304 Cd1817 2001 08 19.03454 16 02 18.80 -19 50 35.3 21.4R 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2001 08 20.03188 16 02 19.15 -19 50 37.8 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2001 08 21.03938 16 02 19.58 -19 50 40.7 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2002 04 07.29240 16 15 09.97 -20 25 16.3 21.6R 01KG76 807 Cf4617 2002 04 07.38861 16 15 09.68 -20 25 15.6 01KG76 807 Cf4617 2002 05 12.03950 16 12 54.85 -20 19 22.5 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 12.08513 16 12 54.63 -20 19 21.8 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 12.13062 16 12 54.41 -20 19 21.3 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 13.04812 16 12 50.15 -20 19 10.5 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 13.11749 16 12 49.83 -20 19 09.6 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 07 10.99718 16 08 34.27 -20 08 36.4 22.2R 01KG76 304 Cf9823 2002 07 11.20921 16 08 33.59 -20 08 35.0 01KG76 304 Cf9823 2002 07 13.10322 16 08 27.82 -20 08 ...
ഒരുപോലെയിരിക്കുന്ന ശരാശരി വലിപ്പമുള്ള ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകളാണ് സൂക്ഷ്മദർശിനിയിലൂടെ ദൃശ്യമാവുക. നക്ഷത്രപൂരിതമായ ആകാശം എന്നാണ് ഈ സൂക്ഷ്മദർശിനി ദൃശ്യത്തെ വിശേഷിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്.[4] ഈ ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകൾക്ക് ക്ഷാരാഭിമുഖ്യമുള്ള കോശദ്രവ്യം ഉണ്ടാകും. ചെറിയ മുറിയാത്ത കോശങ്ങൾ എന്നാണ് ബർക്കിറ്റ് ലിംഫോമയിലെ ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകളെ വിശേഷിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്. ബി-കോശ വ്യതിരക്ത മാർക്കറുകളായ CD20, CD22, CD19 എന്നിവ ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Neuromi \ CD5, 5x Mono_Rabbit-Poly Conjugate Diluent, 100 ml. \ KF17345-1 for more molecular products just contact us
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Neuromi \ CD5, 5x Mono_Rabbit-Poly Conjugate Diluent, 10 L. \ KF17345-100 for more molecular products just contact us
High-quality CD79B proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of PCSK9 proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
High-quality CD14 proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of PCSK9 proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
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Page 3 - Hello everyone So I took the AANP in March 2011 after taking the Fitz course, and failed (personally I didnt think I was ready), but I thought I would try. Then I purchased the Barkley Assoc CD
هدف: پلاکت‏ها قطعات سلولی بدون هسته و مشتق از مگاکاریوسیت‏ها هستند که علاوه بر ایفای نقش در هموستاز و ایمنی ذاتی به واسطه داشتن شاخص‏های مهم نظیر CD40L (یک شاخص مولکولی مهم در تحریک سلول‏های ایمنی) می‏توانند در ایمنی اکتسابی نیز نقش داشته باشند؛ از جمله تأثیر آن‏ها بر لنفوسیت‏های B و فعال‏سازی آن‏ها مشخص شده است. اکنون در پاسخ به این سؤال که آیا میکروذرات مشتق از غشای پلاکت نیز می‏تواند این تأثیر‏گذاری را داشته باشد، تأثیر آن‏ها بر فعال‏سازی لنفوسیت‏های B بررسی شد. مواد و روش‏ها: در ابتدا پلاکت کنسانتره از پایگاه انتقال خون منطقه‌ای و آموزشی استان
Results Cultured cells started to express CD14 on the day 12 and more than 90% of the cells expressed CD14 on the day 21 in the monocyte differentiation induction course. According to the expression levels of CD14, the cell population was divided into three groups: CD14 (−), CD14 (+) and CD14 (++). CD15 (+) cells were observed in CD14 (−) and CD14 (+) population but not in CD14 (++) population. The CD15+ cells in CD14 (+) transiently appeared in RA-iPS derived cells at 11.9±2.8% (mean ± SE) on day15. However these cell proportion in NOF was1.7±2.0%. Meanwhile, CD15+ cells in CD14 (−) proportion decreased during monocyte differentiation in RA-iPS cells, but remained in NOF-iPS cells (representative data, RA 31.5, 20.6, 15.6%, NOF 47.3, 46.1, 47.3%, on day15, 18 and 21).. ...
The CD14 antigen is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked single-chain surface membrane glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 53-55 kDa. It functions as a high affinity receptor for the complex of LipoPolySaccharide (LPS) and the LPS-Binding Protein (LBP). It is found on cells of myelomonocytic lineage. CD14 antigen is strongly expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and weakly on neutrophils. It is also weakly expressed on B lymphocytes, but is absent from T lymphocytes, NK cells, red blood cells and platelets. It is found on Langerhans cells, follicular dendritic cells and histiocytes.
The CD14 antigen is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked single-chain surface membrane glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 53-55 kDa. It functions as a high affinity receptor for the complex of LipoPolySaccharide (LPS) and the LPS-Binding Protein (LBP). It is found on cells of myelomonocytic lineage. CD14 antigen is strongly expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and weakly on neutrophils. It is also weakly expressed on B lymphocytes, but is absent from T lymphocytes, NK cells, red blood cells and platelets. It is found on Langerhans cells, follicular dendritic cells and histiocytes.
The CD14 antigen is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked single-chain surface membrane glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 53-55 kDa. It functions as a high affinity receptor for the complex of LipoPolySaccharide (LPS) and the LPS-Binding Protein (LBP). It is found on cells of myelomonocytic lineage. CD14 antigen is strongly expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and weakly on neutrophils. It is also weakly expressed on B lymphocytes, but is absent from T lymphocytes, NK cells, red blood cells and platelets. It is found on Langerhans cells, follicular dendritic cells and histiocytes.
The CD14 antigen is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked single-chain surface membrane glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 53-55 kDa. It functions as a high affinity receptor for the complex of LipoPolySaccharide (LPS) and the LPS-Binding Protein (LBP). It is found on cells of myelomonocytic lineage. CD14 antigen is strongly expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and weakly on neutrophils. It is also weakly expressed on B lymphocytes, but is absent from T lymphocytes, NK cells, red blood cells and platelets. It is found on Langerhans cells, follicular dendritic cells and histiocytes.
The CD14 antigen is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked single-chain surface membrane glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 53-55 kDa. It functions as a high affinity receptor for the complex of LipoPolySaccharide (LPS) and the LPS-Binding Protein (LBP). It is found on cells of myelomonocytic lineage. CD14 antigen is strongly expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and weakly on neutrophils. It is also weakly expressed on B lymphocytes, but is absent from T lymphocytes, NK cells, red blood cells and platelets. It is found on Langerhans cells, follicular dendritic cells and histiocytes ...
Monocytes are precursors of macrophages and recruited to the uterus throughout pregnancy to perform important immunological functions. In this study, we hypothesized that pregnant women have reduced peripheral monocyte expression of chemokine receptors and alterations in PBMC responses to microbial stimuli as an adaption to pregnancy and that these changes are less pronounced in women with autoimmunity. We therefore investigated the chemokine receptor expression, migratory behaviour and responses to microbial stimulation of peripheral monocytes from pregnant women at parturition (n=13) and from non-pregnant women (n=9). In addition, we compared healthy pregnant women with women suffering from SLE (n=5), a condition with pronounced systemic inflammation increasing the risk for pregnancy complications. We demonstrate that peripheral monocytes are affected by pregnancy with reduced percentages of CCR2+, CCR5+ and CXCR3+ monocytes of both classical (CD16) and inflammatory (CD16+) subsets and that ...
Compositions and methods for the treatment and diagnosis of lipopolysaccharide-related conditions and coagulant-related disease are provided. Compositions include polypeptides which are identical or homologous to a certain cationic protein (CAP18) obtained from mammalian granulocytes, particularly including a reactive nitrogen inhibiting peptide (RNIP) fragment found at the carboxy-terminus of CAP18. Polypeptides are capable of binding to LPS and inhibiting LPS-mediated activation of macrophage, as well as interfering with the clotting cascade to inhibit coagulation in conditions such as disseminated intravascular coagulation. Compositions comprising the polypeptides in a suitable pharmaceutical carrier are also provided.
Caroline Mouline, Guillaume Béranger, Heidy Schmid-Antomarchi, Danielle Quincey, David Momier, et al.. Monocytes differentiation upon treatment with a peptide corresponding to the C-terminus of activated T cell-expressed Tirc7 protein. Journal of Cellular Physiology, Wiley, 2012, 227 (8), pp.3088-3098. ⟨10.1002/jcp.23059⟩. ⟨hal-02404327⟩ ...
Creative Biolabs provides Anti-CD276 (CD276.1) h(CD28-CD3ζ) CAR, pCDCAR1 product for Biopharmaceutical research,preclinical and clinical trials.
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CD4 cells protect the body from infection by circulating in the blood to identify bacteria and viruses then produce antibodies to destroy them. CD4 cells also trigger the body to respond to infection...
CD8 T 세포는 바이러스나 박테리아와 같은 병원체 및 종양, 이식된 장기 등에서 발현되는 외부 항원을 인지하고 이 외부항원을 발현하는 세포를 제거하는 기능을 갖는 세포독성 T 세포이다. 외부항원들에 대한 CD8 T 세포 기억의 형성은 차 후 이 항원들에 재노출되었을 때 강하고 빠른 면역 반응을 일으켜, 감염 병원체나 종양을 퇴치하는데 기여하기 때문에 면역력 향상에 중요한 요인이다. 감염 병원체 항원에 대한 백신을 접종하는 이유는 바로 이와 같은 T 세포 기억을 형성하기 위함이다. 반대로, 특정 항원에 대한 CD8 T 세포의 관용 (tolerance)이 형성하게 되면 그 항원들이 제거되지 않고 받아들여지게 되는데, 이식거부 반응이나 자가면역질환이 억제되기 위해서는 이식 항원이나 자가 항원에 대한 관용의 형성이 중요하다 ...
Pill with imprint cardizem CD 300 mg is Blue & Gray, Capsule-shape and has been identified as Cardizem CD 300 mg. It is supplied by BTA Pharmaceuticals.
Morning Guys, Having spent the last month or so messing around with CD :rolleyes: Ive decided to give WW another go. I love CD for the quick loss (got 1...
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Antigens, CD14 | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard CatalystAntigens, CD14 | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

CD14" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Antigens, CD14" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Antigens, CD14" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD14" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Antigens, CD14". ...
more infohttps://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/Antigens,%20CD14

CD14 - Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 - Cercocebus atys (Sooty mangabey) - CD14 gene & proteinCD14 - Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 - Cercocebus atys (Sooty mangabey) - CD14 gene & protein

tr,A0A2K5LKS5,A0A2K5LKS5_CERAT Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 OS=Cercocebus atys OX=9531 GN=CD14 PE=4 SV=1 ... Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14UniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14Sequence analysis. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... Name:CD14Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href="/ ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0A2K5LKS5

Cd14 - Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 precursor - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cd14 gene & proteinCd14 - Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 precursor - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cd14 gene & protein

The lipoproteins act as agonists to modulate antigen presenting cell functions in response to the pathogen (PubMed:19362712). ... sp,P10810,CD14_MOUSE Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Cd14 PE=1 SV=1 ... "CD14 is required for MyD88-independent LPS signaling.". Jiang Z., Georgel P., Du X., Shamel L., Sovath S., Mudd S., Huber M., ... "CD14 is required for MyD88-independent LPS signaling.". Jiang Z., Georgel P., Du X., Shamel L., Sovath S., Mudd S., Huber M., ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P10810

CD14 Antigens
     Summary Report | CureHunterCD14 Antigens Summary Report | CureHunter

CD14 Antigens: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, ... Antigens: 114404*Surface Antigens: 4354*Differentiation Antigens: 1051*CD Antigens: 38*CD14 Antigens: 92 ... Antigens, CD14; CD14 Antigen; CD14 Monocyte Differentiation Antigen; LPS Receptor; Lipoglycan Receptor; Receptor, LPS; Receptor ... CD14 Antigens. Subscribe to New Research on CD14 Antigens Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD018950-CD14-Antigens.do

Yersinia V-Antigen Exploits Toll-like Receptor 2 and CD14 for Interleukin 10-mediated Immunosuppression | JEMYersinia V-Antigen Exploits Toll-like Receptor 2 and CD14 for Interleukin 10-mediated Immunosuppression | JEM

Yersinia V-Antigen Exploits Toll-like Receptor 2 and CD14 for Interleukin 10-mediated Immunosuppression. Andreas Sing, Dagmar ... PPMs from CD14−/− and isogenic CD14+/+ mice were treated with rLcrV for 2 h. Then IL-10 was determined in the culture ... Yersinia V-Antigen Exploits Toll-like Receptor 2 and CD14 for Interleukin 10-mediated Immunosuppression ... CD14 is required for LcrV-induced immunomodulation. (A) IL-10 induction by rLcrV is virtually absent in CD14 −/− PPMs. PPMs ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/196/8/1017

The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors | ScienceThe CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors | Science

CD14 is a myelomonocytic differentiation antigen expressed by monocytes, macrophages, and activated granulocytes and is ... The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ... The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ... The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/239/4839/497?ijkey=676a6eeaec7ace359919ddfd23e4377b83b5db96&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

RePub, Erasmus University Repository:
  Hepatitis B virus surface antigen activates myeloid dendritic cells via a soluble CD14...RePub, Erasmus University Repository: Hepatitis B virus surface antigen activates myeloid dendritic cells via a soluble CD14...

Hepatitis B virus surface antigen activates myeloid dendritic cells via a soluble CD14-dependent mechanism. Publication. ... Hepatitis B virus surface antigen activates myeloid dendritic cells via a soluble CD14-dependent mechanism. Journal of Virology ...
more infohttps://repub.eur.nl/pub/96440

Cd14 - CD14 antigen | International Mouse Phenotyping ConsortiumCd14 - CD14 antigen | International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium

Cd14tm1a(EUCOMM)Hmgu KO first allele (reporter-tagged insertion with conditional potential) Targeting vectors, ES Cells ... Cd14tm1(KOMP)Vlcg Reporter-tagged deletion allele (with selection cassette) Targeting vectors, ES Cells ...
more infohttps://www.mousephenotype.org/data/genes/MGI:88318

Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 | P2X7Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 | P2X7

Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14. Interactor Gene Name:. CD14. Interactor protein name:. Monocyte differentiation antigen ... CD14. Uniprot ID:. P08571 Identifed in (species):. Human Cell Type/ Tissue:. HEK293. Receptor (species):. Human. Interactor ( ...
more infohttp://www.p2x7.co.uk/proteins/monocyte-differentiation-antigen-cd14/

NIOSHTIC-2  Publications Search - 20039299 - Hexamethylene diisocyanate asthma is associated with genetic polymorphisms of CD14...NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20039299 - Hexamethylene diisocyanate asthma is associated with genetic polymorphisms of CD14...

For example, serum diisocyanate antigen-specific IgE and IgG have been extensively investigated, but these immunoassays lack ... IL4RA II 1 CD14 CT; and IL4RA II 1 IL13 RR 1 CD14 CT) for distinguishing confirmed DA status (DA1) compared with SIC-negative ... or CD14. Genotypes w(I50V), IL4RA (Q551R), IL4RA (E375A), IL13 (R110Q), and CD14 (C159T) SNPs, as previously described.5 ... the association between DA and the IL4RA II 1 CD14 CT and IL4RA II 1 IL13 RR 1 CD14 CT genotype combinations approached ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20039299.html

CD14 Mouse Recombinant Protein - CD Antigens - Recombinant Protein - Full-Length Protein - Products  | ProMabCD14 Mouse Recombinant Protein - CD Antigens - Recombinant Protein - Full-Length Protein - Products | ProMab

Before transfection the complete mouse CD14-cDNA was amplified by PCR and cloned into expression vector p-POL-DHFR). The ... The CD14 is produced from mouse CD14 transfected CHO-cells in serum free medium. ... The CD14 is produced from mouse CD14 transfected CHO-cells in serum free medium. Before transfection the complete mouse CD14- ... It is recommended to reconstitute the lyophilized Mouse CD14 in sterile 18Ω-cm H2O not less than 100μg/ml, which can then be ...
more infohttps://www.promab.com/products/full-length-proteins/recombinant-protein-full/cd-antigens/cd14-mouse-recombinant-protein

Biotin anti-human CD14 Antibody  anti-CD14 - M5E2Biotin anti-human CD14 Antibody anti-CD14 - M5E2

CD14 is a 53-55 kD glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked membrane glycoprotein also known as LPS receptor. ... Antigen References 1. Stocks S, et al. 1990. Biochem. J. 268:275.. 2. Wright S, et al. 1990. Science 249:1434. ... CD14 is a 53-55 kD glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked membrane glycoprotein also known as LPS receptor. CD14 is ... and Langerhans cells have also been reported to express CD14. As a high-affinity receptor for LPS, CD14 is involved in the ...
more infohttps://www.biolegend.com/fr-fr/products/biotin-anti-human-cd14-antibody-4543

Brilliant Violet 711™ anti-human CD14 Antibody, CD14, 63D3Brilliant Violet 711™ anti-human CD14 Antibody, CD14, 63D3

CD14 is expressed at high levels on monocytes and macrophages, and at lower levels on granulocytes. Some dendritic cell ... CD14 is a 53-55 kD glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked membrane glycoprotein that is also known as the LPS receptor. ... Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14, myeloid cell-specific leucine-rich glycoprotein, LPS receptor Isotype Mouse IgG1, κ Ave ... CD14 is a 53-55 kD glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked membrane glycoprotein that is also known as the LPS receptor. CD14 ...
more infohttps://www.biolegend.com/en-gb/products/brilliant-violet-711-anti-human-cd14-antibody-17966

Increase in CD14+HLA-DR−/low myeloid-derived suppressor cells in hepatocellular carcinoma patients and its impact on prognosis ...Increase in CD14+HLA-DR−/low myeloid-derived suppressor cells in hepatocellular carcinoma patients and its impact on prognosis ...

... and it is reported that CD14+HLA-DR−/lowMDSCs are increased in hepatocellular carcinoma... ... Comparative analysis of various tumor-associated antigen-specific t-cell responses in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. ... Increase in CD14+HLA-DR−/low myeloid-derived suppressor cells in hepatocellular carcinoma patients and its impact on prognosis ... Vuk-Pavlović S, Bulur PA, Lin Y, Qin R, Szumlanski CL, Zhao X, Dietz AB (2010) Immunosuppressive CD14 + HLA-DRlow/- monocytes ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00262-013-1447-1

CD14 ELISA & Assay KitsCD14 ELISA & Assay Kits

Compare and order CD14 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products ... monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 , myeloid cell-specific leucine-rich glycoprotein , CD14 antigen , lipopolysaccharide ... CD14 Antigen Profile Beschreibung des Gens The protein encoded by this gene is a surface antigen that is preferentially ... The sensitivity, minimum detectable dose of Human CD14 using this CD14 ELISA kit was found to be Anmelden zum Anzeigen *(4) ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/tlr-signalweg-pathway-21/cd14-elisa-kit-15428/

Detrimental and protective action of microglial extracellular vesicles on myelin lesions: astrocyte involvement in...Detrimental and protective action of microglial extracellular vesicles on myelin lesions: astrocyte involvement in...

7c), whilst exhibiting unaltered expression for the A2 markers pentraxin-3 (PTX3), CD14 and Tm4sf1 (Fig. 7d). In contrast, the ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00401-019-02049-1

Patent US5849517 - Method and composition for preserving antigens and nucleic acids and process ... - Google PatentsPatent US5849517 - Method and composition for preserving antigens and nucleic acids and process ... - Google Patents

Vaccines and related immunotherapeutic methods utilizing antigens stabilized by the fixative of the present invention are also ... Lymphocytes were gated using CD45-FITC and CD14-PE. Background staining was evaluated using isotope control monoclonal ... Examples of such antigens are the CD antigens present on the surface of hematopoietic cells. Because much of the clinically ... Tumor specific antigens appear labile and antigens must be presented to the immune system while on the tumor cell. Thus, ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US5849517?dq=6,970,917

Anti-CD14 antibody [RPA-M1] (ab86895) | AbcamAnti-CD14 antibody [RPA-M1] (ab86895) | Abcam

Mouse monoclonal CD14 antibody [RPA-M1] validated for Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen ... Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 urinary form antibody. *Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14, membrane-bound form ... Toll-like receptor 4 and CD14 expression in human ciliary body and TLR-4 in human iris endothelial cells.. Exp Eye Res 79:203-8 ... Cell surface flow cytometric analysis of CD14 in human monocytes, using 0.1 µg of ab86895 for 106 cells. Anti mouse IgG-FITC ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/cd14-antibody-rpa-m1-ab86895.html

Anti-CD14 antibody (ab115634) | AbcamAnti-CD14 antibody (ab115634) | Abcam

Rabbit polyclonal CD14 antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide. ... Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 urinary form antibody. *Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14, membrane-bound form ... All lanes : Anti-CD14 antibody (ab115634) at 0.1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Mouse Thymus tissue lysate. Lane 2 : Mouse Spleen tissue ... Synthetic peptide corresponding to Mouse CD14 aa 152-165 (internal sequence).. Sequence: TRDAWLAELQQWLK ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/cd14-antibody-ab115634.html

Human dendritic cell subsets.Human dendritic cell subsets.

Dendritic cells are highly adapted to their role of presenting antigen and directing immune responses. Developmental studies ... Antigens, CD1 / metabolism. Antigens, CD14 / metabolism. Cell Lineage / immunology. Dendritic Cells / classification*, cytology ... 0/Antigens, CD1; 0/Antigens, CD14; 0/CD1C protein, human; 0/Glycoproteins ... CD14+ DCs CD14+DCs found in tissues and lymph nodes are a third subset of CD11c+ myeloid cells originally described as ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Human-dendritic-cell-subsets/23621371.html

Frontiers | Allopurinol reduces antigen-specific and polyclonal activation of human T cells | ImmunologyFrontiers | Allopurinol reduces antigen-specific and polyclonal activation of human T cells | Immunology

In the current study, we have assessed the effect of allopurinol on antigen-specific and mitogen-driven activation and cytokine ... Allopurinol markedly decreased the frequency of IFN-γ and IL-2-producing T cells, either after polyclonal or antigen-specific ... Allopurinol markedly decreased the frequency of IFN-γ and IL-2-producing T cells, either after polyclonal or antigen-specific ... In the current study, we have assessed the effect of allopurinol on antigen-specific and mitogen-driven activation and cytokine ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2012.00295/full

Anti-Human CD14 Antibody, Clone M5E2Anti-Human CD14 Antibody, Clone M5E2

CD14 is a useful marker for distinguising monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes. Clone M5E2 antibody may be used for flow ... Anti-Human CD14 Antibody M5E2,Anti-Human CD14 M5E2,Anti-Human CD14 Clone M5E2,CD14 Clone M5E2,CD14 M5E2,human CD14 Clone M5E2, ... CD14 is also found on tissue macrophages, Langerhans cells and dendritic cells. CD14 functions as a high-affinity receptor for ... Human CD14 Positive Selection Kit and labeled with Anti-Human CD14 Antibody, Clone M5E2, PE. Histograms show labeling of PBMCs ...
more infohttps://www.stemcell.com/products/product-types/antibodies/anti-human-cd14-antibody-clone-m5e2.html

CD14 Antibody (M5E2) [DyLight 488] (NB100-77758G): Novus BiologicalsCD14 Antibody (M5E2) [DyLight 488] (NB100-77758G): Novus Biologicals

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD14 Antibody (M5E2) [DyLight 488]. Validated: Flow, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Human, ... Alternate Names for CD14 Antibody (M5E2) [DyLight 488]. *CD14 antigen. *CD14 molecule ... Blogs on CD14. Check out the latest blog posts on CD14.. The role of TLR4 in breast cancer. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are ... Reviews for CD14 Antibody (NB100-77758G) (0) There are no reviews for CD14 Antibody (NB100-77758G). By submitting a review you ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/cd14-antibody-m5e2_nb100-77758g

GO Gene ListGO Gene List

Cd14. CD14 antigen. NM_009841. Gene Info. Cd209b. CD209b antigen. NM_026972. NM_001037800. Gene Info. ... CD300A antigen. NM_170758. Gene Info. Cd36. CD36 antigen. NM_001159558. NM_007643. NM_001159555. NM_001159557. NM_001159556. ... CD47 antigen (Rh-related antigen, integrin-associated signal transducer). NM_010581. Gene Info. ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GoGeneQuery?PAGE=1&ORG=Mm&GOID=0060627

Human CD14 Quantikine ELISA Kit DC140: R&D SystemsHuman CD14 Quantikine ELISA Kit DC140: R&D Systems

Quantikine Human CD14 ELISA Kit(DC140). Sensitivity: 125 pg/mL. Validated for Cell Culture Supernates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, ... CD14 antigen; CD14 molecule; CD14; monocyte differentiation antigen CD14; Myeloid cell-specific leucine-rich glycoprotein ... The CD14 (-159 C/T) SNP is associated with sCD14 levels and allergic asthma, but not with CD14 expression on monocytes Authors ... Background: CD14. CD14 is an acute phase glycoprotein that binds lipopolysaccharide endotoxins (LPS) from Gram-negative ...
more infohttps://www.rndsystems.com/products/human-cd14-quantikine-elisa-kit_dc140
  • These include the use of difficult-to-label target cells, or, regarding reporter gene transfection-based assays, the use of difficult-to-transfect targets such as primary human professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). (hindawi.com)
  • DCs are the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells for inducing anticancer immunity both in vitro and in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • We report here that biosafe coronavirus-based vaccine vectors facilitate delivery of multiple antigens and immunostimulatory cytokines to professional antigen-presenting cells in vitro and in vivo . (asm.org)
  • BODIPY-LPS presented to the transfectants as complexes with soluble CD14 first colocalized with mCD14-EGFP on the cell surface. (rupress.org)
  • Soluble CD14 either appears after shedding of mCD14 (48 kDa) or is directly secreted from intracellular vesicles (56 kDa). (wikipedia.org)
  • Juan TS, Hailman E, Kelley MJ, Wright SD, Lichenstein HS: Identification of a domain in soluble CD14 essential for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling but not LPS binding. (exbio.cz)
  • Lodrup Carlsen KC, Granum B: Soluble CD14: role in atopic disease and recurrent infections, including otitis media. (exbio.cz)
  • Asai Y, Makimura Y, Kawabata A, Ogawa T: Soluble CD14 Discriminates Slight Structural Differences between Lipid As That Lead to Distinct Host Cell Activation. (exbio.cz)
  • Soluble CD14, also binding to LPS, acts at physiological concentration as an LPS agonist and has, at higher concentrations, an LPS antagonizing effect in cell activation. (biotium.com)
  • LPS augmented the VEGF production in HPC cultures in the presence of recombinant human soluble CD14 (sCD14). (asm.org)
  • CD14 accepts LPS from its initial binding by LBP, and it can further transfer LPS to the TLR4/MD2 complex. (rndsystems.com)
  • The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding residues and the TLR4 interaction site of CD14 were conserved in all marsupials. (biologists.org)
  • Stimulation of adult tammar leukocytes resulted in the induction of a biphasic pattern of CD14 and TLR4 expression, and coincided with increased production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. (biologists.org)
  • Differential patterns of expression of CD14 and TLR4 were observed in tammar pouch young early in development, suggesting that early maturation of the innate immune system in these animals may have developed as an immune survival strategy to protect the marsupial neonate from exposure to microbial pathogens. (biologists.org)
  • In the present study, primary sequence, expression patterns and response to stimuli of CD14 and TLR4 from the tammar wallaby ( Macropus eugenii ) were characterised. (biologists.org)
  • We report that the functional motifs involved in LPS binding, signalling and homodimerisation of tammar CD14 and the TIR domain of TLR4 are highly conserved. (biologists.org)
  • Challenge of adult tammar leukocytes with LPS and LTA revealed that these PAMP induce expression of CD14 and TLR4 in a pattern that coincided with expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). (biologists.org)
  • Induction of the entire panel of genes in response to low concentrations of LPS or Taxol requires the participation of both CD14 and TLR4, whereas high concentrations of LPS or Taxol elicit the expression of a subset of LPS-inducible genes in the absence of CD14. (jimmunol.org)
  • These findings suggest that for expression of a full repertoire of LPS-/Taxol-inducible genes, CD14, TLR4, and CD11b/CD18 must be coordinately engaged to deliver optimal signaling to the macrophage. (jimmunol.org)
  • Expression of Trem-1, TLR2, TLR4, CD14 and HLA-DR on blood monozytes and neutrophils were examined using flow cytometry from 22 patients with E. coli sepsis and 6 healthy controls. (nih.gov)
  • Mobilization requires TLR4 and its CD14 coreceptor and Trif. (nih.gov)
  • Transfer of LPS between CD14 molecules is a rapid process ( 2 ), suggesting that the movement of LPS from sCD14 to mCD14 on mCD14-bearing cells is likely to be more rapid than the movement of LPS from sCD14 to the surfaces of cells that do not express CD14. (rupress.org)
  • While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16(+) cells, in particular the CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which included chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules. (jove.com)
  • Active immunotherapy is aimed either at eliciting a specific de novo host immune response against selected tumor antigens (Ags) by employing cancer vaccines or at amplifying the existing antitumor immune response by administering nonspecific proinflammatory molecules or adjuvants. (asm.org)
  • Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are known as key immune regulators in various human malignancies, and it is reported that CD14 + HLA-DR −/low MDSCs are increased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. (springer.com)
  • Cell surface flow cytometric analysis of CD14 in human monocytes, using 0.1 µg of ab86895 for 10 6 cells. (abcam.com)
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fluorescently labeled with boron dipyrromethane (BODIPY) first binds to the plasma membrane of CD14-expressing cells and is subsequently internalized. (rupress.org)
  • Cells that express plasma membrane-bound (m)CD14, 1 either naturally or through transfection, bind bacterial LPS. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, mCD14 serves as the initial site of interaction between LPS and the surfaces of CD14-bearing cells. (rupress.org)
  • In the current study, we have assessed the effect of allopurinol on antigen-specific and mitogen-driven activation and cytokine production in human T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Allopurinol markedly decreased the frequency of IFN-γ and IL-2-producing T cells, either after polyclonal or antigen-specific stimulation with Herpes Simplex virus 1, Influenza (Flu) virus, tetanus toxoid and Trypanosoma cruzi -derived antigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Further, CD14 has been shown to bind apoptotic cells, and can affect allergic, inflammatory and infectious processes. (thermofisher.com)
  • Abnormal numbers of cells expressing this antigen or aberrant expression levels of the antigen can be expected in some disease states. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Human CD14 derived in Human Cells. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Demonstrating high efficiency, consistency, and excellent target cell viability, our optimized luciferase IVT RNA is used to transfect dividing and nondividing primary antigen presenting cells. (hindawi.com)
  • The ability to cotransfect the IVT RNA of the luciferase reporter and the antigen of interest into the antigen presenting cells and its simple read-out procedure render the assay high-throughput in nature. (hindawi.com)
  • Loss of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) expression on tumor cells is frequent in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) arising in immune-privileged sites, such as the testis and central nervous system, and is associated with small homozygous deletions of HLA-DQ/HLA-DR and larger hemizygous deletions of the MHC region. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that cytokines induce the development of CD14+CD16+ cells in human septicemia and that CD14+CD16+ cells may serve as indicator for previous bouts of excessive inflammation. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Flow cytometry analysis (surface staining) of human peripheral blood cells with anti-human CD14 (MEM-15) PE-CyTM5. (exbio.cz)
  • Adherent U373-CD14-EGFP (□) and U373-EGFP (▵) cells cultured in 96-well plates were incubated with LPS-sCD14 complexes (40 ng/ml LPS) at 37°C for the times indicated. (nih.gov)
  • U373-CD14-EGFP cells were grown in 96-well tissue culture plates, and both total and intracellular fluorescence was measured before and at various times after exposure to LPS-sCD14 complexes (see Materials and Methods). (nih.gov)
  • A decrease of ∼20% in the intracellular fluorescence was observed after a 15-min incubation of U373-CD14-EGFP cells with LPS-sCD14 complexes. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, we identified T cells receptors of these tumor antigen-specific helper T cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Journal Article] 2.An oncofetal antigen, IMP-3-derived long peptides induce immune responses of both helper T cells and CTLs. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Moreover, highly efficient antigen delivery to human DCs with recombinant human coronavirus 229E and specific stimulation of human CD8 + T cells revealed that this approach is exceptionally well suited for translation into human vaccine studies. (asm.org)
  • When comparing PBMCs before and after Y90-RE, we observed an increase in tumour necrosis factor-α on both the CD8 + and CD4 + T cells as well as an increase in percentage of antigen-presenting cells after Y90-RE, implying a systemic immune activation. (bmj.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax-infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14(+)CD16- (classical), CD14(+)CD16(+) (inflammatory), and CD14loCD16(+) (patrolling) cells. (jove.com)
  • Hence, our results provide key information on the mechanism by which CD14(+)CD16(+) cells control parasite burden, supporting the hypothesis that they play a role in resistance to P. vivax infection. (jove.com)
  • CD4 + Th1 and CD8 + T cells) immune systems, whose final goal is to kill the antigen-bearing tumor cells. (asm.org)
  • Here we report the identification of a novel BDCA1 + CD14 + population of immunosuppressive myeloid cells that are expanded in melanoma patients and are present in dendritic cell-based vaccines, where they suppress CD4 + T cells in an antigen-specific manner. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human peripheral blood monocytes were stained with HLA-DR FITC and Brilliant Violet 711™ anti-human CD14 (clone 63D3) (left) or Brilliant Violet 711™ mouse IgG1, κ isotype control (right). (biolegend.com)
  • Flow cytometry analysis (surface staining) of human peripheral blood leukocytes using anti-human CD14 (clone MEM-18) Alexa Fluor® 700. (exbio.cz)
  • Although LPS is considered its main ligand, CD14 also recognizes other pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as lipoteichoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differential uptake of FITC dextran by CD1a- and CD14-derived DCs during maturation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • For days 4 and 6, FITC dextran uptake was performed on total populations by double color fluorescence using anti-CD1a-PE or anti-CD14-PE. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Parameters of FITC dextran accumulation in day-6 CD1a-DC precursors and day-11 CD14-derived DCs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Taken together, this novel vaccine platform is well suited to deliver antigens and immunostimulatory cytokines to DCs and to initiate and maintain protective immunity. (asm.org)
  • Bacterial sepsis induced immunsuppression via antigen hyporesponsibility increases the risk of nosokomial infections and mortality.Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) might have a central role in the pathophysiology of hyporesponsibility.We found a significant higher expression of Trem-1 and TLR-2 on monocytes and neutrophils in patients compared to healthy volunteers. (nih.gov)
  • Significant improvements may result from the selection of the appropriate tumor-specific target antigen (to overcome the peripheral immune tolerance) and/or the development of immunization strategies effective at inducing a protective immune response. (asm.org)
  • In this study, to develop more effective cancer immunotherapy for oral cancer patients, we attempted to identify several HLA class II-restricted long peptides derived from some tumor antigens. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The recommended ELISA Kit will likely detect the antigen in question with higher specificity in approved samples than the available alternatives. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • DCs are equipped with molecular sensors and antigen-processing machinery to recognize pathogens, integrate chemical information and guide the specificity, magnitude and polarity of immune responses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These features link the possible identity of DLCs to that of an uncommon CD14 + CD16 + CD64 − monocyte subset found to be expanded in a variety of pathological conditions. (jimmunol.org)
  • This cytokine response was followed by strong expansion of the novel CD14+CD16+ monocyte subset. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Bacterial sepsis induced immunsuppression via antigen hyporesponsibility increases the risk of nosokomial infections and mortality. (nih.gov)
  • Monocytes were isolated from PBMCs using CD14 MicroBeads and subsequently cultured for 7 days with IL-4 and GM-CSF to generate immature Mo-DCs and were, finally, cultured for additional 3 days with TNF-α for maturation. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The recommended ELISA Kit will likely detect the antigen better in the approved sample types than the available alternatives. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Cd14 (Mouse) ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative measurement of mouse Cd14. (abnova.com)
  • Melanoma antigens (MAGE) are a family of tumor-specific antigens shown to be expressed in various tumors, including bladder cancers and melanoma, but not in normal tissues except for the testis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this context, considering the disappointing results up to now, the quest for specific and selective tumor antigens for developing tumor-specific cancer vaccines, optimal delivery systems (i.e., dendritic cell [DC]-based vaccines), adjuvants, and strategies to overcome immune tolerance and regulatory T (Treg) cell responses is the main goal for several research groups and leading health care companies. (asm.org)
  • Antigens, CD14" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • As a result, we identified several long peptides derived from cancer antigens, such as IMP-3, DEPDC1, and MPHOSPH1. (nii.ac.jp)