Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Identification of CD137 as a potent monocyte survival factor. (1/282)

CD137 (ILA/4-1BB), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, promotes adherence and prolongs survival of human peripheral monocytes. It induces a strong expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), an essential monocyte survival factor. Monocyte survival induced by CD137 is primarily mediated by M-CSF and to a lesser extent by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-3. Survival and induction of M-CSF are mediated via reverse signaling through a CD137 ligand expressed constitutively by peripheral monocytes.  (+info)

CD137-induced apoptosis is independent of CD95. (2/282)

CD95 (APO-1/Fas) and CD137 (ILA/4-1BB) are members of the tumour necrosis factor receptor family, and both are involved in induction of apoptosis in lymphocytes. Contrary to the case of CD95, apoptosis by CD137 is caused by cross-linking of the respective ligand rather than the receptor. Nothing is known so far about the mechanism of CD137-induced cell death. Here, we show that immobilized CD137 protein induces expression of CD95 in resting primary T and B lymphocytes. However, induction of apoptosis by CD137 is independent of CD95, because: (1) antagonistic anti-CD95 antibody fragments do not block CD137-induced apoptosis; and (2) CD137, but not anti-CD95, can induce apoptosis in resting lymphocytes.  (+info)

Role of the stress kinase pathway in signaling via the T cell costimulatory receptor 4-1BB. (3/282)

4-1BB is a member of the TNFR superfamily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. 4-1BB can costimulate IL-2 production by resting primary T cells independently of CD28 ligation. In this study, we report signaling events following 4-1BB receptor aggregation using an Ak-restricted costimulation-dependent T cell hybridoma, C8.A3. Aggregation of 4-1BB on the surface of C8.A3 cells induces TNFR-associated factor 2 recruitment, which in turn recruits and activates apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1, leading to downstream activation of c-Jun N-terminal/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPK). 4-1BB ligation also enhances anti-CD3-induced JNK/SAPK activation in primary T cells. Overexpression of a catalytically inactive form of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 in C8.A3 T cells interferes with activation of the SAPK cascade and with IL-2 secretion, consistent with a critical role for JNK/SAPK activation in 4-1BB-dependent IL-2 production. Given the ability of both CD28 and 4-1BB to induce JNK/SAPK activation, we asked whether hyperosmotic shock, another inducer of this cascade, could function to provide a costimulatory signal to T cells. Osmotic shock of resting primary T cells in conjunction with anti-CD3 treatment was found to costimulate IL-2 production by the T cells, consistent with a pivotal role for JNK/SAPK in T cell costimulation.  (+info)

The structural basis for the recognition of diverse receptor sequences by TRAF2. (4/282)

Many members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily initiate intracellular signaling by recruiting TNFR-associated factors (TRAFs) through their cytoplasmic tails. TRAFs apparently recognize highly diverse receptor sequences. Crystal structures of the TRAF domain of human TRAF2 in complex with peptides from the TNFR family members CD40, CD30, Ox40, 4-1BB, and the EBV oncoprotein LMP1 revealed a conserved binding mode. A major TRAF2-binding consensus sequence, (P/S/A/T)x(Q/E)E, and a minor consensus motif, PxQxxD, can be defined from the structural analysis, which encompass all known TRAF2-binding sequences. The structural information provides a template for the further dissection of receptor binding specificity of TRAF2 and for the understanding of the complexity of TRAF-mediated signal transduction.  (+info)

CD137 induces proliferation and endomitosis in monocytes. (5/282)

Peripheral monocytes are short-lived and are replenished from hematopoietic stem cells whose proliferation is believed to be confined to the bone marrow. Human peripheral monocytes are assumed not to be able to proliferate. In this study we show that CD137 (ILA/4-1BB), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, induces a widespread and profound proliferation of human peripheral monocytes. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor are essential, but not sufficient for proliferation. Additional soluble autocrine factors induced by CD137 are required. Induction of proliferation is mediated via reverse signaling through a CD137 ligand, expressed constitutively by peripheral monocytes. The ability of CD137 to induce proliferation in human peripheral monocytes is not shared by any other known molecule.  (+info)

Anti-4-1BB monoclonal antibodies abrogate T cell-dependent humoral immune responses in vivo through the induction of helper T cell anergy. (6/282)

The 4-1BB receptor (CDw137), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, has been shown to costimulate the activation of T cells. Here we show that anti-mouse 4-1BB monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) inhibit thymus-dependent antibody production by B cells. Injection of anti-4-1BB mAbs into mice being immunized with cellular or soluble protein antigens induced long-term anergy of antigen-specific T cells. The immune response to the type II T cell-independent antigen trinintrophenol-conjugated Ficoll, however, was not suppressed. Inhibition of humoral immunity occurred only when anti-4-1BB mAb was given within 1 wk after immunization. Anti-4-1BB inhibition was observed in mice lacking functional CD8(+) T cells, indicating that CD8(+) T cells were not required for the induction of anergy. Analysis of the requirements for the anti-4-1BB-mediated inhibition of humoral immunity revealed that suppression could not be adoptively transferred with T cells from anti-4-1BB-treated mice. Transfer of BALB/c splenic T cells from sheep red blood cell (SRBC)-immunized and anti-4-1BB-treated mice together with normal BALB/c B cells into C.B-17 severe combined immunodeficient mice failed to generate an anti-SRBC response. However, B cells from the SRBC-immunized, anti-4-1BB-treated BALB/c mice, together with normal naive T cells, exhibited a normal humoral immune response against SRBC after transfer, demonstrating that SRBC-specific B cells were left unaffected by anti-4-1BB mAbs.  (+info)

CD137 (ILA/4-1BB), expressed by primary human monocytes, induces monocyte activation and apoptosis of B lymphocytes. (7/282)

Human CD137 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family and the homologue of murine 4-1BB. Recent studies have demonstrated that CD137 promotes accessory T cell activation, and regulates proliferation and survival of T lymphocytes. This study reports on the expression and function of CD137 in peripheral blood monocytes. While monocytes showed constitutive expression in 10 out of 18 healthy donors, CD137 was not expressed on resting T or B lymphocytes. Immobilized antibodies to CD137 markedly induced the production of IL-8 and TNF-alpha protein and mRNA, and led to inhibition of IL-10 expression by primary monocytes. Furthermore, cross-linking of CD137 on monocytes resulted in an increase of B lymphocyte apoptosis mediated by direct cell-cell contact of both cell populations. In conclusion, this study identified CD137 as a new receptor involved in monocyte activation by inducing a characteristic cytokine release profile. In addition, CD137 may play a role in monocyte-dependent control of B lymphocyte survival.  (+info)

4-1BB costimulation is required for protective anti-viral immunity after peptide vaccination. (8/282)

Peptide vaccination induces T cell activation and cytotoxic T cell development. In an effort to understand what factors can improve immune responses to peptide vaccination, the role of 4-1BB (CD137) costimulation was examined, since 4-1BB has been shown to promote T cell responses in other systems. 4-1BBL-deficient (-/-) and wild-type (+/+) mice were immunized with a lipidated lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) peptide NP396-404. Analysis of peptide-specific responses early after immunization by CTL assay, intracellular IFN-gamma staining, and IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) indicated that CD8 T cell responses were reduced 3- to 10-fold in the absence of 4-1BB costimulation. Moreover, when agonistic anti-4-1BB Ab was given, CD8 T cell responses in 4-1BBL-/- mice were augmented to levels similar to those in 4-1BBL+/+ mice. Two months after immunization, 4-1BBL+/+ mice still had epitope-specific cells and were protected against viral challenge, demonstrating that peptide vaccination can induce long-term protection. In fact, 70% of CD8 T cells were specific for the immunizing peptide after viral challenge, demonstrating that strong, epitope-specific CD8 T cell responses are generated after peptide vaccination. In contrast, peptide-immunized 4-1BBL-/- mice had fewer epitope-specific cells and were impaired in their ability to resolve the infection. These results show that immunization with a single LCMV peptide provides long term protection against LCMV infection and point to costimulatory molecules such as 4-1BB as important components for generating protective immunity after vaccination.  (+info)

*Immune checkpoint

CD137 - When this molecule, also called 4-1BB, is bound by CD137 ligand, the result is T-cell proliferation. CD137-mediated ... CD27 - This molecule supports antigen-specific expansion of naïve T cells and is vital for the generation of T cell memory. ... The ligand for GITR is mainly expressed on antigen presenting cells. Antibodies to GITR have been shown to promote an anti- ... CD40 - This molecule, found on a variety of immune system cells including antigen presenting cells has CD40L, otherwise known ...

*Immunotransplant

A number of approaches have been considered to amplify T cell mediated immune responses(e.g. IL-2, CTLA-4, IL-7, CD137), and ... tumor-associated antigens, or whole tumor cells, can induce specific T-cell mediated immune responses. ...

*B7 (protein)

In the TNF family of molecules, the protein 4-1BB (CD137) on the T cell may bind to 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) on the APC. The B7 ( ... This is also called "Signal 1" and its main purpose is to guarantee antigen specificity of the T cell activation. However, MHC ... B7 is a type of peripheral membrane protein found on activated antigen presenting cells (APC) that, when paired with either a ...

*Adoptive cell transfer

Antigen CD19 appears only on B cells, which go awry in lymphoma and leukemia. Loss of B cells can be countered with ... potentially including costimulatory domains encoding CD28 or CD137. CARs can provide recognition of cell surface components not ... Cancer-testes antigen MAGE-A3 is not known to be expressed in any normal tissues. However, targeting an HLA-A*0201-restricted ... One example of this in the case of T cell adoptive therapy is the addition of chimeric antigen receptors, or CARs, to redirect ...
Purpose: Cultured tumor fragments from melanoma metastases have been used as a source of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) for adoptive cell therapy. The expansion of tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells with IL-2 in these early cultures is critical in generating clinically active TIL infusion products, with a population of activated 4-1BB CD8+ T cells recently found to constitute the majority of tumor-specific T cells. Experimental Design:We used an agonistic anti-4-1BB antibody added during the initial tumor fragment cultures to provide in situ 4-1BB co-stimulation. Results: Addition of an agonistic anti-4-1BB antibody could activate 4-1BB signaling within early cultured tumor fragments and accelerated the rate of memory CD8+ TIL outgrowth that were highly enriched for melanoma antigen specificity. This was associated with NFkappaB activation and the induction of T-cell survival and memory genes, as well as enhanced IL-2 responsiveness, in the CD8+ T cells in the fragments and emerging from the ...
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Treatment of advanced, poorly immunogenic tumors in animal models, considered the closest simulation available thus far for conditions observed in cancer patients, remains a major challenge for cancer immunotherapy. We reported previously that established tumors in mice receiving an agonistic mAb to the T cell costimulatory molecule 4-1BB (CD137) regress due to enhanced tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. In this study, we demonstrate that several poorly immunogenic tumors, including C3 tumor, TC-1 lung carcinoma, and B16-F10 melanoma, once established as solid tumors or metastases, are refractory to treatment by anti-4-1BB mAb. We provide evidence that immunological ignorance, rather than anergy or deletion, of tumor antigen-specific CTLs during the progressive growth of tumors prevents costimulation by anti-4-1BB mAb. Breaking CTL ignorance by immunization with a tumor antigen-derived peptide, although insufficient to stimulate a curative CTL response, is necessary for ...
A membrane bound member of the TNF superfamily that is expressed on activated B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; and DENDRITIC CELLS. The ligand is specific for the 4-1BB RECEPTOR and may play a role in inducing the proliferation of activated peripheral blood T-LYMPHOCYTES ...
Example of Table 22.3. Here is the Scalogram for Example 5, a computer-adaptive, multiple-choice test. The original responses are shown.. GUTTMAN SCALOGRAM OF ORIGINAL RESPONSES:. STUDENT ,TOPIC. , 11 3 11 1 3212232212132425654421434145625 36555366356465464633654. ,640215038189677748390992315641640517264579268221076889430372139553458. ,---------------------------------------------------------------------. 3 + d b c db d c b cd S STA. 6 + c b c d d c cd S CHU. 27 + c c c c cbb a dd c b dd S ERI. 4 + c b a d cb c dd d b d dc S CHE. 9 + d c a a cbc c ba b dca c db dc bbdbb c S MEL. 25 + c b d c bc a a d a c dba d cbccbd c S DAN. 24 + a d ac b c d c b a a AP SAR. 12 + c b c c b b b b a cb cc c A ALL. 28 + c c a bcc b c acc d b bc b c bdcb d IH GRE. 21 + b c b a c b a bc bb ab a db bbd cc b b AP MIL. 11 + a d c b cc cbad d ca c d ca ba b ac bac bc d c cc S CHR. 17 + d d c c acac cac b c a a b c c bc b ac ac IH FRA. 7 + d c d ccaaac d bcd ca b cb c b a a a a ab b bb ac IH JAN. 1 + c c ab ca dc b a a c ...
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View mouse Tnfrsf18 Chr4:156026164-156028895 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
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The KOMP Repository Collection is located at the MMRRC at the University of California, Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain. These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above. ...
Dose-limiting toxicity of cancer drugs is a main hurdle facing the development of effective treatments for cancer. Immunostimulatory drugs are no different. Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody that blocks the function of the coinhibitory receptor CTLA-4, is the first U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved immunostimulatory antibody that has shown clinical benefit in patients with cancer. Nonetheless, ipilimumab treatment is associated with significant dose-dependent toxicities and grade 3 to 4 adverse effects including colitis and hypophysitis (26). Likewise, treatment with an agonistic 4-1BB antibody while showing antitumor efficacy was also associated with grade 3 or higher neutropenia and elevated liver enzymes (27), and severe hepatic toxicity at higher doses that led to the suspension of the clinical trial (27, 28). The potential toxicity of immunostimulatory antibodies was underscored by unexpected severe toxicities seen in healthy volunteers treated with a super agonistic anti-CD28 ...
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Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 19, also known as TNFRSF19 and TROY is a human gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This receptor is highly expressed during embryonic development. It has been shown to interact with TRAF family members, and to activate JNK signaling pathway when overexpressed in cells. This receptor is capable of inducing apoptosis by a caspase-independent mechanism, and it is thought to play an essential role in embryonic development. Alternatively, spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000127863 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000060548 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: TNFRSF19 tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 19". Robertson NG, Khetarpal U, Gutiérrez-Espeleta GA, et al. (1995). "Isolation of novel and known genes from a human fetal cochlear ...
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TNFRSF9 - TNFRSF9 (untagged)-Human tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 9 (TNFRSF9) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
OPG antibody [13H21] (tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 11b (osteoprotegerin)) for WB. Anti-OPG mAb (GTX53424) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
OPG antibody (Biotin) (tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 11b) for ELISA, WB. Anti-OPG pAb (GTX18068) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 4 (ACT35 Antigen or TAX Transcriptionally Activated Glycoprotein 1 Receptor or OX40L Receptor or CD134 or TNFRSF4) - Pipeline Review, H1 2018 report by Global Markets Direct. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 4 (ACT35 Antigen or...
Research proven purified goat polyclonal TRAIL R3, DcR 1 or CD263 antibody. DcR1 is attached to the cell surface through glycophospholipid anchor. It has the extracellular TRAIL binding domain but lacks the cytoplasmic domain to induce apoptotic signal. Hence overexpression of DcR1 inhibits the TRAIL induced apoptosis. Designed for immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and related apllications. IHC image in product description.
The TNFRSF11A gene encodes a member of the TNF receptor family and is therefore involved in regulation of immunen processes. Mutations cause autosomal recessive juvenile Paget disease, osteopetrosis, and dominant familial expansile osteolysis.. ...
Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family related protein (GITR, CD357 or TNFRSF18) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF). Like other T cell co-stimulatory TNFR family members, GITR utilizes multiple oligomerization states to regulate the initiation of downstream signaling during T cell activation by antigen presenting cells (APCs). The formation of receptor superclusters, comprised of two or more trimeric molecules, has been defined for multiple TNFRs as a means of regulating downstream signal amplification. For co-stimulatory TNFRs, like GITR, CD137 and OX40, signaling outcomes in T cells are primarily mediated via the NFκB pathway that promotes cell survival and effector cell activities in response to suboptimal T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. It has been hypothesized that the manipulation of the oligomeric states of co-stimulatory TNFRs using antibodies may have therapeutic utility in enhancing the activity of tumor-reactive T cells, either as single agents or ...
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|p|Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1A is a member of the Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, which also contains TNFRSF1B. This protein is one of the major receptors for the tumor necrosis factor-alpha. This receptor can activate the transcription factor NF-kB, mediate apoptosis, and function as a regulator of inflammation. Antiapoptotic protein BCL2-associated athanogene 4 (BAG4/SODD) and adaptor proteins TRADD and TRAF2 have been shown to interact with this receptor, and thus play regulatory roles in the signal transduction mediated by the receptor. Germline mutations of the extracellular domains of this receptor were found to be associated with the human genetic disorder called periodic fever syndrome. Impaired receptor clearance is thought to be a mechanism of the disease.|/p|
RPB499Hu01, CD120A; P55; TBP1; FPF; TNF-R; TNF-R-I; TNF-R55; TNFAR; TNFR1; TNFR55; TNFR60; P55-R; P60; Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1; Tumor necrosis factor-binding protein 1 | Products for research use only!
WORKLIST ENTRIES (1): TNFACTORR14 View alignment Tumour necrosis factor receptor 14 signature Type of fingerprint: COMPOUND with 4 elements Links: PRINTS; PR01918 TNFACTORR1A; PR01919 TNFACTORR1B; PR01920 TNFACTORR3 PRINTS; PR01921 TNFACTORR4; PR01922 TNFACTORR5; PR01680 TNFACTORR6 PRINTS; PR01960 TNFACTORR7; PR01923 TNFACTORR8; PR01924 TNFACTORR9 PRINTS; PR01956 TNFACTORR10; PR01961 TNFACTORR11; PR01962 TNFACTORR12 PRINTS; PR01963 TNFACTORR13B; PR01964 TNFACTORR13C; PR01966 TNFACTORR16 PRINTS; PR01967 TNFACTORR17; PR01968 TNFACTORR18; PR01969 TNFACTORR19 PRINTS; PR01970 TNFACTORR19l; PR01971 TNFACTORR21; PR01972 TNFACTORR25 PRINTS; PR01973 TNFACTORR27 PRINTS; PR01974 TNFACTORR11A; PR01975 TNFACTORR11B MIM; 602746 Creation date 23-JUN-2009 1. ARMITAGE, R. Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily members and their ligands. CURR.OPIN.IMMUNOL. 6 407-413 (1994). 2. BANNER D., DARCY, A., JAMES, W., GENTZ, R., SCHOENFELD, H., BROGER, C., LOETSCHER, H. AND LESSLAUER, W. Crystal structure of the ...
Somatic mutations of the tumor suppressor tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14 (HVEM, encoded by TNFRSF14), which frequently occur in follicular lymphomas (FL), disrupt the interaction between HVEM and the immune checkpoint protein B and T lymphocyte associated (BTLA), resulting in the inhibition of T-cell immune responses. To elucidate the role of HVEM in germinal center (GC) lymphomagenesis, Boice, Salloum, Mourcin, and colleagues evaluated the interaction between HVEM and BTLA in FLs. Genomic and immunohistochemical analyses of human FLs identified HVEM mutations in 28% (40 of 141) of patient samples and the mutually exclusive loss of either HVEM or BTLA expression in 73% (145 of 198) of patient samples. Depletion of B cell-specific Hvem or Btla in a genetically engineered mouse model of FL resulted in enhanced lymphomagenesis in Hvem-deficient mice and Btla-deficient mice compared to control mice. Further, the morphology and activated status of the B-cell receptor (BCR) ...
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Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 1A (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 or Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Type I or p55 or p60 or CD120a - Market research report and industry analysis - 12355963
This gene encodes a member of the TNF (tumor necrosis factor) receptor superfamily. The encoded protein functions in signal transduction pathways that activate inflammatory and inhibitory T-cell immune response. It binds herpes simplex virus (HSV) viral envelope glycoprotein D (gD), mediating its entry into cells. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014 ...
Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14(TNFRSF14), also known as HVEM, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFRSF14 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. It is mapped to 1p36.32. HVEM plays an important role in HSV pathogenesis because it enhanced the entry of several wildtype HSV strains of both serotypes into CHO cells, and mediated HSV entry into activated human T cells. HVEM and BTLA which are form a bidirectional signaling pathway can regulate cell survival and inhibitory responses between interacting cells. HVEM as an important orchestrator of mucosal immunity integrates signals from innate lymphocytes to induce optimal epithelial Stat3 activation, which indicated that targeting HVEM with agonists could improve host defense.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning and characterization of cDNAs for two distinct tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily genes from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. AU - Park, Chan Il. AU - Kurobe, Tomofumi. AU - Hirono, Ikuo. AU - Aoki, Takashi. PY - 2003/5/1. Y1 - 2003/5/1. N2 - Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily regulates diverse biologic functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival, in addition to providing costimulatory signals for programmed cell death or apoptosis. In this study, cDNA fragments for two distinct TNFR homologues were obtained from a Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, cDNA library. Full-length cDNAs of TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 homologues were obtained by using these cDNA fragments as probes. The cDNA for the Japanese flounder TNFR-1 homologue predicts a peptide of 395 amino acids that is 35% identical to the extracellular region of mouse TNFR-1, whereas the cDNA of the Japanese flounder TNFR-2 homologue predicts a peptide of 483 ...
Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 18 (TNFRSF18) also known as activation-inducible TNFR family receptor (AITR) or glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFRSF18 gene. GITR is currently of interest to immunologists as a co-stimulatory immune checkpoint molecule. TNFRSF18 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) superfamily. This receptor has been shown to have increased expression upon T-cell activation, and it is thought to play a key role in dominant immunological self-tolerance maintained by CD25+/CD4+ regulatory T cells. Knockout studies in mice also suggest the role of this receptor is in the regulation of CD3-driven T-cell activation and programmed cell death. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. Human activation-inducible tumor necrosis factor receptor (AITR) and its ligand, AITRL, are important costimulatory molecules in the ...
Clone REA961 recognizes the mouse CD265 antigen, also known as receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) or tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11A (TNFRSF11A). RANK is the receptor for RANK-ligand (RANKL) which promotes osteoclast differentiation and activation. CD265 is also expressed on dendritic cells, skeletal muscle, thymus, liver, colon, small intestine, adrenal gland, mammary gland epithelial cells, prostate, vascular cells, and pancreas. Additional information: Clone REA961 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - 日本
Immunotherapy with an agonistic anti-CD40 antibody limits adipose tissue inflammation and protects from pre-established metabolic disease in mice Conference Paper ...
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TNFRSF9 Protein Mouse Recombinant | CD137 Antigen | ProSpecTNFRSF9 Protein Mouse Recombinant | CD137 Antigen | ProSpec

Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9, 4-1BB ligand receptor, T-cell antigen 4-1BB, CD137. ...
more infohttps://www.prospecbio.com/4-1bbr_mouse

JCI -
Provision of antigen and CD137 signaling breaks immunological ignorance, promoting regression of poorly immunogenic tumorsJCI - Provision of antigen and CD137 signaling breaks immunological ignorance, promoting regression of poorly immunogenic tumors

Provision of antigen and CD137 signaling breaks immunological ignorance, promoting regression of poorly immunogenic tumors. ... Provision of antigen and CD137 signaling breaks immunological ignorance, promoting regression of poorly immunogenic tumors. ... CD137) regress due to enhanced tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. In this study, we demonstrate that ... We provide evidence that immunological ignorance, rather than anergy or deletion, of tumor antigen-specific CTLs during the ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/14184/figure/7

JCI -
Usage information: Provision of antigen and CD137 signaling breaks immunological ignorance, promoting regression of...JCI - Usage information: Provision of antigen and CD137 signaling breaks immunological ignorance, promoting regression of...

Provision of antigen and CD137 signaling breaks immunological ignorance, promoting regression of poorly immunogenic tumors. ... Provision of antigen and CD137 signaling breaks immunological ignorance, promoting regression of poorly immunogenic tumors. ... CD137) regress due to enhanced tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. In this study, we demonstrate that ... We provide evidence that immunological ignorance, rather than anergy or deletion, of tumor antigen-specific CTLs during the ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/14184/usage

Abstract 3642: Tumor-antigen expression-dependent activation of the CD137 costimulatory pathway by bispecific DART® proteins |...Abstract 3642: Tumor-antigen expression-dependent activation of the CD137 costimulatory pathway by bispecific DART® proteins |...

Conclusions: HER2 x CD137 and EphA2 x CD137 DART proteins promote T-cell co-stimulation in a tumor antigen-dependent manner and ... lines expressing HER2 or EphA2 revealed tumor antigen-dependent CD137 pathway activation by HER2 x CD137 and EphA2 x CD137 DART ... Abstract 3642: Tumor-antigen expression-dependent activation of the CD137 costimulatory pathway by bispecific DART® proteins. ... Tumor-antigen expression-dependent activation of the CD137 costimulatory pathway by bispecific DART® proteins [abstract]. In: ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/77/13_Supplement/3642

CD137/4-1BB (Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9, T-cell antigen 4-1BB homolog, T-cell antigen ILA) | BioVendorCD137/4-1BB (Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9, T-cell antigen 4-1BB homolog, T-cell antigen ILA) | BioVendor

CD137/4-1BB (Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9, T-cell antigen 4-1BB homolog, T-cell antigen ILA). CD137 (ILA ... The expression of CD137 is strictly activation dependent in primary cells. Co-stimulation through CD137 enhances T lymphocyte ... While cross-linking of CD137 activates T lymphocytes, cross-linking of the CD137 ligand has the opposite effect. This reverse ... T-cell antigen 4-1BB homolog, T-cell antigen ILA) ... The expression of CD137 isoforms in lymphocytes has been shown ...
more infohttps://www.biovendor.com/cd1374-1bb

TNFRSF9 Gene - GeneCards | TNR9 Protein | TNR9 AntibodyTNFRSF9 Gene - GeneCards | TNR9 Protein | TNR9 Antibody

tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily,member 9,cell differentiation antigen CD137 (4-1BB),expressed on B and T cells, ... Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TNFRSF9 Gene. GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:. *T-cell antigen ILA (TNR9_ ... orf clones - Search results for 169 available CD137 gene related products * Overview of 169 available CD137 gene related ... orf clones - Search results for 169 available CD137 gene related products * Overview of 169 available CD137 gene related ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=TNFRSF9

Isolation of T-Cell Receptors Specifically Reactive with Mutated Tumor-Associated Antigens from Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes...Isolation of T-Cell Receptors Specifically Reactive with Mutated Tumor-Associated Antigens from Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes...

Neoantigen-reactive T cells were enriched from TILs by sorting for CD137+ CD8+ T cells and expanded in vitro. Dominant TCR α ... Receptors Specifically Reactive with Mutated Tumor-Associated Antigens from Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Based on CD137 ... Receptors Specifically Reactive with Mutated Tumor-Associated Antigens from Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Based on CD137 ... Receptors Specifically Reactive with Mutated Tumor-Associated Antigens from Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Based on CD137 ...
more infohttp://d2c8mzhzbiwwqd.cloudfront.net/content/early/2017/03/10/1078-0432.CCR-16-2680

Anti-Human TNFRSF9 F(ab) Stable Cell Line-CHO CSC-P0474 - Creative BioMartAnti-Human TNFRSF9 F(ab) Stable Cell Line-CHO CSC-P0474 - Creative BioMart

CD137; CD137 antigen; T cell antigen ILA; T-cell antigen ILA; 4-1BB ligand receptor; homolog of mouse 4-1BB; receptor protein 4 ... Tested positive against native human antigen.. Product Storage:. It should be stored at -20 °C. Reconstituted protein aliquots ... T-cell antigen 4-1BB homolog; induced by lymphocyte activation (ILA); interleukin-activated receptor, homolog of mouse Ly63; 4- ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_173831_309.htm

Anti-Human TNFRSF9 scFv Stable Cell Line-CHO CSC-P0475 - Creative BioMartAnti-Human TNFRSF9 scFv Stable Cell Line-CHO CSC-P0475 - Creative BioMart

CD137; CD137 antigen; T cell antigen ILA; T-cell antigen ILA; 4-1BB ligand receptor; homolog of mouse 4-1BB; receptor protein 4 ... Tested positive against native human antigen.. Product Storage:. It should be stored at -20 °C. Reconstituted protein aliquots ... T-cell antigen 4-1BB homolog; induced by lymphocyte activation (ILA); interleukin-activated receptor, homolog of mouse Ly63; 4- ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_173832_309.htm

CD137L (4-1BBL) antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - USACD137L (4-1BBL) antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - USA

The role of CD137 signaling has been studied in several autoimmune processes, including rheumatoid arthritis, experimental ... CD137L is expressed on a variety of antigen-presenting cells, including dendritic cells (DCs), B cells, and macrophages as well ... CD137L cross-links its receptor, CD137, which is expressed on activated T cells, and co-stimulates T cell activities. Signaling ... through interaction with CD137 by soluble CD137L has been shown to cause T cell-expansion, cytokine induction, and upregulation ...
more infohttps://www.miltenyibiotec.com/US-en/products/macs-flow-cytometry/antibodies/primary-antibodies/cd137l-4-1bbl-antibodies-human-rea254-1-11.html

CD8 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - DeutschlandCD8 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Deutschland

The CD8 antigen is a disulfide-linked dimer that exists either as a CD8a homodimer or as a CD8α/β heterodimer. CD8 acts as a ... The CD8 antibody recognizes the α-subunit of the antigen. Additional information: Clone REA734 displays negligible binding to ... Clone REA734 recognizes the human CD8 antigen, a cell-surface glycoprotein also known as Leu-2 or CD8a. CD8 is strongly ... Microchip-based fluorescence-activated cell sorting of antigen-specific CD137. + CD8. + T cells - CYTO 2017 ...
more infohttps://www.miltenyibiotec.com/DE-en/products/macs-flow-cytometry/antibodies/primary-antibodies/cd8-antibodies-human-rea734-1-50.html

4-1BB/TNFRSF9/CD137 Antibody (145501) [Alexa Fluor® 750] (FAB838S): Novus Biologicals4-1BB/TNFRSF9/CD137 Antibody (145501) [Alexa Fluor® 750] (FAB838S): Novus Biologicals

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-4-1BB/TNFRSF9/CD137 Antibody (145501) [Alexa Fluor® 750]. Validated: Flow. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100 ... The natural ligand, 4-1BBL, is a member of the TNF superfamily and is expressed on activated antigen presenting cells including ... Home » 4-1BB/TNFRSF9/CD137 » 4-1BB/TNFRSF9/CD137 Antibodies » 4-1BB/TNFRSF9/CD137 Antibody (145501) [Alexa Fluor® 750] ... Blogs on 4-1BB/TNFRSF9/CD137. There are no specific blogs for 4-1BB/TNFRSF9/CD137, but you can read our latest blog posts. ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/4-1bb-tnfrsf9-cd137-antibody-145501_fab838s

Gendoo - Relevant featuresGendoo - Relevant features

Antigens, CD137 4-1BB遺伝子産物 Transcription Factor RelB 転写因子RelB ...
more infohttp://gendoo.dbcls.jp/cgi-bin/gendoo.cgi?omimid=601895&taxonomy=human

Immunotherapy of Cancer with 4-1BB | Molecular Cancer TherapeuticsImmunotherapy of Cancer with 4-1BB | Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

Provision of antigen and CD137 signaling breaks immunological ignorance, promoting regression of poorly immunogenic tumors. J ... CD137 and CD137 ligand constitutively coexpressed on human T and B leukemia cells signal proliferation and survival. Int J ... Expression of CD137 and CD137 ligand in colorectal cancer patients. Oncol Rep 2006;15:1197-200. ... as well as antigen specificity, are ideal candidates for enhancing tumor-antigen-specific immunity. Immunotherapy targeting ...
more infohttps://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/11/5/1062?ijkey=7d45a39edf2a62cf486438292145f3d80bd97112&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Blockade of B7-H1 and PD-1 by Monoclonal Antibodies Potentiates Cancer Therapeutic Immunity | Cancer ResearchBlockade of B7-H1 and PD-1 by Monoclonal Antibodies Potentiates Cancer Therapeutic Immunity | Cancer Research

Provision of antigen and CD137 signaling breaks immunological ignorance, promoting regression of poorly immunogenic tumors. J ... Tumor progression despite efficient tumor antigen cross-presentation and effective "arming" of tumor antigen-specific CTL. J ... Resistance of B7-H1+ tumors to CD137 antibody therapy. A, groups of five DBA/2 mice were given s.c. injections of 5 × 104 mock/ ... The mice were then treated with 2A, an agonistic mAb specific for mouse CD137 (33). As expected, tumor regression was observed ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/65/3/1089?ijkey=9991604527d15cea5873073c8375030ecffc8362&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Multifactorial T-cell Hypofunction That Is Reversible Can Limit the Efficacy of Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Transduced Human T...Multifactorial T-cell Hypofunction That Is Reversible Can Limit the Efficacy of Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Transduced Human T...

Provision of antigen and CD137 signaling breaks immunological ignorance, promoting regression of poorly immunogenic tumors. J ... specifically targeting a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) or a cancer stromal antigen offers the advantages of specific, high- ... Ligation of CD137 receptor prevents and reverses established anergy of CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocytes in vivo . Blood 2004;103: ... Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells in chronic lymphoid leukemia. N Engl J Med 2011;365:725-33. ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/20/16/4262.full

Identification of Circulating Human Antigen-Reactive CD4+FOXP3+ Natural Regulatory T Cells | The Journal of ImmunologyIdentification of Circulating Human Antigen-Reactive CD4+FOXP3+ Natural Regulatory T Cells | The Journal of Immunology

Rapid identification and sorting of viable virus-reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells based on antigen-triggered CD137 expression. J ... Membrane-bound CD137 has been used to detect Ag-reactive T cells (21), and CD137+ cells could be detected after CMV Ag ... or without anti-CD40 to stain for CD137 (J-O). At 6 and 24 h CMV Ag stimulation, CD154 (A-D) or CD137 (J-M) expression (black ... and CD137-expressing cells, respectively. Percentages of CD154 or CD137, induced by CMV Ag-loaded autologous CFSE-labeled PBMCs ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/188/3/1083

Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 9 (4-1BB Ligand Receptor or T Cell Antigen 4-1BB Homolog or T Cell Antigen...Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 9 (4-1BB Ligand Receptor or T Cell Antigen 4-1BB Homolog or T Cell Antigen...

4-1BB Ligand Receptor or T Cell Antigen 4-1BB Homolog or T Cell Antigen ILA or CD137 or TNFRSF9) - Pipeline Review, H1 2018 ... 4-1BB Ligand Receptor or T Cell Antigen 4-1BB Homolog or T Cell Antigen ILA or CD137 or TNFRSF9) - Pipeline Review, H1 2018. * ... 4-1BB Ligand Receptor or T Cell Antigen 4-1BB Homolog or T Cell Antigen ILA or CD137 or TNFRSF9) - Pipeline Review, H2 2018. * ... 4-1BB Ligand Receptor or T Cell Antigen 4-1BB Homolog or T Cell Antigen ILA or CD137 or TNFRSF9) - Pipeline Review, H1 2018. ...
more infohttps://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/4516004/tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-superfamily-member

Global Sepsis Diagnostics Market Analysis & Trends - Industry Forecast to 2025Global Sepsis Diagnostics Market Analysis & Trends - Industry Forecast to 2025

4-1BB Ligand Receptor or T Cell Antigen 4-1BB Homolog or T Cell Antigen ILA or CD137 or TNFRSF9) - Pipeline Review, H2 2018 ... 4-1BB Ligand Receptor or T Cell Antigen 4-1BB Homolog or T Cell Antigen ILA or CD137 or TNFRSF9) - Pipeline Review, H2 2018 ... Summary Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 9 (4-1BB Ligand Receptor or T Cell Antigen 4-1BB Homolog or T... ...
more infohttps://www.reportbuyer.com/product/4772875/global-sepsis-diagnostics-market-analysis-and-trends-industry-forecast-to-2025.html

Global Biosimilars Market and Forecast (By Product Type, Applications, Country Wise and Companies) to 2021 and Biosimilars...Global Biosimilars Market and Forecast (By Product Type, Applications, Country Wise and Companies) to 2021 and Biosimilars...

4-1BB Ligand Receptor or T Cell Antigen 4-1BB Homolog or T Cell Antigen ILA or CD137 or TNFRSF9) - Pipeline Review, H2 2018 ... 4-1BB Ligand Receptor or T Cell Antigen 4-1BB Homolog or T Cell Antigen ILA or CD137 or TNFRSF9) - Pipeline Review, H2 2018 ... Summary Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 9 (4-1BB Ligand Receptor or T Cell Antigen 4-1BB Homolog or T... ...
more infohttps://www.reportbuyer.com/product/4198695/global-biosimilars-market-and-forecast-by-product-type-applications-country-wise-and-companies-to-2021-and-biosimilars-approved-and-pipeline-analysis.html

Publications - Mayo ClinicPublications - Mayo Clinic

Wilcox RA, Flies DB, Zhu G, Johnson AJ, Tamada K, Chapoval AI, Strome SE, Pease LR, Chen L. Provision of antigen and CD137 ... Tissue Antigens. 2002 Dec; 60 (6):515-25 View PubMed. * Lin XQ, Njenga MK, Johnson AJ, Pavelko KD, David CS, Pease LR, ... Antigen-specific CD8+ T cells mediate a peptide-induced fatal syndrome. J Immunol. 2005 Jun 1; 174 (11):6854-62 View PubMed ... Non-equivalent antigen presenting capabilities of dendritic cells and macrophages in generating brain-infiltrating CD8 (+) T ...
more infohttps://www.mayo.edu/research/searchpublications/publications?authid=12501492

CD137  - Product: Leica BiosystemsCD137 - Product: Leica Biosystems

Antigen Background CD137 antigen, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, and its ligand are reported to be ... Human tonsil: immunohistochemical staining for CD137 antigen using NCL-CD137. Note intense membrane staining of activated ... CD137. 1ml NCL-CD137. Lyophilised Concentrated Monoclonal Antibody. P(HIER). Info. MSDS. ... Human CD137 antigen is reported to be expressed on activated B cells, Reed Sternberg cells and peripheral blood monocytes but ...
more infohttps://www.leicabiosystems.com/ihc-ish-fish/immunohistochemistry-ihc-antibodies-novocastra-reagents/primary-antibodies/products/cd137/

Application # 2017/0102386. Method for identifying and obtaining activated T-cells that have a
     demethylated Foxp3 TSDR...Application # 2017/0102386. Method for identifying and obtaining activated T-cells that have a demethylated Foxp3 TSDR...

Preferably, the markers CD137, CD25, CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4), GITR (glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor), ... CD137 versus CD154 was determining using flow-cytometry. Using FACS, CD137+CD154-, CD137+CD154+, and CD137- CD154+ T-cells were ... antigens, for example, peptide antigens, protein antigens, like for example alloantigens, preferably together with antigen ... antigen (proteins, peptides, antigen-loaded antigen presenting cells (APC), allogeneic APC, etc.) for 2 to 24 hours. A person ...
more infohttp://patents.com/us-20170102386.html

Predicting HLA class II antigen presentation through integrated deep learning | Nature BiotechnologyPredicting HLA class II antigen presentation through integrated deep learning | Nature Biotechnology

... expression levels of antigen genes and protease cleavage signatures. Because it leverages these diverse training data and our ... a multimodal recurrent neural network for predicting the likelihood of antigen presentation from a gene of interest in the ... Accurate prediction of antigen presentation by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules would be valuable for vaccine ... Antigen-specific T-cell activation was evaluated by cell surface CD137 induction. For 2 of 3 patients (MCL005 and MCL052), ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41587-019-0280-2?error=cookies_not_supported&code=43bd4dd0-a883-4899-8729-4e150abe3839
  • Immunotherapy targeting CD8+ T cells with agonistic anti-4-1BB (CD137) monoclonal antibody (mAb) fulfills these requirements because 4-1BB-mediated signals are biased toward CD8+ T cells, promoting their survival, differentiation, and acquisition of potent cytolytic properties ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A number of pre-clinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that vaccines against pathogens, bystander (non-pathogenic) proteins, tumor-associated antigens, or whole tumor cells, can induce specific T-cell mediated immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The soluble isoforms of CD137, sCD137, are generated by differential splicing and can be detected at enhanced concentrations in sera of patients suffering from various diseases. (biovendor.com)
  • Signaling through interaction with CD137 by soluble CD137L has been shown to cause T cell-expansion, cytokine induction, and upregulation of antiapoptotic genes, and to prevent activation-induced cell death. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Soluble forms of CD137 are reported at increased levels in sera of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. (leicabiosystems.com)
  • The expression of soluble CD137 lags behind that of membrane bound CD137 by approximately 24 hours and it has been proposed that as activation of lymphocytes through membrane-bound CD137 delivers a potent stimulatory signal then soluble CD137 may provide a negative control mechanism for immune responses. (leicabiosystems.com)
  • We reported previously that established tumors in mice receiving an agonistic mAb to the T cell costimulatory molecule 4-1BB (CD137) regress due to enhanced tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. (jci.org)
  • Adhesion/costimulatory molecules, mainly lymphocyte-function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18 or α L /β 2 ) and CD103 (α E /β 7 ) integrins, on CTL play a critical role in TCR-mediated killing by interacting with their cognate ligands, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (or CD54) and E-cadherin, respectively, and directing exocytosis of lytic granules to the cancer cell surface at the IS ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, functional studies indicated that these CTL mediate human leukocyte antigen class I-restricted cytotoxic activity toward autologous tumor cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, we validated functional activity of the three identified TCRs by generating TCR-engineered T cells that recognized the corresponding neoantigens and showed cytotoxic activity in an antigen dose-dependent manner. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The gene for human CD137 resides on chromosome 1q36, in a cluster of related genes, and this chromosomal region is associated with mutations in several malignancies. (biovendor.com)
  • We provide evidence that immunological ignorance, rather than anergy or deletion, of tumor antigen-specific CTLs during the progressive growth of tumors prevents costimulation by anti-4-1BB mAb. (jci.org)
  • Breaking CTL ignorance by immunization with a tumor antigen-derived peptide, although insufficient to stimulate a curative CTL response, is necessary for anti-4-1BB mAb to induce a CTL response leading to the regression of established tumors. (jci.org)
  • Co-stimulation through CD137 enhances T lymphocyte activation and may enable rejection of tumors in vivo. (biovendor.com)
  • The desired cells can be recovered using a Treg marker such as CD25, GITR, CTLA4, CD137, latent TGF-beta (LAP), GARP (LRRC32) or CD121a/b. (patents.com)
  • The ligand for GITR is mainly expressed on antigen presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • To develop a therapeutic modality that reduces the potential for systemic CD137 effects, we applied the DART® bispecific platform to generate proteins that can induce tumor-antigen dependent T-cell activation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • IL-2, CTLA-4, IL-7, CD137), and some of these have shown clinical efficacy in eliminating particular types of cancer, most notably melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Management of cytokine release syndrome: an update on emerging antigen-specific T cell engaging immunotherapies. (mayo.edu)
  • The role of CD137 signaling has been studied in several autoimmune processes, including rheumatoid arthritis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • In addition to in vitro binding measurements, MARIA is trained on peptide HLA ligand sequences identified by mass spectrometry, expression levels of antigen genes and protease cleavage signatures. (nature.com)
  • https://maria.stanford.edu/ ), a multimodal recurrent neural network for predicting the likelihood of antigen presentation from a gene of interest in the context of specific HLA class II alleles. (nature.com)