Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Kallidin- and bradykinin-degrading pathways in human heart: degradation of kallidin by aminopeptidase M-like activity and bradykinin by neutral endopeptidase. (1/485)

BACKGROUND: Since kinins kallidin (KD) and bradykinin (BK) appear to have cardioprotective effects ranging from improved hemodynamics to antiproliferative effects, inhibition of kinin-degrading enzymes should potentiate such effects. Indeed, it is believed that this mechanism is partly responsible for the beneficial effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. In the heart, enzymes other than ACE may contribute to local degradation of kinins. The purpose of this study was to investigate which enzymes are responsible for the degradation of KD and BK in human heart tissue. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiac membranes were prepared from the left ventricles of normal (n=5) and failing (n=10) hearts. The patients had end-stage congestive heart failure as the result of coronary heart disease or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Heart tissue was incubated with KD or BK in the presence or absence of enzyme inhibitors. We found no difference in the enzymes responsible for kinin metabolism or their activities between normal and failing hearts. Thus KD was mostly converted into BK by the aminopeptidase M-like activity. When BK was used as substrate, it was converted into an inactive metabolite BK-(1-7) mostly (80% to 90%) by the neutral endopeptidase (NEP) activity, with ACE unexpectedly playing only a minor role. The low enzymatic activity of ACE in the cardiac membranes, compared with that of NEP, was not due to chronic ACE inhibitor therapy, because the cardiac ACE activities of patients, whether receiving ACE inhibitors or not, and of normal subjects were all equal. CONCLUSIONS: The present in vitro study shows that in human cardiac membranes, the most critical step in kinin metabolism, that is, inactivation of BK, appears to be mediated mostly by NEP. This observation suggests a role for NEP in the local control of BK concentration in heart tissue. Thus inhibition of cardiac NEP activity could be cardioprotective by elevating the local concentration of BK in the heart.  (+info)

Immunophenotype of myeloid cells in myelodysplastic syndromes and its clinical implications. (2/485)

OBJECTIVE: To explore the immunophenotype of myeloid cells in myelodysplastic syndyomes (MDS) and its clinical implications. METHODS: A panel of monoclonal antibody was used to detect CD13+, CD33+, CD15+ and CD14+ antigens on the membrane surfaces of myeloid cells in the bone marrow from 51 MDS, 21 aplastic anemia (AA), 21 paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) patients. 10 acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) patients and 15 normal subjects by immunoenzymatic assay. The morphology and chromosome karyotype of bone marrow cells of MDS patients were also examined. RESULTS: CD14+, CD13+ and CD33+ cells in the bone marrow were more in MDS patients than in normal controls, AA patients and PNH patients. CD15+ cells in the bone marrow were less in MDS patients than in normal controls. CONCLUSIONS: The percentages of CD14+, CD13+ and CD33+ positive cells in the bone marrow of MDS patients were related to the percentage of myeloblasts, the chromosomal aberrations and the response to treatment. It indicated that there is immunophenotypic misexpression of myeloid cells in MDS patients. Immunophenotype analysis of myeloid cells might be useful for the diagnosis and treatment of MDS patients.  (+info)

The flow cytometric pattern of CD34, CD15 and CD13 expression in acute myeloblastic leukemia is highly characteristic of the presence of PML-RARalpha gene rearrangements. (3/485)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Rapid identification of AML patients carrying the t(15;17) translocation for treatment decision-making is currently made on the basis of morphologic screening. However, the existence of both false positives and negatives highlights the need for more objective methods of screening AML cases and further molecular confirmation of the t(15;17) translocation. DESIGN AND METHODS: In the present study we analyzed a total of 111 AML cases in order to investigate whether immunophenotyping based on the assessment of multiple-stainings analyzed at flow cytometry could improve the sensitivity and specificity of morphologic identification of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) carrying the t(15;17) translocation. FISH analysis was used as a complementary technique for cases in which morphology and molecular biology yielded discrepant results. RESULTS: Concordant results between morphology and RT-PCR were found in 102/111 (91.8%) cases: 34 patients had M3/PML-RARalpha+ and 68 non-M3/PML-RARalpha- disease. Nine cases showed discrepants results. Multivariate analysis showed that the best combination of immunologic markers for discriminating between M3/PML-RARalpha+ and non-M3/PML-RARalpha- cases was that of the presence of heterogeneous expression of CD13, the existence of a single major blast cell population, and a characteristic CD34/CD15 phenotypic pattern (p<0.02). A score system based on these parameters was designed, and the 34 M3/PML-RARalpha+ cases showed a score of 3 (presence of the 3 phenotypic characteristics). In contrast, only 1 out of the 68 (1.3%) non-M3/PML-RARalpha- cases had this score, most o these latter cases (53/68, 78%) scoring either 0 or 1. Therefore, among these cases, immunophenotyping showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99% for predicting PML/RARalpha gene rearrangements. Of the 9 cases in which morphology and molecular biology results were discrepant, four cases displayed M3 morphology without PML/RARalpha rearrangements by RT-PCR. In only one of these 4 cases did the immunophenotype score 3, this being the only FISH positive case. From the remaining five discrepant cases (non-M3 morphology while positive for PML/RARalpha) two cases had a phenotypic score of 3 and were FISH positive while the other three were negative by FISH. Upon repeating RT-PCR studies, two of these latter three cases became negative. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that immunophenotyping may be of great value for quick screening of APL with PML/RARalpha rearrangements.  (+info)

Dissociation between growth arrest and differentiation in Caco-2 subclone expressing high levels of sucrase. (4/485)

Growth arrest and cell differentiation are generally considered temporally and functionally linked phenomena in small intestinal crypt cells and colon tumor cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29). We have derived a Caco-2 subclone (NGI3) that deviates from such a paradigm. In striking contrast with the parental cells, proliferative and subconfluent NGI3 cells were found to express sucrase-isomaltase (SI) mRNA and to synthesize relatively high levels of SI, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, and aminopeptidase N (APN). In postconfluent cells, little difference was seen in SI mRNA levels between Caco-2 and NGI3 cells, but the latter still expressed much higher levels of SI that could be attributed to higher rates of translation. APN expression was also greatly enhanced in NGI3 cells. To determine whether high levels of brush-border enzymes correlated with expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins, we investigated their relative cellular levels in growing and growth-arrested cells. The results showed that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p21 and p27) and D-type cyclins (D1 and D3) were all induced in postconfluent cells, but NGI3 cells expressed much higher levels of p21. This study demonstrated that cell growth and expression of differentiated traits are not mutually exclusive in intestinal epithelial cells and provided evidence indicating that posttranscriptional events play an important role in regulation of SI expression.  (+info)

Temporal association of the N- and O-linked glycosylation events and their implication in the polarized sorting of intestinal brush border sucrase-isomaltase, aminopeptidase N, and dipeptidyl peptidase IV. (5/485)

The temporal association between O-glycosylation and processing of N-linked glycans in the Golgi apparatus as well as the implication of these events in the polarized sorting of three brush border proteins has been the subject of the current investigation. O-Glycosylation of pro-sucrase-isomaltase (pro-SI), aminopeptidase N (ApN), and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) is drastically reduced when processing of the mannose-rich N-linked glycans is blocked by deoxymannojirimycin, an inhibitor of the Golgi-located mannosidase I. By contrast, O-glycosylation is not affected in the presence of swainsonine, an inhibitor of Golgi mannosidase II. The results indicate that removal of the outermost mannose residues by mannosidase I from the mannose-rich N-linked glycans is required before O-glycosylation can ensue. On the other hand, subsequent mannose residues in the core chain impose no sterical constraints on the progression of O-glycosylation. Reduction or modification of N- and O-glycosylation do not affect the transport of pro-SI, ApN, or DPPIV to the cell surface per se. However, the polarized sorting of two of these proteins, pro-SI and DPPIV, to the apical membrane is substantially altered when O-glycans are not completely processed, while the sorting of ApN is not affected. The processing of N-linked glycans, on the other hand, has no influence on sorting of all three proteins. The results indicate that O-linked carbohydrates are at least a part of the sorting mechanism of pro-SI and DPPIV. The sorting of ApN implicates neither O-linked nor N-linked glycans and is driven most likely by carbohydrate-independent mechanisms.  (+info)

Purification, characterization, gene cloning, sequencing, and overexpression of aminopeptidase N from Streptococcus thermophilus A. (6/485)

The general aminopeptidase PepN from Streptococcus thermophilus A was purified to protein homogeneity by hydroxyapatite, anion-exchange, and gel filtration chromatographies. The PepN enzyme was estimated to be a monomer of 95 kDa, with maximal activity on N-Lys-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin at pH 7 and 37 degrees C. It was strongly inhibited by metal chelating agents, suggesting that it is a metallopeptidase. The activity was greatly restored by the bivalent cations Co2+, Zn2+, and Mn2+. Except for proline, glycine, and acidic amino acid residues, PepN has a broad specificity on the N-terminal amino acid of small peptides, but no significant endopeptidase activity has been detected. The N-terminal and short internal amino acid sequences of purified PepN were determined. By using synthetic primers and a battery of PCR techniques, the pepN gene was amplified, subcloned, and further sequenced, revealing an open reading frame of 2,541 nucleotides encoding a protein of 847 amino acids with a molecular weight of 96,252. Amino acid sequence analysis of the pepN gene translation product shows high homology with other PepN enzymes from lactic acid bacteria and exhibits the signature sequence of the zinc metallopeptidase family. The pepN gene was cloned in a T7 promoter-based expression plasmid and the 452-fold overproduced PepN enzyme was purified to homogeneity from the periplasmic extract of the host Escherichia coli strain. The overproduced enzyme showed the same catalytic characteristics as the wild-type enzyme.  (+info)

Quantification of conversion and degradation of circulating angiotensin in rats. (7/485)

The aim of the present study was to quantify with a uniform technique the rates of conversion of ANG I to ANG II in the lung and kidney and the degradation of both peptides to biologically inactive products in the pulmonary, renal, and systemic circulation. We infused the peptides intravenously, into the left ventricle, and into the left renal artery of rats and compared their effects on renal blood flow. The measured change in renal blood flow was used as a bioassay parameter to estimate the concentration of circulating ANG II. Mathematical analysis of our data allowed us to calculate conversion and degradation rates. Furthermore, the role of aminopeptidases A (EC 3.4.11.7) and N (EC 3.4.11.2) in the degradation of the peptides in the kidney was investigated by intrarenal infusion of the inhibitor amastatin. Our results show that the conversion rate of ANG I is 75% in the pulmonary and 21% in the renal circulation. Both peptides are degraded by 5% in the pulmonary, by 67% in the systemic, and by 93% in the renal circulation. Amastatin prevented 60% of the renal degradation of the peptides to inactive products, and this effect could be attributed to inhibition of aminopeptidase N. The results indicate that the converting capacity of the kidney is of minor importance for endocrine generation of ANG II but could be useful for the paracrine production.  (+info)

Demonstration that human mast cells arise from a progenitor cell population that is CD34(+), c-kit(+), and expresses aminopeptidase N (CD13). (8/485)

Human mast cells are known to arise from a CD34(+)/c-kit(+) progenitor cell population that also gives rise to neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes. To further characterize cells within the CD34(+)/c-kit(+) population that yield mast cells, this progenitor was additionally sorted for CD13, a myeloid marker known to appear early on rodent mast cells and cultured human mast cells, but not expressed or expressed at low levels on human tissue mast cells; and cultured in recombinant human (rh) stem cell factor (rhSCF), rh interleukin-3 (rhIL-3; first week only), and rhIL-6. Initial sorts revealed that although the majority of cells in culture arose from the CD34(+)/c-kit(+)/CD13(-) cell population, mast cells arose from a CD34(+)/c-kit(+)/CD13(+) progenitor cell that also gave rise to a population of monocytes. Sequential sorting confirmed that CD34(+)/c-kit(+)/CD13(+) cells in CD34(+)/c-kit(+)/CD13(-) sorts gave rise to the few mast cells observed in CD13(-) sorted cells. CD34(+)/c-kit(+)/CD13(+) cells plated as single cells in the presence of various cytokine combinations gave rise to pure mast cell, monocyte, or mixed mast cell/monocyte progeny. Addition of either rh granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) or rhIL-5 to the CD34(+)/c-kit(+)/CD13(+) progenitor cell population cultured in rhSCF, rhIL-3, and rhIL-6 did increase the number of total cells cultured and in the case of rhIL-5, did increase total mast cell numbers. Neither rhGM-CSF or rhIL-5 led to additional cell populations, ie, even with the addition of rhGM-CSF or rhIL-5, only mast cells and monocytes grew from CD34(+)/c-kit(+)/CD13(+) cells. Thus, human mast cells and a population of monocytes arise from precursor cells that express CD34, c-kit, and CD13; and within which, are mast cell, monocyte, and mast/monocyte (bipotential) precursors.  (+info)

*Interleukin-7 receptor-α

... close correlation with expression of myeloid-associated antigen CD13". Leukemia. 6 (7): 662-8. PMID 1378163. Lynch M, Baker E, ...

*Alanine aminopeptidase

The MEROPS online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: M01.001 CD13 Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine ... Sequence comparisons with known enzymes of this class showed that CD13 and aminopeptidase N are identical. The latter enzyme ... Look AT, Ashmun RA, Shapiro LH, Peiper SC (April 1989). "Human myeloid plasma membrane glycoprotein CD13 (gp150) is identical ... Söderberg C, Giugni TD, Zaia JA, Larsson S, Wahlberg JM, Möller E (November 1993). "CD13 (human aminopeptidase N) mediates ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... antigens, cd13 MeSH D08.811.277.656.350.555.200 --- carboxypeptidase b MeSH D08.811.277.656.350.555.250 --- carboxypeptidase h ... antigens, cd13 MeSH D08.811.277.656.675.555.200 --- carboxypeptidase b MeSH D08.811.277.656.675.555.250 --- carboxypeptidase h ... antigens, cd13 MeSH D08.811.277.656.350.100.235 --- cystinyl aminopeptidase MeSH D08.811.277.656.350.100.373 --- glutamyl ... antigens, cd38 MeSH D08.811.277.450.770 --- oligo-1,6-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.770.800 --- sucrase-isomaltase complex ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd13 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.114 --- antigens, cd14 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.115 --- antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd7 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.108 --- antigens, cd8 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.113 --- antigens, cd13 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd13 MeSH D23.101.100.110.114 --- antigens, cd14 MeSH D23.101.100.110.115 --- antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.110.118 ... antigens, cd7 MeSH D23.101.100.894.108 --- antigens, cd8 MeSH D23.101.100.894.113 --- antigens, cd13 MeSH D23.101.100.894.118 ...

*TM4SF1

Kao YR, Shih JY, Wen WC, Ko YP, Chen BM, Chan YL, Chu YW, Yang PC, Wu CW, Roffler SR (Jul 2003). "Tumor-associated antigen L6 ... Chang YW, Chen SC, Cheng EC, Ko YP, Lin YC, Kao YR, Tsay YG, Yang PC, Wu CW, Roffler SR (Aug 2005). "CD13 (aminopeptidase N) ... This encoded protein is a cell surface antigen and is highly expressed in different carcinomas. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "The carboxy-terminal cysteine of the tetraspanin L6 antigen is required for its interaction with SITAC, a novel PDZ protein". ...

*Minimally differentiated acute myeloblastic leukemia

The blasts react with antibodies to myeloperoxidase and antibodies to CD13, CD33, and CD34. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR is ... but immunophenotyping demonstrates myeloid antigens. In acute myeloblastic leukemia (M0), the blasts are agranular and ...

*CPM (gene)

Rehli M, Krause SW, Kreutz M, Andreesen R (1995). "Carboxypeptidase M is identical to the MAX.1 antigen and its expression is ... "Distribution of carboxypeptidase M on lymphoid and myeloid cells parallels the other zinc-dependent proteases CD10 and CD13". ...

*Cluster of differentiation

White Cell Differentiation Antigens. Oxford University Press. Knapp, W; et al. (1989). Leucocyte Typing IV. Oxford University ... Antibodies Leukocytes List of human clusters of differentiation Major histocompatibility complex Signal transduction CD13 ... "CD Antigens" (PDF). abcam. 2009. Retrieved 2014-11-22. Passlick B, Flieger D, Ziegler-Heitbrock HW (1989). "Identification and ... In the example of CD4 & CD8, these molecules are critical in antigen recognition. Others (e.g., CD135) act as cell surface ...

*CD164

... Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD164 genome location and CD164 gene ... 2005). "Identification of CD13, CD107a, and CD164 as novel basophil-activation markers and dissection of two response patterns ...

*Basophil

Recently, Heneberg proposed that basophils may be defined as the cellular population positive for CD13, CD44, CD54, CD63, CD69 ... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ... When activated, some additional surface markers are known to be upregulated (CD13, CD107a, CD164), or surface-exposed (CD63, ...

*Biomarker (cell)

Examples of tumoral markers used to follow up cancer treatment are the Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) for colorectal cancer and ... doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-13-1014. ISSN 2159-8274. PMC 4433544 . PMID 24801577. ... and can discriminate between a large sample of cells based on their antigens. An example of a cellular biomarker sorting ... the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) for prostate cancer. In 2014, Cancer research identified Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) and ...

*Mast cell leukemia

Mast cell differentiation antigens: expression in normal and malignant cells and use for diagnostic purposes". Eur. J. Clin. ... The leukemic cells usually are strongly positive for CD13, CD33, CD68, and CD117. Characteristically, basophil (e.g. CD11b, ...

*Feline coronavirus

... antigen-presenting cell) while losing intestinal tropism. In a large group of cats, n, the epidemiological risk of mutation (E ... CD13): Influence of N-Linked Glycosylation". Journal of Virology. 75 (20): 9741-52. doi:10.1128/JVI.75.20.9741-9752.2001. PMC ... There are also two different serotypes found with different antigens that produce unique antibodies. FCoV serotype I (also ...

*Bcl-2

When it is functional, it can cause immune unresponsiveness to self-antigens via both central and peripheral tolerance. In the ... doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-13-0609. ISSN 2159-8290. PMC 3975047 . PMID 24346116. Liao, Grace (August 12, 2011). "ABT-199 BH-3 ... Due to the fact that dendritic cells are the immune system's most important antigen-presenting cells, their activity must be ... Antibodies to Bcl-2 can be used with immunohistochemistry to identify cells containing the antigen. In healthy tissue, these ...

*Comparison of bicalutamide with other antiandrogens

3 (9): 1020-9. doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-13-0226. PMID 23779130. Litt JZ (25 January 2013). Litt's Drug Eruptions and Reactions ... including significantly greater relative decreases and increases in levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and testosterone ...
In this study, we determined serum aminopeptidase N/CD13 concentrations in patients with NSCLC using an aminopeptidase N/CD13-specific mAb (MH8-11), which inhibits cell motility and angiogenesis in vitro (10). Serum aminopeptidase N/CD13 concentrations were significantly elevated in patients with advanced-stage NSCLC. When the serum aminopeptidase N/CD13 values corresponding to the best diagnostic accuracy to separate the healthy controls and the patients with NSCLC were used as the cutoff value, the sensitivity of aminopeptidase N/CD13 was poorer than that of serum carcinoembryonic antigen; this suggests that serum aminopeptidase N/CD13 is not valuable as a diagnostic marker. However, a high serum aminopeptidase N/CD13 was significantly associated with established adverse prognostic factors in NSCLC, such as advanced stage, poor performance status, and poor response to chemotherapy. Serum aminopeptidase N/CD13 levels were also associated with overall survival in univariate analyses and had an ...
Aminopeptidase N (Myeloid Plasma Membrane Glycoprotein CD13 or Alanyl Aminopeptidase or Aminopeptidase M or Microsomal Aminopeptidase or gp150 or CD13 or ANPEP or EC 3.4.11.2) - Market research report and industry analysis - 11296626
Aminopeptidase N (APN)/CD13 as ubiquitously expressed membrane peptidase exerts important functions in diverse cellular processes, such as proliferation, migration and differentiation. Previously, a role of APN in the invasiveness of melanoma cells has been demonstrated, but the underlying molecular mechanisms controlling APN expression are not understood. The present study demonstrates that lack of APN expression in primary and established melanoma cells was directly associated with a high-grade DNA methylation status of the myeloid APN promoter. Demethylation by 5-aza-2-desoxycytidine not only induced constitutive and cytokine-regulated APN protein expression but also resulted in an increased APN-dependent migration of melanoma cells. Furthermore, its heterogeneous expression was inversely correlated to the expression of melanocytic marker proteins in established as well as in short-term cultured human melanoma cells. Staining of tissue microarrays generated from a large series of melanoma ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Aminopeptidase N/CD13 Antibody (CC81) [DyLight 488]. Validated: Flow. Tested Reactivity: Bovine. 100% Guaranteed.
Membrane alanyl aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.2) also known as alanyl aminopeptidase (AAP) or aminopeptidase N (AP-N) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANPEP gene. Aminopeptidase N is located in the small-intestinal and renal microvillar membrane, and also in other plasma membranes. In the small intestine aminopeptidase N plays a role in the final digestion of peptides generated from hydrolysis of proteins by gastric and pancreatic proteases. Its function in proximal tubular epithelial cells and other cell types is less clear. The large extracellular carboxyterminal domain contains a pentapeptide consensus sequence characteristic of members of the zinc-binding metalloproteinase superfamily. Sequence comparisons with known enzymes of this class showed that CD13 and aminopeptidase N are identical. The latter enzyme was thought to be involved in the metabolism of regulatory peptides by diverse cell types, including small intestinal and renal tubular epithelial cells, macrophages, ...
Aminopeptidase N is located in the small-intestinal and renal microvillar membrane, and also in other plasma membranes. In the small intestine aminopeptidase N plays a role in the final digestion of peptides generated from hydrolysis of proteins by gastric and pancreatic proteases. Its function in proximal tubular epithelial cells and other cell types is less clear. The large extracellular carboxyterminal domain contains a pentapeptide consensus sequence characteristic of members of the zinc-binding metalloproteinase superfamily. Sequence comparisons with known enzymes of this class showed that CD13 and aminopeptidase N are identical. The latter enzyme was thought to be involved in the metabolism of regulatory peptides by diverse cell types, including small intestinal and renal tubular epithelial cells, macrophages, granulocytes, and synaptic membranes from the CNS. Human aminopeptidase N is a receptor for one strain of human coronavirus that is an important cause of upper respiratory tract ...
Studies have come to conflicting conclusions about whether adiponectin (APN) expression is associated with cancer prognosis. To help resolve this question, we meta-analyzed the available evidence. PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biological Medical Database and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database were systematically searched to identify all eligible studies examining APN expression and prognosis for patients with any type of cancer. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) related to overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS) were calculated. Ten studies involving 999 patients were meta-analyzed. Analysis across all patients revealed no significant association between high/positive APN expression and DFS, but they did show a significant association between high/positive APN expression and OS (HR 1.51, 95 %CI 1.21 to 1.89). Subgroup analysis showed that high/positive APN expression in non-Asians was significantly associated
Alanine aminopeptidase membranaire Lalanine aminopeptidase est une peptidase qui catalyse lhydrolyse de la liaison peptidique liant le résidu N-terminal dun peptide. Cet acide aminé est de préférence lalanine, mais lenzyme est active sur la plupart des autres acides aminés également, y compris la proline - la réaction est cependant plus lente - ainsi que sur les amides et arylamides de cet acide aminé. Lors quun résidu hydrophobe N-terminal est suivi par un résidu de proline, lenzyme peut alors cliver ces deux résidus du reste du peptide en libérant un dipeptide Xaa-Pro. Lalanine aminopeptidase est utilisée comme marqueur biologique pour détecter les dommages aux reins, et qui peut être utilisée pour aider à diagnostiquer certaines maladies rénales. En cas de problèmes rénaux, on en trouve en concentration élevée dans lurine. Son gène est ANPEP situé sur le chromosome 15 humain. Cette section est vide, insuffisamment détaillée ou incomplète. Votre aide est la ...
The invention relates to the use of inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV DP IV and enzymes having the same specific nature of substrate DP IV enzyme activitycombined with inhibitors of alanyl aminopeptidase aminopeptidase N, APNor enzymes having the same specific nature of substrate APN enzyme Try the new Google Patents, with machine-classified Google Scholar results, and Japanese and South Korean patents.. Combined use of enzyme inhibitors for the treatment and prevention of allergic reactions of type i according to the gell and coombs classification, and for the treatment and prevention of dermatological diseases associated with follicular kostengünstige Sprays bei Psoriasis epidermal hyperkeratosis and reinforced keratinocyte proliferation EP B1. The invention kostengünstige Sprays bei Psoriasis to the use of inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV DP IV and enzymes having the same specific nature of substrate DP IV enzyme activitycombined with inhibitors of alanyl aminopeptidase ...
Anpep - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN301326G1|/strong|, Anpep gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
The graphic displays domains and Protease cut sites on the protein sequence. Drag your mouse right/left over the graphic. Use the selection boxes on the right to select which annotations to view simultaneously. Combine annotation with multiple checkmarks.. ...
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
In addition to their well characterized effects at dopamine receptors, neuroleptic drugs have been shown to affect the level and in vitro metabolism of neuropeptides. In the present study, the effect of acute and subchronic administration of the neuroleptic haloperidol and the nonselective, dopamine agonist apomorphine on neuropeptidase activity was determined in regional, rat brain P2 membranes. Subchronic administration of haloperidol decreased the activity of aminopeptidase N in the frontal cortex and caudate-putamen. In contrast, subchronic administration of apomorphine increased aminopeptidase N activity in the frontal cortex and caudate-putamen. Neutral endopeptidase 24.11 also was affected differentially in the caudate-putamen, but both subchronic haloperidol and apomorphine decreased neutral endopeptidase 24.11 activity in the frontal cortex. Metalloendopeptidase 24.15 activity was decreased in the caudate-putamen after acute haloperidol and increased in the frontal cortex after acute ...
F4⁺ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains cause diarrheal disease in neonatal and post-weaned piglets. Several different host receptors for F4 fimbriae have been described, with porcine aminopeptidase N (APN) reported most recently. The FaeG subunit is essential for the binding of the three F4 variants to host cells. Here we show in both yeast two-hybrid and pulldown assays that APN bind ...
Zhao M, Yuan X, Wei J, et al. Functional Roles Of Cadherin, Aminopeptidase-N And Alkaline Phosphatase From Helicoverpa Armigera (Hübner) In The Action Mechanism Of Bacillus Thuringiensis Cry2Aa[J]. Scientific Reports, 2017.
Acétylmuramyl Alanyl Isoglutamine; acetylmuramyl alanyl isoglutamine; alanyl isoglutamine, acetylmuramyl; dipeptide, muramyl; isoglutamine, acetylmuramyl alanyl; mur nac l ala d isogln; muramyl dipeptide; mur-nac-l-ala-d-isogln; n acetyl muramyl l alanyl d glutamic alpha amide; n acetylmuramyl l alanyl d isoglutamine; n-acetyl-muramyl-l-alanyl-d-glutamic-alpha-amide; n-acetylmuramyl-l-alanyl-d-isoglutamine. Aide pour diagnostic médical. Méthode automatique dassociations de symptômes pour classifier les plus de 4.000 maladies en quatre langues différentes
The objective of this study was to determine rabbit seminal plasma enzyme activity. Furthermore, correlations between semen parameters and enzyme activity and male age were examined. The study was performed using 17 New Zealand White males from 5 to 9 mo old. Overall, 252 semen samples were collected from bucks from May to September. Semen characteristics were analysed and the seminal plasma was obtained by centrifugation. The activities of alanyl aminopeptidase (APN), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GOT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) in the seminal plasma fluid were measured. Significant differences between males were found in APN, GGT, LDH, ALKP and ALT activities (P<0.05). No significant differences between enzyme activity and male age were found. We also observed significant positive correlations between male age and sperm concentration (r=0.26), progressive motility (r=0.17) and amplitude of ...
Melflufen (melphalan flufenamide, previously designated J1) is an anticancer drug under development by Oncopeptides AB. It is a peptidase enhanced cytotoxic (PEnC) that exerts a targeted delivery of melphalan in cells with high expression of aminopeptidases, such as aminopeptidase N, which has been described as over-expressed in human malignancies. Aminopeptidase N plays a functional role in malignant angiogenesis. Currently, melflufen is under evaluation in a multinational and randomized phase III study for the treatment of patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. Melflufen is metabolized by aminopeptidase hydrolysis and by spontaneous hydrolyisis on N-mustard. Its biological half-life is 10 minutes in vitro. Melflufen is a peptidase enhanced cytotoxic (PEnC) with a targeted delivery within tumor cells of melphalan, a widely used classical chemotherapeutic belonging to a group of alkylating agents developed more than 50 years ago. Substantial clinical experience has been ...
The co-distribution of SFN with APN at the leading edge of fibroblasts was unpredicted. Interestingly, an in vitro wound scratch assay revealed higher expression of APN within the migratory fibroblasts, where it co-distributed with vinculin, a migration marker (Lai et al., 2010). In addition, the inhibition of cell migration by reducing or blocking APN levels in tumor cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells has also been reported (Terauchi et al., 2007; Proost et al., 2007). Therefore, the higher expression of APN receptor at the leading edge of migratory cells could explain the enhanced co-distribution results observed with biotin-SFN. Furthermore, the movement of cells through ECM is highly dependent on the activity of proteases such as MMPs (Gianneli et al., 1997; Kessenbrock et al., 2010; Pilcher et al., 1997; Pirila et al., 2003). This raises the possibility that SFN interaction with APN and the subsequent increase in MMP-1 activity could play a role in the cell migration of ...
Prices are in US dollars.. These products are for laboratory research purposes only, not for any human or animal diagnostic or therapeutic use.. All site content © 2017 Cell Sciences, Inc.. ...
Prices are in US dollars.. These products are for laboratory research purposes only, not for any human or animal diagnostic or therapeutic use.. All site content © 2017 Cell Sciences, Inc.. ...
CHAPTER LXXVIII. 203 "Jh 4^ !j3 .2-^ aS-: 04g what mon fal ames vish ^ 0 w CD -^ a-c i^, w-w Uesckiption of the Single " VISHTIS." -c; ".£ Ti fO N CD o3 rc; ■^ t+H 0 c3 f,, "A cS ^ OJ -C 4J Pi 1-1 It is white, has three eyes, and rides on an elephant, which always remains the same. In the one hand he has a huge rock, in the other a vajra of iron, which it throws. It destroys the cattle over which it rises. He who makes war coming from the direction whence it rises will be victorious. A man must not turn with his face towards it when tearing out fattening herbs, digging out treasures, and trying to satisfy the wants of life. It has the colour of crystal. In one hand it holds a three¬ fold parasvadha, and in the other a rosary. It looks towards heaven, and saj^s hd hd hd. It rides on an ox. Its time is favourable for handing over the chil¬ dren to the schools, for con¬ cluding peace, giving alms, and works of piety. ■Sg2 si osq It is pistachio-coloured like a parrot. It looks like ...
Aerobic activity іѕ аnу activity thаt requires сlеаn air tο produce thе nесеѕѕаrу ATP (adenosine triphosphate) tο carry out thе activity. Aerobic work out activity gets ATP through thе Krebs Design. Once through thе Krebs pattern generates 36 ATPs compared tο јυѕt 2 ATP through glycolysis οr anaerobic pattern. Aerobic work out activity іѕ essential fοr уουr center health.. Aerobic activity achieves thе following:. 1. Increases уουr VO2 max (уουr maximum сlеаn air uptake). It dοеѕ thіѕ bу helping thе quality οf сlеаn air уουr human іѕ аblе tο υѕе during regular aerobic work out activities. If уουre out οf shape аnd rυn a range, уου mіght rυn іt іn ten minutes οr ѕο, bυt іf уου hаνе a regular aerobic workout routine (whісh сουld involve operating, walking, managing, driving, οr аnу center activity), уου саn speed up managing thе range bу minutes bесаυѕе уουll bе breathing more ...
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A story: In the mid-1990s, I participated inside a PSA guideline group for Malignancy Care Ontario. The usual literature search was carried out, which focused on the evidence of mortality benefit and the potential harms of screening. I have been building decision types of PSA testing2 and measuring quality-of-life and price results for a long time. I was somewhat chagrined that non-e of my documents resulted in in the search. I had been created by it question, So why will be the remaining committee and We viewing this nagging issue thus differently? My model recommended that there could be a mortality advantage but general a lack of quality-adjusted life span. This meant that the true manner in which patients valued health outcomes was an integral area of the testing decision. Quite simply, this is a preference-sensitive decision. Furthermore, it seemed as well obvious to say that price was another concern Mouse monoclonal to CD13.COB10 reacts with CD13, 150 kDa aminopeptidase N (APN). CD13 is ...
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3-Fluoro-DL-tyrosine can be used to study how halogenated tyrosines affect proteins such as bacteriorhodopsin, microvillar enzymes, and β-galactosidases.
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The pig intestinal brush border enzymes aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23-62) are present in the microvillar membrane as homodimers. Dimethyl adipimidate was used to cross-link the two [35S]methionine-labeled brush border enzymes from cultured mucosal explants. For aminopeptidase N, dimerization did not begin until 5-10 min after synthesis, and maximal dimerization by cross-linking of the transient form of the enzyme required 1 h, whereas the mature form of aminopeptidase N cross-linked with unchanged efficiency from 45 min to 3 h of labeling. Formation of dimers of this enzyme therefore occurs prior to the Golgi-associated processing, and the slow rate of dimerization may be the rate-limiting step in the transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex. For lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, the posttranslational processing includes a proteolytic cleavage of its high molecular weight precursor. Since only the mature form and not the precursor of this
The property of solutions of Triton X-114 to separate into detergent-rich and detergent-poor phases at 30 degrees C has been exploited to investigate the identities of the aminopeptidases in synaptic membrane preparations from pig striatum. When titrated with an antiserum to aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), synaptic membranes solubilized with Triton X-100 revealed that this enzyme apparently comprises no more than 5% of the activity releasing tyrosine from [Leu]enkephalin. When assayed in the presence of puromycin, this proportion increased to 20%. Three integral membrane proteins were fractionated by phase separation in Triton X-114. Aminopeptidase activity, endopeptidase-24.11 and peptidyl dipeptidase A partitioned predominantly into the detergent-rich phase when kidney microvillar membranes were so treated. However, only 5.5% of synaptic membrane aminopeptidase activity partitioned into this phase, although the other peptidases behaved predictably. About half of the aminopeptidase activity in ...
1396 Neuroblastoma (NB), the most common solid tumor of infancy derived from sympathetic nervous system, continues to present a formidable clinical challenge. Sterically stabilized immunoliposomes (SIL) have been shown to enhance the selective localization of entrapped drugs to solid tumors, with improvements in therapeutic indices. We have previously shown that SIL loaded with doxorubicin (DXR) and targeted to the disialoganglioside receptor GD2(GD2-SIL[DXR]) led to a selective inhibition of the metastatic growth of an experimental model of human NB. Recently, we coupled NGR peptides, which targeted aminopeptidase N (CD13), a marker of angiogenic endothelial cells, to the surface of DXR-loaded liposomes (NGR-SL[DXR]) and treated orthotopic NB xenografts in mice. Mice treated with NGR-SL[DXR] displayed tumor regression, pronounced destruction of the tumor vasculature, induction of tumor and endothelial cells apoptosis, inhibition of tumor metastases and prolonged survival. In this work, we ...
M. N. Lisa, M. Gil, G. André-Leroux, N. Barilone, R. Duran, R.M Biondi & P.M Alzari. Molecular basis of the activity and the regulation of the eukaryotic-like S/T protein kinase PknG from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Structure. 2015 Jun 2;23(6):1039-48.. * M. Nefla, L. Sudre, G. Denat, S. Priam, G. Andre-Leroux, F. Berenbaum, C. Jacques. The Pro-inflammatory Cytokine s14-3-3e is a ligand of CD13/Aminopeptidase N in Cartilage. J Cell Sci. 2015 24. jcs 169573. * E. Abi-Khalil, D. Segond, T. Terpstra, G. André-Leroux, M. Kallassy, D. Lereclus, F. Bou-Abdallah, C.E. Nielsen-Leroux. Heme interplay between IlsA and IsdC: two structurally different interface proteins from Bacillus Cereus. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015 Sep;1850(9):1930-41.. * A. Le Grand, G. André-Leroux G, G. Marteil, H. Duval, O. Sire, V. Le Tilly. Investigating the in vitro Stability and Conformational Flexibility of Estrogen Receptors as Potentiel Key factors of their in vivo Activity. Biochemistry. 2015 Jun 30;54(25):3890-900. * M. ...
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The E-Lib is a centralized database of information on APN projects and related outputs. It contains metadata and outputs of all completed and ongoing APN projects since 1998, as well as APN publications such as the Science Bulletin, books, proceedings, reports and policy briefs, etc.
If you are interested in phonographs, gramophones and the history of recorded sound, then the Canadian Antique Phonograph Society (CAPS) is for you. This site provides a glimpse of the Societys programs and activities, and highlights from its bi-monthly publication Antique Phonograph News (APN).
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having aminopeptidase activity and isolated nucleic acid sequences encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleic acid sequences as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.
List of words make out of Aminopeptidase. Anagrams of word Aminopeptidase. Words made after scrabbling Aminopeptidase. Word Creation helps in Anagrams and Puzzles.
Mate G, Kertesz I, Enyedi KN, Mezo G, Angyal J, Vasas N, Kis A, Szabo E, Emri M, Biro T, Galuska L, Trencsenyi G: In vivo imaging of Aminopeptidase N (CD13) receptors in experimental renal tumors using the novel radiotracer Ga-NOTA-c(NGR)., EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES 69: pp. 61-71 ...
Anti-Methionine Aminopeptidase 2 antibody [EPR6886(B)] (ab124953) has been cited in 1 publications. Find out more about the references
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Analysis of Antimalarial Synergy between Bestatin and Endoprotease Inhibitors Using Statistical Response-Surface Modelling: The pathway of hemoglobin degradatio
Definition of leucine aminopeptidase in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is leucine aminopeptidase? Meaning of leucine aminopeptidase as a legal term. What does leucine aminopeptidase mean in law?
These studies demonstrate that RI Ang II, an AT2R ligand, does not induce a natriuresis in the presence of systemic AT1R blockade. However, a natriuretic response to Ang II, mediated by the AT2R, is unmasked by the intrarenal addition of PC-18, an APN inhibitor. Because the metabolism of Ang III to Ang IV by APN is inhibited by PC-18, these data suggest that Ang III is a significant mediator of Ang II-induced natriuresis. This conclusion is further supported by the ability of APA inhibition to abolish the natriuretic response to Ang II+PC-18.. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that in the presence of AT1R blockade, RI Ang III infusion results in natriuresis that is abolished by concomitant PD infusion, implicating the renal AT2R in the response.21 Furthermore, addition of RI PC-18 to Ang III infusion causes a 1.8- to 2.8-fold increase in Na+ excretion compared with RI Ang III infusion alone.22 These findings prompted the present set of investigations to determine whether renal ...
Compare arginyl aminopeptidase (aminopeptidase B)-like 1 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Según nota de diarios argentinos, el pais gaucho gastó el 2003 : 22 millones de dólares en vacunar a 28 millones de argentinos, algo que a la periodista cientifica argentina: Nora Bär (autora de la nota), le pareció excesivo, razón por la cual instaba a la industria argentina a relanzar su primigenio programa de autoabastecimiento de vacunas. La Bär, no solo estaba preocupada por los altos costos, sino también por la eficacia, habida cuenta que cepas antigenicas no argentinas, no siempre proporcionarian protección, al 100%. El hecho importa porque el MINSA (Ministerio de Salud del Perú), acaba de gastar 22 millones de dólares en una Campaña Nacional de Vacunación contra el Sarampión, la Rubéola y el Síndrome de Rubéola Congénita " -01/10/06-05/11/06-), en un universo de apenas 14 millones de peruanos -hombres y mujeres -entre 02- 39 años-. Para el MINSA, la actividad, buscó cumplir con la Resolución CD 44-R1 de la OPS (Organización Panamericana de la Salud) y OMS ...
The Institute for Latino Studies (ILS) at the University of Notre Dame is pleased to announce our annual Young Scholars Symposium. Our visiting professor for this academic year is Professor José E. Limón, Notre Dame Foundation Professor of American Literature Emeritus at the University of Notre Dame, Mody C. Boatright Regents Professor of American Literature Emeritus University of Texas at Austin, and former Director of the Institute for Latino Studies.. Professor José E. Limóns activities on the Notre Dame campus will include a symposium for advanced doctoral students and pre-tenured professors. We seek applications from young scholars who are working on a dissertation, a book, or another research project related to the study of U.S. Latina and Latino populations. Successful nominees will attend Professor José E. Limóns public lecture and participate in a symposium at which they will present a dissertation chapter or essay draft for discussion with Professor José E. Limón and ILS ...
Malarial aminopeptidase molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the M18 aspartyl aminopeptidase with a dodecameric assembly arranged via dimer and trimer units forming a tetrahedron shape. From Plasmodium falciparum. - Stock Image C035/8499
Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase Lysates from Novus Biologicals. Browse our Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase Overexpression Lysates.
since using bestatin, i cough a lot more and when in bed i feel some irragular heartbeat. somewhere ... which were nog good. so many bad side effects.
This chapter describes the approaches used to identify Gram-negative rods, with emphasis on the greater difficulty in identifying non-glucose-fermenting organisms. We amplify what was presented in the 9th edition of this Manual by presenting a scheme to identify these organisms that is centered around three enzymatic activities, i.e., oxidase, trypsin (benzyl-arginine arylamidase or benzyl-arginine aminopeptidase), and pyrrolidonyl aminopeptidase. These enzymatic reactions are fast and easy to interpret, and they are stable markers in almost all taxa discussed; i.e., there are few species for which these tests yield variable intraspecies results.
As of December 5, 2012, the USPTO had received 3rd Party Submissions in 111 pending applications. I have listed these here: APN 13057428 13145379 12829968 12940276 13036151 13409599 12832713 12914510 12940265 13367018 13403496 12793132 13133905 12027158 13146703 13284337 12901113 13276498 12949867 13030014 13061072 13238728 12911418 12987982 13308698 13465789 13270518 12708697 12980609 13198108 13205610 13370103 13330442 13331182 13331192 13027232 13370480 13458626 12896664 13072724 13212266 13214397 13331786 13062414 13444511 13460635 11946818 12890208 12890259 13061068 13062106 13316963 13325149 12882610 13143163 13193319 12908761 13129175 13281126 13179249 13328621 12946772 13052381 13401848 13039184 13280490 13354282 13354286 12950669 13043011 13052666 13214230 12731825 13101072 13280914 13280932 12899731 13280536 13331998 13354244 13354284 13354290 12899972 13280843 13413451 13536353 13196835 12856888 13092606 13305290 13064390 13281615 13487297 11883950 13486014 13016460 13126818 13161311 ...
Looking for online definition of aminopeptidase microsomal in the Medical Dictionary? aminopeptidase microsomal explanation free. What is aminopeptidase microsomal? Meaning of aminopeptidase microsomal medical term. What does aminopeptidase microsomal mean?
Aminopeptidase definition, any of several intestinal hydrolytic enzymes that remove an amino acid from the end of a peptide chain having a free amino group. See more.
For decades, enterocyte brush border microvilli have been viewed as passive cytoskeletal scaffolds that serve to increase apical membrane surface area. However, recent studies revealed that in the in vitro context of isolated brush borders, myosin-1a (myo1a) powers the sliding of microvillar membrane along core actin bundles. This activity also leads to the shedding of small vesicles from microvillar tips, suggesting that microvilli may function as vesicle-generating organelles in vivo. In this study, we present data in support of this hypothesis, showing that enterocyte microvilli release unilamellar vesicles into the intestinal lumen; these vesicles retain the right side out orientation of microvillar membrane, contain catalytically active brush border enzymes, and are specifically enriched in intestinal alkaline phosphatase. Moreover, myo1a knockout mice demonstrate striking perturbations in vesicle production, clearly implicating this motor in the in vivo regulation of this novel activity. ...
Replication deficient adenoviruses type 5 (Ad5) are widely used vectors for cancer gene therapy. The retargeting of Ad5 is achieved by incorporation of a targeting motifs into the adenovirus capsid proteins, mostly in the HI-loop of fiber or hexon hypervariable region 5 (HVR5). Increased expression of αv integrins has been frequently shown in tumor cells as compared to normal cells. The targeting motif within Ad5 that retargets its transduction to cells expressing αv integrins is RGD. One of the strategies of tumor gene therapy is inhibition of angiogenesis. Endothelial cells in angiogenesis express aminopeptidase N (APN) which binds targeting motifs containing NGR. It is known that different amino acid environment and/or cysteine residues flanking targeting peptides RGD and NGR influence the affinity and specificy of binding to corresponding receptors. The aim of this work was to investigate the existance of disulfide bond/s in two replication deficient Ad5 vectors: (i) Ad5HCRGDC containing ...
Mammalian sera contain enzymes that catalyze the hydrolytic degradation of peptidoglycans and molecules of related structure and are relevant for the metabolism of peptidoglycans. We now report on a novel L,(L/D)-aminopeptidase found in human and mam
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
Reaktivität: Rind (Kuh), Hund, Human and more. 39 verschiedene XPNPEP1 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
2BN7: Structural and Functional Implications of Metal Ion Selection in Aminopeptidase P, a Metalloprotease with a Dinuclear Metal Center.
1W7V: Structural and Functional Implications of Metal Ion Selection in Aminopeptidase P, a Metalloprotease with a Dinuclear Metal Center.
RNPEPL1 antibody (arginyl aminopeptidase (aminopeptidase B)-like 1) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-RNPEPL1 pAb (GTX111563) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Recombinant protein of human X-prolyl aminopeptidase (aminopeptidase P) 1, soluble (XPNPEP1), 20 ug available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
EC 3.4.11.6 Recommended name: Aminopeptidase B. Reaction: Release of N-terminal Arg and Lys from oligopeptides when P1 is not Pro. Also acts on arylamides of Arg and Lys. Other names: Arylamidase II; Arginine aminopeptidase; Arginyl aminopeptidase; Cl--Activated arginine aminopeptidase; Cytosol aminopeptidase IV. Comments: Cytosolic or membrane-associated enzyme from mammalian tissues, activated by 0.15 M Cl- and low concentrations of thiol compounds. Hydrolyses a non-peptide (epoxide) bond in leukotriene A4, but is distinct from leukotriene-A4 hydrolase (EC 3.3.2.6) [5]. Potently inhibited by arphamenine B, and also inhibited by chelating agents, N-ethylmaleimide, arphamenine A, amastatin and bestatin. A zinc metallopeptidase in family M1 [4,5]. References 1. Gainer, H., Russell, J.T. & Loh, Y.P. (1984) An aminopeptidase activity in bovine pituitary secretory vesicles that cleaves the N-terminal arginine from beta-lipotropin(60-65). FEBS Lett. 175, 135-139. 2. Belhacène, N., Mari, B., Rossi, ...
Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus ATCC ® 19258™ Designation: NCDO 573 TypeStrain=True Application: Produces aminopeptidase N Quality control strain
Thesis, English, Clinical and Nutritional Efficiency of L Alanyl L Glutamine Dipeptide Supplemented Nutrition in Burned Patients for Mohamed Rania Hassan Abdel Hafeez
Cummins, P., M.; O'connor, B., 1996: Bovine brain pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase (type-1): Purification and characterisation of a neuropeptide-inactivating peptidase
Background Orthostatic intolerance sufferers pathophysiological system continues to be obscure adding to the difficulty within their clinical administration. sufferers who had a rise of total peripheral vascular level of resistance (TPVR) during orthostatic placement; and Group II was composed of Read More …. ...
XPNPEP1 - XPNPEP1 (untagged)-ORIGENE UNIQUE VARIANT 1 of Human X-prolyl aminopeptidase (aminopeptidase P) 1, soluble (XPNPEP1), available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Hi, Im working on brush border membrane proteins (BBMP)to identify Cry toxin receptor in mosquitoes. I have a problem with BBMP. I stored BBMP proteins at -80 C with the addition of cocktail-protease inhibitors. But after one month or so, when I did western blotting. I saw a cross-reactivity between anti-Cry toxin and SDS-PAGE separated BBMP without any put-in Cry toxin. How could that be? I faced this problem twice. I think I put in high amount of protease inhibitors as defined in the leaflet. Could you guys give any suggestion on my problem? Thanks for all replys. http://biowww.net/mynews/tree.php?group_name=bionet_molbio_proteins&begin=0 ...
Ala(1,3,11,15)- endothelin 1: alanyl residues substituted for cysteinyl in endothelin-1; RN given refers to (all-L)-isomer; has been used as a radioligand, highly selective for ET(B) receptor
APN is an abbreviation for Access Point Name. It refers to a setting on mobile phones that identifies an external network the phone has to access for...
a) Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2 protein in or on corn or cotton are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as a plant-incorporated protectant in the food and feed commodities of corn; corn, field; corn, sweet; corn, pop; and cotton seed, cotton oil, cotton meal, cotton hay, cotton hulls, cotton forage, and cotton gin byproducts. (b) Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2 protein in or on soybean are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as a plant-incorporated protectant in the food and feed commodities of soybean. ...
Serum cystyl aminopeptidase (CAS) activity was estimated at 36 weeks gestation in 209 normotensive pregnancies. The highest activity was found in 31 women who had spontaneous deliveries before 38 weeks gestation and the lowest in 76 women who were induced after term. The enzyme levels in 117 women who developed hypertension of pregnancy were higher than for normotensives; the highest levels were found in 32 women with pre-eclampsia. A correlation was found between serum CAS activity at 36 weeks gestation and the birth weight of babies of women who went into spontaneous labour at term (277 to 283 days gestation).. ...
Cet article est une ébauche concernant la biochimie. Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en laméliorant (comment ?) selon les recommandations des projets correspondants. Les enképhalinases sont des enzymes dégradant les peptides opioïdes endogènes de type enképhaline. Les enképhalinases comprennent: lAlanine aminopeptidase Néprilysine (NEP) "Dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (DPP3)" "Carboxypeptidase A6 (CPA6)" "Leucyl/cystinyl aminopeptidase (LNPEP)" Enzyme de conversion de langiotensine (ACE) ↑ a, b et c (en) « Enkephalinase inhibitors: potential agents for the management of pain », Current Drug Targets, vol. 9, no 10,‎ octobre 2008, p. 887-94 (PMID 18855623, DOI 10.2174/138945008785909356, lire en ligne) ↑ (en) « Characterization of carboxypeptidase A6, an extracellular matrix peptidase », The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 283, no 11,‎ mars 2008, p. 7054-63 (PMID 18178555, DOI 10.1074/jbc.M707680200, lire en ligne) ↑ (en) « Separate metabolic pathways for ...
This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein and the genetic material necessary for its production in corn on field corn, sweet corn, and popcorn when applied/used as a plant- incorporated protectant....
XPNPEP1 (do inglês, X-prolyl aminopeptidase (aminopeptidase P) 1, soluble), é um gene humano. XPNPEP1 (EC 3.4.11.9) é uma metaloaminopeptidase específica de prolina que catalisa especificamente a remoção de qualquer aminoácido N-terminal não-substituído que seja adjacente a penúltimo resíduo de prolina. Devido à sua especificidade em relação à prolina, tem sido sugerido que XPNPEP1 é importante na maturação e degradação de hormonas peptídicas, de neuropéptidos e de taquininas, como também na digestão de outros fragmentos proteicos resistentes, da dieta, desta forma complementando as peptidases pancreáticas. A deficiência em XPNPEP1 resulta na excreção de grandes quantidades de imino-oligopéptidos na urina. «Entrez Gene: XPNPEP1 X-prolyl aminopeptidase (aminopeptidase P) 1, soluble» Vanhoof G, De Meester I, Goossens F; et al. (1992). «Kininase activity in human platelets: cleavage of the Arg1-Pro2 bond of bradykinin by aminopeptidase P.». Biochem. Pharmacol. 44 ...
Bestatin information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Berlin Pharmaceutical Industry, Bestatin indications, usages and related health products lists
The CD26 antigen is a single-chain glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 110 kDa. It binds to adenosine deaminase (ADA) and is a functional collagen receptor. It is identical to dipeptidylpeptidase IV ectoenzyme (DPPIV). This antigen is expressed by activated T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes and by macrophages ...
In living organisms, enzymes work in complicated networks to perform various biological functions. To analyse such functions, specific enzyme inhibitors are needed. Such inhibitors would be of great...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
All structured data from the main and property namespace is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; text in the other namespaces is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ...
RN salary report 2015 includes RN, LPN, APN salaries across regions, specialties, gender, part-time rates, degree, and more. Find out which nurses make the most money.
Zuniga-Navarrete,F. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. Gomez,I. 2012. Role of GPI-anchored membrane receptors in the mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins en: Larramendy,M.L. Integrated Pest Management and Pest Control- Current and Future Tactics. Intech. pags. 551-566 Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2011. Control de insectos con Bacillus thuringiensis, un m todo efectivo y compatible con el ambiente en: V CICLO MUJER CIENCIA. Mexico,D.F:. Editores Mujeres en la Ciencia. pags. 1-11 Bravo,A. del Rincon-Castro,M.C. Ibarra,J.E. Soberon,M. 2011. Towards a healthy control of insect pest: Potential use of Microbial insecticides en: Fernandez-Bolanos,J.G. Green trends in insect control. London. Royal Society of Chemistry. pags. 266-299 Soberon,M. Pardo,L. Munoz-Garay,C. Sanchez,J. Gomez,I. Porta,H. Bravo,A. 2010. Pore Formation by Cry Toxins en: Lakey,J. Proteins: Membrane Binding and Pore Formation (serie Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology vol 677). Austin, TX. Landes Bioscience y Springer. pags. ...
Introduction: The membrane-bound metalloproteinase aminopeptidase N (APN) is involved in several different cellular processes associated with the malignant phenotype. Furthermore APN has also been reported to have a functional role in tumor angiogenesis and there appear to be a strong correlation between the expression of APN and the invasive capacity of a numerous tumor cell types. The melphalan-derived prodrug melphalan-flufenamide (previously designated J1) can be activated by APN suggesting possible anti-angiogenic properties.. Experimental: A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of melphalan-flufenamide on angiogenesis; cytotoxicity on bovine endothelial cells, the TCS Cellworks AngioKit model with human endothelial cells co-cultured with fibroblasts, the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay, and finally in vivo in mice using the Cultrex DIVAA angio-reactor assay.. Results: Melphalan-flufenamide displayed high cytotoxic activity against endothelial cells, ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 26075911. Nat. Immunol. 2015 Aug;16(8):850-8. The success of antitumor immune responses depends on the infiltration of solid tumors by effector T cells, a process guided by chemokines. Here we show that in vivo post-translational processing of chemokines by dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (DPP4, also known as CD26) limits lymphocyte migration to sites of inflammation and tumors. Inhibition of DPP4 enzymatic activity enhanced tumor rejection by preserving biologically active CXCL10 and increasing trafficking into the tumor by lymphocytes expressing the counter-receptor CXCR3. Furthermore, DPP4 inhibition improved adjuvant-based immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer and checkpoint blockade. These findings provide direct in vivo evidence for control of lymphocyte trafficking via CXCL10 cleavage and support the use of DPP4 inhibitors for stabilizing biologically active forms of chemokines as a strategy to enhance tumor immunotherapy.. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26075911 ...
Raekallio , M , Saario-Paunio , E , Rajamäki , M M , Sankari , S M , Siven , M S , Palviainen , M , Peltoniemi , M , Leinonen , M , Honkavaara , M J & Vainio , O 2010 , Early detection of ketoprofen-induced acute kidney injury in sheep as determined by evaluation of urinary enzyme activities , American Journal of Veterinary Research , vol 71 , no. 10 , pp. 1246-1252 ...
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Dipeptidyl Aminopeptidases exert a potent modulatory role at an interface between immune mechanisms, metabolic responses, and neuroendocrine pathways. Experimental models and clinical studies addressi
The virotype PEDV/TGEV RT-PCR Kit is a highly sensitive and specific solution for simultaneous detection of RNAs from PEDV and TGEV in feces tissue oral fluid and swab samples from swine.
The virotype PEDV/TGEV RT-PCR Kit is a highly sensitive and specific solution for simultaneous detection of RNAs from PEDV and TGEV in feces tissue oral fluid and swab samples from swine.
Background. Enzymatic activity inhibition of CD26/dipeptidylpeptidase IV (CD26/DPP IV) attenuated short-term post-Tx (transplantation) ischemia-reperfusion injury after 18-hr-ischemia. Here, we investigated the effect of intragraft CD26/DPP IV catalytic inhibition on primary graft dysfunction during 7 day post-Tx, following extended ischemia. Methods. A syngeneic rat (LEW [Lewis abstract]) orthotopic lung Tx model was used, grafts exposed to 18 hr cold ischemia before Tx. Controls were flushed and preserved in Perfadex, and harvested after 1 day (CON1) or 7 day (CON7) post-Tx. Investigational groups IN1, IN3, and IN7 grafts were perfused with and stored in Perfadex + inhibitor (AB192) and harvested at 1, 3, and 7 days post-Tx, respectively. Blood gas analysis, peak airway pressure (PAwP), wet/dry weight ratio, myeloperoxidase thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and staining for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were analyzed. Results. IN1 versus CON1 showed preserved histology, ...
Bestatin [(2S,3R)-3-amino-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutanoyl-L-leucine], a dipeptide containing an unusual amino acid, has been used clinically as an anticancer agent in p.o. dosage form. We examined the transport characteristics of [3H]bestatin by rabbit intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles. Bestatin uptake was stimulated by an inward H+ gradient (overshoot phenomenon) and by an interior-negative membrane potential. About half of the apparent bestatin uptake at 1 mM by brush-border membrane vesicles was estimated as binding to the membranes. The affinity constant for the bestatin transport was 0.52 mM. The uptake of bestatin by brush-border membrane vesicles was inhibited by p.o. cephalosporins and dipeptides, but not by amino acids. In vesicles preloaded with either bestatin, cephradine or glycylsarcosine, the uptake of [3H]bestatin was stimulated markedly (countertransport effect). These results indicate that bestatin is transported via the H+/dipeptide transport system in rabbit intestinal ...
A number of processes could have contributed to the lower canalicular enzyme activities in diclofenac-treated rats including: 1) redistribution of proteins from the canalicular membrane to other intracellular domains, 2) decreased protein synthesis, or 3) decreased activity as a result of adduct formation. It has been reported that several models of cholestasis are associated with redistribution of canalicular proteins and/or decreased synthesis (Barr and Hubbard, 1993; Stieger et al., 1994; Rost et al., 1999). For example, phalloidin-induced cholestasis in rats causes redistribution of ecto-ATPase, dipeptidylpeptidase IV, and a number of ATP-dependent transporter proteins as a result of disruption and internalization of canalicular membrane fragments (Rost et al., 1999). Bile duct ligation in rats has also been associated with decreased localization of dipeptidylpeptidase IV and ecto-ATPase to canalicular membranes and intracellular accumulation as a result of altered delivery of newly ...

Aminopeptidase N/CD13 Antibody (CC81) [DyLight 488] (NB100-63392G): Novus BiologicalsAminopeptidase N/CD13 Antibody (CC81) [DyLight 488] (NB100-63392G): Novus Biologicals

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Aminopeptidase N/CD13 Antibody (CC81) [DyLight 488]. Validated: Flow. Tested Reactivity: Bovine. 100% ... In cattle the antigen recognised by clone CC81 is primarily expressed on enterocytes and cells with a dendritic morphology in ... Additional Aminopeptidase N/CD13 Products. Aminopeptidase N/CD13 NB100-63392G * Aminopeptidase N/CD13 Antibodies ... Home » Aminopeptidase N/CD13 » Aminopeptidase N/CD13 Antibodies » Aminopeptidase N/CD13 Antibody (CC81) [DyLight 488] ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/aminopeptidase-n-cd13-antibody-cc81_nb100-63392g

Alanine aminopeptidase - WikipediaAlanine aminopeptidase - Wikipedia

The MEROPS online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: M01.001 CD13 Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine ... Sequence comparisons with known enzymes of this class showed that CD13 and aminopeptidase N are identical. The latter enzyme ... Look AT, Ashmun RA, Shapiro LH, Peiper SC (April 1989). "Human myeloid plasma membrane glycoprotein CD13 (gp150) is identical ... Söderberg C, Giugni TD, Zaia JA, Larsson S, Wahlberg JM, Möller E (November 1993). "CD13 (human aminopeptidase N) mediates ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alanine_aminopeptidase

Circulating Aminopeptidase N/CD13 Is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer | Clinical...Circulating Aminopeptidase N/CD13 Is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer | Clinical...

Aminopeptidase N is identical to the myeloid differentiation antigen cluster of differentiation 13 (CD13). It is a zinc- ... The origin of circulating aminopeptidase N/CD13 is unclear at present. In our series, serum aminopeptidase N/CD13 levels were ... High levels of circulating aminopeptidase N/CD13 may, at least in part, reflect high levels of aminopeptidase N/CD13 expression ... Association of serum aminopeptidase N/CD13 level with clinicopathologic variables. A high serum aminopeptidase N/CD13 level was ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/11/24/8674.long

CD13 - Beckman CoulterCD13 - Beckman Coulter

The CD13 antigen is a transmembrane glycoprotein with a large extracellular region and a small intracellular NH2-terminal tail ... CD13 Antigen. The CD13 antigen is a transmembrane glycoprotein with a large extracellular region and a small intracellular NH2- ... There are up to five subpopulations of CD13 molecules possessing different levels of glycosylation, which may explain the ...
more infohttps://www.beckman.com/reagents/coulter-flow-cytometry/antibodies-and-kits/single-color-antibodies/cd13

CD13 ELISA & Assay KitsCD13 ELISA & Assay Kits

Compare and order CD13 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products ... CD13 Antigen Profile Antigen Summary Aminopeptidase N is located in the small-intestinal and renal microvillar membrane, and ... CD13 in Peptide Hormone Metabolism * CD13 in Peptide Hormone Metabolism * CD13 in Regulation of Systemic Arterial Blood ... aminopeptidase N/CD13 , membrane protein p161 , bAPN , cluster of differentiation antigen 13 (CD13) , kidney Zn peptidase , ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/peptide-hormone-metabolism-pathway-41/cd13-elisa-kit-6106/

Enkephalin degradating enzymes in pheochromocytoma patients.Enkephalin degradating enzymes in pheochromocytoma patients.

Antigens, CD13 / blood*. Case-Control Studies. Catecholamines / urine. Down-Regulation. Enkephalin, Methionine / blood. ... EC 3.4.11.2/Antigens, CD13; EC 3.4.24.11/Neprilysin ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Enkephalin-degradating-enzymes-in-pheochromocytoma/12469178.html

Anti-CD13 antibody [CC81] (ab36439) | AbcamAnti-CD13 antibody [CC81] (ab36439) | Abcam

Mouse monoclonal CD13 antibody [CC81] validated for Flow Cyt and tested in Cow. Immunogen corresponding to tissue, cells or ... Found to cleave antigen peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules of presenting cells and to ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/cd13-antibody-cc81-ab36439.html

antiarrhythmic peptide
      - AAP
     Summary Report | CureHunterantiarrhythmic peptide - AAP Summary Report | CureHunter

CD13 Antigens (Alanine Aminopeptidase) 6. Enzymes 7. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) 8. antiarrhythmic peptide (AAP) ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC029579-antiarrhythmic-peptide-AAP.do

Pediatric Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Background, Etiology, EpidemiologyPediatric Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Background, Etiology, Epidemiology

The expression of myeloid antigens CD13 and/or CD33 is a marker of ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphomas. Am J Clin Pathol. 2008 ... Epidemiologic data suggest that certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types, and even certain blood types, may increase or ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/987540-overview

Pediatric Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Medication: Antineoplastics, Other, PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors, Corticosteroids, Antibiotics, Other,...Pediatric Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Medication: Antineoplastics, Other, PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors, Corticosteroids, Antibiotics, Other,...

The expression of myeloid antigens CD13 and/or CD33 is a marker of ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphomas. Am J Clin Pathol. 2008 ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/987540-medication

Frontiers | Rapid Detection of Dendritic Cell and Monocyte Disorders Using CD4 as a Lineage Marker of the Human Peripheral...Frontiers | Rapid Detection of Dendritic Cell and Monocyte Disorders Using CD4 as a Lineage Marker of the Human Peripheral...

Here we demonstrate that CD4 is a reliable lineage marker for the human peripheral blood antigen presenting cell compartment ... Here we demonstrate that CD4 is a reliable lineage marker for the human peripheral blood antigen presenting cell compartment ... pDCs typically lack the myeloid antigens CD13, CD33, and CD11b and express CD123 (IL-3 receptor), CD303 [CLEC4C; Blood DC ... Blood DC antigens 1-4 are helpful for identifying human DC subsets (1) but are often used to define pDC and mDC subsets within ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2013.00495/full

Leukemia - Acute - B lymphoblastic leukemia / lymphoma with t(v;11q23); MLL rearrangedLeukemia - Acute - B lymphoblastic leukemia / lymphoma with t(v;11q23); MLL rearranged

Also CD15, often myeloid antigens CD13 and CD33 (Am J Clin Pathol 1999;111:467). Negative stains. ...
more infohttp://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/leukemiapreballMLL.html

Anti-CD13 antibody [22A5] (ab20136) | AbcamAnti-CD13 antibody [22A5] (ab20136) | Abcam

Mouse monoclonal CD13 antibody [22A5] validated for IP, IHC, Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication. ... Found to cleave antigen peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules of presenting cells and to ... Sections were rehydrated and antigen retrieved with the Dako 3-in-1 AR buffer EDTA pH 9.0 in a DAKO PT Link. Slides were ... Specific to CD13. 22A5 can be used for leukaemia diagnosis and immunophenotyping ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/cd13-antibody-22a5-ab20136.html

S0530 Cytarabine and Clofarabine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic LeukemiaS0530 Cytarabine and Clofarabine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Co-expression of myeloid antigens (CD13 and CD33) allowed. - Patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) ALL or bcr/ ...
more infohttp://www.knowcancer.com/cancer-trials/NCT00337168/

Leukemia - Acute - Acute myeloid leukemia without maturation (FAB AML M1)Leukemia - Acute - Acute myeloid leukemia without maturation (FAB AML M1)

Have 1+ myeloid-associated antigens (CD13, CD33, CD117). ● CD34, CD99 and HLA-DR (70%, Mod Pathol 2000;13:452). ● CD7 (30%); ...
more infohttp://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/leukemiaM1.html

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Lymphocyte antigen CD13 Current Synonym true false 2671128011 CD13 - Cluster of differentiation antigen 13 Current Synonym true ... Lymphocyte antigen CD13 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD13 (substance). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=42804003

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI]Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI]

Immunophenotyping reveals blast cells that express one or more panmyeloid antigens (CD13, CD33, and CD117) and are negative for ... Immunophenotyping reveals blasts that express at least two myelomonocytic antigens (CD13, CD33, CD117) and/or MPO. CD34 is ... Immunophenotypically, blasts may express one or more myeloid-associated antigens (CD13, CD33, CD117, and MPO). Some cells may ... Immunophenotyping of these leukemias may reveal expression of the myeloid antigens CD13, CD33, CD117, CD14 ( + ), CD4, CD36, CD ...
more infohttps://www.rexhealth.com/rh/health-library/document-viewer/?id=ncicdr0000062869

Interleukin-7 receptor : Wikis (The Full Wiki)Interleukin-7 receptor : Wikis (The Full Wiki)

... close correlation with expression of myeloid-associated antigen CD13.". Leukemia 6 (7): 662-8. PMID 1378163. ... CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) · CD2 · CD3 (γ, δ, ε) · CD4 · CD5 · CD6 · CD7 · CD8 (a) · CD9 · CD10 · CD11 (a, b, c) · CD13 · CD14 · ... CD1 · CD2 · CD3 · CD4 · CD7 · CD8 · CD13 · CD18 · CD26 · CD27 · CD28 · CD56/NCAM · CD57 ... antigen binding. • receptor activity. • hematopoietin/interferon-class (D200-domain) cytokine receptor activity. • interleukin- ...
more infohttp://www.thefullwiki.org/Interleukin-7_receptor

Spontaneous Human Adult Stem Cell Transformation | Cancer ResearchSpontaneous Human Adult Stem Cell Transformation | Cancer Research

1A ); they expressed cell surface antigens CD13, CD90, and CD105, and low CD106 levels ( Fig. 1B), characteristic of adipose- ...
more infohttps://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/65/8/3035?ijkey=1a87598e51e819ca9f5fadee1af009d02f3b9592&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Anti-CD13 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (APC (Allophycocyanin)) [clone: WM15] | VWRAnti-CD13 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (APC (Allophycocyanin)) [clone: WM15] | VWR

Antigen Name. CD13. Reactivity. Human, Chimpanzee, Baboon, Cotton-topped Tamarin. Chimpanzee, Baboon, Cotton-topped Tamarin, ... Anti-CD13 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (APC (Allophycocyanin)) [clone: WM15]. Anti-CD13 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (APC ( ... Antigen: CD13. Clonality: Monoclonal. Clone: WM15. Conjugation: APC (Allophycocyanin). Epitope: Host: Mouse. Isotype: Mouse ... APC anti-human CD13 [WM15]; Isotype: Mouse IgG1, κ; Reactivity: Human, Baboon, Chimpanzee, Cotton-topped Tamarin; Apps: FC; ...
more infohttps://us.vwr.com/store/product/16780345/anti-cd13-mouse-monoclonal-antibody-apc-allophycocyanin-clone-wm15

Monoclonal Monocyte Granulocyte Antibody productsMonoclonal Monocyte Granulocyte Antibody products

Mouse Anti-Human CD13 - Purified; Unlabeled Antibody; Mouse Anti-Human CD13; CD13 antigen. ... Antigen. Biochemical. cDNA Clone. siRNA. Peptide. Rec./Purified Protein. Custom ELISA Kit. Custom Protein. Custom Antibody. ... ELISA , Antibodies , Secondary Antibodies , Antigens , Biochemicals , cDNA Clones , Kits , Peptides , Rec Proteins , Protein ... Integrin alpha-M; CD11 antigen-like family member B; CR-3 alpha chain; Cell surface glycoprotein MAC-1 subunit alpha; Leukocyte ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/products.php?keywords=Monoclonal+Monocyte+Granulocyte+Antibody

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Genesis HealthCare System -...Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Genesis HealthCare System -...

Immunophenotyping reveals blast cells that express one or more panmyeloid antigens (CD13, CD33, and CD117) and are negative for ... Immunophenotyping reveals blasts that express at least two myelomonocytic antigens (CD13, CD33, CD117) and/or MPO. CD34 is ... Immunophenotypically, blasts may express one or more myeloid-associated antigens (CD13, CD33, CD117, and MPO). Some cells may ... Immunophenotyping of these leukemias may reveal expression of the myeloid antigens CD13, CD33, CD117, CD14 ( + ), CD4, CD36, CD ...
more infohttps://www.genesishcs.org/patients-visitors/health-library/healthwise-document-viewer/?id=ncicdr0000062869

Interleukin-7 receptor-α - WikipediaInterleukin-7 receptor-α - Wikipedia

... close correlation with expression of myeloid-associated antigen CD13". Leukemia. 6 (7): 662-8. PMID 1378163. Lynch M, Baker E, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin-7_receptor-%CE%B1
  • In cattle the antigen recognised by clone CC81 is primarily expressed on enterocytes and cells with a dendritic morphology in the small intestine. (novusbio.com)
  • NB100-63392 recognizes bovine CD13, a 150 kD type II membrane protein shown to be a metallopeptidase in humans. (novusbio.com)
  • We and others have shown that the myeloid antigen CD66c is very frequently aberrantly expressed in B-precursor ALL, however, a large study showing its frequency in the light of other myeloid antigens has been missing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because an increased incidence of myeloid antigen expression has been observed in Ph + and/or BCR-ABL + ALL, 1 6 10 it has been suggested that cytarabine-based chemotherapy regimens might be associated with high response rates in patients with the disease. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The recommended ELISA Kit will likely detect the antigen better in the approved sample types than the available alternatives. (antibodies-online.com)