Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

The haemopoietic growth factor, Flt3L, alters the immune response induced by transcutaneous immunization. (1/629)

Topical application of antigen induces antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. In this study we examined whether expansion of dendritic cells (DC) by Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) treatment influences the induction of immune responses following transcutaneous immunization. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with Flt3L or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and immunized transcutaneously with hen egg lysozyme (HEL). Flt3L-treated mice developed lower HEL-specific cellular and humoral immune responses than PBS-treated mice. However, in the presence of cholera toxin (CT), a potent adjuvant for mucosal and transcutaneous immunization, Flt3L-treated mice developed significantly higher cellular and humoral immune responses to HEL when compared to PBS-treated mice. We assessed whether the immunomodulatory effects of CT were a result of activation of epidermal dendritic cells (Langerhans' cells; LC). Our results indicate that within 8-12 hr of topical application of CT, epidermal LC cells lose their dendritic morphology and become rounder in appearance. In addition, we observed enhanced expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, and of adhesion molecules CD11c and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Our observations support the concept that the state of activation of DC in the skin is central to the regulation of immune responses. This information is relevant to the design of effective transcutaneous vaccination strategies.  (+info)

The interplay of dendritic cell subsets in systemic lupus erythematosus. (2/629)

Dendritic cells (DC) control immunity and tolerance. Hence, we surmised that systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a systemic autoimmune disease with autoreactive T and B cells, might be due to DC alterations. Based on our findings, we are proposing a model of SLE where autoimmune responses are driven by unabated activation of myeloid DC through IFN-alpha produced by plasmacytoid DC. Thus, interplay between DC subsets might represent a key component of SLE pathogenesis.  (+info)

Mouse CD11c(+) B220(+) Gr1(+) plasmacytoid dendritic cells develop independently of the T-cell lineage. (3/629)

The developmental origin of dendritic cells (DCs) is controversial. In the mouse CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) DC subsets are often considered to be of lymphoid and myeloid origin respectively, although evidence on this point is conflicting. Very recently a novel CD11c(+) B220(+) DC subset has been identified that appears to be the murine counterpart to interferon alpha (IFNalpha)-producing human plasmacytoid DCs (PDCs). We show here that CD11c(+) B220(+) mouse PDCs, like human PDCs, are present in the thymus and express T lineage markers such as CD8alpha and CD4. However, the intrathymic development of PDCs can be completely dissociated from immature T lineage cells in mixed chimeras established with bone marrow cells from mice deficient for either Notch-1 or T-cell factor 1, two independent mutations that severely block early T-cell development. Our data indicate that thymic PDCs do not arise from a bipotential T/DC precursor.  (+info)

Myeloid blood CD11c(+) dendritic cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells differ in their ability to stimulate T lymphocytes. (4/629)

Dendritic cells (DCs) initiate and direct immune responses. Recent studies have defined different DC populations, therefore we undertook this study comparing 2 types of myeloid DCs: blood CD11c(+) DCs and in vitro monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs), which are both candidates as cellular adjuvants for cancer immunotherapy. Blood CD11c(+) DCs were prepared by cell sorting from peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured overnight in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with autologous or pooled AB serum. Mo-DCs were prepared in the same medium using granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)/interleukin 4 (IL-4) and differentiated/activated with lipopolysaccharide or monocyte-conditioned medium (ActMo-DCs). Morphologically, differences between the DC preparations were noted both at a light and and electron microscopic level. Blood CD11c(+) DCs expressed similar levels of HLA-DR, CD40, CD86, and CD83 as Mo-DCs. CD209 was present on Mo-DCs but not on blood CD11c(+) DCs. Blood CD11c(+) DCs generated a lower proliferative mixed leukocyte response (MLR) than Mo-DCs. Blood CD11c(+) DCs loaded with 0.1 microg/mL tetanus toxoid (TT)-generated greater T lymphocyte proliferative responses than did Mo-DCs or ActMo-DCs, but when loaded with higher TT concentrations no difference in T lymphocyte proliferative response was observed. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-loaded blood CD11c(+) DCs generated greater T lymphocyte proliferative responses than Mo-DCs or ActMo-DCs. Allogeneic MLR- or KLH-specific responses induced by blood CD11c(+) DCs generated more Th1 effectors than the responses induced by Mo-DCs or ActMo-DCs. These data establish several differences in the properties of blood CD11c(+) DCs, Mo-DCs, and ActMo-DCs, which suggest that blood DCs merit further consideration as DC preparations for clinical programs are evolved.  (+info)

Blood dendritic cells interact with splenic marginal zone B cells to initiate T-independent immune responses. (5/629)

Marginal zone (MZ) and B1 B lymphocytes participate jointly in the early immune response against T-independent (TI) particulate antigens. Here we show that blood-derived neutrophil granulocytes and CD11c(lo) immature dendritic cells (DC) are the primary cells that efficiently capture and transport particulate bacteria to the spleen. In a systemic infection, CD11c(lo) DC, but not neutrophils, provide critical survival signals, which can be inhibited by TACI-Fc, to antigen-specific MZ B cells and promote their differentiation into IgM-secreting plasmablasts. In a local TI response, peritoneal cavity macrophages provide similar support to B1 B-derived Ag-specific blasts. In the absence of soluble TACI ligands, Ag-activated MZ- and B1-derived blasts lack survival signals and undergo apoptosis, resulting in severely impaired antibody responses.  (+info)

Transient induction of cyclin T1 during human macrophage differentiation regulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat transactivation function. (6/629)

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein is essential for viral replication and stimulates transcription of the integrated provirus by recruiting the kinase complex TAK/P-TEFb, composed of cyclin T1 (CycT1) and Cdk9, to the viral TAR RNA element. TAK/P-TEFb phosphorylates the RNA polymerase II complex and stimulates transcriptional elongation. In this report, we investigated the regulation of TAK/P-TEFb in primary human macrophages, a major target cell of HIV infection. While Cdk9 levels remained constant, CycT1 protein expression in freshly isolated monocytes was very low, increased early during macrophage differentiation, and, unexpectedly, decreased to very low levels after about 1 week in culture. The kinase activity of TAK/P-TEFb paralleled the changes in CycT1 protein expression. RNA analysis indicated that the transient induction of CycT1 protein expression involves a posttranscriptional mechanism. In transient transfection assays, the ability of Tat to transactivate the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) in the late differentiated macrophages was greatly diminished relative to its ability to transactivate the HIV LTR in early differentiated cells, strongly suggesting that CycT1 is limiting for Tat function in late differentiated macrophages. Interestingly, lipopolysaccharide, a component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria, reinduced CycT1 expression late in macrophage differentiation. These results raise the possibility that regulation of CycT1 expression may be involved in establishing latent infection in macrophages and that opportunistic infection may reactivate the virus by inducing CycT1 expression.  (+info)

MUC1 epithelial mucin (CD227) is expressed by activated dendritic cells. (7/629)

The MUC1 mucin (CD227) is a cell surface mucin originally thought to be restricted to epithelial tissues. We report that CD227 is expressed on human blood dendritic cells (DC) and monocyte-derived DC following in vitro activation. Freshly isolated murine splenic DC had very low levels of CD227; however, all DC expressed CD227 following in vitro culture. In the mouse spleen, CD227 was seen on clusters within the red pulp and surrounding the marginal zone in the white pulp. Additionally, we confirm CD227 expression by activated human T cells and show for the first time that the CD227 cytoplasmic domain is tyrosine-phosphorylated in activated T cells and DC and is associated with other phosphoproteins, indicating a role in signaling. The function of CD227 on DC and T cells requires further elucidation.  (+info)

Sezary syndrome patients demonstrate a defect in dendritic cell populations: effects of CD40 ligand and treatment with GM-CSF on dendritic cell numbers and the production of cytokines. (8/629)

Sezary syndrome (SzS) is an advanced form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma associated with involvement of the peripheral blood by malignant T cells. The disease is defined by impaired cell-mediated immunity and the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), possibly as a result of deficient IL-12 production. To understand the mechanism of this impairment, we examined the composition and function of dendritic cells and monocytes in the blood of SzS patients with different levels of peripheral blood tumor burden. Consistent with our previous observations, numbers of monocytes in SzS patients were comparable to numbers observed in healthy donors. In contrast, decreased IL-12 production correlated with a decrease in the numbers of CD11c(+) dendritic cells, which was particularly profound among patients with medium (20%-50% circulating malignant T cells) and high (more than 50% circulating malignant T cells) tumor burden. Furthermore, CD123(+) dendritic cells, major producers of IFN-alpha, were significantly diminished in SzS patients, regardless of the level of tumor burden. Granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor-treated patients experienced an increase in the number of dendritic cells but not in IFN-alpha or IL-12 production. However, in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from SzS patients with rCD40L and IFN-gamma significantly increased the production of IL-12. Thus, our results demonstrate a profound defect in circulating dendritic cells in SzS patients that may contribute to the pathogenesis of the cytokine disorders and to the depressed cellular immunity. Importantly, the ability of rCD40L to potently induce IL-12 production from monocytes and residual dendritic cells of SzS patients could potentially serve as an immune-restorative therapeutic agent.  (+info)

The present study is the first to determine the functional role of kidney DCs in experimental glomerulonephritis. Ex vivo, DCs from nephritic kidneys stimulated proliferation of cocultured specific CD4+ T cells and production of the cytokines IFNγ and IL-10. The latter has been shown by many previous studies to be protective in various immune-mediated kidney diseases.24-26,30-32 Importantly, endogenous IL-10 was produced in NTN by unidentified cells and its genetic ablation aggravated disease,33 similar to DC depletion. Our findings demonstrate that renal CD4+ T cells represent one source of endogenous IL-10 and that ICOS-L-expressing kidney DCs stimulated its production, raising the possibility of an attenuating role of DCs in NTN.. To address the functional relevance of DCs, we studied the course of NTN in their absence using CD11c-DTR/GFP mice, which have been widely used to investigate the requirement of DCs in models of infection and immune-mediated disease.34 We chose an experimental ...
Transplantation of hepatitis C-positive livers in hepatitis C-positive patients is equivalent to transplanting hepatitis C-negative livers.
The average levels of noise exposure dropped dramatically after lockdowns started in early March in New York, California, and later on in Texas and Florida.
Congenital trismus is a serious anomaly, and establishment of an airway for surgical correction is a challenge. In the case of limited mouth opening, the nasal route is the only available option to secure the airway via the supraglottic route. Various airway management options include blind intubation, retrograde intubation and fibre-optic intubation, failing which a tracheostomy might be needed. We present the airway management of a seven-month-old infant with congenital trismus who was scheduled for corrective surgery. After several unsuccessful attempts at blind nasal intubation, with the infant on spontaneous ventilation, breathing sevoflurane in oxygen, we managed to secure the airway successfully by retrograde intubation.. ...
Read Comparative FISH analysis of C-positive regions of chromosomes of wood mice (Rodentia, Muridae, Sylvaemus), Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Ian P. Lewkowich, Nancy S. Herman, Kathleen W. Schleifer, Matthew P. Dance, Brian L. Chen, Krista M. Dienger, Alyssa A. Sproles, Jaimin S. Shah, Jörg Köhl, Yasmine Belkaid, Marsha Wills-Karp ...
Today we are happy to make available version 1.2.3 of DCS World and updates to several DCS modules. <br /> <br /> <a href="/en/news/dcs_1_2_3_now_available/" >СhangeLog</a>
In experimental crescentic GN, immature kidney DCs are protective13 until they mature, when inflammation becomes chronic.12 The underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We speculated that, in this early phase, DCs might suppress harmful immune responses by recruiting anti-inflammatory leukocytes, and we addressed this hypothesis in NTN, a model of crescentic GN. When we depleted DCs in CD11c.LuciDTRmice with NTN, we noted that iNKT cells but not proinflammatory leukocytes were markedly reduced within the kidney. This finding sparked our interest, because two recent studies had shown a protective role for NKT cells in renal inflammation. Anti-GBM GN was aggravated in NKT cell-deficient CD1d knockout mice, and adoptively transferred NKT cells localized to the inflamed kidney and prevented this phenotype, which was astonishing, because NKT cells cannot recognize antigen in CD1d-deficient mice.18 Nevertheless, Mesnard et al.19 performed this experiment 1 year later in Jα18 knockout mice, ...
Looking for online definition of Myeloid dendritic cell in the Medical Dictionary? Myeloid dendritic cell explanation free. What is Myeloid dendritic cell? Meaning of Myeloid dendritic cell medical term. What does Myeloid dendritic cell mean?
Gas exchange in the lung occurs within alveoli, air-filled sacs composed of type 2 and type 1 epithelial cells (AEC2s and AEC1s), capillaries, and various resident mesenchymal cells. Here, we use a combination of in vivo clonal lineage analysis, different injury/repair systems, and in vitro culture of purified cell populations to obtain new information about the contribution of AEC2s to alveolar maintenance and repair. Genetic lineage-tracing experiments showed that surfactant protein C-positive (SFTPC-positive) AEC2s self renew and differentiate over about a year, consistent with the population containing long-term alveolar stem cells. Moreover, if many AEC2s were specifically ablated, high-resolution imaging of intact lungs showed that individual survivors undergo rapid clonal expansion and daughter cell dispersal. Individual lineage-labeled AEC2s placed into 3D culture gave rise to self-renewing alveolospheres, which contained both AEC2s and cells expressing multiple AEC1 markers, including ...
PubMed journal article CD141⁺ myeloid dendritic cells are enriched in healthy human live were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Take a non-small cell lung tumor. What do we see? To answer this challenging question, a lot of single-cell omics experiments have been conducted, yielding significant insights into the heterogeneity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) microenvironment. While each successfully characterizes a facet of this ecosystem, until now no work […]. ...
姑且不提這尾巴動得好猥褻 =口= a 能自動偵測感光....不是等於自動測光嗎XDDD. 那一台DC沒有的真想見識一下. 要說特別3這兩台DC只是把測光後的結果3套入這兩台相機裡預設的曲線. 讓相機替你決定光圈快門讓你不會手震後3用提高感度的方式來達到正確的曝光. 至於ISO過高會造成甚麼樣的問題3相信略懂攝影的各位朋友應該很清楚了》. 而高ISO那麼好3DC就不用裝內閃了XDDD. ...
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It was nice to see the tuatara featured in Are we smart enough to save this bird? (11 November), but I was dismayed to see it referred to as a lizard.
1. ShortmanK. LiuYJ. 2002. Mouse and human dendritic cell subtypes.. Nat Rev Immunol. 2. 151. 161. 2. AlmeidaM. CorderoM. AlmeidaJ. OrfaoA. 2005. Different subsets of peripheral blood dendritic cells show distinct phenotypic and functional abnormalities in HIV-1 infection.. AIDS. 19. 261. 271. 3. BarronMA. BlyveisN. PalmerBE. MaWhinneyS. WilsonCC. 2003. Influence of plasma viremia on defects in number and immunophenotype of blood dendritic cell subsets in human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected individuals.. J Infect Dis. 187. 26. 37. 4. DonaghyH. PozniakA. GazzardB. QaziN. GilmourJ. 2001. Loss of blood CD11c(+) myeloid and CD11c(−) plasmacytoid dendritic cells in patients with HIV-1 infection correlates with HIV-1 RNA virus load.. Blood. 98. 2574. 2576. 5. GrassiF. HosmalinA. McIlroyD. CalvezV. DebreP. 1999. Depletion in blood CD11c-positive dendritic cells from HIV-infected patients.. AIDS. 13. 759. 766. 6. PacanowskiJ. KahiS. BailletM. LebonP. DeveauC. 2001. Reduced blood CD123+ (lymphoid) ...
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine have identified a particular subset of cells that are linked to obesity-associated insulin resistance, and that offer a promising new target for the treatment of diabetes. They showed that depletion of these cells, called CD11c-positive, in obese mice resulted in a reversal of obesity-associated insulin resistance.
In this study, we found that the IDO mRNA expression and enzyme activity were increased in active VKH patients as compared with healthy controls and patients in remission. To investigate the role of IDO in immune regulation, an effective inhibitor 1-methyl-L-tryptophan (1-MT) was used to suppress its activity in DCs. The results showed that inhibition of IDO with 1-MT significantly decreased the expression of DC marker CD86. IDO inhibition did not affect the cytokine production of IL-6, IL-1 β, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β in DCs. Downregulation of IDO in DCs also led to the reduction of regulatory T (Treg) cell ...
레거시 DCS를 현대화할 준비가 되셨습니까? 많은 프로세스 공장에서는 현재 노후화된 DCS를 채택하고 있습니다. PlantPAx® DCS로의 DCS 마이그레이션에 대해 자세히 알아보십시오.
Chen M., Huang L., Shabier Z., Wang J.. The lifespan of dendritic cells (DCs) can potentially influence immune responses by affecting the duration of DCs in stimulating lymphocytes. Significant differences in the lifespan have been reported for various DC subsets, however, the molecular mechanisms for regulating such differences between DC subsets remain unclear. In this study, we compared the apoptosis signaling molecules in two major DC subjects, the myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). We observed a lower ratio between anti-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bcl-xL and pro-apoptotic Bax/Bak in shorter-lived myeloid DCs (mDCs) than in longer-lived plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) or T cells. Transfection with Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL prolonged the survival of mouse primary mDCs in vitro, while deletion of Bcl-2 accelerated DC turnover in vivo. In addition, the ratios between anti-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bcl-xL and pro-apoptotic Bax/Bak could be regulated in DCs. Signaling from toll-like receptors (TLRs) up-regulated Bcl-xL and ...
Background: Korean ginseng has been widely evaluated to treat human diseases; however, most studies on Korean ginseng have focused on its root. In this study, polysaccharides [acidic-polysaccharide-linked glycopeptide (APGP) extracted with 90% ethanol and hot water] were prepared from Korean ginseng berries, and their effect on immunosenescence was explored. Methods: The effect of APGP on thymic involution was evaluated by measuring the size of thymi dissected from aged mice. The effect of APGP on populations of immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, age-correlated CD11c-positive B cells, and several subtypes of T cells [CD4-positive, CD8-positive, and regulatory (Treg) T cells] in the thymi and spleens of aged mice was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-6 were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. Profiles of APGP components were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography ...
Dear all, I am an Assistant Professor at the University of California, Davis & the Shriners Hospital for Children, Norther California. I have a postdoc position available immediately. Please see below for further information. Shriners Hospital for Children Northern California and the University of California, Davis have the following research opportunity available at our Sacramento location: Postdoc Position This position will focus on characterization of a newly identified dendritic cell population (interferon-producing killer dendritic cells - IKDC) in the mouse. In addition, this position will examine the roles of plasmacytoid DCs and IKDCs in antiviral responses and other pathophysiological conditions such as burn injury. The lab has a broad interest in dendritic cell biology and function with particular emphasis on the crosstalk between the innate and acquired immunity. Our overall goal is to develop more effective immunotherapies. Candidates must have a Ph.D. in Immunology, Cell Biology, ...
RESULTS We found decreased numbers of myeloid DCs (mDCs) (8.97 vs. 13.4 cells/μL, P = 0.009, N = 31) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) (9.47 vs. 14.6 cells/μL, P = 0.018, N = 30) in recent-onset T1D. Using a panel of antibodies against functionally important DC markers, we detected a decreased expression of CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) on mDCs (percentage above negative control, P = 0.002, N = 29) and pDCs (median intensity, P = 0.003, N = 30) from T1D patients. In an independent series of children, the reduced expression of CCR2 was confirmed by qPCR in isolated mDCs (P = 0.043, N = 20). Serum concentrations of CCR2 ligands MCP-1 and MCP-3 did not differ between the groups. A trend for an enhanced responsiveness of the NF-κB pathway (P = 0.063, N = 39) was seen in mDCs from children with β-cell autoantibodies, which is possibly related to the reduced CCR2 expression, since CCR2 on mDCs was downregulated by NF-κB-activating agents. ...
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Unlike myeloid dendritic cells, myeloid antigens like CD11b, CD11c, CD13, CD14 and CD33 are not present on pDC surfaces. ... In humans, pDCs exhibit plasma cell morphology and express CD4, HLA-DR, CD123, blood-derived dendritic cell antigen-2 (BDCA-2 ... Villadangos, José A.; Young, Louise (September 2008). "Antigen-Presentation Properties of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells". ... which allows the cell to optimize its antigen-presenting abilities. MHC class I on pDC surfaces are able to activate CD8+ T ...
The hairy cells are larger than normal and positive for CD19, CD20, CD22, CD11c, CD25, CD103, and FMC7 antigens. (CD103, CD22, ... and CD11c are strongly expressed.) Hairy cell leukemia-variant (HCL-V), which shares some characteristics with B cell ... usually showing a common Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) type. The Hairy Cell Leukemia Consortium was founded in 2008 to address ...
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen presenting cells for the induction of antigen specific T cell response. DC-based ... are derived from myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow and are characterized by expression of CD11c. cDCs can be ... The most critical step in vaccination is the effective presentation of cancer antigens to T cells and because of DCs are the ... Non-activated (immature) DCs are usually located in the peripheral non-lymphoid tissues and they can present self-antigens to T ...
Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is ... CD11a has been shown to interact with ICAM-1. CD11c integrin leukocyte adhesion deficiency Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: ... CD11a+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGAL Info with links in the Cell ... CD11a is one of the two components, along with CD18, which form lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1. Efalizumab acts as an ...
... one of its key identifiers is the absence in expression of the surface antigens CD10, CD11c, CD25, CD103 and cyclin D1 - an ... B-lymphocytes have two responsibilities: Production of antibodies - In response to antigens, B-lymphocytes produce and release ... b-lymphocyte surface antigens CD19, CD20, CD22, CD79a and FMC7, and weak expression of CD5 and CD23. Due to the similarities ... Interactions between antibodies and antigens allow B-lymphocytes to establish cellular memories, otherwise known as immunities ...
CD11c+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... CD11c, also known as Integrin, alpha X (complement component 3 receptor 4 subunit) (ITGAX), is a gene that encodes for CD11c . ... CD11c is a type I transmembrane protein found at high levels on most human dendritic cells, but also on monocytes, macrophages ... Bilsland CA, Diamond MS, Springer TA (1994). "The leukocyte integrin p150,95 (CD11c/CD18) as a receptor for iC3b. Activation by ...
... present on macrophages that is also called Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) and αMβ2 integrin. CD11c/CD18 also called complement ... For example, LFA1 (CD11a/CD18) short representation of Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen 1, also called αLβ2 integrin Mac1 ...
... antigens, cd11a MeSH D23.050.301. - antigens, cd11b MeSH D23.050.301. - antigens, cd11c MeSH ... antigens, cd11a MeSH D23. - antigens, cd11b MeSH D23. - antigens, cd11c MeSH D23.101. ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.900.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 - antigens, ly MeSH D23.101.100.930 - antigens, ... forssman antigen MeSH D23.050.285.018 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.285.025 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.285.040 - antigens, ...
... specifically those that target self-antigens. One example is antigen-specific CD4+ T cell tolerance, which serves as the ... In a mammary carcinoma model, depletion of CD25+ regulatory T cells increase the amount of CD8+CD11c+PD110, which target and ... However, in some cases, selective CD4+ T cell tolerance provides a unique therapeutic opportunity to maximize self antigen- ... targeted immune and antitumor responses without inducing autoimmunity by incorporating self antigen-independent CD4+ T cell ...
CD18+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGB2 Info with links in the Cell Migration ... The known binding partners of CD18 are CD11a, CD11b, CD11c and CD11d. Binding of CD18 and CD11 results in the formation of ... Huang C, Springer TA (August 1995). "A binding interface on the I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) ... LFA-1 is involved in adhesion and binding to antigen presenting cells through interactions with the surface protein ICAM-1 ...
CD18 Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Integrin alphaXbeta2 (CR4) - Heterodimer: CD11c / CD18 Very late ... Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... CD11c) Beta subunits B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 Dimers Cytoadhesin receptor Integrin alpha6beta4 Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa - ...
These cells lack antigen specific B or T cell receptor because of the lack of recombination activating gene. ILC2s produce type ... which produced IL-5 and IL-13 in response to IL-25 and expressed MHC class II and CD11c. In 2006, a similar cell population was ... ILC2s are critical for primary responses to local Th2 antigens e.g. helminths and viruses and that is why ILC2s are abundant in ...
... antigens, cd11a MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.150 - antigens, cd11b MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.200 - antigens, cd11c ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 - receptors, antigen, t- ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776.543.550 ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 - antigens, cd40 MeSH ...
In terms of expression markers, islet macrophages are positive for; F4/80, CD11b, CD11c, MHC-II, CD64, CD68, LyzM (lysozyme), ... The islet resident macrophage was first identified in 1979 as an antigen-presenting cell (APC), which expresses major ... Calderon, B (2014). "The Central Role of Antigen Presentation in Islets of Langerhans in Autoimmune Diabetes". Curr Opin ... Hume, DA (1984). "The mononuclear phagocyte system of the mouse defined by immunohistochemical localization of antigen F4/80: ...
CD11c−, Gr-1−, NK1.1−, B220−, CD3−, γδTCR−, αβTCR−, α4 and β4-integrin negative. Recently, Heneberg proposed that basophils may ... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ...
The antigen is then transferred from CD23+ B cells to CD11c+ antigen presenting cells. The CD11c+ cells in turn present the ... "CD23 regulates monocyte activation through a novel interaction with the adhesion molecules CD11b-CD18 and CD11c-CD18". Immunity ... Antigens which enter the blood stream can be captured by antigen specific IgE antibodies. The IgE immune complexes that are ... "IgE-mediated enhancement of CD4+ T cell responses in mice requires antigen presentation by CD11c+ cells and not by B cells". ...
CD11c, or CD23 cell surface proteins; genomic analyses reveal that these cells contain t(14:18)(q32:q21.3) translocation (85-90 ... lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3, that is involved in activating T-cells), CDKN2A (encoding p16INK4a and p14arf tumor ... infusion of tisagenlecleucel chimeric antigen receptor T cells (i.e. CAR T cells) (i.e. T cells that have been isolated from ...
CD11c forms a α,sub,X,/sub,β,sub,2,/sub, heterodimer with β,sub,2,/sub, integrin (CD18). It is primarily expressed on dendritic ... p style=text-align:justify,CD11c is a 150 kD glycoprotein also known as α,sub,X,/sub, integrin, CR4, and p150. ... Antigen References 1. Barclay A, et al. 1997. The Leukocyte Antigen Facts Book Academic Press.. 2. Springer TA. 1994. Cell 76: ... CD11c is a 150 kD glycoprotein also known as αX integrin, CR4, and p150. CD11c forms a αXβ2 heterodimer with β2 integrin (CD18 ...
CD11c is a 145-150 kD type I transmembrane glycoprotein also known as integrin αX and CR4. ... Antigen References 1. Petty H. 1996. Immunol. Today 17:209.. 2. Springer T. 1994. Cell 76:301.. 3. Ihanus E, et al. 2007. Blood ... CD11c is a 145-150 kD type I transmembrane glycoprotein also known as integrin αX and CR4. CD11c non-covalently associates with ... Clone 3.9 preferentially binds the activated form of CD11c, is specific for the I domain of CD11c, and is able to partially ...
To activate these CD8(+) T cells, antigen-presenting cells (APCs) must initially acquire tumor cell-associated antigens. The ... major source of tumor antigens is dead tumor cells, but … ... CD11c Antigen / biosynthesis * CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / ... To activate these CD8(+) T cells, antigen-presenting cells (APCs) must initially acquire tumor cell-associated antigens. The ... However, tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell activation and subsequent antitumor immunity are severely impaired in mice ...
5 a,b). Representative images from the brainstem of Cnp-OVA mice depict myeloid cell-T cell clusters stained with CD11c and CD4 ... We show that antigen sampling in the periphery is independent of regional origin of CNS antigens in both male and female mice. ... Systemic antigen sampling by T cells of CNPase and nestin-derived antigens is similar under homeostatic conditions. a, ... These data show that despite similar levels of peripheral antigen sampling, CNS antigen-specific T cells differentially ...
... they recognize antigen on parenchymal cells-presumably parasitized hepatocytes. Therefore, we report an unexpected dichotomy in ... These effector cells, however, no longer require bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells for protection; instead, ... In vivo depletion of CD11c+ dendritic cells abrogates priming of CD8+ T cells by exogenous cell-associated antigens. Immunity ... Radhakrishnan, S., Celis, E. & Pease, L.R. B7-DC crosslinking restores antigen uptake and augments antigen-presenting cell ...
In human, various lung DCs survey antigen-rich areas to sample and uptake antigen. Endogenous antigens that are created ... The mDCs are phenotypically CD11c+/hi, BDCA1+ (CD1c) and HLA-DR+ (MHC class II) or CD11c+/int, BDCA3+ (CD141) and HLA-DR+.[8] ... Whereas, exogenous antigens, including bacterial antigens, pollen and other allergens, that are taken up through endocytosis or ... Lung pDCs are CD123+ (IL-3 receptor), CD11c−, BDCA2+ (CD303), BDCA4+ (CD304), HLA-DR+ and ILT7 (CD85g) (Figure 1).[8-13] ...
In vivo depletion of CD11c+ dendritic cells abrogates priming of CD8+ T cells by exogenous cell-associated antigens. Immunity. ... under the control of the CD11c (Itgax) promoter (CD11c-DTR-eGFP mice) were used to allow conditional depletion of DCs. As CD11c ... CD11c-Cre+/- Ido1fl/fl mice) or control littermates (CD11c-Cre-/- Ido1fl/fl) (n = 4-6). Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. **P ... Of note, it was found that Ido1 mRNA expression was higher in CD11c+ cells when compared with CD11c- cells in sham-operated ...
After antigen encounter and TCR activation, they also express CD40L, and thus are able to provide B cells with both of the ... Another dendritic cell type, derived by culture of plasmacytoid CD4+CD3-CD11c- cells with IL-3, is also an efficient Th2 ... Antigen presentation by B cells favors Th2 responses. The local production of IL-4 in the bronchial mucosa by multiple cell ... Antigen presentation in the asthmatic lung: initiation of Th2 responses in the atopic bronchial mucosa.. Superimposed upon the ...
We have previously identified CD11c(+)-blood dendritic cell antigen (BDCA)-1(+) cells as the main resident dermal DC population ... Staining for the CD11c integrin, which is abundant on many kinds of DCs, revealed cells in the upper dermis. These cells were ... A second major population of cells located throughout the dermis was positive for factor XIIIA (FXIIIA), but lacked CD11c and ... Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous group of antigen-presenting leukocytes that are important in activation of both the ...
CD11c/Integrin alpha X Antibody, 17342-1-AP, from Proteintech. Species Reactivity: Human; Applications: Flow Cytometry, ... CD11C, Integrin alpha X, ITGAX, Leu M5, SLEB6. Host Species. Rabbit. Purification Method. Antigen Affinity Chromatography. ... CD11c is expressed in monocytes, macrophages, natural killer cells, some granulocytes and less so in a subset of lymphocytes. ... In particular, CD11 is composed of CD11a, CD11b and CD11c. CD11a is a leukocyte marker that is expressed in B and T lymphocytes ...
Exbio - Research products - Antibodies - CD and related antigens - Anti-Hu CD11c APC-Cy™7 ... Antigen description CD11c (p150, alphaX integrin subunit) forms complex with CD18 (beta2 integrin subunit) and is expressed ... CD11c binds to complement fragment iC3b, fibrinogen, VCAM-1 and ICAM-2 or e.g. CD90. Like other beta2 integrins, CD11c/CD18 ... Sadhu C, Ting HJ, Lipsky B, Hensley K, Garcia-Martinez LF, Simon SI, Staunton DE: CD11c/CD18: novel ligands and a role in ...
The lung is exposed to a vast array of inhaled antigens, particulate matter, and pollution. Cells present in the airways must ... and inflammatory monocytes (CD11c−MHCII−CD11b+) [3]; cells of lymphoid origin are sparse as monocyte-derived cells dominate. In ... M. J. Clark, J. Gagnon, A. F. Williams, and A. N. Barclay, "MRC OX-2 antigen: a lymphoid/neuronal membrane glycoprotein with a ... The second and third most common cell types in the airways (and the dominant immune cells in the lung tissue) are DC (CD11c+ ...
Dendritic cells (DC) are the antigen-presenting cells required for priming of naïve T-cells. DCs that express CD11c are ... have a CD11c-/CD123+ phenotype; they are the precursors of lymphoid DCs and serve to stimulate antigen naïve CD4+CD45RA+ T ... Third, by destroying the tumor, HDC might release tumor antigens that the infused DC1 can recognize and thus primed infused ... The infused autograft immune effectors cells include dendritic cells (DCs) that can recognize tumor antigens to priming infused ...
The intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (CD54) as well as the p150,95 integrin (CD11c) are decreased on the surface of monocytes ... Finally , the expression of membrane antigens involved in the immune response is decreased in hemozoin-loaded monocytes. The ... Sowohl das Interzelluläre Adhäsionsprotein 1 (CD54) als auch p150,95 Integrin (CD11c) sind in Hemozoin-haltigen Monozyten ... that is responsible for presentation of external antigens, is abrogated in hemozoin-loaded monocyte. ...
BTLA-expressing CD11c antigen presenting cells in patients with active tuberculosis exhibit low capacity to stimulate T cell ... Jiang J, Wang X, Wang X, Cao Z, Liu Y, Dong M, Tong A, Cheng X. Reduced CD27 expression on antigen-specific CD4+ T cells ... CD5 instructs extrathymic regulatory T cell development in response to self and tolerizing antigens. Immunity. 2015;42(3):471- ... cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4)- CD80. Intracellular molecules, such as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) ...
CD11c is a 145-150 kD type I transmembrane glycoprotein also known as integrin αx and CR4. ... Antigen References 1. Petty HR, Todd RF 3rd. 1996. Immunol. Today 17:209.. 2. Springer T. 1994. Cell 76:301.. 3. Ihanus E, et ... View All CD11c Reagents Request Custom Conjugation Description. Clone. Applications. Purified anti-human CD11c. S-HCL-3. FC, ... CD11c is a 145-150 kD type I transmembrane glycoprotein also known as integrin αx and CR4. CD11c non-covalently associates with ...
It has been reported that Flt3L administration enhances the CD11chighCD11blow type DC, which leads to an Ag-specific, type 1 T- ... studies with the model tumor antigen β-galactosidase and the BALB/c Meth A p53 tumor-specific antigen. Gene Ther. ... Theobald M., Biggs J., Dittmer D., Levine A. J., Sherman L. A. Targeting p53 as a general tumor antigen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... Maecker H. T., Umetsu D. T., DeKruyff R. H., Levy S. Cytotoxic T cell responses to DNA vaccination: dependence on antigen ...
Mouse CD11chigh cDCs have been further subdivided in subsets (5). The nature of the T cell response on presentation of antigen ... pDC were gated as 120G8+CD11clow cells. CD11chigh DC were gated as 120G8−CD11chigh cells. Dot plots shown for each staining are ... pDC were gated as 120G8+CD11clow cells. CD11chigh DC were gated as 120G8−CD11chigh cells. Dot plots shown for each staining are ... In response to LPS, resiquimod, or CpG-ODN treatment in vivo, both CD8α− CD11chigh and CD8α+ CD11chigh subsets of cDCs from WT ...
The antigen is also expressed by hairy cell leukaemia cells.. Ligands for CD11c are ICAM-1, iC3b, and fibrinogen. The molecule ...
Specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II antigens (eg., HLA-A1, HLA-A11, HLA-Cw7, and HLA-DQ1), have previously ... Clinical responders had significantly greater increases in endotumoral CD11c+ and CD3+ cells compared with non responders. No ... Examples of tumor antigens similar to MAGE-A3 include other Cancer/Testis antigens such as NY-ESO-1 and frequently mutated ... which enhance the cytotoxic function of HLA class I antigen restricted, tumor antigen-specific T cells in vitro as well as with ...
Most lineage-negative HLA-DR+ cells expressed CD45RA or CD4 antigens. Dendritic cells had low proportions of CD80, CD11c, ... Dendritic cells, a population of antigen-presenting cells, have been identified as lineage-negative human leukocyte antigen ( ... This study shows that core CD44 and v6 splice variant antigens are differentially expressed in the epithelium and stroma of ... The characteristics of antigen-presenting cells in carcinomas that involve the abdominopelvic cavity are unknown. ...
Antigens, CD11b. CD11b Antigen. Antigens, CD11c. CD11c Antigen. Antigens, CD137. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, ... Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1, Heavy Chain. Antigens, CD98 Light Chains. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1 ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-1. ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member 2. ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-2. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 3. ...
Antigens, CD11b. CD11b Antigen. Antigens, CD11c. CD11c Antigen. Antigens, CD137. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, ... Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1, Heavy Chain. Antigens, CD98 Light Chains. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1 ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-1. ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member 2. ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-2. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 3. ...
Antigens, CD11b. CD11b Antigen. Antigens, CD11c. CD11c Antigen. Antigens, CD137. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, ... Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1, Heavy Chain. Antigens, CD98 Light Chains. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1 ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-1. ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member 2. ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-2. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 3. ...
Antigens, CD11b. CD11b Antigen. Antigens, CD11c. CD11c Antigen. Antigens, CD137. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, ... Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1, Heavy Chain. Antigens, CD98 Light Chains. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1 ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-1. ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member 2. ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-2. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 3. ...
... especially CD11c-positive M1 macrophages (Figure 3). CD11c was a well-known surface marker for dendritic cells, but it was also ... Paraffin-embedded skin sections were heat-fixed, deparaffinized, rehydrated, antigen retrieved, blocked with 3% goat serum, and ... c) CD11c and (e) p-p65 expression levels were quantified and expressed as a histogram of mean ± standard deviation of five ... Cell nuclei was stained with DAPI (blue). (b) CD11c and (d) p-p65 expression levels in skin were detected by ...
CD11c - Cluster of differentiation antigen 11c Active Synonym false false 494695014 p-150,95 - Protein 150,95 Active Synonym ... CD11c - cluster of differentiation antigen 11c Active Synonym false false 3744774011 CRIV - complement receptor IV Active ... Leu-M5 antigen Active Synonym false false 3744773017 ... CD11c/CD18 Active Synonym false false 494697018 p150,95 Active ... Lymphocyte antigen CD11c (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD11c (substance). ...
The immunophenotype shows a mature B-cell phenotype with expression of B-cell antigens CD11c and CD103 but unlike typical hairy ...
Distinct dynamics of antigen-specific induction and differentiation of different CD11c+Tbet+ B-cell subsets. Steuten, Juulke; ...
  • CD11c is a 150 kD glycoprotein also known as α X integrin, CR4, and p150. (
  • CD11c forms a α X β 2 heterodimer with β 2 integrin (CD18). (
  • CD11c non-covalently associates with integrin β2 (CD18) and is expressed on monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, granulocytes, NK cells, and subsets of T and B cells. (
  • The antibody BU15 reacts with an extracellular epitope of CD11c (alphaX, p150), a 150 kDa integrin expressed mainly on dendritic cells and tissue macrophages. (
  • CD11c (p150, alphaX integrin subunit) forms complex with CD18 (beta2 integrin subunit) and is expressed mainly on tissue macrophages and dendritic cells. (
  • Sowohl das Interzelluläre Adhäsionsprotein 1 (CD54) als auch p150,95 Integrin (CD11c) sind in Hemozoin-haltigen Monozyten vermindert Oberflächen-exprimiert. (
  • CD18(A270V) supports, at a diminished level, CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1, alphaMbeta2 integrin) and CD11c/CD18 (p150,95, alphaXbeta2 integrin) expression and function but not CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1, alphaLbeta2 integrin) expression. (
  • In the absence of IRF5, CD11c- macrophages displayed a significant increase in expression of the efferocytosis-regulating integrin-β3 and its ligand milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 protein and enhanced efferocytosis in vitro and in situ. (
  • On the other hand, type II mDCs in mice are CD103 − , CD11b + and CD11c + , and express sialoglycoprotein, CD24. (
  • In particular, CD11 is composed of CD11a, CD11b and CD11c. (
  • CD18(C590R) and CD18(R593C) show a decreasing capacity to associate with the CD11a, CD11c and CD11b subunits. (
  • The expression and function of murine FcgammaR in these CD11c+CD11b-B220+ plasmacytoid DCs was investigated. (
  • Here we show that CD169(+) macrophages phagocytose dead tumor cells transported via lymphatic flow and subsequently crosspresent tumor antigens to CD8(+) T cells. (
  • However, tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell activation and subsequent antitumor immunity are severely impaired in mice depleted with CD169(+) macrophages. (
  • Thus, we have identified CD169(+) macrophages as lymph node-resident APCs dominating early activation of tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. (
  • CD11c is expressed in monocytes, macrophages, natural killer cells, some granulocytes and less so in a subset of lymphocytes. (
  • Monocyte numbers peak on day 5 after influenza infection as the cells upregulate CD11c and MHC class II, before differentiating into either macrophages or monocyte-derived DC [ 3 ]. (
  • Moreover, we revealed that the CD11c gene is a direct target of IRF5 in macrophages. (
  • The early phase of lung innate immune response to many pathogens is characterized by onset of inflammation mediated by phagocytic cells, i.e ., polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), alveolar macrophages (AM), and antigen presenting dendritic cells (DC) populating the lungs. (
  • Flow cytometry surface staining pattern of human peripheral whole blood stained using anti-human CD11c (BU15) APC-Cy™7 antibody (4 μl reagent / 100 μl of peripheral whole blood). (
  • Separation of human monocytes (red-filled) from CD11c negative lymphocytes (black-dashed) in flow cytometry analysis (surface staining) of human peripheral whole blood stained using anti-human CD11c (BU15) APC-Cy™7 antibody (4 μl reagent / 100 μl of peripheral whole blood). (
  • As the infection resolved, Tbet + CD11c + B cells localized to the marginal zone where splenic retention depended on integrins LFA-1 and VLA-4, forming a competitive memory subset that contributed to antibody production and secondary GC seeding upon rechallenge. (
  • In addition, neutralizing GM-CSF modulates the functions of lung cDC2 that result in diminished antigen specific CD4+ T cell driven antibody response thus effecting flagellin's mucosal adjuvanticity. (
  • antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens are decreased and antibody responses to protein antigens are slightly reduced. (
  • Neither migratory dendritic cells (DCs) nor lymph node-resident conventional DCs are essential for the crosspresentation of tumor antigens. (
  • The absence of Ag-specific CTLs was attributed to a deficiency in lymphoid CD11c + CD8 + dendritic cells (DCs) in the lower respiratory lymph nodes (LRLNs). (
  • There are several ways a dendritic cell can be loaded with an antigen. (
  • Immunization with a lentivector that targets tumor antigen expression to dendritic cells induces potent CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses. (
  • In mice GFP expression was detected in splenic dectin-2(+) cells after intravenous injection and in CD11c(+) dendritic cells in the draining lymph node after subcutaneous injection. (
  • As immunization with the optimal dose of the dectin-2 lentivector was similar to that stimulated by a lentivector containing a strong constitutive viral promoter, targeting antigen expression to dendritic cells can provide a safe and effective vaccine. (
  • This study by MatTek scientists demonstrated that MatTek's Human Dendritic Cells are an excellent in vitro model for use in a wide variety of studies related to allergenicity, microbial infection and transmission, neutralizing antibodies and anti-microbial agents, antigen capture and presentation, innate immunity and immuno-therapy. (
  • To activate these CD8(+) T cells, antigen-presenting cells (APCs) must initially acquire tumor cell-associated antigens. (
  • The major source of tumor antigens is dead tumor cells, but little is known about how APCs in draining lymph nodes acquire and crosspresent these antigens. (
  • T cells continuously sample CNS-derived antigens in the periphery, yet it is unknown how they sample and respond to CNS antigens derived from distinct brain areas. (
  • We expressed ovalbumin (OVA) neoepitopes in regionally distinct CNS areas (Cnp-OVA and Nes-OVA mice) to test peripheral antigen sampling by OVA-specific T cells under homeostatic and neuroinflammatory conditions. (
  • These data show that despite similar levels of peripheral antigen sampling, CNS antigen-specific T cells differentially influence neuroinflammatory disease depending on the location of cognate antigens and the presence of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling. (
  • Altogether, we propose a novel mechanism for how T cells respond to regionally distinct CNS derived antigens and contribute to CNS autoimmune pathology. (
  • instead, they recognize antigen on parenchymal cells-presumably parasitized hepatocytes. (
  • Angel CE, Lala A, Chen CJ, Edgar SG, Ostrovsky LL, Dunbar PR: CD14+ antigen-presenting cells in human dermis are less mature than their CD1a+ counterparts. (
  • The distinct environment of the lung, with high oxygen tension [ 1 ] and constant exposure to inhaled antigen, both harmful and harmless, presents challenges for the immune cells which patrol the airways. (
  • Immune checkpoint proteins can regulate the immune response in malignancies and infectious diseases via numerous types of activating and inhibitory signals between antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Receptor-ligand interaction is required for the transduction of second signal, following the first signal conveyed by the interaction of MHC molecules on APCs and T cell receptors on effector T cells loaded with cognate antigens [ 3 ]. (
  • The antigen is also expressed by hairy cell leukaemia cells. (
  • The immunophenotype shows a mature B-cell phenotype with expression of B-cell antigens CD11c and CD103 but unlike typical hairy cell the cells are negative for CD25. (
  • Tbet + CD11c + B cells arise during type 1 pathogen challenge, aging, and autoimmunity in mice and humans. (
  • In acute infection, T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, but not Th1 cells, drove Tbet + CD11c + B cell generation through proximal delivery of help. (
  • Tbet + CD11c + B cells developed prior to germinal center (GC) formation, exhibiting phenotypic and transcriptional profiles distinct from GC B cells. (
  • Fate tracking revealed that most Tbet + CD11c + B cells developed independently of GC entry and cell-intrinsic Bcl6 expression. (
  • Tbet + CD11c + and GC B cells exhibited minimal repertoire overlap, indicating distinct developmental pathways. (
  • Therefore, Tbet + CD11c + B cells comprise a GC-independent memory subset capable of rapid and robust recall responses. (
  • 1. Mucosal adjuvant activity of flagellin is dependent on Tlr5 signaling and antigen specific CD4+T cells. (
  • We found that antigen specific CD4 T cells that reside in the lung draining is essential to mediate flagellin's adjuvanticity (Fig. 1). (
  • METHODS: Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated in vitro with HDI-albumin conjugates or control antigen, and changes in phenotype, gene and protein expression were characterized by flow cytometry, microarray, Western blot and ELISA. (
  • Activated MLKL correlated with increased presence of CD11c antigen presenting cells in -associated submucosa. (
  • Most likely CD11c+CD103+ and Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells contribute to these protective effects. (
  • [ 3 ] Thus, it enhances and prolongs antigen signaling on B cells. (
  • Bone marrow (BM) cells became CD86 and CD11c positive within 48 h of treatment with JgD or JH. (
  • Efficient loading of DCs with antigens is key for antigen presentation to T cells. (
  • Patients had significantly fewer circulating myeloid (CD11c+DC) and lymphoid (CD123+DC) DC, and a concurrent accumulation of CD11c CD123 immature cells which expressed high levels of HLA-DR (DR+IC). (
  • Although DR+IC exhibited limited expression of markers ascribed to mature hematopoietic lineages, expression of HLA-DR, CD40 and CD86 suggested a role as antigen presenting cells. (
  • We evaluated the capacity of autologous DC and HEK293 cells transfected with relevant HLA alleles to function as T cell targets in Elispot assays upon transfection with tumor antigen encoding plasmids. (
  • Due to strong background from the autologous DC we decided that HEK293 transfected with one HLA-allele at a time plus simultaneously transfected with up to 5 tumor antiges would be optimal to screen for antigen specificity in the patients T cells. (
  • To improve safety while retaining efficacy, we constructed a lentivector in which transgene expression was restricted to antigen-presenting cells using the mouse dectin-2 gene promoter. (
  • We now demonstrate using a syngeneic mouse tumor model, expressing an Ag derived from the early region 1A of human adenovirus type 5, that the inadequate nature of the antitumor CTL response is not due to direct Ag presentation by the tumor cells, but results from presentation of tumor-derived Ag by nonactivated CD11c(+) APC. (
  • Its ability to secrete high levels of IL-12p40, and express high levels of co-stimulatory molecules, including CD80, postulates its role in antigen presentation to T-lymphocytes. (
  • Altered expressions of peripheral CD11c, CD80, CD83 markers and associations of HLA class II allele and haplotypes in self-limiting Hepatitis E infection. (
  • Bullard DC, Hu X, Adams JE, Schoeb TR, Barnum SR: p150/95 (CD11c/CD18) expression is required for the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (
  • The antigen expressions by immunophenotype in acute myeloid and lymphoblastic leukemias were compared with age, Haemoglobin, Total WBC count, Platelet counts, Lactate dehydrogenase levels and abnormal karyotypes. (
  • CD123+CD11c-) and myeloid DC (mDC, CD123-CD11c+). (
  • Conversely, CD18(A341P) supports a limited level of expression and function of CD11a/CD18, but not of the other two CD11/CD18 antigens. (
  • Distinct dynamics of antigen-specific induction and differentiation of different CD11c + Tbet + B-cell subsets. (
  • Recipient cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 +49 G/G genotype is associated with reduced incidence of hepatitis B virus recurrence after liver transplantation among Chinese patients. (
  • Finally , the expression of membrane antigens involved in the immune response is decreased in hemozoin-loaded monocytes. (
  • Lung pDCs are CD123 + (IL-3 receptor), CD11c − , BDCA2 + (CD303), BDCA4 + (CD304), HLA-DR + and ILT7 (CD85g) (Figure 1). (
  • A dectin-2 lentivector encoding the human melanoma antigen NY-ESO-1 primed an NY-ESO-1-specific CD8(+) T-cell response in HLA-A2 transgenic mice and stimulated a CD4(+) T-cell response to a newly identified NY-ESO-1 epitope presented by H2 I-A(b). (
  • Endogenous antigens that are created intracellularly, including viral and tumor antigens, are processed by DCs and presented via MHC class I molecules to CD8 + T-lymphocytes. (
  • Whereas, exogenous antigens, including bacterial antigens, pollen and other allergens, that are taken up through endocytosis or phagocytosis are presented via MHC class II molecules to polarize CD4 + T helper lymphocytes. (
  • The main function of these mDCs is to take up the antigens and transfer them to lymph node DCs for communicating with CD4 + T-lymphocytes. (
  • They are found under the basement membrane of submucosa, and are major APCs in the uptake and processing of the antigens to prime and stimulate CD4 + T-lymphocytes. (
  • Nevertheless, DR+IC had a reduced capacity to capture antigen and elicited poor proliferation and IFN-g secretion by T-lymphocytes. (
  • Human peripheral blood granulocytes were stained with CD11c (clone 3.9) FITC (filled histogram) or mouse IgG1, κ FITC isotype control (open histogram). (
  • Human peripheral blood granulocytes were stained with CD11c (clone S-HCL-3) Brilliant Violet 421™ (filled histogram) or mouse IgG2b, κ Brilliant Violet 421™ isotype control (open histogram). (
  • The immature status of the immune system combined with a "leaky" immature gut is considered a risk factor to develop immune reactivity to food antigens when introduced too early in life. (
  • On the other hand, antigens provided via the oral route are important for the maturation and training of the mucosal immune system. (
  • Lentivectors stimulate potent immune responses to antigen transgenes and are being developed as novel genetic vaccines. (
  • The peripheral blood and bone marrow were tested for surface membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear antigens and were classified by the French-American- British (FAB) Cooperative Group Classification by using Romanowsky (Leishman and May Grunwald Giemsa[MGG]) stained smears and cytochemical stains. (
  • for example, AMs express high CD11c, owing to the high GM-CSF and surfactant protein D levels in the alveoli [ 11 ], which is not seen elsewhere, and which may aid the AM in their phagocytic function. (
  • Our experiments at this direct level indicate that a synthetic TLR4 agonist, GLA-SE, serves as an effective adjuvant and enhances MLN0128 mw the capacity of DCs in vivo to immunize against protein antigens. (
  • In the current study, we demonstrated that GLA-SE injection together with a protein antigen allows the antigen-capturing DCs to quickly become immunogenic in vivo. (
  • Severity of EAU was assessed in DBA1 and 129/CD1 wild-type (WT) or IL-18 knockout (KO) mice after immunization with the uveitogenic antigen: interphotoreceptor retinal binding protein (IRBP) peptide 161-180. (
  • Like other beta2 integrins, CD11c/CD18 plays roles in cell migration and phagocytosis. (
  • Clone 3.9 preferentially binds the activated form of CD11c, is specific for the I domain of CD11c, and is able to partially block the binding of CD11c and ICAM-4. (
  • Sadhu C, Ting HJ, Lipsky B, Hensley K, Garcia-Martinez LF, Simon SI, Staunton DE: CD11c/CD18: novel ligands and a role in delayed-type hypersensitivity. (
  • Ligands for CD11c are ICAM-1, iC3b, and fibrinogen. (
  • To understand adjuvant action, these agonists need to be characterized in vivo at the level of antigen presenting DCs. (
  • NP given to the lung along with antigens displayed adjuvant properties and enhanced respiratory and systemic allergic responses. (
  • In human, various lung DCs survey antigen-rich areas to sample and uptake antigen. (
  • The lung is exposed to a vast array of inhaled antigens, particulate matter, and pollution. (
  • Pan DCs can be isolated from dissociated tissues such as spleen, lung, or lamina propria using CD11c MicroBeads UltraPure. (
  • The induction of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II by interferon-gamma, that is responsible for presentation of external antigens, is abrogated in hemozoin-loaded monocyte. (
  • After 4 h, splenic DCs were purified by cell sorting and injected into naïve mice i.v. In addition, to check that antigen presentation was performed by the transferred and not recipient DCs, MHCII−/− DCs were used as negative controls. (
  • The Ligand Epitope Antigen Presentation System (LEAPS) converts a peptide containing a T cell epitope as small as 8 amino acids into an immunogen and directs the nature of the subsequent response. (
  • In conclusion, the generated DC alone or the DC containing in vitro engineered tissue models will likely be useful in a variety of studies related to: 1) allergenicity, 2) microbial infection and transmission, 3) neutralizing antibodies and anti-microbial agents, 4) antigen capture and presentation, 5) innate immunity, and 6) immuno-therapy. (
  • The latter are mobilized and recruited into inflammation sites where they serve their primary duty - antigen recognition, capture and subsequent presentation. (
  • Atopy, meaning "strange disease," was used by Coca to describe antigen-specific reactions with apparent immunological specificity for which no precipitating antibodies could be identified in plasma. (
  • Plus, our PepTivator® Technology provides the peptide pools for antigen loading . (
  • By using PepTivator® Peptide Pools, antigen loading has never been easier. (
  • CD11c binds to complement fragment iC3b, fibrinogen, VCAM-1 and ICAM-2 or e.g. (
  • The most significant (P-values 0.007-0.05) changes in microarray gene expression were noted in lysosomal genes, especially peptidases and proton pumps involved in antigen processing. (
  • Hairy cell leukemia is recognized as a clonal B-cell malignancy, as identified by immunoglobulin gene rearrangements that result in a phenotype B-cell expression of surface antigens. (
  • The mDCs are phenotypically CD11c + /hi, BDCA1 + (CD1c) and HLA-DR + (MHC class II) or CD11c + /int, BDCA3 + (CD141) and HLA-DR + . [ 8 ] The second major phenotype of DCs is plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) that can be divided into multiple subtypes, based on location and surface marker expression. (
  • In vivo, HDI-exposed subjects exhibited a drastic increase in the percentage of PBMCs with the same HDI-albumin responsive phenotype characterized in vitro (HLA-DR(+)/CD11c(+) with altered light scatter properties). (
  • However, the precise site where DCs acquire and present parasite antigen following sporozoite infection through the skin has not been identified. (
  • We show that antigen sampling in the periphery is independent of regional origin of CNS antigens in both male and female mice. (
  • To further evaluate the capacity of DCs to become immunogenic following antigen capture in vivo, mice were injected with anti-DEC-HIV gag and either GLA-SE or SE. (
  • The nature of encountered antigen(s) as well as environmental signals during antigen uptake by DC shape the subsequent T cell response. (
  • Many subtypes show characteristic immunophenotypes: Follicular lymphomas show strong surface expression of immunoglobulins and mostly express the antigen CD10, whereas CD5 is not expressed. (
  • We assessed the role of immunophenotyping and cytogenetics and their clinicopathological correlation with various haematological and biochemical parameters and found a statistically significant correlation with various parameters and supported expression of certain antigens and abnormal karyotypes correlate with a poor prognosis in Acute leukemias. (
  • CD11c has been reported to play a role in adhesion and CTL killing through its interactions with fibrinogen, CD54, and iC3b. (
  • Moreover, interaction of CD11c/CD18 with plasminogen regulates plasmin activities, and interaction with heparin counteracts binding of iC3b. (
  • Intranasal instillation of flagellin increased the proportion of cDC2 among total CD11c+MHCII+ DCs by 35% compared to naïve animals. (
  • 1 It can be induced in many species with uveitogenic retinal antigens. (