Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

The haemopoietic growth factor, Flt3L, alters the immune response induced by transcutaneous immunization. (1/629)

Topical application of antigen induces antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. In this study we examined whether expansion of dendritic cells (DC) by Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) treatment influences the induction of immune responses following transcutaneous immunization. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with Flt3L or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and immunized transcutaneously with hen egg lysozyme (HEL). Flt3L-treated mice developed lower HEL-specific cellular and humoral immune responses than PBS-treated mice. However, in the presence of cholera toxin (CT), a potent adjuvant for mucosal and transcutaneous immunization, Flt3L-treated mice developed significantly higher cellular and humoral immune responses to HEL when compared to PBS-treated mice. We assessed whether the immunomodulatory effects of CT were a result of activation of epidermal dendritic cells (Langerhans' cells; LC). Our results indicate that within 8-12 hr of topical application of CT, epidermal LC cells lose their dendritic morphology and become rounder in appearance. In addition, we observed enhanced expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, and of adhesion molecules CD11c and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Our observations support the concept that the state of activation of DC in the skin is central to the regulation of immune responses. This information is relevant to the design of effective transcutaneous vaccination strategies.  (+info)

The interplay of dendritic cell subsets in systemic lupus erythematosus. (2/629)

Dendritic cells (DC) control immunity and tolerance. Hence, we surmised that systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a systemic autoimmune disease with autoreactive T and B cells, might be due to DC alterations. Based on our findings, we are proposing a model of SLE where autoimmune responses are driven by unabated activation of myeloid DC through IFN-alpha produced by plasmacytoid DC. Thus, interplay between DC subsets might represent a key component of SLE pathogenesis.  (+info)

Mouse CD11c(+) B220(+) Gr1(+) plasmacytoid dendritic cells develop independently of the T-cell lineage. (3/629)

The developmental origin of dendritic cells (DCs) is controversial. In the mouse CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) DC subsets are often considered to be of lymphoid and myeloid origin respectively, although evidence on this point is conflicting. Very recently a novel CD11c(+) B220(+) DC subset has been identified that appears to be the murine counterpart to interferon alpha (IFNalpha)-producing human plasmacytoid DCs (PDCs). We show here that CD11c(+) B220(+) mouse PDCs, like human PDCs, are present in the thymus and express T lineage markers such as CD8alpha and CD4. However, the intrathymic development of PDCs can be completely dissociated from immature T lineage cells in mixed chimeras established with bone marrow cells from mice deficient for either Notch-1 or T-cell factor 1, two independent mutations that severely block early T-cell development. Our data indicate that thymic PDCs do not arise from a bipotential T/DC precursor.  (+info)

Myeloid blood CD11c(+) dendritic cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells differ in their ability to stimulate T lymphocytes. (4/629)

Dendritic cells (DCs) initiate and direct immune responses. Recent studies have defined different DC populations, therefore we undertook this study comparing 2 types of myeloid DCs: blood CD11c(+) DCs and in vitro monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs), which are both candidates as cellular adjuvants for cancer immunotherapy. Blood CD11c(+) DCs were prepared by cell sorting from peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured overnight in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with autologous or pooled AB serum. Mo-DCs were prepared in the same medium using granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)/interleukin 4 (IL-4) and differentiated/activated with lipopolysaccharide or monocyte-conditioned medium (ActMo-DCs). Morphologically, differences between the DC preparations were noted both at a light and and electron microscopic level. Blood CD11c(+) DCs expressed similar levels of HLA-DR, CD40, CD86, and CD83 as Mo-DCs. CD209 was present on Mo-DCs but not on blood CD11c(+) DCs. Blood CD11c(+) DCs generated a lower proliferative mixed leukocyte response (MLR) than Mo-DCs. Blood CD11c(+) DCs loaded with 0.1 microg/mL tetanus toxoid (TT)-generated greater T lymphocyte proliferative responses than did Mo-DCs or ActMo-DCs, but when loaded with higher TT concentrations no difference in T lymphocyte proliferative response was observed. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-loaded blood CD11c(+) DCs generated greater T lymphocyte proliferative responses than Mo-DCs or ActMo-DCs. Allogeneic MLR- or KLH-specific responses induced by blood CD11c(+) DCs generated more Th1 effectors than the responses induced by Mo-DCs or ActMo-DCs. These data establish several differences in the properties of blood CD11c(+) DCs, Mo-DCs, and ActMo-DCs, which suggest that blood DCs merit further consideration as DC preparations for clinical programs are evolved.  (+info)

Blood dendritic cells interact with splenic marginal zone B cells to initiate T-independent immune responses. (5/629)

Marginal zone (MZ) and B1 B lymphocytes participate jointly in the early immune response against T-independent (TI) particulate antigens. Here we show that blood-derived neutrophil granulocytes and CD11c(lo) immature dendritic cells (DC) are the primary cells that efficiently capture and transport particulate bacteria to the spleen. In a systemic infection, CD11c(lo) DC, but not neutrophils, provide critical survival signals, which can be inhibited by TACI-Fc, to antigen-specific MZ B cells and promote their differentiation into IgM-secreting plasmablasts. In a local TI response, peritoneal cavity macrophages provide similar support to B1 B-derived Ag-specific blasts. In the absence of soluble TACI ligands, Ag-activated MZ- and B1-derived blasts lack survival signals and undergo apoptosis, resulting in severely impaired antibody responses.  (+info)

Transient induction of cyclin T1 during human macrophage differentiation regulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat transactivation function. (6/629)

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein is essential for viral replication and stimulates transcription of the integrated provirus by recruiting the kinase complex TAK/P-TEFb, composed of cyclin T1 (CycT1) and Cdk9, to the viral TAR RNA element. TAK/P-TEFb phosphorylates the RNA polymerase II complex and stimulates transcriptional elongation. In this report, we investigated the regulation of TAK/P-TEFb in primary human macrophages, a major target cell of HIV infection. While Cdk9 levels remained constant, CycT1 protein expression in freshly isolated monocytes was very low, increased early during macrophage differentiation, and, unexpectedly, decreased to very low levels after about 1 week in culture. The kinase activity of TAK/P-TEFb paralleled the changes in CycT1 protein expression. RNA analysis indicated that the transient induction of CycT1 protein expression involves a posttranscriptional mechanism. In transient transfection assays, the ability of Tat to transactivate the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) in the late differentiated macrophages was greatly diminished relative to its ability to transactivate the HIV LTR in early differentiated cells, strongly suggesting that CycT1 is limiting for Tat function in late differentiated macrophages. Interestingly, lipopolysaccharide, a component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria, reinduced CycT1 expression late in macrophage differentiation. These results raise the possibility that regulation of CycT1 expression may be involved in establishing latent infection in macrophages and that opportunistic infection may reactivate the virus by inducing CycT1 expression.  (+info)

MUC1 epithelial mucin (CD227) is expressed by activated dendritic cells. (7/629)

The MUC1 mucin (CD227) is a cell surface mucin originally thought to be restricted to epithelial tissues. We report that CD227 is expressed on human blood dendritic cells (DC) and monocyte-derived DC following in vitro activation. Freshly isolated murine splenic DC had very low levels of CD227; however, all DC expressed CD227 following in vitro culture. In the mouse spleen, CD227 was seen on clusters within the red pulp and surrounding the marginal zone in the white pulp. Additionally, we confirm CD227 expression by activated human T cells and show for the first time that the CD227 cytoplasmic domain is tyrosine-phosphorylated in activated T cells and DC and is associated with other phosphoproteins, indicating a role in signaling. The function of CD227 on DC and T cells requires further elucidation.  (+info)

Sezary syndrome patients demonstrate a defect in dendritic cell populations: effects of CD40 ligand and treatment with GM-CSF on dendritic cell numbers and the production of cytokines. (8/629)

Sezary syndrome (SzS) is an advanced form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma associated with involvement of the peripheral blood by malignant T cells. The disease is defined by impaired cell-mediated immunity and the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), possibly as a result of deficient IL-12 production. To understand the mechanism of this impairment, we examined the composition and function of dendritic cells and monocytes in the blood of SzS patients with different levels of peripheral blood tumor burden. Consistent with our previous observations, numbers of monocytes in SzS patients were comparable to numbers observed in healthy donors. In contrast, decreased IL-12 production correlated with a decrease in the numbers of CD11c(+) dendritic cells, which was particularly profound among patients with medium (20%-50% circulating malignant T cells) and high (more than 50% circulating malignant T cells) tumor burden. Furthermore, CD123(+) dendritic cells, major producers of IFN-alpha, were significantly diminished in SzS patients, regardless of the level of tumor burden. Granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor-treated patients experienced an increase in the number of dendritic cells but not in IFN-alpha or IL-12 production. However, in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from SzS patients with rCD40L and IFN-gamma significantly increased the production of IL-12. Thus, our results demonstrate a profound defect in circulating dendritic cells in SzS patients that may contribute to the pathogenesis of the cytokine disorders and to the depressed cellular immunity. Importantly, the ability of rCD40L to potently induce IL-12 production from monocytes and residual dendritic cells of SzS patients could potentially serve as an immune-restorative therapeutic agent.  (+info)

*CD11c

... Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... CD11c, also known as Integrin, alpha X (complement component 3 receptor 4 subunit) (ITGAX), is a gene that encodes for CD11c . ... CD11c is a type I transmembrane protein found at high levels on most human dendritic cells, but also on monocytes, macrophages ... Bilsland CA, Diamond MS, Springer TA (1994). "The leukocyte integrin p150,95 (CD11c/CD18) as a receptor for iC3b. Activation by ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd11a MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.111.049 --- antigens, cd11b MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.111.074 --- antigens, cd11c MeSH ... antigens, cd11a MeSH D23.101.100.110.111.049 --- antigens, cd11b MeSH D23.101.100.110.111.074 --- antigens, cd11c MeSH D23.101. ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...

*B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

... one of its key identifiers is the absence in expression of the surface antigens CD10, CD11c, CD25, CD103 and cyclin D1 - an ... B-lymphocytes have two responsibilities: Production of antibodies - In response to antigens, B-lymphocytes produce and release ... b-lymphocyte surface antigens CD19, CD20, CD22, CD79a and FMC7, and weak expression of CD5 and CD23. Due to the similarities ... Interactions between antibodies and antigens allow B-lymphocytes to establish cellular memories, otherwise known as immunities ...

*Acute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia

The markers include CD11c, CD80, CD83, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex class II antigens. The neoplastic dendritic ... Dendritic cells function as antigen-presenting cells. They process antigen material and present it on the surface to other ...

*Outline of immunology

CD18 Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Integrin alphaXbeta2 (CR4) - Heterodimer: CD11c / CD18 Very late ... Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... CD11c) Beta subunits B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 Dimers Cytoadhesin receptor Integrin alpha6beta4 Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa - ...

*CD18

... antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGB2 Info with links in the Cell Migration ... paired with CD11c) Integrin alphaDbeta2 (paired with CD11d) The ITGB2 protein product is the integrin beta chain beta 2. ... Huang C, Springer TA (August 1995). "A binding interface on the I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) ... It is the beta subunit of four different structures: LFA-1 (paired with CD11a) Macrophage-1 antigen (paired with CD11b) ...

*CD11

... present on macrophages that is also called Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) and αmβ2 integrin. CD11c/CD18 also called complement ... For example, LFA1 (CD11a/CD18) short representation of Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen 1, also called αLβ2 integrin Mac1 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... antigens, cd11a MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.150 -- antigens, cd11b MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.200 -- antigens, cd11c ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 -- receptors, antigen, ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 -- antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 -- antigens, cd40 ...

*Plasmacytoid dendritic cell

Mouse pDC express CD11c, B220, BST-2/Tetherin (mPDCA) and Siglec-H and are negative for CD11b. As components of the innate ... blood-derived dendritic cell antigen-2 (BDCA-2), Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR9 within endosomal compartments, but do not ... express high levels of CD11c or CD14, which distinguishes them from conventional dendritic cells or monocytes, respectively. ...

*Dendritic cells- based cancer vaccines

Dendritic cells (DCs) are most powerful antigen presenting cells for the induction of antigen specific T cell response and ... are derived from myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow and are characterized by expression of CD11c. cDCs can be ... Most critical step in vaccination is the effective presentation of cancer antigens to T cells and because of DCs are the most ... Non-activated (immature) DCs are usually located in the peripheral non-lymphoid tissues and they can present self-antigens to T ...

*CD11a

Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is ... CD11a has been shown to interact with ICAM-1. CD11c integrin leukocyte adhesion deficiency Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: ... antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide)". Lu C, Takagi J, Springer TA (May 2001). " ... CD11a Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGAL Info with links in the Cell ...

*Pancreatic islet macrophage

In terms of expression markers, islet macrophages are positive for; F4/80, CD11b, CD11c, MHC-II, CD64, CD68, LyzM (lysozyme), ... The islet resident macrophage was first identified in 1979 as an antigen-presenting cell (APC), which expresses major ... Calderon, B (2014). "The Central Role of Antigen Presentation in Islets of Langerhans in Autoimmune Diabetes". Curr Opin ... Hume, DA (1984). "The mononuclear phagocyte system of the mouse defined by immunohistochemical localization of antigen F4/80: ...

*Basophil

CD11c−, Gr-1−, NK1.1−, B220−, CD3−, γδTCR−, αβTCR−, α4 and β4-integrin negative. Recently, Heneberg proposed that basophils may ... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ...

*CD23

The antigen is then transferred from CD23+ B cells to CD11c+ antigen presenting cells. The CD11c+ cells in turn present the ... "CD23 regulates monocyte activation through a novel interaction with the adhesion molecules CD11b-CD18 and CD11c-CD18". Immunity ... Antigens which enter the blood stream can be captured by antigen specific IgE antibodies. The IgE immune complexes that are ... "IgE-mediated enhancement of CD4+ T cell responses in mice requires antigen presentation by CD11c+ cells and not by B cells". ...

*Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

PGE2 is able to elevate the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in CD11C(+) dendritic cells and promotes the development ... "The IDO1 selective inhibitor epacadostat enhances dendritic cell immunogenicity and lytic ability of tumor antigen-specific T ...
The present study is the first to determine the functional role of kidney DCs in experimental glomerulonephritis. Ex vivo, DCs from nephritic kidneys stimulated proliferation of cocultured specific CD4+ T cells and production of the cytokines IFNγ and IL-10. The latter has been shown by many previous studies to be protective in various immune-mediated kidney diseases.24-26,30-32 Importantly, endogenous IL-10 was produced in NTN by unidentified cells and its genetic ablation aggravated disease,33 similar to DC depletion. Our findings demonstrate that renal CD4+ T cells represent one source of endogenous IL-10 and that ICOS-L-expressing kidney DCs stimulated its production, raising the possibility of an attenuating role of DCs in NTN.. To address the functional relevance of DCs, we studied the course of NTN in their absence using CD11c-DTR/GFP mice, which have been widely used to investigate the requirement of DCs in models of infection and immune-mediated disease.34 We chose an experimental ...
Read "Comparative FISH analysis of C-positive regions of chromosomes of wood mice (Rodentia, Muridae, Sylvaemus), Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Ian P. Lewkowich, Nancy S. Herman, Kathleen W. Schleifer, Matthew P. Dance, Brian L. Chen, Krista M. Dienger, Alyssa A. Sproles, Jaimin S. Shah, Jörg Köhl, Yasmine Belkaid, Marsha Wills-Karp ...
Looking for online definition of Myeloid dendritic cell in the Medical Dictionary? Myeloid dendritic cell explanation free. What is Myeloid dendritic cell? Meaning of Myeloid dendritic cell medical term. What does Myeloid dendritic cell mean?
PubMed journal article CD141⁺ myeloid dendritic cells are enriched in healthy human live were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
姑且不提這尾巴動得好猥褻 =口= a 能自動偵測感光....不是等於自動測光嗎XDDD. 那一台DC沒有的真想見識一下. 要說特別3這兩台DC只是把測光後的結果3套入這兩台相機裡預設的曲線. 讓相機替你決定光圈快門讓你不會手震後3用提高感度的方式來達到正確的曝光. 至於ISO過高會造成甚麼樣的問題3相信略懂攝影的各位朋友應該很清楚了》. 而高ISO那麼好3DC就不用裝內閃了XDDD. ...
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It was nice to see the tuatara featured in Are we smart enough to save this bird? (11 November), but I was dismayed to see it referred to as a lizard.
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine have identified a particular subset of cells that are linked to obesity-associated insulin resistance, and that offer a promising new target for the treatment of diabetes. They showed that depletion of these cells, called CD11c-positive, in obese mice resulted in a reversal of obesity-associated insulin resistance.
In this study, we found that the IDO mRNA expression and enzyme activity were increased in active VKH patients as compared with healthy controls and patients in remission. To investigate the role of IDO in immune regulation, an effective inhibitor 1-methyl-L-tryptophan (1-MT) was used to suppress its activity in DCs. The results showed that inhibition of IDO with 1-MT significantly decreased the expression of DC marker CD86. IDO inhibition did not affect the cytokine production of IL-6, IL-1 β, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β in DCs. Downregulation of IDO in DCs also led to the reduction of regulatory T (Treg) cell ...
Chen M., Huang L., Shabier Z., Wang J.. The lifespan of dendritic cells (DCs) can potentially influence immune responses by affecting the duration of DCs in stimulating lymphocytes. Significant differences in the lifespan have been reported for various DC subsets, however, the molecular mechanisms for regulating such differences between DC subsets remain unclear. In this study, we compared the apoptosis signaling molecules in two major DC subjects, the myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). We observed a lower ratio between anti-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bcl-xL and pro-apoptotic Bax/Bak in shorter-lived myeloid DCs (mDCs) than in longer-lived plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) or T cells. Transfection with Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL prolonged the survival of mouse primary mDCs in vitro, while deletion of Bcl-2 accelerated DC turnover in vivo. In addition, the ratios between anti-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bcl-xL and pro-apoptotic Bax/Bak could be regulated in DCs. Signaling from toll-like receptors (TLRs) up-regulated Bcl-xL and ...
Dear all, I am an Assistant Professor at the University of California, Davis & the Shriners Hospital for Children, Norther California. I have a postdoc position available immediately. Please see below for further information. Shriners Hospital for Children Northern California and the University of California, Davis have the following research opportunity available at our Sacramento location: Postdoc Position This position will focus on characterization of a newly identified dendritic cell population (interferon-producing killer dendritic cells - IKDC) in the mouse. In addition, this position will examine the roles of plasmacytoid DCs and IKDCs in antiviral responses and other pathophysiological conditions such as burn injury. The lab has a broad interest in dendritic cell biology and function with particular emphasis on the crosstalk between the innate and acquired immunity. Our overall goal is to develop more effective immunotherapies. Candidates must have a Ph.D. in Immunology, Cell Biology, ...
RESULTS We found decreased numbers of myeloid DCs (mDCs) (8.97 vs. 13.4 cells/μL, P = 0.009, N = 31) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) (9.47 vs. 14.6 cells/μL, P = 0.018, N = 30) in recent-onset T1D. Using a panel of antibodies against functionally important DC markers, we detected a decreased expression of CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) on mDCs (percentage above negative control, P = 0.002, N = 29) and pDCs (median intensity, P = 0.003, N = 30) from T1D patients. In an independent series of children, the reduced expression of CCR2 was confirmed by qPCR in isolated mDCs (P = 0.043, N = 20). Serum concentrations of CCR2 ligands MCP-1 and MCP-3 did not differ between the groups. A trend for an enhanced responsiveness of the NF-κB pathway (P = 0.063, N = 39) was seen in mDCs from children with β-cell autoantibodies, which is possibly related to the reduced CCR2 expression, since CCR2 on mDCs was downregulated by NF-κB-activating agents. ...

Transplantation-Induced Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Modulates Antigen Presentation by Donor Renal CD11c+F4/80+ Macrophages...Transplantation-Induced Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Modulates Antigen Presentation by Donor Renal CD11c+F4/80+ Macrophages...

Transplantation-Induced Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Modulates Antigen Presentation by Donor Renal CD11c+F4/80+ Macrophages ... Transplantation-Induced Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Modulates Antigen Presentation by Donor Renal CD11c+F4/80+ Macrophages ... Transplantation-Induced Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Modulates Antigen Presentation by Donor Renal CD11c+F4/80+ Macrophages ... Transplantation-Induced Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Modulates Antigen Presentation by Donor Renal CD11c+F4/80+ Macrophages ...
more infohttps://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/early/2020/01/24/ASN.2019080778

Superior antigen cross-presentation and XCR1 expression define human CD11c+CD141+ cells as homologues of mouse CD8+ dendritic...Superior antigen cross-presentation and XCR1 expression define human CD11c+CD141+ cells as homologues of mouse CD8+ dendritic...

Superior antigen cross-presentation and XCR1 expression define human CD11c+CD141+ cells as homologues of mouse CD8+ dendritic ... Superior antigen cross-presentation and XCR1 expression define human CD11c+CD141+ cells as homologues of mouse CD8+ dendritic ... Tumor antigen processing and presentation depend critically on dendritic cell type and the mode of antigen delivery. Blood. 105 ... CD11c+, HLA-DR+, CD16−, CD141−, lin−; ≥99.5% pure), CD16+ DCs (CD16+, CD11c+, HLA-DR+, CD1c−, CD141−, lin−; ≥99.2% pure), CD141 ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/207/6/1273?ijkey=ce07d163d160a17dfc25a7adfa5351c09f9ef9a5&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Tumoricidal efficacy coincides with CD11c up-regulation in antigen-specific CD8+ T cells during vaccine immunotherapy | Journal...Tumoricidal efficacy coincides with CD11c up-regulation in antigen-specific CD8+ T cells during vaccine immunotherapy | Journal...

CD11c expression in CD8+ T cells reflects anti-tumor CTL activity and would be a marker for immunotherapeutic efficacy in mouse ... Simultaneous administration of Poly(I:C) and antigen (Ag) OVA significantly increased a minor population of CD8+ T cells, that ... express CD11c in lymphoid and tumor sites. The numbers of the CD11c+ CD8+ T cells correlated with those of induced Ag-specific ... mount tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), and the double-stranded RNA adjuvant Poly(I:C) stimulates Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ...
more infohttps://jeccr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13046-016-0416-x

Functional characterisation of CD11c-eYFP+ cells during systemic inflammation reveals that the mouse retina is devoid of...Functional characterisation of CD11c-eYFP+ cells during systemic inflammation reveals that the mouse retina is devoid of...

Purpose : The question of whether the CNS contains professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) has been debated for many years ... For functional studies, retinal CD11c-eYFP+ cells and microglia (CD45lo YFP-) were isolated from CD11c-eYFP Crb1wt/wt mice (n= ... CD11c-eYFP Crb1wt/wt mice received an i.p injection of LPS (9mg/kg, n=23) or saline (n=18) and retinas were collected 24h later ... CD11c-eYFP+ cells from spleen and meninges were included as controls. Isolated cells were co-cultured with naïve OT-II CD4+ T ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2642510

ITGAM + ITGAX Antibody Polyclonal (PA1-46162)
		        
	ITGAM + ITGAX Antibody Polyclonal (PA1-46162)

CD11 antigen-like family member B; CD11 antigen-like family member C; CD11B; CD11B (p170); CD11bc; CD11C (p150) alpha ... leukocyte surface antigen p150,95, alpha subunit; MAC-1; Mac-1 alpha; MAC1A; macrophage antigen alpha; macrophage antigen alpha ... antigen CD11C (p150), alpha polypeptide); Itgam; Itgax; leu M5, alpha subunit; leukocyte adhesion glycoprotein p150,95 alpha ... The Mac1 CD11b antigen is present on macrophages, granulocytes, natural killer cells, blood monocytes. CD11b is expressed on 8 ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/ITGAM-ITGAX-Antibody-Polyclonal/PA1-46162

Indigenous enteric eosinophils control DCs to initiate a primary Th2 immune response in vivo.Indigenous enteric eosinophils control DCs to initiate a primary Th2 immune response in vivo.

Antigen-Presenting Cells / drug effects, immunology. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, CD11c / metabolism. Cell ... 0/Antigens, CD; 0/Antigens, CD11c; 0/Integrin alpha Chains; 0/alpha E integrins; 11096-26-7/Erythropoietin; 207137-56-2/ ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Indigenous-enteric-eosinophils-control-DCs/25071163.html

Recombinant Human ITGAX & ITGB2 cell lysate ITGAX & ITGB2-1875HCL - Creative BioMartRecombinant Human ITGAX & ITGB2 cell lysate ITGAX & ITGB2-1875HCL - Creative BioMart

CD11C; SLEB6; integrin alpha-X; leu M5, alpha subunit; p150 95 integrin alpha chain; CD11 antigen-like family member C; ... antigen CD11C (p150), alpha polypeptide); LAD; CD18; MF17; MFI7; LCAMB; LFA-1; MAC-1; integrin beta-2; integrin beta chain, ... leukocyte adhesion receptor p150,95; myeloid membrane antigen, alpha subunit; leukocyte surface antigen p150,95, alpha subunit ... leukocyte-associated antigens CD18/11A, CD18/11B, CD18/11C; cell surface adhesion glycoproteins LFA-1/CR3/p150,95 subunit beta ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_399646_318.htm

Anti-CD11c antibody [N418] (PerCP/Cy5.5®) (ab111469) | AbcamAnti-CD11c antibody [N418] (PerCP/Cy5.5®) (ab111469) | Abcam

Armenian hamster monoclonal CD11c antibody [N418] conjugated to PerCP/Cy5.5®. Validated in Flow Cyt and tested in Mouse. ... integrin, alpha X (antigen CD11C (p150), alpha polypeptide) antibody. *integrin, alpha X (complement component 3 receptor 4 ... N418 binds to CD11c on splenic dendritic cells in the T-dependent areas of mouse spleen and precipitates a 150, 90 kDa ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/cd11c-antibody-n418-percpcy55-ab111469.html

CD11c - Wikipedia, a enciclopedia libreCD11c - Wikipedia, a enciclopedia libre

MeshName - CD11c+Antigens [1]. *Mouse CD Antigen Chart. *Human CD Antigen Chart ... O CD11c (cluster de diferenciación 11c) ou cadea alfa X de integrina é unha subunidade de proteína transmembrana de tipo I que ... Córbi AL, Lopéz-Rodríguez C (1997). "CD11c integrin gene promoter activity during myeloid differentiation.". Leuk. Lymphoma 25 ... Bilsland CA, Diamond MS, Springer TA (1994). "The leukocyte integrin p150,95 (CD11c/CD18) as a receptor for iC3b. Activation by ...
more infohttps://gl.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD11c

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

CD11c - Cluster of differentiation antigen 11c Current Synonym true false 494695014 p-150,95 - Protein 150,95 Current Synonym ... CD11c - cluster of differentiation antigen 11c Current Synonym true false 3744774011 CRIV - complement receptor IV Current ... Leu-M5 antigen Current Synonym true false 3744773017 ... CD11c/CD18 Current Synonym true false 494697018 p150,95 Current ... Lymphocyte antigen CD11c (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD11c (substance). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=46959001

CD11c Antibody (AP-MAB0814) [Alexa Fluor® 405] (NBP1-06651AF405): Novus BiologicalsCD11c Antibody (AP-MAB0814) [Alexa Fluor® 405] (NBP1-06651AF405): Novus Biologicals

Armenian Hamster Monoclonal Anti-CD11c Antibody (AP-MAB0814) [Alexa Fluor® 405]. Dendritic Cell Marker. Validated: Flow, ICC/IF ... integrin, alpha X (antigen CD11C (p150), alpha polypeptide). *integrin, alpha X (complement component 3 receptor 4 subunit) ... Blogs on CD11c. Check out the latest blog posts on CD11c.. CD11b: Marker for a New Type of B Cell that Participates in Cell- ... Reviews for CD11c Antibody (NBP1-06651AF405) (0) There are no reviews for CD11c Antibody (NBP1-06651AF405). By submitting a ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/cd11c-antibody-ap-mab0814_nbp1-06651af405

Human dendritic cell subsets.Human dendritic cell subsets.

Dendritic cells are highly adapted to their role of presenting antigen and directing immune responses. Developmental studies ... Myeloid DCs (mDCs) express typical myeloid antigens CD11c, CD13, CD33 and CD11b, corresponding to mouse CD11c+ classical or ... Superior antigen cross-presentation and XCR1 expression define human CD11c+CD141+ cells as homologues of mouse CD8+ dendritic ... They were originally recognized in the blood as a fraction of HLA-DR+ lineage− cells expressing myeloid antigens CD11b, CD11c, ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Human-dendritic-cell-subsets/23621371.html

Anti-CD11c antibody [N418] (Phycoerythrin) (ab210309) | AbcamAnti-CD11c antibody [N418] (Phycoerythrin) (ab210309) | Abcam

Armenian hamster monoclonal CD11c antibody [N418] conjugated to PE. Validated in Flow Cyt and tested in Mouse. Cited in 1 ... integrin, alpha X (antigen CD11C (p150), alpha polypeptide) antibody. *integrin, alpha X (complement component 3 receptor 4 ... Primary - Armenian hamster Anti-CD11c antibody [N418] (Phycoerythrin) (ab210309) Flow Cyt Protein - Recombinant Human CD11c ... Flow cytometric analysis of C57Bl/6 splenocytes labeling CD11c with APC Anti-Mouse MHC Class II and 0.25 ug ab210309 (right ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/cd11c-antibody-n418-phycoerythrin-ab210309.html

NMI infected cells expressed CD11c+ and were consistent | Open-iNMI infected cells expressed CD11c+ and were consistent | Open-i

Antigens, CD11b/metabolism. *Antigens, CD11c/metabolism. *Bacterial Load. *Immunophenotyping. *Lung/immunology/microbiology ... A) Twelve days PI with 1×104 NMI, infected cells were identified by the presence of Coxiella (stained red) and CD11c expression ... A) Twelve days PI with 1×104 NMI, infected cells were identified by the presence of Coxiella (stained red) and CD11c expression ... burnetii and CD11c expression (Figure 8A-representative sample, Figure 8B-negative control). ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3526480_pone.0051941.g008&req=4

CD11c Antibody (ITGAX/1284) [DyLight 350] (NBP2-54393UV): Novus BiologicalsCD11c Antibody (ITGAX/1284) [DyLight 350] (NBP2-54393UV): Novus Biologicals

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD11c Antibody (ITGAX/1284) [DyLight 350]. Dendritic Cell Marker. Validated: Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-P. Tested ... integrin, alpha X (antigen CD11C (p150), alpha polypeptide). *integrin, alpha X (complement component 3 receptor 4 subunit) ... Blogs on CD11c. Check out the latest blog posts on CD11c.. CD11b: Marker for a New Type of B Cell that Participates in Cell- ... Reviews for CD11c Antibody (NBP2-54393UV) (0) There are no reviews for CD11c Antibody (NBP2-54393UV). By submitting a review ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/cd11c-antibody-itgax-1284_nbp2-54393uv

Plus itPlus it

Most macrophages express CD11c antigen in twi and twi+op mice. A, Double-immunofluorescence staining for CD11c and CD11b in the ... CD11c gene expression was extremely elevated in twi mice (244-fold vs wild type) (Fig. 7C) despite the fact that CD11c has been ... Indeed, in our study, removal of the upregulated expressions of antigen presentation-related molecules such as CD11c (dendritic ... cells were also CD11c+. There were few macrophages in twi+op mice, but they were mostly positive for CD11c as well. B, ...
more infohttps://www.jneurosci.org/content/31/10/3610

Frontiers | Ontogeny of CX3CR1-EGFP expressing cells unveil microglia as an integral component of the postnatal subventricular...Frontiers | Ontogeny of CX3CR1-EGFP expressing cells unveil microglia as an integral component of the postnatal subventricular...

Since the dendritic cell antigen CD11c was detected in a transgenic mice strain in postnatal SVZ cells that were also ... Dendritic cells (CD11c+, red) are restricted to the pial surface and some of them co-express CX3CR1-EGFP (B,B1,B2). ... Antigen-retrieval procedure for bromodeoxyuridine immunolabeling with concurrent labeling of nuclear DNA and antigens damaged ... 2008). CD11c/EYFP transgene illuminates a discrete network of dendritic cells within the embryonic, neonatal, adult and injured ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncel.2015.00037/full

JCI -
Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) vFLIP oncoprotein induces B cell transdifferentiation and tumorigenesis in miceJCI - Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) vFLIP oncoprotein induces B cell transdifferentiation and tumorigenesis in mice

... cells that expressed the macrophage antigen Gr1 and the DC antigen CD11c (Figure 3H), but not EGFP (Supplemental Figure 1). ... All tumor cases expressed either Gr1 or CD11c (Figure 7A). Although we could not detect B cell antigens by immunohistochemistry ... B) Many tumor cells express intermediate levels of CD19 and are, therefore, biphenotypic (i.e., CD19intGr1+ or CD19intCD11c+ ... For analysis of T cell-dependent antigen-specific immune response, 12-week-old mice were immunized on day 0 with 100 μg of NP24 ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/44417

Requirement for neuropeptide Y in the development of type 2 responses and allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and...Requirement for neuropeptide Y in the development of type 2 responses and allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and...

Flow cytometry analysis showed that the number of CD4 T cells and CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells (APCs) was significantly ... Flow cytometry analysis showed that the number of CD4 T cells and CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells (APCs) was significantly ... Flow cytometry analysis showed that the number of CD4 T cells and CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells (APCs) was significantly ... Flow cytometry analysis showed that the number of CD4 T cells and CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells (APCs) was significantly ...
more infohttps://okayama.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/requirement-for-neuropeptide-y-in-the-development-of-type-2-respo

A single sublingual dose of an adenovirus-based vaccine protects against lethal ebola challenge in mice and guinea pigs<...A single sublingual dose of an adenovirus-based vaccine protects against lethal ebola challenge in mice and guinea pigs<...

SL immunization elicited strong transgene expression in and attracted CD11c(+) antigen presenting cells to the mucosa. A SL ... SL immunization elicited strong transgene expression in and attracted CD11c(+) antigen presenting cells to the mucosa. A SL ... SL immunization elicited strong transgene expression in and attracted CD11c(+) antigen presenting cells to the mucosa. A SL ... SL immunization elicited strong transgene expression in and attracted CD11c(+) antigen presenting cells to the mucosa. A SL ...
more infohttps://researchexperts.utmb.edu/en/publications/a-single-sublingual-dose-of-an-adenovirus-based-vaccine-protects-

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Cell positive for CD11C antigen (cell). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Cell positive for CD11C antigen (cell). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=116750001

Milli-Mark™ Anti-CD11c-FITC Antibody, clone KB90 | FCMAB179FMilli-Mark™ Anti-CD11c-FITC Antibody, clone KB90 | FCMAB179F

... clone KB90 is an antibody against CD11c for use in FC. Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information. ... Anti-CD11c, KB90, was included in the Sixth International Workshop and Conference on Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens, ... Milli-Mark Anti-CD11c-FITC Antibody, clone KB90 is an antibody against CD11c for use in FC.. More,, Milli-Mark Anti-CD11c-FITC ... Milli-Mark Anti-CD11c-FITC Antibody, clone KB90 is an antibody against CD11c for use in FC.. ...
more infohttp://www.merckmillipore.com/INTL/en/product/Milli-Mark-Anti-CD11c-FITC-Antibody-clone-KB90,MM_NF-FCMAB179F

Spontaneous differentiation of PBMC CD8αα+CD3− cell | Open-iSpontaneous differentiation of PBMC CD8αα+CD3− cell | Open-i

Antigens, CD11c/blood*. *Antigens, CD3/blood*. *Antigens, CD8/blood*. *Autoimmunity*. *CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology/ ... Now, we identified peripheral blood CD8αα+CD11c+MHC-II+CD3- cells (PBMC CD8αα+CD3- cells), which shared 9 markers with GIL CD8 ... Now, we identified peripheral blood CD8αα+CD11c+MHC-II+CD3- cells (PBMC CD8αα+CD3- cells), which shared 9 markers with GIL CD8 ... Our previous studies suggested that glomeruli-infiltrating leukocytes with a phenotype of CD8αα+CD11c+MHC-II+CD3- (GIL CD8αα+ ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4008668_nihms534088f3&req=4

Anti-CD11C Hamster Monoclonal Antibody | VWRAnti-CD11C Hamster Monoclonal Antibody | VWR

Learn more about Anti-CD11C Hamster Monoclonal Antibody. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process ... Hamster monoclonal antibody [N418] to CD11c. Type: Primary. Antigen: CD11C. Clonality: Monoclonal. Clone: Conjugation: ...
more infohttps://us.vwr.com/store/product/10035917/anti-cd11c-hamster-monoclonal-antibody

Targeted Antigen Delivery to DEC-205<sup>+</sup> Dendritic Cells for...Targeted Antigen Delivery to DEC-205<sup>+</sup> Dendritic Cells for...

Treg cells is of particular interest as it provides novel perspectives to enhance antigen-specific Treg cell function in ... cells play non-redundant roles in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance to self-antigens, thereby preventing fatal ... Targeting viral antigens to CD11c on dendritic cells induces retrovirus-specific T cell responses. Plos One 2012. 7(9):e45102. ... Abbreviations: Ag - antigen; BDCA - blood dendritic cell antigen; BST2 - bone marrow stromal cell Ag 2 (CD317); C57BL/6 - ...
more infohttp://www.soc-bdr.org/content/rds/archive/9/4_winter/chapter_iii_re_establishing_tolerance/tolerogenic_dc_vaccination/?showfulltext=1
  • Proteína ITGAX ou CD11c. (wikipedia.org)
  • O CD11c ( cluster de diferenciación 11c) ou cadea alfa X de integrina é unha subunidade de proteína transmembrana de tipo I que se expresa en altos niveis na maioría das células dendríticas humanas, e tamén en monocitos , macrófagos , neutrófilos , e algunhas células B que está codificada no xene ITGAX do cromosoma 16 humano . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998). "Mapping of the human CD11c (ITGAX) and CD11d (ITGAD) genes demonstrates that they are arranged in tandem separated by no more than 11.5 kb. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein belongs to a family of related heterodimeric proteins designated CD11 in the classification system for human leucocyte differentiation antigens. (merckmillipore.com)
  • CD11c-eYFP Crb1 wt/wt mice received an i.p injection of LPS (9mg/kg, n=23) or saline (n=18) and retinas were collected 24h later for confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. (arvojournals.org)
  • Results Cold ischemia and reversible ischemia-reperfusion injury dampened antigen presentation by renal macrophages, skewed their polarization toward the M 2 phenotype, and increased surface expression of IL-1R8, diminishing activation mediated by toll-like receptor 4. (asnjournals.org)
  • Background In donor kidneys subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury during kidney transplant, phagocytes coexpressing the F4/80 and CD11c molecules mediate proinflammatory responses and trigger adaptive immunity in transplantation through antigen presentation. (asnjournals.org)
  • The CD11c + CD8 + T cell moiety was characterized by its high killing activity and IFN-γ-producing ability, which represent an active phenotype of the effector CTLs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To date, the low frequency of these DCs in human blood has essentially prevented functional studies defining their specific contribution to antigen presentation. (rupress.org)
  • These data define CD141 + DCs as professional antigen cross-presenting DCs in the human. (rupress.org)
  • Synthetic peptide within Human CD11c aa 1150 to the C-terminus (C terminal). (abcam.co.jp)
  • Human hairy cell leukemia: immunohistochemical staining for CD11c antigen using NCL-L-CD11c-563. (leicabiosystems.com)
  • This suppressive activity required T cell activation and direct cell-cell contact, but not prior exposure to KSHV antigen. (jci.org)