Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Effect of a short-term in vitro exposure to the marine toxin domoic acid on viability, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and superoxide anion release by rat neonatal microglia. (1/1308)

BACKGROUND: The excitatory amino acid domoic acid, a glutamate and kainic acid analog, is the causative agent of amnesic shellfish poisoning in humans. No studies to our knowledge have investigated the potential contribution to short-term neurotoxicity of the brain microglia, a cell type that constitutes circa 10% of the total glial population in the brain. We tested the hypothesis that a short-term in vitro exposure to domoic acid, might lead to the activation of rat neonatal microglia and the concomitant release of the putative neurotoxic mediators tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), matrix metalloproteinases-2 and-9 (MMP-2 and -9) and superoxide anion (O2-). RESULTS: In vitro, domoic acid [10 microM-1 mM] was significantly neurotoxic to primary cerebellar granule neurons. Although neonatal rat microglia expressed ionotropic glutamate GluR4 receptors, exposure during 6 hours to domoic acid [10 microM-1 mM] had no significant effect on viability. By four hours, LPS (10 ng/mL) stimulated an increase in TNF-alpha mRNA and a 2,233 % increase in TNF-alpha protein In contrast, domoic acid (1 mM) induced a slight rise in TNF-alpha expression and a 53 % increase (p < 0.01) of immunoreactive TNF-alpha protein. Furthermore, though less potent than LPS, a 4-hour treatment with domoic acid (1 mM) yielded a 757% (p < 0.01) increase in MMP-9 release, but had no effect on MMP-2. Finally, while PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) stimulated O2- generation was elevated in 6 hour LPS-primed microglia, a similar pretreatment with domoic acid (1 mM) did not prime O2- release. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first experimental evidence that domoic acid, at in vitro concentrations that are toxic to neuronal cells, can trigger a release of statistically significant amounts of TNF-alpha and MMP-9 by brain microglia. These observations are of considerable pathophysiological significance because domoic acid activates rat microglia several days after in vivo administration.  (+info)

Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of inhaled nitric oxide in dogs with septic acute respiratory distress syndrome. (2/1308)

AIM: To evaluate pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in dogs with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: ARDS, induced after iv injection of endotoxin, was evidenced by reduction of paO2/FiO2 from (62.5 +/- 2.8) to (26 +/- 4) kPa and dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn) from (14.8 +/- 0.7) to (8.6 +/- 0.6) mL.kPa-1 . kg-1, increase of dead space (VD/VT) from (0.14 +/- 0.06) to (0.58 +/- 0.05), intrapulmonary shunting (Qs/Qt) from 4.7 % +/- 1.7 % to 39 % +/- 7 %, and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) from (16 +/- 4) to (51 +/- 8) kPa.s.L-1 . m-2 (all P < 0.05), along with severe intrapulmonary neutrophil recruitment and peripheral neutropenia. The animals were then treated as either a control or an NO group (n = 6 each, iNO 0.4 - 3.2 micromol/L) for another 10 h. RESULTS: More survival was found in NO group (4/6 vs 0/6, P < 0.05). iNO at 0.8, 1.6, and 3.2 micromol/L (20, 40, and 80 ppm) resulted in > 40 % increase of paO2/FiO2 and Cdyn, a reduction of VD/VT to 0.32, Qs/Qt to < 25 %, and PVRI by > 50 % (30.8 kPa . s . L-1 . m-2) compared to the control. Optimal iNO dose was around 0.8 micromol/L as higher methemoglobin (MetHb, > 3 %) was found at higher NO. iNO had no adverse effects on surfactant phospholipids and lung fluid balance, but attenuated expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha,beta2 integrin CD11b, and interleukin-8 mRNA in the lungs by 22 %, 44 %, and 25 %, respectively (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Pharmacodynamics of iNO in this model was related to improvement in gas exchange, Cdyn, PVRI, and suppression of proinflammatory cytokine expression in the lungs, and its adverse effect was mainly confined to MetHb at higher NO dose.  (+info)

Regulation of adhesion of AML14.3D10 cells by surface clustering of beta2-integrin caused by ERK-independent activation of cPLA2. (3/1308)

We examined the role of cell surface clustering of beta2-integrin caused by protein kinase C (PKC)-activated-cPLA2 in adhesion of eosinophilic AML14.3D10 (AML) cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused time- and concentration-dependent adhesion of AML cells to plated bovine serum albumin (BSA), which was blocked by anti-CD11b or anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed against beta2-integrin. Inhibition of PKC with Ro-31-8220 or rottlerin blocked PMA-induced cell adhesion in a concentration-dependent fashion. Inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) with trifluoromethyl ketone or methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate also blocked PMA-induced cell adhesion. PMA caused time-dependent p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (ERK) phosphorylation in these cells. U0126, a MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor, at the concentrations that blocked PMA-induced ERK phosphorylation, had no effect on PMA stimulated AML cell adhesion. Neither p38 MAPK nor c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was phosphorylated by PMA. PMA also caused increased cPLA2 activity, which was inhibited by Ro-31-8220, but not U0126. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that PMA caused clustering of CD11b on the cell surface, which was blocked by either PKC or cPLA2 inhibition. PMA stimulation also caused up-regulation of CD11b on the AML cell surface. However, this up-regulation was not affected by cPLA2- or PKC-inhibition. Using the mAb, CBRM1/5, we also demonstrated that PMA does not induce the active conformation of CD11b/CD18. Our data indicate that PMA causes AML cell adhesion through beta2-integrin by PKC activation of cPLA2. This pathway is independent of MEK/ERK and does not require change of CD11b/CD18 to its active conformation. We find that avidity caused by integrin surface clustering - rather than conformational change or up-regulation of CD11b/CD18 - causes PMA stimulated adhesion of AML cells.  (+info)

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand induces monocytic maturation of leukemic and normal myeloid precursors through a caspase-dependent pathway. (4/1308)

Treatment of the human HL-60 cell line with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resulted in rapid (6-24 hours) cytotoxicity associated with progressive maturation of the surviving cells along the monocytic lineage. The occurrence of monocytic maturation was demonstrated by a significant increase of both CD14 and CD11b surface expression, the acquisition of morphologic features typical of mature monocytes, and phagocytic capacity in TRAIL-treated cultures. By using selective pharmacologic inhibitors, it was possible to demonstrate that activation of the caspase cascade played a crucial role in mediating TRAIL cytotoxicity and monocytic maturation of HL-60 cells. Moreover, experiments performed using agonistic polyclonal antibodies, which mimic the interactions between TRAIL and each TRAIL receptor, indicated that TRAIL-R1 was responsible for mediating the TRAIL-induced maturation. Importantly, the maturational effects of TRAIL were observed also in primary normal CD34(+) cells, seeded in serum-free liquid cultures for 4 to 8 days in the presence of SCF + GM-CSF. After treatment with TRAIL for 3 additional days, a significant increase in CD14 and CD11b expression, coupled with an increased number of mature monocytes and macrophages, was noticed in the absence of cytotoxicity. These data disclose a novel role for TRAIL as a positive regulator of myeloid differentiation. Moreover, the dichotomous effect of TRAIL on malignant cells (early induction of apoptosis and monocytic maturation of the surviving cells) might have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.  (+info)

Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) as accessory molecule for Fc alpha R (CD89) binding of IgA. (5/1308)

IgA, the principal ligand for FcalphaRI, exists in serum as monomeric IgA and at mucosal sites as secretory IgA (SIgA). SIgA consists of dimeric IgA linked by joining chain and secretory components. Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and mouse PMN transgenic for human FcalphaRI exhibited spreading and elicited respiratory burst activity upon interaction with either serum or SIgA. However, PMN devoid of the beta(2) integrin Mac-1 (Mac-1(-/-)) were unable to bind SIgA, despite expression of FcalphaRI. Consistent with this, serum IgA stimulated Mac-1(-/-) PMN oxygen radical production, in contrast to SIgA. Binding studies showed the secretory component, by itself, to interact with Mac-1-expressing PMN, but not with Mac-1(-/-) PMN. These data demonstrate an essential role for Mac-1 in establishing SIgA-FcalphaRI interactions.  (+info)

Cellular activation, phagocytosis, and bactericidal activity against group B streptococcus involve parallel myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent and independent signaling pathways. (6/1308)

Group B streptococci (GBS) vigorously activate inflammatory responses. We reported previously that a secreted GBS "factor" activates phagocytes via Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR6, but that GBS cell walls activate cells independently of these receptors. We hypothesized that the phagocytic immune functions in response to GBS, such as inflammation, uptake, and elimination of bacteria, occur through a coordinated engagement of TLRs, along with the coreceptors CD14 and CD11b/CD18. Using various knockout mice we show that GBS-induced activation of p38 and NF-kappaB depends upon the expression of the cytoplasmic TLR adapter protein, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), but not TLR2 and/or TLR4. Macrophages with deletions of CD14 and complement receptor 3 had a normal cytokine response to whole bacteria, although the response to GBS factor was abrogated in CD14-null cells. The intracellular formation of bactericidal oxygen species proved to be MyD88 dependent; however, uptake of GBS, a prerequisite for intracellular killing by O(2) radicals, occurred independently of MyD88. While deletion of complement receptor 3 greatly diminished the uptake of opsonized GBS, it did not affect the formation of bactericidal O(2) radicals or inflammatory signaling intermediates. We conclude that the inflammatory, bactericidal, and phagocytic responses to GBS occur via parallel but independent processes.  (+info)

Immunosuppression during acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection: involvement of Ly6G (Gr1(+))CD11b(+ )immature myeloid suppressor cells. (7/1308)

Trypanosoma cruzi infection is associated with a severe unresponsiveness of spleen cells (SC) to antigens and mitogens. A high production of NO by concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated SC from infected but not from control mice was observed. Neutralization of endogenous IFN-gamma production or treatment with NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-N-monomethyl-arginine, blocked Con A-induced NO production and greatly restored proliferation by SC from infected mice. This was confirmed by using IFN-gammaR(-/-) and inducible NOS (iNOS)(-/- )knockout mice, since unresponsiveness to mitogens of SC from those infected mice was much less pronounced than in control littermates. Interestingly, SC unresponsiveness was associated with a huge increase in CD11b(+) cells that express Ly-6G (Gr1)(+) and other immature myeloid markers These cells were absent in infected IFN-gammaR(-/-) spleens. Purified immature Gr1(+)CD11b(+) cells produced NO and expressed iNOS upon IFN-gamma treatment, and were able to inhibit T cell proliferation. In addition, depletion of myeloid CD11b(+ )cells abrogated NO production and restored mitogen-induced proliferation, but not IL-2 synthesis, in SC from infected mice. IL-2 production and CD25 cell surface expression by mitogen-activated T cells were greatly depressed in SC from IFN-gammaR(-/-) and iNOS(-/- )mice, confirming that Gr1(+)CD11b(+) cells were not involved in their down-regulation. In contrast, IL-5, tumor necrosis factor and IFN-gamma production, and CD69 expression by T cells were not depressed in infected SC. The results indicate the existence of an immunosuppressive mechanism during T. cruzi infection, mediated through IFN-gamma-dependent NO secretion by immature Ly-6G (Gr1)(+)CD11b(+ )myeloid cells.  (+info)

A critical role of platelet adhesion in the initiation of atherosclerotic lesion formation. (8/1308)

The contribution of platelets to the process of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here, we show in vivo that platelets adhere to the vascular endothelium of the carotid artery in ApoE(-)(/)(-) mice before the development of manifest atherosclerotic lesions. Platelet-endothelial cell interaction involved both platelet glycoprotein (GP)Ibalpha and GPIIb-IIIa. Platelet adhesion to the endothelium coincides with inflammatory gene expression and preceded atherosclerotic plaque invasion by leukocytes. Prolonged blockade of platelet adhesion in ApoE(-)(/)(-) mice profoundly reduced leukocyte accumulation in the arterial intima and attenuated atherosclerotic lesion formation in the carotid artery bifurcation, the aortic sinus, and the coronary arteries. These findings establish the platelet as a major player in initiation of the atherogenetic process.  (+info)

The objective of the study was to explore the effects of galectin-9 on myeloid suppressor cells in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis and the possible mechanisms involved. For this purpose, BALB/c male mice were infected with CVB3 on day 0 and then received intraperitoneal (IP) administration of recombinant galectin-9 or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) daily from day 3 to day 7. The phenotypes and functions of myeloid suppressor cells were evaluated. The role and mechanism of myeloid suppressor cells and subsets in CVB3-induced myocarditis in vitro were explored. We found that galectin-9 remarkably increased the frequencies of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells in the cardiac tissue and spleen with myocarditis. Ly-6G+ cells were decreased and Ly-6C+ cells were increased in galectin-9-treated mice. In addition, CD11b+Gr-1+ cells were highly effective in suppressing CD4+ T cells. Moreover, our data demonstrate that CD11b+Gr-1+ cells are capable of expanding regulatory T cells (Tregs) from a preexisting
The growth and metastasis of solid tumors not only depends on their ability to escape from immune surveillance but also hinges on their ability to invade the vasculature system as well as to induce the formation of new blood vessels. Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), overproduced in tumor-bearing hosts, contribute significantly to all these aspects. They also have a potential role in the osteolysis associated with bone metastases. They are formidable partners in tumor metastasis.
article{8578976, abstract = {Solid tumors frequently coexist with a degree of local chronic inflammation. Recruited myeloid cells can therefore be considered as interesting vehicles for tumor-targeted delivery of therapeutic agents. Using in vivo imaging, the short-term accumulation of systemically injected monocytes, macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) was compared in mice bearing fat pad mammary carcinomas. Monocytes and macrophages demonstrated almost identical in vivo and ex vivo distribution patterns with maximal tumor-associated accumulation seen 48 hours after injection that remained stable over the 4-day follow-up period. However, a substantial accumulation of both cell types was also seen in the liver, spleen and lungs albeit decreasing over time in all three locations. The MDSCs exhibited a similar distribution pattern as the monocytes and macrophages, but demonstrated a better relative on-target fraction over time. Overall, our findings highlight off-target cell ...
Monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (mMDSC) have immunosuppressive properties. Their activity helps the host avoid autoimmune disease but when mMDSC accumulate in a tumor bed, they prevent NK and T cells from eliminating the cancer. We previously found that R848 (a TLR7/8 agonist) reverses this immunosuppression by inducing mMDSC to differentiate into tumoricidal M1 macrophages. To identify the mechanism underlying this effect, we neutralized various cytokines/chemokines in R848 stimulated mMDSC cultures. Blocking IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and/or TNFα inhibited R848-mediated generation of M1 macrophages. Moreover, combinations of these cytokines induced mMDSC to differentiation more effectively than R848, generating M1 macrophages that efficiently lysed tumor targets. Microarray analysis of the regulatory networks activated following treatment of mMDSC with cytokine combinations or R848 showed that M1 differentiation universally proceeded through a conserved NF-κB, STAT1 and IRF7-dependent ...
In tumor-bearing mice and cancer patients, tumor progression is often associated with altered hematopoiesis leading to the accumulation of myeloid cells. Extensive studies in preclinical models indica
PGE(2) is the key factor needed for MDSCs development, accumulation and functional stability. PGE(2) initiates an EP2/EP4-mediated positive feedback between COX2 and PGE(2) in monocytic precursors, redirecting dendritic cell differentiation to MDSCs. COX2- or EP2/EP4- blockade abrogates MDSC functions and their CXCR4-CXCL12-mediated attraction to cancer environment, providing convenient immunotherapeutic targets ...
Wistar scientists have identified a marker that distinguishes PMN-MDSCs from neutrophils in the blood of patients with a variety of cancers.
Monoclonal antibody against CD11b (Integrin alpha-M, Mac-1 alpha chain), murine expressed by Itgam for use in FACS, Function Blocking, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, Immunoprecipitation against Human, Mouse
ITGAM + ITGAX Polyclonal Antibody for Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Immunocytochemistry, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Flow Cytometry (PA1-46162)
InChI=1S/C29H31N5O3/c1-19-17-23(28-30-20(2)37-32-28)9-11-25(19)21-5-7-22(8-6-21)29(35)31-24-10-12-27(36-4)26(18-24)34-15-13-33(3)14-16-34/h5-12,17-18H,13-16H2,1-4H3,(H,31,35) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myeloid-derived suppressor cells. T2 - Cellular missiles to target tumors. AU - Chandra, Dinesh. AU - Gravekamp, Claudia. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - While conventional anticancer therapies, including surgical resection, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy, are relatively efficient at eliminating primary tumors, these treatment modalities are largely ineffective against metastases. At least in part, this reflects the rather inefficient delivery of conventional anticancer agents to metastatic lesions. We have recently demonstrated that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) can be used as cellular missiles to selectively deliver a radioisotope-coupled attenuated variant of Listeria monocytogenes to both primary and metastatic neoplastic lesions in mice with pancreatic cancer. This novel immunotherapeutic intervention robustly inhibited tumor growth while promoting a dramatic decrease in the number of metastases.. AB - While conventional anticancer therapies, including surgical ...
In recent years, bone marrow-derived immature and mature myeloid cells have been extensively investigated, as they are endowed with a high capability to exert protumor functions (Gabrilovich et al., 2012). Indeed, these cells can suppress antigen-specific immune responses (immature myeloid cells or myeloid-derived suppressor cells), exert a proangiogenic activity (immature myeloid cells or neutrophils; Murdoch et al., 2008; Motz and Coukos, 2011), or induce chemoresistance and invasion or metastasis (immature myeloid cells; Yang et al., 2008; Acharyya et al., 2012). These cells are recruited to tumor microenvironment mainly by chemokines constitutively released by tumor and stromal cells (Mantovani et al., 2010; Qian et al., 2011; Acharyya et al., 2012) or produced after some aggressive treatments (Kerbel, 2008). Our study highlights an unanticipated role of tumor-derived oxysterols/LXR ligands, which contribute to the recruitment of protumor neutrophils in a CXCR2-dependent manner, ultimately ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against native ITGAM. Native purified ITGAM from rheumatoid synovial cells and human monocytes. (MAB6032) - Products - Abnova
Suppression of immune responses has been described in situations as disparate as tumor growth, graft-vs-host disease, infection with recombinant vaccines and parasites, and treatment with cyclophosphamide and superantigens. The common feature in all these conditions is the recruitment of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to secondary lymphoid organs. Depletion and add-back experiments have demonstrated that in these situations, the Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells are both necessary and sufficient for suppression of T and B cell responses. Previous studies using bulk populations of MSC have provided insights into the immunosuppressive process but have not defined the properties of a single, well-defined cell type. In the current paper we have used cloned MSC lines (27) to examine the immunosuppressive mechanisms used by homogeneous populations of suppressor cells.. It is noteworthy that the cloned MSC are extremely potent inhibitors of T cell proliferation, but that inhibition, at least for the first 24 h, is ...
The researchers examined the patients peripheral blood immune profiles at baseline and after two and four treatment cycles, with CD3, CD4, CD8, NK (CD56), Treg (FOXP3), and myeloid-derived suppressor cell lymphocyte subpopulations assessed by using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis.The results showed that after treatment with nivolumab, 20 patients had a complete or partial response or stable disease, while 34 had progressive disease ...
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The tumor microenvironment is a complex milieu of tumor and host cells. Host cells can include tumor-reactive T cells capable of killing tumor cells. However, more frequently the tumor and host components interact to generate a highly immune suppressive environment that frustrates T cell cytotoxicity and promotes tumor progression through a variety of immune and non-immune mechanisms. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a major host component contributing to the immune suppressive environment. In addition to their inherent immune suppressive function, MDSC amplify the immune suppressive activity of macrophages and dendritic cells via cross-talk. This article will review the cell-cell interactions used by MDSC to inhibit anti-tumor immunity and promote progression, and the role of inflammation in promoting cross-talk between MDSC and other cells in the tumor microenvironment.
TAMPA, Fla. - Researchers at the Moffitt Cancer Center have found a potential mechanism by which immune suppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells can prevent immune response from developing in cancer. This mechanism includes silencing the tumor suppressor gene retinoblastoma 1 or Rb1. Their data explains a new regulatory mechanism by which myeloid-derived suppressor cells are expanded in cancer.. Their study appeared in a recent issue of Nature Immunology.. According to the authors, two kinds of myeloid-derived suppressor cells - monocytic M-MDSCs and granulocytic PMN-MDSCs - regulate immune responses in cancer and other conditions. In experiments with tumor-bearing mice, they discovered that M-MDSCs acquire some of the physical characteristics of PMN-MDSCs. Acquisition of the PMN-MDSCs characteristics, they found, was "mediated" by the silencing of Rb1 by modifications in a histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC-2), an enzyme decoded by the HDAC2 gene.. "Our findings demonstrate the function of a newly ...
The molecular chaperone alphaB-crystallin has emerged as a target for cancer therapy due to its expression in human tumors and its role in regulating tumor angiogenesis. alphaB-crystallin also reduces neuroinflammation, but its role in other inflammatory conditions has not been investigated. Here, we examined whether alphaB-crystallin regulates inflammation associated with tumors and ischemia. We found that CD45(+) leukocyte infiltration is 3-fold increased in tumors and ischemic myocardium in alphaB-crystallin-deficient mice. Notably, alphaB-crystallin is prominently expressed in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells (IMCs), known as regulators of angiogenesis and immune responses, while lymphocytes and mature granulocytes show low alphaB-crystallin expression. alphaB-Crystallin deficiency results in a 3-fold higher accumulation of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in tumors and a significant rise in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in spleen and bone marrow. Similarly, we noted a 2-fold increase in CD11b(+) ...
Inflammation plays a critical role in the development of severe neonatal morbidities. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were recently implicated in the regulation of immune responses in newborns. Here, we report that the presence of MDSCs and their functional activity in infants are closely associated with the maturity of newborns and the presence of lactoferrin (LF) in serum. Low amounts of MDSCs at birth predicted the development of severe pathology in preterm infants - necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In vitro treatment of newborn neutrophils and monocytes with LF converted these cells to MDSCs via the LRP2 receptor and activation of the NF-κB transcription factor. Decrease in the expression of LRP2 was responsible for the loss of sensitivity of adult myeloid cells to LF. LF-induced MDSCs (LF-MDSCs) were effective in the treatment of newborn mice with NEC, acting by blocking inflammation, resulting in increased survival. LF-MDSCs were more effective than treatment with LF protein ...
Inflammation plays a critical role in the development of severe neonatal morbidities. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were recently implicated in the regulation of immune responses in newborns. Here, we report that the presence of MDSCs and their functional activity in infants are closely associated with the maturity of newborns and the presence of lactoferrin (LF) in serum. Low amounts of MDSCs at birth predicted the development of severe pathology in preterm infants - necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In vitro treatment of newborn neutrophils and monocytes with LF converted these cells to MDSCs via the LRP2 receptor and activation of the NF-κB transcription factor. Decrease in the expression of LRP2 was responsible for the loss of sensitivity of adult myeloid cells to LF. LF-induced MDSCs (LF-MDSCs) were effective in the treatment of newborn mice with NEC, acting by blocking inflammation, resulting in increased survival. LF-MDSCs were more effective than treatment with LF protein ...
Inflammation plays a critical role in the development of severe neonatal morbidities. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were recently implicated in the regulation of immune responses in newborns. Here, we report that the presence of MDSCs and their functional activity in infants are closely associated with the maturity of newborns and the presence of lactoferrin (LF) in serum. Low amounts of MDSCs at birth predicted the development of severe pathology in preterm infants - necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In vitro treatment of newborn neutrophils and monocytes with LF converted these cells to MDSCs via the LRP2 receptor and activation of the NF-κB transcription factor. Decrease in the expression of LRP2 was responsible for the loss of sensitivity of adult myeloid cells to LF. LF-induced MDSCs (LF-MDSCs) were effective in the treatment of newborn mice with NEC, acting by blocking inflammation, resulting in increased survival. LF-MDSCs were more effective than treatment with LF protein ...
There has been a great deal of interest in the immunostimulatory properties of GM-CSF in autoimmune diseases and for immunotherapy in cancer (29, 30). More than 15 years ago, Dranoff and colleagues showed that GM-CSF, in the context of γ-irradiated tumor cells, elicits potent immune responses in a murine model of melanoma (22). This prompted the study of GM-CSF as an adjuvant to whole tumor, DNA, and peptide vaccination with promising results in a number of animal tumor models (23, 31-34). Similar strategies were safely carried out in early phase clinical trials and immune responses were elicited (35-38). However, in more recent randomized clinical trials, GM-CSF was found to have detrimental effects on both immune responses and clinical outcomes (5-7), a finding that may be related to the expansion of MDSCs. Several groups have observed that GM-CSF dose and duration of exposure may mediate MDSC expansion (16, 28, 39-42). However, a direct connection between MDSC expansion and the failings of ...
MDSC are important mediators of tumor-induced immunosuppression in pancreatic cancer. Inhibiting MDSC accumulation with zoledronic acid improves the host anti-tumor response in animal studies suggesting that efforts to block MDSC may represent a novel treatment strategy for pancreatic cancer.
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Mice and treatments. BALB-neuT mice were bred and maintained in the animal facility at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori, according to the national and institutional guidelines. Normal 8 to 10-week-old BALB/c, C57BL/6, and FVB mice were purchased from Charles River. F1 hybrids were obtained by mating BALB-neuT males with C57BL/6 or FVB females. The hemizygous transgenic females were identified by PCR performed at age 3 weeks ( 24).. MMP-9+/− mice on C57BL/6 background were kindly provided by Dr. Leif Lund (Panum Institute, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark) as N17 generation. They were backcrossed to BALB/c and the N6 generation, intercrossed to obtain either homozygous MMP-9−/− and heterozygous MMP-9+/− offspring to be used as bone marrow donors.. Zoledronate (Zometa; Novartis Europharm, Ltd.) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg or pamidronate (Faulding Pharmaceuticals) at a dose of 2 mg/kg were diluted in saline and administered daily s.c. 5 days a week. ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against human ITGAM. Dendritic cells derived from human monocytes. (MAB13801) - Products - Abnova
This is a Peco GR-505 OO9 Talyllyn Coach with BuffersCondition: Factory New (C-9)Operational Status: FunctionalOriginal Box: Yes (P-9)Manufacturer: PecoModel Number: GR-505MSRP: $55.49Scale/Era: Std Gauge ModernModel Type: Passenger CarsThe Trainz SKU for this item is P12258760. Track: 12258760 - No Location Assigned -
B lymphopoiesis declines with age, and this decline correlates with increased adipose tissue in the bone marrow (BM). Also, adipocyte-derived factors are known to inhibit B lymphopoiesis. Using cocultures of mouse BM cells with OP9 stromal cells, we found that adipocyte-conditioned medium induces the generation of CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid cells, which inhibit B cell development in vitro. Adipocyte-conditioned medium-induced CD11b+Gr1+ cells express Arg1 (arginase) and Nos2 (inducible NO synthase) and suppress CD4+ T cell proliferation, indicating that these cells are myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Blocking arginase and inducible NO synthase did not restore B lymphopoiesis, indicating that inhibition is not mediated by these molecules. Transwell and conditioned-medium experiments showed that MDSCs inhibit B lymphopoiesis via soluble factors, and by cytokine array we identified IL-1 as an important factor. Addition of anti-IL-1 Abs restored B lymphopoiesis in BM cultures containing MDSCs, ...
UNRAVELING MECHANISMS UNDERLYING MYELOID-DERIVED SUPPRESSOR CELL ORCHESTRATION OF OVARIAN CANCER PROGRESSION A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiology and Immunology by Kevin Matthew Hart DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Hanover, New Hampshire June 14th, 2011 Examining Committee: ____________________________ (Chair) Brent Berwin, Ph.D. ____________________________ James Gorham, M.D., Ph.D. ____________________________ Mary Jo Turk, Ph.D. ____________________________ ____________________________ James Talmadge, Ph.D. Brian W. Pogue, Ph.D. Dean of Graduate Studies ...
Background: Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a heterogeneous disease ranging from mainly skin-restricted manifestations (discoid LE [DLE] and subacute cutaneous LE) to a progressive multisystem disease (systemic LE [SLE]). Genetic association studies have recently identified several strong susceptibility genes for SLE, including integrin alpha M (ITGAM), also known as CD11b, whereas the genetic background of DLE is less clear. Principal Findings: To specifically investigate whether ITGAM is a susceptibility gene not only for SLE, but also for cutaneous DLE, we genotyped 177 patients with DLE, 85 patients with sporadic SLE, 190 index cases from SLE families and 395 population control individuals from Finland for nine genetic markers at the ITGAM locus. SLE patients were further subdivided by the presence or absence of discoid rash and renal involvement. In addition, 235 Finnish and Swedish patients positive for Ro/SSA-autoantibodies were included in a subphenotype analysis. Analysis of the ITGAM ...
article{7a1531c6-a64d-4441-8d85-f0b777c798d3, abstract = {We were the first to demonstrate that combined immunotherapy with GM-CSF producing GL261 cells and recombinant IFNgamma of preestablished GL261 gliomas could cure 90% of immunized mice. To extend these findings and to uncover the underlying mechanisms, the ensuing experiments were undertaken. We hypothesized that immunizations combining both GM-CSF and IFNgamma systemically would increase the number of immature myeloid cells, which then would mature and differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, thereby augmenting tumor antigen presentation and T-cell activation. Indeed, the combined therapy induced a systemic increase of both immature and mature myeloid cells but also an increase in T regulatory cells (T-regs). Cytotoxic anti-tumor responses, mirrored by an increase in Granzyme B-positive cells as well as IFNgamma-producing T-cells, were augmented after immunizations with GM-CSF and IFNgamma. We also show that the combined ...
In this study, we evaluated the nature of tumor-associated MDSC by comparing the phenotype and function of MDSC isolated from spleen and tumor sites from the same mice. It is known that MDSC can differentiate into MΦ and DC (Kusmartsev and Gabrilovich, 2003, 2005). Therefore, it was important to assure that we are indeed comparing cells with the same phenotype. We sorted MDSC based on the expression of Gr-1 and CD11b, two markers which are considered hallmarks of MDSC. MDSCs from the tumor site and spleen had similar morphology and phenotype. Expression of the macrophage cell marker F4/80 was slightly higher on tumor MDSC than on spleen cells. However, such rather minor phenotypic differences contrasted with profound differences in MDSC function. As was reported previously (Corzo et al., 2009), spleen MDSC contain a high level of ROS and a relatively modest level of NO and arginase I activity (although it was still elevated in comparison with Gr-1+CD11b+ cells from naive mice). In striking ...
Purpose: Before metastasis, primary tumor can create a premetastatic niche in distant organ to facilitate the dissemination of tumor cells. In the premetastatic phase, the permeability of pulmonary vasculatures is increased to accelerate the extravasation of circulating tumor cells. However, it is not clear whether local miRNAs contribute to the vascular hyperpermeability of the premetastatic niche. Experimental Design: The expression of total miRNAs was determined using microarray in series of premetastatic lungs from tumor-bearing mice. Significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and validated with qRT-PCR. Vascular permeability assays, vascular mimic systems, and orthotopic tumor models were used to investigate roles of selected miRNAs and target genes in premetastatic hyperpermeability. Results: We identified a miRNA signature in premetastatic lungs. Among these miRNAs, miR-30a, b, c, d and e were significantly attenuated. Subsequent investigations elucidated that lung ...
Multiple tumor-derived factors are responsible for the accumulation and expansion of immune suppressing myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in tumors. Here we show that treatment of tumor-bearing mice with docetaxel in combination with the phosphatidylserine (PS)-targeting antibody, 2aG4, potently suppressed the growth and progression of prostate tumors, and depleted M2-like TAMs and MDSCs and increased the presence of M1-like TAMs and mature dendritic cells in the tumors. In addition, the antibody markedly altered the cytokine balance in the tumor microenvironment from immunosuppressive to immunostimulatory. In vitro studies confirmed that 2aG4 re-polarized TAMs from an M2 to M1-like phenotype and drove MDSCs differentiating into M1-like TAMs and functional dendritic cells. These data suggest that PS is primarily responsible for expansion of MDSCs and M2-like TAMs in tumors, and that bavituximab, a PS-targeting antibody currently in cancer ...
Perform reliable qPCR with Bio-Rads pre-validated ITGAM primer pair, for the Dog genome. Designed for SYBR Green-based detection.
Perform reliable qPCR with Bio-Rads pre-validated Itgam primer pair, for the Mouse genome. Designed for SYBR Green-based detection.
Thymosin α1 (Tα1) has been tested for cancer therapy for several years, in most cases, the anti-tumor effect of Tα1 was limited, especially when Tα1 was used as a single agent. The role of Tα1 in cancer treatment and the regulatory mechanisms by which Ta1 takes effects are not yet completely understood. Using a Lewis lung caner model, here we report that Tα1 used alone elevated CD8(+) T cells, but failed to inhibit tumor growth. Furthermore, immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) showed heightened Arginase 1 production in response to Tα1 treatment, which led to stronger suppression of anti-tumor immunity ...
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) certainly are a main element of the immune system suppressive network defined in cancer and several additional pathological conditions. tumor-free mice. Manifestation of NOX2 subunits in MDSC was managed by the STAT3 transcription element. In the lack of NOX2 activity MDSC dropped the capability to suppress T-cell reactions and quickly differentiated Read More. ...
Rho GTPases are overexpressed and hyperactivated in human breast cancers. Deficiency of p190B RhoGAP, a major inhibitor of the Rho GTPases, inhibits mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV)-Neu/ErbB2 mammary tumor formation and progression in part through effects within the stromal environment, suggesting that p190B function is pro-tumorigenic. To further investigate the potential pro-tumorigenic actions of p190B, we examined the effects of exogenous p190B expression within the mammary epithelium on MMTV-Neu tumor formation and progression. Tetracycline (tet)-regulatable p190B transgenic mice were bred to MMTV-Neu mice, and the effects of exogenous p190B expression on tumor latency, multiplicity, growth rates, angiogenesis, and metastasis were examined. The effects of exogenous p190B expression on cell-matrix adhesion and invasion were tested using non-transformed primary mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Rho GTPase activity, oxidative stress as an indicator of reactive oxygen species (ROS)
Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous inflammatory disease. Many environmental factors and immune cells are responsible for asthma, making its pathogenesis complex. Apart from the Th2 response in asthma, Th1, Th17, Treg, and other innate immune cells, including MDSCs, are involved in the pathological response of asthma. Thus, understanding the heterogeneity of pathogenesis of asthma may offer new therapeutic strategies for this severe public problem [6].. In the present study, asthmatic mice showed increased Th2 and Th17 cells and decreased Th1 and Treg cells, which is consistent with a previous study [22]. Apart from the Th cell subset, MDSCs were also increased in asthmatic mice. MDSCs have been reported to participate in the inflammatory response in autoimmunity and cancer through regulating innate and adaptive immune responses [23]. Asthma is a chronic airway inflammation elicited by various cells and mediators. Thus, increased MDSCs may also contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma. These ...
Here, we provide the first evidence of TLR9+ granulocytic MDSCs that accumulate in prostate cancer patients in correlation with disease progression. We also document that these prostate cancer-associated G-MDSCs require high levels of immunosuppressive STAT3 signaling and Arginase-1 activity protein for suppressing effector T-cell activity. While our results are based on limited number of patients, pSTAT3-positive granulocytic cells were consistently found not only in blood but also patients prostatectomy specimens. Finally, we suggest therapeutic strategy for the functional elimination of G-MDSCs using CpG oligonucleotide-mediated delivery of STAT3 siRNA into these TLR9+ myeloid cells. Overall, our findings indicate new and potentially safer therapeutic approach to mitigate immunosuppression in prostate cancer patients using gene- and cell type-specific inhibitory oligonucleotides.. The relevance of these results for human cancer therapy is underscored by the lack of clinically relevant ...
Expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) has been documented in some murine models and patients with autoimmune diseases, but the exact role of MDSCs in this process remains largely unknown. The current study investigates this question in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients with active SLE showed a significant increase in HLA-DR−CD11b+CD33+ MDSCs, including both CD14+CD66b− monocytic and CD14−CD66b+ granulocytic MDSCs, in the peripheral blood compared to healthy controls (HCs). The frequency of MDSCs was positively correlated with the levels of serum arginase-1 (Arg-1) activity, T helper 17 (TH17) responses, and disease severity in SLE patients. Consistently, in comparison with MDSCs from HCs, MDSCs from SLE patients exhibited significantly elevated Arg-1 production and increased potential to promote TH17 differentiation in vitro in an Arg-1-dependent manner. Moreover, in a humanized SLE model, MDSCs were essential for the induction of TH17 responses and ...
This study is aiming to determine whether administration of tretinoin, a myeloid-derived suppressor cell inhibitor, with a wild-type p53-transduced cancer
The latest issue of the Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology systematically reviewed the clinical relevancy of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and their relationship with clinical features, and prognosis of GI malignancies in patients with GI cancers ...
Our results suggest that elevated levels of VEGFR1 in benign nodal tissue collected at the time of prostatectomy predict biochemical recurrence. These findings support the preclinical observation that VEGFR1-overexpressing cells may contribute to formation of the premetastatic niche and offer validation to previous results in a similar series reported by Fujita and colleagues (8). Presumably, abrogation of VEGFR1-mediated signaling could lead to diminution of the premetastatic niche and improve clinical outcome. We performed a randomized phase II study assessing preoperative axitinib, a potent inhibitor of VEGFR1, to test this hypothesis. Though our study suggested the safety and feasibility of axitinib in this setting, enrollment was insufficient to evaluate modulation of the premetastatic niche.. Our retrospective data differ from that of Fujita and colleagues in that our study population was enriched for patients with high-risk, localized disease, as per NCCN criteria. As such, a larger ...
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Few diseases do not produce some alteration in the blood, and changes in the blood may give the first indication of many nonhaematological disorders.Malignant disease can cause protean haematological manifestations, including (1) leucoerythroblastic anaemia-the appearance of immature myeloid cells and nucleated red cells is a common phenomenon in disseminated malignancy, and occasionally there is a leukaemoid reaction; (2) anaemia of chronic disorders-see ...
Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase. Penetration into host cells.: Exposure of Chinese hamster ovary, mouse adrenal cortex tumor (Y-1), THP-1 and U-937 cells
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are expanded in tumor microenvironments, including that of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The link between MDSC expansion and EBV infection in NPC is unclear. Here, we show that EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) promotes MDSC expansion in the tumor microenvironment by promoting extra-mitochondrial glycolysis in malignant cells, which is a scenario for immune escape initially suggested by the frequent, concomitant detection of abundant LMP1, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and CD33+ MDSCs in tumor sections. The full process has been reconstituted in vitro. LMP1 promotes the expression of multiple glycolytic genes, including GLUT1. This metabolic reprogramming results in increased expression of the Nod-like receptor family protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, COX-2 and P-p65 and, consequently, increased production of IL-1β, IL-6 and GM-CSF. Finally, these changes in the environment of malignant cells result in enhanced ...
ECCO - European Crohn´s and Colitis Organisation. The European Crohn\s and Colitis Organisation is a highly active non-profit association focusing on Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD).
Two vaccines expressing Compact disc4+ and Compact disc8+ Testosterone levels cell epitopes of MAAs by a chimpanzee-derived replication-defective AdC68 vector were compared in a mouse model of most cancers. in existence of gD are much less vulnerable to tumor-driven fatigue. Intro Actually tumor vaccines that are extremely immunogenic in pet versions frequently fail to offer benefits to individuals with advanced malignancies (1, 2). This offers partly been connected to the extremely immunosuppressive growth microenvironment, which states immunoinhibitory ligands (3), employees suppressive cell subsets such as regulatory Capital t cells (4) and myeloid suppressor cells (5) and provides a metabolically pressured milieu (6). Biologicals that stop immunoinhibitory paths such as antibodies to PD-1 (7, 8) or CTLA-4 (9) Amyloid b-peptide (42-1) (human) manufacture or both (10, 11) are becoming examined only or in mixture with energetic immunotherapy in tumor individuals and possess produced ...
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) accumulate within tumors and inhibit antitumor immune responses. However, the effects of tumor-induced stress responses on MDSC function remain unclear. Thevenot and colleagues found that expression of the cellular stress sensor C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) was increased in tumor-infiltrating MDSCs compared with other immune cell types. Stromal deletion of CHOP or generation of CHOP-deficient bone marrow chimeras reduced tumor growth in mice, suggesting a role for CHOP in the promotion of tumor growth. CHOP-deficient MDSCs exhibited enhanced accumulation in tumors, increased proliferation, and decreased apoptosis compared with wild-type MDSCs. In addition, CHOP deletion diminished the capacity of tumor-infiltrating MDSCs to inhibit activated T-cell proliferation and IFNγ production and resulted in reduced levels of molecules essential for MDSC activity. Moreover, CHOP-deficient MDSCs failed to induce T-cell tolerance in vivo and induced antitumor ...
This study investigated potential canine-specific markers for identifying MDSCs in the peripheral blood of dogs with cancer. We began our studies by first identifying potential phenotypic markers that could be used for identifying canine MDSCs. Prototypic MDSC phenotypic markers have been reported as CD11b+/CD33+/HLDRlow in humans and CD11b+/Gr-1+ in mice [1]. In humans, CD15 (granulocytic) and CD14 (monocytic) identify subpopulations of these cells while, in mice, CD11b+Ly6G+ and CD11b+Ly6C+ cells identify these cells as either granulocytic or monocytic, respectively. Unfortunately, the lack of readily available commercial canine antibodies has limited the identification of MDSCs and MDSC subsets in dogs.. CD11b, an integrin, is found on a variety of cells of myeloid origin and has been used as one phenotypic marker of MDSCs present in the mouse and man. In the dog, CD11b in known to be a marker of cells of myeloid origin, most specifically neutrophils [23]. There is a commercially available ...
article{6219b765-8741-4000-9f89-7211580ba803, title = {Membrane-associated Hsp72 from tumor-derived exosomes mediates STAT3-dependent immunosuppressive function of mouse and human myeloid-derived suppressor cells}, author = {Chalmin, Fanny and Ladoire, Sylvain and Mignot, Gregoire and Bruchard, Melanie and Remy-Martin, Jean-Paul and Boireau, Wilfrid and Rouleau, Alain and Lanneau, David and De Thonel, Aur\{e}lie and Multhoff, Gabriele and Hamman, Arlette and Martin, Fran\c{c}ois and Chauffert, Bruno and Solary, Eric and Zitvogel, Laurence and Garrido, Carmen and Ryffel, Bernhard and Borg, Christophe and Apetoh, Lionel and R\{e}b\{e}, C\{e}dric and Ghiringhelli, Fran\c{c}ois }, year = {2010}, month = {feb}, number = {2}, pages = {457 - 471}, volume = {120}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1172%2FJCI40483}, journal = {The Journal of Clinical Investigation}, publisher = {American Society for Clinical Investigation ...
article{6219b765-8741-4000-9f89-7211580ba803, title = {Membrane-associated Hsp72 from tumor-derived exosomes mediates STAT3-dependent immunosuppressive function of mouse and human myeloid-derived suppressor cells}, author = {Chalmin, Fanny and Ladoire, Sylvain and Mignot, Gregoire and Bruchard, Melanie and Remy-Martin, Jean-Paul and Boireau, Wilfrid and Rouleau, Alain and Lanneau, David and De Thonel, Aur\{e}lie and Multhoff, Gabriele and Hamman, Arlette and Martin, Fran\c{c}ois and Chauffert, Bruno and Solary, Eric and Zitvogel, Laurence and Garrido, Carmen and Ryffel, Bernhard and Borg, Christophe and Apetoh, Lionel and R\{e}b\{e}, C\{e}dric and Ghiringhelli, Fran\c{c}ois }, year = {2010}, month = {feb}, number = {2}, pages = {457 - 471}, volume = {120}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1172%2FJCI40483}, journal = {The Journal of Clinical Investigation}, publisher = {American Society for Clinical Investigation ...
Tumor exosomes mediated immunosuppression: One of my main basic science research focuses has been to understand the mechanisms by which tumor cells communicate with immune cells via tumor exosomes. My laboratory has made several fundamental discoveries that involve the role of tumor exosomes in immunosuppression and in metastasis. My group was the first to present findings that showed tumor exosome-mediated blocking of IL-2-mediated activation of NK cells and their cytotoxic response to tumor cells. Subsequently, my group showed that tumor exosomes not only inhibit differentiation of bone marrow dendritic cells, but also induce myeloid-derived suppressor cells in a Myd88 dependent manner. Tumor microenvironmental factors play a crucial role in the potency of tumor exosome-mediated induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs ...
We report that human conventional CD15 + neutrophils can be isolated in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) layer during Ficoll gradient separation, and that they can impair T cell proliferation in vitro without concomitant neutrophil activation and killing. This effect was observed in a total of 92 patients with organ transplants, lung cancer or anxiety/depression, and in 18 healthy donors. Although such features are typically associated in the literature with the presence of certain myeloid-derived suppressor cell (PMN-MDSC) populations, we found that commercial centrifuge tubes that contained membranes or gels for PBMC isolation led to up to 70% PBMC contamination by CD15 + neutrophils, with subsequent suppressive effects in certain cellular assays ...
Ly-6G (Gr-1), clone: RB6-8C5, eBioscience™ 100μg; Unconjugated Ly-6G (Gr-1), clone: RB6-8C5, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies L
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Methods: : To detect Myo3A in mouse retina we raised an antibody against a region of the protein encoded by exon 30. Myo3B in the mouse retina was detected using an antibody against the tail domain of the protein. Myo3A and Myo3B were localized in adult retinas by immunocytochemistry (ICC) on paraformaldehyde-fixed frozen sections. Myo3B sections were boiled in sodium citrate for epitope unmasking. Other antibodies used were directed against melanopsin, rhodopsin, and tyrosine hydroxylase. Results: : Both Myo3A and Myo3B are present in the IS of photoreceptors; however their distribution differs. Myo3B is present throughout the IS whereas Myo3A is present only in the outer portion of the IS. Also, while Myo3B is present in the OS of blue cones, no Myo3A immunoreactivity was detected in OS. In the ACL Myo3B was present in a subpopulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (ir) amacrine cells and some Myo3B-positive cells were not TH-ir. Similarly, in the GCL Myo3B was present in a ...
Methods We studied 248 patients fulfilling the 1997 ACR revised criteria for SLE. SLE-associated ITGAM SNP alleles were identified using custom-designed Immunochip arrays and gPLINK 1.062 software, with Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons. Associations of SLE-related ITGAM SNPs with SLE subphenotypes (malar or discoid rash, serositis, mouth ulcers, arthritis, haematological, renal or neurological involvement) and autoantibodies to dsDNA, Ro, RNP or Sm were determined with chi-square and Fishers tests and logistic regression. ...
Impaired lymphangiogenesis is a complication of chronic complex diseases, including diabetes. VEGF-C/VEGFR3 signaling promotes lymphangiogenesis, but how this pathway is affected in diabetes remains poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that loss of epsins 1 and 2 in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) prevented VEGF-C-induced VEGFR3 from endocytosis and degradation. Here, we report that diabetes attenuated VEGF-C-induced lymphangiogenesis in corneal micropocket and Matrigel plug assays in WT mice but not in mice with inducible lymphatic-specific deficiency of epsins 1 and 2 (LEC-iDKO). Consistently, LECs isolated from diabetic LEC-iDKO mice elevated in vitro proliferation, migration, and tube formation in response to VEGF-C over diabetic WT mice. Mechanistically, ROS produced in diabetes induced c-Src-dependent but VEGF-C-independent VEGFR3 phosphorylation, and upregulated epsins through the activation of transcription factor AP-1. Augmented epsins bound to and promoted degradation of ...
Tumors are capable of coopting hematopoietic cells to create a suitable microenvironment to support malignant growth. Here, we have demonstrated that upregulation of kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), also known as VEGFR2, in a myeloid cell sublineage is necessary for malignant progression of gliomas in transgenic murine models and is associated with high-grade tumors in patients. KDR expression increased in myeloid cells as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulated, which was associated with the transformation and progression of low-grade fibrillary astrocytoma to high-grade anaplastic gliomas. KDR deficiency in murine BM-derived cells (BMDCs) suppressed the differentiation of myeloid lineages and reduced granulocytic/monocytic populations. The depletion of myeloid-derived KDR compromised its proangiogenic function, which inhibited the angiogenic switch necessary for malignant progression of low-grade to high-grade tumors. We also identified inhibitor of DNA binding protein 2 (ID2) ...
Tumors are capable of coopting hematopoietic cells to create a suitable microenvironment to support malignant growth. Here, we have demonstrated that upregulation of kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), also known as VEGFR2, in a myeloid cell sublineage is necessary for malignant progression of gliomas in transgenic murine models and is associated with high-grade tumors in patients. KDR expression increased in myeloid cells as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulated, which was associated with the transformation and progression of low-grade fibrillary astrocytoma to high-grade anaplastic gliomas. KDR deficiency in murine BM-derived cells (BMDCs) suppressed the differentiation of myeloid lineages and reduced granulocytic/monocytic populations. The depletion of myeloid-derived KDR compromised its proangiogenic function, which inhibited the angiogenic switch necessary for malignant progression of low-grade to high-grade tumors. We also identified inhibitor of DNA binding protein 2 (ID2) ...
Tumors are capable of coopting hematopoietic cells to create a suitable microenvironment to support malignant growth. Here, we have demonstrated that upregulation of kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), also known as VEGFR2, in a myeloid cell sublineage is necessary for malignant progression of gliomas in transgenic murine models and is associated with high-grade tumors in patients. KDR expression increased in myeloid cells as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulated, which was associated with the transformation and progression of low-grade fibrillary astrocytoma to high-grade anaplastic gliomas. KDR deficiency in murine BM-derived cells (BMDCs) suppressed the differentiation of myeloid lineages and reduced granulocytic/monocytic populations. The depletion of myeloid-derived KDR compromised its proangiogenic function, which inhibited the angiogenic switch necessary for malignant progression of low-grade to high-grade tumors. We also identified inhibitor of DNA binding protein 2 (ID2) ...
Tumors are capable of coopting hematopoietic cells to create a suitable microenvironment to support malignant growth. Here, we have demonstrated that upregulation of kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), also known as VEGFR2, in a myeloid cell sublineage is necessary for malignant progression of gliomas in transgenic murine models and is associated with high-grade tumors in patients. KDR expression increased in myeloid cells as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulated, which was associated with the transformation and progression of low-grade fibrillary astrocytoma to high-grade anaplastic gliomas. KDR deficiency in murine BM-derived cells (BMDCs) suppressed the differentiation of myeloid lineages and reduced granulocytic/monocytic populations. The depletion of myeloid-derived KDR compromised its proangiogenic function, which inhibited the angiogenic switch necessary for malignant progression of low-grade to high-grade tumors. We also identified inhibitor of DNA binding protein 2 (ID2) ...
Tumors are capable of coopting hematopoietic cells to create a suitable microenvironment to support malignant growth. Here, we have demonstrated that upregulation of kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), also known as VEGFR2, in a myeloid cell sublineage is necessary for malignant progression of gliomas in transgenic murine models and is associated with high-grade tumors in patients. KDR expression increased in myeloid cells as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulated, which was associated with the transformation and progression of low-grade fibrillary astrocytoma to high-grade anaplastic gliomas. KDR deficiency in murine BM-derived cells (BMDCs) suppressed the differentiation of myeloid lineages and reduced granulocytic/monocytic populations. The depletion of myeloid-derived KDR compromised its proangiogenic function, which inhibited the angiogenic switch necessary for malignant progression of low-grade to high-grade tumors. We also identified inhibitor of DNA binding protein 2 (ID2) ...
Tumors are capable of coopting hematopoietic cells to create a suitable microenvironment to support malignant growth. Here, we have demonstrated that upregulation of kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), also known as VEGFR2, in a myeloid cell sublineage is necessary for malignant progression of gliomas in transgenic murine models and is associated with high-grade tumors in patients. KDR expression increased in myeloid cells as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulated, which was associated with the transformation and progression of low-grade fibrillary astrocytoma to high-grade anaplastic gliomas. KDR deficiency in murine BM-derived cells (BMDCs) suppressed the differentiation of myeloid lineages and reduced granulocytic/monocytic populations. The depletion of myeloid-derived KDR compromised its proangiogenic function, which inhibited the angiogenic switch necessary for malignant progression of low-grade to high-grade tumors. We also identified inhibitor of DNA binding protein 2 (ID2) ...
Tumors are capable of coopting hematopoietic cells to create a suitable microenvironment to support malignant growth. Here, we have demonstrated that upregulation of kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), also known as VEGFR2, in a myeloid cell sublineage is necessary for malignant progression of gliomas in transgenic murine models and is associated with high-grade tumors in patients. KDR expression increased in myeloid cells as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulated, which was associated with the transformation and progression of low-grade fibrillary astrocytoma to high-grade anaplastic gliomas. KDR deficiency in murine BM-derived cells (BMDCs) suppressed the differentiation of myeloid lineages and reduced granulocytic/monocytic populations. The depletion of myeloid-derived KDR compromised its proangiogenic function, which inhibited the angiogenic switch necessary for malignant progression of low-grade to high-grade tumors. We also identified inhibitor of DNA binding protein 2 (ID2) ...
Focal therapies play an important role in the treatment of cancers where palliation is desired, local control is needed, or surgical resection is not feasible. Pairing immunotherapy with such focal treatments is particularly attractive; however, there is emerging evidence that focal therapy can have a positive or negative impact on the efficacy of immunotherapy. Thermal ablation is an appealing modality to pair with such protocols, as tumors can be rapidly debulked (cell death occurring within minutes to hours), tumor antigens can be released locally, and treatment can be conducted and repeated without the concerns of radiation-based therapies. In a syngeneic model of epithelial cancer, we found that 7 days of immunotherapy (TLR9 agonist and checkpoint blockade), prior to thermal ablation, reduced macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells and enhanced IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells, the M1 macrophage fraction, and PD-L1 expression on CD45+ cells. Continued treatment with immunotherapy ...
The foam cells of monocyte/macrophage origin are positive for KP1, HAM56, CD11b and CD68 as pointed out by Nakashiro et al. in ... Macrophages and T lymphocytes demonstrated a marked expression of HLA-DR antigen. A delayed type hypersensitivity reaction of ...
Integrin alphaM at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... In histopathology, immunohistochemistry with antibodies against CD11B is frequently used to identify macrophages and microglia ... CD11B). The second chain of αMβ2 is the common integrin β2 subunit known as CD18, and integrin αMβ2 thus belongs to the β2 ... also known as macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) or complement receptor 3 (CR3). ITGAM is also known as CR3A, and cluster of ...
The ALCAT test, or antigen leukocyte antibody test, is one that claims to measure adverse reactions to dietary substances. ... "Food Reactivity on the ALCAT Leukocyte Activation Test Is Associated with Upregulation of CD11b on T Cells (PDF Download ... Research conducted in 2014 demonstrated reactions identified as "severe" were associated with the up-regulation of CD11b on ... antigen leukocyte cellular antibody test)]. Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego. 2 (8): 154-9 ...
CD11b/CD18) present on macrophages that is also called Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) and αmβ2 integrin. CD11c/CD18 also called ... For example, LFA1 (CD11a/CD18) short representation of Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen 1, also called αLβ2 integrin Mac1 ...
It is the beta subunit of four different structures: LFA-1 (paired with CD11a) Macrophage-1 antigen (paired with CD11b) ... CD18 antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGB2 Info with links in the Cell Migration ... Huang C, Springer TA (August 1995). "A binding interface on the I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) ...
In host cells expressing the CD11b/CD18 integrin receptor (macrophage-1 antigen, αMβ2 integrin), CyaA binds the αMβ2 integrin ...
... antigens, cd11 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.111.024 --- antigens, cd11a MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.111.049 --- antigens, cd11b MeSH ... antigens, cd11 MeSH D23.101.100.110.111.024 --- antigens, cd11a MeSH D23.101.100.110.111.049 --- antigens, cd11b MeSH D23.101. ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...
The granulomatous tissue largely comprises foam cells of monocyte/macrophage origin positive for KP1, HAM56, CD11b and CD68. ... Macrophages and lymphocytes show marked expression of HLA-DR antigen. Arguably XO is the bone localization of the ...
Mouse pDC express CD11c, B220, BST-2/Tetherin (mPDCA) and Siglec-H and are negative for CD11b. As components of the innate ... blood-derived dendritic cell antigen-2 (BDCA-2), Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR9 within endosomal compartments, but do not ...
CD18 Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Integrin alphaXbeta2 (CR4) - Heterodimer: CD11c / CD18 Very late ... Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... ITGB3 Fibrinogen receptor Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Fibronectin receptor: Integrin alpha2beta1 ... CD11b) AV AX (CD11c) Beta subunits B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 Dimers Cytoadhesin receptor Integrin alpha6beta4 Glycoprotein IIb/ ...
... (or integrin αMβ2 or macrophage integrin or Mac-1) is a complement receptor ("CR3") consisting of CD11b ( ... CR3 CD11b/CD18 Macrophage 1 antigen (Mac-1) Macrophage Todd R (1996). "The continuing saga of complement receptor type 3 (CR3 ... Wagner C, Hänsch GM, Stegmaier S, Denefleh B, Hug F, Schoels M (April 2001). "The complement receptor 3, CR3 (CD11b/CD18), on T ... Macrophage-1 antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
... making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen presenting cells. Notably, most B1 cells do not develop into memory B ... Ghosn EE, Yang Y, Tung J, Herzenberg LA, Herzenberg LA (2008). "CD11b expression distinguishes sequential stages of peritoneal ... Hence, there appears to be a role for self or foreign antigen in shaping the repertoire of the B-1 B cell compartment. B1 B ... These studies indicate preexisting subset differences in B cell receptor (BCR) specificity and antigen-driven B cell fate that ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ... "Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ... Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ... In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11.[5] CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
... antigens[edit]. There are five (HNA 1-5) sets of neutrophil antigens recognized.[49] The three HNA-1 antigens (a-c) ... HNA-4 is located on the αM chain (CD11b) and HNA-5 is located on the αL integrin unit (CD11a). ... The HNA-3 antigen system has two antigens (3a and 3b) which are located on the seventh exon of the CLT2 gene (SLC44A2). The HNA ... and HNA-5 antigen systems each have two known antigens (a and b) and are located in the β2 integrin. ...
The MZ B cells are especially well positioned as a first line of defense against systemic blood-borne antigens that enter the ... and CD11b that help to distinguish them phenotypically from follicular (FO) B cells and B1 B cells. In humans the splenic ... It is believed they are especially reactive to bacterial cell wall components and self-antigens which are the products of aging ...
In terms of expression markers, islet macrophages are positive for; F4/80, CD11b, CD11c, MHC-II, CD64, CD68, LyzM (lysozyme), ... The islet resident macrophage was first identified in 1979 as an antigen-presenting cell (APC), which expresses major ... Calderon, B (2014). "The Central Role of Antigen Presentation in Islets of Langerhans in Autoimmune Diabetes". Curr Opin ... Hume, DA (1984). "The mononuclear phagocyte system of the mouse defined by immunohistochemical localization of antigen F4/80: ...
Eventually, the antigen presentation results in the production of antibodies that attach to the antigens of pathogens, making ... CD11b, CD64, F4/80 (mice)/EMR1 (human), lysozyme M, MAC-1/MAC-3 and CD68. Macrophages were first discovered by Élie Metchnikoff ... the antigen is endocytosed and processed. The processed antigen is then presented in MHCII on the surface of the B-cell. T ... The antigen presentation on the surface of infected macrophages (in the context of MHC class II) in a lymph node stimulates TH1 ...
It was originally named theta (θ) antigen, then Thy-1 (THYmocyte differentiation antigen 1) due to its prior identification in ... It has been shown to interact with the leukocyte integrin Mac1 (CD11b/CD18) and may play a role in leukocyte homing and ... The antigen Thy-1 was the first T cell marker to be identified. Thy-1 was discovered by Reif and Allen in 1964 during a search ... "The AKR thymic antigen and its distribution in leukemias and nervous tissue". J. Exp. Med. 120: 413-433. doi:10.1084/jem.120.3. ...
CD11b. Bibliografía[editar , editar a fonte]. *. Stewart M, Thiel M, Hogg N (1996). "Leukocyte integrins.". Curr. Opin. Cell ... Human CD Antigen Chart. *ITGAX Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway ... 1995). "CD23 regulates monocyte activation through a novel interaction with the adhesion molecules CD11b-CD18 and CD11c-CD18 ...
It binds to integrins of type CD11a / CD18, or CD11b / CD18 and is also exploited by rhinovirus as a receptor. ICAM-1 is a ... Katz FE, Parkar M, Stanley K, Murray LJ, Clark EA, Greaves MF (Jan 1985). "Chromosome mapping of cell membrane antigens ... Huang C, Springer TA (Aug 1995). "A binding interface on the I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) ... Lebedeva T, Dustin ML, Sykulev Y (Jun 2005). "ICAM-1 co-stimulates target cells to facilitate antigen presentation". Current ...
Mast cell differentiation antigens: expression in normal and malignant cells and use for diagnostic purposes". Eur. J. Clin. ... Characteristically, basophil (e.g. CD11b, CD123) and monocyte markers (CD14, CD15) are absent. The cells usually express CD2 ...
Murao S, Collart FR, Huberman E (1989). "A protein containing the cystic fibrosis antigen is an inhibitor of protein kinases". ... Results in Reduced Interleukin-8-Induced CD11b Surface Expression, a Polarized Microfilament System, and Diminished ...
1996). "CD88 antibodies specifically bind to C5aR on dermal CD117+ and CD14+ cells and react with a desmosomal antigen in human ... CR1 - CR2 - CR3 - CR4 - CD11b/CD11c/CD18 - Anafilatoksin (C3a, C5a). M: LMC ...
Antigens, CD11b. A CD Antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 ...
CD11b" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Antigens, CD11b" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Antigens, CD11b" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD11b" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Antigens, CD11b". ...
Integrin alpha-M (CD11b, ΜΑC-1, OX-42 Antigen). Price: $399 Catalog #: MAC. Data Sheet (PDF) ...
It combines with the CD18 antigen (integrin β2 subunit) to build the integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18, αMβ2, CR3, iC3bR, Mo-1). CD11b ... The CD11b antigen is also known as the integrin αM subunit. ... CD11b Antigen. The CD11b antigen is also known as the integrin ... It combines with the CD18 antigen (integrin β2 subunit) to build the integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18, αMβ2, CR3, iC3bR, Mo-1). CD11b ... Expression of the CD11b chain on the cell surface requires the presence of the CD18 antigen (also known as β2 integrin chain). ...
PDL2+ CD11b+ dermal dendritic cells capture topical antigen through hair follicles to prime LAP+ Tregs *Leticia Tordesillas ... Rights & permissionsfor article PDL2,sup,+,/sup, CD11b,sup,+,/sup, dermal dendritic cells capture topical antigen through hair ...
CD11b is a 170 kD glycoprotein also known as αM integrin, Mac-1 α subunit, Mol, CR3, and Ly-40. ... Antigen References 1. Barclay A, et al. 1997. The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook Academic Press.. 2. Springer TA. 1994. Cell 76: ... CD11b is a 170 kD glycoprotein also known as αM integrin, Mac-1 α subunit, Mol, CR3, and Ly-40. CD11b is a member of the ... Antigen Details Structure Integrin family, associates with integrin β2 (CD18), 170 kD Distribution Granulocytes, monocytes/ ...
CD11b is a 170 kD glycoprotein also known as αM integrin, Mac-1 α subunit, Mol, CR3, and Ly-40. ... Antigen References 1. Barclay A, et al. 1997. The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook Academic Press.. 2. Springer TA. 1994. Cell 76: ... CD11b is a 170 kD glycoprotein also known as αM integrin, Mac-1 α subunit, Mol, CR3, and Ly-40. CD11b is a member of the ... 3 reviews PerCP anti-mouse/human CD11b Antibody Rated 4,3 / 5 based on 3 reviews. , Review Me Product Citations publications ...
Detection of the CD11b antigen. Mouse anti-human CD11b-PC5 antibody (10 μl) was added to a 100 μl cell suspension (∼5×105 cells ... The expression of the CD11b antigen was detected by flow cytometry (FC500, Beckman Coulter). ... The myeloid differentiation antigen CD11b was measured by flow cytometry in NB4 cells after treatment with MLN4924 (40 nM) for ... MLN4924 promotes the expression of CD11b and enhances ATRA induced differentiation of NB4 cells. (A) ...
CD11b, Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and Fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1), 5-d-4 antigen; Schwann cell markers: Schwann cell myelin protein ... Phage expressing an antigen binding domain that binds the antigen of interest can be selected or identified with antigen, e.g ... ELISAs comprise preparing antigen (i.e. neural biomarker), coating the well of a 96 well microtiter plate with the antigen, ... CD11b, Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and Fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1), 5-d-4 antigen; Schwann cell markers: Schwann cell myelin protein ...
CD11b-AF700 (clone M1/70; BioLegend), pan-NK-Pacific Blue (clone DX5; BioLegend), CD3-PE-Cy5 (clone 145-2C11; BD Pharmingen), ... Antigen expression determines adenoviral vaccine potency independent of IFN and STING signaling. Kylie M. Quinn,1 Daniel E. Zak ... Prior studies have shown that certain rAds can differ with respect to antigen (Ag) expression levels in vivo and their innate ... Type-I IFN signaling is required for the induction of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses by adenovirus vector vaccine in ...
... and have a significant up-regulation of genes that are critical for antigen presentation. Furthermore, we found that Ccl17, ... and have a significant up-regulation of genes that are critical for antigen presentation. Furthermore, we found that Ccl17, ... Ly6Chi monocytes migrate into the CNS and further differentiate into antigen-presenting cells (APCs) during disease progression ... Ly6Chi monocytes migrate into the CNS and further differentiate into antigen-presenting cells (APCs) during disease progression ...
The CD11b (or macrophage-1 antigen; MAC-1) subunit of the leukocyte integrin family forms a noncovalently associated ... To study the regulation of CD11b expression, a genomic clone corresponding to the 5 region of the CD11b gene was isolated from ... Identification of the promoter of the myelomonocytic leukocyte integrin CD11b. D D Hickstein, D M Baker, K A Gollahon, A L Back ... Identification of the promoter of the myelomonocytic leukocyte integrin CD11b. D D Hickstein, D M Baker, K A Gollahon, A L Back ...
White cell differentiation antigens. W. Knapp, and B. Dörken, and W. R. Gilks, and E. P. Rieber, and R. E. Schmidt, and H. ... Surface expression of CD11b and CD18 of imMDCs and maMDCs at day 7. Shaded histograms represent the binding of CD11b- and CD18- ... The key role of CR3 in efficient uptake of opsonized HIV by imMDCs was proven by inhibition with CD11b-specific mAbs. We also ... Briefly, 5 × 104 cells were washed with 1% BSA-0,1% NaN3-PBS and incubated with Abs reacting with CD80, CD86, CD83, CD11b, ...
Antigen Expression MAC-1 (CD11b) +; MAC-2 +; Fc receptor (FcR) +; Ly-5 +; Thy-1 -; Lyt-1 - ... They are phagocytic, non-specific esterase positive and they express macrophage Mac-1 antigens and Fc receptors. ... MAC-1 (CD11b) +; MAC-2 +; Fc receptor (FcR) +; Ly-5 +; Thy-1 -; Lyt-1 - ... They are phagocytic, non-specific esterase positive and they express macrophage Mac-1 antigens and Fc receptors. ...
Antigens, CD11b / metabolism. Bromodeoxyuridine / metabolism. Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Cell Proliferation*. ... 0/Aif1 protein, rat; 0/Antigens, CD11b; 0/Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0/Nerve Tissue Proteins; 59-14-3/Bromodeoxyuridine ...
Antigens, CD11b / analysis. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / cytology. Endotoxins / pharmacology. L-Selectin / analysis. ... 0/Antigens, CD11b; 0/Endotoxins; 0/Lipopolysaccharides; 126880-86-2/L-Selectin; 67924-63-4/endotoxin, Escherichia coli; EC 1.11 ... MV and MV + HS rats had more blood neutrophils with CD62L(bright)/CD11b(dim) phenotypes, whereas MV + LPS rats showed more ... In addition, the expression of activation markers (CD62L and CD11b) on blood-derived PMNs was measured by flow cytometry. ...
A) Histograms representing pJNK staining (pT183/pY185) in CD45+CD11b+ AT cells from RBP4-Ox and WT mice (upper panel) and ... RBP4 activates antigen-presenting cells, leading to adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance.. Moraes-Vieira ... B) Flow cytometry representation of liver macrophages (CD11b+F4/80+) gating and macrophage numbers in liver (right panel). (C) ... These effects result from direct activation of AT antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by RBP4 through a JNK-dependent pathway. ...
Human Leukocyte Antigen - antigen D Related; HR, heart rate; HRmax, maximum heart rate; HRR, heart rate reserve; HSC, ... CD11b, cluster of differentiation 11b; CD18, cluster of differentiation 18; CD19, cluster of differentiation 19; CD28, cluster ... ACSM, American College of Sports Medicine; APC, antigen presenting cell; CCR7, C-C chemokine receptor type 7; CD4, cluster of ... Dendritic cells differentiate from monocytes to become professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). They form a part of the ...
CD11b Antigen / metabolism * CD24 Antigen / metabolism * Cell Differentiation / immunology * Dendritic Cells / immunology ... Human CD1c+ DCs, the equivalent of murine CD24(+)CD11b(+) DCs, also expressed IRF4, secreted IL-23, and promoted T helper 17 ... Functionally, loss of CD24(+)CD11b(+) DCs abrogated CD4+ T cell-mediated interleukin-17 (IL-17) production in steady state and ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal CD11b antibody [EPR1344]. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human, Pig, Rhesus ... Ab133357 staining CD11b in paraffin embedded Mouse lung tissue sections by Immunohistochemistry. Heat mediated antigen ... Ab133357 staining CD11b in paraffin embedded Mouse colon tissue sections by Immunohistochemistry. Heat mediated antigen ... Ab133357 staining CD11b in paraffin embedded Rat cerebrum tissue sections by Immunohistochemistry. Heat mediated antigen ...
Buy our Recombinant Human CD11b protein. Ab126010 is a protein fragment produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in ... antigen CD11b (p170). *Antigen CD11b p170. *CD11 antigen like family member B ...
0 (CD11b Antigen); 0 (ITGAM protein, human). [Em] M s de entrada:. 1609. ... Ant geno CD11b/gen tica. Predisposi o Gen tica para Doen a. Seres Humanos. Imunomodula o. Fagocitose. Polimorfismo Gen tico. ... Ant geno CD11b/metabolismo. Doen as do Complexo Imune/imunologia. L pus Eritematoso Sist mico/imunologia. ... Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) is a 2 integrin classically regarded as a pro-inflammatory molecule because of its ability to promote ...
Memory has 2 primary features, antigen specificity and an amplified response upon subsequent antigen exposure. Cellular ... CD11b, CD11c, gp49B, and B220 (Fig. 1B and Fig. S2) and cytokine receptors CD122 (IL2/15 Rβ chain), IL-15Rα, IL-12Rβ1, and ... Proapoptotic Bim regulates antigen-specific NK cell contraction and the generation of the memory NK cell pool after ... These findings do not rule out the potential for antigen-driven NK cell memory, but strongly suggest it is not required for ...
Cd11b (Itgam), integrin alpha M or Cd11b antigen; Cox1, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I; Cox4, cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV ... In the brain, the up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory genes Cd11b and Gfap that had been observed in Ccl2+/+ mice fed with ... In the brain, both fish-containing diets resulted in the up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory genes Cd11b, Mcp1, and Gfap, ... Cd11b, Gfap, Mcp1) were assessed. Mice coming from the Experiment 3 were sampled for the gene expression study after three ...
  • Then the section was stained with 2.5 µg/ml of CD11b (clone M1/70) Alexa Fluor® 488 (green), and co-stained with 5 µg/ml of CD3 (clone 17A2) Alexa Fluor® 647 (cyan) and 5 µg/ml of CD45R/B220 (clone RA3-6B2) Alexa Fluor® 594 (red) overnight at 4°C. The image was captured with a 10X objective. (biolegend.com)
  • Enhanced infection is completely abolished by a mAb specific for the ligand-binding site of CD11b (i.e., α-chain of complement receptor 3, receptor for iC3b), proving the importance of complement receptor 3 in this process. (jimmunol.org)
  • Intriguingly, when bound to uPAR, the complementarity determining region (CDR) regions of ATN-658 closely mimic the binding regions of the integrin CD11b (αM), a previously identified uPAR ligand thought to be involved in leukocyte rolling, migration and complement fixation with no known role in tumor progression of solid tumors. (plos.org)
  • Antigen detection, which serves as the initiating event in this cascade, occurs via numerous mechanisms having varying levels of sensitivity and specificity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specificity for antigen detection, uptake, and/or processing is conferred by cellular receptors that may bind to a unique ligand, such as insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGFR1), or to a conserved motif present on many ligands, such as the mannose receptor (MR) DC-SIGN. (frontiersin.org)
  • These studies indicate preexisting subset differences in B cell receptor (BCR) specificity and antigen-driven B cell fate that remain important unresolved features of the system. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a few examples of NK receptors that recognize specific antigens, most notably murine Ly49H, which recognizes the virally-encoded ligand m157 ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Human CD1c+ DCs, the equivalent of murine CD24(+)CD11b(+) DCs, also expressed IRF4, secreted IL-23, and promoted T helper 17 cell responses. (nih.gov)
  • This paper reviews recent findings in murine models regarding the antitumoral mechanisms of DC-based vaccination, covering issues related to antigen sources, the use of adjuvants and maturing agents, and the role of DC subsets and their interaction in the initiation of antitumoral immune responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Taken together, this novel vaccine platform is well suited to deliver antigens and immunostimulatory cytokines to DCs and to initiate and maintain protective immunity. (asm.org)
  • Cancer vaccines that induce potent protective and therapeutic T-cell immunity against defined antigens are under active investigation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we show that in comparison with other application routes, intranodal vaccination using naked antigen-encoding RNA generated by in vitro transcription induces stronger biologically relevant T-cell responses and superior antitumor immunity due to the bioavailability of RNA in the lymph node and RNA inherent adjuvant effects on the lymph node microenvironment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nonetheless, a role for host immunity in inhibiting melanoma formation or attenuating disease progression remains to be established and the potential usefulness of the characterized antigens for melanoma diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy needs to be delineated. (pnas.org)
  • We wanted to know whether this microenvironment could be altered by the presence of strong adaptive immunity specific for an antigen expressed at the disease site. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our hypothesis was that early in inflammation, effective priming of the adaptive immunity to many potential neoantigens at the affected site, or a prompt recall response to some of those antigens encountered previously, may clear the site and prevent chronic inflammation altogether, or prevent development of cancers that would be expected to express some of the same neoantigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This is the site where initial antigen sampling and activation of APCs take place, including different subsets of DCs. (frontiersin.org)
  • One of the major research efforts is to determine the format in which the target antigen should be delivered. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hence, there appears to be a role for self or foreign antigen in shaping the repertoire of the B-1 B cell compartment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cullin-RING ligase (CRL)-NEDD8 pathway maintains essential cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, autophagy, DNA repair, antigen processing and signal transduction. (medsci.org)
  • The 1.7-kilobase CD11b promoter sequence displayed functional activity in transient transfection assays in the monocytic cell line THP-1 and the myeloid cell line HL-60. (pnas.org)
  • Cell proliferation and CD11b expression are controlled independently during HL60 cell differentiation initiated by 1,25 alpha-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) or all-trans-retinoic acid. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Functionally, loss of CD24(+)CD11b(+) DCs abrogated CD4+ T cell-mediated interleukin-17 (IL-17) production in steady state and after Aspergillus fumigatus challenge. (nih.gov)
  • CD11b/Mac-1 functions in cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions and is a ligand for C3bi, CD50 (ICAM-3), CD54 (ICAM-1) and CD102 (ICAM-2). (antibodies-online.com)
  • Through interactions with its ligands, CD11b participates in adhesive cell interactions. (thermofisher.com)
  • We had previously developed templates for in vitro transcription of RNA-encoded antigens with modified 3′ structures stabilizing the RNA and optimizing its translational performance as well as T-cell stimulating capacity ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These functions follow opposite rules to the classic CD8 effector functions since they are generated prior to cell expansion and decline before antigen elimination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Both subsets appear equally competent at stimulating antigen-specific T cell proliferation in vitro (E.M., B.P., C.M., K.B., E. Daro, M. Teepe, and H. McKenna, unpublished work). (pnas.org)
  • In turn, this enables the synchronous activation of both CD4 + and CD8 + T cell responses against the cognate antigen, thereby bridging the gap between the humoral and cellular branches of the adaptive immune response. (frontiersin.org)
  • Critically, FcRn-driven T cell priming is efficient at very low doses of antigen due to the exquisite sensitivity of the IgG-mediated antigen delivery system through which it operates. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therapeutically targeting the pathway by which FcRn enables T cell activation in response to IgG IC is thus a highly attractive prospect not only for the treatment of diseases that are driven by immune complexes but also for manipulating local immune responses against defined antigens such as those present during infections and cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • How an antigen is detected depends at once on the nature of the antigen itself as well as on the particular immune cell that detects it. (frontiersin.org)
  • The islet resident macrophage was first identified in 1979 as an antigen-presenting cell (APC), which expresses major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The antigen Thy-1 was the first T cell marker to be identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • As compared with gene transfer by viral or plasmid DNA, naked antigen-encoding RNA is considered a safer and superior pharmaceutical. (aacrjournals.org)