Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Effect of a short-term in vitro exposure to the marine toxin domoic acid on viability, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and superoxide anion release by rat neonatal microglia. (1/1308)

BACKGROUND: The excitatory amino acid domoic acid, a glutamate and kainic acid analog, is the causative agent of amnesic shellfish poisoning in humans. No studies to our knowledge have investigated the potential contribution to short-term neurotoxicity of the brain microglia, a cell type that constitutes circa 10% of the total glial population in the brain. We tested the hypothesis that a short-term in vitro exposure to domoic acid, might lead to the activation of rat neonatal microglia and the concomitant release of the putative neurotoxic mediators tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), matrix metalloproteinases-2 and-9 (MMP-2 and -9) and superoxide anion (O2-). RESULTS: In vitro, domoic acid [10 microM-1 mM] was significantly neurotoxic to primary cerebellar granule neurons. Although neonatal rat microglia expressed ionotropic glutamate GluR4 receptors, exposure during 6 hours to domoic acid [10 microM-1 mM] had no significant effect on viability. By four hours, LPS (10 ng/mL) stimulated an increase in TNF-alpha mRNA and a 2,233 % increase in TNF-alpha protein In contrast, domoic acid (1 mM) induced a slight rise in TNF-alpha expression and a 53 % increase (p < 0.01) of immunoreactive TNF-alpha protein. Furthermore, though less potent than LPS, a 4-hour treatment with domoic acid (1 mM) yielded a 757% (p < 0.01) increase in MMP-9 release, but had no effect on MMP-2. Finally, while PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) stimulated O2- generation was elevated in 6 hour LPS-primed microglia, a similar pretreatment with domoic acid (1 mM) did not prime O2- release. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first experimental evidence that domoic acid, at in vitro concentrations that are toxic to neuronal cells, can trigger a release of statistically significant amounts of TNF-alpha and MMP-9 by brain microglia. These observations are of considerable pathophysiological significance because domoic acid activates rat microglia several days after in vivo administration.  (+info)

Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of inhaled nitric oxide in dogs with septic acute respiratory distress syndrome. (2/1308)

AIM: To evaluate pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in dogs with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: ARDS, induced after iv injection of endotoxin, was evidenced by reduction of paO2/FiO2 from (62.5 +/- 2.8) to (26 +/- 4) kPa and dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn) from (14.8 +/- 0.7) to (8.6 +/- 0.6) mL.kPa-1 . kg-1, increase of dead space (VD/VT) from (0.14 +/- 0.06) to (0.58 +/- 0.05), intrapulmonary shunting (Qs/Qt) from 4.7 % +/- 1.7 % to 39 % +/- 7 %, and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) from (16 +/- 4) to (51 +/- 8) kPa.s.L-1 . m-2 (all P < 0.05), along with severe intrapulmonary neutrophil recruitment and peripheral neutropenia. The animals were then treated as either a control or an NO group (n = 6 each, iNO 0.4 - 3.2 micromol/L) for another 10 h. RESULTS: More survival was found in NO group (4/6 vs 0/6, P < 0.05). iNO at 0.8, 1.6, and 3.2 micromol/L (20, 40, and 80 ppm) resulted in > 40 % increase of paO2/FiO2 and Cdyn, a reduction of VD/VT to 0.32, Qs/Qt to < 25 %, and PVRI by > 50 % (30.8 kPa . s . L-1 . m-2) compared to the control. Optimal iNO dose was around 0.8 micromol/L as higher methemoglobin (MetHb, > 3 %) was found at higher NO. iNO had no adverse effects on surfactant phospholipids and lung fluid balance, but attenuated expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha,beta2 integrin CD11b, and interleukin-8 mRNA in the lungs by 22 %, 44 %, and 25 %, respectively (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Pharmacodynamics of iNO in this model was related to improvement in gas exchange, Cdyn, PVRI, and suppression of proinflammatory cytokine expression in the lungs, and its adverse effect was mainly confined to MetHb at higher NO dose.  (+info)

Regulation of adhesion of AML14.3D10 cells by surface clustering of beta2-integrin caused by ERK-independent activation of cPLA2. (3/1308)

We examined the role of cell surface clustering of beta2-integrin caused by protein kinase C (PKC)-activated-cPLA2 in adhesion of eosinophilic AML14.3D10 (AML) cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused time- and concentration-dependent adhesion of AML cells to plated bovine serum albumin (BSA), which was blocked by anti-CD11b or anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed against beta2-integrin. Inhibition of PKC with Ro-31-8220 or rottlerin blocked PMA-induced cell adhesion in a concentration-dependent fashion. Inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) with trifluoromethyl ketone or methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate also blocked PMA-induced cell adhesion. PMA caused time-dependent p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (ERK) phosphorylation in these cells. U0126, a MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor, at the concentrations that blocked PMA-induced ERK phosphorylation, had no effect on PMA stimulated AML cell adhesion. Neither p38 MAPK nor c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was phosphorylated by PMA. PMA also caused increased cPLA2 activity, which was inhibited by Ro-31-8220, but not U0126. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that PMA caused clustering of CD11b on the cell surface, which was blocked by either PKC or cPLA2 inhibition. PMA stimulation also caused up-regulation of CD11b on the AML cell surface. However, this up-regulation was not affected by cPLA2- or PKC-inhibition. Using the mAb, CBRM1/5, we also demonstrated that PMA does not induce the active conformation of CD11b/CD18. Our data indicate that PMA causes AML cell adhesion through beta2-integrin by PKC activation of cPLA2. This pathway is independent of MEK/ERK and does not require change of CD11b/CD18 to its active conformation. We find that avidity caused by integrin surface clustering - rather than conformational change or up-regulation of CD11b/CD18 - causes PMA stimulated adhesion of AML cells.  (+info)

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand induces monocytic maturation of leukemic and normal myeloid precursors through a caspase-dependent pathway. (4/1308)

Treatment of the human HL-60 cell line with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resulted in rapid (6-24 hours) cytotoxicity associated with progressive maturation of the surviving cells along the monocytic lineage. The occurrence of monocytic maturation was demonstrated by a significant increase of both CD14 and CD11b surface expression, the acquisition of morphologic features typical of mature monocytes, and phagocytic capacity in TRAIL-treated cultures. By using selective pharmacologic inhibitors, it was possible to demonstrate that activation of the caspase cascade played a crucial role in mediating TRAIL cytotoxicity and monocytic maturation of HL-60 cells. Moreover, experiments performed using agonistic polyclonal antibodies, which mimic the interactions between TRAIL and each TRAIL receptor, indicated that TRAIL-R1 was responsible for mediating the TRAIL-induced maturation. Importantly, the maturational effects of TRAIL were observed also in primary normal CD34(+) cells, seeded in serum-free liquid cultures for 4 to 8 days in the presence of SCF + GM-CSF. After treatment with TRAIL for 3 additional days, a significant increase in CD14 and CD11b expression, coupled with an increased number of mature monocytes and macrophages, was noticed in the absence of cytotoxicity. These data disclose a novel role for TRAIL as a positive regulator of myeloid differentiation. Moreover, the dichotomous effect of TRAIL on malignant cells (early induction of apoptosis and monocytic maturation of the surviving cells) might have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.  (+info)

Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) as accessory molecule for Fc alpha R (CD89) binding of IgA. (5/1308)

IgA, the principal ligand for FcalphaRI, exists in serum as monomeric IgA and at mucosal sites as secretory IgA (SIgA). SIgA consists of dimeric IgA linked by joining chain and secretory components. Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and mouse PMN transgenic for human FcalphaRI exhibited spreading and elicited respiratory burst activity upon interaction with either serum or SIgA. However, PMN devoid of the beta(2) integrin Mac-1 (Mac-1(-/-)) were unable to bind SIgA, despite expression of FcalphaRI. Consistent with this, serum IgA stimulated Mac-1(-/-) PMN oxygen radical production, in contrast to SIgA. Binding studies showed the secretory component, by itself, to interact with Mac-1-expressing PMN, but not with Mac-1(-/-) PMN. These data demonstrate an essential role for Mac-1 in establishing SIgA-FcalphaRI interactions.  (+info)

Cellular activation, phagocytosis, and bactericidal activity against group B streptococcus involve parallel myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent and independent signaling pathways. (6/1308)

Group B streptococci (GBS) vigorously activate inflammatory responses. We reported previously that a secreted GBS "factor" activates phagocytes via Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR6, but that GBS cell walls activate cells independently of these receptors. We hypothesized that the phagocytic immune functions in response to GBS, such as inflammation, uptake, and elimination of bacteria, occur through a coordinated engagement of TLRs, along with the coreceptors CD14 and CD11b/CD18. Using various knockout mice we show that GBS-induced activation of p38 and NF-kappaB depends upon the expression of the cytoplasmic TLR adapter protein, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), but not TLR2 and/or TLR4. Macrophages with deletions of CD14 and complement receptor 3 had a normal cytokine response to whole bacteria, although the response to GBS factor was abrogated in CD14-null cells. The intracellular formation of bactericidal oxygen species proved to be MyD88 dependent; however, uptake of GBS, a prerequisite for intracellular killing by O(2) radicals, occurred independently of MyD88. While deletion of complement receptor 3 greatly diminished the uptake of opsonized GBS, it did not affect the formation of bactericidal O(2) radicals or inflammatory signaling intermediates. We conclude that the inflammatory, bactericidal, and phagocytic responses to GBS occur via parallel but independent processes.  (+info)

Immunosuppression during acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection: involvement of Ly6G (Gr1(+))CD11b(+ )immature myeloid suppressor cells. (7/1308)

Trypanosoma cruzi infection is associated with a severe unresponsiveness of spleen cells (SC) to antigens and mitogens. A high production of NO by concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated SC from infected but not from control mice was observed. Neutralization of endogenous IFN-gamma production or treatment with NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-N-monomethyl-arginine, blocked Con A-induced NO production and greatly restored proliferation by SC from infected mice. This was confirmed by using IFN-gammaR(-/-) and inducible NOS (iNOS)(-/- )knockout mice, since unresponsiveness to mitogens of SC from those infected mice was much less pronounced than in control littermates. Interestingly, SC unresponsiveness was associated with a huge increase in CD11b(+) cells that express Ly-6G (Gr1)(+) and other immature myeloid markers These cells were absent in infected IFN-gammaR(-/-) spleens. Purified immature Gr1(+)CD11b(+) cells produced NO and expressed iNOS upon IFN-gamma treatment, and were able to inhibit T cell proliferation. In addition, depletion of myeloid CD11b(+ )cells abrogated NO production and restored mitogen-induced proliferation, but not IL-2 synthesis, in SC from infected mice. IL-2 production and CD25 cell surface expression by mitogen-activated T cells were greatly depressed in SC from IFN-gammaR(-/-) and iNOS(-/- )mice, confirming that Gr1(+)CD11b(+) cells were not involved in their down-regulation. In contrast, IL-5, tumor necrosis factor and IFN-gamma production, and CD69 expression by T cells were not depressed in infected SC. The results indicate the existence of an immunosuppressive mechanism during T. cruzi infection, mediated through IFN-gamma-dependent NO secretion by immature Ly-6G (Gr1)(+)CD11b(+ )myeloid cells.  (+info)

A critical role of platelet adhesion in the initiation of atherosclerotic lesion formation. (8/1308)

The contribution of platelets to the process of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here, we show in vivo that platelets adhere to the vascular endothelium of the carotid artery in ApoE(-)(/)(-) mice before the development of manifest atherosclerotic lesions. Platelet-endothelial cell interaction involved both platelet glycoprotein (GP)Ibalpha and GPIIb-IIIa. Platelet adhesion to the endothelium coincides with inflammatory gene expression and preceded atherosclerotic plaque invasion by leukocytes. Prolonged blockade of platelet adhesion in ApoE(-)(/)(-) mice profoundly reduced leukocyte accumulation in the arterial intima and attenuated atherosclerotic lesion formation in the carotid artery bifurcation, the aortic sinus, and the coronary arteries. These findings establish the platelet as a major player in initiation of the atherogenetic process.  (+info)

The objective of the study was to explore the effects of galectin-9 on myeloid suppressor cells in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis and the possible mechanisms involved. For this purpose, BALB/c male mice were infected with CVB3 on day 0 and then received intraperitoneal (IP) administration of recombinant galectin-9 or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) daily from day 3 to day 7. The phenotypes and functions of myeloid suppressor cells were evaluated. The role and mechanism of myeloid suppressor cells and subsets in CVB3-induced myocarditis in vitro were explored. We found that galectin-9 remarkably increased the frequencies of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells in the cardiac tissue and spleen with myocarditis. Ly-6G+ cells were decreased and Ly-6C+ cells were increased in galectin-9-treated mice. In addition, CD11b+Gr-1+ cells were highly effective in suppressing CD4+ T cells. Moreover, our data demonstrate that CD11b+Gr-1+ cells are capable of expanding regulatory T cells (Tregs) from a preexisting
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myeloid-derived suppressor cells. T2 - Their role in the pathophysiology of hematologic malignancies and potential as therapeutic targets. AU - Younos, Ibrahim H.. AU - Abe, Fuminori. AU - Talmadge, James E.. PY - 2015/8/3. Y1 - 2015/8/3. N2 - Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells at various stages of differentiation/maturation that have a role in cancer induction and progression. They function as vasculogenic and immunosuppressive cells, utilizing multiple mechanisms to block both innate and adaptive anti-tumor immunity. Recently, their mechanism of action and clinical importance have been defined, and the cross-talk between myeloid cells and cancer cells has been shown to contribute to tumor induction, progression, metastasis and tolerance. In this review, we focus on the role of MDSCs in hematologic malignancies and the therapeutic approaches targeting MDSCs that are currently in clinical studies.. AB - ...
Tumor-induced, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs)-mediated immune system dysfunction can be an essential mechanism leading to tumor immune system escape as well as the inefficacy of cancer immunotherapy. evasion. 0.05; **, 0.01; n.s. = not really significant. Since IL-33 is usually hardly ever secreted by living cells under steady-state circumstances, we gathered tumor supernatant to gauge the secreted IL-33 within tumor microenvironment.17 High degrees of IL-33 were detected in 4T1 tumor supernatant, indicating that IL-33 was also abundantly secreted within tumor cells. However, IL-33 amounts were suprisingly low in the serum of 4T1-bearing mice and undetectable in serum of tumor-free mice (Fig.?1D). After that we decided Rabbit polyclonal to DNMT3A the manifestation of IL-33 receptor C ST2 on MDSCs. Both splenic and tumor MDSCs from 4T1-bearing mice indicated ST2 (Fig.?S1A), interestingly, we discovered that approximately 45% of ST2+ cells in 4T1 cells were also Gr-1+, indicating that ...
The growth and metastasis of solid tumors not only depends on their ability to escape from immune surveillance but also hinges on their ability to invade the vasculature system as well as to induce the formation of new blood vessels. Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), overproduced in tumor-bearing hosts, contribute significantly to all these aspects. They also have a potential role in the osteolysis associated with bone metastases. They are formidable partners in tumor metastasis.
article{8578976, abstract = {Solid tumors frequently coexist with a degree of local chronic inflammation. Recruited myeloid cells can therefore be considered as interesting vehicles for tumor-targeted delivery of therapeutic agents. Using in vivo imaging, the short-term accumulation of systemically injected monocytes, macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) was compared in mice bearing fat pad mammary carcinomas. Monocytes and macrophages demonstrated almost identical in vivo and ex vivo distribution patterns with maximal tumor-associated accumulation seen 48 hours after injection that remained stable over the 4-day follow-up period. However, a substantial accumulation of both cell types was also seen in the liver, spleen and lungs albeit decreasing over time in all three locations. The MDSCs exhibited a similar distribution pattern as the monocytes and macrophages, but demonstrated a better relative on-target fraction over time. Overall, our findings highlight off-target cell ...
Monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (mMDSC) have immunosuppressive properties. Their activity helps the host avoid autoimmune disease but when mMDSC accumulate in a tumor bed, they prevent NK and T cells from eliminating the cancer. We previously found that R848 (a TLR7/8 agonist) reverses this immunosuppression by inducing mMDSC to differentiate into tumoricidal M1 macrophages. To identify the mechanism underlying this effect, we neutralized various cytokines/chemokines in R848 stimulated mMDSC cultures. Blocking IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and/or TNFα inhibited R848-mediated generation of M1 macrophages. Moreover, combinations of these cytokines induced mMDSC to differentiation more effectively than R848, generating M1 macrophages that efficiently lysed tumor targets. Microarray analysis of the regulatory networks activated following treatment of mMDSC with cytokine combinations or R848 showed that M1 differentiation universally proceeded through a conserved NF-κB, STAT1 and IRF7-dependent ...
In tumor-bearing mice and cancer patients, tumor progression is often associated with altered hematopoiesis leading to the accumulation of myeloid cells. Extensive studies in preclinical models indica
PGE(2) is the key factor needed for MDSCs development, accumulation and functional stability. PGE(2) initiates an EP2/EP4-mediated positive feedback between COX2 and PGE(2) in monocytic precursors, redirecting dendritic cell differentiation to MDSCs. COX2- or EP2/EP4- blockade abrogates MDSC functions and their CXCR4-CXCL12-mediated attraction to cancer environment, providing convenient immunotherapeutic targets ...
Wistar scientists have identified a marker that distinguishes PMN-MDSCs from neutrophils in the blood of patients with a variety of cancers.
Monoclonal antibody against CD11b (Integrin alpha-M, Mac-1 alpha chain), murine expressed by Itgam for use in FACS, Function Blocking, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, Immunoprecipitation against Human, Mouse
ITGAM + ITGAX Polyclonal Antibody for Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Immunocytochemistry, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Flow Cytometry (PA1-46162)
Patients with severe COVID-19 have significantly elevated levels of a certain type of immune cells in their blood, called myeloid-derived suppressor cells. The study may bring an increased understanding of how early immune responses impact disease severity.|br /|
InChI=1S/C29H31N5O3/c1-19-17-23(28-30-20(2)37-32-28)9-11-25(19)21-5-7-22(8-6-21)29(35)31-24-10-12-27(36-4)26(18-24)34-15-13-33(3)14-16-34/h5-12,17-18H,13-16H2,1-4H3,(H,31,35) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Derangement of immune responses by myeloid suppressor cells. AU - Serafini, Paolo. AU - De Santo, Carmela. AU - Marigo, Ilaria. AU - Cingarlini, Sara. AU - Dolcetti, Luigi. AU - Gallina, Giovanna. AU - Zanovello, Paola. AU - Bronte, Vincenzo. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2004/2. Y1 - 2004/2. N2 - In tumor-bearing mice and cancer patients, tumor progression is often associated with altered hematopoiesis leading to the accumulation of myeloid cells. Extensive studies in preclinical models indicate that these cells share the CD11b and the Gr-1 markers, possess a mixed mature-immature myeloid phenotype, and are responsible for the induction of T-cell dysfunctions, both tumor-specific and nonspecific. Moreover, CD11b+ Gr-1+ myeloid cells are described under different unrelated situations associated with temporary impairment of the T-lymphocyte reactivity. This review examines recent findings on the nature, properties, and mechanisms of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myeloid-derived suppressor cells. T2 - Cellular missiles to target tumors. AU - Chandra, Dinesh. AU - Gravekamp, Claudia. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - While conventional anticancer therapies, including surgical resection, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy, are relatively efficient at eliminating primary tumors, these treatment modalities are largely ineffective against metastases. At least in part, this reflects the rather inefficient delivery of conventional anticancer agents to metastatic lesions. We have recently demonstrated that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) can be used as cellular missiles to selectively deliver a radioisotope-coupled attenuated variant of Listeria monocytogenes to both primary and metastatic neoplastic lesions in mice with pancreatic cancer. This novel immunotherapeutic intervention robustly inhibited tumor growth while promoting a dramatic decrease in the number of metastases.. AB - While conventional anticancer therapies, including surgical ...
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are derived from myeloid progenitor cells present in the bone marrow. When the differentiation of the myeloid progenito...
Increasing evidence supports the multifaceted effect of tumor-produced prostanoids on cancer progression. PGE2 not only enhances tumorigenesis by conferring a metastatic phenotype, increasing resistance to apoptosis and stimulating angiogenesis, it also impairs the host immune response. PGE2 has been shown to decrease IL-12 and increase IL-10 production in dendritic cells and macrophages (24-26). PGE2 may also influence a wide range of T cell functions, including inhibition of T lymphocyte activation and proliferation (27), promoting the development of a Th2 response and inhibiting the production of the Th1 cytokines IL-2 and interferon γ (28). PGE2 produced by macrophages may also decrease proliferation and inhibit T cell cytotoxic responses (29, 30). However, macrophage-derived PGE2 is not playing a role in the induction of arginase I, because the injection of 3LL in COX-2 knockout mice was similar to wild-type mice bearing tumors. The multiplicity of effects caused by PGE2 may be explained ...
In recent years, bone marrow-derived immature and mature myeloid cells have been extensively investigated, as they are endowed with a high capability to exert protumor functions (Gabrilovich et al., 2012). Indeed, these cells can suppress antigen-specific immune responses (immature myeloid cells or myeloid-derived suppressor cells), exert a proangiogenic activity (immature myeloid cells or neutrophils; Murdoch et al., 2008; Motz and Coukos, 2011), or induce chemoresistance and invasion or metastasis (immature myeloid cells; Yang et al., 2008; Acharyya et al., 2012). These cells are recruited to tumor microenvironment mainly by chemokines constitutively released by tumor and stromal cells (Mantovani et al., 2010; Qian et al., 2011; Acharyya et al., 2012) or produced after some aggressive treatments (Kerbel, 2008). Our study highlights an unanticipated role of tumor-derived oxysterols/LXR ligands, which contribute to the recruitment of protumor neutrophils in a CXCR2-dependent manner, ultimately ...
In cancer, infection and inflammation, the immune systems function can be dysregulated. Instead of fighting disease, immune cells may increase pathology and suppress host-protective immune responses. Myeloid cells show high plasticity and adapt to changing conditions and pathological challenges. De …
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against native ITGAM. Native purified ITGAM from rheumatoid synovial cells and human monocytes. (MAB6032) - Products - Abnova
Suppression of immune responses has been described in situations as disparate as tumor growth, graft-vs-host disease, infection with recombinant vaccines and parasites, and treatment with cyclophosphamide and superantigens. The common feature in all these conditions is the recruitment of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to secondary lymphoid organs. Depletion and add-back experiments have demonstrated that in these situations, the Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells are both necessary and sufficient for suppression of T and B cell responses. Previous studies using bulk populations of MSC have provided insights into the immunosuppressive process but have not defined the properties of a single, well-defined cell type. In the current paper we have used cloned MSC lines (27) to examine the immunosuppressive mechanisms used by homogeneous populations of suppressor cells.. It is noteworthy that the cloned MSC are extremely potent inhibitors of T cell proliferation, but that inhibition, at least for the first 24 h, is ...
The researchers examined the patients peripheral blood immune profiles at baseline and after two and four treatment cycles, with CD3, CD4, CD8, NK (CD56), Treg (FOXP3), and myeloid-derived suppressor cell lymphocyte subpopulations assessed by using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis.The results showed that after treatment with nivolumab, 20 patients had a complete or partial response or stable disease, while 34 had progressive disease ...
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The tumor microenvironment is a complex milieu of tumor and host cells. Host cells can include tumor-reactive T cells capable of killing tumor cells. However, more frequently the tumor and host components interact to generate a highly immune suppressive environment that frustrates T cell cytotoxicity and promotes tumor progression through a variety of immune and non-immune mechanisms. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a major host component contributing to the immune suppressive environment. In addition to their inherent immune suppressive function, MDSC amplify the immune suppressive activity of macrophages and dendritic cells via cross-talk. This article will review the cell-cell interactions used by MDSC to inhibit anti-tumor immunity and promote progression, and the role of inflammation in promoting cross-talk between MDSC and other cells in the tumor microenvironment.
The monocyte phagocyte system (MPS) includes numerous monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell (DC) populations that are heterogeneous, both phenotypically and functionally. In this study, we sought to characterize those diverse MPS phenotypes with mass cytometry (CyTOF). To identify a deep phenotype of monocytes, macrophages, and DCs, a panel was designed to measure 38 identity, activation, and polarization markers, including CD14, CD16, HLA-DR, CD163, CD206, CD33, CD36, CD32, CD64, CD13, CD11b, CD11c, CD86, and CD274. MPS diversity was characterized for 1) circulating monocytes from healthy donors, 2) monocyte-derived macrophages further polarized in vitro (i.e., M-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, or LPS long-term stimulations), 3) monocyte-derived DCs, and 4) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), generated in vitro from bone marrow and/or peripheral blood. Known monocyte subsets were detected in peripheral blood to validate the panel and analysis pipeline. Then, using various culture conditions
The Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Isolation Kit has been developed for the isolation of Gr-1highLy-6G+ and Gr-1dimLy-6G- myeloid cells from lymphoid tissue. This Kit works ideally for spleen and tumor tissues. | Canada
title: Role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in mouse pre-sensitized cardiac transplant model., doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2014.03.013, category: Article
TAMPA, Fla. - Researchers at the Moffitt Cancer Center have found a potential mechanism by which immune suppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells can prevent immune response from developing in cancer. This mechanism includes silencing the tumor suppressor gene retinoblastoma 1 or Rb1. Their data explains a new regulatory mechanism by which myeloid-derived suppressor cells are expanded in cancer.. Their study appeared in a recent issue of Nature Immunology.. According to the authors, two kinds of myeloid-derived suppressor cells - monocytic M-MDSCs and granulocytic PMN-MDSCs - regulate immune responses in cancer and other conditions. In experiments with tumor-bearing mice, they discovered that M-MDSCs acquire some of the physical characteristics of PMN-MDSCs. Acquisition of the PMN-MDSCs characteristics, they found, was mediated by the silencing of Rb1 by modifications in a histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC-2), an enzyme decoded by the HDAC2 gene.. Our findings demonstrate the function of a newly ...
The molecular chaperone alphaB-crystallin has emerged as a target for cancer therapy due to its expression in human tumors and its role in regulating tumor angiogenesis. alphaB-crystallin also reduces neuroinflammation, but its role in other inflammatory conditions has not been investigated. Here, we examined whether alphaB-crystallin regulates inflammation associated with tumors and ischemia. We found that CD45(+) leukocyte infiltration is 3-fold increased in tumors and ischemic myocardium in alphaB-crystallin-deficient mice. Notably, alphaB-crystallin is prominently expressed in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells (IMCs), known as regulators of angiogenesis and immune responses, while lymphocytes and mature granulocytes show low alphaB-crystallin expression. alphaB-Crystallin deficiency results in a 3-fold higher accumulation of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in tumors and a significant rise in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in spleen and bone marrow. Similarly, we noted a 2-fold increase in CD11b(+) ...
Inflammation plays a critical role in the development of severe neonatal morbidities. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were recently implicated in the regulation of immune responses in newborns. Here, we report that the presence of MDSCs and their functional activity in infants are closely associated with the maturity of newborns and the presence of lactoferrin (LF) in serum. Low amounts of MDSCs at birth predicted the development of severe pathology in preterm infants - necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In vitro treatment of newborn neutrophils and monocytes with LF converted these cells to MDSCs via the LRP2 receptor and activation of the NF-κB transcription factor. Decrease in the expression of LRP2 was responsible for the loss of sensitivity of adult myeloid cells to LF. LF-induced MDSCs (LF-MDSCs) were effective in the treatment of newborn mice with NEC, acting by blocking inflammation, resulting in increased survival. LF-MDSCs were more effective than treatment with LF protein ...
Inflammation plays a critical role in the development of severe neonatal morbidities. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were recently implicated in the regulation of immune responses in newborns. Here, we report that the presence of MDSCs and their functional activity in infants are closely associated with the maturity of newborns and the presence of lactoferrin (LF) in serum. Low amounts of MDSCs at birth predicted the development of severe pathology in preterm infants - necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In vitro treatment of newborn neutrophils and monocytes with LF converted these cells to MDSCs via the LRP2 receptor and activation of the NF-κB transcription factor. Decrease in the expression of LRP2 was responsible for the loss of sensitivity of adult myeloid cells to LF. LF-induced MDSCs (LF-MDSCs) were effective in the treatment of newborn mice with NEC, acting by blocking inflammation, resulting in increased survival. LF-MDSCs were more effective than treatment with LF protein ...
Inflammation plays a critical role in the development of severe neonatal morbidities. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were recently implicated in the regulation of immune responses in newborns. Here, we report that the presence of MDSCs and their functional activity in infants are closely associated with the maturity of newborns and the presence of lactoferrin (LF) in serum. Low amounts of MDSCs at birth predicted the development of severe pathology in preterm infants - necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In vitro treatment of newborn neutrophils and monocytes with LF converted these cells to MDSCs via the LRP2 receptor and activation of the NF-κB transcription factor. Decrease in the expression of LRP2 was responsible for the loss of sensitivity of adult myeloid cells to LF. LF-induced MDSCs (LF-MDSCs) were effective in the treatment of newborn mice with NEC, acting by blocking inflammation, resulting in increased survival. LF-MDSCs were more effective than treatment with LF protein ...
There has been a great deal of interest in the immunostimulatory properties of GM-CSF in autoimmune diseases and for immunotherapy in cancer (29, 30). More than 15 years ago, Dranoff and colleagues showed that GM-CSF, in the context of γ-irradiated tumor cells, elicits potent immune responses in a murine model of melanoma (22). This prompted the study of GM-CSF as an adjuvant to whole tumor, DNA, and peptide vaccination with promising results in a number of animal tumor models (23, 31-34). Similar strategies were safely carried out in early phase clinical trials and immune responses were elicited (35-38). However, in more recent randomized clinical trials, GM-CSF was found to have detrimental effects on both immune responses and clinical outcomes (5-7), a finding that may be related to the expansion of MDSCs. Several groups have observed that GM-CSF dose and duration of exposure may mediate MDSC expansion (16, 28, 39-42). However, a direct connection between MDSC expansion and the failings of ...
MDSC are important mediators of tumor-induced immunosuppression in pancreatic cancer. Inhibiting MDSC accumulation with zoledronic acid improves the host anti-tumor response in animal studies suggesting that efforts to block MDSC may represent a novel treatment strategy for pancreatic cancer.
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Mice and treatments. BALB-neuT mice were bred and maintained in the animal facility at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori, according to the national and institutional guidelines. Normal 8 to 10-week-old BALB/c, C57BL/6, and FVB mice were purchased from Charles River. F1 hybrids were obtained by mating BALB-neuT males with C57BL/6 or FVB females. The hemizygous transgenic females were identified by PCR performed at age 3 weeks ( 24).. MMP-9+/− mice on C57BL/6 background were kindly provided by Dr. Leif Lund (Panum Institute, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark) as N17 generation. They were backcrossed to BALB/c and the N6 generation, intercrossed to obtain either homozygous MMP-9−/− and heterozygous MMP-9+/− offspring to be used as bone marrow donors.. Zoledronate (Zometa; Novartis Europharm, Ltd.) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg or pamidronate (Faulding Pharmaceuticals) at a dose of 2 mg/kg were diluted in saline and administered daily s.c. 5 days a week. ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against human ITGAM. Dendritic cells derived from human monocytes. (MAB13801) - Products - Abnova
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B lymphopoiesis declines with age, and this decline correlates with increased adipose tissue in the bone marrow (BM). Also, adipocyte-derived factors are known to inhibit B lymphopoiesis. Using cocultures of mouse BM cells with OP9 stromal cells, we found that adipocyte-conditioned medium induces the generation of CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid cells, which inhibit B cell development in vitro. Adipocyte-conditioned medium-induced CD11b+Gr1+ cells express Arg1 (arginase) and Nos2 (inducible NO synthase) and suppress CD4+ T cell proliferation, indicating that these cells are myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Blocking arginase and inducible NO synthase did not restore B lymphopoiesis, indicating that inhibition is not mediated by these molecules. Transwell and conditioned-medium experiments showed that MDSCs inhibit B lymphopoiesis via soluble factors, and by cytokine array we identified IL-1 as an important factor. Addition of anti-IL-1 Abs restored B lymphopoiesis in BM cultures containing MDSCs, ...
UNRAVELING MECHANISMS UNDERLYING MYELOID-DERIVED SUPPRESSOR CELL ORCHESTRATION OF OVARIAN CANCER PROGRESSION A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiology and Immunology by Kevin Matthew Hart DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Hanover, New Hampshire June 14th, 2011 Examining Committee: ____________________________ (Chair) Brent Berwin, Ph.D. ____________________________ James Gorham, M.D., Ph.D. ____________________________ Mary Jo Turk, Ph.D. ____________________________ ____________________________ James Talmadge, Ph.D. Brian W. Pogue, Ph.D. Dean of Graduate Studies ...
Background: Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a heterogeneous disease ranging from mainly skin-restricted manifestations (discoid LE [DLE] and subacute cutaneous LE) to a progressive multisystem disease (systemic LE [SLE]). Genetic association studies have recently identified several strong susceptibility genes for SLE, including integrin alpha M (ITGAM), also known as CD11b, whereas the genetic background of DLE is less clear. Principal Findings: To specifically investigate whether ITGAM is a susceptibility gene not only for SLE, but also for cutaneous DLE, we genotyped 177 patients with DLE, 85 patients with sporadic SLE, 190 index cases from SLE families and 395 population control individuals from Finland for nine genetic markers at the ITGAM locus. SLE patients were further subdivided by the presence or absence of discoid rash and renal involvement. In addition, 235 Finnish and Swedish patients positive for Ro/SSA-autoantibodies were included in a subphenotype analysis. Analysis of the ITGAM ...
article{7a1531c6-a64d-4441-8d85-f0b777c798d3, abstract = {We were the first to demonstrate that combined immunotherapy with GM-CSF producing GL261 cells and recombinant IFNgamma of preestablished GL261 gliomas could cure 90% of immunized mice. To extend these findings and to uncover the underlying mechanisms, the ensuing experiments were undertaken. We hypothesized that immunizations combining both GM-CSF and IFNgamma systemically would increase the number of immature myeloid cells, which then would mature and differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, thereby augmenting tumor antigen presentation and T-cell activation. Indeed, the combined therapy induced a systemic increase of both immature and mature myeloid cells but also an increase in T regulatory cells (T-regs). Cytotoxic anti-tumor responses, mirrored by an increase in Granzyme B-positive cells as well as IFNgamma-producing T-cells, were augmented after immunizations with GM-CSF and IFNgamma. We also show that the combined ...
In this study, we evaluated the nature of tumor-associated MDSC by comparing the phenotype and function of MDSC isolated from spleen and tumor sites from the same mice. It is known that MDSC can differentiate into MΦ and DC (Kusmartsev and Gabrilovich, 2003, 2005). Therefore, it was important to assure that we are indeed comparing cells with the same phenotype. We sorted MDSC based on the expression of Gr-1 and CD11b, two markers which are considered hallmarks of MDSC. MDSCs from the tumor site and spleen had similar morphology and phenotype. Expression of the macrophage cell marker F4/80 was slightly higher on tumor MDSC than on spleen cells. However, such rather minor phenotypic differences contrasted with profound differences in MDSC function. As was reported previously (Corzo et al., 2009), spleen MDSC contain a high level of ROS and a relatively modest level of NO and arginase I activity (although it was still elevated in comparison with Gr-1+CD11b+ cells from naive mice). In striking ...
Fig. 3 Cell morphology can be linked to transcriptional states.. (A) Representative images from RNA FISH analysis of THP-1 macrophages treated with LPS (100 ng/ml) for IL1B (red) and NR3C1 (green) transcripts, as described in Materials and Methods. Bottom: Merged image of fluorescence channels and differential interference contrast images. (B) Quantification of cell size (arbitrary units) and eccentricity (0 = circle, 1 = ellipse) for cells with high expression of the indicated genes, as described in Materials and Methods. N indicates the number of cells analyzed. Data were acquired from two independent experiments. The red box plots represent data from IL1B-positive cells. White box plots represent data from cells with high expression (top 50%) of the genes indicated at the top of the panel. Statistical analysis was done by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunns multiple comparisons test. **P , 0.01; ***P , 0.001. a.u., arbitrary units; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; n.s., not ...
Purpose: Before metastasis, primary tumor can create a premetastatic niche in distant organ to facilitate the dissemination of tumor cells. In the premetastatic phase, the permeability of pulmonary vasculatures is increased to accelerate the extravasation of circulating tumor cells. However, it is not clear whether local miRNAs contribute to the vascular hyperpermeability of the premetastatic niche. Experimental Design: The expression of total miRNAs was determined using microarray in series of premetastatic lungs from tumor-bearing mice. Significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and validated with qRT-PCR. Vascular permeability assays, vascular mimic systems, and orthotopic tumor models were used to investigate roles of selected miRNAs and target genes in premetastatic hyperpermeability. Results: We identified a miRNA signature in premetastatic lungs. Among these miRNAs, miR-30a, b, c, d and e were significantly attenuated. Subsequent investigations elucidated that lung ...
Multiple tumor-derived factors are responsible for the accumulation and expansion of immune suppressing myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in tumors. Here we show that treatment of tumor-bearing mice with docetaxel in combination with the phosphatidylserine (PS)-targeting antibody, 2aG4, potently suppressed the growth and progression of prostate tumors, and depleted M2-like TAMs and MDSCs and increased the presence of M1-like TAMs and mature dendritic cells in the tumors. In addition, the antibody markedly altered the cytokine balance in the tumor microenvironment from immunosuppressive to immunostimulatory. In vitro studies confirmed that 2aG4 re-polarized TAMs from an M2 to M1-like phenotype and drove MDSCs differentiating into M1-like TAMs and functional dendritic cells. These data suggest that PS is primarily responsible for expansion of MDSCs and M2-like TAMs in tumors, and that bavituximab, a PS-targeting antibody currently in cancer ...
Perform reliable qPCR with Bio-Rads pre-validated ITGAM primer pair, for the Dog genome. Designed for SYBR Green-based detection.
Perform reliable qPCR with Bio-Rads pre-validated Itgam primer pair, for the Mouse genome. Designed for SYBR Green-based detection.
Thymosin α1 (Tα1) has been tested for cancer therapy for several years, in most cases, the anti-tumor effect of Tα1 was limited, especially when Tα1 was used as a single agent. The role of Tα1 in cancer treatment and the regulatory mechanisms by which Ta1 takes effects are not yet completely understood. Using a Lewis lung caner model, here we report that Tα1 used alone elevated CD8(+) T cells, but failed to inhibit tumor growth. Furthermore, immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) showed heightened Arginase 1 production in response to Tα1 treatment, which led to stronger suppression of anti-tumor immunity ...
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) certainly are a main element of the immune system suppressive network defined in cancer and several additional pathological conditions. tumor-free mice. Manifestation of NOX2 subunits in MDSC was managed by the STAT3 transcription element. In the lack of NOX2 activity MDSC dropped the capability to suppress T-cell reactions and quickly differentiated Read More. ...
Also, XCR1+ DCs are related to CD103+CD11b- DCs. XCL1 is expressed by medullary thymic epithelial T cells (mTECs) while XCR1 is ... Kroczek RA, Henn V (2012). "The Role of XCR1 and its Ligand XCL1 in Antigen Cross-Presentation by Murine and Human Dendritic ... XCR1+ DCs specialize in cross-presentations of orally applied antigens. The integrin SIRPα is also a differentiating factor for ... XCR1+ and CD8+cells work together to cross-present antigen and communicate CD8+ activation. Cross presentation of XCR1+ CD8+ ...
Unlike myeloid dendritic cells, myeloid antigens like CD11b, CD11c, CD13, CD14 and CD33 are not present on pDC surfaces. ... In humans, pDCs exhibit plasma cell morphology and express CD4, HLA-DR, CD123, blood-derived dendritic cell antigen-2 (BDCA-2 ... Villadangos, José A.; Young, Louise (September 2008). "Antigen-Presentation Properties of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells". ... which allows the cell to optimize its antigen-presenting abilities. MHC class I on pDC surfaces are able to activate CD8+ T ...
The foam cells of monocyte/macrophage origin are positive for KP1, HAM56, CD11b and CD68 as pointed out by Nakashiro et al. in ... Macrophages and T lymphocytes demonstrated a marked expression of HLA-DR antigen. A delayed type hypersensitivity reaction of ...
... s' expression of cell markers like CD11b, F4/80 and MHC II indicate their participation in the MHC II antigen- ... However, their antigen-presenting ability is relatively lower than dendritic cells (DCs) and Langerhans cells (LCs) in the skin ... They are also a type of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that can mediate the infiltration of immune cells during an immune ... Dermal macrophages, Langerhans cells and dendritic cells are the main types of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the skin. ...
Macrophage-1 antigen receptor, Mac-1, when bound to CD11b), which are proteins found largely on neutrophils, macrophages and NK ... CD18+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGB2 Info with links in the Cell Migration ... The known binding partners of CD18 are CD11a, CD11b, CD11c and CD11d. Binding of CD18 and CD11 results in the formation of ... adhesion and binding to antigen presenting cells through interactions with the surface protein ICAM-1 Binding of CD18 and CD11b ...
Integrin+alphaM at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... In histopathology, immunohistochemistry with antibodies against CD11B is frequently used to identify macrophages and microglia ... CD11B). The second chain of αMβ2 is the common integrin β2 subunit known as CD18, and integrin αMβ2 thus belongs to the β2 ... also known as macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) or complement receptor 3 (CR3). ITGAM is also known as CR3A, and cluster of ...
CD11b/CD18) present on macrophages that is also called Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) and αMβ2 integrin. CD11c/CD18 also called ... For example, LFA1 (CD11a/CD18) short representation of Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen 1, also called αLβ2 integrin Mac1 ...
The cells must express CD73, CD90 and CD105 and they must be negative for CD14 or CD11b, CD34, CD45, CD79 alpha or CD19 and HLA ... Low levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR) make MSCs hypoimmunogenic. MSCs have trilineage differentiation capacity where ...
... antigens, cd11 MeSH D23.050.301. - antigens, cd11a MeSH D23.050.301. - antigens, cd11b MeSH ... antigens, cd11 MeSH D23. - antigens, cd11a MeSH D23. - antigens, cd11b MeSH D23.101. ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.900.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 - antigens, ly MeSH D23.101.100.930 - antigens, ... forssman antigen MeSH D23.050.285.018 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.285.025 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.285.040 - antigens, ...
The granulomatous tissue largely comprises foam cells of monocyte/macrophage origin positive for KP1, HAM56, CD11b and CD68. ... Macrophages and lymphocytes show marked expression of HLA-DR antigen. Arguably XO is the bone localization of the ...
CD18 Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Integrin alphaXbeta2 (CR4) - Heterodimer: CD11c / CD18 Very late ... Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... ITGB3 Fibrinogen receptor Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Fibronectin receptor: Integrin alpha2beta1 ... CD11b) AV AX (CD11c) Beta subunits B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 Dimers Cytoadhesin receptor Integrin alpha6beta4 Glycoprotein IIb/ ...
... (hereafter complement receptor 3 or CR3) (CD11b/CD18) is a human cell surface receptor found on B and T ... Macrophage-1 antigen (or integrin αMβ2 or macrophage integrin or Mac-1) is a complement receptor ("CR3") consisting of CD11b ( ... CR3 CD11b/CD18 Macrophage 1 antigen (Mac-1) Macrophage Todd R (1996). "The continuing saga of complement receptor type 3 (CR3 ... Macrophage-1+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Integrins, Complement system). ...
B1b cells seem to recognize more types of antigens including intracellular antigens. Previously, B1b cell antigen recognition ... Ghosn EE, Yang Y, Tung J, Herzenberg LA, Herzenberg LA (2008). "CD11b expression distinguishes sequential stages of peritoneal ... making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen-presenting cells. These B1 cells are commonly found in peripheral ... Hence, there appears to be a role for self or foreign antigen in shaping the repertoire of the B-1 B cell compartment. B1 cells ...
CD11b)lo Early MPP: CD34+, SCA-1+, Thy1.1−, C-kit+, lin−, CD135+, Slamf1/CD150−, Mac-1 (CD11b)lo, CD4lo Late MPP: CD34+, SCA-1+ ... White Cell Differentiation Antigens: 654-55. Loken MR, Shah VO, Civin CI (1987). "Characterization of myeloid antigens on human ... hematopoietic cell surface antigen defined by a monoclonal antibody raised against KG-1a cells". Journal of Immunology. 133 (1 ... Thy1.1−, C-kit+, lin−, CD135high, Slamf1/CD150−, Mac-1 (CD11b)lo, CD4lo Civin CI. Strauss LC. Brovall C. Fackler MJ. Schwartz ...
The antigen leukocyte antibody test (ALCAT test) is one that claims to measure adverse reactions to dietary substances. It was ... "Food reactivity on the ALCAT leukocyte activation test is associated with upregulation of CD11b on T cells". ResearchGate. ... were associated with the up-regulation of CD11b on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, suggesting a basis for further research into the ...
Eventually, the antigen presentation results in the production of antibodies that attach to the antigens of pathogens, making ... CD11b, CD64, F4/80 (mice)/EMR1 (human), lysozyme M, MAC-1/MAC-3 and CD68. Macrophages were first discovered and named by Élie ... the antigen is endocytosed and processed. The processed antigen is then presented in MHCII on the surface of the B-cell. T ... The antigen presentation on the surface of infected macrophages (in the context of MHC class II) in a lymph node stimulates TH1 ...
... +Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Articles with short description, Short ... Several other CD molecules, such as CD11b and CD33, are traditionally used as markers for human myeloid-derived suppressor ... CD antigens". Immunobiology (5 ed.). New York: Garland. ISBN 978-0-8153-3642-6. Georg, Philipp; et al. (2021). "Complement ... Elghetany MT (March 2002). "Surface antigen changes during normal neutrophilic development: a critical review". Blood Cells, ...
It was originally named theta (θ) antigen, then Thy-1 (THYmocyte differentiation antigen 1) due to its prior identification in ... It has been shown to interact with the leukocyte integrin Mac1 (CD11b/CD18) and may play a role in leukocyte homing and ... The antigen Thy-1 was the first T cell marker to be identified. Thy-1 was discovered by Reif and Allen in 1964 during a search ... Reif AE, Allen JM (1964). "The AKR thymic antigen and its distribution in leukemias and nervous tissue". J. Exp. Med. 120 (3): ...
In terms of expression markers, islet macrophages are positive for; F4/80, CD11b, CD11c, MHC-II, CD64, CD68, LyzM (lysozyme), ... The islet resident macrophage was first identified in 1979 as an antigen-presenting cell (APC), which expresses major ... Calderon, B (2014). "The Central Role of Antigen Presentation in Islets of Langerhans in Autoimmune Diabetes". Curr Opin ... Hume, DA (1984). "The mononuclear phagocyte system of the mouse defined by immunohistochemical localization of antigen F4/80: ...
It binds to integrins of type CD11a / CD18, or CD11b / CD18 and is also exploited by rhinovirus as a receptor for entry into ... Katz FE, Parkar M, Stanley K, Murray LJ, Clark EA, Greaves MF (Jan 1985). "Chromosome mapping of cell membrane antigens ... Huang C, Springer TA (Aug 1995). "A binding interface on the I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) ... Lebedeva T, Dustin ML, Sykulev Y (Jun 2005). "ICAM-1 co-stimulates target cells to facilitate antigen presentation". Current ...
Adenylate cyclese toxin binds to target cells by the complement receptor 3 (CD11b/CD18, or Mac-1). Target cell are therefore ... it lowers their capacity to interact with T-cells and present antigen. This has a tolerogenic effect on the T-cell population. ...
Collecting lymphatic vessel permeability facilitates adipose tissue inflammation and distribution of antigen to lymph node- ... supplanting the far less selective CD11b used to identify myeloid cells more generally. Her lab conducted comparisons of mouse ... are involved in the immune response by acting as a site for macrophages and dendritic cells to uptake antigens. The results ... Minimal differentiation of classical monocytes as they survey steady-state tissues and transport antigen to lymph nodes. ...
Mast cell differentiation antigens: expression in normal and malignant cells and use for diagnostic purposes". Eur. J. Clin. ... Characteristically, basophil (e.g. CD11b, CD123) and monocyte markers (CD14, CD15) are absent. The cells usually express CD2 ...
CD11c+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... 1995). "CD23 regulates monocyte activation through a novel interaction with the adhesion molecules CD11b-CD18 and CD11c-CD18". ... "Antigen profiles for the quantitative assessment of eosinophils in mouse tissues by flow cytometry". Journal of Immunological ...
Murao S, Collart FR, Huberman E (1989). "A protein containing the cystic fibrosis antigen is an inhibitor of protein kinases". ... Results in Reduced Interleukin-8-Induced CD11b Surface Expression, a Polarized Microfilament System, and Diminished ...
MZ B cells shuttle between the blood-filled marginal zone for antigen collection and the follicle for antigen delivery to ... and CD11b that help to distinguish them phenotypically from follicular (FO) B cells and B1 B cells. MZ B cells are innate-like ... MZ B cells respond to a wide spectrum of T-independent, but also T-dependent antigens. It is believed that MZ B cells are ... Moreover, MZ B cells are potent antigen-presenting cells, that are able to activate CD4+ T cells more effectively than FO B ...
... antigens, cd11a MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.150 - antigens, cd11b MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.200 - antigens, cd11c ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 - receptors, antigen, t- ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776.543.550 ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 - antigens, cd40 MeSH ...
The antigen is then transferred from CD23+ B cells to CD11c+ antigen presenting cells. The CD11c+ cells in turn present the ... "CD23 regulates monocyte activation through a novel interaction with the adhesion molecules CD11b-CD18 and CD11c-CD18". Immunity ... Antigens which enter the blood stream can be captured by antigen specific IgE antibodies. The IgE immune complexes that are ... "IgE-mediated enhancement of CD4+ T cell responses in mice requires antigen presentation by CD11c+ cells and not by B cells". ...
However, positive antinuclear antibody and extractable nuclear antigen (anti-Ro/La) in low titre may be found, even in the ... Patra, V.; Strobl, J.; Gruber‐Wackernagel, A.; Vieyra‐Garcia, P.; Stary, G.; Wolf, P. (2019). "CD 11b + cells markedly express ...
"ICSBP/IRF-8 differentially regulates antigen uptake during dendritic-cell development and affects antigen presentation to CD4+ ... CD11b− cells. In parallel, CD11c+ cells isolated from ICSBP KO spleens were unable to produce type I IFNs in response to viral ...
CD11b is a 170 kD glycoprotein also known as αM integrin, Mac-1 α subunit, Mol, CR3, and Ly-40. ... Antigen References 1. Barclay A, et al. 1997. The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook Academic Press.. 2. Springer TA. 1994. Cell 76: ... CD11b is a 170 kD glycoprotein also known as αM integrin, Mac-1 α subunit, Mol, CR3, and Ly-40. CD11b is a member of the ... Brilliant Violet 510™ anti-mouse/human CD11b. M1/70. FC, ICC. Ultra-LEAF™ Purified anti-mouse/human CD11b. M1/70. FC, CyTOF®, ...
CD11b Antigen / metabolism * Cytokines / metabolism* * Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay * Flow Cytometry * Hippocampus / ...
Both human integrin receptors Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18,CR3)and lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 (CD11a/CD18) have been ... N2 - Both human integrin receptors Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18,CR3)and lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 (CD11a/CD18) have ... AB - Both human integrin receptors Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18,CR3)and lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 (CD11a/CD18) have ... abstract = "Both human integrin receptors Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18,CR3)and lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 (CD11a/CD18 ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (hereafter complement receptor 3 or CR3) (CD11b/CD18) is a human cell surface receptor found on B and T ... Macrophage-1 antigen (or integrin αMβ2 or macrophage integrin or Mac-1) is a complement receptor ("CR3") consisting of CD11b ( ... CR3 CD11b/CD18 Macrophage 1 antigen (Mac-1) Macrophage Todd R (1996). "The continuing saga of complement receptor type 3 (CR3 ... Macrophage-1+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Integrins, Complement system). ...
... for Anti-CD11b antibody [EPR1344] used in Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections). Abcam provides ... Antigen retrieval step. Heat mediated - Buffer/Enzyme Used: 10mM Citrate pH6. Permeabilization ... Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) abreview for Anti-CD11b antibody [EPR1344]. Excellent ...
Cd11b) while vasculature endothelium was identified using rat endothelial cell antigen 1 (RECA-1). Regions of neuronal, axonal ... The Iba1 labeling was more pronounced in the cell body while Cd11b more so in the processes of activated microglia. These ...
CD11b/CD18, CD11c/CD18). See Table 3 below. CD11a/CD18 is also known as leukocyte factor antigen-1 (LFA-1), CD11b/CD18 is known ... In addition, neither the H blood group antigen (Bombay phenotype) nor the Lewis blood type antigens (Lea and Leb) are expressed ... antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens are decreased and antibody responses to protein antigens are slightly reduced. B ... CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and CR4 (CD11c/CD18). The CD11/CD18 complex is part of the beta-2 integrin family and is important in adhesion ...
CD11b, the integrin αM subunit, combines with CD18, the integrin β2 subunit, to form the integrin Mac-1, also known as ... A monoclonal antibody (3A33) that reacts with a mouse-specific epitope of Mac-1 antigen. Tissue Antigens. 1986;28:15-23. (IP, ... CR3; CR3A; MAC1; Cd11b; Ly-40; Mac-1; Mac-1a; CD11b/CD18; F730045J24Rik; MO1A; CD11B; MAC-1; MAC1A; SLEB6 ... CD11b, the integrin αM subunit, combines with CD18, the integrin β2 subunit, to form the integrin Mac-1, also known as ...
... in conjunction with other cell-surface antigens such as CD11b, CD64, and human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related (HLA-DR) may ...
... expression of specific surface antigens (CD73+, CD90+, CD105+, CD34-, CD45-, CD11b-, CD14-, CD19-, CD79a, HLA-DR-); and (3) ... Antigen-presenting cell; T-reg: Regulatory T lymphocytes; macr: Macrophage; M1-M2 macr. shift: Macrophage shift from M1 pro- ... are characterized by chronic recurrent intestinal inflammatory episodes and an exaggerated immune response to luminal antigens ...
b, Quantification of CD45high CD11b+CD11c+ cells per gram tissue in whole brain at EAE day 30 (n = 6, 2 independent experiments ... We show that antigen sampling in the periphery is independent of regional origin of CNS antigens in both male and female mice. ... Systemic antigen sampling by T cells of CNPase and nestin-derived antigens is similar under homeostatic conditions. a, ... These data show that despite similar levels of peripheral antigen sampling, CNS antigen-specific T cells differentially ...
Highly specific and rigorously validated in-house, CD11b/ITGAM (E6E1M) Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody (CST #17800) is ready to ship ... Monoclonal Antibody for studying CD11b/ITGAM mouse. Cited in 5 publications. Validated for WB, IP, IF, IF. ... They are generated by immunizing an animal with an antigen to elicit an immune response. While polyclonal antibodies are ... CD11b/ITGAM (E6E1M) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total CD11b/ITGAM protein. Nonspecific signal is seen by western ...
CD11b Antibody, PE-Cyanine 7), CD115 (CD115 Antibody, APC), lymphocyte antigen complex 6 locus G (Lys6G Antibody, AF488); for T ... Alvarez Hayes J, Erben E, Lamberti Y, Ayala M, Maschi F, Carbone C, et al. Identification of a new protective antigen of ... We used the following Biolegend products from Thermo Fischer Scientific: for neutrophils, CD11b ( ...
CD11b Antigen / genetics* * Genotype * Humans * Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / genetics* * Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / ...
The lung is exposed to a vast array of inhaled antigens, particulate matter, and pollution. Cells present in the airways must ... CD11b−MHC autofluorescent cells) constitute ,90% [2-4]. As the first cell type to encounter inhaled antigen, AMs are superb ... and inflammatory monocytes (CD11c−MHCII−CD11b+) [3]; cells of lymphoid origin are sparse as monocyte-derived cells dominate. In ... M. J. Clark, J. Gagnon, A. F. Williams, and A. N. Barclay, "MRC OX-2 antigen: a lymphoid/neuronal membrane glycoprotein with a ...
CD11b non-covalently associates with integrin β,sub,2,/sub, (CD18) and is expressed on granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, ... CD11b is a 165-170 kD type I transmembrane glycoprotein also known as α,sub,M,/sub, integrin, Mac-1, CR3, and C3biR. ... Antigen Details Structure Integrin, type I transmembrane glycoprotein, associates with integrin β2 (CD18), 165-170 kD ... CD11b is a 165-170 kD type I transmembrane glycoprotein also known as αM integrin, Mac-1, CR3, and C3biR. CD11b non-covalently ...
The integrin CD11b (also known as complement receptor type 3, macrophage antigen-1 and αMβ2), which is primarily expressed on ... CD11b is expressed in a low-affinity, inactive conformation in circulating leukocytes, but is rapidly upregulated on the cell ... CD11b upregulation by circulating fibrocytes may have a role in the initiation and/or progression of PAH but detailed ... We investigated membrane CD11b expression on circulating fibrocytes as well as on other PBMC populations. We showed an ...
... and the recruitment of CD11 antigen-like family member B (CD11b)-positive macrophage (p=0.589) were unchanged. Kaplan-Meier ...
We are testing powerful new approaches to immunize animals to MUC1 and other tumor antigens. The goal is the prevention and ... In bone marrow cells, lack of Muc1-regulated beta-catenin stability results in aberrant expansion of Cd11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived ... and modulation of the immune system and to characterize tumor antigens as tumor vaccines. Over-expression of MUC1 in the mouse ...
CD11b serves as the alpha chain of the heterodimeric Mac-1 integrin (CD11b/CD18, αMβ2), also known as complement receptor 3 ( ... CD11b serves as the alpha chain of the heterodimeric Mac-1 integrin (CD11b/CD18, αMβ2), also known as complement receptor 3 ( ... Cross-reaction of the M1/70 antibody with CD11b expressed on human monocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and NK cells has ... Cross-reaction of the M1/70 antibody with CD11b expressed on human monocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and NK cells has ...
CD11b is a 170 kD glycoprotein also known as αM integrin, Mac-1 α subunit, Mol, CR3, and Ly-40. ... Antigen References 1. Barclay A, et al. 1997. The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook Academic Press.. 2. Springer TA. 1994. Cell 76: ... CD11b is a 170 kD glycoprotein also known as αM integrin, Mac-1 α subunit, Mol, CR3, and Ly-40. CD11b is a member of the ... Brilliant Violet 510™ anti-mouse/human CD11b. M1/70. FC, ICC. Ultra-LEAF™ Purified anti-mouse/human CD11b. M1/70. FC, CyTOF®, ...
... and mitochondrial DNA copy number in mice from the model group were significantly lower and leukocyte adhesion and CD11b and ... but it inhibited leukocyte adhesion and decreased leukocyte CD11b and FOXO1 expression. CONCLUSIONS:STP significantly improved ... We assessed the expression of adhesion molecule CD11b and related transcript factor FOXO1 in leukocytes, cystathionine-γ-lyase ... Keywords: Medicine, Chinese Traditional, Microvessels, Myocardial Infarction, Blood Flow Velocity, CD11b Antigen, Cell Adhesion ...
It has been reported that Flt3L administration enhances the CD11chighCD11blow type DC, which leads to an Ag-specific, type 1 T- ... studies with the model tumor antigen β-galactosidase and the BALB/c Meth A p53 tumor-specific antigen. Gene Ther. ... Theobald M., Biggs J., Dittmer D., Levine A. J., Sherman L. A. Targeting p53 as a general tumor antigen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... Maecker H. T., Umetsu D. T., DeKruyff R. H., Levy S. Cytotoxic T cell responses to DNA vaccination: dependence on antigen ...
As such, CD206+F4/80+CD11b+ macrophages exhibit strengthened reparative abilities after myocardial infarction. This macrophage ... and the lymphocyte antigen 6 complex (Ly6C). High and low expression of Ly6C can be used to discriminate inflammatory and ... CD11b+F4/80+CD64+ or CD68+) are further categorized by expression of CCR2 (C-C chemokine receptor type 2), MHC-II (major ... but are less efficient in antigen processing and clearance of dying cells (2). In particular, CCR2+ macrophages contain ...
... Integrin alpha-M. CD11 antigen-like family member B. CR-3 alpha chain. Cell surface glycoprotein MAC- ... CD11b. Gene name: ITGAM, CD11B, CR3A. Cell surface glycoprotein mac-1 alpha subunit, MAC-1, MAC1A, MGC117044, MO1A, SLEB6 ...
Antigen description CD54 (ICAM-1) is a 90 kD member of the C2 subset of immunoglobulin superfamily. It is a transmembrane ... CD54 mediates cell adhesion by binding to integrins CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1) and to CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1). The interaction of CD54 with ... Exbio - Research products - Antibodies - CD and related antigens - Anti-Hu CD54 PE ... LILRA2 activation inhibits dendritic cell differentiation and antigen presentation to T cells. J Immunol. 2007 Dec 15;179(12): ...
... such as genes codifying for myeloid antigens (CD11b, CD66c CD24, CD14, CD163 and CD114), transcription factors (MNDA, CEBPA, ... These patients showed over-expression of a large set of genes that are typical of the myeloid lineage, such as antigens, ... These cases were characterized by over-expression of a large set of myeloid-related genes for surface antigens, transcription ... to co-expression of myeloid antigens; (ii) the poor clinical outcome; and (iii) similar incidence. Nevertheless, at the ...
OVA antigen-specific OTII CD4+ T cells primed by Spdef-KO draining lymph node APCs showed greater proliferation, lower ... that is required for GC differentiation had an increased frequency of macrophages in the conjunctiva and CD11b+CD11c+ DCs in ... We hypothesized that loss of GCs reduces tolerance-inducing properties of antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the conjunctiva ... The immune tolerance to OVA antigen topically applied to the conjunctiva measured by cutaneous delayed type hypersensitivity ( ...
Surface Antigens 10% * CD11b Antigen 8% * Leukemia 7% * Cell Count 7% * Lipopolysaccharide Receptors 7% ...
  • CD11b is a 170 kD glycoprotein also known as αM integrin, Mac-1 α subunit, Mol, CR3, and Ly-40. (
  • CD11b is a member of the integrin family, primarily expressed on granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, and subsets of T and B cells. (
  • CD11b non-covalently associates with CD18 (β2 integrin) to form Mac-1. (
  • Both human integrin receptors Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18,CR3)and lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 (CD11a/CD18) have been demonstrated to bind human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (CD54). (
  • Macrophage-1 antigen (or integrin αMβ2 or macrophage integrin or Mac-1) is a complement receptor ("CR3") consisting of CD11b (integrin αM) and CD18 (integrin β2). (
  • CD11b, the integrin α M subunit, combines with CD18, the integrin β 2 subunit, to form the integrin Mac-1, also known as complement receptor 3 (CR3), which mediates adhesion to C3bi and ICAM-1/CD54. (
  • CD11b non-covalently associates with integrin β 2 (CD18) and is expressed on granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, and subsets of T and B cells. (
  • CD11b is a 165-170 kD type I transmembrane glycoprotein also known as α M integrin, Mac-1, CR3, and C3biR. (
  • The ICRF44 monoclonal antibody specifically reacts with the 165 kDa human adhesion glycoprotein CD11b, which forms, together with the 95 kDa CD18 (integrin beta2) a complex known as Mac-1. (
  • Based on the discovery that the adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis binds to the CD11b/CD18 integrin, we developed a highly efficient detoxified adenylate cyclase-based vector (CyaA) capable of delivering a large variety of Ags to the APC. (
  • Detects human CD11b/Integrin alpha M. (
  • The Integrin alpha M subunit, also known as MAC-1 alpha subunit or CD11b, combines with the Integrin beta 2 subunit (CD18) to form the non-covalent heterodimer Integrin alpha M/ beta 2, also known as MAC-1 and complement receptor type 3 (CR3). (
  • Cell-surface receptor interactions between leukocyte integrin macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1, also known as CR3, αMβ2, CD11b/CD18) and platelet glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) are critical to vascular inflammation. (
  • Given that Gal-8 can potentially interact with several glycoproteins, here we analyzed the β2 integrin Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is involved in leukocyte cell adhesion and immunological synapses. (
  • The distribution of these leucocyte integrin molecules has been shown to be similar to that observed in humans and determination of the N-terminal sequence of rabbit CD11b shows strong homology with human and mouse sequences. (
  • APC Anti-Mouse CD11b antibody for use in flow cytometry assays. (
  • 2. Springer T, Galfré G, Secher DS, Milstein C. Mac-1: a macrophage differentiation antigen identified by monoclonal antibody. (
  • A monoclonal antibody (3A33) that reacts with a mouse-specific epitope of Mac-1 antigen. (
  • antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens are decreased and antibody responses to protein antigens are slightly reduced. (
  • Patients with leukocyte adhesion deficiency II manifest the Bombay phenotype (ie, negative for O and H blood group antigens with potential production of anti-H antibody). (
  • Release PE Positive Kit (Stemcell, #17654) with a PE-conjugated CD11b antibody (BioLegend, #101207). (
  • To demonstrate that this exosomes pulled were of microglial origin, we performed the following two approaches: first, we used an alternative PE-conjugated CD11b antibody, which has no reactivity to human (anti-rat, BioLegend, #201807). (
  • Second, we incubated the CD11b antibody with its blocking peptide (MyBioSource, #MBS425396) at a ratio of 10:1 (blocking peptide: CD11b antibody) for 1 h at room temperature to block the antigen binding sites of CD11b antibody before the exosomes were isolated. (
  • Moreover, the intraperitoneal administration of PG in mice resulted in increased IgM antibody production in B cells, which were immunized by using T-dependent antigen sheep red blood cells (sRBCs). (
  • Anti-CD19 or anti-CD79b antibody blocked B cell proliferation and anti-CD14 or anti-CD11b antibody decreased macrophage NO production, indicating the possible cellular binding sites of PG. (
  • Stimulation of murine natural killer (NK) cells by a monoclonal antibody specific for the NK1.1 antigen. (
  • This antibody conjugate was optimized at a set site and stoichiometry and bears an indistinguishable binding affinity through the unconjugated outrageous type toward the cognate antigen. (
  • RESULTS: Our cross-sectional analysis determined that progression of RDEB wounds to chronic state is associated with the accumulation (up to 90 %) of CD16 + CD66b + mature neutrophils, loss of CD11b + CD68 + macrophages, and a significant increase (up to 50 %) in a number of CD11c + CD80 + CD86 + activated professional antigen presenting cells (APC). (
  • In particular, CD11 is composed of CD11a, CD11b and CD11c. (
  • Markers such as CD11b, CD11c, F4/80, Gr-1, Ly6C, and Ly6G have long been used to identify various splenic cell myeloid populations. (
  • Here, we show that mice deficient in IFN regulatory factor 2 exhibit selective loss of CD8α - DCs, the so-called myeloid DCs, which is accompanied by a notable increase in CD11c - CD11b high other myeloid lineage cells. (
  • CD4 + , forkhead box P3 (FOXP3+)] and M2-polarized macrophages (F4/80+, CD11b + , CD11c-) have been shown to contribute to the maintenance of insulin sensitivity, in part, via secretion of anti-inflammatory mediators [ 3 , 5 , 7 ]. (
  • The expression and function of murine FcgammaR in these CD11c+CD11b-B220+ plasmacytoid DCs was investigated. (
  • This increase was primarily in the CD11b+Gr1+CD11c− subset (Fig. 7). (
  • In this study, we show that human CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) are phagocytic receptors for Nm as illustrated by the capacity of CR3- and CR4-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to facilitate Nm uptake. (
  • Immunoprecipitation of CD11b/ITGAM protein from SIM-A9 cell extracts. (
  • Lane 1 is 10% input, lane 2 is Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP ® Isotype Control #3900, and lane 3 is CD11b/ITGAM (E6E1M) Rabbit mAb. (
  • Western blot analysis was performed using CD11b/ITGAM (E6E1M) Rabbit mAb. (
  • Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of brain from the 5XFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease using CD11b/ITGAM (E6E1M) Rabbit mAb (red). (
  • Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of mouse spleen at low magnification (left) or high magnification (right) using CD11b/ITGAM (E6E1M) Rabbit mAb (red). (
  • Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of SIM-A9 cells (left, positive) and C2C12 cells (right, negative) using CD11b/ITGAM (E6E1M) Rabbit mAb (green). (
  • Macrophage-1 antigen (hereafter complement receptor 3 or CR3) (CD11b/CD18) is a human cell surface receptor found on B and T lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (mostly neutrophils), NK cells, and mononuclear phagocytes like macrophages. (
  • Mice lacking the SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor (Spdef) that is required for GC differentiation had an increased frequency of macrophages in the conjunctiva and CD11b+CD11c+ DCs in the conjunctiva and draining nodes, and these cells had greater IL-12 expression than WT mice. (
  • Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis binds to CD11b/CD18 on macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) and confers virulence to the bacteria by subverting innate immune responses of the host. (
  • Furthermore intracellular residence of Cn decreases antigen demonstration, T cell proliferation and cytokine production by macrophages (18, 19). (
  • Magnetically labeled antibodies to DPP-4 , CD45R, and CD49b antigens, purchased from Miltenyi Biotec, had been utilised to isolate populations that have been enriched for macrophages, B lymphocytes, and NK cells, respectively, whereas magnetically labeled anti CD4 and anti CD8a antibodies had been employed to fractionate out the two subsets of T lymphocytes. (
  • As helminths RGFP966 are experts in modulating the immune system, their antigens are extensively studied to define how they trigger antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and DCs to induce Th2-cell responses 19. (
  • The activation of ERK/MAPK pathway also plays a crucial role in regulating cytokine production by the antigen-presenting cells (APCs), namely the macrophages, dendritic cells (DC) and T cells 37,38,39,40,41,42 . (
  • They express a variety of mesenchymal markers, including collagen-1, collagen-3, vimentin, haematopoietic markers, such as CD11b and CD45, and the stem cell marker CD34 [ 6 ]. (
  • Cellular inflammation was quantified by flow-cytometric evaluation of retinal tissue using the myeloid marker CD11b and leukocyte common antigen CD45 to differentiate and quantify CD11b + /CD45 low microglia, CD11b + /CD45 hi myeloid leukocytes and CD11b neg /CD45 hi lymphocytes. (
  • Total leukocytes present in BALF were counted using Turks α-Tocopherol phosphate solution and stained (15 min, 4C) with 0.2 g/5 105 cells of fluorochrome-tagged antibodies (all from Biolegend) against the following antigens: CD16/32 (clone 93), Ter-119 CD45 (Clone 30-F11), CD11b (clone M1/7), Ly6C (clone HK1.4), F4/80 (clone BM8), Ly6G (clone 1A8), CD3 (clone 145-2c-11). (
  • The isolated hBMSCs expressed the phenotype of CD11b low /CD14 low /CD34 low /CD45 low /CD29 high /CD44 high /CD90 high /CD105 high /CD146 high /STRO-1 low . (
  • 2008). One of the minimum characteristics of MSCs is a positive expression of CD105, CD73 and CD90, with lack expression of CD45, CD34, CD14 or CD11b, CD79α or CD19 and HLA-DR surface molecules (Dominici et al. (
  • Tissue samples isolated from skin of adult double transgenics contained high levels of CD45 antigen and increased mRNA levels of a subset of inflammatory mediators namely CCL17, CCL20, CCL2, TNF-, IL-6, IL-17, IL-18, and G-CSF. (
  • At the same time, these cells must lack expression (52% positive) of CD45, CD34, CD14 or CD11b, C79α or CD19 and HLA-DR (Dominici et al. (
  • 1. Springer T, Galfré G, Secher DS, Milstein C. Monoclonal xenogeneic antibodies to murine cell surface antigens: identification of novel leukocyte differentiation antigens. (
  • The Ly6C + Ly6G-(top, open histograms) and Ly6C + Ly6G + (bottom, open histograms) CD11b + monocyte subpopulations were analyzed for the expression of various cytokines/effector molecules using antibodies (A-D) or a reactive dye triggered by exposure to ROS (E) and compared to CD11b-cells (filled histograms). (
  • The purity of every single fraction was determined by movement cytometry following labeling of the positively selected subpopulation with FITC conjugated antibodies to the antigen utilised for selection. (
  • 3. Sentman CL, Hackett J Jr, Moore TA, Tutt MM, Bennett M, Kumar V. Pan natural killer cell monoclonal antibodies and their relationship to the NK1.1 antigen. (
  • Boosting vaccination with non-selective myeloid depletion via anti-CD11b monoclonal antibodies injected 12 days following the last MIS416 vaccination significantly prolonged mouse survival. (
  • Anti-CD11b monoclonal antibodies alone had no effect on mouse survival, and anti-CD11b with MIS416 increased survival by approximately 10 days. (
  • Lub, M , van Kooyk, Y & Figdor, CG 1996, ' Competition between lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (CD11a/CD18) and Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) for binding to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (CD54) ', Journal of Leukocyte Biology , vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 648-55. (
  • CD54 mediates cell adhesion by binding to integrins CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1) and to CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1). (
  • CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1) expressed on lymphocytes is known to play an important role in lymphocyte trafficking (adhesion to vascular endothelium), as well as interactions to antigen presenting cells (APC). (
  • It binds to integrins of type CD11a / CD18, or CD11b / CD18and is also exploited by Rhinovirus as a receptor. (
  • In addition, we discussed the possible causative agents, whether T cell receptor expression reflects antigen driven immune responses, and what type of biological active materials may be critical in determining the disease activity and/or prognostic factors, with particular focus on the population differences. (
  • They express endocytic receptor antigens, but show significant differences in myeloid antigen expression compared with freshly harvested or cultured monocytes. (
  • Cynarin blocks the interaction between the CD28 of T-cell receptor and CD80 of antigen presenting cells. (
  • Lymph node Th17 cells were also examined in ovariectomized estrogen receptor α-knockout mice (ERα −/− ) and wild-type littermates, treated with E2 or placebo and subjected to antigen-induced arthritis. (
  • However, the contribution of autophagy to cross-presentation varied depending on the form of antigen: it was negligible in the case of cell-associated antigen or antigen delivered via receptor-mediated endocytosis, but more prominent when the antigen was a soluble protein. (
  • Here we investigate BST-2 as a receptor for the delivery of antigen to dendritic cells (DCs). (
  • Delivering antigen via BST-2 was compared with that via receptors DEC205 or Siglec-H. We show that despite a higher antigen load and faster receptor internalisation, when antigen is delivered to steady state or activated pDC via BST-2, BST-2-targeted activated conventional DCs present antigen more efficiently. (
  • In summary, BST-2 is a useful receptor to target with antigen, given its broad expression pattern and ability to access both MHCI and MHCII presentation pathways with relative efficiency. (
  • In vitro studies of phagocytic cells from an infant with leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I demonstrated that complement receptor 3 (CD18/CD11b) mediates nonopsonic phagocytosis of some Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains and might play a control role in the control of Pseudomonas infections at sites where there are low levels of opsonins. (
  • Microparticles displaying TLR9 and NOD-2, which are two immune-stimulatory receptor molecules, activate T-cells in the immune system and expand the population of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and central memory T-cells. (
  • HSCs lack expression of mature lineage markers (Lin - ) and have high expression of Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) and c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase (stem cell factor receptor) [ 1 ]. (
  • Recently, much attention has been focused on IFN-α/β, the cytokines induced en masse by virus infection or the activation of Toll-like receptors, in the context of DC activation. (
  • NK cells can also be genetically designed to express chimeric antigen receptors (so-called CAR-NKs) to specifically target tumor antigens with less toxicity than CAR-T cells [209]. (
  • C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow cells were stained with CD11b (clone M1/70) Brilliant Violet 421™ (filled histogram) or rat IgG2b, κ Brilliant Violet 421™ isotype control (open histogram). (
  • Cross-reaction of M1/70 to human CD11b has been observed on monocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and NK cells. (
  • [ 3 ] Thus, it enhances and prolongs antigen signaling on B cells. (
  • T cells continuously sample CNS-derived antigens in the periphery, yet it is unknown how they sample and respond to CNS antigens derived from distinct brain areas. (
  • We expressed ovalbumin (OVA) neoepitopes in regionally distinct CNS areas (Cnp-OVA and Nes-OVA mice) to test peripheral antigen sampling by OVA-specific T cells under homeostatic and neuroinflammatory conditions. (
  • These data show that despite similar levels of peripheral antigen sampling, CNS antigen-specific T cells differentially influence neuroinflammatory disease depending on the location of cognate antigens and the presence of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling. (
  • Altogether, we propose a novel mechanism for how T cells respond to regionally distinct CNS derived antigens and contribute to CNS autoimmune pathology. (
  • The distinct environment of the lung, with high oxygen tension [ 1 ] and constant exposure to inhaled antigen, both harmful and harmless, presents challenges for the immune cells which patrol the airways. (
  • Expression of CD11b on bone-marrow myeloid cells. (
  • Please note that the population of cells having the lowest SSC (erythroid and lymphoid cells) show little expression of CD11b, while cells with moderate-to-high SSC (myeloid cells) are mostly CD11b positive (right panel). (
  • In bone marrow cells, lack of Muc1-regulated beta-catenin stability results in aberrant expansion of Cd11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which allows allogeneic tumor growth. (
  • C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow cells were stained with CD11b (clone M1/70) Alexa Fluor® 594 (filled histogram). (
  • We hypothesized that loss of GCs reduces tolerance-inducing properties of antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the conjunctiva and draining nodes. (
  • OVA antigen-specific OTII CD4+ T cells primed by Spdef-KO draining lymph node APCs showed greater proliferation, lower frequency of Foxp3+, increased frequency of IFN-γ+ and IL-17+ cells, and greater IFN-γ production than those primed by WT APCs. (
  • CD11b is expressed on the surface of activated lymphocytes, a subset of natural killer cells, granulocytes, and monocytes. (
  • In mice, total MDSCs have been characterized as GR1- and CD11b-expressing cells. (
  • In this study, we demonstrate that CyaA binds both human and mouse CD11b(+) dendritic cells (DCs) and induces their maturation, as shown by the upregulation of costimulatory and MHC molecules and the production of proinflammatory cytokines. (
  • Notably, CD25 antigen expression was significantly elevated, not only on CD8dim/CD62L+ and CD8-/CD62L+ cells in blood, but also on granulocytes in blood and BALF between 2-3 dpi. (
  • These 2015-12-01 2006-01-15 Cd11b+Gr1+ cells and identify subpopulations accumulating in the premetastatic lungs (Fig. (
  • The CD11b + Ly6C hi Ly6G − cells differentiated into macrophage-like cells following ex vivo culture and could present antigen to T cells in vitro. (
  • This defines 2 distinct subsets of Ly6C + myeloid cells, CD11b + /Ly6C high /Ly6G − and CD11b + /Ly6C med /Ly6G + , with only the latter increased in premetastatic organs after HCM treatment. (
  • CD11b(+)Ly6C(++) and Ly6G(+) cells were isolated from spleen, tumor tissue or inflammatory granulomas. (
  • CD11b + Ly6G − Ly6C low cells show a biphasic response after CFA injection, peaking at 24 h and again at 14 d, whereas they make up the majority of cells between 3 and 10 d after plantar incision. (
  • Purified CD11b Ly6Chi Ly6G and CD11b Ly6Cint Ly6G cells were seeded into flat-bottom 96-well tissue culture plates at 1 610 cells per well. (
  • Here we show that CyaA, the adenylate cyclase toxin of Bordetella pertussis, an invasive bacterial toxin that binds cells through CD11b/CD18 can be exploited for the targeted delivery of an exogenous peptide to the CD8 alpha -CD11bhigh subset in vivo. (
  • Type 1 T regulatory (Tr1) cells suppress immune responses in vivo and in vitro and play a key role in maintaining tolerance to self- and non-self-antigens. (
  • DC-10 isolated from peripheral blood or generated in vitro are potent inducers of antigen-specific IL-10-producing Tr1 cells. (
  • Moreover, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and CD31 showed co-localization with α-SMA, suggesting the differentiation of hBMSCs into epithelial cells and myofibroblasts/fibroblasts. (
  • The development and cooperation of distinct subsets of antigen-presenting cells, particularly dendritic cells (DCs), may be critical for maintaining homeostatic immune responses. (
  • Targeted knockout mice also displayed hematological abnormalities with a higher number of circulating CD11b/Gr1 positive cells, extramedullary hematopoiesis and higher plasma levels of G-CSF, IL-1ra, IL-17, IL-6 and CCL2. (
  • Microglia are innate immune cells of the CNS, that act as antigen-presenting cells (APC) for antigen-specific T cells and respond to inflammatory stimuli, such as amyloid-beta (A? (
  • We evaluated the capacity of autologous DC and HEK293 cells transfected with relevant HLA alleles to function as T cell targets in Elispot assays upon transfection with tumor antigen encoding plasmids. (
  • Due to strong background from the autologous DC we decided that HEK293 transfected with one HLA-allele at a time plus simultaneously transfected with up to 5 tumor antiges would be optimal to screen for antigen specificity in the patients T cells. (
  • Patients with favorable outcome had high level of mature and cytotoxic CD11b + NKT cells already in the preoperative period, while patients with unfavorable DPP outcome had increased level of cytotoxic CD11b + NKT cells only by day 21 after surgery. (
  • There is an increase in the number of NK cell populations in the blood, tumor, and spleen, killer T cells and T helper cells in the tumor and spleen, CD11b+Ly-6C+ and CD11b+Ly-6G+ cells in the tumor. (
  • In a 2nd experiment, CD11b and CD8 and/or Cd 4 cells were isolated from the a single pool of ten spleens, and CD49b and CD45R and/or CD4 had been isolated from a 2nd pool of ten spleens. (
  • Antigen-presenting cells survey their environment and present captured antigens bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. (
  • This may be due to studies using different types of antigen presenting cells for which the use of autophagy is not well defined. (
  • These findings highlight the differential use of autophagy and its machinery by primary cells equipped with specific immune function, and prompt careful reassessment of the participation of this endocytic pathway in antigen cross-presentation. (
  • IFN-γ licenses CD11b(+) cells to induce progression of systemic lupus erythematosus. (
  • Being firstly described a century ago by Pio del Rio Hortega as the 'third element' of the CNS [ 12 ] , microglia cells are now defined as the innate immune cells of the CNS characterized by the expression of CX3CR1, CD11b, Iba1, and F4/80 markers, by their myeloid origin, and by their phagocytic ability [ 13 ] . (
  • The capacity of the FL-DCs, GM-DCs, or GMFL-DCs to generate Bacterial neuraminidase an antigen-specific T-cell PCI-32765 manufacturer stimulatory response was evaluated using isolated OT-1 and OT-II T cells. (
  • Taken together, these data suggest that 3+ CD4+ T cells simultaneously secreting IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α to three antigens of M. tuberculosis, Ag85B, ESAT-6 and the 16-kDa antigen, are more frequently found in patients with current or historic TB disease compared with LTBI which are able to control M. tuberculosis replication. (
  • Functional studies demonstrated that IDO-blockade-dependent activation of immune cells against tumor antigens could be reversed by the oncometabolite kynurenine. (
  • 2007). PNU 200577 Particularly, Compact disc8+ DC present antigen to antigen-specific T-cells resulting in T cell loss of life, T cell anergy, extension or era of regulatory T cells (Treg) (Morelli 2007). (
  • (c) Splenic CD11b + Gr-1 + (MDSCs) cells derived from immunized tumor-free mice were quantified by flow cytometry 7 days after immunization, and (d) the MDSCs from tumor-bearing mice were analyzed 25 and 30 days after tumor implantation. (
  • The cells exhibit a neutrophilic phenotype and are CD11b(+) CD15(+) / CD63(+) / MPO (+) / CD66b(+) and express neutrophil elastase. (
  • They are generated by immunizing an animal with an antigen to elicit an immune response. (
  • Our primary research goals are to determine the function of the transmembrane MUC1 mucin in cell adhesion, tumor progression, metastasis, and modulation of the immune system and to characterize tumor antigens as tumor vaccines. (
  • The immune tolerance to OVA antigen topically applied to the conjunctiva measured by cutaneous delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction, OVA-specific T cell proliferation, Foxp3 induction, and IFN-γ production observed in WT mice was lost in the Spdef-KO mice. (
  • We made a comprehensive comparative analysis of CD8(+), CD103(+), CD11b(+) and plasmacytoid DC subsets, as well as macrophage DC precursors and common DC precursors, across the entire immune system. (
  • Notably, strategies that support an antigen-specific Treg response may limit the immune-inflammatory response and promote cardiac repair after acute MI. (
  • These aberrant cytokine responses are thought to contribute to the inability of the elderly to mount appropriate immune responses to pathogens, vaccines and self antigen [ 4 ]. (
  • Our data suggest that pathogenic MyD88-dependent VSG antigens and the inflammatory stimulus TNF program for a largely overlapping inflammatory, semi-mature DC signature, inducing default Th2-cell immune responses based on quantitative DC maturation differences. (
  • As lymphomas grow in lymphoid organs, it would be expected that if these lymphomas express neo-antigens they should be readily detected by the immune system. (
  • CD200R expression was found to be elevated on CD11b+CD33+HLA-DR(lo/-) MDSC immune populations from patients with PDAC (p=0.0106). (
  • The resulting cell population expressed F4/80 and CD11b markers with correct myeloid characteristics assessed by flow cytometry (data not shown). (
  • CD11b/CD18 is critical for the transendothelial migration of monocytes and neutrophils. (
  • Tucidinostat also enhanced the expression of the costimulatory molecules on human monocytes, suggesting a novel and improved antigen-presenting function. (
  • Monocytes showed elevated expression rates of CD11b, CD14 and MHC class II. (
  • Conversely, DRα1-MOG-35-55 treatment of TBI increased numbers of circulating CD11b + monocytes and their expression of CD74 but had no detectable effect on cell numbers or marker expression in the spleen. (
  • CR3 CD11b/CD18 Macrophage 1 antigen (Mac-1) Macrophage Todd R (1996). (
  • We are testing powerful new approaches to immunize animals to MUC1 and other tumor antigens. (
  • Circulating fibrocytes display many functional properties, such as phagocytosis, antigen presentation, cytokine and connective tissue matrix production, and the capacity to proliferate and differentiate. (
  • In the present study, the 80% ethanol extract, essential oil and zerumbone of Z. zerumbet rhizomes were explored for their in vitro immunosuppressive properties on chemotaxis, CD11b/CD18 expression, phagocytosis and chemiluminescence of isolated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). (
  • Knapp W(1989) Leucocyte typing IV: white cell differentiation antigens. (
  • Ecto-5'-nucleotidase as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein which is defined as the lymphocyte differentiation antigen (CD73). (
  • The recombinant antigens 14.2 kDa ES protein for Cooperia oncophora, major sperm protein for Dictyocaulus viviparus and Cathepsin L1 for Fasciola hepatica were recombinantly expressed either in Escherichia coli or Pichia pastoris. (
  • Human antigen R (HuR), an RNA-binding protein, is an important post-transcriptional regulator. (
  • Formation of MHC-antigen complexes occurs in specialized compartments where multiple protein trafficking routes, still incompletely understood, converge. (
  • Here we investigated HBsAgS VLP interaction with DC subsets and antigen access to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II antigen presentation pathways in primary DCs. (
  • These cases were characterized by over-expression of a large set of myeloid-related genes for surface antigens, transcription factors and granule proteins. (
  • No. 553061/553062) to detect T lymphocytes and a mixture of PE Anti-Mouse CD11b (Cat. (
  • In our analysis the progression rate was also positively correlated with the expression of CD44 antigen on lymphocytes in patients with relapsing-remitting form of MS. Our findings suggest the relation between expression of adhesion molecules on leukocytes and the c1inical status of MS patients. (
  • Tissue Antigens. (
  • We also identified a transcriptional program expressed specifically during the steady-state migration of tissue DCs to the draining lymph nodes that may control tolerance to self tissue antigens. (
  • BALB/c mouse splenocytes were stained with Rat Anti-Mouse CD11b-APC (SB Cat. (
  • demonstrate that both T. brucei antigens or TNF induce partial DC maturation signatures defined by upregulation of surface markers but limited or no cytokine production with a strikingly similar gene expression signature. (
  • We show that antigen sampling in the periphery is independent of regional origin of CNS antigens in both male and female mice. (
  • Compared with those of control mice, the cremaster microvascular blood flow velocity, cremaster CSE expression, and mitochondrial DNA copy number in mice from the model group were significantly lower and leukocyte adhesion and CD11b and FOXO1 expression were significantly higher. (
  • Using proteoglycan (PG)-induced arthritis (PGIA), a mouse model of RA, we previously reported that MDSCs are present in synovial fluid (SF) of the arthritic joints of mice and suppress antigen-specific T cell proliferation. (
  • To test this assumption, we generated a new non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma model expressing the model tumour neo-antigen Ovalbumin (OVA), and analysed the endogenous antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell response that it elicited in recipient mice. (
  • Reacts with mouse, human and rabbit CD11b. (
  • PE/Cyanine7 anti-mouse/human CD11b. (
  • and the glycolipid antigens SSEA3 and SSEA4 in human (Martí et al. (
  • Microbial antigen in human milk: a natural vaccine? (
  • We have recently demonstrated the ability of a molecular construct comprised of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRα1 domain linked covalently to mouse (m)MOG-35-55 peptide (DRα1-MOG-35-55 construct) to reduce CNS inflammation and tissue injury in animal models of multiple sclerosis and ischemic stroke. (
  • BD CompBeads were stained as compensation controls for V450 anti-human CD11b and for FITC anti-human CD35, while pHrodo™ labeled bacteria were used as phycoerythrin (PE) fluorescence to calculate the compensation matrix. (
  • Cd11b) while vasculature endothelium was identified using rat endothelial cell antigen 1 (RECA-1). (
  • T-cell responses were measured for both MHC class I (MHCI) and MHC class II (MHCII) antigen presentation pathways in vitro. (
  • Similar to SF MDSCs, BM-derived MDSCs expressed the common myeloid marker CD11b. (
  • In this report, we compared the Th1/Th2-cell inducing pathogenic T. brucei antigens with the Th2-cell inducing inflammatory stimulus TNF for their DC stimulatory capacity. (
  • Cell surface expression of the λ light chain, surface IgD, CD9, and CD40 antigens was detected in some but not all chimeras. (
  • 0.001), normalised to the mean fluorescence intensity of CD11b of isotype controls, indicating increased activation ( fig. 1b-d ). (
  • One of the most established blood-based biomarkers is prostate specific antigen (PSA), although its use is controversial due to low specificity and potential over-diagnosis with consecutive invasive therapies and costs [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • Then the section was stained with 5 µg/ml of CD11b (clone M1/70) Alexa Fluor® 594 (red), 2.5 µg/ml of CD3 (clone 145-2C11) Alexa Fluor® 647 (green), and 2.5 µg/ml of B220 (clone RA3-6B2) Alexa Fluor® 488 (blue) overnight at 4°C. The image was captured by 10X objective. (
  • We investigated membrane CD11b expression on circulating fibrocytes as well as on other PBMC populations. (
  • We assessed the expression of adhesion molecule CD11b and related transcript factor FOXO1 in leukocytes, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) mRNA expression in the cremaster muscle, and mitochondrial DNA copy numbers. (
  • Intervention with STP could significantly increase the cremaster microvascular flow velocity (0.480±0.010 mm/s vs . 0.075±0.005 mm/s), mRNA expression of cremaster CSE, and mitochondrial DNA copy number, but it inhibited leukocyte adhesion and decreased leukocyte CD11b and FOXO1 expression. (
  • MDSCs were identified by CD11b and GR1 immunohistochemistry and their role in new bone formation was observed by detection of Runx2 and osteocalcin expression. (
  • However, atypical patterns occur and pose significant diagnostic difficulties where aberrant antigen expression patterns must be reconciled with morphology. (
  • The outcome of delivering antigen to BST-2 expressed by steady state and activated plasmacytoid DC (pDC) or conventional CD8(+) and CD8(-) DCs was determined. (