Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Effect of a short-term in vitro exposure to the marine toxin domoic acid on viability, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and superoxide anion release by rat neonatal microglia. (1/1308)

BACKGROUND: The excitatory amino acid domoic acid, a glutamate and kainic acid analog, is the causative agent of amnesic shellfish poisoning in humans. No studies to our knowledge have investigated the potential contribution to short-term neurotoxicity of the brain microglia, a cell type that constitutes circa 10% of the total glial population in the brain. We tested the hypothesis that a short-term in vitro exposure to domoic acid, might lead to the activation of rat neonatal microglia and the concomitant release of the putative neurotoxic mediators tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), matrix metalloproteinases-2 and-9 (MMP-2 and -9) and superoxide anion (O2-). RESULTS: In vitro, domoic acid [10 microM-1 mM] was significantly neurotoxic to primary cerebellar granule neurons. Although neonatal rat microglia expressed ionotropic glutamate GluR4 receptors, exposure during 6 hours to domoic acid [10 microM-1 mM] had no significant effect on viability. By four hours, LPS (10 ng/mL) stimulated an increase in TNF-alpha mRNA and a 2,233 % increase in TNF-alpha protein In contrast, domoic acid (1 mM) induced a slight rise in TNF-alpha expression and a 53 % increase (p < 0.01) of immunoreactive TNF-alpha protein. Furthermore, though less potent than LPS, a 4-hour treatment with domoic acid (1 mM) yielded a 757% (p < 0.01) increase in MMP-9 release, but had no effect on MMP-2. Finally, while PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) stimulated O2- generation was elevated in 6 hour LPS-primed microglia, a similar pretreatment with domoic acid (1 mM) did not prime O2- release. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first experimental evidence that domoic acid, at in vitro concentrations that are toxic to neuronal cells, can trigger a release of statistically significant amounts of TNF-alpha and MMP-9 by brain microglia. These observations are of considerable pathophysiological significance because domoic acid activates rat microglia several days after in vivo administration.  (+info)

Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of inhaled nitric oxide in dogs with septic acute respiratory distress syndrome. (2/1308)

AIM: To evaluate pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in dogs with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: ARDS, induced after iv injection of endotoxin, was evidenced by reduction of paO2/FiO2 from (62.5 +/- 2.8) to (26 +/- 4) kPa and dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn) from (14.8 +/- 0.7) to (8.6 +/- 0.6) mL.kPa-1 . kg-1, increase of dead space (VD/VT) from (0.14 +/- 0.06) to (0.58 +/- 0.05), intrapulmonary shunting (Qs/Qt) from 4.7 % +/- 1.7 % to 39 % +/- 7 %, and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) from (16 +/- 4) to (51 +/- 8) kPa.s.L-1 . m-2 (all P < 0.05), along with severe intrapulmonary neutrophil recruitment and peripheral neutropenia. The animals were then treated as either a control or an NO group (n = 6 each, iNO 0.4 - 3.2 micromol/L) for another 10 h. RESULTS: More survival was found in NO group (4/6 vs 0/6, P < 0.05). iNO at 0.8, 1.6, and 3.2 micromol/L (20, 40, and 80 ppm) resulted in > 40 % increase of paO2/FiO2 and Cdyn, a reduction of VD/VT to 0.32, Qs/Qt to < 25 %, and PVRI by > 50 % (30.8 kPa . s . L-1 . m-2) compared to the control. Optimal iNO dose was around 0.8 micromol/L as higher methemoglobin (MetHb, > 3 %) was found at higher NO. iNO had no adverse effects on surfactant phospholipids and lung fluid balance, but attenuated expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha,beta2 integrin CD11b, and interleukin-8 mRNA in the lungs by 22 %, 44 %, and 25 %, respectively (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Pharmacodynamics of iNO in this model was related to improvement in gas exchange, Cdyn, PVRI, and suppression of proinflammatory cytokine expression in the lungs, and its adverse effect was mainly confined to MetHb at higher NO dose.  (+info)

Regulation of adhesion of AML14.3D10 cells by surface clustering of beta2-integrin caused by ERK-independent activation of cPLA2. (3/1308)

We examined the role of cell surface clustering of beta2-integrin caused by protein kinase C (PKC)-activated-cPLA2 in adhesion of eosinophilic AML14.3D10 (AML) cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused time- and concentration-dependent adhesion of AML cells to plated bovine serum albumin (BSA), which was blocked by anti-CD11b or anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed against beta2-integrin. Inhibition of PKC with Ro-31-8220 or rottlerin blocked PMA-induced cell adhesion in a concentration-dependent fashion. Inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) with trifluoromethyl ketone or methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate also blocked PMA-induced cell adhesion. PMA caused time-dependent p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (ERK) phosphorylation in these cells. U0126, a MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor, at the concentrations that blocked PMA-induced ERK phosphorylation, had no effect on PMA stimulated AML cell adhesion. Neither p38 MAPK nor c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was phosphorylated by PMA. PMA also caused increased cPLA2 activity, which was inhibited by Ro-31-8220, but not U0126. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that PMA caused clustering of CD11b on the cell surface, which was blocked by either PKC or cPLA2 inhibition. PMA stimulation also caused up-regulation of CD11b on the AML cell surface. However, this up-regulation was not affected by cPLA2- or PKC-inhibition. Using the mAb, CBRM1/5, we also demonstrated that PMA does not induce the active conformation of CD11b/CD18. Our data indicate that PMA causes AML cell adhesion through beta2-integrin by PKC activation of cPLA2. This pathway is independent of MEK/ERK and does not require change of CD11b/CD18 to its active conformation. We find that avidity caused by integrin surface clustering - rather than conformational change or up-regulation of CD11b/CD18 - causes PMA stimulated adhesion of AML cells.  (+info)

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand induces monocytic maturation of leukemic and normal myeloid precursors through a caspase-dependent pathway. (4/1308)

Treatment of the human HL-60 cell line with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resulted in rapid (6-24 hours) cytotoxicity associated with progressive maturation of the surviving cells along the monocytic lineage. The occurrence of monocytic maturation was demonstrated by a significant increase of both CD14 and CD11b surface expression, the acquisition of morphologic features typical of mature monocytes, and phagocytic capacity in TRAIL-treated cultures. By using selective pharmacologic inhibitors, it was possible to demonstrate that activation of the caspase cascade played a crucial role in mediating TRAIL cytotoxicity and monocytic maturation of HL-60 cells. Moreover, experiments performed using agonistic polyclonal antibodies, which mimic the interactions between TRAIL and each TRAIL receptor, indicated that TRAIL-R1 was responsible for mediating the TRAIL-induced maturation. Importantly, the maturational effects of TRAIL were observed also in primary normal CD34(+) cells, seeded in serum-free liquid cultures for 4 to 8 days in the presence of SCF + GM-CSF. After treatment with TRAIL for 3 additional days, a significant increase in CD14 and CD11b expression, coupled with an increased number of mature monocytes and macrophages, was noticed in the absence of cytotoxicity. These data disclose a novel role for TRAIL as a positive regulator of myeloid differentiation. Moreover, the dichotomous effect of TRAIL on malignant cells (early induction of apoptosis and monocytic maturation of the surviving cells) might have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.  (+info)

Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) as accessory molecule for Fc alpha R (CD89) binding of IgA. (5/1308)

IgA, the principal ligand for FcalphaRI, exists in serum as monomeric IgA and at mucosal sites as secretory IgA (SIgA). SIgA consists of dimeric IgA linked by joining chain and secretory components. Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and mouse PMN transgenic for human FcalphaRI exhibited spreading and elicited respiratory burst activity upon interaction with either serum or SIgA. However, PMN devoid of the beta(2) integrin Mac-1 (Mac-1(-/-)) were unable to bind SIgA, despite expression of FcalphaRI. Consistent with this, serum IgA stimulated Mac-1(-/-) PMN oxygen radical production, in contrast to SIgA. Binding studies showed the secretory component, by itself, to interact with Mac-1-expressing PMN, but not with Mac-1(-/-) PMN. These data demonstrate an essential role for Mac-1 in establishing SIgA-FcalphaRI interactions.  (+info)

Cellular activation, phagocytosis, and bactericidal activity against group B streptococcus involve parallel myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent and independent signaling pathways. (6/1308)

Group B streptococci (GBS) vigorously activate inflammatory responses. We reported previously that a secreted GBS "factor" activates phagocytes via Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR6, but that GBS cell walls activate cells independently of these receptors. We hypothesized that the phagocytic immune functions in response to GBS, such as inflammation, uptake, and elimination of bacteria, occur through a coordinated engagement of TLRs, along with the coreceptors CD14 and CD11b/CD18. Using various knockout mice we show that GBS-induced activation of p38 and NF-kappaB depends upon the expression of the cytoplasmic TLR adapter protein, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), but not TLR2 and/or TLR4. Macrophages with deletions of CD14 and complement receptor 3 had a normal cytokine response to whole bacteria, although the response to GBS factor was abrogated in CD14-null cells. The intracellular formation of bactericidal oxygen species proved to be MyD88 dependent; however, uptake of GBS, a prerequisite for intracellular killing by O(2) radicals, occurred independently of MyD88. While deletion of complement receptor 3 greatly diminished the uptake of opsonized GBS, it did not affect the formation of bactericidal O(2) radicals or inflammatory signaling intermediates. We conclude that the inflammatory, bactericidal, and phagocytic responses to GBS occur via parallel but independent processes.  (+info)

Immunosuppression during acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection: involvement of Ly6G (Gr1(+))CD11b(+ )immature myeloid suppressor cells. (7/1308)

Trypanosoma cruzi infection is associated with a severe unresponsiveness of spleen cells (SC) to antigens and mitogens. A high production of NO by concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated SC from infected but not from control mice was observed. Neutralization of endogenous IFN-gamma production or treatment with NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-N-monomethyl-arginine, blocked Con A-induced NO production and greatly restored proliferation by SC from infected mice. This was confirmed by using IFN-gammaR(-/-) and inducible NOS (iNOS)(-/- )knockout mice, since unresponsiveness to mitogens of SC from those infected mice was much less pronounced than in control littermates. Interestingly, SC unresponsiveness was associated with a huge increase in CD11b(+) cells that express Ly-6G (Gr1)(+) and other immature myeloid markers These cells were absent in infected IFN-gammaR(-/-) spleens. Purified immature Gr1(+)CD11b(+) cells produced NO and expressed iNOS upon IFN-gamma treatment, and were able to inhibit T cell proliferation. In addition, depletion of myeloid CD11b(+ )cells abrogated NO production and restored mitogen-induced proliferation, but not IL-2 synthesis, in SC from infected mice. IL-2 production and CD25 cell surface expression by mitogen-activated T cells were greatly depressed in SC from IFN-gammaR(-/-) and iNOS(-/- )mice, confirming that Gr1(+)CD11b(+) cells were not involved in their down-regulation. In contrast, IL-5, tumor necrosis factor and IFN-gamma production, and CD69 expression by T cells were not depressed in infected SC. The results indicate the existence of an immunosuppressive mechanism during T. cruzi infection, mediated through IFN-gamma-dependent NO secretion by immature Ly-6G (Gr1)(+)CD11b(+ )myeloid cells.  (+info)

A critical role of platelet adhesion in the initiation of atherosclerotic lesion formation. (8/1308)

The contribution of platelets to the process of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here, we show in vivo that platelets adhere to the vascular endothelium of the carotid artery in ApoE(-)(/)(-) mice before the development of manifest atherosclerotic lesions. Platelet-endothelial cell interaction involved both platelet glycoprotein (GP)Ibalpha and GPIIb-IIIa. Platelet adhesion to the endothelium coincides with inflammatory gene expression and preceded atherosclerotic plaque invasion by leukocytes. Prolonged blockade of platelet adhesion in ApoE(-)(/)(-) mice profoundly reduced leukocyte accumulation in the arterial intima and attenuated atherosclerotic lesion formation in the carotid artery bifurcation, the aortic sinus, and the coronary arteries. These findings establish the platelet as a major player in initiation of the atherogenetic process.  (+info)

The objective of the study was to explore the effects of galectin-9 on myeloid suppressor cells in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis and the possible mechanisms involved. For this purpose, BALB/c male mice were infected with CVB3 on day 0 and then received intraperitoneal (IP) administration of recombinant galectin-9 or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) daily from day 3 to day 7. The phenotypes and functions of myeloid suppressor cells were evaluated. The role and mechanism of myeloid suppressor cells and subsets in CVB3-induced myocarditis in vitro were explored. We found that galectin-9 remarkably increased the frequencies of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells in the cardiac tissue and spleen with myocarditis. Ly-6G+ cells were decreased and Ly-6C+ cells were increased in galectin-9-treated mice. In addition, CD11b+Gr-1+ cells were highly effective in suppressing CD4+ T cells. Moreover, our data demonstrate that CD11b+Gr-1+ cells are capable of expanding regulatory T cells (Tregs) from a preexisting
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myeloid-derived suppressor cells. T2 - Their role in the pathophysiology of hematologic malignancies and potential as therapeutic targets. AU - Younos, Ibrahim H.. AU - Abe, Fuminori. AU - Talmadge, James E.. PY - 2015/8/3. Y1 - 2015/8/3. N2 - Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells at various stages of differentiation/maturation that have a role in cancer induction and progression. They function as vasculogenic and immunosuppressive cells, utilizing multiple mechanisms to block both innate and adaptive anti-tumor immunity. Recently, their mechanism of action and clinical importance have been defined, and the cross-talk between myeloid cells and cancer cells has been shown to contribute to tumor induction, progression, metastasis and tolerance. In this review, we focus on the role of MDSCs in hematologic malignancies and the therapeutic approaches targeting MDSCs that are currently in clinical studies.. AB - ...
Tumor-induced, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs)-mediated immune system dysfunction can be an essential mechanism leading to tumor immune system escape as well as the inefficacy of cancer immunotherapy. evasion. 0.05; **, 0.01; n.s. = not really significant. Since IL-33 is usually hardly ever secreted by living cells under steady-state circumstances, we gathered tumor supernatant to gauge the secreted IL-33 within tumor microenvironment.17 High degrees of IL-33 were detected in 4T1 tumor supernatant, indicating that IL-33 was also abundantly secreted within tumor cells. However, IL-33 amounts were suprisingly low in the serum of 4T1-bearing mice and undetectable in serum of tumor-free mice (Fig.?1D). After that we decided Rabbit polyclonal to DNMT3A the manifestation of IL-33 receptor C ST2 on MDSCs. Both splenic and tumor MDSCs from 4T1-bearing mice indicated ST2 (Fig.?S1A), interestingly, we discovered that approximately 45% of ST2+ cells in 4T1 cells were also Gr-1+, indicating that ...
The growth and metastasis of solid tumors not only depends on their ability to escape from immune surveillance but also hinges on their ability to invade the vasculature system as well as to induce the formation of new blood vessels. Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), overproduced in tumor-bearing hosts, contribute significantly to all these aspects. They also have a potential role in the osteolysis associated with bone metastases. They are formidable partners in tumor metastasis.
article{8578976, abstract = {Solid tumors frequently coexist with a degree of local chronic inflammation. Recruited myeloid cells can therefore be considered as interesting vehicles for tumor-targeted delivery of therapeutic agents. Using in vivo imaging, the short-term accumulation of systemically injected monocytes, macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) was compared in mice bearing fat pad mammary carcinomas. Monocytes and macrophages demonstrated almost identical in vivo and ex vivo distribution patterns with maximal tumor-associated accumulation seen 48 hours after injection that remained stable over the 4-day follow-up period. However, a substantial accumulation of both cell types was also seen in the liver, spleen and lungs albeit decreasing over time in all three locations. The MDSCs exhibited a similar distribution pattern as the monocytes and macrophages, but demonstrated a better relative on-target fraction over time. Overall, our findings highlight off-target cell ...
Monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (mMDSC) have immunosuppressive properties. Their activity helps the host avoid autoimmune disease but when mMDSC accumulate in a tumor bed, they prevent NK and T cells from eliminating the cancer. We previously found that R848 (a TLR7/8 agonist) reverses this immunosuppression by inducing mMDSC to differentiate into tumoricidal M1 macrophages. To identify the mechanism underlying this effect, we neutralized various cytokines/chemokines in R848 stimulated mMDSC cultures. Blocking IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and/or TNFα inhibited R848-mediated generation of M1 macrophages. Moreover, combinations of these cytokines induced mMDSC to differentiation more effectively than R848, generating M1 macrophages that efficiently lysed tumor targets. Microarray analysis of the regulatory networks activated following treatment of mMDSC with cytokine combinations or R848 showed that M1 differentiation universally proceeded through a conserved NF-κB, STAT1 and IRF7-dependent ...
In tumor-bearing mice and cancer patients, tumor progression is often associated with altered hematopoiesis leading to the accumulation of myeloid cells. Extensive studies in preclinical models indica
PGE(2) is the key factor needed for MDSCs development, accumulation and functional stability. PGE(2) initiates an EP2/EP4-mediated positive feedback between COX2 and PGE(2) in monocytic precursors, redirecting dendritic cell differentiation to MDSCs. COX2- or EP2/EP4- blockade abrogates MDSC functions and their CXCR4-CXCL12-mediated attraction to cancer environment, providing convenient immunotherapeutic targets ...
Wistar scientists have identified a marker that distinguishes PMN-MDSCs from neutrophils in the blood of patients with a variety of cancers.
Monoclonal antibody against CD11b (Integrin alpha-M, Mac-1 alpha chain), murine expressed by Itgam for use in FACS, Function Blocking, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, Immunoprecipitation against Human, Mouse
ITGAM + ITGAX Polyclonal Antibody for Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Immunocytochemistry, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Flow Cytometry (PA1-46162)
Patients with severe COVID-19 have significantly elevated levels of a certain type of immune cells in their blood, called myeloid-derived suppressor cells. The study may bring an increased understanding of how early immune responses impact disease severity.|br /|
InChI=1S/C29H31N5O3/c1-19-17-23(28-30-20(2)37-32-28)9-11-25(19)21-5-7-22(8-6-21)29(35)31-24-10-12-27(36-4)26(18-24)34-15-13-33(3)14-16-34/h5-12,17-18H,13-16H2,1-4H3,(H,31,35) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Derangement of immune responses by myeloid suppressor cells. AU - Serafini, Paolo. AU - De Santo, Carmela. AU - Marigo, Ilaria. AU - Cingarlini, Sara. AU - Dolcetti, Luigi. AU - Gallina, Giovanna. AU - Zanovello, Paola. AU - Bronte, Vincenzo. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2004/2. Y1 - 2004/2. N2 - In tumor-bearing mice and cancer patients, tumor progression is often associated with altered hematopoiesis leading to the accumulation of myeloid cells. Extensive studies in preclinical models indicate that these cells share the CD11b and the Gr-1 markers, possess a mixed mature-immature myeloid phenotype, and are responsible for the induction of T-cell dysfunctions, both tumor-specific and nonspecific. Moreover, CD11b+ Gr-1+ myeloid cells are described under different unrelated situations associated with temporary impairment of the T-lymphocyte reactivity. This review examines recent findings on the nature, properties, and mechanisms of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myeloid-derived suppressor cells. T2 - Cellular missiles to target tumors. AU - Chandra, Dinesh. AU - Gravekamp, Claudia. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - While conventional anticancer therapies, including surgical resection, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy, are relatively efficient at eliminating primary tumors, these treatment modalities are largely ineffective against metastases. At least in part, this reflects the rather inefficient delivery of conventional anticancer agents to metastatic lesions. We have recently demonstrated that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) can be used as cellular missiles to selectively deliver a radioisotope-coupled attenuated variant of Listeria monocytogenes to both primary and metastatic neoplastic lesions in mice with pancreatic cancer. This novel immunotherapeutic intervention robustly inhibited tumor growth while promoting a dramatic decrease in the number of metastases.. AB - While conventional anticancer therapies, including surgical ...
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are derived from myeloid progenitor cells present in the bone marrow. When the differentiation of the myeloid progenito...
Increasing evidence supports the multifaceted effect of tumor-produced prostanoids on cancer progression. PGE2 not only enhances tumorigenesis by conferring a metastatic phenotype, increasing resistance to apoptosis and stimulating angiogenesis, it also impairs the host immune response. PGE2 has been shown to decrease IL-12 and increase IL-10 production in dendritic cells and macrophages (24-26). PGE2 may also influence a wide range of T cell functions, including inhibition of T lymphocyte activation and proliferation (27), promoting the development of a Th2 response and inhibiting the production of the Th1 cytokines IL-2 and interferon γ (28). PGE2 produced by macrophages may also decrease proliferation and inhibit T cell cytotoxic responses (29, 30). However, macrophage-derived PGE2 is not playing a role in the induction of arginase I, because the injection of 3LL in COX-2 knockout mice was similar to wild-type mice bearing tumors. The multiplicity of effects caused by PGE2 may be explained ...
In recent years, bone marrow-derived immature and mature myeloid cells have been extensively investigated, as they are endowed with a high capability to exert protumor functions (Gabrilovich et al., 2012). Indeed, these cells can suppress antigen-specific immune responses (immature myeloid cells or myeloid-derived suppressor cells), exert a proangiogenic activity (immature myeloid cells or neutrophils; Murdoch et al., 2008; Motz and Coukos, 2011), or induce chemoresistance and invasion or metastasis (immature myeloid cells; Yang et al., 2008; Acharyya et al., 2012). These cells are recruited to tumor microenvironment mainly by chemokines constitutively released by tumor and stromal cells (Mantovani et al., 2010; Qian et al., 2011; Acharyya et al., 2012) or produced after some aggressive treatments (Kerbel, 2008). Our study highlights an unanticipated role of tumor-derived oxysterols/LXR ligands, which contribute to the recruitment of protumor neutrophils in a CXCR2-dependent manner, ultimately ...
In cancer, infection and inflammation, the immune systems function can be dysregulated. Instead of fighting disease, immune cells may increase pathology and suppress host-protective immune responses. Myeloid cells show high plasticity and adapt to changing conditions and pathological challenges. De …
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against native ITGAM. Native purified ITGAM from rheumatoid synovial cells and human monocytes. (MAB6032) - Products - Abnova
Suppression of immune responses has been described in situations as disparate as tumor growth, graft-vs-host disease, infection with recombinant vaccines and parasites, and treatment with cyclophosphamide and superantigens. The common feature in all these conditions is the recruitment of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to secondary lymphoid organs. Depletion and add-back experiments have demonstrated that in these situations, the Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells are both necessary and sufficient for suppression of T and B cell responses. Previous studies using bulk populations of MSC have provided insights into the immunosuppressive process but have not defined the properties of a single, well-defined cell type. In the current paper we have used cloned MSC lines (27) to examine the immunosuppressive mechanisms used by homogeneous populations of suppressor cells.. It is noteworthy that the cloned MSC are extremely potent inhibitors of T cell proliferation, but that inhibition, at least for the first 24 h, is ...
The researchers examined the patients peripheral blood immune profiles at baseline and after two and four treatment cycles, with CD3, CD4, CD8, NK (CD56), Treg (FOXP3), and myeloid-derived suppressor cell lymphocyte subpopulations assessed by using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis.The results showed that after treatment with nivolumab, 20 patients had a complete or partial response or stable disease, while 34 had progressive disease ...
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The tumor microenvironment is a complex milieu of tumor and host cells. Host cells can include tumor-reactive T cells capable of killing tumor cells. However, more frequently the tumor and host components interact to generate a highly immune suppressive environment that frustrates T cell cytotoxicity and promotes tumor progression through a variety of immune and non-immune mechanisms. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a major host component contributing to the immune suppressive environment. In addition to their inherent immune suppressive function, MDSC amplify the immune suppressive activity of macrophages and dendritic cells via cross-talk. This article will review the cell-cell interactions used by MDSC to inhibit anti-tumor immunity and promote progression, and the role of inflammation in promoting cross-talk between MDSC and other cells in the tumor microenvironment.
The monocyte phagocyte system (MPS) includes numerous monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell (DC) populations that are heterogeneous, both phenotypically and functionally. In this study, we sought to characterize those diverse MPS phenotypes with mass cytometry (CyTOF). To identify a deep phenotype of monocytes, macrophages, and DCs, a panel was designed to measure 38 identity, activation, and polarization markers, including CD14, CD16, HLA-DR, CD163, CD206, CD33, CD36, CD32, CD64, CD13, CD11b, CD11c, CD86, and CD274. MPS diversity was characterized for 1) circulating monocytes from healthy donors, 2) monocyte-derived macrophages further polarized in vitro (i.e., M-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, or LPS long-term stimulations), 3) monocyte-derived DCs, and 4) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), generated in vitro from bone marrow and/or peripheral blood. Known monocyte subsets were detected in peripheral blood to validate the panel and analysis pipeline. Then, using various culture conditions
The Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Isolation Kit has been developed for the isolation of Gr-1highLy-6G+ and Gr-1dimLy-6G- myeloid cells from lymphoid tissue. This Kit works ideally for spleen and tumor tissues. | Canada
title: Role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in mouse pre-sensitized cardiac transplant model., doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2014.03.013, category: Article
TAMPA, Fla. - Researchers at the Moffitt Cancer Center have found a potential mechanism by which immune suppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells can prevent immune response from developing in cancer. This mechanism includes silencing the tumor suppressor gene retinoblastoma 1 or Rb1. Their data explains a new regulatory mechanism by which myeloid-derived suppressor cells are expanded in cancer.. Their study appeared in a recent issue of Nature Immunology.. According to the authors, two kinds of myeloid-derived suppressor cells - monocytic M-MDSCs and granulocytic PMN-MDSCs - regulate immune responses in cancer and other conditions. In experiments with tumor-bearing mice, they discovered that M-MDSCs acquire some of the physical characteristics of PMN-MDSCs. Acquisition of the PMN-MDSCs characteristics, they found, was mediated by the silencing of Rb1 by modifications in a histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC-2), an enzyme decoded by the HDAC2 gene.. Our findings demonstrate the function of a newly ...
The molecular chaperone alphaB-crystallin has emerged as a target for cancer therapy due to its expression in human tumors and its role in regulating tumor angiogenesis. alphaB-crystallin also reduces neuroinflammation, but its role in other inflammatory conditions has not been investigated. Here, we examined whether alphaB-crystallin regulates inflammation associated with tumors and ischemia. We found that CD45(+) leukocyte infiltration is 3-fold increased in tumors and ischemic myocardium in alphaB-crystallin-deficient mice. Notably, alphaB-crystallin is prominently expressed in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells (IMCs), known as regulators of angiogenesis and immune responses, while lymphocytes and mature granulocytes show low alphaB-crystallin expression. alphaB-Crystallin deficiency results in a 3-fold higher accumulation of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in tumors and a significant rise in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in spleen and bone marrow. Similarly, we noted a 2-fold increase in CD11b(+) ...
Inflammation plays a critical role in the development of severe neonatal morbidities. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were recently implicated in the regulation of immune responses in newborns. Here, we report that the presence of MDSCs and their functional activity in infants are closely associated with the maturity of newborns and the presence of lactoferrin (LF) in serum. Low amounts of MDSCs at birth predicted the development of severe pathology in preterm infants - necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In vitro treatment of newborn neutrophils and monocytes with LF converted these cells to MDSCs via the LRP2 receptor and activation of the NF-κB transcription factor. Decrease in the expression of LRP2 was responsible for the loss of sensitivity of adult myeloid cells to LF. LF-induced MDSCs (LF-MDSCs) were effective in the treatment of newborn mice with NEC, acting by blocking inflammation, resulting in increased survival. LF-MDSCs were more effective than treatment with LF protein ...
Inflammation plays a critical role in the development of severe neonatal morbidities. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were recently implicated in the regulation of immune responses in newborns. Here, we report that the presence of MDSCs and their functional activity in infants are closely associated with the maturity of newborns and the presence of lactoferrin (LF) in serum. Low amounts of MDSCs at birth predicted the development of severe pathology in preterm infants - necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In vitro treatment of newborn neutrophils and monocytes with LF converted these cells to MDSCs via the LRP2 receptor and activation of the NF-κB transcription factor. Decrease in the expression of LRP2 was responsible for the loss of sensitivity of adult myeloid cells to LF. LF-induced MDSCs (LF-MDSCs) were effective in the treatment of newborn mice with NEC, acting by blocking inflammation, resulting in increased survival. LF-MDSCs were more effective than treatment with LF protein ...
Inflammation plays a critical role in the development of severe neonatal morbidities. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were recently implicated in the regulation of immune responses in newborns. Here, we report that the presence of MDSCs and their functional activity in infants are closely associated with the maturity of newborns and the presence of lactoferrin (LF) in serum. Low amounts of MDSCs at birth predicted the development of severe pathology in preterm infants - necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In vitro treatment of newborn neutrophils and monocytes with LF converted these cells to MDSCs via the LRP2 receptor and activation of the NF-κB transcription factor. Decrease in the expression of LRP2 was responsible for the loss of sensitivity of adult myeloid cells to LF. LF-induced MDSCs (LF-MDSCs) were effective in the treatment of newborn mice with NEC, acting by blocking inflammation, resulting in increased survival. LF-MDSCs were more effective than treatment with LF protein ...
There has been a great deal of interest in the immunostimulatory properties of GM-CSF in autoimmune diseases and for immunotherapy in cancer (29, 30). More than 15 years ago, Dranoff and colleagues showed that GM-CSF, in the context of γ-irradiated tumor cells, elicits potent immune responses in a murine model of melanoma (22). This prompted the study of GM-CSF as an adjuvant to whole tumor, DNA, and peptide vaccination with promising results in a number of animal tumor models (23, 31-34). Similar strategies were safely carried out in early phase clinical trials and immune responses were elicited (35-38). However, in more recent randomized clinical trials, GM-CSF was found to have detrimental effects on both immune responses and clinical outcomes (5-7), a finding that may be related to the expansion of MDSCs. Several groups have observed that GM-CSF dose and duration of exposure may mediate MDSC expansion (16, 28, 39-42). However, a direct connection between MDSC expansion and the failings of ...
MDSC are important mediators of tumor-induced immunosuppression in pancreatic cancer. Inhibiting MDSC accumulation with zoledronic acid improves the host anti-tumor response in animal studies suggesting that efforts to block MDSC may represent a novel treatment strategy for pancreatic cancer.
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Mice and treatments. BALB-neuT mice were bred and maintained in the animal facility at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori, according to the national and institutional guidelines. Normal 8 to 10-week-old BALB/c, C57BL/6, and FVB mice were purchased from Charles River. F1 hybrids were obtained by mating BALB-neuT males with C57BL/6 or FVB females. The hemizygous transgenic females were identified by PCR performed at age 3 weeks ( 24).. MMP-9+/− mice on C57BL/6 background were kindly provided by Dr. Leif Lund (Panum Institute, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark) as N17 generation. They were backcrossed to BALB/c and the N6 generation, intercrossed to obtain either homozygous MMP-9−/− and heterozygous MMP-9+/− offspring to be used as bone marrow donors.. Zoledronate (Zometa; Novartis Europharm, Ltd.) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg or pamidronate (Faulding Pharmaceuticals) at a dose of 2 mg/kg were diluted in saline and administered daily s.c. 5 days a week. ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against human ITGAM. Dendritic cells derived from human monocytes. (MAB13801) - Products - Abnova
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B lymphopoiesis declines with age, and this decline correlates with increased adipose tissue in the bone marrow (BM). Also, adipocyte-derived factors are known to inhibit B lymphopoiesis. Using cocultures of mouse BM cells with OP9 stromal cells, we found that adipocyte-conditioned medium induces the generation of CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid cells, which inhibit B cell development in vitro. Adipocyte-conditioned medium-induced CD11b+Gr1+ cells express Arg1 (arginase) and Nos2 (inducible NO synthase) and suppress CD4+ T cell proliferation, indicating that these cells are myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Blocking arginase and inducible NO synthase did not restore B lymphopoiesis, indicating that inhibition is not mediated by these molecules. Transwell and conditioned-medium experiments showed that MDSCs inhibit B lymphopoiesis via soluble factors, and by cytokine array we identified IL-1 as an important factor. Addition of anti-IL-1 Abs restored B lymphopoiesis in BM cultures containing MDSCs, ...
UNRAVELING MECHANISMS UNDERLYING MYELOID-DERIVED SUPPRESSOR CELL ORCHESTRATION OF OVARIAN CANCER PROGRESSION A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiology and Immunology by Kevin Matthew Hart DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Hanover, New Hampshire June 14th, 2011 Examining Committee: ____________________________ (Chair) Brent Berwin, Ph.D. ____________________________ James Gorham, M.D., Ph.D. ____________________________ Mary Jo Turk, Ph.D. ____________________________ ____________________________ James Talmadge, Ph.D. Brian W. Pogue, Ph.D. Dean of Graduate Studies ...
Background: Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a heterogeneous disease ranging from mainly skin-restricted manifestations (discoid LE [DLE] and subacute cutaneous LE) to a progressive multisystem disease (systemic LE [SLE]). Genetic association studies have recently identified several strong susceptibility genes for SLE, including integrin alpha M (ITGAM), also known as CD11b, whereas the genetic background of DLE is less clear. Principal Findings: To specifically investigate whether ITGAM is a susceptibility gene not only for SLE, but also for cutaneous DLE, we genotyped 177 patients with DLE, 85 patients with sporadic SLE, 190 index cases from SLE families and 395 population control individuals from Finland for nine genetic markers at the ITGAM locus. SLE patients were further subdivided by the presence or absence of discoid rash and renal involvement. In addition, 235 Finnish and Swedish patients positive for Ro/SSA-autoantibodies were included in a subphenotype analysis. Analysis of the ITGAM ...
article{7a1531c6-a64d-4441-8d85-f0b777c798d3, abstract = {We were the first to demonstrate that combined immunotherapy with GM-CSF producing GL261 cells and recombinant IFNgamma of preestablished GL261 gliomas could cure 90% of immunized mice. To extend these findings and to uncover the underlying mechanisms, the ensuing experiments were undertaken. We hypothesized that immunizations combining both GM-CSF and IFNgamma systemically would increase the number of immature myeloid cells, which then would mature and differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, thereby augmenting tumor antigen presentation and T-cell activation. Indeed, the combined therapy induced a systemic increase of both immature and mature myeloid cells but also an increase in T regulatory cells (T-regs). Cytotoxic anti-tumor responses, mirrored by an increase in Granzyme B-positive cells as well as IFNgamma-producing T-cells, were augmented after immunizations with GM-CSF and IFNgamma. We also show that the combined ...
In this study, we evaluated the nature of tumor-associated MDSC by comparing the phenotype and function of MDSC isolated from spleen and tumor sites from the same mice. It is known that MDSC can differentiate into MΦ and DC (Kusmartsev and Gabrilovich, 2003, 2005). Therefore, it was important to assure that we are indeed comparing cells with the same phenotype. We sorted MDSC based on the expression of Gr-1 and CD11b, two markers which are considered hallmarks of MDSC. MDSCs from the tumor site and spleen had similar morphology and phenotype. Expression of the macrophage cell marker F4/80 was slightly higher on tumor MDSC than on spleen cells. However, such rather minor phenotypic differences contrasted with profound differences in MDSC function. As was reported previously (Corzo et al., 2009), spleen MDSC contain a high level of ROS and a relatively modest level of NO and arginase I activity (although it was still elevated in comparison with Gr-1+CD11b+ cells from naive mice). In striking ...
Fig. 3 Cell morphology can be linked to transcriptional states.. (A) Representative images from RNA FISH analysis of THP-1 macrophages treated with LPS (100 ng/ml) for IL1B (red) and NR3C1 (green) transcripts, as described in Materials and Methods. Bottom: Merged image of fluorescence channels and differential interference contrast images. (B) Quantification of cell size (arbitrary units) and eccentricity (0 = circle, 1 = ellipse) for cells with high expression of the indicated genes, as described in Materials and Methods. N indicates the number of cells analyzed. Data were acquired from two independent experiments. The red box plots represent data from IL1B-positive cells. White box plots represent data from cells with high expression (top 50%) of the genes indicated at the top of the panel. Statistical analysis was done by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunns multiple comparisons test. **P , 0.01; ***P , 0.001. a.u., arbitrary units; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; n.s., not ...
Purpose: Before metastasis, primary tumor can create a premetastatic niche in distant organ to facilitate the dissemination of tumor cells. In the premetastatic phase, the permeability of pulmonary vasculatures is increased to accelerate the extravasation of circulating tumor cells. However, it is not clear whether local miRNAs contribute to the vascular hyperpermeability of the premetastatic niche. Experimental Design: The expression of total miRNAs was determined using microarray in series of premetastatic lungs from tumor-bearing mice. Significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and validated with qRT-PCR. Vascular permeability assays, vascular mimic systems, and orthotopic tumor models were used to investigate roles of selected miRNAs and target genes in premetastatic hyperpermeability. Results: We identified a miRNA signature in premetastatic lungs. Among these miRNAs, miR-30a, b, c, d and e were significantly attenuated. Subsequent investigations elucidated that lung ...
Multiple tumor-derived factors are responsible for the accumulation and expansion of immune suppressing myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in tumors. Here we show that treatment of tumor-bearing mice with docetaxel in combination with the phosphatidylserine (PS)-targeting antibody, 2aG4, potently suppressed the growth and progression of prostate tumors, and depleted M2-like TAMs and MDSCs and increased the presence of M1-like TAMs and mature dendritic cells in the tumors. In addition, the antibody markedly altered the cytokine balance in the tumor microenvironment from immunosuppressive to immunostimulatory. In vitro studies confirmed that 2aG4 re-polarized TAMs from an M2 to M1-like phenotype and drove MDSCs differentiating into M1-like TAMs and functional dendritic cells. These data suggest that PS is primarily responsible for expansion of MDSCs and M2-like TAMs in tumors, and that bavituximab, a PS-targeting antibody currently in cancer ...
Perform reliable qPCR with Bio-Rads pre-validated ITGAM primer pair, for the Dog genome. Designed for SYBR Green-based detection.
Perform reliable qPCR with Bio-Rads pre-validated Itgam primer pair, for the Mouse genome. Designed for SYBR Green-based detection.
Thymosin α1 (Tα1) has been tested for cancer therapy for several years, in most cases, the anti-tumor effect of Tα1 was limited, especially when Tα1 was used as a single agent. The role of Tα1 in cancer treatment and the regulatory mechanisms by which Ta1 takes effects are not yet completely understood. Using a Lewis lung caner model, here we report that Tα1 used alone elevated CD8(+) T cells, but failed to inhibit tumor growth. Furthermore, immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) showed heightened Arginase 1 production in response to Tα1 treatment, which led to stronger suppression of anti-tumor immunity ...
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) certainly are a main element of the immune system suppressive network defined in cancer and several additional pathological conditions. tumor-free mice. Manifestation of NOX2 subunits in MDSC was managed by the STAT3 transcription element. In the lack of NOX2 activity MDSC dropped the capability to suppress T-cell reactions and quickly differentiated Read More. ...
Also, XCR1+ DCs are related to CD103+CD11b- DCs. XCL1 is expressed by medullary thymic epithelial T cells (mTECs) while XCR1 is ... Kroczek RA, Henn V (2012). "The Role of XCR1 and its Ligand XCL1 in Antigen Cross-Presentation by Murine and Human Dendritic ... XCR1+ DCs specialize in cross-presentations of orally applied antigens. The integrin SIRPα is also a differentiating factor for ... XCR1+ and CD8+cells work together to cross-present antigen and communicate CD8+ activation. Cross presentation of XCR1+ CD8+ ...
Unlike myeloid dendritic cells, myeloid antigens like CD11b, CD11c, CD13, CD14 and CD33 are not present on pDC surfaces. ... In humans, pDCs exhibit plasma cell morphology and express CD4, HLA-DR, CD123, blood-derived dendritic cell antigen-2 (BDCA-2 ... Villadangos, José A.; Young, Louise (September 2008). "Antigen-Presentation Properties of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells". ... which allows the cell to optimize its antigen-presenting abilities. MHC class I on pDC surfaces are able to activate CD8+ T ...
Macrophage-1 antigen receptor, Mac-1, when bound to CD11b), which are proteins found largely on neutrophils, macrophages and NK ... CD18+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGB2 Info with links in the Cell Migration ... The known binding partners of CD18 are CD11a, CD11b, CD11c and CD11d. Binding of CD18 and CD11 results in the formation of ... adhesion and binding to antigen presenting cells through interactions with the surface protein ICAM-1 Binding of CD18 and CD11b ...
The foam cells of monocyte/macrophage origin are positive for KP1, HAM56, CD11b and CD68 as pointed out by Nakashiro et al. in ... Macrophages and T lymphocytes demonstrated a marked expression of HLA-DR antigen. A delayed type hypersensitivity reaction of ...
Integrin+alphaM at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... In histopathology, immunohistochemistry with antibodies against CD11B is frequently used to identify macrophages and microglia ... CD11B). The second chain of αMβ2 is the common integrin β2 subunit known as CD18, and integrin αMβ2 thus belongs to the β2 ... also known as macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) or complement receptor 3 (CR3). ITGAM is also known as CR3A, and cluster of ...
The granulomatous tissue largely comprises foam cells of monocyte/macrophage origin positive for KP1, HAM56, CD11b and CD68. ... Macrophages and lymphocytes show marked expression of HLA-DR antigen. Arguably XO is the bone localization of the ...
CD11b/CD18) present on macrophages that is also called Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) and αMβ2 integrin. CD11c/CD18 also called ... For example, LFA1 (CD11a/CD18) short representation of Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen 1, also called αLβ2 integrin Mac1 ...
... antigens, cd11 MeSH D23.050.301. - antigens, cd11a MeSH D23.050.301. - antigens, cd11b MeSH ... antigens, cd11 MeSH D23. - antigens, cd11a MeSH D23. - antigens, cd11b MeSH D23.101. ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.900.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 - antigens, ly MeSH D23.101.100.930 - antigens, ... forssman antigen MeSH D23.050.285.018 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.285.025 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.285.040 - antigens, ...
CD18 Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Integrin alphaXbeta2 (CR4) - Heterodimer: CD11c / CD18 Very late ... Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... ITGB3 Fibrinogen receptor Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Fibronectin receptor: Integrin alpha2beta1 ... CD11b) AV AX (CD11c) Beta subunits B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 Dimers Cytoadhesin receptor Integrin alpha6beta4 Glycoprotein IIb/ ...
... (hereafter complement receptor 3 or CR3) (CD11b/CD18) is a human cell surface receptor found on B and T ... Macrophage-1 antigen (or integrin αMβ2 or macrophage integrin or Mac-1) is a complement receptor ("CR3") consisting of CD11b ( ... CR3 CD11b/CD18 Macrophage 1 antigen (Mac-1) Macrophage Todd R (1996). "The continuing saga of complement receptor type 3 (CR3 ... Wagner C, Hänsch GM, Stegmaier S, Denefleh B, Hug F, Schoels M (April 2001). "The complement receptor 3, CR3 (CD11b/CD18), on T ...
B1b cells seem to recognize more types of antigens including intracellular antigens. Previously, B1b cell antigen recognition ... Ghosn EE, Yang Y, Tung J, Herzenberg LA, Herzenberg LA (2008). "CD11b expression distinguishes sequential stages of peritoneal ... making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen-presenting cells. These B1 cells are commonly found in peripheral ... Hence, there appears to be a role for self or foreign antigen in shaping the repertoire of the B-1 B cell compartment. B1 B ...
CD11b)lo Early MPP: CD34+, SCA-1+, Thy1.1−, C-kit+, lin−, CD135+, Slamf1/CD150−, Mac-1 (CD11b)lo, CD4lo Late MPP: CD34+, SCA-1+ ... White Cell Differentiation Antigens: 654-55. Loken MR, Shah VO, Civin CI (1987). "Characterization of myeloid antigens on human ... hematopoietic cell surface antigen defined by a monoclonal antibody raised against KG-1a cells". Journal of Immunology. 133 (1 ... Thy1.1−, C-kit+, lin−, CD135high, Slamf1/CD150−, Mac-1 (CD11b)lo, CD4lo Civin CI. Strauss LC. Brovall C. Fackler MJ. Schwartz ...
"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)".. *^ May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; ... CD61+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ... "Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ... Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ... In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11.[5] CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
The antigen leukocyte antibody test (ALCAT test) is one that claims to measure adverse reactions to dietary substances. It was ... "Food reactivity on the ALCAT leukocyte activation test is associated with upregulation of CD11b on T cells". ResearchGate. ... were associated with the up-regulation of CD11b on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, suggesting a basis for further research into the ...
CD antigens". Immunobiology (5 ed.). New York: Garland. ISBN 978-0-8153-3642-6. Vivier E, Morin P, O'Brien C, Druker B, ... Several other CD molecules, such as CD11b and CD33, are traditionally used as markers for human myeloid-derived suppressor ... CD16+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Elghetany MT (March 2002). "Surface antigen changes during normal neutrophilic development: a critical review". Blood Cells, ...
Eventually, the antigen presentation results in the production of antibodies that attach to the antigens of pathogens, making ... CD11b, CD64, F4/80 (mice)/EMR1 (human), lysozyme M, MAC-1/MAC-3 and CD68. Macrophages were first discovered by Élie Metchnikoff ... the antigen is endocytosed and processed. The processed antigen is then presented in MHCII on the surface of the B-cell. T ... The antigen presentation on the surface of infected macrophages (in the context of MHC class II) in a lymph node stimulates TH1 ...
... antigens[edit]. There are five (HNA 1-5) sets of neutrophil antigens recognized.[49] The three HNA-1 antigens (a-c) ... HNA-4 is located on the αM chain (CD11b) and HNA-5 is located on the αL integrin unit (CD11a). ... The HNA-3 antigen system has two antigens (3a and 3b) which are located on the seventh exon of the CLT2 gene (SLC44A2). The HNA ... and HNA-5 antigen systems each have two known antigens (a and b) and are located in the β2 integrin. ...
It was originally named theta (θ) antigen, then Thy-1 (THYmocyte differentiation antigen 1) due to its prior identification in ... It has been shown to interact with the leukocyte integrin Mac1 (CD11b/CD18) and may play a role in leukocyte homing and ... The antigen Thy-1 was the first T cell marker to be identified. Thy-1 was discovered by Reif and Allen in 1964 during a search ... Reif AE, Allen JM (1964). "The AKR thymic antigen and its distribution in leukemias and nervous tissue". J. Exp. Med. 120 (3): ...
In terms of expression markers, islet macrophages are positive for; F4/80, CD11b, CD11c, MHC-II, CD64, CD68, LyzM (lysozyme), ... The islet resident macrophage was first identified in 1979 as an antigen-presenting cell (APC), which expresses major ... Calderon, B (2014). "The Central Role of Antigen Presentation in Islets of Langerhans in Autoimmune Diabetes". Curr Opin ... Hume, DA (1984). "The mononuclear phagocyte system of the mouse defined by immunohistochemical localization of antigen F4/80: ...
CD11b. Bibliografía[editar , editar a fonte]. *. Stewart M, Thiel M, Hogg N (1996). "Leukocyte integrins.". Curr. Opin. Cell ... Human CD Antigen Chart. *ITGAX Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway ... 1995). "CD23 regulates monocyte activation through a novel interaction with the adhesion molecules CD11b-CD18 and CD11c-CD18 ...
It binds to integrins of type CD11a / CD18, or CD11b / CD18 and is also exploited by rhinovirus as a receptor for entry into ... Katz FE, Parkar M, Stanley K, Murray LJ, Clark EA, Greaves MF (Jan 1985). "Chromosome mapping of cell membrane antigens ... Huang C, Springer TA (Aug 1995). "A binding interface on the I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) ... Lebedeva T, Dustin ML, Sykulev Y (Jun 2005). "ICAM-1 co-stimulates target cells to facilitate antigen presentation". Current ...
Adenylate cyclese toxin binds to target cells by the complement receptor 3 (CD11b/CD18, or Mac-1). Target cell are therefore ... it lowers their capacity to interact with T-cells and present antigen. This has a tolerogenic effect on the T-cell population. ...
Collecting lymphatic vessel permeability facilitates adipose tissue inflammation and distribution of antigen to lymph node- ... supplanting the far less selective CD11b used to identify myeloid cells more generally. Her lab conducted comparisons of mouse ... are involved in the immune response by acting as a site for macrophages and dendritic cells to uptake antigens. The results ... Minimal differentiation of classical monocytes as they survey steady-state tissues and transport antigen to lymph nodes. ...
Mast cell differentiation antigens: expression in normal and malignant cells and use for diagnostic purposes". Eur. J. Clin. ... Characteristically, basophil (e.g. CD11b, CD123) and monocyte markers (CD14, CD15) are absent. The cells usually express CD2 ...
CD11c+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... 1995). "CD23 regulates monocyte activation through a novel interaction with the adhesion molecules CD11b-CD18 and CD11c-CD18". ... "Antigen profiles for the quantitative assessment of eosinophils in mouse tissues by flow cytometry". Journal of Immunological ...
Murao S, Collart FR, Huberman E (1989). "A protein containing the cystic fibrosis antigen is an inhibitor of protein kinases". ... Results in Reduced Interleukin-8-Induced CD11b Surface Expression, a Polarized Microfilament System, and Diminished ...
1996). "CD88 antibodies specifically bind to C5aR on dermal CD117+ and CD14+ cells and react with a desmosomal antigen in human ... CR1 - CR2 - CR3 - CR4 - CD11b/CD11c/CD18 - Anafilatoksin (C3a, C5a). M: LMC ...
This change in shape allows the binding of plasma protein Factor B, which allows Factor D to cleave Factor B into Ba and Bb. Bb remains bound to C3(H2O) to form C3(H2O)Bb. This complex is also known as a fluid-phase C3-convertase. This convertase, the alternative pathway C3-convertase, although only produced in small amounts, can cleave multiple C3 proteins into C3a and C3b. The complex is believed to be unstable until it binds properdin, a serum protein. The addition of properdin forms the complex C3bBbP, a stable compound which can bind an additional C3b to form alternative pathway C5-convertase. The C5-convertase of the alternative pathway consists of (C3b)2BbP (sometimes referred to as C3b2Bb). After the creation of C5 convertase (either as (C3b)2BbP or C4b2a3b from the classical pathway), the complement system follows the same path regardless of the means of activation (alternative, classical, or lectin). C5-convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and C5b. C5b binds sequentially to C6, C7, C8 and ...
Eventually, the antigen presentation results in the production of antibodies that attach to the antigens of pathogens, making ... CD11b, CD64, F4/80 (mice)/EMR1 (human), lysozyme M, MAC-1/MAC-3 and CD68.[6] ... the antigen is endocytosed and processed. The processed antigen is then presented in MHCII on the surface of the B-cell. T ... The antigen presentation on the surface of infected macrophages (in the context of MHC class II) in a lymph node stimulates TH1 ...
CD11bdull, CD117(c-kit)−, CD24−, CD19−, CD80−, CD14−, CD23−, Ly49c−, CD122−, CD11c−, Gr-1−, NK1.1−, B220−, CD3−, γδTCR−, αβTCR− ... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
"IgE-Mediated Enhancement of CD4+ T Cell Responses in Mice Requires Antigen Presentation by CD11c+ Cells and Not by B Cells". ... 1995). "CD23 regulates monocyte activation through a novel interaction with the adhesion molecules CD11b-CD18 and CD11c-CD18". ...
However, positive antinuclear antibody and extractable nuclear antigen (anti-Ro/La) in low titre may be found, even in the ... Patra, V.; Strobl, J.; Gruber‐Wackernagel, A.; Vieyra‐Garcia, P.; Stary, G.; Wolf, P. (2019). "CD 11b + cells markedly express ...
"ICSBP/IRF-8 differentially regulates antigen uptake during dendritic-cell development and affects antigen presentation to CD4+ ... CD11b− cells. In parallel, CD11c+ cells isolated from ICSBP KO spleens were unable to produce type I IFNs in response to viral ...
Antigens, CD11b. A CD Antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 ...
CD11b" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Antigens, CD11b" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Antigens, CD11b" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD11b" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Antigens, CD11b". ...
Integrin alpha-M (CD11b, ΜΑC-1, OX-42 Antigen). Price: $399 Catalog #: MAC. Data Sheet (PDF) ...
CD11b is a 170 kD glycoprotein also known as αM integrin, Mac-1 α subunit, Mol, CR3, and Ly-40. ... Antigen References 1. Barclay A, et al. 1997. The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook Academic Press.. 2. Springer TA. 1994. Cell 76: ... CD11b is a 170 kD glycoprotein also known as αM integrin, Mac-1 α subunit, Mol, CR3, and Ly-40. CD11b is a member of the ... Antigen Details Structure Integrin family, associates with integrin β2 (CD18), 170 kD Distribution Granulocytes, monocytes/ ...
... cells are either selected or depleted by incubating the sample with a biotin conjugated anti-mouse CD11b,sup,+,/sup, antibody ... Antigen Details Gene ID NA UniProt View information about CD11b on ... Mouse CD11b Positive Selection, CD11b Positive selection Ave. Rating Submit a Review Product Citations publications A single ... Mouse CD11b+ cells are either selected or depleted by incubating the sample with a biotin conjugated anti-mouse CD11b+ antibody ...
By using CD64 and MAR-1 staining, we reliably separated CD11b(+) monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) from conventional DCs (cDCs) and ... and studied antigen uptake, migration, and presentation assays of lung and lymph node (LN) DCs in response to inhaled house ... Thus, we have identified migratory CD11b(+) cDCs as the principal subset inducing Th2 cell-mediated immunity in the LN, whereas ... By using CD64 and MAR-1 staining, we reliably separated CD11b(+) monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) from conventional DCs (cDCs) ...
Thus, there is a functional plasticity in the CD11b(+)Ly6C(++)G(-) cell population th … ... An identical CD11b(+)Ly6C(++)G(-) cell population appears to have the ability to adopt immune stimulatory or immune suppressive ... Antigens, Ly / metabolism* * Arginase / metabolism * CD11b Antigen / metabolism* * Calgranulin B / metabolism * Cell ... Arginase I and iNOS expression could be detected in both CD11b(+)Ly6C(+)Ly6G(+) and CD11b(+)Ly6C(+)G(-)/C(++)G(-) derived from ...
The CD11b is purified by proprietary technologyary technonlogyary chromatographic techniques. ... CD11b Human Recombinant (aa 936-1154) expressed in E.coli, shows a 52 kDa band on SDS-PAGE. ... CD11b antigen, ITGAM, CR3A, MO1A, CD11B, MAC-1, MAC1A, MGC117044.. Product Order. C. Formulation. CD11b in 50mM Tris-Acetate, ... CD11b Human Recombinant (aa 936-1154) expressed in E.coli, shows a 52 kDa band on SDS-PAGE. The CD11b is purified by ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about CD11b Rat anti-Mouse, FITC, Clone: M1/70, eBioscience 500 µg; FITC 500 ... M1/70 is also cross-reactive to human CD11b, and can be used for the detection of this antigen on human peripheral blood ... Description: The M1/70 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD11b, the 165-170 kDa integrin alphaM. CD11b non-covalently ... The CD11b/CD18 heterodimeric complex is also known as integrin alpha-M beta-2, Mac-1, and CR3 (complement receptor 3). CD11b is ...
The CD11b (or macrophage-1 antigen; MAC-1) subunit of the leukocyte integrin family forms a noncovalently associated ... To study the regulation of CD11b expression, a genomic clone corresponding to the 5 region of the CD11b gene was isolated from ... Identification of the promoter of the myelomonocytic leukocyte integrin CD11b. D D Hickstein, D M Baker, K A Gollahon, A L Back ... Identification of the promoter of the myelomonocytic leukocyte integrin CD11b. D D Hickstein, D M Baker, K A Gollahon, A L Back ...
White cell differentiation antigens. W. Knapp, and B. Dörken, and W. R. Gilks, and E. P. Rieber, and R. E. Schmidt, and H. ... Surface expression of CD11b and CD18 of imMDCs and maMDCs at day 7. Shaded histograms represent the binding of CD11b- and CD18- ... The key role of CR3 in efficient uptake of opsonized HIV by imMDCs was proven by inhibition with CD11b-specific mAbs. We also ... Briefly, 5 × 104 cells were washed with 1% BSA-0,1% NaN3-PBS and incubated with Abs reacting with CD80, CD86, CD83, CD11b, ...
PDL2+ CD11b+ dermal dendritic cells capture topical antigen through hair follicles to prime LAP+ Tregs *Leticia Tordesillas ... Rights & permissionsfor article PDL2,sup,+,/sup, CD11b,sup,+,/sup, dermal dendritic cells capture topical antigen through hair ...
Detection of the CD11b antigen. Mouse anti-human CD11b-PC5 antibody (10 μl) was added to a 100 μl cell suspension (∼5×105 cells ... The expression of the CD11b antigen was detected by flow cytometry (FC500, Beckman Coulter). ... The myeloid differentiation antigen CD11b was measured by flow cytometry in NB4 cells after treatment with MLN4924 (40 nM) for ... MLN4924 promotes the expression of CD11b and enhances ATRA induced differentiation of NB4 cells. (A) ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal CD11b antibody [EPR1344]. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. Cited in 119 ... Ab133357 staining CD11b in paraffin embedded Mouse lung tissue sections by Immunohistochemistry. Heat mediated antigen ... Ab133357 staining CD11b in paraffin embedded Mouse colon tissue sections by Immunohistochemistry. Heat mediated antigen ... Ab133357 staining CD11b in paraffin embedded Rat cerebrum tissue sections by Immunohistochemistry. Heat mediated antigen ...
Memory has 2 primary features, antigen specificity and an amplified response upon subsequent antigen exposure. Cellular ... CD11b, CD11c, gp49B, and B220 (Fig. 1B and Fig. S2) and cytokine receptors CD122 (IL2/15 Rβ chain), IL-15Rα, IL-12Rβ1, and ... Proapoptotic Bim regulates antigen-specific NK cell contraction and the generation of the memory NK cell pool after ... These findings do not rule out the potential for antigen-driven NK cell memory, but strongly suggest it is not required for ...
CD11b Antibody Super Bright 780 conjugate (ICRF44), 78-0118-41, from Invitrogen. Species Reactivity: Baboon, Chimpanzee, ... Antigen. CD11b. Target Species. Baboon, Chimpanzee, Cynomolgus Monkey, Human, Rhesus Monkey. Isotype. IgG1, kappa. ... The CD11b/CD18 heterodimeric complex is also known as integrin alpha-M beta-2, Mac-1, and CR3 (complement receptor 3). CD11b is ... CD11b is expressed on 8% of spleen cells, 44% of bone marrow cells, and less than 1% of thymocytes, and is ...
Macrophage-1 Antigen / metabolism*. Monocytes / drug effects, metabolism. Myeloid Cells / cytology, drug effects, metabolism. ... D(3)-induced CD11b expression occurred at a similar rate even in G1 cells that were held at the G1/S boundary by thymidine. In ... Cell proliferation and CD11b expression are controlled independently during HL60 cell differentiation initiated by 1,25 alpha- ... Cells treated with D(3) or ATRA start to express CD11b after 9--14 h, before completing the first maturation division. ...
CD11b, Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and Fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1), 5-d-4 antigen; Schwann cell markers: Schwann cell myelin protein ... Phage expressing an antigen binding domain that binds the antigen of interest can be selected or identified with antigen, e.g ... ELISAs comprise preparing antigen (i.e. neural biomarker), coating the well of a 96 well microtiter plate with the antigen, ... CD11b, Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and Fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1), 5-d-4 antigen; Schwann cell markers: Schwann cell myelin protein ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD11b Antibody (C11b/660) [DyLight 405LS]. Microglia Marker, Macrophage Marker. Validated: ELISA, Flow, ... Alternate Names for CD11b Antibody (C11b/660) [DyLight 405LS]. *antigen CD11b (p170) ... Blogs on CD11b. Check out the latest blog posts on CD11b.. Topics in CD11b: The innate immune response Integrins are ... CD11b. *CD11Bintegrin, alpha M (complement component receptor 3, alpha; also known as CD11b(p170), macrophage antigen alpha ...
Rat Monoclonal Anti-CD11b Antibody (5C6) [Alexa Fluor® 488]. Microglia Marker, Myeloid Marker. Validated: Flow. Tested ... Alternate Names for CD11b Antibody (5C6) [Alexa Fluor® 488]. *antigen CD11b (p170) ... Blogs on CD11b. Check out the latest blog posts on CD11b.. Topics in CD11b: The innate immune response Integrins are ... CD11b. *CD11Bintegrin, alpha M (complement component receptor 3, alpha; also known as CD11b(p170), macrophage antigen alpha ...
The M1/70 antibody reacts with CD11b, an ~170 kDa type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein which associates non-covalently with CD18 ... Human Leukocyte Antigen Analysis * Hybridoma and Cell Line Development * Immunology * Intestinal Research ... CD11b is expressed on the surface of granulocytes, monocytes, NK cells, dendritic cells, tissue macrophages, and subsets of T ... CD11b is a relatively late marker for myeloid differentiation and is undetectable on most myelomonocytic hematopoietic ...
CD11b (integrin aM) is a marker to distinguish naïve and memory CD8+ T cells. Mouse monoclonal Ab clone ICRF44 has been ... human antibody CD11b ICRF44,human antibody CD11b clone ICRF44 ,clone ICRF44,ICRF44,CD11b antibody,CD11b ICRF44,CD11b antibody ... CD11b is expressed on the surface of granulocytes, monocytes, NK cells, dendritic cells, tissue macrophages, and subsets of T ... Target Antigen:. CD11b. Alternative Names:. C3biR, CR3, Integrin αM chain, Mac-1, MAC1, Mo1 ...
The following antibodies recognizing the indicated antigens were used: CD45 (30-F11; catalog 103129; BioLegend), CD11b (M1/70; ... CD11b+CD11c-Gr1-F4/80+), NK cells (CD11b+CD11c-F4/80-NKp46+), and CD4+ TILs (CD11b-CD4+CD8-) (Figure 3A). Consistent with our ... CD11bhiNKp46-) including DCs (CD45+CD11bhiNKp46-CD11c+) and TAMs (CD45+CD11bhiNKp46-CD11c-), and modest expression of TLR4 on ... CD11b-CD4+CD25+FOXP3+) and MDSCs (CD11b+Gr1+) (Supplemental Figure 7), suggesting that combination therapy using U3-1402 and ...
3 G, bottom), the CD11b−CD8α− subset presented antigen to both CD8 and CD4 T cells, whereas the CD11b−CD8α+ resident DCs ... pDCs are CD11b−CD11cint cells expressing SiglecH and bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (recognized by the mAbs mouse pDC antigen 1 ... were CD11b+. After infection with influenza virus X-31, a significant increase in both CD11b+ (Fig. 1 A) and CD11b− (Fig. 1 B) ... CD11b+ DCs starting at 2 dpi, and the increase was more pronounced in the CD11b+ subset. Within the CD11b−CD11chi cells, there ...
Order this anti-CD11b antibody. , Product number ABIN135738 ... Mouse Monoclonal CD11b antibody for FACS, IHC. Published in 2 ... Antigen Integrin alpha M (ITGAM) show synonyms for this antigen * CD11b/CD18 ... anti-CD11b antibody (Integrin alpha M) (PE) CD11b antibody (Integrin alpha M) (PE). Details for Product anti-ITGAM Antibody No ... anti-Human CD11b antibody for Biochemical Assay Show more 3 anti-Human CD11b antibody for Biochemical Assay ...
CD11b Antikörper für Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)) vergleichen & kaufen. ... Antigen Integrin alpha M (ITGAM) Antikörper Synonyme für dieses Antigen anzeigen * CD11b/CD18 ... Produktdetails anti-CD11b Antikörper Target Details CD11b Handhabung Referenzen für anti-CD11b Antikörper (ABIN730918) Bilder ... Produktdetails anti-CD11b Antikörper Target Details CD11b Anwendungsinformationen Handhabung Referenzen für anti-CD11b ...
CD11b antibody for Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)). ... Antigen Integrin alpha M (ITGAM) Antibodies show synonyms for this antigen * CD11b/CD18 ... Product Details anti-CD11b Antibody Target Details CD11b Handling References for anti-CD11b antibody (ABIN730918) Images back ... Product Details anti-CD11b Antibody Target Details CD11b Application Details Handling References for anti-CD11b antibody ( ...
Antigen Expression MAC-1 (CD11b) +; MAC-2 +; Fc receptor (FcR) +; Ly-5 +; Thy-1 -; Lyt-1 - ... They are phagocytic, non-specific esterase positive and they express macrophage Mac-1 antigens and Fc receptors. ... MAC-1 (CD11b) +; MAC-2 +; Fc receptor (FcR) +; Ly-5 +; Thy-1 -; Lyt-1 - ... They are phagocytic, non-specific esterase positive and they express macrophage Mac-1 antigens and Fc receptors. ...
CD11b-AF700 (clone M1/70; BioLegend), pan-NK-Pacific Blue (clone DX5; BioLegend), CD3-PE-Cy5 (clone 145-2C11; BD Pharmingen), ... Antigen expression determines adenoviral vaccine potency independent of IFN and STING signaling. Kylie M. Quinn,1 Daniel E. Zak ... Prior studies have shown that certain rAds can differ with respect to antigen (Ag) expression levels in vivo and their innate ... Type-I IFN signaling is required for the induction of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses by adenovirus vector vaccine in ...
Myeloid antigen expression was found in 25% of patients. Expression of myeloid antigen in B-lineage leukemia was 27%, and in T- ... In the whole cohort of patients we did not find a significant association between myeloid antigen expression and survival, ... In conclusion, in the Indonesian ALL population, in particular, myeloid antigen-expressing T-ALL patients had a higher chance ... The clinical relevance of myeloid antigen expression in childhood ALL is controversial. In Indonesian patients, no data were ...
  • When combined with CD18 the two subunits form Macrophage-1 Antigen . (
  • CD11b non-covalently associates with CD18 (β2 integrin) to form Mac-1. (
  • CD11b non-covalently associates with CD18 to form alphaMbeta2 integrin (Mac-1) and binds to CD54 (ICAM-1), C3bi, and fibrinogen. (
  • CD11b (integrin alpha-M, ITGAM, integrin alpha-X, ITGAX) is a 165 kDa adhesion molecule that associates non-covalently with integrin beta-2 (CD18). (
  • The CD11b/CD18 heterodimeric complex is also known as integrin alpha-M beta-2, Mac-1, and CR3 (complement receptor 3). (
  • The M1/70 antibody reacts with CD11b, an ~170 kDa type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein which associates non-covalently with CD18 to form the heterodimeric Mac-1 receptor. (
  • CD11b is the 165 kDa M chain which combines with the CD18 2 integrin subunit to form the Mac-1 heterodimer. (
  • The integrin CD11b/CD18 (also known as Mac-1), which is a heterodimer of the α M (CD11b) and β 2 (CD18) subunits, is critical for leukocyte adhesion and migration and for immune functions. (
  • Here, we used an alternative strategy of inhibiting leukocyte recruitment by activating CD11b/CD18 with small-molecule agonists, which we term leukadherins. (
  • integrin αM chain), which is part of the CD11b/CD18 heterodimer (Mac-1 α, Mβ2 integrin), also known as the C3 complement receptor. (
  • It combines with the CD18 antigen (integrin β2 subunit) to build the integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18, αMβ2, CR3, iC3bR, Mo-1). (
  • Expression of the CD11b chain on the cell surface requires the presence of the CD18 antigen (also known as β2 integrin chain). (
  • Together, these two subunits create the CD11b/CD18 integrin, one of the four integrin heterodimers that can be built by the association of CD18 β chain with four distinctive CD11 α chains. (
  • CD11b/CD18 is highly expressed on NK Cells, neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages. (
  • These results suggest that LSP1 regulates the function of Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18), which binds only to fibrinogen and ICAM-1 among the substrates we tested. (
  • Macrophage-1 antigen (or integrin αMβ2 or macrophage integrin or Mac-1) is a complement receptor ("CR3") consisting of CD11b (integrin αM) and CD18 (integrin β2). (
  • Macrophage-1 antigen (hereafter complement receptor 3 or CR3) (CD11b/CD18) is a human cell surface receptor found on B and T lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (mostly neutrophils), NK cells, and mononuclear phagocytes like macrophages. (
  • CR3 CD11b/CD18 Macrophage 1 antigen (Mac-1) Macrophage Todd R (1996). (
  • Fagerholm SC, Varis M, Stefanidakis M, Hilden TJ, Gahmberg CG: alpha-Chain phosphorylation of the human leukocyte CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1) integrin is pivotal for integrin activation to bind ICAMs and leukocyte extravasation. (
  • Diamond MS, Springer TA: A subpopulation of Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) molecules mediates neutrophil adhesion to ICAM-1 and fibrinogen. (
  • ADH-503 is an allosteric agonist of integrin CD11b/CD18 (also known as Mac-1) with an EC50 value of 4 mM. (
  • Three CD11 alpha chains and a common CD18 beta chain form heterodimer transmembrane complexes (CD11a/CD18, CD11b/CD18, CD11c/CD18). (
  • ICAM1 binds to integrins such as CD11a / CD18, or CD11b / CD18. (
  • 4,5 Lovastatin affects the β2 integrin family of proteins by preventing the formation of CD11b/CD18 heterodimers on monocytes. (
  • 2 In addition, fluvastatin inhibits the expression of lymphocyte function-associated antigen (CD11a/CD18) and ICAM-1 on human monocytic cell lines. (
  • Mouse CD11b + cells are either selected or depleted by incubating the sample with a biotin conjugated anti-mouse CD11b + antibody and then magnetic streptavidin nanobeads. (
  • Volume of biotin antibody and streptavidin nanobeads should be adjusted depending on the different tissue of CD11b + cells to be isolated. (
  • Description: The M1/70 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD11b, the 165-170 kDa integrin alphaM. (
  • There are no publications for CD11b Antibody (NBP2-34573V3). (
  • Flow cytometry analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) labeled with Anti-Human CD11b Antibody, Clone ICRF44, Alexa Fluor® 488 (filled histogram) or a mouse IgG1, kappa Alexa Fluor® 488 isotype control antibody (solid line histogram). (
  • Human U937 cells probed with CD11b/c Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated ) (0.2ug) for 30 minutes followed by incubation with a PE Conjugated secondary (green) for 30 minutes compared to control unstained cells (blue), secondary only (light blue) and isotype control (orange). (
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: CD11b Monoclonal Antibody (M1/70.15) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA1-80485, RRID AB_927472. (
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: CD11b Monoclonal Antibody (M1/70), eFluor 450, eBioscience™ from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 48-0112-82, RRID AB_1582236. (
  • Clone REAL744 is an antibody fragment derived from the full CD11b antibody molecule. (
  • Beyond antigen recognition, antibody class determines immune function and antibody affinity controls the sensitivity of memory B cells. (
  • FACS analysis of rat peritoneal macrophages using GTX76058 CD11b antibody [OX-42] (Low endotoxin, azide free). (
  • IHC-Fr staining of rat lymph node with Mouse anti Rat CD11b antibody (GTX76058), red in A and Mouse anti Rat CD8 (GTX41831), green in B. C is the merged image with nuclei counter-stained in blue using DAPI. (
  • IHC-Fr analysis of rat lymph node tissue using GTX76058 CD11b antibody [OX-42] (Low endotoxin, azide free). (
  • CD11b antibody LS-C253864 is an AP-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human CD11b (ITGAM) (aa253-282). (
  • This CD11b antibody is generated from rabbits immunized with a KLH conjugated synthetic peptide between 253-282 amino acids from the N-terminal region of human CD11b. (
  • The mouse monoclonal antibody CBRM1/5 recognizes an activation-dependent epitope on CD11b (Mac-1alpha), a 165-170 kDa type 1 transmembrane protein mainly expressed on monocytes, granulocytes and NK-cells. (
  • The antibody recognizes a subset of CD11b molecules on neutrophils and monocytes activated with chemoattractants or phorbol esters and does not recognize CD11b on non-activated cells. (
  • The rat monoclonal antibody M1/70 detects CD11b (integrin alphaM subunit), a type I transmembrane protein mainly expressed on monocytes/macrophages, granulocytes and NK-cells, which associates with CD18 to form Mac-1 integrin that plays important role in cell-cell interactions. (
  • Description: The M1/70 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD11b, the 165-170kDa integrin alphaM. (
  • Through interactions with its ligands, CD11b participates in adhesive cell interactions.Applications Reported: The M1/70 antibody has been reported for use in flow cytometric analysis.Applications Tested: The M1/70 antibody has been tested by flow cytometric analysis of mouse splenocytes and bone marrow cells. (
  • The monoclonal antibody (MAb) IL-A15, which recognizes CD11b, reacted with a high proportion of parasitized cells in sections of tissues from infected cattle at all stages of acute disease. (
  • antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens are decreased and antibody responses to protein antigens are slightly reduced. (
  • Small volumes of anti-CD11b antibody vial(s) may occasionally become entrapped in the seal of the product vial during shipment and storage. (
  • Immunoperoxidase staining of mouse lymph node cryosection using Rat anti Mouse CD11b antibody followed by horseradish peroxidase conjugated Goat anti Rat IgG (MBS235195). (
  • THP-1 cells were subjected to SDS PAGE followed by western blot with 66519-1-Ig (CD11B/Integrin alpha M antibody) at dilution of 1:2000 incubated at room temperature for 1.5 hours. (
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human tonsillitis tissue slide using 66519-1-Ig (CD11B/Integrin alpha M antibody) at dilution of 1:1000 (under 40x lens. (
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human tonsillitis tissue slide using 66519-1-Ig (CD11B/Integrin alpha M antibody) at dilution of 1:1000 (under 10x lens. (
  • Immunofluorescent analysis of (4% PFA) fixed human tonsillitis tissue using 66519-1-Ig (CD11B/Integrin alpha M antibody) at dilution of 1:100 and CoraLite488-Conjugated AffiniPure Goat Anti-Mouse IgG(H+L). (
  • 1X10^6 THP-1 cells were stained with 0.20ug CD11B/Integrin alpha M antibody (66519-1-Ig, red) and control antibody (blue). (
  • Diseases associated with CD11b dysfunction include systemic lupus erythematosus 6 and ITGAM-related susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus. (
  • Expression changes indicate a shift towards mature B cells, inhibition of cell cycling and increased expression of adhesion (CD11b/ITGAM) and cytokine (CD119/IFNGR1) receptors. (
  • Human peripheral blood cells after erythrocyte lysis were stained with CD11b antibodies or with the corresponding REA Control (S) antibodies (left image) as well as with CD14 antibodies. (
  • The antibodies were prepared against human leukocyte differentiation antigens. (
  • See our complete line of Immunohistochemistry Reagents including antigen retrieval solutions, blocking agents ABC Detection Kits and polymers, biotinylated secondary antibodies, substrates and more. (
  • We aimed to compare immuno-PET of antibodies to IL-1β and CD11b against standard 18 F-FDG and MRI approaches to detect colonic inflammation. (
  • Immuno-PET using antibodies directed to innate immune markers detected colonic inflammation, with 89 Zr-α-IL-1β providing a more tissue-specific signal than 89 Zr-α-CD11b. (
  • Springer T, Galfrè G, Secher DS, Milstein C: Monoclonal xenogeneic antibodies to murine cell surface antigens: identification of novel leukocyte differentiation antigens. (
  • Bovine cells from cattle infected with Theileria annulata were phenotyped with monoclonal antibodies recognizing bovine leukocyte antigens. (
  • It is almost uniformly associated with antibodies against common neutrophil antigens, including human neutrophil antigen 1 (HNA1), human neutrophil antigen 2 (HNA2), CD11b, and FCγRIIIb. (
  • C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow cells were stained with CD11b (clone M1/70) Alexa Fluor® 488 (filled histogram) or rat IgG2b Alexa Fluor® 488 isotype control (open histogram) (gated on total cell population). (
  • Then the section was stained with 2.5 µg/ml of CD11b (clone M1/70) Alexa Fluor® 488 (green), and co-stained with 5 µg/ml of CD3 (clone 17A2) Alexa Fluor® 647 (cyan) and 5 µg/ml of CD45R/B220 (clone RA3-6B2) Alexa Fluor® 594 (red) overnight at 4°C. The image was captured with a 10X objective. (
  • Cells were stained with anti-mouse CD11b + (clone M1/70) APC, Ly-6G/Ly-6C (Gr-1) PE. (
  • Cells were stained with anti-mouse CD11b + (clone M1/70) APC and P2RY12 (clone S16007D) PE. (
  • To study the regulation of CD11b expression, a genomic clone corresponding to the 5' region of the CD11b gene was isolated from a human chromosome 16 library. (
  • CD11b is a member of the integrin family, primarily expressed on granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, and subsets of T and B cells. (
  • A single cell suspension from C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow was prepared for the positive selection of CD11b + cells using the MojoSort™ Mouse CD11b + Selection Kit. (
  • Left plot: CD11b + cells after isolation. (
  • Right plot: CD11b + cells after isolation. (
  • After collection of the CD11b + expressing cells, downstream applications include functional assays, gene expression, phenotypic characterization, etc. (
  • This kit is designed for the positive selection or depletion of mouse CD11b + cells from mouse bone marrow, lymphoid tissue, lung and brain, among other organs. (
  • Mainly CD11b(+) cDCs but not CD103(+) cDCs induced T helper 2 (Th2) cell immunity in HDM-specific T cells in vitro and asthma in vivo. (
  • CD11b(+)Ly6C(++) and Ly6G(+) cells were isolated from spleen, tumor tissue or inflammatory granulomas. (
  • S100A9 was shown to be expressed mainly in splenic CD11b(+)Ly6C(+)G(+) cells both at the RNA and protein level. (
  • CD11b(+) cells isolated from mice with peritoneal chronic inflammation were able to stimulate T lymphocytes, while CD11b+ cells from mice with peritoneal tumors suppressed T cell growth. (
  • M1/70 is also cross-reactive to human CD11b, and can be used for the detection of this antigen on human peripheral blood monocytes, granulocytes, and a subset of NK cells. (
  • CD11b is expressed on the surface of monocytes/macrophages, granulocytes, activated lymphocytes, a subset of NK cells, a subset of dendritic cells, and microglia in the brain. (
  • Expression of the CD11b subunit is restricted to cells of the myelomonocytic lineage and depends upon the stage of differentiation with the most mature myeloid cells expressing the highest levels of CD11b. (
  • Detailed characterization of the CD11b promoter sequence should provide insight into the molecular events regulating the tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific expression of the CD11b molecule in myelomonocytic cells. (
  • It has been shown that dendritic cells (DCs) in normal human skin as well as monocyte-derived DCs (MDCs) differentiated in vitro express CD11b ( 8 ). (
  • By contrast, adaptive immune cells display immunologic memory that has 2 basic characteristics, antigen specificity and an amplified response upon subsequent exposure. (
  • Whereas adaptive immune cells have rearranged receptor genes to recognize the universe of antigens, natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune lymphocytes with a limited repertoire of germ-line encoded receptors for target recognition. (
  • Thus, these experiments identify an ability of innate immune cells to retain an intrinsic memory of prior activation, a function until now attributed only to antigen-specific adaptive immune cells. (
  • Cells treated with D(3) or ATRA start to express CD11b after 9--14 h, before completing the first maturation division. (
  • Following D(3) treatment, the G1-enriched small cells expressed CD11b slightly faster than unsynchronized cultures or fractions dominated by late G1 cells and/or S phase cells. (
  • D(3)-induced CD11b expression occurred at a similar rate even in G1 cells that were held at the G1/S boundary by thymidine. (
  • CD11b is expressed on the surface of granulocytes, monocytes, NK cells, dendritic cells, tissue macrophages, and subsets of T and B cells, and has been used as a marker to distinguish naïve and memory CD8+ T cells. (
  • CD11b is a relatively late marker for myeloid differentiation and is undetectable on most myelomonocytic hematopoietic progenitor cells and more primitive cells. (
  • The frequency of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients expressing myeloid antigens on their ALL cells varies between 5 and 36% in several different studies. (
  • In a murine model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), Ly6C hi monocytes migrate into the CNS and further differentiate into antigen-presenting cells (APCs) during disease progression. (
  • Moreover, monocyte-derived APCs express surface markers associated with both dendritic cells and macrophages, and have a significant up-regulation of genes that are critical for antigen presentation. (
  • Although dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in mediating protection against influenza virus, the precise role of lung DC subsets, such as CD11b − and CD11b + conventional DCs or plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), in different lung compartments is currently unknown. (
  • In the MLNs, the CD11b + DCs contained abundant viral nucleoprotein (NP), but these cells failed to present antigen to CD4 or CD8 T cells, whereas resident CD11b − CD8α + DCs presented to CD8 cells, and migratory CD11b − CD8α − DCs presented to CD4 and CD8 T cells. (
  • When lung CD11c hi DCs and macrophages or langerin + CD11b − CD11c hi DCs were depleted using either CD11c-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) or langerin-DTR mice, the development of virus-specific CD8 + T cells was severely delayed, which correlated with increased clinical severity and a delayed viral clearance. (
  • By expressing a wide array of microbial pattern recognition receptors shared with cells of the innate immune response, and at the same time displaying the potential to process and present antigen to naive T cells, DCs bridge innate and adaptive immunity. (
  • After recognizing foreign antigen in the periphery of the body, DCs migrate via afferent lymphatics into the draining LNs, where they can induce antigen-specific protective CD8 CTL responses, as well as CD4 T helper cells that enforce cellular and humoral immunity ( 6 ). (
  • In the lung, DCs are situated in immediate proximity to the respiratory epithelial cells, where they form an elaborate network that rapidly reacts to all kinds of foreign antigens and inflammatory stimuli, including respiratory viruses ( 7 - 10 ). (
  • These cells have been shown to express langerin and CD103 while lacking expression of CD11b ( 13 , 10 , 15 ). (
  • In the submucosa of the conducting airways, CD103 − CD11b + CD11c + cDCs can be found, particularly under conditions of inflammation, and these cells might be particularly suited for priming and restimulating effector CD4 cells in the lung in response to protein antigens ( 19 , 20 , 15 ). (
  • CD11b is expressed on 8% of spleen cells, 44% of bone marrow cells, and less than 1% of thymocytes, and is commonly used as a microglial marker in nervous tissue. (
  • RBP4 activates antigen-presenting cells, leading to adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance. (
  • These effects result from direct activation of AT antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by RBP4 through a JNK-dependent pathway. (
  • It functions as a receptor for complement (C3bi), fibrinogen, or clotting factor X. In humans, CD11b is strongly expressed on myeloid cells and weakly expressed on NK cells and some activated lymphocytes as well as on microglia in the brain. (
  • Each phase involves antigen recognition by specific B cells and contact with cognate T follicular helper (T FH ) cells. (
  • Initial commitment to the memory B cell pathway occurs before germinal centre (GC) formation, following first contact with antigen-specific T FH cells (pre-GC phase). (
  • Following antigen recall, memory B cells require regulation by antigen-specific T FH cells to proliferate and differentiate into memory-response plasma cells (memory phase). (
  • Antigen-specific T FH cells regulate each phase of development and consolidate memory B cell fate in high-affinity pre-memory and memory B cells. (
  • The development of high-affinity B cell memory is regulated through three separable phases, each involving antigen recognition by specific B cells and cognate T helper cells. (
  • Initially, antigen-primed B cells require cognate T cell help to gain entry into the germinal centre pathway to memory. (
  • Once in the germinal centre, B cells with variant B cell receptors must access antigens and present them to germinal centre T helper cells to enter long-lived memory B cell compartments. (
  • Following antigen recall, memory B cells require T cell help to proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells. (
  • Pape, K. A., Catron, D. M., Itano, A. A. & Jenkins, M. K. The humoral immune response is initiated in lymph nodes by B cells that acquire soluble antigen directly in the follicles. (
  • Batista, F. D. & Harwood, N. E. The who, how and where of antigen presentation to B cells. (
  • Carrasco, Y. R. & Batista, F. D. B cells acquire particulate antigen in a macrophage-rich area at the boundary between the follicle and the subcapsular sinus of the lymph node. (
  • Efficient vaccination against infectious agents and tumors depends on specific antigen targeting to dendritic cells (DCs). (
  • We report here that biosafe coronavirus-based vaccine vectors facilitate delivery of multiple antigens and immunostimulatory cytokines to professional antigen-presenting cells in vitro and in vivo . (
  • This study describes a novel vaccine approach that facilitates delivery of viral or tumor antigens to dendritic cells in vivo . (
  • Moreover, highly efficient antigen delivery to human DCs with recombinant human coronavirus 229E and specific stimulation of human CD8 + T cells revealed that this approach is exceptionally well suited for translation into human vaccine studies. (
  • The use of dendritic cells as host cells enables effective presentation of RNA-encoded antigens in the presence of key factors for induction of potent immune responses. (
  • An alternative strategy pursues direct in vivo administration of antigen-encoding RNA, under the assumption that the cells at the administration site internalize, translate, and present the antigen. (
  • However, induction of antigen-specific CD8 + T cells in patients was moderate ( 8 ), and CD4 + T-cell activity has not been reported. (
  • Moreover, we achieved significant leverage of MHC class I and, importantly, class II presentation of the encoded antigen in dendritic cells by flanking it with a secretion signal (sec) and the transmembrane and cytosolic domains of MHC class I (MITD) molecules ( 10 ). (
  • Epitope-specific regulation of memory programming by differential duration of antigen presentation to influenza-specific CD8(+) T cells. (
  • Nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CD8(+) T cells encountered antigen on CD40-licensed, CD70-expressing, CD103(-)CD11b(hi) dendritic cells (DCs) at later times in the primary response. (
  • In contrast, polymerase (PA)-specific CD8(+) T cells did not encounter antigen-bearing, CD40-activated DCs at later times in the primary response, did not receive CD27 and CD25 signals, and were not programmed to become memory CD8(+) T cells with strong proliferative and cytokine-producing ability. (
  • As a result, CD8(+) T cells responding to abundant antigens, like NP, dominated the secondary response. (
  • determined that PVSRIPO stimulates anticancer immunity by two mechanisms: lysing tumor cells to release a mix of tumor and viral antigens, as well as sublethally infecting antigen-presenting cells and thereby stimulating an interferon-driven immune response in the tumor microenvironment. (
  • At the same time, sublethal infection of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, yields potent, sustained type I interferon-dominant activation in an immunosuppressed microenvironment and promotes the development of tumor antigen-specific T cell responses in vitro and antitumor immunity in vivo. (
  • Colonic concentrations of IL-1β and myeloperoxidase were determined by ELISA, and colonic infiltration by CD11b-positive CD3-negative innate immune cells was determined by flow cytometry and compared between healthy and dextran sodium sulphate-treated colitic mice. (
  • Mouse microglial cell lines differing in constitutive and interferon-gamma-inducible antigen-presenting activities for naive and memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. (
  • These cells constitutively expressed high levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens but unlike EOC-20 (CRL-2469) expression was not upregulated by recombinant murine interferon-gamma. (
  • Vectors restricting transgene expression in antigen-presenting cells showed that endogenous presentation of transgene products was the sole mechanism responsible for T-cell priming in normal mice, whereas additional and protracted antigenic presentation occurred in dystrophic animals, leading to secondary CD4+ T-cell activation and failure to maintain transgene expression. (
  • In order to increase the efficacy of DNA vaccination, HA was targeted to either major histocompatibility complex class II molecules or chemokine receptors 1, 3, and 5 (CCR1/3/5) that are expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APC). (
  • Furthermore, the APC-targeted vaccines increased the levels of antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells, and a single DNA vaccination could confer protection against a lethal challenge with influenza A/turkey/Italy/3889/1999 (H7N1) in mice. (
  • In order to broad- en the array of tools for cell-based autologous therapies, we iso- lated a novel renewable stem cell population from the adult testes that has characteristics of MSCs, termed gonadal stem cells (GSCs). (
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results document an innate-driven Mycobacterium tuberculosis MA-triggered immune regulatory mechanism in control of pulmonary allergic responses by converting macrophages into IFN-gamma-dependent tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells. (
  • BMD Gr-1 + CD11b + cells function as immune suppressor cells and contribute significantly to tumor-induced neovascularization. (
  • Here we report that Gr-1 + CD11b + cells also contribute to injury-induced neovascularization, but show altered recruitment/retention kinetics in the diabetic environment. (
  • Moreover, diabetic-derived Gr-1 + CD11b + cells fail to stimulate neovascularization in vivo and have aberrant proliferative, chemotaxis, adhesion, and differentiation potential. (
  • Here we show that sustained expression of Hoxa3 in diabetic-derived BMD Gr-1 + CD11b + cells reverses their diabetic phenotype. (
  • Gr-1 + CD11b + cells are a subset of BMD myeloid cells that are recruited to tumors in vivo and can function as immune suppressor cells with proangiogenic capacity in the tumor microenvironment. (
  • Dembic Z, Schenck K, Bogen B: Dendritic cells purified from myeloma are primed with tumor-specific antigen (idiotype) and activate CD4+ T cells. (
  • The foam cells of monocyte/macrophage origin are positive for KP1, HAM56, CD11b and CD68 as pointed out by Nakashiro et al. (
  • Cells treated with both TMP and As 2 O 3 expressed far more CD11b antigens, almost 2-fold compared with the control group. (
  • Moreover, partial activation of CD11b by ADH-503 leads to the repolarization of tumor-associated macrophages, reduction in the number of tumor-infiltrating immunosuppressive myeloid cells, and enhanced dendritic cell responses. (
  • For, while the pattern of leukocyte antigens expressed by these in vivo-derived schizont-infected cells, which included CD11b, was indicative of a myeloid origin, the possibility that they were NK cells could not be excluded. (
  • Mononuclear cells infected with parasites at all stages of differentiation, from macroschizont to microschizont, expressed CD11b. (
  • XCR1+ and CD8+cells work together to cross-present antigen and communicate CD8+ activation. (
  • Naive CD8+ T cells are prepared when tumors form by cross-presentation via XCR1+ DCs and as a result will require a lower threshold to respond to antigen. (
  • Targeted delivery of a long peptide antigen to TAMs by using a nano-sized hydrogel (nanogel) in the presence of a TLR agonist activated TAMs, induced their antigen-presenting activity, and thereby transformed the resistant tumors into tumors sensitive to adaptive immune responses such as adoptive transfer of tumor-specific T cell receptor-engineered T cells. (
  • [ 3 ] Thus, it enhances and prolongs antigen signaling on B cells. (
  • Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are scattered throughout the body in lymphoid organs and at the portals of pathogen entry, where they act as sentinels of the immune system. (
  • Although in some reports rotavirus antigen and/or RNA was detected in the central nervous systems, lungs, kidneys, spleens, heart, testes, bladders, and pancreases of selected severely ill children ( 19 , 20 ), homologous rotavirus replication has generally been considered to be restricted to the terminally differentiated epithelial cells of the small intestinal villi. (
  • To induce a protective cell type (CD8+ T cells) following virus infection, it is necessary to present degraded fragments of viral protein in complex with self molecules on the surface of so-called antigen presenting cells (APC). (
  • The importance of this work lies in the fact that, if infected cells present way more antigen than uninfected cells, successful vaccine design should utilize this observation to make a vaccine where infected cells expressing virus proteins are the prevalent mode of induction of CD8+ T cells. (
  • Activation of these cells by professional antigen presenting cells (pAPC) is a vital step in generation of an effective adaptive immune response. (
  • Notably, alphaB-crystallin is prominently expressed in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells (IMCs), known as regulators of angiogenesis and immune responses, while lymphocytes and mature granulocytes show low alphaB-crystallin expression. (
  • Through ex vivo differentiation of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) cells, we provide evidence that alphaB-crystallin regulates systemic expansion of IMCs through a cell-intrinsic mechanism. (
  • The expression of CD11b increases during monocyte maturation and expression levels vary on tissue macrophages. (
  • Further, peritoneal macrophages are reported to express higher levels of CD11b than splenic macrophages. (
  • Indicative of a macrophage-mediated tolerogenic antigen-presenting function, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched donor macrophages failed to promote tolerance. (
  • Macrophages and T lymphocytes demonstrated a marked expression of HLA-DR antigen. (
  • We identified antigen presentation by CD11b+F4/80+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) as a key factor correlated with immune resistance. (
  • Enhanced infection is completely abolished by a mAb specific for the ligand-binding site of CD11b (i.e., α-chain of complement receptor 3, receptor for iC3b), proving the importance of complement receptor 3 in this process. (
  • CD11b is a cell adhesion molecule that acts as a receptor for cell surface ligands such as intracellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) or soluble ligands. (
  • Designed for positive selection of CD11b positive granulocytes and monocytes. (
  • To investigate surface expression of CD11b and CD200 on circulating monocytes in patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). (
  • We compared the percentages of CD11b + , CD200 + , and CD11b + CD200 + monocytes between groups of diagnosis and between different angiographic subtypes of PCV. (
  • Overall, CD11b + monocytes were both increased in patients with PCV and neovascular AMD. (
  • An age-related increase in CD11b + CD200 + monocytes was absent in patients with PCV and neovascular AMD. (
  • Patients with PCV type 1 had significantly higher CD11b + , CD200 + , and CD11b + CD200 + monocytes, whereas patients with PCV type 2 had levels similar to that in healthy controls. (
  • Increased CD11b + and CD200 + monocytes in those with a strong presence of BVN indicate that BVN development may be associated with retinal injury and a VEGF-mediated process that is either reflected or propelled by systemic changes in monocytes. (
  • CD11b is a 170 kD glycoprotein also known as αM integrin, Mac-1 α subunit, Mol, CR3, and Ly-40. (
  • The CD11b antigen is also known as the integrin αM subunit. (
  • CD21 and the alpha subunit of CD11b and CD11c bind to CD23. (
  • Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with citrate buffer pH 6 before commencing with IHC staining protocol. (
  • Heat mediated antigen retrieval with Tris-EDTA buffer (pH 9.0). (
  • There are a few examples of NK receptors that recognize specific antigens, most notably murine Ly49H, which recognizes the virally-encoded ligand m157 ( 11 ). (
  • They are phagocytic, non-specific esterase positive and they express macrophage Mac-1 antigens and Fc receptors. (
  • OBJECTIVES: We verified the interference of this altered macrophage function with inhaled antigen-triggered allergic airway inflammation and underlying Th2 lymphocyte reactivity. (
  • E) Total CD11b + F4/80 + ATMΦ from WT and RBP4-Ox were evaluated for the expression of MHCII and co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 and CD86) by flow cytometry (n=5/group). (
  • Because many SNARE proteins appear to be common mediators of exocytosis, we examined phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated expression of CD11b and CD69 on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from Type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension and microalbuminuria (D-htma), hypertension only (D-ht) or uncomplicated (D-uc), and normal controls (NC) by flow cytometry. (
  • Our analysis of bone marrow samples from 50 patients with MDS showed aberrant expression of differentiation antigens in the myelomonocytic lineage. (
  • CD11b is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein of 170 or 165 kDa under reducing or non-reducing conditions, respectively. (
  • As a target antigen for the adaptive immune response, we used the mucin glycoprotein MUC1 ( 9 ). (
  • These vectors selectively targeted DCs in vitro and in vivo resulting in vector-mediated antigen expression and efficient maturation of DCs. (
  • Several in vitro and in vivo strategies utilize antigen-encoding RNA for vaccination. (
  • Cell proliferation and CD11b expression are controlled independently during HL60 cell differentiation initiated by 1,25 alpha-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) or all-trans-retinoic acid. (
  • Certain mutations in CD11b give rise to the disorder systemic lupus erythematosus. (
  • By using CD64 and MAR-1 staining, we reliably separated CD11b(+) monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) from conventional DCs (cDCs) and studied antigen uptake, migration, and presentation assays of lung and lymph node (LN) DCs in response to inhaled house dust mite (HDM). (
  • Conduits mediate transport of low-molecular-weight antigen to lymph node follicles. (
  • Here we show that in comparison with other application routes, intranodal vaccination using naked antigen-encoding RNA generated by in vitro transcription induces stronger biologically relevant T-cell responses and superior antitumor immunity due to the bioavailability of RNA in the lymph node and RNA inherent adjuvant effects on the lymph node microenvironment. (
  • One of the major research efforts is to determine the format in which the target antigen should be delivered. (
  • tested a small-molecule agonist of the integrin CD11b to mitigate myeloid cell immunosuppression in mouse models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. (
  • As compared with gene transfer by viral or plasmid DNA, naked antigen-encoding RNA is considered a safer and superior pharmaceutical. (
  • Its major advantages are lack of integration into the genome, transient expression of the encoded proteins, and absence of interfering immunodominant viral antigens. (
  • CD11b Human Recombinant (aa 936-1154) expressed in E.coli, shows a 52 kDa band on SDS-PAGE. (
  • Transfection experiments, using a green fluorescent protein reporter gene, driven by the myeloid-specific promoter, CD11b, demonstrated that ES Mø can also be used to study macrophage-restricted gene expression in vitro. (
  • We had previously developed templates for in vitro transcription of RNA-encoded antigens with modified 3′ structures stabilizing the RNA and optimizing its translational performance as well as T-cell stimulating capacity ( 9 ). (
  • Cultures of microglia were immunostained with anti-CD11b (a) and anti-GFAP (c). (
  • An identical CD11b(+)Ly6C(++)G(-) cell population appears to have the ability to adopt immune stimulatory or immune suppressive functions dependent on the presence of a local inflammatory or tumor microenvironment. (
  • This study provides evidence that the initial non-cognate relay of antigens to follicular DC networks is required to support affinity maturation at later stages of the immune response. (
  • Our findings provide mechanistic evidence that PVSRIPO functions as a potent intratumor immune adjuvant that generates tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. (
  • Colonic inflammation was associated with impaired colonic epithelial barrier permeability, increased colonic IL-1β and myeloperoxidase concentrations, and increased CD11b-positive CD3-negative innate immune cell infiltration into the colon. (