Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Reduced up-regulation of memory and adhesion/integrin molecules in susceptible mice and poor expression of immunity to pulmonary tuberculosis. (1/124)

Previous studies examining the expression of adhesion and integrin molecules on CD4 T lymphocytes generated in response to virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection revealed that certain inbred mouse strains susceptible to breakdown of chronic disease and subsequent reactivation had poor expression of these molecules, which might underlie their inability to adequately focus into lung tissues and mediate protection. The current study examines the possibility that prior vaccination with BCG, or a prior tuberculosis infection, would overcome this deficiency. It was found, however, that this was not the case. Whereas both resistant (C57BL/6) and susceptible (DBA/2, CBA/J) strains were equally well protected in the spleen after intravenous challenge, the latter strains were poorly protected in the lungs regardless of whether the challenge was given by the intravenous or aerosol route. Again, this was associated with poor up-regulation of adhesion and integrin molecules and with histological evidence in memory immune animals of a reduced and delayed influx of T lymphocytes into the lungs.  (+info)

In vivo IL-10 production reactivates chronic pulmonary tuberculosis in C57BL/6 mice. (2/124)

The production of immunosuppressive cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-beta, has been documented in individuals diagnosed with active tuberculosis. In addition, IL-10 production is increased within the lungs of mice that have chronic mycobacterial infection. Therefore, we hypothesized that the down-regulatory properties of IL-10 might contribute to the reactivation of chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice. To determine the influence of IL-10 on the course of infection, transgenic mice producing increased amounts of IL-10 under the control of the IL-2 promotor were infected with M. tuberculosis via the respiratory route. Mice that overexpressed IL-10 showed no increase in susceptibility during the early stages of infection, but during the chronic phase of the infection showed evidence of reactivation tuberculosis with a highly significant increase in bacterial numbers within the lungs. Reactivation was associated with the formation of macrophage-dominated lesions, decreased mRNA production for TNF and IL-12p40, and a decrease in Ag-specific IFN-gamma secretion. These data support the hypothesis that IL-10 plays a pivotal role during the chronic/latent stage of pulmonary tuberculosis, with increased production playing a potentially central role in promoting reactivation tuberculosis.  (+info)

ICSBP is essential for the development of mouse type I interferon-producing cells and for the generation and activation of CD8alpha(+) dendritic cells. (3/124)

Interferon (IFN) consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP) is a transcription factor playing a critical role in the regulation of lineage commitment, especially in myeloid cell differentiation. In this study, we have characterized the phenotype and activation pattern of subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) in ICSBP(-/-) mice. Remarkably, the recently identified mouse IFN-producing cells (mIPCs) were absent in all lymphoid organs from ICSBP(-/-) mice, as revealed by lack of CD11c(low)B220(+)Ly6C(+)CD11b(-) cells. In parallel, CD11c(+) cells isolated from ICSBP(-/-) spleens were unable to produce type I IFNs in response to viral stimulation. ICSBP(-/-) mice also displayed a marked reduction of the DC subset expressing the CD8alpha marker (CD8alpha(+) DCs) in spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus. Moreover, ICSBP(-/-) CD8alpha(+) DCs exhibited a markedly impaired phenotype when compared with WT DCs. They expressed very low levels of costimulatory molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule [ICAM]-1, CD40, CD80, CD86) and of the T cell area-homing chemokine receptor CCR7, whereas they showed higher levels of CCR2 and CCR6, as revealed by reverse transcription PCR. In addition, these cells were unable to undergo full phenotypic activation upon in vitro culture in presence of maturation stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide or poly (I:C), which paralleled with lack of Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 mRNA expression. Finally, cytokine expression pattern was also altered in ICSBP(-/-) DCs, as they did not express interleukin (IL)-12p40 or IL-15, but they displayed detectable IL-4 mRNA levels. On the whole, these results indicate that ICSBP is a crucial factor in the regulation of two possibly linked processes: (a) the development and activity of mIPCs, whose lack in ICSBP(-/-) mice may explain their high susceptibility to virus infections; (b) the generation and activation of CD8alpha(+) DCs, whose impairment in ICSBP(-/-) mice can be responsible for the defective generation of a Th1 type of immune response.  (+info)

Roles of neutrophil beta 2 integrins in kinetics of bacteremia, extravasation, and tick acquisition of Anaplasma phagocytophila in mice. (4/124)

Tick saliva contains anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive substances that facilitate blood feeding and enhance tick-vectored pathogen transmission, including Anaplasma phagocytophila an etiologic agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis. As such, inflammation at a tick-feeding site is strikingly different than that typically observed at other sites of inflammation. Up-regulation of CD11b/CD18 occurs in host granulocytes following interaction or infection with A phagocytophila, and the absence of CD11b/CD18 results in early increases in bacteremia. We hypothesized that beta 2 integrin-dependent infection kinetics and leukocyte extravasation are important determinants of neutrophil trafficking to, and pathogen acquisition at, tick-feeding sites. A phagocytophila infection kinetics were evaluated in CD11a/CD18, CD11b/CD18, and CD18 knock-out mice using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of blood, ticks, and skin biopsies in conjunction with histopathology. A marked increase in the rate of A phagocytophila infection of neutrophils and pathogen burden in blood followed tick feeding. Infection kinetics were modified by beta 2 integrin expression and systemic neutrophil counts. Significant neutrophil-pathogen trafficking was observed to both suture and tick sites. Despite the prominent role for beta 2 integrins in neutrophil arrest in flowing blood, successful pathogen acquisition by ticks occurred in the absence of beta 2 integrins. Establishment of feeding pools that rely less on leukocyte trafficking and more on small hemorrhages may explain the ready amplification of A phagocytophila DNA from ticks infested on CD11/CD18-deficient mouse strains.  (+info)

Regulation of cellular adhesion molecule expression in murine oocytes, peri-implantation and post-implantation embryos. (5/124)

Expression of the adhesion molecules, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, NCAM, CD44, CD49d (VLA-4, alpha chain), and CD11a (LFA-1, alpha chain) on mouse oocytes, and pre- and peri-implantation stage embryos was examined by quantitative indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. ICAM-1 was most strongly expressed at the oocyte stage, gradually declining almost to undetectable levels by the expanded blastocyst stage. NCAM, also expressed maximally on the oocyte, declined to undetectable levels beyond the morula stage. On the other hand, CD44 declined from highest expression at the oocyte stage to show a second maximum at the compacted 8-cell/morula. This molecule exhibited high expression around contact areas between trophectoderm and zona pellucida during blastocyst hatching. CD49d was highly expressed in the oocyte, remained significantly expressed throughout and after blastocyst hatching was expressed on the polar trophectoderm. Like CD44, CD49d declined to undetectable levels at the blastocyst outgrowth stage. Expression of both VCAM-1 and CD11a was undetectable throughout. The diametrical temporal expression pattern of ICAM-1 and NCAM compared to CD44 and CD49d suggest that dynamic changes in expression of adhesion molecules may be important for interaction of the embryo with the maternal cellular environment as well as for continuing development and survival of the early embryo.  (+info)

Ly6C induces clustering of LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) and is involved in subtype-specific adhesion of CD8 T cells. (6/124)

Ly6C is a hemopoietic cell differentiation Ag found on a subset of CD8 T cells in the periphery. It is involved in target cell killing by CTLs, augments TCR-mediated activation of IL-2 and IFN-gamma production in CD8 T cells, and regulates CD8 T cell homing in vivo. In this study, we show that cross-linking of Ly6C causes clustering of LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) on the surface of CD8 T cells via a mechanism dependent on reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and intracellular protease, calpain, but not the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. In the capillary flow-adhesion assay, Ly6C cross-linking significantly augments lymphocyte adhesion to endothelium, and this is inhibited by an Ab that blocks LFA-1 function. Furthermore, upon in vitro cross-linking and during in vivo homing into lymph nodes, Ly6C is transiently lost from cell surface but becomes re-expressed on lymph node-resident CD8 T cells. The abilities of Ly6C to induce LFA-1 clustering and to be re-expressed after signaling-associated down-regulation may be important in regulating the homing of CD8 T cells into lymph nodes and in subsequent steps of CD8 T cell activation and effector function that again involve LFA-1.  (+info)

Rho GTPase is activated by cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 in peripheral blood T lymphocytes: potential cytotoxicity for intestinal epithelial cells. (7/124)

Some strains of Escherichia coli related to acute cystitis or colitis produce a toxin named cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF-1). CNF-1 mediates its effects on epithelial cells or phagocytes via the permanent activation of small GTP-binding proteins, caused by the toxin-induced deamidation of Glu(63) of p21 Rho. The behavior of peripheral blood T lymphocytes during the acute phase of bacterial colitis has been poorly investigated. Our study was conducted to test whether (i) peripheral blood T lymphocytes can be activated by CNF-1 and (ii) CNF-1-activated T lymphocytes are cytotoxic against intestinal epithelial cells. Activation of T lymphocytes by CNF-1 was assessed by electrophoresis, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and electron microscopy studies. Assays for migration and adherence of CNF-1-treated T lymphocytes were performed in Transwell chambers with T84 intestinal epithelial cells grown on polycarbonate semipermeable filters. CNF-1 induced a decrease in the electrophoretic mobility of the GTP-binding protein Rho in treated T lymphocytes. CNF-1 provoked an increase in the content of actin stress fibers and pseudopodia in T lymphocytes. Several adherence molecules were clustered into cytoplasmic projections in CNF-1-treated T lymphocytes and adherence of such lymphocytes on the basolateral pole of T84 was increased, resulting in cytotoxicity toward epithelial cells. Such enhanced adherence in response to CNF-1 was dependent on p42-44(MAP) kinase activation of T lymphocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that CNF-1, by acting on T lymphocytes, may increase in an important fashion the virulence of certain strains of E. coli against the intestinal epithelia.  (+info)

Transmission of pseudorabies virus from immune-masked blood monocytes to endothelial cells. (8/124)

Pseudorabies virus (PRV) may cause abortion, even in the presence of vaccination-induced immunity. Blood monocytes are essential to transport the virus in these immune animals, including transport to the pregnant uterus. Infected monocytes express viral proteins on their cell surface. Specific antibodies recognize these proteins and should activate antibody-dependent cell lysis. Previous work showed that addition of PRV-specific polyclonal antibodies to PRV-infected monocytes induced internalization of viral cell surface proteins, protecting the cells from efficient antibody-dependent lysis in vitro (immune-masked monocytes). As a first step to reach the pregnant uterus, PRV has to cross the endothelial cell barrier of the maternal blood vessels. The current aim was to investigate in vitro whether immune-masked PRV-infected monocytes can transmit PRV in the presence of virus-neutralizing antibodies via adhesion and fusion of these monocytes with endothelial cells. Porcine blood monocytes, infected with a lacZ-carrying PRV strain, were incubated with PRV-specific antibodies to induce internalization. Then, cells were co-cultivated with endothelial cells for different periods of time. Only PRV-infected monocytes with internalized viral cell surface proteins adhered efficiently to endothelial cells. LacZ transmission to endothelial cells, as a measure for monocyte-endothelial cell fusion, could be detected after co-cultivation from 30 min onwards. Virus transmission was confirmed by the appearance of plaques. Adhesion of immune-masked PRV-infected monocytes to endothelial cells was mediated by cellular adhesion complex CD11b-CD18 and subsequent fusion was mediated by the virus. In conclusion, immune-masked PRV-infected monocytes can adhere and subsequently transmit virus to endothelial cells in the presence of PRV-neutralizing antibodies.  (+info)

*CD11a

Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is ... antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide)". Lu C, Takagi J, Springer TA (May 2001). " ... CD11a is one of the two components, along with CD18, which form lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1. Efalizumab acts as an ... CD11a Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGAL Info with links in the Cell ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd8 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.111 --- antigens, cd11 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.111.024 --- antigens, cd11a MeSH D23.050 ... antigens, cd8 MeSH D23.101.100.110.111 --- antigens, cd11 MeSH D23.101.100.110.111.024 --- antigens, cd11a MeSH D23.101.100.110 ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...

*CD18

It is the beta subunit of four different structures: LFA-1 (paired with CD11a) Macrophage-1 antigen (paired with CD11b) ... CD18 antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGB2 Info with links in the Cell Migration ... Huang C, Springer TA (August 1995). "A binding interface on the I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) ...

*Outline of immunology

CD11a / CD18 Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Integrin alphaXbeta2 (CR4) - Heterodimer: CD11c / CD18 Very ... Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... CD11a) AM (CD11b) AV AX (CD11c) Beta subunits B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 Dimers Cytoadhesin receptor Integrin alpha6beta4 ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ...

*Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1

CD11a). LFA-1 has also been found in a soluble form. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency Lifitegrast, a drug that blocks LFA-1 from ... "Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1): a surface antigen distinct from Lyt-2,3 that participates in T lymphocyte- ... Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is found on all T-cells and also on B-cells, macrophages, neutrophils and NK ... It binds to ICAM-1 on antigen-presenting cells and functions as an adhesion molecule. LFA-1 is the first to bind T-cells to ...

*Efalizumab

... binds to the CD11a subunit of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 and acts as an immunosuppressant by ...

*CD11

For example, LFA1 (CD11a/CD18) short representation of Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen 1, also called αLβ2 integrin Mac1 ... CD11b/CD18) present on macrophages that is also called Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) and αmβ2 integrin. CD11c/CD18 also called ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... antigens, cd11a MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.150 -- antigens, cd11b MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.200 -- antigens, cd11c ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 -- receptors, antigen, ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 -- antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 -- antigens, cd40 ...

*Follicular dendritic cells

Adhesion between FDCs and B cells is mediated by ICAM-1 (CD54)-LFA-1 (CD11a) and VCAM-VLA-4 molecules. Activated B-cells with ... To become selected as a future memory cell, GC B cells must bind the antigen presented on FDCs, otherwise they enter apoptosis ... This results in the formation of GC, where antigen-activated B cells are trapped to undergo somatic mutation, positive and ... Cyster JG (2010). "B cell follicles and antigen encounters of the third kind". Nat Immunol. 11 (11): 989-96. doi:10.1038/ni. ...

*Gamma delta T cell

CD11a, CD18, CD54). Thus activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells behave like APCs (γδ T-APC) and present antigens to αβ T cells. This leads to ... The antigens recognized by non-Vδ2 T cells expanded in the above infectious contexts have not been characterized, but the fact ... It is still not clear whether these non-peptidic antigens bind directly to the Vγ9/Vδ2 TCR or if a presenting element exists. ... However, none of the known antigen-presenting molecules like MHC class I and II or CD1 are required for γδ T cell activation ...

*ICAM-1

It binds to integrins of type CD11a / CD18, or CD11b / CD18 and is also exploited by rhinovirus as a receptor. ICAM-1 is a ... Katz FE, Parkar M, Stanley K, Murray LJ, Clark EA, Greaves MF (Jan 1985). "Chromosome mapping of cell membrane antigens ... Huang C, Springer TA (Aug 1995). "A binding interface on the I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) ... ICAM-1 has been shown to interact with CD11a, EZR and CD18. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000090339 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...

*Psoriasis

Type 1 has a positive family history, starts before the age of 40, and is associated with the human leukocyte antigen, HLA-Cw6 ... Efalizumab is a monoclonal antibody that specifically targets the CD11a subunit of LFA-1. It also blocks the adhesion molecules ... Neutralization occurs when an antidrug antibody prevents a monoclonal antibody such as infliximab from binding antigen in a ... Specifically, neutralization occurs when the antidrug antibody binds to infliximab's antigen binding site instead of TNF-α. ...

*Odulimomab

It is a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha chain of the protein lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 ... Whitcup, SM; Chan, CC; Kozhich, AT; Magone, MT (1999). "Blocking ICAM-1 (CD54) and LFA-1 (CD11a) inhibits experimental allergic ... "Anti-lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 monoclonal antibody inhibits CD40 ligand-independent immune responses and ...

*ICAM5

... and characterization of its interaction with the leukocyte integrin CD11a/CD18". Eur. J. Immunol. 30 (3): 810-8. doi:10.1002/ ... chromosomal localization of the human telencephalin and its distinctive interaction with lymphocyte function-associated antigen ...
The maker of the psoriasis drug Raptiva (efalizumab) is pulling the drug from the U.S. market because of its association with a rare and usually fatal brain infection. Psoriasis patients taking Raptiva should immediately talk to their doctor about finding an alternative treatment, says the National Psoriasis Foundation. Stopping Raptiva abruptly could lead to a severe psoriasis flare, so patients should be sure to talk to their doctors before they stop treatment ...
Each subject will receive an initial conditioning dose of 0.7 mg/kg/week and then will continue treatment at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg/week. The treatment period will be 24 weeks divided into two phases: 1) double-blind for 12 weeks, and 2) open-label for 12 additional weeks, in which all subjects from the placebo group and those subjects from the Raptiva ® group with ≥ 50% of improvement will be allocated to extended treatment with Raptiva ® for 12 additional weeks while non-responders to Raptiva ® (improvement ≤ 50%) will be followed in an observational manner for 12 additional weeks without treatment ...
In October of 2008, the FDA issued whats generally known as a MedWatch alert thats designed to inform the public that a problem has been discovered and a change will be made to a product or medication. This has occurred with Raptiva because the FDA discovered that its been used to treat patients under the age of 18, and this approach has led to disastrous results in certain cases.. As a result, the FDA announced that Raptiva will now contain a stern warning on all of the labels of its containers that explicitly alert doctors who may use the drug to treat those patients under the age of 18, even though Raptiva has not been approved for use by those under 18. A labeling change is one of the more severe steps that the FDA can take, but falls short of a recall, which is the most drastic step. ...
Efalizumab (Raptiva) lek je koji je korišten za tretiranje autoimunskih bolesti. Originalno je bio u prodaji za lečenje psorijaze. Efalizumab je humanizovan IgG1 kapa izotip monoklonalnog antitela koje se vezuje za ljudski CD11a. Efalizumab ima molekulsku težinu od oko 150 kilo Daltona i proizvodi se u CHO ćelijama.[2][3][4]. ...
Efalizumab - Get up-to-date information on Efalizumab side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Efalizumab
Efalizumab is a man-made form of a protein similar to human antibodies. Efalizumab is made to target and destroy only certain cells in the body. This may help to protect healthy cells from damage.
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This trial was investigating early conversion from tacrolimus to efalizumab maintenance therapy in primary renal transplant recipients.
Acts as a nucleation-promoting factor at the surface of endosomes, where it recruits and activates the Arp2/3 complex to induce actin polymerization, playing a key role in the fission of tubules that serve as transport intermediates during endosome sorting. Involved in endocytic trafficking of EGF. Its assembly in the WASH core complex seems to inhibit its NPF activity and via FAM21 is required for its membrane targeting. Involved in transferrin receptor recycling. Regulates the trafficking of endosomal alpha5beta1 integrin to the plasma membrane and involved in invasive cell migration. In T-cells involved in endosome-to-membrane recycling of receptors including T-cell receptor (TCR), CD28 and ITGAL; proposed to be implicated in T-cell proliferation and effector function. In dendritic cells involved in endosome-to-membrane recycling of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II probably involving retromer and subsequently allowing antigen sampling, loading and presentation during T-cell ...
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
New Phytologist Editors Choice April 2015. In the latest issue of New Phytologist a Rapid report by Lee et al. describes recent insights into how the fungus that causes Septoria leaf blotch disease in wheat is able to hijack the hosts signalling
Although the precise pathogenesis is not known, vitiligo appears to be an autoimmune disease involving T cell-mediated melanocyte destruction. Efalizumab, a recombinant, humanized monoclonal antibody, targets T cells, the key mediators of the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. Although a concomitant presentation of vitiligo with psoriasis is uncommon, several cases have been reported previously in the literature. A case of a patient with vitiligo and psoriasis who was treated with efalizumab to alleviate the symptoms of psoriasis is described. Over the course of the diseases, the patient had been treated unsuccessfully with numerous therapies. The patient initiated efalizumab with a 0.7 mg/kg conditioning dose and then continued on 1 mg/kg weekly. After 2 months of efalizumab therapy, the psoriasis symptoms were reduced, and the vitiligo had visibly improved in some areas. The patient has remained on efalizumab therapy with no evidence of an exacerbation of vitiligo. The management of acute flares is also
Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is a human gene which functions in the immune system. It is involved in cellular adhesion and costimulatory signaling. It is the target of the drug efalizumab. ITGAL encodes the integrin alpha L chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a central role in leukocyte intercellular adhesion through interactions with its ligands, ICAMs 1-3 (intercellular adhesion molecules 1 through 3), and also functions in lymphocyte costimulatory signaling. CD11a is one of the two components, along with CD18, which form lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1. Efalizumab acts as an immunosuppressant by binding to CD11a but was ...
Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is a human gene which functions in the immune system. It is involved in cellular adhesion and costimulatory signaling. It is the target of the drug efalizumab.. ITGAL encodes the integrin alpha L chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a central role in leukocyte intercellular adhesion through interactions with its ligands, ICAMs 1-3 (intercellular adhesion molecules 1 through 3), and also functions in lymphocyte costimulatory signaling.[1]. CD11a is one of the two components, along with CD18, which form lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.. Efalizumab acts as an immunosuppressant by binding to ...
Macrophages are among the infiltrate components of most malignant tumors. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) may secrete a variety of humoral factors, which promote or inhibit tumor growth. In general, depending on their activation pathway, macrophages exhibit two different patterns of phenotype, M1 or M2. It is assumed that TAMs comprise pattern M2. In the malignant pleural effusion, macrophages are a frequent component of cytological evaluation. In this microenvironment, TAMs could be involved in the development of immunity. The phenotype of macrophages represented in malignant and non-malignant pleural effusions is unknown. In this study, macrophages were isolated from 38 pleural effusions (15 malignant and 23 non-malignant) and the expression of a variety of immune mediators and their receptors was assessed to determine the type of activation (M1 vs. M2). The expression of mRNA was analyzed for IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-11, IL-18, TNFα, TGFβ1, IL1R1, IL1RAP, TLR2, TLR4, VLA4, CD62L, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intercellular adhesion molecule inhibitors as potential therapy for refractory uveitic macular edema. AU - Wang, Jianmin. AU - Ibrahim, Mohamed. AU - Turkcuoglu, Peykan. AU - Hatef, Elham. AU - Khwaja, Afsheen. AU - Channa, Roomasa. AU - Do, Diana V. AU - Nguyen, Quan Dong. PY - 2010/10/1. Y1 - 2010/10/1. N2 - Purpose: To describe the bioactivity of an intercellular adhesion molecule inhibitor (efalizumab) in a patient with refractory uveitic macular edema. Methods: A 55-year-old man presented with idiopathic autoimmune uveitis and associated macular edema, which could not be controlled by regional and systemic corticosteroid and selected immunomodulatory therapy. Efalizumab was administered as subcutaneous injections. Results: After 37 weekly injections of efalizumab, the uveitic macular edema was successfully eliminated. Six months following discontinuation of efalizumab, there were no signs of recurrent inflammation. Conclusion: Further investigation of the role of ...
Therapy for the cutaneous disease is often difficult. Patients who present primarily with skin disease (amyopathic dermatomyositis) and those in whom the muscle component is controlled but who still have significant skin disease exist. The first-line of therapy is recognizing that the patient is photosensitive and advising the patient to avoid sun exposure and to use sun protective measures, including broad-spectrum sunscreens. Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been beneficial in small open-label case studies. Methotrexate is also useful. Mycophenolate mofetil has been reported to be useful. IvIg not only benefited the muscle but also cleared the skin lesions in the patients in whom it was used. Rituximab has been used for skin disease, but the results are mixed. Efalizumab has been used and may have some benefit. Efalizumab (Raptiva), a drug indicated for psoriasis, is being withdrawn from the US market and will no longer be available after June 8, 2009, because of potential risk for ...
A special alert has been issued this week about the psoriasis drug Raptiva (efalizumab). Its a possible cause of anaemia and a series of life-threatening infections. This is bad news for psoriasis patients as the drug is intended as a last resort t
Tutor: Micaela Lewinson. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary area of study linking computational tools and databases to biology. Topics such as DNA sequence analysis, genome sequencing, expression of genes, 3D-structures of proteins are all considered parts of bioinformatics. In my Bioinformatics course (BIO 260) students are introduced to this exciting new interdisciplinary area spanning computational science and biology. This is a non-traditional biology course - it does not have a "wet lab", but students spend a significant time in the computer lab using various databases (such as DNA sequence databases, protein structure databases) and software packages to solve problems in biology. One of the class projects is analysis and annotation of a previously unpublished, newly sequenced genome. Through this project students have an opportunity to use digital research to make a novel contribution to science! This exciting project is made possible through my participation in a multi-institution ...
Antoniou et al 24 reported that 2 of 72 patients with psoriasis treated with efalizumab had an HZ episode, with a crude incidence of HZ in 28 per 1000 patients. Diet is really difficult for most people and was something I really struggled with. Subsequently, the application time is titrated up to 20 to 30 minutes as tolerated. Use apple cider vinegar if the eczema herbs for psoriasis of the scalp red like pimples, wet, watery, or bleeding; or olive oil if the eczema has dry white skin peeling off.
Lifitegrast is a non-steroidal, small molecule, integrin antagonist that inhibits lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1; CD11a/CD18), which is being
A recently discovered immune cell has been found to be more prevalent in the skin of psoriasis patients, bringing a possible target for research on aiding those with the disease.

Antigens, cd11a | definition of Antigens, cd11a by Medical dictionaryAntigens, cd11a | definition of Antigens, cd11a by Medical dictionary

Antigens, cd11a explanation free. What is Antigens, cd11a? Meaning of Antigens, cd11a medical term. What does Antigens, cd11a ... Looking for online definition of Antigens, cd11a in the Medical Dictionary? ... CD11a. (redirected from Antigens, cd11a) CD11a. a type I transmembrane protein found on lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, ... Antigens, cd11a , definition of Antigens, cd11a by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Antigens ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Antigens%2C+cd11a

CD11a - WikipediaCD11a - Wikipedia

Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is ... antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide)". Lu C, Takagi J, Springer TA (May 2001). " ... CD11a is one of the two components, along with CD18, which form lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1. Efalizumab acts as an ... CD11a Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGAL Info with links in the Cell ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD11a

GO RECEPTOR COMPLEXGO RECEPTOR COMPLEX

integrin, alpha E (antigen CD103, human m.... 3683. 3683. ITGAL. integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), .... ...
more infohttp://software.broadinstitute.org/gsea/msigdb/cards/GO_RECEPTOR_COMPLEX.html

CD11a : Wikis (The Full Wiki)CD11a : Wikis (The Full Wiki)

Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is ... Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide). ... "Entrez Gene: ITGAL integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide)". http ... Entrez Gene: ITGAL integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide). ...
more infohttp://www.thefullwiki.org/CD11a

HUTTMANN B CLL POOR SURVIVAL UPHUTTMANN B CLL POOR SURVIVAL UP

integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A.... 213502_x_at. 91316. GUSBP11. glucuronidase, beta pseudogene 11. ...
more infohttp://software.broadinstitute.org/gsea/msigdb/cards/HUTTMANN_B_CLL_POOR_SURVIVAL_UP.html

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Lymphocyte antigen CD11a Current Synonym true false 1233158012 Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 Current Synonym true ... CD11a - Cluster of differentiation antigen 11a Current Synonym true false 1233160014 Cluster of differentiation antigen 11a ... CD11a - cluster of differentiation antigen 11a Current Synonym true false 3744772010 LFA-1 - lymphocyte function-associated ... LFA-1 - Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 Current Synonym true false 3744771015 ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=69411001

a 180 kDa molecule. CD11a is the a chain of the leukocyte function associated antigen-1 LFA-1a) | Akt Inhibitor A-443654...a 180 kDa molecule. CD11a is the a chain of the leukocyte function associated antigen-1 LFA-1a) | Akt Inhibitor A-443654...

CD11a is the a chain of the leukocyte function associated antigen-1 LFA-1a). Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( ... CD11a is the a chain of the leukocyte function associated antigen-1 LFA-1a), a member of the integrin subfamily, and ... CD11a is the a chain of the leukocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1a), and is expressed on all leukocytes including T ... Mouse monoclonal to CD11a.4A122 reacts with CD11a, NK and T-cell cytolysis, such as lymphocyte adhesion ...
more infohttp://a-443654.com/tag/a-180-kda-molecule-cd11a-is-the-a-chain-of-the-leukocyte-function-associated-antigen-1-lfa-1a/

Efalizumab - Drugs.comEfalizumab - Drugs.com

Immunoglobulin G1, anti - (human antigen CD 11a) (human-mouse monoclonal hu 1124 gamma 1 - chain), disulfide wit human-mouse ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/international/efalizumab.html

Melanoma-restricted genes | Journal of Translational Medicine | Full TextMelanoma-restricted genes | Journal of Translational Medicine | Full Text

This cluster also included the renal tumor antigen RAGE which has been previously shown to be highly expressed by melanomas [41 ... Kawakami Y, Rosenberg SA: T-cell recognition of self peptides as tumor rejection antigens. Immunol Res. 1996, 15: 179-190.View ... Oberthuer A, Hero B, Spitz R, Berthold F, Fischer M: The tumor-associated antigen PRAME is universally expressed in high-stage ... Kawakami Y: Identification of human tumor antigens recognized by T-cells and their use for immunotherapy. Int J Hematol. 2003, ...
more infohttps://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1479-5876-2-34

CytoDyn to Present Findings on its Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) Therapeutic Antibody ProgramCytoDyn to Present Findings on its Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) Therapeutic Antibody Program

The Companys proprietary drug candidate Cytolin(R) is a monoclonal antibody that binds to CD11a, a cellular antigen that is a ... a feline reactive monoclonal antibody targeting the cell antigen CD11a under development by CytoDyn for the treatment of feline ... "We believe that CD11a remains an interesting target for the treatment of FIV infection," said Dr. Trauger. "These preliminary ... demonstrated that feline reactive antibodies to a normal cell protein known as CD11a could inhibit FIV infection of susceptible ...
more infohttps://www.cnbc.com/id/100139656

Anti-CD11a (Integrin aL) [38] | Monoclonal Antibodies - XimbioAnti-CD11a (Integrin aL) [38] | Monoclonal Antibodies - Ximbio

Antigen CD11A (P180); LFA-1A; CD11A; Antigen CD11A (P180); Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen 1; Lymphocyte Function- ... Associated Antigen 1; Alpha Polypeptide; Integrin Gene Promoter; Alpha Polypeptide; Integrin Alpha L; CD11a Antigen; LFA-1; ... Antigen/Gene or Protein Targets Integrin alpha L subunit (CD11a, LFA-1 alpha) ... Anti-CD11a (Integrin aL) [38] Invented by Prof Nancy Hogg at Cancer Research UK London Research Institute: Lincolns Inn Fields ...
more infohttps://ximbio.com/reagent/151048/anti-cd11a-integrin-al-38

Buy MGC42157-hypothetical locus MGC42157 Gene (PTXBC030111)Buy MGC42157-hypothetical locus MGC42157 Gene (PTXBC030111)

ITGAL-integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180),.... More *. SLC4A2-solute carrier family 4, anion.... More ...
more infohttps://www.proteogenix-products.com/8255-mgc42157-hypothetical-locus-mgc42157-gene.html

Buy C5orf46-chromosome 5 open reading frame 46 Gene (PTXBC021680)Buy C5orf46-chromosome 5 open reading frame 46 Gene (PTXBC021680)

ITGAL-integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180),.... More *. SLC4A2-solute carrier family 4, anion.... More ...
more infohttps://www.proteogenix-products.com/7261-c5orf46-chromosome-5-open-reading-frame-46-gene.html

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Lymphocyte positive for CD11A antigen (cell). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte positive for CD11A antigen (cell) ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=117547009

Increased Cholesterol Deposition, Expression of Scavenger Receptors, and Response to Chemotactic Factors in Abca1-Deficient...Increased Cholesterol Deposition, Expression of Scavenger Receptors, and Response to Chemotactic Factors in Abca1-Deficient...

... fluvastatin inhibits the expression of lymphocyte function-associated antigen (CD11a/CD18) and ICAM-1 on human monocytic cell ... Statins selectively inhibit leukocyte function antigen-1 by binding to a novel regulatory integrin site. Nat Med. 2001; 7: 687- ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/25/6/1198

Anti-CD11A Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: B-B15] | VWRAnti-CD11A Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: B-B15] | VWR

Learn more about Anti-CD11A Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: B-B15]. We enable science by offering product choice, services, ... Antigen: CD11A. Clonality: Monoclonal. Clone: B-B15. Conjugation: Unconjugated. Epitope: Host: Mouse. Isotype: IgG1. Reactivity ... Anti-CD11A Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: B-B15]. Anti-CD11A Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: B-B15]. Supplier: Cell ...
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Anti-CD11A Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (PE (Phycoerythrin)) [clone: B-B15] | VWRAnti-CD11A Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (PE (Phycoerythrin)) [clone: B-B15] | VWR

Learn more about Anti-CD11A Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (PE (Phycoerythrin)) [clone: B-B15]. We enable science by offering ... Antigen: CD11A. Clonality: Monoclonal. Clone: B-B15. Conjugation: PE (Phycoerythrin). Epitope: Host: Mouse. Isotype: IgG1. ... Anti-CD11A Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (PE (Phycoerythrin)) [clone: B-B15] Flow Cytometry: Use 10 µl to label 1x10E6 cells or 100 ... Anti-CD11A Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (PE (Phycoerythrin)) [clone: B-B15]. Supplier: Cell Sciences ...
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AllergyCases.org: CD11AllergyCases.org: CD11

CD11a).. Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A, lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1) is also known as ITGAL or CD11a. CD11a is ... CD11a. CD11a. Image source: Wikipedia, public domain.. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is found on leukocytes ... LFA-1 (paired with CD11a). - Macrophage-1 antigen, MAC-1 (paired with CD11b). - Integrin alphaXbeta2 (paired with CD11c). CD11a ... Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) consists of an alpha-chain (CD11a) and beta-chain (CD18).. CD11b - Subunit of ...
more infohttp://www.allergycases.org/2009/05/cd11.html

IMP: Integrative Multi-species PredictionIMP: Integrative Multi-species Prediction

integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide). 0.062. ... integrin, alpha 3 (antigen CD49C, alpha 3 subunit of VLA-3 receptor). 0.817. ... integrin, alpha 4 (antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor). 0.052. ... integrin, alpha 2b (platelet glycoprotein IIb of IIb/IIIa complex, antigen CD41). 0.042. ...
more infohttp://imp.princeton.edu/predictions/process/human-context-global/9156/?gene=11762

IMP: Integrative Multi-species PredictionIMP: Integrative Multi-species Prediction

integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide). 0.696. ... A change in morphology and behavior of a leukocyte resulting from exposure to a specific antigen, mitogen, cytokine, cellular ... integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12). 0.613. ...
more infohttp://imp.princeton.edu/predictions/process_ortho/human-context-global/6167/?gene=14255

Vaccine Therapy Plus QS21 in Treating Patients With Progressive Prostate CancerVaccine Therapy Plus QS21 in Treating Patients With Progressive Prostate Cancer

CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated ... Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TA) is present on erythrocytes, platelets and glomeruli, and it can be activated du... ... Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen-1. An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. ... Immune response to the hepatitis B antigen in the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine, and co-administration with pneumococcal conjugate ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/125921/Vaccine-Therapy-Plus-QS21-in-Treating-Patients-With-Progressive-Prostate-Cancer.html

CD11a antibodies, rat - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - USACD11a antibodies, rat - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - USA

CD11a combines with CD18 (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on ... Clone REA596 recognizes the rat CD11a antigen, a single-pass type I membrane protein, also known as integrin α-L (ITGAL). ... CD11a combines with CD18 (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on ... Clone REA596 recognizes the rat CD11a antigen, a single-pass type I membrane protein, also known as integrin α-L (ITGAL). ...
more infohttps://www.miltenyibiotec.com/US-en/products/macs-flow-cytometry/antibodies/primary-antibodies/cd11a-antibodies-rat-rea596-1-10.html

List of MeSH codes (D23) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D23) - Wikipedia

... antigens, cd8 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.111 --- antigens, cd11 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.111.024 --- antigens, cd11a MeSH D23.050 ... antigens, cd8 MeSH D23.101.100.110.111 --- antigens, cd11 MeSH D23.101.100.110.111.024 --- antigens, cd11a MeSH D23.101.100.110 ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D23)

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

CD18 Antigens - blood , Humans , Antigens, Surface - blood , Male , Biomarkers - blood , Dietary Fats - blood , CD11a Antigen ... 2. Full Text Moderate-intensity, premeal cycling blunts postprandial increases in monocyte cell surface CD18 and CD11a and ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:repas%20mixte

Mouse Anti-Human Integrin alpha L/CD11a Azide free Clone B-B15 mAb |  Cell SciencesMouse Anti-Human Integrin alpha L/CD11a Azide free Clone B-B15 mAb | Cell Sciences

The mouse monoclonal antibody recognizes human Integrin alpha L/CD11a. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins ... antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1, alpha polypeptide ... CD11A, LFA-1, LFA1A, LFA-1 alpha, LFA-1A, CD11 antigen-like family member A, Leukocyte adhesion glycoprotein LFA-1 alpha chain ... This integrin alpha L/CD11a chain and the integrin beta 2 beta chain (ITGB2) combine to form the integrin lymphocyte function- ...
more infohttps://www.cellsciences.com/mouse-anti-human-integrin-alpha-l-cd11a-azide-free-clone-b-b15-mab
  • We believe that CD11a remains an interesting target for the treatment of FIV infection," said Dr. Trauger. (cnbc.com)
  • Predictive value of Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen activation for Streptococcus pneumoniae infection and severity in pediatric lobar pneumonia. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Immune response to the hepatitis B antigen in the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine, and co-administration with pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in African children: a randomized controlled trial. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Assess postimmunization changes in prostate specific antigen levels and other objective parameters of disease in these patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Specifically, Dr. Trauger will discuss confirmation of the specificity of Cytolin ® for selected blood cells, its unique binding site on its target antigen, CD11a, its ability to bind directly to HIV, and its lack of immunosuppression of HIV-specific cytotoxic T-cell ("CTL") activity. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Possibly, metastatic cutaneous melanoma is endowed compared to other tumors with a wealth of "tumor rejection" antigens of unique immunogenic potential. (biomedcentral.com)