Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Does soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) affect neutrophil activation and adhesion following ischaemia-reperfusion? (1/437)OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of reperfusion plasma and sICAM-1 on neutrophil integrin expression and neutrophil adhesion to determine if sICAM-1 has a potential role in the regulation of neutrophil adhesion. MATERIALS: Twenty-seven patients, 17 men and 10 women undergoing femorodistal surgery. Blood was taken preoperatively and from the femoral vein following the release of the cross-clamp. Neutrophils were obtained from five volunteers and incubated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS), preoperative plasma or reperfusion plasma with and without sICAM-1. Neutrophil expression of CD11b and adhesion were measured. MAIN RESULTS: Neutrophil CD11b expression did not change following incubation in the three media. Neutrophil adhesion increased significantly following exposure to reperfusion plasma compared to PBS or preoperative plasma (45.5 adhesion vs. 12.75%, p < 0.01 Mann-Whitney U-test). Soluble ICAM-1 decreased CD11b expression and adhesion in neutrophils exposed to reperfusion plasma only (CD11b expression fell from 15.9 to 3.4 mcf, p < 0.01 Mann-Whitney U-test and adhesion fell to 11.6% cells adhered, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: An increase in CD11b expression is not required for an increase in neutrophil adhesion. The change in neutrophil adhesion produced by reperfusion plasma can be blocked by sICAM-1. Soluble ICAM-1 may have a physiological role in the regulation of neutrophil adhesion. (+info)
Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. (2/437)BACKGROUND: The granulomatous inflammation in sarcoidosis is driven by the interplay between T cells and macrophages. To gain a better understanding of this process the expression by these cells of cell surface activation markers, co-stimulatory molecules, and adhesion molecules was analysed. METHODS: CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from peripheral blood (PBL) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as paired peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages from 27 patients with sarcoidosis were analysed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: CD26, CD54, CD69, CD95, and gp240 were all overexpressed in T cells from BAL fluid compared with those from PBL in both the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, while CD57 was overexpressed only in BAL CD4+ cells. In contrast, CD28 tended to be underexpressed in the BAL T cells. Monocyte/macrophage markers included CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD14, CD16, CD54, CD71, CD80 and CD86 and HLA class II. CD11a expression in alveolar macrophages (and peripheral blood monocytes) was increased in patients with active disease and correlated positively with the percentage of BAL lymphocytes. Expression of CD80 in macrophages correlated with the BAL CD4/CD8 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate substantial activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ lung T cells in sarcoidosis. There were also increased numbers of BAL lymphocytes whose phenotypic characteristics have earlier been associated with clonally expanded, replicatively senescent cells of the Th1 type. (+info)
Maturation and apoptosis of primary human acute myeloblastic leukemia cells are determined by TNF-alpha exclusively through CD120A stimulation. (3/437)BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tumor necrosis factor-a plays an important role in hematopoiesis. Its effects are mediated through two membrane-bound receptors: TNF-R I (p55; CD 120a) and TNF-R II (p75; CD 120b). The aim of our study was to investigate the relative roles of these receptors. DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed in 16 acute myeloid leukemia cases whether TNF-alpha could induce in vitro maturation and apoptosis. We then investigated which of the two receptors was provoking monocytic maturation and which was responsible for apoptosis by using the agonistic MoAb HTR-9, directed at CD120a, and the CD120b antagonistic MoAb UTR-1. RESULTS: Monocytic maturation (morphologic and immunologic) was induced in all cases studied, although to different rates, by TNF-alpha and by HTR-9 incubation. The addition of UTR-1 to TNF-alpha did not abolish maturation, nor did it affect apoptosis, which was present in primary AML cultures after 4 and 10 days. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: We present here evidence that the sole stimulation of CD 120a, but not of CD120b, by TNF-alpha is responsible for bot monocytic maturation and apoptosis of primary AML blasts. (+info)
Membrane expression of soluble endotoxin-binding proteins permits lipopolysaccharide signaling in Chinese hamster ovary fibroblasts independently of CD14. (4/437)The activation of phagocytes by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative sepsis. Although the interaction between CD14 and LPS is a key event in the signaling cascade, the molecular mechanism by which cellular activation occurs remains obscure. We hypothesized that the main function of CD14 was to bind LPS and transfer it to a second receptor, which then initiates the subsequent signal for cellular activation. Thus, surface binding of LPS to the cell membrane would be the critical step that CD14 carries out. To test this hypothesis, we examined the activity of two other proteins known to bind LPS, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. We found that when these normally soluble proteins were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 fibroblasts as glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, both could substitute for CD14 in initiating LPS signaling. Pharmacological studies with synthetic lipid A analogues demonstrated that these surface expressed LPS-binding proteins had characteristics that were qualitatively identical to membrane CD14. These data support the hypothesis that a receptor distinct from CD14 functions as the actual signal transducer and suggest that surface binding of LPS to the cell membrane is the crucial first step for initiating downstream signaling events. (+info)
ICAM-2 and a peptide from its binding domain are efficient activators of leukocyte adhesion and integrin affinity. (5/437)Cell adhesion mediated by the CD11/CD18 integrins and their ligands, the ICAMs, is required for many leukocyte functions. In resting cells the integrins are nonadhesive, but when activated they become adhesive for their ligands. Previous findings have shown that a peptide derived from the first Ig domain of ICAM-2 (P1) binds to LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) and Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) and activates leukocyte aggregation. Because its mechanism of action has remained poorly understood, we have now studied the peptide-induced ligand binding in detail. Here we show that P1 was able to induce CD11/CD18-dependent adhesion of human T lymphocytes to immobilized, purified ICAM-1, -2, and -3. The optimal peptide concentration was 150 micrograms/ml, whereas concentrations higher than 400 micrograms/ml did not have any stimulatory effect. The increase in adhesion was detectable within 10 min of treatment with the peptide; it was dependent on energy, divalent cations, temperature, and an intact cytoskeleton but was unaffected by protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Peptide treatment resulted in strong stimulation of the binding of soluble, recombinant ICAMs to T lymphocytes, showing that the integrin affinity toward its ligands was increased. Importantly, soluble ICAM-2Fc was also able to induce T lymphocyte adhesion to purified ICAM-1, -2, and -3, and it was a more potent stimulatory molecule than ICAM-1Fc or ICAM-3Fc. (+info)
Human immunoglobulin A receptor (FcalphaRI, CD89) function in transgenic mice requires both FcR gamma chain and CR3 (CD11b/CD18). (6/437)Even though more immunoglobulin A (IgA) is produced in humans than all other isotypes combined, relatively little is known about receptors that bind the Fc part of IgA. The myeloid IgA receptor, FcalphaRI (CD89), triggers various effector functions in vitro, but its in vivo role remains unclear. Here, a transgenic mouse model is described in which FcalphaRI is expressed under its own regulatory sequences. Receptor expression and regulation by cytokines was comparable to the human situation and hFcalphaRI can trigger phagocytosis and lysis of tumor cells. To analyze the contribution of the FcR gamma chain or the beta2 integrin CR3 (CD11b/CD18) in FcalphaRI biological function, FcalphaRI transgenic mice were crossed with either FcR gamma chain -/- or CR3 -/- mice. In contrast to in vitro data, FcR gamma chain was essential for surface expression of hFcalphaRI in vivo. Functional studies in hFcalphaRI/ gamma-/-mice were, therefore, limited. In vitro studies showed FcR gamma chain to be necessary for phagocytosis. Neither hFcalphaRI expression nor phagocytosis, triggered via hFcalphaRI, were influenced by CR3. Remarkably, the capacity to lyse tumor targets was ablated in hFcalphaRI transgenic/ CR3-/- mice, although binding of neutrophils to tumor cells was intact. This shows a previously unrecognized importance of CR3 for hFcalphaRI-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). (+info)
Decreased superoxide production, degranulation, tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion, and CD11b/CD18 receptor expression by adherent monocytes from preterm infants. (7/437)Preterm infants have an increased incidence of infection, which is principally due to deficiencies in neonatal host defense mechanisms. Monocyte adherence is important in localizing cells at sites of infection and is associated with enhanced antimicrobial functions. We isolated cord blood monocytes from preterm and full-term infants to study their adhesion and immune functions, including superoxide (O2-) generation, degranulation, and cytokine secretion and their adhesion receptors. O2- production and degranulation were significantly diminished, by 28 and 37%, respectively, in adherent monocytes from preterm infants compared to full-term infants (P < 0. 05); however, these differences were not seen in freshly isolated cells. We also observed a significant decrease of 35% in tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated adherent monocytes from preterm infants compared to full-term infants (P < 0.05); however, this difference was not observed in interleukin-1beta or interleukin-6 production by the monocytes. The cell surface expression of the CD11b/CD18 adhesion receptor subunits was significantly decreased (by 60 and 52%, respectively) in monocytes from preterm infants compared to full-term infants (P < 0. 01). The cascade of the immune response to infection involves monocyte upregulation and adherence via CD11b/CD18 receptors followed by cell activation and the release of cytokines and bactericidal products. We speculate that monocyte adherence factors may be important in the modulation of immune responses in preterm infants. (+info)
Apo A-I inhibits foam cell formation in Apo E-deficient mice after monocyte adherence to endothelium. (8/437)We have previously shown that expression of the human apo A-I transgene on the apo E-deficient background increases HDL cholesterol and greatly diminishes fatty streak lesion formation. To examine the mechanism, prelesional events in atherosclerotic plaque development were examined in 6- to 8-week-old apo E-deficient and apo E-deficient/human apo A-I transgenic mice. A quantitative assessment of subendothelial lipid deposition by freeze-fracture and deep-etch electron microscopy indicated that elevated apo A-I did not affect the distribution or amount of aortic arch subendothelial lipid deposits. Immunohistochemical staining for VCAM-1 demonstrated similar expression on endothelial cells at prelesional aortic branch sites from both apo E-deficient and apo E-deficient/human apo A-I transgenic mice. Transmission electron microscopy revealed monocytes bound to the aortic arch in mice of both genotypes, and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that the area occupied by bound mononuclear cells was unchanged. Serum paraoxonase and aryl esterase activity did not differ between apo E-deficient and apo E-deficient/human apo A-I transgenic mice. These data suggest that increases in apo A-I and HDL cholesterol inhibit foam cell formation in apo E-deficient/human apo A-I transgenic mice at a stage following lipid deposition, endothelial activation, and monocyte adherence, without increases in HDL-associated paraoxonase. (+info)
A bunch of morons celebrating 'World Hijab Day' today.
Taslima Nasreen, an award-winning writer, physician, secular humanist and human rights activist, is known for her powerful writings on women oppression and unflinching criticism of religion, despite forced exile and multiple fatwas calling for her death. In India, Bangladesh and abroad, Nasreens fiction, nonfiction, poetry and memoir have topped the best-sellers list. Taslima Nasreen was born in Bangladesh. She started writing when she was 13. Her writings won the hearts of people across the border and she landed with the prestigious literary award Ananda from India in 1992. Taslima won The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought from the European Parliament in 1994. She received the Kurt Tucholsky Award from Swedish PEN, the Simone de Beauvoir Award and Human Rights Award from Government of France, Le Prix de l Edit de Nantes from the city of Nantes, France, Academy prize from the Royal Academy of arts, science and literature from Belgium. She is a Humanist Laureate in The International ...
Characterization of four CD18 mutants in leucocyte adhesion deficient (LAD) patients with differential capacities to support...
Researchers develop groundbreaking new graphene-based MRI contrast agent
Forum Leukocyte adhesion deficiency: the discussions on Carenity
Immense Immunology Insight: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency
Neutrophil adhesion in leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome type 2
We have previously reported a newly discovered congenital disorder of neutrophil adhesion, leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome type 2 (LAD II). The clinical manifestations of this syndrome are similar to those seen in the classic leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome, now designated type 1 (LAD I), but the two syndromes differ in the molecular basis of their adhesion defects. LAD I is caused by a deficiency in the CD18 integrin adhesion molecules while LAD II patients are deficient in expression of sialyl-Lewis X (SLeX), a carbohydrate ligand for selectins. In this report we demonstrate that neutrophils from a LAD II patient bind minimally or not at all to recombinant E-selectin, purified platelet P-selectin, or P-selectin expressed on histamine-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells, but have normal levels of L-selectin and CD11b/CD18 integrin, and adhere to and migrate across endothelium when CD11b/CD18 is activated. We compare LAD I and LAD II patient neutrophil function in ...
DISEASES - leukocyte adhesion deficiency
The disease-gene associations are derived from automatic text mining of the biomedical literature, manually curated database annotations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies. The confidence of each association is signified by stars, where ★★★★★ is the highest confidence and ★☆☆☆☆ is the lowest.. Developed by Sune Frankild, Albert Pallejà, Kalliopi Tsafou, and Lars Juhl Jensen from the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research.. ...
CD11c | Antibody - 製品情報: Leica Biosystems
Capillary venous differences in neonatal neutrophil values.
Leucocyte adhesion defect presenting as fulminant sepsis in a new born | BMJ Case Reports
Anti-NKG2D/CD314 antibody (FITC) [1D11] | Abcam
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency - Wikipedia
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD), is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by immunodeficiency resulting in recurrent infections. LAD is currently divided into three subtypes: LAD1, LAD2, and the recently described LAD3, also known as LAD-1/variant. In LAD3, the immune defects are supplemented by a Glanzmann thrombasthenia-like bleeding tendency. LAD was first recognized as a distinct clinical entity in the 1970s. The classic descriptions of LAD included recurrent bacterial infections, defects in neutrophil adhesion, and a delay in umbilical cord sloughing. The adhesion defects result in poor leukocyte chemotaxis, particularly neutrophil, inability to form pus and neutrophilia. Individuals with LAD suffer from bacterial infections beginning in the neonatal period. Infections such as omphalitis, pneumonia, gingivitis, and peritonitis are common and often life-threatening due to the infants inability to properly destroy the invading pathogens. These individuals do not form ...
Intercellular adhesion molecule
List of MeSH codes (D23)
... antigens, cd7 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.108 --- antigens, cd8 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.111 --- antigens, cd11 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd7 MeSH D188.8.131.52.108 --- antigens, cd8 MeSH D184.108.40.206.111 --- antigens, cd11 MeSH D220.127.116.11. ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...
For example, LFA1 (CD11a/CD18) short representation of Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen 1, also called αLβ2 integrin Mac1 ... CD11 is the α (alpha) component of various integrins, especially ones in which the β (beta) component is CD18 (β2) and mediate ... CD11b/CD18) present on macrophages that is also called Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) and αmβ2 integrin. CD11c/CD18 also called ...
... antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGB2 Info with links in the Cell Migration ... Schymeinsky J, Mócsai A, Walzog B (August 2007). "Neutrophil activation via beta2 integrins (CD11/CD18): molecular mechanisms ... Huang C, Springer TA (August 1995). "A binding interface on the I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) ... It is the beta subunit of four different structures: LFA-1 (paired with CD11a) Macrophage-1 antigen (paired with CD11b) ...
Integrin alpha M
Integrin alphaM at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... Todd RF, Petty HR (May 1997). "Beta 2 (CD11/CD18) integrins can serve as signaling partners for other leukocyte receptors". The ... Schymeinsky J, Mócsai A, Walzog B (August 2007). "Neutrophil activation via beta2 integrins (CD11/CD18): molecular mechanisms ... also known as macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) or complement receptor 3 (CR3). ITGAM is also known as CR3A, and cluster of ...
Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1
"Shedding of large functionally active CD11/CD18 Integrin complexes from leukocyte membranes during synovial inflammation ... "Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1): a surface antigen distinct from Lyt-2,3 that participates in T lymphocyte- ... Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is found on all T-cells and also on B-cells, macrophages, neutrophils and NK ... It binds to ICAM-1 on antigen-presenting cells and functions as an adhesion molecule. LFA-1 is the first to bind T-cells to ...
Katz FE, Parkar M, Stanley K, Murray LJ, Clark EA, Greaves MF (Jan 1985). "Chromosome mapping of cell membrane antigens ... "Shedding of Large Functionally Active CD11/CD18 Integrin Complexes from Leukocyte Membranes during Synovial Inflammation ... Huang C, Springer TA (Aug 1995). "A binding interface on the I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) ... Lebedeva T, Dustin ML, Sykulev Y (Jun 2005). "ICAM-1 co-stimulates target cells to facilitate antigen presentation". Current ...
1991). "CD63 antigen. A novel lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, cloned by a screening procedure for intracellular antigens in ... Skubitz KM, Campbell KD, Iida J, Skubitz AP (1996). "CD63 associates with tyrosine kinase activity and CD11/CD18, and transmits ... CD63 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD63 gene. CD63 is mainly associated with membranes of intracellular ... 1992). "Genomic structure of the ME491/CD63 antigen gene and functional analysis of the 5'-flanking regulatory sequences". ...
Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is ... te Velde AA, Keizer GD, Figdor CG (1987). "Differential function of LFA-1 family molecules (CD11 and CD18) in adhesion of human ... antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide)". Lu C, Takagi J, Springer TA (May 2001). " ... CD11a Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGAL Info with links in the Cell ...
Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
ATP1B3 - Википедия
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11. CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ... "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms cooperate to mediate colon carcinoma cell adhesion to E- and L-selectin in ...
CD74 - Википедия
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
CXCR5 - Википедия
CD97 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom. ... 2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
Меланотрансферрин - Википедия
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
... is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Leucocyte typing: human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
CD11c, a enciclopedia libre
CLEC12A - Википедия
CD117 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... 1991). „Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID ... 2003). „Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". Int. J. Hematol. 75 ...
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 6
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom. ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
Integrin beta 3
CD36 - Википедия
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet degranulation. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling ...
Patient derived xenograft
ICAM-1 - Википедия
Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... Hamann J, Wishaupt JO, van Lier RA, Smeets TJ, Breedveld FC, Tak PP (Apr 1999). "Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and ... Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004325.x. PMID 11380941.. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
Atypical Lymphoid Proliferations
CD43 and NK-cell antigen CD56; negative for CD3, CD5, CD57 and CD11. Large groups of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA-positive ... L&H cells also stain for epithelial membrane antigen and CD79a; results of both are negative in Reed-Sternberg cells. A ... Aberrant immunophenotype is defined as absence of antigens normally expressed on the B cells. Aberrant immunophenotype favors ... CD45, EMA, ALK1, CD3, CD45RO, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD30, CD15 and cytotoxic antigens (TIA1, perforin). ...
Photomicrographs showing changes in CD11/b-IR in the sp | Open-i
Photomicrographs showing changes in CD11/b-IR in the spinal DH (L4-L5) 3 days after formalin injection. Inhibitory effects of ... Antigens, CD11/metabolism. *Cell Shape/drug effects. *Edema/chemically induced/complications/drug therapy/pathology ... Figure 5: Photomicrographs showing changes in CD11/b-IR in the spinal DH (L4-L5) 3 days after formalin injection. Inhibitory ... Figure 5: Photomicrographs showing changes in CD11/b-IR in the spinal DH (L4-L5) 3 days after formalin injection. Inhibitory ...
Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 - Wikipedia
"Shedding of large functionally active CD11/CD18 Integrin complexes from leukocyte membranes during synovial inflammation ... "Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1): a surface antigen distinct from Lyt-2,3 that participates in T lymphocyte- ... Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is found on all T-cells and also on B-cells, macrophages, neutrophils and NK ... It binds to ICAM-1 on antigen-presenting cells and functions as an adhesion molecule. LFA-1 is the first to bind T-cells to ...
The EGR2 targets LAG-3 and 4-1BB describe and regulate dysfunctional antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in the tumor...
Cancer Discov. 2:608-623. doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-11-0314. OpenUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ... tumor-associated antigen. TIL. tumor infiltrating lymphocyte. TDLN. tumor-draining lymph node. TIGIT. T cell immunoreceptor ... Tumor antigen-specific CD8 T cells infiltrating the tumor express high levels of PD-1 and are functionally impaired. Blood. 114 ... 3, C and E). This enrichment of antigen-specific CD8+ TILs in the 4-1BB+LAG-3+ populations suggests that these markers identify ...
Recombinant Human CD11b protein (ab126010) | Abcam
Anti-CD11b antibody [MEM-174] (Phycoerythrin) (ab28101) | Abcam
Antigens, CD11b | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is related to "Antigens, CD11b".. *Antigens, CD11 ... A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits ... "Antigens, CD11b" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD11b" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by ...
CD11b Antibody (C11b/660) [DyLight 405LS] (NBP2-34573V3): Novus Biologicals
CD11 antigen-like family member B. *CD11b antigen. *CD11b. *CD11Bintegrin, alpha M (complement component receptor 3, alpha; ... The protocol says to do enzymatic antigen retrieval before incubating with the CD11b antibody, which enzyme is used? *The ... We have 3 CD11b antibodies for IHC-P and just one CD11 b antibody we offer conjugated to FITC, NB110-89474F. ...
CD11c Antibody (AP-MAB0806) [Alexa Fluor® 647] (NB110-97871AF647): Novus Biologicals
Frontiers | MHC Class II Activation and Interferon-γ Mediate the Inhibition of Neutrophils and Eosinophils by Staphylococcal...
... which are expressed on classical antigen-presenting cells (APC). Evidence shows that MHC class II is also expressed in ... which are expressed on classical antigen-presenting cells (APC). Evidence shows that MHC class II is also expressed in ... CD11/CD18) and by the integrin lymphocyte antigen function-1 (LFA-1α; αLβ2, CD11a/CD18), which interacts with ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 ... Roche, P. A., and Furuta, K. (2015). The ins and outs of MHC class II-mediated antigen processing and presentation. Nat. Rev. ...
Intercellular adhesion molecule - Wikipedia
ITGAM + ITGAX Antibody Polyclonal (PA1-46162)
Protein Aliases: antigen CD11b (p170); CD11 antigen-like family member B; CD11 antigen-like family member C; CD11B; CD11B (p170 ... leukocyte surface antigen p150,95, alpha subunit; MAC-1; Mac-1 alpha; MAC1A; macrophage antigen alpha; macrophage antigen alpha ... The Mac1 CD11b antigen is present on macrophages, granulocytes, natural killer cells, blood monocytes. CD11b is expressed on 8 ... Synthetic peptide made to an internal region of the mouse CD11 (b/c) protein within residues 500-600. ...
CD11b Antibody (Monoclonal, M1/70.15)
Imaging androgen receptor signaling with a radiotracer targeting free prostate-specific antigen.
10.1158/2159-8290.CD-11-0316. language. English. LU publication?. yes. id. 9ccc0ce4-5a56-4d6a-b51d-15109b815792 (old id 2608922 ... Imaging androgen receptor signaling with a radiotracer targeting free prostate-specific antigen.. Ulmert, David LU ; Evans, ... The virtues and shortcomings of measuring secreted prostate-specific antigen (PSA), an androgen receptor (AR) target gene, in ... The virtues and shortcomings of measuring secreted prostate-specific antigen (PSA), an androgen receptor (AR) target gene, in ...
Decysin is highly expressed in mature DCs. (A) 28 cycle | Open-i
CD18 - Beckman Coulter
CD11/CD18) are the major adhesion molecule family of leukocytes. Most leukocytes express one or more members of this family. ... CD18 Antigen. The beta2 integrins (CD11/CD18) are the major adhesion molecule family of leukocytes. Most leukocytes express one ... dendritic antigen presenting cells), CD11d (αD) (CD8 T-cell subpopulation including large granular lymphocytes, macrophages and ...
CD11c Armenian Hamster anti-Mouse, FITC, Clone: N418, eBioscience 50 µg; | Fisher Scientific
CD11c Mouse anti-Human, Biotin, Clone: 118/A5, eBioscience 100 µg; | Fisher Scientific
AI449405, Cd11c, Cr4, N418, CD11 antigen-like family member C, ITGAX, integrin aX, integrin alpha-X. ... CD11, along with CD18, form a heterodimer adhesion molecule. In particular, CD11 is composed of CD11a, CD11b and CD11c. CD11a ... The CD11/CD18 adhesion molecules consist of three heterodimers sharing a common beta subunit (CD18) with a distinct alpha ... 118/A5 antibody has been tested by immunohistochemistry of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded human tissue using low pH antigen ...
Prostate-specific antigen in serum occurs predominantly in complex with alpha 1-antichymotrypsin. Clin Chem 1991;37:1618-25. ... Cancer Discov April 1 2012 (2) (4) 320-327; DOI: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-11-0316 ... Prostate-specific antigen at or before age 50 as a predictor of advanced prostate cancer diagnosed up to 25 years later: a case ... Prostate specific antigen concentration at age 60 and death or metastasis from prostate cancer: case-control study. BMJ 2010; ...
Recombinant Human ITGAX & ITGB2 cell lysate ITGAX & ITGB2-1875HCL - Creative BioMart
CD11 antigen-like family member C; leukocyte adhesion receptor p150,95; myeloid membrane antigen, alpha subunit; leukocyte ... surface antigen p150,95, alpha subunit; leukocyte adhesion glycoprotein p150,95 alpha chain; integrin, alpha X (antigen CD11C ( ... leukocyte-associated antigens CD18/11A, CD18/11B, CD18/11C; cell surface adhesion glycoproteins LFA-1/CR3/p150,95 subunit beta ...
Early Conversion From Tacrolimus to Efalizumab Maintenance Therapy in Kidney Transplant Recipients
subunits, known as CD11 and CD18. Efalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against the. CD11 molecule. By binding to CD11 ... B ( surface antigen positive), HIV. - Subjects with BK or CMV viremia prior to enrollment. - Multiple organ transplant ... Integrins, specifically leukocyte function associated antigen LFA-1, are. cell surface molecules which play a role in T-cell ...
Milli-Mark™ Anti-CD11c-FITC Antibody, clone KB90 | FCMAB179F
... of related heterodimeric proteins designated CD11 in the classification system for human leucocyte differentiation antigens. ... The CD11 family shares a common 95 kDa li-chain (CD18). In addition to the p150,95 protein, this protein family contains two ... was included in the Sixth International Workshop and Conference on Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens, and studies by a ... other members: leucocyte function associated-1 antigen (LFA-1, CD11a) and iC3b receptor (CD11b) (Hogg, 1997). CD11c is ...
Immunological Concepts Lead the Way in Unraveling Proliferative Diseases of the Immune System - WSAVA2008 - VIN
Canine leukocyte cell adhesion molecules (LeuCAMs): characterization of the CD11/CD18 family. Tissue Antigens 1992;40(1):13-21. ... Lymphocyte Antigen Receptor Gene Rearrangement--An Aid to Diagnosis of Lymphoma. Lymphocyte antigen receptor gene rearrangement ... In these sites they function as antigen processing and ultimately antigen presenting cells, which interact with T cells. ... During T cell development in the thymus, T cells rearrange their antigen receptor genes TCRA, TCRB, TCRG and TCRD, and in the ...
CD11c, APC-eFluor 780, clone: BU15, eBioscience™
Pediatric Complement Receptor Deficiency: Background, Diseases Related to the Complement System, Additional Leukocyte Adhesion...
Two CD11 and 2 CD18 genes form the CD11/CD18 heterodimer complex. CD11/CD18 are members of the liver-cell adhesion molecule ( ... In addition, neither the H blood group antigen (Bombay phenotype) nor the Lewis blood type antigens (Lea and Leb) are expressed ... The CD11/CD18 complex is part of the beta-2 integrin family and is important in adhesion and phagocytosis (see Table 1).  ... antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens are decreased and antibody responses to protein antigens are slightly reduced. B ...
SCOPe 2.07: Structural Classification of Proteins - extended
Description: Crystal Structure of chicken CD1-1. Class: immune system. Keywords: cd1, T-Cell, lipid, antigen, Transmembrane, ... Compound: T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1A1 antigen. Species: Gallus gallus [TaxId:9031]. Gene: CD1A1, chicken cd1.1. Database ... Compound: T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1A1 antigen. Species: Gallus gallus [TaxId:9031]. Gene: CD1A1, chicken cd1.1. Database ...
Ulmert D[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Internalization of secreted antigen-targeted antibodies by the neonatal Fc receptor for precision imaging of the androgen ... 2012 Apr;2(4):320-7. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-11-0316. Epub 2012 Mar 31. ... Prostate specific antigen concentration at age 60 and death or metastasis from prostate cancer: case-control study. ... Twenty-year Risk of Prostate Cancer Death by Midlife Prostate-specific Antigen and a Panel of Four Kallikrein Markers in a ...
Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A, lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1) is also known as ITGAL or CD11a. CD11a is one of ... CD11 refers to different α chains and CD18 to the common β2 subunit. LFA-1 is also called CD11aCD18.. Other members of the LFA- ... VLA ("very late antigens") received their name because α1β1 and α2β1 were expressed on T cells 2 to 4 weeks after repetitive ... Macrophage-1 antigen, MAC-1 (paired with CD11b). - Integrin alphaXbeta2 (paired with CD11c). CD11a - Subunit of LFA-1, a ...
New gut associated lymphoid tissue "cryptopatches" breed murine intestinal intraepithelial T cell precursors | Springer for...
CD Antigens | ProSpec
These proteins or antigen markers are called Clusters of Differentiation. ... Cell surface antigens of leukocytes are called CD antigens, and important for immune reactions of organisms. As lymphocytes ... Other more important CD antigens include the leukocytes integrins (CD11/CD18) and the hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34. ... About CD antigens:. Cell surface antigens of leukocytes are called CD antigens, and important for immune reactions of organisms ...
- The CD11/CD18 complex is part of the beta-2 integrin family and is important in adhesion and phagocytosis (see Table 1). (medscape.com)
- Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A, lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1) is also known as ITGAL or CD11a. (allergycases.org)
- Macrophage-1 antigen, MAC-1 (integrin alphaMbeta2) is a complement receptor (CR3) consisting of CD11b and CD18. (allergycases.org)
- Integrin alpha M (ITGAM) is one protein subunit that forms the heterodimeric integrin alpha-M beta-2 (αMβ2) molecule, also known as macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) or complement receptor 3 (CR3) ITGAM is also known as CR3A, and cluster of differentiation molecule 11B (CD11B). (allergycases.org)
- C07K16/2845 - Immunoglobulins [IGs], e.g. monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies against material from animals or humans against receptors, cell surface antigens or cell surface determinants against the integrin superfamily against integrin beta2-subunit-containing molecules, e.g. (google.com)
- The CD11b antigen is also known as the integrin αM subunit. (beckman.com)
- It combines with the CD18 antigen (integrin β2 subunit) to build the integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18, αMβ2, CR3, iC3bR, Mo-1). (beckman.com)
- Expression of the CD11b chain on the cell surface requires the presence of the CD18 antigen (also known as β2 integrin chain). (beckman.com)
- Together, these two subunits create the CD11b/CD18 integrin, one of the four integrin heterodimers that can be built by the association of CD18 β chain with four distinctive CD11 α chains. (beckman.com)
- Out of 12 mAbs with potential CD11 specificity, seven were assigned to three different swine specific alpha chains of the CD11/CD18 integrin heterodimer, the assignment of the remaining four was tentative. (nih.gov)
- This integrin alpha L/CD11a chain and the integrin beta 2 beta chain (ITGB2) combine to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. (cellsciences.com)
- beta-integrin (CD11/CD18) family plays an important role in inflammation via their regulatory effects on leukocyte adhesion, transmigration, and function. (antibodybeyond.com)
- CD18, integrin beta2 subunit, forms heterodimers with four types of CD11 molecule to constitute leukocyte (beta2) integrins: alphaLbeta2 (CD11a/CD18, LFA-1), alphaMbeta2 (CD11b/CD18, Mac-1, CR3), alphaXbeta2 (CD11c/CD18) and alphaDbeta2 (CD11d/CD18). (nordicbiosite.com)
- The most predominant beta 2-integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, alpha L beta 2), expressed on all leukocytes, is essential for many adhesive functions of the immune system. (biomedcentral.com)
- This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 , which is expressed on all leukocytes. (vwr.com)
- Staphylococcal enterotoxins are classified as superantigens that act by linking T-cell receptor with MHC class II molecules, which are expressed on classical antigen-presenting cells (APC). (frontiersin.org)
- Staphylococcal enterotoxins are superantigens due its properties to induce extensive proliferation of T cells mediated by cross-linking of the variable region of the β chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR) with MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as macrophages and dendritic cells ( Fraser, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Imaging androgen receptor signaling with a radiotracer targeting free prostate-specific antigen. (lu.se)
- The virtues and shortcomings of measuring secreted prostate-specific antigen (PSA), an androgen receptor (AR) target gene, in patients with prostate cancer are well documented, making it a logical candidate for assessing whether a radiotracer can reveal new (and useful) information beyond that conferred by serum PSA. (lu.se)
- In addition to the p150,95 protein, this protein family contains two other members: leucocyte function associated-1 antigen (LFA-1, CD11a) and iC3b receptor (CD11b) (Hogg, 1997). (merckmillipore.com)
- In the case of lymphoid proliferation, assessment of B or T cell antigen receptor rearrangement by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides valuable information pertaining to antigen receptor diversity in the lesion. (vin.com)
- Similarly, B cells are identified by demonstration of the components of the B cell antigen receptor complex (specifically CD79a). (vin.com)
- CD antigens appear to carry out cytokine receptor-like functions such as CD27, CD30 and CD40. (prospecbio.com)
- It functions as a co-receptor for B-cell antigen receptor (BCR), regulating signal transduction. (githubusercontent.com)
- CD4 is an accessory protein for MHC class-II antigen/T-cell receptor interaction. (githubusercontent.com)
- Dendritic cells (DCs) mount tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), and the double-stranded RNA adjuvant Poly(I:C) stimulates Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) signal in DC, which in turn induces type I interferon (IFN) and interleukin-12 (IL-12), then cross-primes cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). (biomedcentral.com)
- TL1A expression has also been confirmed on antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes that are activated by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, enteric bacteria, and Fc γ receptor (Fc γ R) crosslinking [ 5 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
- There is increasing experimental evidence that blocking the interaction between ICAM-1, which is expressed on endothelium, and integrins such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (CD11a/CD18) and macrophage antigen-1 (complement receptor 3, CD11b/CD18), which are expressed on the surface of leukocytes, prevents not only inflammation of vessel walls but also chronic vasospasm. (thejns.org)
- They are known to bind to leucocyte integrins CD11/CD18 such as LFA-1 and Macrophage-1 antigen, during inflammation and in immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
- The beta2 integrins (CD11/CD18) are the major adhesion molecule family of leukocytes. (beckman.com)
- Integrins, specifically leukocyte function associated antigen LFA-1, are cell surface molecules which play a role in T-cell activation. (knowcancer.com)
- Other more important CD antigens include the leukocytes integrins (CD11/CD18) and the hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34. (prospecbio.com)
- The CD11/CD18 integrins are transmembrane proteins. (antibodybeyond.com)
- Patients with leukocyte adhesion molecule (CD11/CD18, beta 2 integrins) deficiency have structural defects in the common beta subunit (CD18), which prevent heterodimer formation and normal cell surface expression of these receptors, leading to life-threatening bacterial infections. (acris-antibodies.com)
- To establish this concept, we selected prostate-specific antigen (PSA) based on the large body of research highlighting the virtues and shortcomings of measuring the secreted forms of this protein in prostate cancer ( 2 - 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Twenty-year Risk of Prostate Cancer Death by Midlife Prostate-specific Antigen and a Panel of Four Kallikrein Markers in a Large Population-based Cohort of Healthy Men. (nih.gov)
- The first step in the diagnosis of prostate cancer is often an anomalous prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value. (springeropen.com)
- Patients with prostate-specific antigen levels ≥ 4 ng/mL or prostate cancer were excluded. (bvsalud.org)
- After bacillus Calmette-Guerin exposure, no significant differences in prostate-specific antigen levels, international prostate symptom scores, or post-voiding residual volume were noted. (bvsalud.org)
- The four alpha subunits are: CD11a (αL) (all leukocytes), CD11b (αM) (granulocytes, monocytes, some macrophages), CD11c (αX) (granulocytes, monocytes, dendritic antigen presenting cells), CD11d (αD) (CD8 T-cell subpopulation including large granular lymphocytes, macrophages and gamma-delta T cells in splenic red pulp). (beckman.com)
- In particular, CD11 is composed of CD11a, CD11b and CD11c. (fishersci.com)
- The CD11/CD18 adhesion molecules consist of three heterodimers sharing a common beta subunit (CD18) with a distinct alpha subunit (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c). (fishersci.com)
- Anti-CD11c, KB90, was included in the Sixth International Workshop and Conference on Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens, and studies by a number of laboratories confirmed its reactivity with the CD11c antigen (Hogg, 1997). (merckmillipore.com)
- Antibody recognizes Human CD11c antigen. (merckmillipore.com)
- Three CD11 alpha chains and a common CD18 beta chain form heterodimer transmembrane complexes (CD11a/CD18, CD11b/CD18, CD11c/CD18). (medscape.com)
- CD11b/CD18 and CD11c/CD18 are more restricted antigens normally expressed on monocytes, macrophages, PMN and natural killer cells. (antibodybeyond.com)
- Simultaneous administration of Poly(I:C) and antigen (Ag) OVA significantly increased a minor population of CD8 + T cells, that express CD11c in lymphoid and tumor sites. (biomedcentral.com)
- Huleatt JW, Lefrancois L: Anti-gen-driven induction of CD11 c on intestinal lymphocytes and CD8 + T cells in vivo. (springer.com)
- During the course of development from precursor cells into functionally mature forms, lymphocytes display a complex pattern of surface antigens, some of which are acquired at certain stages while others are lost. (prospecbio.com)
- In Hematology the morphological criteria is for the description of specific developmental stages of lymphocytes unlike in CD antigens which the use of monoclonal antibodies allows the objective and precise analysis and standardized typing of mature and immature normal and malignant cells of all hematopoietic cell lineages. (prospecbio.com)
- CD11 antigens appeared to be strongly expressed only on mature granulocytes, monocytes, and certain lymphocytes, but not significantly on myeloid committed precursor cells. (antibodybeyond.com)
- In this report, we demonstrate that 9.3- lymphocytes express CD11, an antigen which is also present on monocytes and granulocytes. (antibodybeyond.com)
- Chicken splenic lymphocytes, selected with antigen-coated magnetic beads, served as RNA source for the generation of cDNA. (biomedcentral.com)
- i) interaction between lymphocytes, (ii) interaction between T-cells and antigen presenting cells, (iii) adhesion of naïve lymphocytes to post-capillary high endothelial venules of secondary lymphoid tissues, (iv) adhesion of leukocytes to activated endothelium at sites of inflammation for extravasation, (v) control of cell differentiation and proliferation, and (vi) antibody-dependent killing by natural killer cells and granulocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) consists of an alpha-chain (CD11a) and beta-chain (CD18). (allergycases.org)
- CD11a is one of the two components, along with CD18, which form lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1. (allergycases.org)
- CD11a/CD18 is a lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, and CD11b/CD18 is a macrophage antigen-1. (antibodybeyond.com)
- Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fibroblast cell lines expressing the CD11a/CD18 or CD11b/CD18 antigen were engineered by gene transfection. (antibodybeyond.com)
- CD antigens participate in immune reaction as receptors for cell communication (e.g. adherence molecules, antigen recognizing receptors). (prospecbio.com)
- CD antigens have been shown to be identical with receptors of cytokines such as CD25 (TAC antigen). (prospecbio.com)
- The CD Antigen's designation isn't related to the biological function, thus CD antigens include receptors, glycans, adhesion molecules, membrane-bound enzymes, etc. (prospecbio.com)
- Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). (umassmed.edu)
- Hence, DC in humans and dogs are best defined by their abundant expression of molecules essential to their function as antigen presenting cells. (vin.com)
- the number of alveolar macrophages (AM) expressing CD11/CD18 molecules is increased in smokers compared with nonsmokers and related to the superoxide anion (O2-) production of these cells. (antibodybeyond.com)
- Several molecules have been discovered out of which CD antigens have been found to play an important role in cancer progression and proliferation. (marketreport.jp)
- Cell surface antigens of leukocytes are called CD antigens, and important for immune reactions of organisms. (prospecbio.com)
- These surface antigens were identified initially by monoclonal antibodies and the designations of the antibodies were used often as synonyms for the cell surface proteins they detected, giving rise to a plethora of different names. (prospecbio.com)
- Flow cytometry was used to determine the surface antigens in different stage of hUC-MSCs (P2, P5, and P10). (hindawi.com)
- Antigens, CD14" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD14" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Antigens, CD14" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD14" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
- It binds to ICAM-1 on antigen-presenting cells and functions as an adhesion molecule. (wikipedia.org)
- CD11, along with CD18, form a heterodimer adhesion molecule. (fishersci.com)
- Efalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against the CD11 molecule. (knowcancer.com)
- CD11 molecule is useful for distinguishing novel subsets of T8 cells. (antibodybeyond.com)
- The second domain of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) maintains the structural integrity of the leucocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) ligand-binding site in the first domain. (ximbio.com)
- Immunohistochemistry on tissue arrays showed that, together with CEACAM6 (carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6) or the ER stress protein Grp78, Gp96 is also strongly expressed at the apical plasma membrane of the ileal epithelial cells of 50% of patients with CD. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is found on all T-cells and also on B-cells, macrophages, neutrophils and NK cells and is involved in recruitment to the site of infection. (wikipedia.org)
- Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is found on leukocytes is involved in recruitment to the site of infection. (allergycases.org)
- LFA-1 immunodeficiency syndrome A co-dominant or AR, often consanguineous, immune deficiency due to a defect in lymphocyte function-associated antigen-LFA-1, which facilitates cytolytic T-cell mediated killing and helper T-cell response Clinical Inflammation, delayed separation of umbilical cord, recurrent pyogenic infections, pneumonia and poor wound healing due to poor cell adherence, chemotaxis, ↓ respiratory burst. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Precise cell identification can be achieved by the application of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specific for leukocyte antigens to isolated cells, cell smears and tissue sections. (vin.com)
- CD antigen nomenclature describes different monoclonal antibodies from different sources that recognize identical antigens. (prospecbio.com)
- In the last decade the wide palette of monoclonal antibodies has been prepared which recognise of CD antigens on human cells. (prospecbio.com)
- The anti-CD11/CD18 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) submitted in the Second International Workshop on Ruminant Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens, were analysed for their reactivity with the ovine homologue of CD11/CD18. (antibodybeyond.com)
- Presence of BiTEs, ADC, monoclonal antibodies and tri-functional antibodies for targeting different CD antigens has been commercialized. (marketreport.jp)
- Some of the progress could be observed in case of monoclonal antibodies and same scenario could be observed for other CD antigen cancer therapeutics in coming years. (marketreport.jp)
- LFA-1 is the first to bind T-cells to antigen-presenting cells and initially binds weakly. (wikipedia.org)
- The Mac1 CD11b antigen is present on macrophages, granulocytes, natural killer cells, blood monocytes. (thermofisher.com)
- Very few leukocyte antigens are expressed only by a single lineage of cells. (vin.com)
- Dendritic cells are the most potent antigen presenting cells. (vin.com)
- In these sites they function as antigen processing and ultimately antigen presenting cells, which interact with T cells. (vin.com)
- Migration of cutaneous DC (as veiled cells) via lymphatics to the paracortex of lymph nodes occurs following contact with antigen 6 . (vin.com)
- [ 3 ] Thus, it enhances and prolongs antigen signaling on B cells. (medscape.com)
- VLA ("very late antigens") received their name because α1β1 and α2β1 were expressed on T cells 2 to 4 weeks after repetitive stimulation in vitro in the early experiments. (allergycases.org)
- The most commonly know CD antigens are CD4 and CD8 which are markers for T-helper and T-suppressor cells, respectively. (prospecbio.com)
- The authors concluded that survivin expression is a downstream event of Flt3L signaling and that it serves as an essential mechanism of survival for bone marrow and spleen hematopoietic cells as they mature and differentiate into antigen presenting cells. (the-rheumatologist.org)
- To improve immune responses after vaccination of chickens through increased uptake of vaccines and targeting to antigen presenting cells, a better understanding of the avian respiratory immune system is required. (springer.com)
- Specialised epithelial cells or M cells covering the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue expressed CSF1R -transgene and type II pneumocytes expressed LAMP1 suggesting that these epithelial cells are phagocytic and transcytose antigen. (springer.com)
- The methods may be used to improve the efficiency of obtaining immortalized antigen-specific plasma cells or to improve the quality of molecularly cloned Ig heavy and light chains. (justia.com)
- Local administration of ansamitocin P3 induced maturation of skin Langerhans cells in vivo and promoted antigen uptake and extensive homing of tumor-resident DCs to tumor-draining lymph nodes. (nih.gov)
- When used as an adjuvant in a specific vaccination approach, ansamitocin P3 dramatically increased activation of antigen-specific T cells. (nih.gov)
- They capture, process and present antigens to T cells and secrete various cytokines and soluble factors to initiate adaptive immune responses. (bvsalud.org)
- Dendritic cells are also important in induction of immunological tolerance to self- antigens. (bvsalud.org)
- These include immune cell attachment to endothelial and antigen-presenting cells, cytotoxicity, and extravasation into tissues. (acris-antibodies.com)
- CD4⁺ T cell differentiation is regulated by specialized antigen-presenting cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- In this study, we show that the Egr2-driven cell surface proteins LAG-3 and 4-1BB can identify dysfunctional tumor antigen-specific CD8 + TIL. (rupress.org)
- The protein belongs to a family of related heterodimeric proteins designated CD11 in the classification system for human leucocyte differentiation antigens. (merckmillipore.com)
- Sequence of Mi suggested that 16 out of total 26 peptides from Mtb showed sequence homology ranging 57-100% with similar cell surface proteins or secretory proteins of CD11_6 ( Mi) . (biomedcentral.com)
- Bacterial antigens are expressed as fusion proteins with outer membrane proteins located on the outer membrane surface of OMVs. (wiley.com)
- Cell lineage determination in the immune system has advanced since the inception of the 'cluster of differentiation' (CD) antigen system. (vin.com)
- Evaluation of immune response to recombinant potential protective antigens of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae delivered as cocktail DNA and/or recombinant protein vaccines in mice. (semanticscholar.org)
- For a given target, dozens of mAbs may need to be screened, and thus the techniques used to generate the mAbs must be able to generate a panel of highly diverse antigen-specific (Ag-specific) mAbs. (justia.com)
- The standard method for creating mAbs to a particular antigen involves the creation of a fused cell called a "hybridoma. (justia.com)
- In addition, many of the clones generated may not produce mAbs that recognize the antigen of interest. (justia.com)
- Prior to immunostaining paraffin tissues, antigen retrieval with citrate buffer (pH 6.0) is recommended. (thermofisher.com)
- Applications Tested: This 118/A5 antibody has been tested by immunohistochemistry of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded human tissue using low pH antigen retrieval. (fishersci.com)
- Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with citrate buffer pH 6 before commencing with IHC staining protocol. (abcam.co.jp)
- Cell lineage is best determined by evaluation of the expression pattern of leukocyte antigens that are functionally important for a particular cell. (vin.com)
- CD antigens are found on practically all known cell types. (prospecbio.com)
- In some cases CD antigens are expressed only at certain stages of development or under certain conditions, for example after cell activation or in certain disease conditions. (prospecbio.com)
- The Flt3 inhibitor sunitinib reduced survivin expression in the MHCII+CD11-chi dendritic cell population in the spleen. (the-rheumatologist.org)
- Aruffo and Seed, "Molecular cloning of a two CD7 (T-cell leukemia antigen) cDNAs by a COS cell expression system," The EMBO Journal 6:3313-3316 (1987). (patentgenius.com)
- Vaccine- and antigen-dependent type 1 and type 2 cytokine induction after primary vaccination of infants with whole-cell or acellular pertussis vaccines. (semanticscholar.org)
- A hybridoma is produced by fusing together an established tumor cell line, such as a myeloma cell line, and an antibody-producing cell (such as a B-lymphocyte) from an animal that has previously been immunized with the antigen. (justia.com)