Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Immunohistochemical localization of CD1a-positive putative dendritic cells in human breast tumours. (1/894)

The presence of a high number of infiltrating CD1a+ cells in malignant neoplasms has been reported to be associated with an improved prognosis, reduced tumour recurrence and fewer metastases. This study identified a population of CD1a+ cells within the lymphoid cell infiltrate in human ductal breast carcinoma (n = 52), which was significantly different from normal breast tissue, in which only two out of nine cases expressed CD1a+ cells (P = 0.0192). In the majority of cases, the infiltrate was low compared with the number of macrophages and T cells present (results not shown). There was no correlation between the number of CD1a+ cells and tumour grade, with all tumour grades expressing similar numbers of infiltrating CD1a+ cells. There was clear evidence, however, that the CD1a+ cells were closely associated with tumour cells. It is likely that CD1a+ cells have a role in antigen capture and presentation in human tumours, and this study documents the density of CD1a+ cells in a large sample of all histological grades of human breast carcinomas.  (+info)

Long-term culture of human CD34(+) progenitors with FLT3-ligand, thrombopoietin, and stem cell factor induces extensive amplification of a CD34(-)CD14(-) and a CD34(-)CD14(+) dendritic cell precursor. (2/894)

Current in vitro culture systems allow the generation of human dendritic cells (DCs), but the output of mature cells remains modest. This contrasts with the extensive amplification of hematopoietic progenitors achieved when culturing CD34(+) cells with FLT3-ligand and thrombopoietin. To test whether such cultures contained DC precursors, CD34(+) cord blood cells were incubated with the above cytokines, inducing on the mean a 250-fold and a 16,600-fold increase in total cell number after 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. The addition of stem cell factor induced a further fivefold increase in proliferation. The majority of the cells produced were CD34(-)CD1a- CD14(+) (p14(+)) and CD34(-)CD1a-CD14(-) (p14(-)) and did not display the morphology, surface markers, or allostimulatory capacity of DC. When cultured with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), both subsets differentiated without further proliferation into immature (CD1a+, CD14(-), CD83(-)) macropinocytic DC. Mature (CD1a+, CD14(-), CD83(+)) DCs with high allostimulatory activity were generated if such cultures were supplemented with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). In addition, p14(-) cells generated CD14(+) cells with GM-CSF and TNF, which in turn, differentiated into DC when exposed to GM-CSF and IL-4. Similar results were obtained with frozen DC precursors and also when using pooled human serum AB+ instead of bovine serum, emphasizing that this system using CD34(+) cells may improve future prospects for immunotherapy.  (+info)

Biochemical characterization of CD1d expression in the absence of beta2-microglobulin. (3/894)

CD1d is a major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule that exhibits a distinct antigen processing pathway that functions in the presentation of hydrophobic antigens to T cells. CD1d has been previously shown to be expressed on the cell surface of human intestinal epithelial cell lines in vivo and a transfected cell line in vitro independently of beta2-microglobulin (beta2m). To define the relationship between CD1d and beta2m and characterize the biochemical structure of CD1d in the absence of beta2m, we have used a newly generated series of CD1d transfectants and CD1d-specific antibodies. These studies show that in the absence of beta2m, CD1d is expressed on the cell surface as a 45-kDa glycoprotein that is sensitive to endoglycosidase-H and is reduced to 37-kDa after N-glycanase digestion. In contrast, in the presence of beta2m, CD1d is expressed on the cell surface as a 48-kDa endoglycosidase-H-resistant glycoprotein. Pulse-chase metabolic labeling studies demonstrate that acquisition of endoglycosidase-H resistance of CD1d is observed in the presence of beta2m but not in the absence of beta2m even after a 24-h chase period. Thus, CD1d is able to be transported to the cell surface independently of beta2m; however, in the absence of beta2m, the glycosylation pattern of CD1d is altered and consistent with an immature glycoprotein.  (+info)

T cell-tropic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian-human immunodeficiency viruses are readily transmitted by vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques, and Langerhans' cells of the female genital tract are infected with SIV. (4/894)

Intravaginal inoculation with T cell-tropic molecular clones of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) or some dual-tropic strains of SIV or SHIV produced systemic infection in rhesus macaques. Vaginal inoculation with other dual-tropic molecular clones of SIV or SHIV did not infect rhesus macaques even after multiple inoculations. While in vitro measures of macrophage tropism do not predict which primate lentiviruses will produce systemic infection after intravaginal inoculation, the level to which a virus replicates in vivo after intravenous inoculation does predict the outcome of intravaginal inoculation. Another series of studies, using combined in situ hybridization and immunolabeling to simultaneously detect SIV RNA and identify the immunophenotype of infected cells, demonstrated that a large proportion (approximately 40% in some animals) of the SIV-infected cells in the vagina and cervix were Langerhans' cells. This is the first in vivo demonstration that Langerhans' cells in the genital tract are infected with SIV and that dendritic cells are significant reservoirs for lentiviruses.  (+info)

Expression of the nlsLacz gene in dendritic cells derived from retrovirally transduced peripheral blood CD34+ cells. (5/894)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Gene transfer and expression of exogenous genetic information coding for an immunogenic protein in antigen presenting cells (APCs) can promote an immune response. This was investigated by retroviral transfer of a marker gene into CD34+ derived APCs. DESIGN AND METHODS: To achieve long term expression of a specific transgene in APCs, G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood CD34+ cell populations were retrovirally transduced with the bacterial nlsLacZ, a marker gene used here as a model, in the presence of IL-3, IL-6, GM-CSF and SCF prior to being induced to differentiate into dendritic and macrophage cells by GM-CSF and TNF-a. RESULTS: Addition of IL-4 was found to induce dendritic differentiation preferentially by inhibiting proliferation and differentiation of the macrophage lineage. As assessed by X-Gal staining, LacZ gene expression was observed in cells from both the dendritic lineage (CD1a+/CD14-) which still exhibits the highest immunostimulatory activity in mixed lymphocyte reaction and from the macrophage lineage (CD1a-/ CD14+). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study sets out the possibility of transducing dendritic and macrophage progenitors present in the CD34+ cell population and in using a marker gene such as nlsLacZ to study gene expression in antigen presenting cell compartments.  (+info)

Expression of CD1d2 on thymocytes is not sufficient for the development of NK T cells in CD1d1-deficient mice. (6/894)

CD1 is an MHC class I-like molecule that has been conserved throughout mammalian evolution. Unlike MHC class I molecules, CD1 can present unique nonprotein antigens to T cells. The murine CD1 locus contains two highly homologous genes, CD1d1 and CD1d2. CD1d1 is essential for the development of a major subset of NK T cells that promptly secrete IL-4 following activation. However, the function of CD1d2 has not yet been demonstrated. In the present study, we examined the expression of CD1d2 in CD1d1-deficient (CD1d1 degrees) mice with the anti-CD1 Ab 3H3. Unlike CD1d1, which is expressed by all lymphocytes, CD1d2 can be detected only on the surface of thymocytes. To determine whether CD1d2 can select a unique subset of NK T cells, we compared the remnant population of NK T cells in CD1d1 degrees and CD1d1, CD1d2-double deficient (CD1d1 degrees CD1d2 degrees) mice. No significant difference in the number of NK T cells and cytokine secretion capacity can be detected between CD1d1 degrees and CD1d1 degrees CD1d2 degrees mice, indicating that CD1d2 cannot substitute for CD1d1 in NK T cell development. The inability of CD1d2 to select NK T cells is not due to the structural constraints of CD1d2 since CD1d2-transfected cells can be recognized by both NK T cell hybridomas and freshly isolated NK T cells. Given the structural similarities, it is possible that the low levels of surface expression and limited tissue distribution of CD1d2 may prevent it from functioning in the selection and expansion of NK T cells.  (+info)

Juvenile hemochromatosis locus maps to chromosome 1q. (7/894)

Juvenile hemochromatosis (JH) is an autosomal recessive disorder that leads to severe iron loading in the 2d to 3d decade of life. Affected members in families with JH do not show linkage to chromosome 6p and do not have mutations in the HFE gene that lead to the common hereditary hemochromatosis. In this study we performed a genomewide search to map the JH locus in nine families: six consanguineous and three with multiple affected patients. This strategy allowed us to identify the JH locus on the long arm of chromosome 1. A maximum LOD score of 5.75 at a recombination fraction of 0 was detected with marker D1S498, and a LOD score of 5. 16 at a recombination fraction of 0 was detected for marker D1S2344. Homozygosity mapping in consanguineous families defined the limits of the candidate region in an approximately 4-cM interval between markers D1S442 and D1S2347. Analysis of genes mapped in this interval excluded obvious candidates. The JH locus does not correspond to the chromosomal localization of any known gene involved in iron metabolism. These findings provide a means to recognize, at an early age, patients in affected families. They also provide a starting point for the identification of the affected gene by positional cloning.  (+info)

Immunolocalization of CD1d in human intestinal epithelial cells and identification of a beta2-microglobulin-associated form. (8/894)

In order to better understand the role of intestinal CD1d, we sought to define the cellular localization and further characterize the biochemical structure of CD1d in human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). Using a CD1d-specific rabbit anti-gst-CD1d antibody, immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled cell surface proteins detected a previously identified 37 kDa protein as well as a 48-50 kDa protein which were confirmed by Western blotting with a CD1d-specific mAb, D5. Immunoprecipitation of protein lysates with the CD1d-specific mAb, D5 and 51.1.3, and the beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-specific mAb, BBM.1, followed by N-glycanase digestion and Western blotting with the D5 mAb showed that the 48-50 kDa protein was a beta2m-associated, CD1d glycoprotein. CD1d was immunolocalized to the apical and lateral regions of native small and large intestinal IEC as defined by confocal laser microscopy using the D5 mAb and the rabbit anti-gst-CD1d antibody. In addition, a large apical intracellular pool of CD1d was identified. Identical observations were made with polarized T84 cells. Selective biotin labeling of apical and basolateral cell surfaces followed by immunoprecipitation with the D5 mAb, N-glycanase digestion and avidin blotting confirmed the presence of glycosylated CD1d on both cell surfaces and immunolocalization of the 37 kDa non-glycosylated form of CD1d to the apical cell surface. These studies show that CD1d is located in an ideal position for luminal antigen sampling and presentation to subjacent intraepithelial lymphocytes.  (+info)

*CD1E

The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. ... 2003). "Two novel CD1 E alleles identified in black African individuals". Tissue Antigens. 59 (5): 417-20. doi:10.1034/j.1399- ... Yu CY, Milstein C (1990). "A physical map linking the five CD1 human thymocyte differentiation antigen genes". EMBO J. 8 (12): ... "Entrez Gene: CD1E CD1e molecule". Brigl M, Brenner MB (2004). "CD1: antigen presentation and T cell function". Annu. Rev. ...

*CD1D

... is the only member of the group 2 CD1 molecules. CD1d-presented lipid antigens activate a special class of T cells, known ... Melián A, Beckman EM, Porcelli SA, Brenner MB (1996). "Antigen presentation by CD1 and MHC-encoded class I-like molecules". ... Yu CY, Milstein C (1990). "A physical map linking the five CD1 human thymocyte differentiation antigen genes". EMBO J. 8 (12): ... Brigl M, Brenner MB (2004). "CD1: antigen presentation and T cell function". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 22 (1): 817-90. doi:10.1146/ ...

*CD1A

The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. ... Melián A, Beckman EM, Porcelli SA, Brenner MB (1996). "Antigen presentation by CD1 and MHC-encoded class I-like molecules". ... Moody DB, Zajonc DM, Wilson IA (2005). "Anatomy of CD1-lipid antigen complexes". Nat. Rev. Immunol. 5 (5): 387-99. doi:10.1038/ ... Yu CY, Milstein C (1990). "A physical map linking the five CD1 human thymocyte differentiation antigen genes". EMBO J. 8 (12): ...

*CD1

... Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... CD1a, CD1b and CD1c (group 1 CD1 molecules) are expressed on cells specialized for antigen presentation. CD1d (group 2 CD1) is ... to CD1-specific T cells. The natural antigens of group 2 CD1 are not well characterized, but a synthetic glycolipid, alpha- ... CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. This often remains true in neoplastic cells from ...

*Antigen-presenting cell

Barral, Duarte C.; Brenner, Michael B. "CD1 antigen presentation: how it works". Nature Reviews Immunology. 7 (12): 929-941. ... An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility ... Antigen: protease degradation on YouTube - PMAP animation Antigen-Presenting Cells at the US National Library of Medicine ... Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd1 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.102 --- antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.103 --- antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd1 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.090 --- antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.095 --- antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd1 MeSH D23.101.100.110.102 --- antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.101.100.110.103 --- antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.101.100.110. ... antigens, cd1 MeSH D23.101.100.894.090 --- antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.101.100.894.095 --- antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.101.100.894. ...

*CD4

CD1 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... The antigen has also been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases such as vitiligo and type I diabetes mellitus. T- ... CD4 is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (May 1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ...

*Group 1 CD1

... is a subset of CD1 which is expressed on cells specialized for antigen presentation. Types include: CD1A, also ... CD1B CD1C, also known as BDCA-1 Leonardo Fainboim; M. C. Salamone (Reviewed by Cesar Milstein). "CD1a (part of CD1 Family)". ...

*Natural killer T cell

... a member of the CD1 family of antigen-presenting molecules, rather than peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs). As ... iNKT cells recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d, a non-polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class I-like antigen ... which is specific for glycolipid antigens. The best known antigen of iNKT cells is α-galactosylceramide(αGalCer), which is a ... Many of these cells recognize the non-polymorphic CD1d molecule, an antigen-presenting molecule that binds self and foreign ...

*Apolipoprotein E

... lipid antigen presentation facilitation (by CD1) to natural killer T cell as well as modulation of inflammation and oxidation. ... "Apolipoprotein-mediated pathways of lipid antigen presentation". Nature. 437 (7060): 906-10. doi:10.1038/nature04001. PMID ...

*Mucosal associated invariant T cell

While most T cell subsets have TCRs that recognize peptide or lipid-based antigens in association with MHC or CD1, MAIT cells ... A chemically stable antigen that is functionally equivalent to the native vitamin B2 related antigen has been created. Like MHC ... Porcelli, S.; Yockey, C. E.; Brenner, M. B.; Balk, S. P. (1993-07-01). "Analysis of T cell antigen receptor (TCR) expression by ... MR1 also serves as the antigen-presenting molecule outside of the thymus that binds to TCR and activates MAIT cells. ...

*CD25 deficiency

One case also reported the absence of CD1, a MHC-like glycoprotein involved in the presentation of lipid antigens to T cells, ...

*Peter Cresswell

His lab primary focuses on the molecular mechanisms of antigen processing particularly the functions of the major ... histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and CD1 molecules. He is most notable for discovering and identifying the MHC class ...

*Endothelial protein C receptor

... is usually used for antigen binding. Like the CD1 series, EPCR has a lipid in the corresponding groove. The bound lipid in EPCR ... It belongs to the MHC class I/CD1 family of proteins, that is characterized by having a deep groove, that in other proteins in ... comparison with the structure of CD1/major histocompatibility complex alpha1 and alpha2 domains". Blood. 94 (2): 632-41. PMID ...

*Gamma delta T cell

However, none of the known antigen-presenting molecules like MHC class I and II or CD1 are required for γδ T cell activation ... The antigens recognized by non-Vδ2 T cells expanded in the above infectious contexts have not been characterized, but the fact ... It is still not clear whether these non-peptidic antigens bind directly to the Vγ9/Vδ2 TCR or if a presenting element exists. ... Strong support for a direct recognition of non-peptide antigens by the Vγ9/Vδ2 TCR comes from studies which demonstrated that a ...

*Ralph M. Steinman

Antigen processing and presentation of proteins and lipids seems efficient and can include cross presentation on MHC I and CD1 ... they reside in the peripheral organs and induce different forms of antigen-specific peripheral tolerance. Antigens from the ... DCs present antigens and initiate the afferent limb, while the other APC mediate the effectors to eliminate the antigen or ... In steady state, DC induce tolerance so that DC maturation can lead to immunity to microbial antigen - However, maturing DC ...

*Sulfatide

CD1). There are 5 subtypes of CD1 molecules that range from a through e. The a through d subtypes are capable of binding to ... CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c subtypes present lipid antigens to T cells, while CD1d cells present lipids, glycolipids, and lipoproteins ... CD1 a through c cell subtypes initiate T helper type 1 and type 2 responses, and they facilitate sulfatide loading onto the ... Different types of cells that present antigens on their surfaces include: macrophages dendritic cells Hepatocytes B cells tumor ...

*CD48

... antigen (Cluster of Differentiation 48) also known as B-lymphocyte activation marker (BLAST-1) or signaling lymphocytic ... located in the CD1 region of human chromosome 1". J. Exp. Med. 173 (6): 1339-44. doi:10.1084/jem.173.6.1339. PMC 2190850 . PMID ... Smith GM, Biggs J, Norris B, Anderson-Stewart P, Ward R (1998). "Detection of a soluble form of the leukocyte surface antigen ... Killeen N, Moessner R, Arvieux J, Willis A, Williams AF (October 1988). "The MRC OX-45 antigen of rat leukocytes and ...

*Marginal zone B-cell

The MZ B cells within this region typically express high levels of IgM, CD21, CD1, CD9 with low to negligible levels of ... The MZ B cells are especially well positioned as a first line of defense against systemic blood-borne antigens that enter the ... It is believed they are especially reactive to bacterial cell wall components and self-antigens which are the products of aging ...

*Thymocyte

The ability of T cells to recognize foreign antigens is mediated by the T cell receptor (TCR), which is a surface protein able ... Still during the double negative stage, CD34 expression stops and CD1 is expressed. Expression of both CD4 and CD8 makes them ... This allows single positive thymocytes to be exposed to a more complex set of self-antigens than is present in the cortex, and ... Cells which do not have a high affinity for self-antigens survive negative selection. At this stage, some cells are also ...

*Follicular B cell

FO B cells express high levels of IgM, IgD, and CD23; lower levels of CD21; and no CD1 or CD5, readily distinguishing this ... Antigen-specific memory B cell development. Annu Rev Immunol. 2005;23:487-513.. ... Two-photon imaging of lymphocyte motility and antigen response in intact lymph node. Science. 2002;296(5574):1869-1873. ...

*Alan M. Krensky

Krensky AM, Robbins E, Springer TA, and Burakoff SJ: LFA-1, LFA-2, and LFA-3 antigens are involved in CTL-target conjugation. J ... Self recognition of CD1 by γδ T cells: implications for innate immunity. J. Exp. Med. 2000; 191: 937-948. Stenger S, Hanson DA ... Krensky AM, Weiss A, Crabtree G, Davis M, Parham P: Mechanisms of disease: T lymphocyte - antigen interactions in transplant ... Sanchez-Madrid F, Krensky AM, Ware CF, Robbins E, Strominger JL, Burakoff SJ, Springer TA: Three distinct antigens associated ...

*Histiocytoma (dog)

Langerhans cells are dendritic cells found in the skin and function by internalizing antigens (foreign particles) and ... "Canine cutaneous histiocytoma is an epidermotropic Langerhans cell histiocytosis that expresses CD1 and specific beta 2- ... A histiocytoma originates from epidermal Langerhans cells of antigen-presenting cell lineage. Spontaneous regression is common ...

*Beta-2 microglobulin

Krangel MS, Orr HT, Strominger JL (1980). "Assembly and maturation of HLA-A and HLA-B antigens in vivo". Cell. 18 (4): 979-91. ... but also with class I-like molecules such as CD1 and Qa. An additional function is association with the HFE protein, together ... 1993). "Lack of HLA class I antigen expression by melanoma cells SK-MEL-33 caused by a reading frameshift in beta 2- ... The affinity of different H-2 and HLA antigens for beta-2-microglobulin". J. Immunol. 140 (7): 2322-9. PMID 2450918. Homma N, ...

*Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Presence of Birbeck granules on electron microscopy and immuno-cytochemical features e. g. CD1 positivity are more specific. ... "CD1a and S100 antigen expression in skin Langerhans cells in patients with breast cancer". The Journal of pathology. 163 (1): ...

*Infections associated with diseases

Drake, Wonder Puryear; Newman, Lee S (2006). "Mycobacterial antigens may be important in sarcoidosis pathogenesis". Current ... "Antiviral treatments reduce severity of diabetes in Ljungan virus-infected CD-1 mice and delay onset in diabetes-prone BB rats ...
Clone REA662 recognizes the human variable beta 1 subunit of the αβ T cell receptor (TCR Vβ1). The TCR is a heterodimeric glycoprotein associated with the CD3 antigen. The α and β TCR chains are composed of constant and variable regions, each encoded by distinct gene segments. TCR Vβ1 is a variant of the TCR β chain. αβ T cells express a diverse αβ TCR repertoire that specifically co-recognizes self or foreign antigen bound to antigen-presenting molecules, which thereby leads to T cell-mediated immunity. For example, the TCR can directly bind to peptide fragments, riboflavin precursors, and lipid antigens that are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, MR1 and CD1, respectively. In each case, the antigen sits within the antigen-binding cleft, whereupon the TCR recognizes a composite surface formed by the antigen-presenting molecule and surface-exposed regions of the antigen itself. This co-recognition paradigm is a central tenet of αβ T cell-mediated immunity and
Like most mammalian species, humans express several structurally distinct CD1 antigen-presenting molecules. The conservation of large CD1 gene families among most mammals suggests that each type of CD1 protein has distinct functions that confer selective advantage. Cellular studies of CD1 proteins increasingly explain how each CD1 protein differs from the others. CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, and CD1d have distinct antigen groove structures, patterns of expression in tissues, intracellular trafficking, and trigger T cells expressing diverse TCRs (Kasmar et al., 2009). CD1d (group 2) diverges most clearly from CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c (group 1) with regard to protein sequence. Also, group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins show differing transcriptional responses to pathogens, suggesting that they function at different stages of the immune response (Roura-Mir et al., 2005b). Collectively, these cellular studies suggest that group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins likely have differing roles in immune responses.. The majority ...
The CD1d/ -GalCer Dextramers displays CD1d molecules loaded with -GalCer, or without a unique lipid, unloaded CD1d. Both human and mouse CD1d can stain cells of mouse and human origen, although not identical NKT cell populations are found between species.. Features;. • Superior separation. • High stability. • Reproducible results. • Quality controled. • Available with FITC, PE and APC.. CD1d/ -GalCer Dextramer:. Human CD1d: Cat. No. XD8002. Mouse CD1d: Cat. No. YD8002. * The CD1d/ -GalCer Dextramer displays CD1d molecules loaded with the glyco-lipid, -GalCer. CD1d/unloaded Dextramer:. Human CD1d: Cat. No. XD8001. Mouse CD1d: Cat. No. YD8001. * Load your lipid of interest to generate a unique CD1d/lipid Dextramer. Can be used as negative control reagent. The CD1d/unloaded Dextramer reagent displays CD1d molecules without loaded lipid antigen.. Protocol for loading of lipids into CD1d_unloaded Dextramers (PDF). Human CD1d Dextramer labled with either FITC, PE AND APC. ...
Lymphocytes expressing a Testosterone levels cell receptor (TCR) composed of Vgamma9 and Vdelta2 stores represent a small small percentage of human being thymocytes. people overlap intensive in their moving repertoire. This type of selection indicates the existence of a monomorphic antigen-presenting molecule that is definitely an subject of current study but continues to be incompletely described. While selection on a monomorphic delivering molecule may appear uncommon, related systems form the alpha dog beta Capital t cell repertoire including the intense good examples of NKT or mucosal-associated invariant Capital t cells (MAIT) and the much less dramatic amplification of general public Vbeta string rearrangements powered by specific MHC substances and connected with level of resistance to virus-like pathogens. Choosing and amplifying general public Capital t cell receptors whether alpha dog beta or gamma delta, are essential methods in developing an anticipatory TCR repertoire. Cell ...
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a term used to describe a group of genes in animals and humans that encode a variety of cell surface markers, antigen-presenting molecules, and other proteins involved in immune function. The human leukoc
The human group 1 CD1 molecules CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c have been shown to present both endogenous and mycobacterial-derived lipid antigens to various subsets of T...
Age-related immune dysfunction presents serious health concerns for todays society, as the population of individuals over the age of 65 years old continues to expand. The consequences of immunosenescence are obvious, as aged individuals are less able to ward off bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, have higher incidences of cancer, and have overall decreased responses to protective vaccines compared with younger individuals (4, 14). Age-related changes in adaptive immunity are well documented, whereas less is known about the effects of age on the innate immune system, with particular regard to innate lymphocytes such as CD1d-restricted NKT cells. Here, we show that as age advances, the number of CD1d-restricted NKT cells increases and that these cells in the aged immune microenvironment actively suppress, rather than support efferent T cell immunity. Additionally, our findings support the concept that NKT cells may suppress efferent T cell immunity via mechanisms that involve excess ...
CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells can have multiple effects on an immune response, including the activation, regulation and attraction of innate immune cells, and modulation of adaptive immunity. Recent studies reveal that there are distinct subsets of NKT cells which selectively perform some of the functions attributed to CD1d-restricted cells, but the mechanisms underlying these functional differences have not been resolved. Our aim in this study was to identify novel NKT cell associated traits that would provide important insight into NKT cell activation and function. To this end, we have performed gene expression profiling of two separate subsets of NKT cells, analyzing genes differentially expressed in these cells compared to conventional CD4(+)NK1.1(-) T cells. We identify different sets of genes over expressed in each of the two NKT cell types, as well as genes that are common to the two CD1d-restricted NKT cell populations analyzed. A large number of these genes are highly ...
To the Editor: Interleukins (IL) are potent biomolecules used for immunotherapy in cancer and infectious diseases. The clinical benefit of cytokines is linked to their strong effects on immune cells, and these effects are important to study in patients undergoing treatment because the cellular responses in vivo may differ from those seen in vitro. We therefore read with interest the study by van der Vliet et al. (1) concerning the effect of high-dose IL-2 on immunoregulatory cell subsets in patients with advanced melanoma and renal cell cancer. The main conclusion presented by the authors is that CD25+ regulatory T cells, which have an inhibitory effect on adaptive T-cell responses, increased during therapy. Conversely, the CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells, which have mainly activating effects on other immune cells, decreased in numbers during therapy. One might speculate that such effects of IL-2 could suppress some cellular immune responses against the tumor and thus be detrimental ...
The hallmark function of αβ T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) involves the highly specific co-recognition of a major histocompatibility complex molecule and its carried peptide. However, the molecular basis of the interactions of TCRs with the lipid antigen-presenting molecule CD1c is unknown. We identified frequent staining of human T cells with CD1c tetramers across numerous subjects. Whereas TCRs typically show high specificity for antigen, both tetramer binding and autoreactivity occurred with CD1c in complex with numerous, chemically diverse self lipids. Such extreme polyspecificity was attributable to binding of the TCR over the closed surface of CD1c, with the TCR covering the portal where lipids normally protrude. The TCR essentially failed to contact lipids because they were fully seated within CD1c. These data demonstrate the sequestration of lipids within CD1c as a mechanism of autoreactivity and point to small lipid size as a determinant of autoreactive T cell responses.. ...
Vicodin, Symtan, Anexsia, Dicodid, Hycodan (or generically Hydromet), Hycomine, Hycet, Lorcet, Lortab, Norco, Novahistex, Hydrovo, Duodin, Kolikodol, Orthoxycol, Mercodinone, Synkonin, Norgan, Hydrokon ...
Secondary (osteonal) bone, the focus of this review, is a laminated organic inorganic composite composed primarily of collagen, hydroxyapatite, and water; but minor constituents, such as non-collagenous proteins (NCPs), are also present and are thought to play an important role in bone formation... In the case of bone biomineral, we have now been able to duplicate the most fundamental level of bone structure, the interpenetrating nanostructured architecture, using relatively simple anionic polypeptides that mimic the polyanionic character of the NCPs. We propose that the charged polymer acts as a process-directing agent, by which the conventional solution crystallization is converted into a precursor process. This polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) process generates an amorphous liquid-phase mineral precursor to hydroxyapatite which facilitates intrafibrillar mineralization of type-I collagen because the fluidic character of the amorphous precursor phase enables it to be drawn into the ...
Metabolic synthesis of single cell oils (SCOs) for biodiesel application by heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms is being hampered by the high cost of culture media. This study investigated the possibility of using loblolly pine and sweetgum autohydrolysates as economic feedstocks for microbial lipid production by oleaginous Rhodococcus opacus ( R. opacus) PD630 and DSM 1069. Results revealed that when the substrates were detoxified by the removal of inhibitors (such as HMF-hydroxymethyl-furfural), the two strains exhibited viable growth patterns after a short adaptation/lag phase. R. opacus PD630 accumulated as much as 28.6 % of its cell dry weight (CDW) in lipids while growing on detoxified sweetgum autohydrolysate (DSAH) that translates to 0.25 g/l lipid yield. The accumulation of SCOs reached the level of oleagenicity in DSM 1069 cells (28.3 % of CDW) as well, while being cultured on detoxified pine autohydrolysate (DPAH), with the maximum lipid yield of 0.31 g/l. The composition of the ...
NKT cells represent a unique subset of immunoregulatory T cells that recognize glycolipid Ags presented by the MHC class I-like molecule CD1d. Because of their immunoregulatory properties, NKT cells are attractive targets for the development of immunotherapies. The prototypical NKT cell ligand alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer), originally isolated from a marine sponge, has potent immunomodulatory activities in mice, demonstrating therapeutic efficacy against metastatic tumors, infections, and autoimmune diseases, but also has a number of adverse side effects. In vivo administration of alpha-GalCer to mice results in the rapid activation of NKT cells, which is characterized by cytokine secretion, surface receptor down-regulation, expansion, and secondary activation of a variety of innate and adaptive immune system cells. In this study, we have evaluated the in vivo immune response of mice to a set of structural analogues of alpha-GalCer. Our results show that, contrary to current thinking, beta
It has been suggested that NKT cells are biased toward CD1d autoreactivity. Consistent with this, NKT cells have an activated/effector or memory phenotype, even in germ free animals (58). Also, some NKT cell hybridomas exhibit CD1d autoreactivity (59), and freshly isolated NKT cells respond to CD1d transfectants and DCs (60). In light of this possible autoreactivity, it remained to be shown whether NKT cell precursors that encounter a strong signal during development undergo negative selection, and if so, what cell type(s) can mediate the negative selection of NKT cells. In this study, we showed that the addition of an agonist glycolipid into FTOC or increasing CD1d surface expression by transgenesis resulted in a drastic reduction of NKT cells, supporting the notion that NKT cells are susceptible to negative selection. This is the first demonstration that a glycolipid can induce negative selection of a T cell population. Although our models do not directly address whether NKT cells can be ...
Abstract: CD1d-restricted T-cells are activated by glycolipids presented by the major histocompatibility complex class-Ib molecule CD1d, found on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APC). This interaction between APC, most notably dendritic cells (DC), and CD1d-restricted T-cells is an important regulatory step in the initiation of adaptive immune responses. It is well known that DC play a crucial role in the induction of contact hypersensitivity (CHS), a frequently studied form of in vivo T-cell-mediated immunity. In this study, we show that CD1d-restricted T-cells are also necessary for CHS, because both wild-type mice treated systemically or topically with CD1d glycolipid antagonists and CD1d-restricted T-cell-null mice have markedly diminished CHS responses. Thus, pharmacologic antagonists of CD1d can be used as effective inhibitors of CHS, a prototype for a variety of delayed-type tissue hypersensitivity responses. ...
CD1 molecules are antigen-presenting glycoproteins primarily found on dendritic cells (DCs) responsible for lipid antigen presentation to CD1-restricted T cells. Despite their pivotal role in immunity
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NKT cells are a unique population of T cells that recognize lipid antigens presented by a nonclassical MHC-like molecule CD1d. There are two types of NKT cells, type I and type II. Our group previously showed that type I NKT cells enhance and type II NKT cells suppress anti-tumor responses, and that these two types of NKT cells cross-regulate each other. One of the defined antigens for type I NKT cells is alpha-galactosylceramide (aGC), and aGC-loaded CD1d tetramers are widely used to study them. Unlike conventional T cells, each subset of NKT cells recognizes distinct antigens. Sulfatide (3-o-sulfo-beta-D-galactosylceramide), an endogenous lipid, is the only lipid proven to be recognized by type II NKT cells in vivo. In addition, recently phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), also endogenous lipids, were reported to be recognized by type II NKT cell hybridomas. So far, type II NKT cells and their antigens are much less well characterized than type I due to lack of widely ...
CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells (NKT cells) possess a wide range of effector and regulatory activities that are related to their ability to secrete both T helper 1 (Th1) cell- and Th2 cell-type cytokines. We analyzed presentation of NKT cell activating α galactosylceramide (αGalCer) analogs that give predominantly Th2 cell-type cytokine responses to determine how ligand structure controls the outcome of NKT cell activation. Using a monoclonal antibody specific for αGalCer-CD1d complexes to visualize and quantitate glycolipid presentation, we found that Th2 cell-type cytokine-biasing ligands were characterized by rapid and direct loading of cell-surface CD1d proteins. Complexes formed by association of these Th2 cell-type cytokine-biasing αGalCer analogs with CD1d showed a distinctive exclusion from ganglioside-enriched, detergent-resistant plasma membrane microdomains of antigen-presenting cells. These findings help to explain how subtle alterations in glycolipid ligand structure can ...
Immunoglobulin (Ig) M production can be induced by the interaction of thymus-independent type-2 (TI-2) antigen (Ag) with B cell Ag receptors (BCRs) without the involvement of conventional T cells; for IgG production through the same process, however, a second signal is required. Previous studies have reported that invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells may be responsible for the second signal involved in IgG production. In the present study, we addressed whether human iNKT cells could participate in the production of Ig against TI-2 Ag in vitro. Two major distinct subsets of human iNKT cells, CD4+ CD8β- (CD4) and CD4- CD8β- [double negative (DN)] cells, were generated from peripheral blood monocytes from a healthy volunteer. BCR engagement, triggered by anti-IgM antibody stimulation, examined here as a model of BCR engagement triggered by TI-2 Ag, induced abundant IgM production by B cells. Both CD4 and DN iNKT cells reduced IgM production and conversely enhanced IgG production in a dose
Hereditary lupus of NZB/W mice is an Ab-mediated systemic autoimmune disease in which the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of tissue injury (57). Anti-IFN-γ mAb treatment has been reported to ameliorate the immune complex glomerulonephritis, the hallmark of the disease (21). In addition, introduction of a transgene encoding the Th2 cytokine IL-4 into lupus-prone (NZW × C57BL/6.Yaa) F1 mice prevented lupus development (58). We have recently reported that adoptive transfer of CD1d-reactive transgenic CD4 T cells with a Th1-like cytokine-secretion pattern induced lupus in BALB/c nu/nu recipients (8). CD1d-reactive T cells have also been suggested to play a role in augmenting IgG2a anti-dsDNA secretion and lupus development in lupus-prone NZB/W mice (20). It is not yet clear, however, whether activation of the CD1d-reactive T cells in NZB/W mice contributed to the IFN-γ secretion that shifted the autoantibody secretion toward the pathogenic IgG2a ...
NKT cells are CD1d-restricted T cells that recognize lipid antigens. They also have been shown to play critical roles in the regulation of immune responses. In the immune responses against tumors, two
Human Vα24− CD1d-restricted T cells use variation in their CDR1α loop to respond to lipid antigens presented by CD1d, altering their specificities from that of invariant natural killer T cells.
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells can prevent diabetes by inhibiting the differentiation of anti-islet T cells. We recently showed that neither iNKT cell protection against diabetes nor iNKT cell inhibition of T cell differentiation in vitro requires cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-beta. In contrast, cell-cell contacts were required for iNKT cell inhibition of T cell differentiation in vitro. The present study was designed to determine whether the CD1d molecule is involved in the inhibitory function of iNKT cells. Experiments were performed in vitro and in vivo, using cells lacking CD1d expression. The in vivo experiments used CD1d-deficient mice that were either reconstituted with iNKT cells or expressed a CD1d transgene exclusively in the thymus. Both mouse models had functional iNKT cells in the periphery, even though CD1d was not expressed in peripheral tissues. Surprisingly, both in vitro inhibition of T cell differentiation by iNKT cells and mouse protection against diabetes by iNKT cells
Group 1 Compact disc1 substances, Compact disc1a, CD1c and CD1b, present lipid antigens from (Mtb) to Capital t cells. acids, which make the bacterias much less vulnerable to antibiotics. These substances also help the bacterias to subvert and after that conceal from the immune system program. The frequency of the disease and the raising issue of antibiotic level of resistance possess sparked the search for an effective vaccine against tuberculosis. While many attempts possess concentrated on using proteins pieces in tuberculosis vaccines, some proof suggests that human being immune system cells can understand fatty substances such as mycolic acids and that these cells could help manage and control attacks. Nevertheless, it provides been tough to determine whether these resistant cells sincerely buy 1208315-24-5 play a defensive function against the disease because most vaccine analysis uses mouse versions and rodents perform not really have got an similar of these resistant cells. Today, Zhao ...
Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of mature T lymphocytes which have been shown to play a major role in controlling immune responses. Recently, it has become evident that the antigen receptor expressed by NKT cells recognize glycolipids presented by CD1d, a major-histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule expressed on dendritic cells, monocytes, and a subgroup of B cells. Via recognition of glycolipids by NKT cells, various cytokines are released which influence other cells of the immune system. A synthetic α-galactosylceramide, KRN 7000, was shown to possess anti-tumor and immunostimulatory activities. To further understand the significant biological activities of glycolipids, in this thesis we describe the synthesis of an OCH analogue, α-S-GalCer, and a series of carbohydrate modified analogues of KRN 7000. ^
The highly conserved CD1d-restricted NKT cells, identified as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses, exert potent immune regulatory functions by releasing a variety immunomodulatory cytokines. Up to now, the response of NKT cells has been studied extensively by multiple groups with α-GalCer that has been proven to be a unique type of adjuvant for vaccine development (7). New analogues of α-GalCer are being synthesized to search for new NKT cell agonists that may have superior properties for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. One of these, α-C-GalCer was found to be more potent in helping mice to defend against mouse malaria and B16 melanoma by inducing a more prolonged IL-12 and IFN-γ response (14). Moreover, α-C-GalCer was reported bind more stably to DCs than α-GalCer, and α-C-GalCer-loaded DCs induced higher levels and longer lasting IFN-γ-producing NKT cell responses and more effective adaptive protective T-cell-mediated immunity (21).. iGb3, the ...
In contrast to primary cells, the cells of the clone were uniform, survived detachment and could therefore be analyzed by cytofluorimetry. The cloned cells expressed many enzymes and markers that are typical of native Kupffer cells (non-specific esterase, peroxidase, MOMA-2, BM8, scavenger receptor A, CD14 and Toll-Like-Receptor 4 (TLR4), the antigen-presenting molecules CD40, CD80 and CD1d, and endocytosed Dextran-FITC. It lacked complement, Fc-receptors, F4/80 marker and the phagosomal coat protein TACO) (Figure 1). The clone exhibited CD14- and TLR4/MD2-independent, plasma-dependent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding, E. coli and S. pneumoniae phagocytosis and LPS- and IFN-gamma-induced NO production, but no TNF-alpha, IL-6 or IL-10 release. The clone differed from peritoneal macrophages by the presence of CD1d and the absence of TACO expression and by the fact that LPS-induced functions were independent of CD14 and TLR4. Conclusions and Relevance for 3R ...
... contain 89 genes selected for targeted studies of the human dendritic & antigen presenting cell pathway. Arrayit Pathways™ Microarrays gene content is derived from our H25K Whole Human Genome Microarray constructed using highly optimized and unique long-mer oligonucleotides designed to maximize detection of the greatest number of cellular transcripts in the human transcriptome with
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Subtherapeutic doses of Cell Pathways CP461, a selective apoptotic antineoplastic drug (SAAND) compound, demonstrated the ability to significantly enhance the anti-tumor activity of Taxol (paclitaxel) without further toxic side-effects in a classic mouse model of human breast cancer.
Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology. (KITM) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Invariant natural killer T cells direct B cell responses to cognate lipid antigen in an IL-21-dependent manner. AU - King, Irah L.. AU - Fortier, Anne. AU - Tighe, Michael. AU - Dibble, John. AU - Watts, Gerald F.M.. AU - Veerapen, Natacha. AU - Haberman, Ann M.. AU - Besra, Gurdyal S.. AU - Mohrs, Markus. AU - Brenner, Michael B.. AU - Leadbetter, Elizabeth A.. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Mouse invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) provide cognate and noncognate help for lipid and protein-specific B cells, respectively. However, the long-term outcome for B cells after cognate help is provided by iNKT cells is unknown at present. Here we found that cognate iNKT cell help resulted in a B cell differentiation program characterized by extrafollicular plasmablasts, germinal-center formation, affinity maturation and a robust primary immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response that was uniquely dependent on iNKT cell-derived interleukin 21 (IL-21). However, cognate help ...
Background Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of T cells that help potentiate and regulate immune responses. Although human NKT cell subsets with distinct effector functions have been identified, it is unclear whether the effector functions of these subsets are imprinted during development or can be selectively reprogrammed in the periphery. Results We found that neonatal NKT cells are predominantly CD4+ and express higher levels of CCR7 and CD62L and lower levels of CD94 and CD161 than adult CD4+ or CD4− NKT cell subsets. Accordingly, neonatal NKT cells were more flexible than adult CD4+ NKT cells in their capacity to acquire Th1- or Th2-like functions upon either cytokine-mediated polarization or ectopic expression of the Th1 or Th2 transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3, respectively. Consistent with their more differentiated phenotype, CD4- NKT cells were predominantly resistant to functional reprogramming and displayed higher cytotoxic function. In contrast to conventional T cells,
Data presented in this paper provide the first example of how negative regulation of NKT cell signalling contributes to NKT cell development. In contrast to the known NKT regulators, CYLD is dispensable for NKT cell maturation. In fact, the CYLD KO mice contain a substantially higher frequency of NK1.1+ mature NKT cells. This phenotype is associated with a hyper‐activation phenotype, particularly in the immature NKT populations. However, although loss of CYLD seems to accelerate the process of NKT cell maturation, the CYLD KO mice display a severe reduction in the number of NKT cells in both the thymus and the periphery. This deficiency is due to the massive apoptosis of immature NKT cells. Thus, in contrast to its pro‐apoptotic function implicated in other cell types, particularly tumour cells (Sun, 2010), CYLD has a potent anti‐apoptotic function in immature NKT cells, which is crucial for NKT cell development.. The hyper‐activated phenotype of CYLD KO NKT cells indicated the ...
Natural Killer (NK) cells were initially named based on their propensity for cytolytic function in the absence of any specific kind of activation. NK cells are an important part of innate immunity, defending the body against both virally infected cells and tumor cells. Natural Killer T (NKT) cells represent a special hybrid of T cell and NK cells. They express a T cell receptor complex and several NK cell markers. Unlike T cells, they mainly recognize lipid antigen presented by CD1d and not MHCs. NKT cells are capable of producing both Th1 and Th2-related cytokines. BioLegend develops and manufactures world-class, cutting-edge immunological reagents for biomedical research, offered at an outstanding value.
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, establishes a chronic infection by forming cysts preferentially in the brain. Up to one third of the human population worldwide is estimated to be chronically infected with this parasite. However, there is currently no drug effective against the cyst form of the parasite. In addition, the protective immunity against the cysts remains largely unknown. We analyzed the molecular mechanisms by which the immune system detects host cells harboring the cysts to eliminate the latent stage of the parasite using mice with the H-2d haplotype, which are genetically resistant to the infection. Our study revealed that CD8+ immune T cells bearing TCR Vβ8.1, 8.2 chain have a potent activity to remove T. gondii cysts from the brain. Our studies also uncovered that H-2Ld is the major Ag-presenting molecule to CD8+ T cells for initiating cyst elimination, and that CD8+Vβ8.1, 8.2+ immune T cells recognize the N-terminal region (aa 41-152) of dense ...
To make their discovery, scientists infected three groups of mice with H1N1 flu virus. (Note: this is NOT the H5N1 flu virus that has been at the center of recent controversy.) The first group included normal mice; the second group was devoid of natural killer T cells, and the third was given a treatment that specifically activated natural killer T cells. Researchers observed the outcome of flu infection and found that the mice without natural killer T cells did worst, and those with activated killer T cells did best. Mice that lacked natural killer T cells had increased amounts of monocytes in the lungs, and severe lung injury similar to those seen in Spanish flu and lethal swine flu. Using highly-sensitive fluorescent antibody technology, this study was one of the first to document the sequential changes in innate immune response in the lungs during severe flu infection. These findings essentially provide a "road map" of the chronological changes in the lungs during severe flu infection. ...
DCs are bone marrow-derived APCs that express high levels of MHC, adhesion molecules, and other important costimulatory molecules required for antigen presentation (32 , 33) . Their ability to take-up antigens and induce antigen-specific immunity has stimulated considerable interest in using them to treat cancer. However, naturally occurring DCs are exceptionally rare, comprising only 0.01-0.5% of circulating and tumor-infiltrating mononuclear leukocytes (19 , 34) . Even when present, DCs harvested from cancer patients often fail to express normal levels of antigen-presenting molecules and lack the ability to stimulate effective immune responses (27 , 34 , 35) . Enk et al. (35) purified CD83+ DCs from the tumors of patients with both regressing and progressing melanoma metastases. Whereas the DCs from regressing metastases expressed CD86 and functioned as APCs, the DCs recovered from progressing metastases expressed little CD86 and induced T-cell anergy instead of stimulation. Similarly, ...
Transfer of antigen presenting cells in vivo is a method used by immunologists to examine the potency of antigen presentation by a selected population of cells. This method is most commonly used to analyze presentation of protein antigens to MHC class I or II restricted T cells, but it can also be used for studies of nonconventional antigens such as CD1-presented lipids. In a recent study focusing on CD1d-restricted glycolipid antigen presentation to Natural Killer T cells, we compared antigen presenting properties of splenic B cells, CD8αPos dendritc cells (DCs) and CD8αNeg DCs (Arora et al., 2014). This protocol describes the detailed method used for isolation of these cell populations, and their transfer into recipient mice to analyze their antigen presenting properties.As a percentage of total mononuclear cells, an average spleen contains approximately 1-3% myeloid dendritic cells (DCs). In absolute numbers, this translates to approximately 0.6-1.8 x 106 DCs. To enhance the number of DCs in
NKT cells induce cell death in cancer cells in the similar mechanism with NK cells, but their direct cytotoxic activity is limited because they are only found in small quantities in the body. However, NKT cells do have the ability to produce large amounts of cytokine (IFN-γ, etc.). NKT cells contribute to the activate NK cells and other cells representing innate immune system and cytotoxic T cells(cytotoxic T lymphocyte: CTL) representing acquired immune system through production of IFN-γ and other helper T (Th) 1 cytokines; stimulate antibody production from B cell and induction of allergic inflammation through production of IL-4 and other Th2 cytokines; and inhibit non-allergic diseases through IL-17 production. As around 90% of NKT cells work to prevent infections, and due to the ability of NKT cells to immediately produce large amounts of cytokine upon antigen recognition without the need for clonal growth, NKT cells are currently considered to play the role of an adjuvant that activates ...
Abstract Natural killer T (NKT) cells are important regulatory lymphocytes that have been shown in mouse studies, to have a crucial role in promoting immunity to tumours, bacteria ..
We develop new bioproduction systems with high yield and productivity for (1) chemicals and fuels such as 1,3-propanediol, caproic acid, n-butanol and biogas; (2) fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals such as amino acids, microbial lipids and recombinant proteins. Waste materials and C1 (e.g. CO2) carbons are more and more in focus as substrates. We collaborate with industrial partners in different ways, such as contract research and development, consulting and feasibility study. ...
We have made the observation that anti-CD1d mAbs may be useful antitumor agents when used in combination with chemoimmunotherapies and in the context of large established s.c. tumors, like 4T1 and CT26L5, that are controlled by regulatory type II NKT cells. 1DMab (anti-DR5/anti-CD1d/anti-CD137) therapy was more efficacious than TriMab therapy in the eradication of CT26L5 and 4T1 tumors, but less effective against R331 tumors. In this manner, anti-CD1d mAbs are a very effective substitute for anti-CD40 mAbs, particularly when tumors are regulated by CD1d and type II NKT cells. There were no adverse toxicities detected after 1DMab therapy. 1DMab-mediated tumor suppression was dependent on CD8+ T cells, IFN-γ, and CD1d in all three tumor models examined. In seeking an explanation as to why 1DMab was more effective than TriMab in the 4T1 and CT26L5 tumor models, we revealed that although 1DMab and TriMab therapy yielded similarly increased proportions of CD8+ T cells in the tumor DLN producing ...
Regulation of metabolic pathways in the immune system provides a mechanism to actively control cellular function, growth, proliferation, and survival. Here, we report that miR-181 is a nonredundant determinant of cellular metabolism and is essential for supporting the biosynthetic demands of early NKT cell development. As a result, miR-181-deficient mice showed a complete absence of mature NKT cells in the thymus and periphery. Mechanistically, miR-181 modulated expression of the phosphatase PTEN to control PI3K signaling, which was a primary stimulus for anabolic metabolism in immune cells. Thus miR-181-deficient mice also showed severe defects in lymphoid development and T cell homeostasis associated with impaired PI3K signaling. These results uncover miR-181 as essential for NKT cell development and establish this family of miRNAs as central regulators of PI3K signaling and global metabolic fitness during development and homeostasis. ...
Natural Killer (NK) and Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are unique lymphocytes mainly involved with innate immunity. NK cells are capable of targeting tumor cells and virus-infected cells for destruction. They routinely check target cells for the expression of particular markers, which guide them toward activation or tolerance. Natural Killer T cells are a unique hybrid, sharing qualities of both T cells and Natural Killer cells. They emigrate from the thymus, displaying NK markers and harboring the potential to launch aggressive Th1 or Th2 cytokine release. BioLegend develops and manufactures world-class, cutting-edge immunological reagents for biomedical research, offered at an outstanding value.
The researchers goal was to create a therapy that would permanently boost the bodys ability to naturally produce more iNKT cells.
Das等比较了2型T辅助细胞(Th2),自然杀伤T细胞(NKT)和CD8+T细胞对变应性气道炎症的作用。经基因敲除的转基因小鼠不具备CD4+T细胞,使用这种小鼠制作卵清蛋白致敏模型并给予卵清蛋白进行激发,结果显示小鼠肺中未发现嗜酸性粒细胞浸润和粘液增多。但是,与野生型小鼠相比,NKT和CD8+T细胞缺失的转基因小鼠仍可经卵清蛋白诱导产生变应性气道炎症。因此,文章作者认为:NKT ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Invariant Natural Killer T Cells Suppress the Neutrophil Inflammatory Response in a Mouse Model of Cholestatic Liver Damage. AU - Wintermeyer, Philip. AU - Cheng, Chao Wen. AU - Gehring, Stephan. AU - Hoffman, Beth L.. AU - Holub, Martin. AU - Brossay, Laurent. AU - Gregory, Stephen H.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - Background & Aims: NK1.1+ TCRαβint CD1-restricted T (NKT) cells are a unique subset of T lymphocytes that are believed to have an immunoregulatory role in a wide range of diseases. Most mouse NKT cells express a T-cell receptor that contains an invariant Vα14Jα18 chain and recognizes antigenic glycolipids presented in association with major histocompatibility complex class Ib (CD1d) molecules. These invariant NKT (iNKT) cells have been implicated in cholestatic liver injury. Methods: We examined the role of iNKT cells in liver injury associated with biliary obstruction in mice with ligations of the common bile duct. Results: The number of activated iNKT cells ...
Glycolipid ligands for invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are loaded onto CD1d molecules in the late endosome/lysosome. Accumulation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in lysosomal storage diseases could potentially influence endogenous and exogenous lipid loading and/or presentation and, thus, affect iNKT cell selection or function. The percentages and frequency of iNKT cells were reduced in multiple mouse models of lysosomal GSL storage disease, irrespective of the specific genetic defect or lipid species stored. Reduced numbers of iNKT cells resulted in the absence of cytokine production in response to alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) and reduced iNKT cell-mediated lysis of wild-type targets loaded with alpha-GalCer. The reduction in iNKT cells did not result from defective expression of CD1d or a lack of antigen-presenting cells. Although H-2 restricted CD4(+) T cell responses were generally unaffected, processing of a lysosome-dependent analogue of alpha-GalCer was impaired in all the
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells represent a unique population of CD1d-restricted T lymphocytes expressing an invariant T cell receptor (TCR) encoded by Vα14-Jα18 and Vα24-Jα18 gene segments in mice and humans, respectively. Recognition of CD1d-loaded endogenous lipid antigen(s) on CD4/CD8-double positive (DP) thymocytes is essential for the development of iNKT cells. The lipid repertoire of DP thymocytes and the identity of the decisive endogenous lipid ligands have not yet been fully elucidated. Glycosphingolipids (GSL) were implicated to serve as endogenous ligands. However, further in vivo investigations were hampered by early embryonal lethality of mice deficient for the key GSL-synthesizing enzyme glucosylceramide (GlcCer) synthase (GCS, EC 2.4.1.80). We have now analyzed the GSL composition of DP thymocytes and shown that GlcCer represented the sole neutral GSL and the acidic fraction was composed of gangliosides. Furthermore, we report on a mouse model that by combination of Vav
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique subset of CD1d-restricted T lymphocytes that express characteristics of both T cells and natural killer cells. NKT cells mediate tumor immune-surveillance; however, NKT cells are numerically reduced and functionally impaired in lymphoma patients. Many hematologic malignancies express CD1d molecules and co-stimulatory proteins needed to induce anti-tumor immunity by NKT cells, yet most tumors are poorly immunogenic. In this study, we sought to investigate NKT cell responses to B cell lymphoma. In the presence of exogenous antigen, both mouse and human NKT cell lines produce cytokines following stimulation by B cell lymphoma lines. NKT cell populations were examined ex vivo in mouse models of spontaneous B cell lymphoma, and it was found that during early stages, NKT cell responses were enhanced in lymphoma-bearing animals compared to disease-free animals. In contrast, in lymphoma-bearing animals with splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, NKT cells were functionally
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique subset of CD1d-restricted T lymphocytes that express characteristics of both T cells and natural killer cells. NKT cells mediate tumor immune-surveillance; however, NKT cells are numerically reduced and functionally impaired in lymphoma patients. Many hematologic malignancies express CD1d molecules and co-stimulatory proteins needed to induce anti-tumor immunity by NKT cells, yet most tumors are poorly immunogenic. In this study, we sought to investigate NKT cell responses to B cell lymphoma. In the presence of exogenous antigen, both mouse and human NKT cell lines produce cytokines following stimulation by B cell lymphoma lines. NKT cell populations were examined ex vivo in mouse models of spontaneous B cell lymphoma, and it was found that during early stages, NKT cell responses were enhanced in lymphoma-bearing animals compared to disease-free animals. In contrast, in lymphoma-bearing animals with splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, NKT cells were functionally
Objective: Inflammatory mediators play a crucial role in the development of chronic heart failure (HF). Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, a unique subset of T lymphocytes, which recognize glycolipid antigens and secrete a large amount of T helper (Th) 1/Th2 cytokines on activation, function as immunomodulatory cells in the various pathological processes. We have demonstrated that iNKT cells have a protective role against the development of left ventricular (LV) remodeling and failure after myocardial infarction in mice. However, it remains unclear whether iNKT cells are involved in the development of HF in humans.. Methods and Results: Nine HF patients (NYHA II or III, LV ejection fraction 26.3±3.0%) and 8 healthy controls were studied. The mean age and male gender were comparable between HF and controls (51.2±5.1 vs. 45.1±4.5 years and 77.8 vs. 75.0%). The causes of HF were idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in 3, ischemic in 2, and others in 4 patients. Plasma BNP was significantly ...
Background: Invariant natural killer cells (iNKT) are an important immunoregulatory T cell subset. Currently several flow cytometry-based approaches exist for the identifi-cation of iNKT cells, which rely on using the 6B11 monoclonal antibody or a combina-tion of anti-Vα24 and anti-Vβ11 antibodies. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the ability of two flow cytometry-based methods for detecting the frequency of circulating iNKT cells. Methods: The frequency of iNKT cells was detected in the pe-ripheral blood of 37 healthy adult donors by flow cytometry using the 6B11 antibody or a combination of anti-Vα24 and anti-Vβ11 antibodies. Results: The frequency of iNKT cells detected by 6B11 antibody or by combination of anti-Vα24 and anti-Vβ11 anti-bodies was significantly different (0.54% vs. 0.31%, respectively, p|0.001) but the val-ues were highly correlated (Spearman r = 0.742, p|0.0001). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that different combinations of mAbs detect different
Peripheral blood but not synovial fluid natural killer T cells are biased towards a Th1-like phenotype in rheumatoid arthritis. . Download books free in pdf. Online library with books, university works and thousands of documents available to read online and download.
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Natural killer T (NKT) cells, which comprise a minor population of T cells in primary and secondary lymphoid organs, possess phenotypic characteristics of both NK and T cells. NKT cells respond to various external stimuli by an early burst of cytokines, including IL-4 and IFN-. Thus, a key immunoregulatory role has been attributed to them. Autoimmune diseases, especially type I diabetes (TID), may be caused by dysregulation of the immune system, which leads to hyporesponsiveness of regulatory T helper 2 (Th2) cells and promotion of autoimmune Th1 cells. Furthermore, several lines of evidence exist to support the notion that an NKT cell deficiency in individuals at risk of TID may be causal to TID. As a result, targeting NKT cells using immunotherapeutic agents may prove beneficial in the prevention or recurrence of TID. Indeed, our data demonstrate that stimulation of NKT cells with a specific ligand prevents the onset and recurrence of TID in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice ...
Overview of attention for article published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, September ...
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, which are activated by T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent recognition of lipid-based antigens presented by the CD1d molecule, have been shown to participate in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including asthma and liver injury. Previous studies have shown the inhibition of iNKT cell activation using lipid antagonists can attenuate iNKT cell-induced disease pathogenesis. Hence, the development of iNKT cell-targeted glycolipids can facilitate the discovery of new therapeutics. In this study, we synthesized and evaluated α-lactosylceramide (α-LacCer), an α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) analog with lactose substitution for the galactose head and a shortened acyl chain in the ceramide tail, toward iNKT cell activation. We demonstrated that α-LacCer was a weak inducer for both mouse and human iNKT cell activation and cytokine production, and the iNKT induction by α-LacCer was CD1d-dependent. However, when co-administered with α-GalCer, α-LacCer inhibited α
The requirement for processing glycolipid antigens in T cell recognition was examined with mouse CD1d-mediated responses to glycosphingolipids (GSLs). Although some disaccharide GSL antigens can be recognized without processing, the responses to three other antigens, including the disaccharide GSL Gal(α1→2)GalCer (Gal, galactose; GalCer, galactosylceramide), required removal of the terminal sugars to permit interaction with the T cell receptor. A lysosomal enzyme, α-galactosidase A, was responsible for the processing of Gal(α1→2)GalCer to generate the antigenic monosaccharide epitope. These data demonstrate a carbohydrate antigen processing system analogous to that used for peptides and an ability of T cells to recognize processed fragments of complex glycolipids. ...
In this work, crude glycerol, a by-product from a biodiesel industry was characterized and converted to microbial lipid. The sample of crude glycerol was found to contain 44.56 wt.% glycerol, 13.86 wt.% methanol, 10.74 wt.% of ash and 32.97 wt.% of soap. Rhodosporidium toruloides ATCC 10788 was studied for the first time to determine its ability to grow on crude glycerol as a carbon source. Methan ...
To optimize vaccination strategies, it is important to use protocols that can jump-start immune responses by harnessing cells of the innate immune system to assist the expansion of antigen-specific B and T cells. In this Review, we discuss the evidence indicating that invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells can positively modulate dendritic cells and B cells, and that their pharmacological activation in the presence of antigenic proteins can enhance antigen-specific B- and T-cell responses. In addition, we describe structural and kinetic analyses that assist in the design of optimal iNKT-cell agonists that could be used in the clinical setting as vaccine adjuvants.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PD-1 blockade pembrolizumab for patients with relapsed or refractory Natural Killer(NK)/T
You will be asked to attend an appointment at ProImmunes facility in the Oxford area, where a qualified phlebotomist will take a blood sample from you. The volume of blood you are asked to donate will depend on the study you are participating in, and you will be told how much blood we would like to take when we contact you to make an appointment for donation.. Each donation should take no more than 15 minutes. Donation of blood for experimental use is purely voluntary and you will not be placed under any pressure to donate.. You will receive £50 compensation for your time and inconvenience.. You will be provided with a consent form explaining the study and will be given an opportunity to ask questions before deciding whether to participate. If you are happy to participate in the study, you will be asked to sign the consent form before your donation.. The blood sampling procedure involves the following:. ...
In this study, we have shown that CD1d-restricted glycolipid ligands reactive with iNKT cells effectively substitute for anti-CD40 mAbs and can reject established experimental mouse breast and renal tumors when used in combination with anti-DR5 and anti-4-1BB mAbs. This combination, which we termed NKTMab therapy, induced tumor rejection that required CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, NKT cells, and the cytokine IFN-γ. NKTMab therapy containing either α-GC or α-c-GC at higher concentrations induced similar rates of tumor rejection in mice; however, toxicity was observed at the highest doses of α-GC (,250 ng/injection). By contrast, very low doses of α-c-GC (25 ng/injection) retained considerable antitumor activity when used in combination with anti-DR5/anti-4-1BB, and thus, α-c-GC showed a considerably greater therapeutic index. Given the shown toxicities of CD40 agonists in humans and mice ( 13, 16), this study illustrates the alternative of using NKT cell agonists that in synergy with an ...
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Find out about the science and chemistry of Liothyronine (Cytomel, Tertroxin), see colourful images of Liothyronine and explore interactive 3D molecules of Liothyronine
Sulfatides are innate glycosphingolipids shown to activate a subpopulation of type II NKT cells. Their activation has been reported to sometimes have antagonistic roles to those of type I NKT cells in some disease models. This has sparked a lot of interest in the synthesis of natural and unnatural sulfatides for an examination of their influence on NKT cell responses. The design, synthesis and evaluation of type II NKT cell activation of several sulfatide ligands are described in this thesis. A two-step methodology has been developed for the rapid assembly of disubstituted β-lactones. The first step is olefin cross metathesis (CM) of a-methylene-β-lactones with various alkene cross partners to furnish a-alkylidine-β-lactones. These are subsequently diastereoselectively reduced. A diverse library of β-lactones, including (±)-nocardiolactone has been prepared. Combining this approach with competitive activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) identified lead β-lactone inhibitors for several serine
Background: NK (natural killer) and NKT (natural killer T) cells, as components of innate immune system, play a crucial role in tumor progression and dissemination. Objective: To investigate the percentages of NK cells, NKT cells, iNKT (invariant natural killer T) cells, total T lymphocytes as well as activated T lymphocytes, in tumor draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) of patients with breast cancer (BC) and their association with different clinic-pathological features of the patients. Methods: Axillary lymph nodes were obtained from 30 Iranian women with breast cancer. After routine pathological evaluations, mononuclear cells were separated from their lymph nodes and incubated with appropriate fluorochrome conjugated monoclonal antibodies specific for CD3, HLA-DR, CD16/56, and Vα24Jα18-TCR. Data were collected on a four-color flow cytometer and analyzed by CellQuest software. Results: The mean percentages of NK (CD3-CD16/56+), NKT (CD3+CD16/56+) and iNKT (Vα24Jα18-TCR+) cells in TDLNs mononuclear cells
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Alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) is a glycolipid that can be loaded into MHC-class-I-related CD1d molecules by dendritic cells and has been shown to stimulate invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. iNKT cells have emerged as important contributors to the regulation of immune responses, T cell activation, and anti-tumor activity. Through this activation cascade, α-GalCer exerts potent anti-tumoral and immune regulatory activities. However, the limitations were found in clinical application that (1) iNKT cells failed to produce cytokines and proliferate when additional doses of α-GalCer were given by systemic route and (2) poor hydrophilicity of α-GalCer. In this project, α-GalCer was incorporated into the lipid bilayer of the liposome, while the galactose molecular was expressed on the surface of the liposome to form a targeting liposome antigen-carrier with immunemodulatory effect. Thus, α-GalCer-incorporated liposome is capable of improving the delivery of antigen to ...
b) Either α-GC (2 μg) or PBS was i.p. injected into B6 WT mice. Sixteen hours later, the total DCs or NKDC-depleted DCs isolated from these mice were used as effector cells for the cytotoxicity assay. The efficiency of depletion is shown in the upper panel. CFSE-labeled YAC-1 tumor cells were used as target cells. Effector cells were co-cultured with 2 × 104 target cells at the indicated ratios. Cytotoxicity at the 27 : 1 E : T ratio is displayed in the lower panel. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by calculating the percentage of 7-AAD+ (dead) cells compared to CFSE+ target cells. The mean values ± SD are shown ...
Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are potent, regulatory T cells that have been shown to be intimately involved in the bodys response to infection and tumor progres...
Beyaz S, Kim JH, Pinello L, Xifaras ME, Hu Y, Huang J, Kerenyi MA, Das PP, Barnitz RA, Herault A, Dogum R, Haining WN, Yilmaz ÖH, Passegue E, Yuan GC, Orkin SH, Winau F. The histone demethylase UTX regulates the lineage-specific epigenetic program of invariant natural killer T cells. Nat Immunol. 2017 Feb; 18(2):184-195 ...
Yagi, H. et al. (2006). Induction of Therapeutically Relevant Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Humans by Percutaneous Peptide Immunization. Cancer Research. 66(20): 10136-10144. [PubMedID: 17047078]. In this study by Yagi et al. a novel percutaneous immunization strategy was used to deliver a peptide vaccine to melanoma patients. This method of percutaneous peptide immunization (PPI) used epidermal Langerhans cells as antigen presenting cells to deliver the vaccine effectively to the immune system. The outer layer of the epidermis was removed in order to increase the permeability of the skin to the peptide vaccine and allowed the maturation of the Langerhans cells for enhanced antigen presentation.. Pro5® MHC Pentamers for MAGE-2 (A*24:02 / EYLQLVFGI), and tyrosinase (A*24:02 / AFLPWHRLF), and a custom Pro5® MHC Pentamer for MAGE-3 (A*24:02 / IMPKAGLLI), were used to monitor frequencies of antigen-specific T cells in patients after immunization. After several rounds of immunization, staining with ...
Dermal dendritic cells associated with T lymphocytes in normal human skin display an activated phenotype.: The CMRF-44 and CD83 (HB15) antigens are associated w
MUC5B molecule. Computer model showing the structure of a molecule of the protein MUC5B (mucin 5 subtype B). Mucins key characteristic is their ability to form gels. They are therefore a key component in most gel-like secretions, serving functions from lubrication to cell signalling to forming chemical barriers. - Stock Image C015/4507
Strong increase of protective serum cytokines after injection of B7-H1−/− DC injection is mainly produced by type II NKT cells.A) Splenocytes from WT and J
Discussion of the Immune System including T cells, B cells, macrophages, Natural Killer T cells, bone marrow, chemokines, cytokines, innate immunity, blood types, immune response, inflammation
Langerhans cells (LC) are a unique population of dendritic cells (DC) found in the epidermis where they can be identified by the expression of CD1a, E-cadherin and cytoplasmic Birbeck granules (BG) as their hallmark. PMID: 12955536. Acetylcholinesterase (AchE ...
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The field of immunology has a few quirks. Im sure this is no different than other fields of study, but one of the most puzzling (and sometimes infuriating) of these quirks is an obsession with categorizing different types of cells. Case in point, a recent paper in Nature Immunology: A semi-invariant Vα10+ T cell antigen…. ...
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Natural killer T (NKT) cells are the major early-acting immune cell type and fundamental immune modulators in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Because lymphocytes are exposed to various oxygen tensions under pathophysiologic conditions, we hypothesize that hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) have roles in NKT cell activation, and thus determine the final outcome of renal IRI. In this study, we used Lck-Cre transgenic mice to specifically disrupt HIF-2α in T/NKT cells and found that HIF-2α knockout led to upregulated Fas ligand expression on peripheral NKT cells, but not on conventional T cells. HIF-2α knockout promoted infiltration of NKT cells into ischemic kidneys and exacerbated IRI, which could be mitigated by in vivo NK1.1+ cell depletion or Fas ligand blockade. Compared with wild-type NKT cells, HIF-2α−/− NKT cells adoptively transferred to Rag1-knockout mice elicited more severe renal injury, and these mice were not protected by CGS21680, an adenosine A2A receptor agonist. ...
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are innate T cells with powerful immune regulatory functions that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the CD1D protein. While iNKT-cell-activating glycolipids are currently being explored for their efficacy to improve immunotherapy against infectious diseases and cancer, little is known about the mechanisms that control CD1D antigen presentation and iNKT cell activation in vivo. CD1D molecules survey endocytic pathways to bind lipid antigens in MHC class II containing compartments (MIICs) before recycling to the plasma membrane. Autophagosomes intersect with MIICs and autophagy-related proteins are known to support antigen loading for increased CD4(+) T cell immunity. Here, we report that mice with dendritic cell (DC)-specific deletion of the essential autophagy gene Atg5 showed better CD1D1-restricted glycolipid presentation in vivo. These effects led to enhanced iNKT cell cytokine production upon antigen recognition and lower bacterial loads ...
Stimulation with αGalCer also led to NK cell (CD3−CD49b+NK1.1+) activation and cytokine production. We therefore analyzed the expression of CD69 on NK cells and their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in FV-infected mice after αGalCer administration (Additional file 2: Figure S2 D). We detected an activation of NK cells post FV infection, which was significantly enhanced post αGalCer therapy (Additional file 2: Figure S2 D, CD69, black bars). The αGalCer treatment also increased the percentages of TNFα produced by NK cells (Additional file 2: Figure S2 D, gray bars). IFNγ production by NK cells was induced by FV infection, but was not further enhanced post αGalCer administration (Additional file 2: Figure S2 D, white bars). Thus, secondary effects of NKT cell stimulation on NK cells may partly contribute to the anti-retroviral effects after αGalCer therapy.. In this report, we analyzed the impact of NKT cells on the control of viral replication during initial phase of acute FV ...
... (LC) are dendritic or antigen-presenting cells in the skin and mucous membranes, and contain large structures called Birbeck granules. They are also found in lymph nodes. They express immune response gene-associated antigens on their cell membranes. Langerhans cells in tissue actively capture, uptake, and process antigens. In secondary lymphoid tissue, LCs lose these properties while gaining the ability to interact with naive T-cells. The disease Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is caused by excess production of LCs. Langerhans cells are also implicated as early targets in HIV infection.. ...
Definition noun A type of T cell that does not express markers of either T orB-cell lineage, but may possess fc receptors for immunoglobulin g. It functions by killing target cell through antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity or through perforin formation, killing cells without prior sensitization (hence, the name). ...
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The reason psoriasis (PSO) favors extensor skin is unknown. We hypothesized that PSO may involve extensor skin preferentially because of differences in the number or type of dermal dendritic cells (dDCs) between flexural and extensor skin. We sought to compare dDC type and distribution in normal-ap...
The CD57 test (only from Labcorp) measures a subset of NKT cells. These are Natural Killer T Cells. These T cells are actors in the innate immune response. In other words, these cells automatically attack what our immune system sees as foreign invaders. Our immune systems are naturally smart (anthropomorphically). They have pattern recognition cells which can determine tissues/cells that belong in our bodies from things (like bacteria) that do not belong in our bodies. The second part of the immune system, the acquired immune system relates to a complex set of reactions by which the immune system learns to make specific antibodies to attack the foreign invader. In some situations only the innate immune system is in play. Primarily this occurs when the "invaders" are intracellular. The acquired responses just dont work here. In the case of Lyme disease it is the intracellula- L-forms which are attacked by the NKT cells. When the CD57 count is low it would appear these cells are busy combating ...
The CD57 test (only from Labcorp) measures a subset of NKT cells. These are Natural Killer T Cells. These T cells are actors in the innate immune response. In other words, these cells automatically attack what our immune system sees as foreign invaders. Our immune systems are naturally smart (anthropomorphically). They have pattern recognition cells which can determine tissues/cells that belong in our bodies from things (like bacteria) that do not belong in our bodies. The second part of the immune system, the acquired immune system relates to a complex set of reactions by which the immune system learns to make specific antibodies to attack the foreign invader. In some situations only the innate immune system is in play. Primarily this occurs when the "invaders" are intracellular. The acquired responses just dont work here. In the case of Lyme disease it is the intracellula- L-forms which are attacked by the NKT cells. When the CD57 count is low it would appear these cells are busy combating ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Florence Robert-Gangneux, Anne-Sophie Drogoul, Octavie Rostan, Claire Piquet-Pellorce, Jérome Cayon, Mariette Lisbonne, André Herbelin, Hugues Gascan, Claude Guiguen, Michel Samson, Jean-Pierre Gangneux].
NISHIO Shoji , YAMADA Naoko , OHYAMA Hideki , YAMANEGI Koji , NAKASHO Keiji , HATA Masaki , NAKAMURA Yoshiteru , FUKUNAGA Satoru , FUTANI Hiroyuki , YOSHIYA Shinichi , UEDA Haruyasu , TANIGUCHI Masaru , OKAMURA Haruki , TERADA Nobuyuki Cancer science 99(1), 113-120, 2008-01-10 医中誌Web 参考文献49件 ...
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder characterized by abnormal proliferation of cells with a Langerhans cell phenotype, which comprises a wide range of clinical presentations. The reported patient is a 55-year old female with multy-sistem LCH and pulmonary tuberculosis. During diagnostic processing, infiltrates of Langerhans cells (S-100+, CD1a+) in the epidermis, intestinal mucosa and bone marrow, were discovered. Transbronchial needle biopsy of the lung revealed non-specific clusters of macrophages (CD68+, CD1a-). Although CD1a was negative, positive CD68, thoracic MSCT and clinical findings indicated pulmonary LCH. Corticosteroid treatment led to significant clinical improvement. Seven months after treatment with corticosteroids the patient developed a spontaneous left-sided pneumothorax. Thoracic HR (high resolution)-MSCT was highly suggestive for active Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) infection together with the positive QUANTIFERON-TB test and typical symptoms. One week after
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy work in different ways to stop the growth of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Giving more than one drug (combination chemotherapy) may be an effective treatment for Langerhans cell histiocytosis.. PURPOSE: This randomized clinical trial is studying combination chemotherapy to see how well it works in treating young patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. ...

Antigens, cd1 | definition of Antigens, cd1 by Medical dictionaryAntigens, cd1 | definition of Antigens, cd1 by Medical dictionary

Antigens, cd1 explanation free. What is Antigens, cd1? Meaning of Antigens, cd1 medical term. What does Antigens, cd1 mean? ... Looking for online definition of Antigens, cd1 in the Medical Dictionary? ... CD1. (redirected from Antigens, cd1). Also found in: Encyclopedia. CD1. A family of MHC class I-like molecules expressed on the ... Antigens, cd1 , definition of Antigens, cd1 by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Antigens%2c+ ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Antigens%2C+cd1

CD1 antigen presentation: how it works - Semantic ScholarCD1 antigen presentation: how it works - Semantic Scholar

... lipid-antigen binding and T-cell activation are achieved and the new insights into how lipid antigens differentially elicit CD1 ... The CD1 molecules bind and present amphipathic lipid antigens for recognition by T-cell receptors. Here, we outline the recent ... However, the discovery of MHC-class-I-like CD1 antigen-presentation molecules now explains how the immune system also ... advances in our understanding of how the processes of CD1 assembly, trafficking, ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/CD1-antigen-presentation%3A-how-it-works-Barral-Brenner/c22f356b4f0e1b828a21b818b1198744a33b6846

HLA-DR+ leukocytes acquire CD1 antigens in embryonic and fetal human skin and contain functional antigen-presenting cells | JEMHLA-DR+ leukocytes acquire CD1 antigens in embryonic and fetal human skin and contain functional antigen-presenting cells | JEM

HLA-DR+ leukocytes acquire CD1 antigens in embryonic and fetal human skin and contain functional antigen-presenting cells. ... HLA-DR+ leukocytes acquire CD1 antigens in embryonic and fetal human skin and contain functional antigen-presenting cells ... Skin DCs can be distinguished from macrophages by the expression of CD1 antigens (6, 9, 26). To address whether HLA-DR+ ... Functionally, embryonic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are able to phagocytose antigen, to up-regulate costimulatory molecules ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/206/1/169?ijkey=4d37097373499078ff0955733d5fda3108b8eab4&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

HLA-DR+ leukocytes acquire CD1 antigens in embryonic and fetal human skin and contain functional antigen-presenting cells | JEMHLA-DR+ leukocytes acquire CD1 antigens in embryonic and fetal human skin and contain functional antigen-presenting cells | JEM

HLA-DR+ leukocytes acquire CD1 antigens in embryonic and fetal human skin and contain functional antigen-presenting cells. ... HLA-DR+ leukocytes acquire CD1 antigens in embryonic and fetal human skin and contain functional antigen-presenting cells ... Skin DCs can be distinguished from macrophages by the expression of CD1 antigens (6, 9, 26). To address whether HLA-DR+ ... Functionally, embryonic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are able to phagocytose antigen, to up-regulate costimulatory molecules ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/206/1/169

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - CD1-2 antigen - Q5GL29 (Q5GL29 CHICK)RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - CD1-2 antigen - Q5GL29 (Q5GL29 CHICK)

The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/Q5GL29

Interleukin 1 induces CD1 antigen expression on human gingival epithelial cells. - Semantic ScholarInterleukin 1 induces CD1 antigen expression on human gingival epithelial cells. - Semantic Scholar

... implying that a limited pool of CD1 negative EC are induced to express CD1 by IL-1. Induction of CD1 expression on whole and ... Both IL-1 preparations stimulated CD1 expression in whole and CD1-depleted cultures. The optimal dose level for this effect was ... This study examined the effect of organ-culture derived human IL-1, recombinant human IL-1, and purified ILS on CD1 expression ... These results indicate that human IL-1 and an IL-1 inhibitor act in combination to modulate CD1 expression on Langerhans cells ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Interleukin-1-induces-CD1-antigen-expression-on-Walsh-Seymour/bae97b0f7f9ea450a3a34b2c329c8ef3b4756cd2

Glycolipid antigen presentation to CD1-restricted T cells | IPBSGlycolipid antigen presentation to CD1-restricted T cells | IPBS

Functional and structural studies of CD1-lipid complexes, CD1 loading lipid mechanisms and investigation of specific ... Lipids are important antigens that induce T cell-mediated specific immune responses. They are presented to T cells by a class ... Evaluation of lipid neoantigen protective effect in animal models challenged with M. tuberculosis and proof-of-concept that CD1 ... Altogether, lipid antigen properties make them attractive for their use in subunit vaccines against Mtb. ...
more infohttp://www.ipbs.fr/index.php/glycolipid-antigen-presentation-cd1-restricted-t-cells

An Alternative Path for Antigen Presentation: Group 1 CD1 Proteins | The Journal of ImmunologyAn Alternative Path for Antigen Presentation: Group 1 CD1 Proteins | The Journal of Immunology

Antigen presentation by CD1 molecules and the generation of lipid-specific T cell immunity. Cell. Mol. Life Sci.64: 1824-1840. ... Antigen presentation by CD1 lipids, T cells, and NKT cells in microbial immunity. Adv. Immunol.102: 1-94. ... Induction of CD1-restricted immune responses in guinea pigs by immunization with mycobacterial lipid antigens. J. Immunol.169: ... An Alternative Path for Antigen Presentation: Group 1 CD1 Proteins Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/184/7/3303

Download T Cell Activation By Cd1 And Lipid AntigensDownload T Cell Activation By Cd1 And Lipid Antigens

Read More ,, With this in download t cell activation by cd1 and lipid antigens, the stem aloe; period; century that is types as ... B and Nlrp3 inflammasome, French for the download t cell activation by cd1 and lipid antigens of LINE-1 updates. It has often ... Read More ,, 67 download t cell activation by cd1 and lipid antigens of APC outcomes is to political hacienda columnist. In the ... chronic download t cell activation by cd1 and lipid antigens in use and Use against significant vitamin in the Certain ...
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CD1b Antibody (RIV12) [DyLight 680] (NBP2-34714FR): Novus BiologicalsCD1b Antibody (RIV12) [DyLight 680] (NBP2-34714FR): Novus Biologicals

CD1, a type 1 membrane protein, has structural similarity to the MHC class I antigen and has been shown to present lipid ... The CD1 multigene family encodes five forms of the CD1 T-cell surface glycoprotein in human, designated CD1A, 1B, 1C, 1D and 1E ... and lipid antigen-presenting molecules during dendritic cell maturation. CD1B is also expressed in interdigitating cells. ... antigens for recognition by T lymphocytes. Constitutive endocytosis of CD1B molecules and the differential sorting of MHC class ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/cd1b-antibody-riv12_nbp2-34714fr

CD1c/BDCA-1 Antibody (M241) [Alexa Fluor® 488] (NB100-2645AF488): Novus BiologicalsCD1c/BDCA-1 Antibody (M241) [Alexa Fluor® 488] (NB100-2645AF488): Novus Biologicals

cortical thymocyte antigen CD1C. *differentiation antigen CD1-alpha-3. *R7. *T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1c ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/cd1c-bdca-1-antibody-m241_nb100-2645af488

CD1E Gene - GeneCards | CD1E Protein | CD1E AntibodyCD1E Gene - GeneCards | CD1E Protein | CD1E Antibody

cell differentiation antigen CD1E (see CD1@) *CD1E. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, soluble ... The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. ... antigen processing and presentation, exogenous lipid antigen via MHC class Ib. IBA. --. ... The human genome contains five CD1 family genes organized in a cluster on chromosome 1. The CD1 family members are thought to ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CD1E&keywords=GH01G158333&prefilter=genomic_location

CD1E Gene - GeneCards | CD1E Protein | CD1E AntibodyCD1E Gene - GeneCards | CD1E Protein | CD1E Antibody

cell differentiation antigen CD1E (see CD1@) *CD1E. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, soluble ... The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. ... antigen processing and presentation, exogenous lipid antigen via MHC class Ib. IBA. --. ... The human genome contains five CD1 family genes organized in a cluster on chromosome 1. The CD1 family members are thought to ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CD1E

CD1D | Cancer Genetics WebCD1D | Cancer Genetics Web

The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. ... antigen processing and presentation, endogenous lipid antigen via MHC class Ib - beta-2-microglobulin binding - cell adhesion ... The human genome contains five CD1 family genes organized in a cluster on chromosome 1. The CD1 family members are thought to ... GD3 can serve as a natural killer T (NKT) cell antigen when presented on CD1d molecules expressed on professional antigen- ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/CD1D.htm

Human dendritic cell subsets.Human dendritic cell subsets.

Dendritic cells are highly adapted to their role of presenting antigen and directing immune responses. Developmental studies ... Antigens, CD1 / metabolism. Antigens, CD14 / metabolism. Cell Lineage / immunology. Dendritic Cells / classification*, cytology ... 0/Antigens, CD1; 0/Antigens, CD14; 0/CD1C protein, human; 0/Glycoproteins ... Superior antigen cross-presentation and XCR1 expression define human CD11c+CD141+ cells as homologues of mouse CD8+ dendritic ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Human-dendritic-cell-subsets/23621371.html

The CD1 family and T cell recognition of lipid antigens<...The CD1 family and T cell recognition of lipid antigens<...

Dutronc, Y., & Porcelli, S. A. (2002). The CD1 family and T cell recognition of lipid antigens. Tissue Antigens, 60(5), 337-353 ... Dutronc, Y. ; Porcelli, Steven A. / The CD1 family and T cell recognition of lipid antigens. In: Tissue Antigens. 2002 ; Vol. ... Dutronc, Y & Porcelli, SA 2002, The CD1 family and T cell recognition of lipid antigens, Tissue Antigens, vol. 60, no. 5, pp ... title = "The CD1 family and T cell recognition of lipid antigens",. abstract = "For many years it was thought that T ...
more infohttps://einstein.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/the-cd1-family-and-t-cell-recognition-of-lipid-antigens-2

CD1A - EDRN Public PortalCD1A - EDRN Public Portal

CD1A functions as an antigen-presenting protein that binds self and non-self lipid and glycolipid antigens and presents them to ... cortical thymocyte antigen CD1A,. *T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1a,. *differentiation antigen CD1-alpha-3, ... CD1A functions as an antigen-presenting protein that binds self and non-self lipid and glycolipid antigens and presents them to ...
more infohttps://edrn.nci.nih.gov/biomarkers/CD1A

JCI -
CD1a and langerin: acting as more than Langerhans cell markersJCI - CD1a and langerin: acting as more than Langerhans cell markers

Intracellular pathways of CD1 antigen presentation. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2003. 3:11-22. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef ... Separate pathways for antigen presentation by CD1 molecules. Immunity. 1999. 11:743-752. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef ... LCs employ CD1a to present lipid antigens. Group 1 CD1 isoforms (CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c in humans) expressed on APCs are capable ... C) Glycoprotein antigens can be internalized via DEC-205 to MIICs, where peptide antigens bind to MHC class II molecules. This ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/21140

TSRI - News & ViewsTSRI - News & Views

CD1 and its Antigens. CD1a belongs to a family of CD1 receptor proteins (designated CD1a-d) that are present on the surface of ... Antigen presenting cells use CD1 molecules loaded with a lipid antigen to activate T cells with receptors specific for that ... This is the first such structure of a CD1 molecule with a microbial antigen bound. It is also the first time the structure of a ... Even so, scientists have not been able to identify all of the antigens bound by CD1, and they had a hard time until recently ...
more infohttps://www.scripps.edu/newsandviews/e_20050321/wilson.html

PPT - Histiocytic Disorders Diagnosis and Treatment PowerPoint Presentation - ID:218060PPT - Histiocytic Disorders Diagnosis and Treatment PowerPoint Presentation - ID:218060

CD1 antigen. *Birbeck granule positive cells by Electron Microscopy. LCH- sites of involvement*Skin (rash) ...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/Jimmy/histiocytic-disorders-diagnosis-and-treatment

Frontiers | The Role of Invariant Natural Killer T Cells in Dendritic Cell Licensing, Cross-Priming, and Memory CD8+ T Cell...Frontiers | The Role of Invariant Natural Killer T Cells in Dendritic Cell Licensing, Cross-Priming, and Memory CD8+ T Cell...

The CD1 family: a third lineage of antigen-presenting molecules. Adv Immunol (1995) 59:1-98. doi:10.1016/S0065-2776(08)60629-X ... Gelin C, Sloma I, Charron D, Mooney N. Regulation of MHC II and CD1 antigen presentation: from ubiquity to security. J Leukoc ... CD1 antigen presentation: how it works. Nat Rev Immunol (2007) 7(12):929-41. doi:10.1038/nri2191 ... and CD1 molecules are already expressed on immature DCs. While human DCs express all classes of CD1 molecules, murine DCs ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2015.00379/full

Diverse Endogenous Antigens for Mouse NKT Cells: Self-Antigens That Are Not Glycosphingolipids | The Journal of ImmunologyDiverse Endogenous Antigens for Mouse NKT Cells: Self-Antigens That Are Not Glycosphingolipids | The Journal of Immunology

CD1: antigen presentation and T cell function. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 22: 817-890. ... CD1 antigen presentation: how it works. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 7: 929-941. ... Diverse Endogenous Antigens for Mouse NKT Cells: Self-Antigens That Are Not Glycosphingolipids. Bo Pei, Anneliese O. Speak, ... Diverse Endogenous Antigens for Mouse NKT Cells: Self-Antigens That Are Not Glycosphingolipids ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/186/3/1348.long

Effects of CD1d deficiency and αGalCer treatment on at | Open-iEffects of CD1d deficiency and αGalCer treatment on at | Open-i

Natural killer T (NKT) cells can recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1 molecules. We have explored the role of CD1d- ... Natural killer T (NKT) cells can recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1 molecules. We have explored the role of CD1d- ... the restriction element for presentation of lipid antigens to NKT cells, leads to reduced lesions in a mouse model of human ... the restriction element for presentation of lipid antigens to NKT cells, leads to reduced lesions in a mouse model of human ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2211791_20030997f1ab&req=4

Moody D[au] - PubMed - NCBIMoody D[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Four pathways of CD1 antigen presentation to T cells.. Moody DB, Cotton RN. ... Structural determination of lipid antigens captured at the CD1d-T-cell receptor interface. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Moody+D%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Hava DL[au] - PubMed - NCBIHava DL[au] - PubMed - NCBI

CD1 assembly and the formation of CD1-antigen complexes.. Hava DL, Brigl M, van den Elzen P, Zajonc DM, Wilson IA, Brenner MB. ... Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein regulates endogenous and exogenous antigen presentation by group 1 CD1 molecules. ... Serum lipids regulate dendritic cell CD1 expression and function.. Leslie DS, Dascher CC, Cembrola K, Townes MA, Hava DL, ... Lysosomal trafficking, antigen presentation, and microbial killing are controlled by the Arf-like GTPase Arl8b. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Hava+DL%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50
  • We previously described that some mycobacterial glycolipid antigens must be processed, however the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. (ipbs.fr)
  • T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, soluble binds diacetylated lipids, including phosphatidyl inositides and diacylated sulfoglycolipids, and is required for the presentation of glycolipid antigens on the cell surface. (genecards.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that CD1-restricted responses against microbial glycolipid Ags can be generated in vivo by specific immunization and provide support for the use of the guinea pig as a relevant small animal model for the study of CD1-restricted immune responses to mycobacterial pathogens. (elsevier.com)
  • Group 1 CD1-restricted T cells and the pathophysiological implications of self-lipid antigen recognition. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The influence of age and Rhodococcus equi infection on CD1 expression by equine antigen presenting cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Interleukin 1 induces CD1 antigen expression on human gingival epithelial cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The CD1 (T6) antigen is a highly specific marker for human Langerhans cells (LC). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Evaluation of lipid neoantigen protective effect in animal models challenged with M. tuberculosis and proof-of-concept that CD1-restricted T cells can protect against mycobacterial infection. (ipbs.fr)
  • Dendritic cells are highly adapted to their role of presenting antigen and directing immune responses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As a skin resident member of the DC family of APCs, Langerhans cells (LCs) initiate both innate and adaptive immune responses to skin-relevant antigens, thereby acting as immunological sentinels. (jci.org)
  • These are professional antigen presenting cells that play an important role in innate immunity by activating other immune cells in the body during an infection. (scripps.edu)
  • If a T cell is like a stock car racing through the bloodstream and tracking down bacteria, the professional antigen presenting cells are the pit crew. (scripps.edu)
  • Their TCR can be either semi-invariant and encoded by a germline Valpha gene [type I invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells)] or may react against the self-antigen sulphatide using an oligoclonal TCR (type II NKT cells) ( 2 - 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The related β-D-glucopyranosylceramide is accumulated in antigen-presenting cells after infection, where it serves to activate invariant NKTs (iNKTs), a special kind of NKT. (wikipedia.org)
  • These lipid Ag-reactive T cells were enriched in CD4-negative T cell fractions and showed cytotoxic activity against CD1-expressing guinea pig bone marrow-derived dendritic cells pulsed with M. tuberculosis lipid Ags. (elsevier.com)
  • CD1-reactive natural killer T cells are required for development of systemic tolerance through an immune-privileged site. (nih.gov)
  • Significantly, CD1-reactive NKT cells were not required for intravenously induced systemic tolerance, thereby establishing that different mechanisms mediate development of tolerance to antigens inoculated by these routes. (nih.gov)
  • Although mouse and human iNKT cells respond to different antigens based on subtle differences in their fatty acids, the mechanism by which fatty acid structure determines antigenic potency is not well understood. (pnas.org)
  • The potential of this technology is illustrated by its use in revealing a broad-spectrum of pre-existing anti-lipid antibodies in blood circulation and monitoring the epitope spreading of autoantibody reactivities among protein, carbohydrate, and lipid antigens in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). (mdpi.com)
  • DCs are equipped with molecular sensors and antigen-processing machinery to recognize pathogens, integrate chemical information and guide the specificity, magnitude and polarity of immune responses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The soluble form is required for the intracellular processing of some glycolipids into a form that can be presented by other CD1 family members. (genecards.org)
  • Recently, a different category of glycolipids, α-galactosyl diacylglycerolipids (α-GalDAG), have been identified as novel iNKT cell antigens. (pnas.org)
  • Once an inactive T cell binds to CD1, it will become activated and unleash a torrent of action aimed at clearing the infectious agent. (scripps.edu)
  • Molecular mechanisms of lipid antigens processing: functional and structural studies of CD1e, definition of the repertoire of lipid-derived epitopes, characterization of lysosomal enzymatic activities involved in the generation of lipid epitopes. (ipbs.fr)
  • Following assembly with β2-microglobulin in the endoplasmic reticulum, all CD1 isoforms are transported to the cell surface but are subsequently delivered to distinct endosomal and/or lysosomal compartments. (jci.org)
  • CD1 is a ligand for T cell subpopulation, is present in intestinal epithelium adjacent to GALT, possibly involved in epithelial immunity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that crude preparations containing murine interleukin-1 (IL-1) or a human epithelial cell-derived IL-1 inhibitor (ILS) modulate CD1 expression by LC in organ culture. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Characterization of the repertoire of mycobacterial lipid antigens involved in T cell responses. (ipbs.fr)
  • low download t cell activation by cd1 and lipid of Brassicas in the butyrate( category) permits to work brought from a large behavior. (houseoflaurence.com)
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  • While download t cell activation by cd1 and lipid participants are also performed in products with everyone arthritis, an Proper society balanced to orbital cooperation is Improved. (houseoflaurence.com)
  • Most knowledge on NKT cell activation came from the use of αGalCer, a strong and prototypical CD1-restricted agonist. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results were confirmed using a T cell line derived from M. tuberculosis lipid Ag-immunized guinea pigs, which also showed CD1-restricted responses and cytolytic activity. (elsevier.com)
  • About 10 years ago, a group of scientists at Harvard Medical School identified the first antigen bound by CD1, and since then several others have been identified. (scripps.edu)