Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Immunohistochemical localization of CD1a-positive putative dendritic cells in human breast tumours. (1/894)

The presence of a high number of infiltrating CD1a+ cells in malignant neoplasms has been reported to be associated with an improved prognosis, reduced tumour recurrence and fewer metastases. This study identified a population of CD1a+ cells within the lymphoid cell infiltrate in human ductal breast carcinoma (n = 52), which was significantly different from normal breast tissue, in which only two out of nine cases expressed CD1a+ cells (P = 0.0192). In the majority of cases, the infiltrate was low compared with the number of macrophages and T cells present (results not shown). There was no correlation between the number of CD1a+ cells and tumour grade, with all tumour grades expressing similar numbers of infiltrating CD1a+ cells. There was clear evidence, however, that the CD1a+ cells were closely associated with tumour cells. It is likely that CD1a+ cells have a role in antigen capture and presentation in human tumours, and this study documents the density of CD1a+ cells in a large sample of all histological grades of human breast carcinomas.  (+info)

Long-term culture of human CD34(+) progenitors with FLT3-ligand, thrombopoietin, and stem cell factor induces extensive amplification of a CD34(-)CD14(-) and a CD34(-)CD14(+) dendritic cell precursor. (2/894)

Current in vitro culture systems allow the generation of human dendritic cells (DCs), but the output of mature cells remains modest. This contrasts with the extensive amplification of hematopoietic progenitors achieved when culturing CD34(+) cells with FLT3-ligand and thrombopoietin. To test whether such cultures contained DC precursors, CD34(+) cord blood cells were incubated with the above cytokines, inducing on the mean a 250-fold and a 16,600-fold increase in total cell number after 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. The addition of stem cell factor induced a further fivefold increase in proliferation. The majority of the cells produced were CD34(-)CD1a- CD14(+) (p14(+)) and CD34(-)CD1a-CD14(-) (p14(-)) and did not display the morphology, surface markers, or allostimulatory capacity of DC. When cultured with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), both subsets differentiated without further proliferation into immature (CD1a+, CD14(-), CD83(-)) macropinocytic DC. Mature (CD1a+, CD14(-), CD83(+)) DCs with high allostimulatory activity were generated if such cultures were supplemented with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). In addition, p14(-) cells generated CD14(+) cells with GM-CSF and TNF, which in turn, differentiated into DC when exposed to GM-CSF and IL-4. Similar results were obtained with frozen DC precursors and also when using pooled human serum AB+ instead of bovine serum, emphasizing that this system using CD34(+) cells may improve future prospects for immunotherapy.  (+info)

Biochemical characterization of CD1d expression in the absence of beta2-microglobulin. (3/894)

CD1d is a major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule that exhibits a distinct antigen processing pathway that functions in the presentation of hydrophobic antigens to T cells. CD1d has been previously shown to be expressed on the cell surface of human intestinal epithelial cell lines in vivo and a transfected cell line in vitro independently of beta2-microglobulin (beta2m). To define the relationship between CD1d and beta2m and characterize the biochemical structure of CD1d in the absence of beta2m, we have used a newly generated series of CD1d transfectants and CD1d-specific antibodies. These studies show that in the absence of beta2m, CD1d is expressed on the cell surface as a 45-kDa glycoprotein that is sensitive to endoglycosidase-H and is reduced to 37-kDa after N-glycanase digestion. In contrast, in the presence of beta2m, CD1d is expressed on the cell surface as a 48-kDa endoglycosidase-H-resistant glycoprotein. Pulse-chase metabolic labeling studies demonstrate that acquisition of endoglycosidase-H resistance of CD1d is observed in the presence of beta2m but not in the absence of beta2m even after a 24-h chase period. Thus, CD1d is able to be transported to the cell surface independently of beta2m; however, in the absence of beta2m, the glycosylation pattern of CD1d is altered and consistent with an immature glycoprotein.  (+info)

T cell-tropic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian-human immunodeficiency viruses are readily transmitted by vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques, and Langerhans' cells of the female genital tract are infected with SIV. (4/894)

Intravaginal inoculation with T cell-tropic molecular clones of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) or some dual-tropic strains of SIV or SHIV produced systemic infection in rhesus macaques. Vaginal inoculation with other dual-tropic molecular clones of SIV or SHIV did not infect rhesus macaques even after multiple inoculations. While in vitro measures of macrophage tropism do not predict which primate lentiviruses will produce systemic infection after intravaginal inoculation, the level to which a virus replicates in vivo after intravenous inoculation does predict the outcome of intravaginal inoculation. Another series of studies, using combined in situ hybridization and immunolabeling to simultaneously detect SIV RNA and identify the immunophenotype of infected cells, demonstrated that a large proportion (approximately 40% in some animals) of the SIV-infected cells in the vagina and cervix were Langerhans' cells. This is the first in vivo demonstration that Langerhans' cells in the genital tract are infected with SIV and that dendritic cells are significant reservoirs for lentiviruses.  (+info)

Expression of the nlsLacz gene in dendritic cells derived from retrovirally transduced peripheral blood CD34+ cells. (5/894)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Gene transfer and expression of exogenous genetic information coding for an immunogenic protein in antigen presenting cells (APCs) can promote an immune response. This was investigated by retroviral transfer of a marker gene into CD34+ derived APCs. DESIGN AND METHODS: To achieve long term expression of a specific transgene in APCs, G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood CD34+ cell populations were retrovirally transduced with the bacterial nlsLacZ, a marker gene used here as a model, in the presence of IL-3, IL-6, GM-CSF and SCF prior to being induced to differentiate into dendritic and macrophage cells by GM-CSF and TNF-a. RESULTS: Addition of IL-4 was found to induce dendritic differentiation preferentially by inhibiting proliferation and differentiation of the macrophage lineage. As assessed by X-Gal staining, LacZ gene expression was observed in cells from both the dendritic lineage (CD1a+/CD14-) which still exhibits the highest immunostimulatory activity in mixed lymphocyte reaction and from the macrophage lineage (CD1a-/ CD14+). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study sets out the possibility of transducing dendritic and macrophage progenitors present in the CD34+ cell population and in using a marker gene such as nlsLacZ to study gene expression in antigen presenting cell compartments.  (+info)

Expression of CD1d2 on thymocytes is not sufficient for the development of NK T cells in CD1d1-deficient mice. (6/894)

CD1 is an MHC class I-like molecule that has been conserved throughout mammalian evolution. Unlike MHC class I molecules, CD1 can present unique nonprotein antigens to T cells. The murine CD1 locus contains two highly homologous genes, CD1d1 and CD1d2. CD1d1 is essential for the development of a major subset of NK T cells that promptly secrete IL-4 following activation. However, the function of CD1d2 has not yet been demonstrated. In the present study, we examined the expression of CD1d2 in CD1d1-deficient (CD1d1 degrees) mice with the anti-CD1 Ab 3H3. Unlike CD1d1, which is expressed by all lymphocytes, CD1d2 can be detected only on the surface of thymocytes. To determine whether CD1d2 can select a unique subset of NK T cells, we compared the remnant population of NK T cells in CD1d1 degrees and CD1d1, CD1d2-double deficient (CD1d1 degrees CD1d2 degrees) mice. No significant difference in the number of NK T cells and cytokine secretion capacity can be detected between CD1d1 degrees and CD1d1 degrees CD1d2 degrees mice, indicating that CD1d2 cannot substitute for CD1d1 in NK T cell development. The inability of CD1d2 to select NK T cells is not due to the structural constraints of CD1d2 since CD1d2-transfected cells can be recognized by both NK T cell hybridomas and freshly isolated NK T cells. Given the structural similarities, it is possible that the low levels of surface expression and limited tissue distribution of CD1d2 may prevent it from functioning in the selection and expansion of NK T cells.  (+info)

Juvenile hemochromatosis locus maps to chromosome 1q. (7/894)

Juvenile hemochromatosis (JH) is an autosomal recessive disorder that leads to severe iron loading in the 2d to 3d decade of life. Affected members in families with JH do not show linkage to chromosome 6p and do not have mutations in the HFE gene that lead to the common hereditary hemochromatosis. In this study we performed a genomewide search to map the JH locus in nine families: six consanguineous and three with multiple affected patients. This strategy allowed us to identify the JH locus on the long arm of chromosome 1. A maximum LOD score of 5.75 at a recombination fraction of 0 was detected with marker D1S498, and a LOD score of 5. 16 at a recombination fraction of 0 was detected for marker D1S2344. Homozygosity mapping in consanguineous families defined the limits of the candidate region in an approximately 4-cM interval between markers D1S442 and D1S2347. Analysis of genes mapped in this interval excluded obvious candidates. The JH locus does not correspond to the chromosomal localization of any known gene involved in iron metabolism. These findings provide a means to recognize, at an early age, patients in affected families. They also provide a starting point for the identification of the affected gene by positional cloning.  (+info)

Immunolocalization of CD1d in human intestinal epithelial cells and identification of a beta2-microglobulin-associated form. (8/894)

In order to better understand the role of intestinal CD1d, we sought to define the cellular localization and further characterize the biochemical structure of CD1d in human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). Using a CD1d-specific rabbit anti-gst-CD1d antibody, immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled cell surface proteins detected a previously identified 37 kDa protein as well as a 48-50 kDa protein which were confirmed by Western blotting with a CD1d-specific mAb, D5. Immunoprecipitation of protein lysates with the CD1d-specific mAb, D5 and 51.1.3, and the beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-specific mAb, BBM.1, followed by N-glycanase digestion and Western blotting with the D5 mAb showed that the 48-50 kDa protein was a beta2m-associated, CD1d glycoprotein. CD1d was immunolocalized to the apical and lateral regions of native small and large intestinal IEC as defined by confocal laser microscopy using the D5 mAb and the rabbit anti-gst-CD1d antibody. In addition, a large apical intracellular pool of CD1d was identified. Identical observations were made with polarized T84 cells. Selective biotin labeling of apical and basolateral cell surfaces followed by immunoprecipitation with the D5 mAb, N-glycanase digestion and avidin blotting confirmed the presence of glycosylated CD1d on both cell surfaces and immunolocalization of the 37 kDa non-glycosylated form of CD1d to the apical cell surface. These studies show that CD1d is located in an ideal position for luminal antigen sampling and presentation to subjacent intraepithelial lymphocytes.  (+info)

Clone REA654 recognizes the human variable β2 subunit of the α/β T cell receptor (TCR Vβ2). The TCR is a heterodimeric glycoprotein associated with the CD3 antigen. The α and β TCR chains are composed of constant and variable regions, each encoded by distinct gene segments. TCR Vβ2 is a variant of the TCR β chain. α/β T cells express a diverse α/β TCR repertoire that specifically co-recognizes self or foreign antigen bound to antigen-presenting molecules, which thereby leads to T cell-mediated immunity. For example, the TCR can directly bind to peptide fragments, riboflavin precursors, and lipid antigens that are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, MR1 and CD1, respectively. In each case, the antigen sits within the antigen-binding cleft, whereupon the TCR recognizes a composite surface formed by the antigen-presenting molecule and surface-exposed regions of the antigen itself. This co-recognition paradigm is a central tenet of α/β T cell-mediated immunity and
Clone REA662 recognizes the human variable beta 1 subunit of the αβ T cell receptor (TCR Vβ1). The TCR is a heterodimeric glycoprotein associated with the CD3 antigen. The α and β TCR chains are composed of constant and variable regions, each encoded by distinct gene segments. TCR Vβ1 is a variant of the TCR β chain. αβ T cells express a diverse αβ TCR repertoire that specifically co-recognizes self or foreign antigen bound to antigen-presenting molecules, which thereby leads to T cell-mediated immunity. For example, the TCR can directly bind to peptide fragments, riboflavin precursors, and lipid antigens that are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, MR1 and CD1, respectively. In each case, the antigen sits within the antigen-binding cleft, whereupon the TCR recognizes a composite surface formed by the antigen-presenting molecule and surface-exposed regions of the antigen itself. This co-recognition paradigm is a central tenet of αβ T cell-mediated immunity and
It is well established that different populations of alphabeta T lymphocytes can recognize not only peptides in the context of MHC class I and class II molecules, but also foreign and self-lipids in association with CD1 proteins, which share structural similarities with MHC class I molecules. CD1 molecules are comprised of five isoforms, known as group 1 (CD1a, b, c, e) and group 2 (CD1d) CD1, presenting lipid antigens to conventional T lymphocytes or innate-like T cells bearing an invariant T cell receptor (TCR) and known as invariant NKT (iNKT) cells. During the last couple of years, several papers have been published describing important aspects of the mechanisms controlling the processing and presentation of endogenous and exogenous CD1 lipid antigens, which will be the main focus of this review.
Authors: Hamish EG McWilliam, Sidonia BG Eckle, Alex Theodossis, Ligong Liu, Zhenjun Chen, Jacinta M Wubben, David P Fairlie, Richard A Strugnell, Justine D Mintern, James McCluskey, Jamie Rossjohn, Jose A Villadangos
Like most mammalian species, humans express several structurally distinct CD1 antigen-presenting molecules. The conservation of large CD1 gene families among most mammals suggests that each type of CD1 protein has distinct functions that confer selective advantage. Cellular studies of CD1 proteins increasingly explain how each CD1 protein differs from the others. CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, and CD1d have distinct antigen groove structures, patterns of expression in tissues, intracellular trafficking, and trigger T cells expressing diverse TCRs (Kasmar et al., 2009). CD1d (group 2) diverges most clearly from CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c (group 1) with regard to protein sequence. Also, group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins show differing transcriptional responses to pathogens, suggesting that they function at different stages of the immune response (Roura-Mir et al., 2005b). Collectively, these cellular studies suggest that group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins likely have differing roles in immune responses.. The majority ...
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The CD1d/ -GalCer Dextramers displays CD1d molecules loaded with -GalCer, or without a unique lipid, unloaded CD1d. Both human and mouse CD1d can stain cells of mouse and human origen, although not identical NKT cell populations are found between species.. Features;. • Superior separation. • High stability. • Reproducible results. • Quality controled. • Available with FITC, PE and APC.. CD1d/ -GalCer Dextramer:. Human CD1d: Cat. No. XD8002. Mouse CD1d: Cat. No. YD8002. * The CD1d/ -GalCer Dextramer displays CD1d molecules loaded with the glyco-lipid, -GalCer. CD1d/unloaded Dextramer:. Human CD1d: Cat. No. XD8001. Mouse CD1d: Cat. No. YD8001. * Load your lipid of interest to generate a unique CD1d/lipid Dextramer. Can be used as negative control reagent. The CD1d/unloaded Dextramer reagent displays CD1d molecules without loaded lipid antigen.. Protocol for loading of lipids into CD1d_unloaded Dextramers (PDF). Human CD1d Dextramer labled with either FITC, PE AND APC. ...
Lymphocytes expressing a Testosterone levels cell receptor (TCR) composed of Vgamma9 and Vdelta2 stores represent a small small percentage of human being thymocytes. people overlap intensive in their moving repertoire. This type of selection indicates the existence of a monomorphic antigen-presenting molecule that is definitely an subject of current study but continues to be incompletely described. While selection on a monomorphic delivering molecule may appear uncommon, related systems form the alpha dog beta Capital t cell repertoire including the intense good examples of NKT or mucosal-associated invariant Capital t cells (MAIT) and the much less dramatic amplification of general public Vbeta string rearrangements powered by specific MHC substances and connected with level of resistance to virus-like pathogens. Choosing and amplifying general public Capital t cell receptors whether alpha dog beta or gamma delta, are essential methods in developing an anticipatory TCR repertoire. Cell ...
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a term used to describe a group of genes in animals and humans that encode a variety of cell surface markers, antigen-presenting molecules, and other proteins involved in immune function. The human leukoc
The human group 1 CD1 molecules CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c have been shown to present both endogenous and mycobacterial-derived lipid antigens to various subsets of T...
In this 9th clip from his presentation at the 2019 IFS Agronomic Conference, Wouter Saeys explains which type of NIR is best for measuring the nutrient content of manure, and why. Info on this paper is here; its free for Society Members to download: LINK ...
CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are growing as essential regulators of the immune system response to infectious agents, including infection; (ii) service of NKT cells requires acidification-dependent handling of glycolipid antigens within the endolysosomal compartment; and (iii) endolysosomal acidification may become reduced in CF. growing mainly because essential regulators of the immune system response to infectious providers.5,6 The NKT cells may be particularly important in CF as evidence suggests that NKT cells play a central role in clearing from the GDC-0449 lung7 and gastrointestinal tract.8 In contrast to conventional major histocompatibility complex-restricted Capital t cells, NKT cells express a semi-invariant T-cell receptor (iTCR) that recognizes glycolipid antigens presented by CD1m substances on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as DCs and macrophages.5,9 Current knowledge of the glycolipid antigens that activate NKT cells for antimicrobial defence is ...
Age-related immune dysfunction presents serious health concerns for todays society, as the population of individuals over the age of 65 years old continues to expand. The consequences of immunosenescence are obvious, as aged individuals are less able to ward off bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, have higher incidences of cancer, and have overall decreased responses to protective vaccines compared with younger individuals (4, 14). Age-related changes in adaptive immunity are well documented, whereas less is known about the effects of age on the innate immune system, with particular regard to innate lymphocytes such as CD1d-restricted NKT cells. Here, we show that as age advances, the number of CD1d-restricted NKT cells increases and that these cells in the aged immune microenvironment actively suppress, rather than support efferent T cell immunity. Additionally, our findings support the concept that NKT cells may suppress efferent T cell immunity via mechanisms that involve excess ...
CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells can have multiple effects on an immune response, including the activation, regulation and attraction of innate immune cells, and modulation of adaptive immunity. Recent studies reveal that there are distinct subsets of NKT cells which selectively perform some of the functions attributed to CD1d-restricted cells, but the mechanisms underlying these functional differences have not been resolved. Our aim in this study was to identify novel NKT cell associated traits that would provide important insight into NKT cell activation and function. To this end, we have performed gene expression profiling of two separate subsets of NKT cells, analyzing genes differentially expressed in these cells compared to conventional CD4(+)NK1.1(-) T cells. We identify different sets of genes over expressed in each of the two NKT cell types, as well as genes that are common to the two CD1d-restricted NKT cell populations analyzed. A large number of these genes are highly ...
NKT cells have a central role in immune responses ranging from tumor rejection to the regulation of autoimmunity. Although they are believed to be present in most strains of mice, the identification of these cells in mice lacking NK1.1 expression has been difficult. A range of surrogate phenotypes has been used in an attempt to identify NKT cells in all strains of mice; however, the effectiveness of these phenotypes in isolating these cells remains uncertain. Thus, if we are to interpret studies of NKT cells in strains other than C57BL/6 with confidence, it is important to verify the status of NKT cells in these strains with reliable markers. The marker of choice for NKT cells has traditionally been the NK1.1 molecule, used in conjunction with αβTCR, CD4, and CD8 labeling. The generation of BALB/c and NOD mice congenic for the NK1.1 locus has made it possible to compare and contrast NK1.1+ T cells between these strains. NK1.1+ T cells were indeed present in each strain and, with the exception ...
To the Editor: Interleukins (IL) are potent biomolecules used for immunotherapy in cancer and infectious diseases. The clinical benefit of cytokines is linked to their strong effects on immune cells, and these effects are important to study in patients undergoing treatment because the cellular responses in vivo may differ from those seen in vitro. We therefore read with interest the study by van der Vliet et al. (1) concerning the effect of high-dose IL-2 on immunoregulatory cell subsets in patients with advanced melanoma and renal cell cancer. The main conclusion presented by the authors is that CD25+ regulatory T cells, which have an inhibitory effect on adaptive T-cell responses, increased during therapy. Conversely, the CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells, which have mainly activating effects on other immune cells, decreased in numbers during therapy. One might speculate that such effects of IL-2 could suppress some cellular immune responses against the tumor and thus be detrimental ...
The human MHC class I-like molecule CD1b is distinctive among CD1 alleles in that it is capable of presenting a set of glycolipid species that show a very broad range of variation in the lengths of their acyl chains. A structure of CD1b complexed with relatively short acyl chain glycolipids plus detergent suggested how an interlinked network of channels within the Ag-binding groove could accommodate acyl chain lengths of up to 80 carbons. The structure of CD1b complexed with glucose monomycolate, reported in this study, confirms this hypothesis and illustrates how the distinctive substituents of intracellular bacterial glycolipids can be accommodated. The Ag-binding groove of CD1b is, uniquely among CD1 alleles, partitioned into channels suitable for the compact accommodation of lengthy acyl chains. The current crystal structure illustrates for the first time the binding of a natural bacterial lipid Ag to CD1b and shows how its novel structural features fit this molecule for its role in the immune
The hallmark function of αβ T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) involves the highly specific co-recognition of a major histocompatibility complex molecule and its carried peptide. However, the molecular basis of the interactions of TCRs with the lipid antigen-presenting molecule CD1c is unknown. We identified frequent staining of human T cells with CD1c tetramers across numerous subjects. Whereas TCRs typically show high specificity for antigen, both tetramer binding and autoreactivity occurred with CD1c in complex with numerous, chemically diverse self lipids. Such extreme polyspecificity was attributable to binding of the TCR over the closed surface of CD1c, with the TCR covering the portal where lipids normally protrude. The TCR essentially failed to contact lipids because they were fully seated within CD1c. These data demonstrate the sequestration of lipids within CD1c as a mechanism of autoreactivity and point to small lipid size as a determinant of autoreactive T cell responses.. ...
Human CD1d molecules present an unknown ligand, mimicked by the synthetic glycosphingolipid α-galactosylceramide (αGC), to a highly conserved NKT cell subset expressing an invariant TCR Vα24-JαQ paired with Vβ11 chain (Vα24+Vβ11+ invariant NK T cell (NKTinv)). The developmental pathway of Vα24+Vβ11+NKTinv is still unclear, but recent studies in mice were consistent with a TCR instructive, rather than a stochastic, model of differentiation. Using CD1d-αGC-tetramers, we demonstrate that in humans, TCR variable domains other than Vα24 and Vβ11 can mediate specific recognition of CD1d-αGC. In contrast to Vα24+Vβ11+NKTinv Vα24-/CD1d-αGC-specific T cells express either CD8αβ or CD4 molecules, but they are never CD4 CD8 double negative. We show that CD8αβ+Vα24-/CD1d-αGC-specific T cells exhibit CD8-dependent specific cytotoxicity and have lower affinity TCRs than Vα24+/CD1d-αGC-specific T cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that, contrary to the currently held view,
Stapel, Janina Gabriele; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Overduin, Pier Paul; Wetterich, Sebastian; Strauss, Jens; Horsfield, Brian; Mangelsdorf, Kai (2016): Biogeochemistry of sediment core BK-8. PANGAEA,, In supplement to: Stapel, JG et al. (2016): Microbial lipid signatures and substrate potential of organic matter in permafrost deposits: Implications for future greenhouse gas production. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 121, 15 pp,
applicable for standard unlabeled Pentamers and ProVE® Pentamers). Biotin-labeled Pentamer staining protocol. Pentamer staining for whole blood. Staining a single cell sample with multiple labeled Pentamers. Staining a single cell sample with multiple unlabeled Pentamers. Pentamer immunohistochemistry protocol. ...
Vicodin, Symtan, Anexsia, Dicodid, Hycodan (or generically Hydromet), Hycomine, Hycet, Lorcet, Lortab, Norco, Novahistex, Hydrovo, Duodin, Kolikodol, Orthoxycol, Mercodinone, Synkonin, Norgan, Hydrokon ...
Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are lipid-reactive CD1d-restricted T lymphocytes important in infection cancer and autoimmunity. and self lipid antigen induction for NKT cells. Intro Natural killer T (NKT) cells are XL-888 a subpopulation of unconventional T lymphocytes that communicate a restricted T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and several molecules characteristic for NK cells (Bendelac et al. 2007 Kronenberg 2005 Following activation NKT cells respond by a rapid burst of cytokines secreting primarily interferon-γ(IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) therefore regulating the quality of downstream immune reactions (Bendelac et al. 2007 Consequently NKT cells play a role in various disease conditions including infections (Tupin et al. 2007 malignancy (Cui et al. 1997 Dhodapkar 2009 and autoimmunity (Shi and Vehicle Kaer 2006 such as diabetes (Hong et al. 2001 Sharif et al. 2001 and multiple sclerosis (Miyamoto et al. 2001 NKT cells identify lipid antigens primarily belonging to the group of ...
Metabolic synthesis of single cell oils (SCOs) for biodiesel application by heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms is being hampered by the high cost of culture media. This study investigated the possibility of using loblolly pine and sweetgum autohydrolysates as economic feedstocks for microbial lipid production by oleaginous Rhodococcus opacus ( R. opacus) PD630 and DSM 1069. Results revealed that when the substrates were detoxified by the removal of inhibitors (such as HMF-hydroxymethyl-furfural), the two strains exhibited viable growth patterns after a short adaptation/lag phase. R. opacus PD630 accumulated as much as 28.6 % of its cell dry weight (CDW) in lipids while growing on detoxified sweetgum autohydrolysate (DSAH) that translates to 0.25 g/l lipid yield. The accumulation of SCOs reached the level of oleagenicity in DSM 1069 cells (28.3 % of CDW) as well, while being cultured on detoxified pine autohydrolysate (DPAH), with the maximum lipid yield of 0.31 g/l. The composition of the ...
A subset of CD161 (NK1) T cells express an invariant Vα14Jα281TCR-α chain (Vαinvt T cells) and produce Th2 and Th1cytokines rapidly in response to CD1d, but their physiological function(s) remain unclear. We have found that CD1d-reactive T cells mediate to resistance against the acute, cytopathic virus diabetogenic encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV-D) in relatively Th1-biased,C57BL/6-based backgrounds. We show now that these results generalize toTh2-biased, hypersensitive BALB/c mice. CD1d-KO BALB/c mice were more susceptible to EMCV-D. Furthermore, α-galactosylceramide(α-GalCer), a CD1d-presented lipid antigen that specifically activates Vαinvt T cells, protected wild-type (WT) mice against EMCV-D-induced encephalitis, myocarditis, and diabetes. In contrast, neither CD1d-KO nor Jα281-KO mice were protected byα-GalCer. Finally, disease in Jα281-KO mice was comparable to WT,indicating for the first time equivalent roles for CD1d-reactiveVαinvt and noninvariant T cells in resistance to acute
It has been suggested that NKT cells are biased toward CD1d autoreactivity. Consistent with this, NKT cells have an activated/effector or memory phenotype, even in germ free animals (58). Also, some NKT cell hybridomas exhibit CD1d autoreactivity (59), and freshly isolated NKT cells respond to CD1d transfectants and DCs (60). In light of this possible autoreactivity, it remained to be shown whether NKT cell precursors that encounter a strong signal during development undergo negative selection, and if so, what cell type(s) can mediate the negative selection of NKT cells. In this study, we showed that the addition of an agonist glycolipid into FTOC or increasing CD1d surface expression by transgenesis resulted in a drastic reduction of NKT cells, supporting the notion that NKT cells are susceptible to negative selection. This is the first demonstration that a glycolipid can induce negative selection of a T cell population. Although our models do not directly address whether NKT cells can be ...
Although myelin is composed of mostly lipids, the pathological role of myelin lipids in demyelinating diseases remains elusive. The principal lipid of the myelin sheath is β-galactosylceramide (β-Galcer). Its α-anomer (α-Galcer) has been demonstrated to be antigenically presented by macrophages via CD1d, a MHC class I-like molecule. Myelin, which is mostly composed of β-Galcer, has been long considered as an immunologically-inert neuron insulator, because the antigen-binding cleft of CD1d is highly α-form-restricted. Here, we report that CD1d-mediated antigenic presentation of myelin-derived galactosylceramide (Mye-GalCer) by macrophages contributed significantly to the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Surprisingly, this presentation was recognizable by α-Galcer:CD1d-specific antibody (clone L363), but incapable of triggering expansion of NKT cells and production of NKT signature cytokines (IFNγ and IL-4). Likewise, a synthesized analog of Mye-Galcer, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipid rafts are required for efficient signal transduction by CD1d. AU - Park, Yoon Kyung. AU - Lee, Joong Won. AU - Ko, Young Gyu. AU - Hong, Seokmann. AU - Park, Se Ho. N1 - Funding Information: The authors thank Dr. Albert Bendelac for critical reading of the manuscript and for providing αGalCer. This work was supported by a Rheumatism Research Center Grant (R11-2002-003) from the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (to S.-H.P), and by a grant from the 21C frontier for the functional proteomics (FPR-02-A-5 to Y.-G.K).. PY - 2005/2/25. Y1 - 2005/2/25. N2 - Plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells are not uniform, possessing distinct cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich lipid raft microdomains which constitute critical sites for signal transduction through various immune cell receptors and their co-receptors. CD1d is a conserved family of major histocompatibility class I-like molecules, which has been established as an important factor in lipid antigen presentation to natural ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CD161 (NKR-P1A) costimulation of CD1d-dependent activation of human T cells expressing invariant Vα24JαQT cell receptor α chains. AU - Exley, Mark. AU - Porcelli, Steven. AU - Furman, Margo. AU - Garcia, Jorge. AU - Balk, Steven. PY - 1998/9/7. Y1 - 1998/9/7. N2 - A population of human T cells expressing an invariant Vα24JαQ T cell antigen receptor (TCR) α chain and high levels of CD161 (NKR-P1A) appears to play an immunoregulatory role through production of both T helper (Th) type 1 and Th2 cytokines. Unlike other CD161+ T cells, the major histocompatibility complex-like nonpolymorphic CD1d molecule is the target for the TCR expressed by these T cells (Vα24(invt) T cells) and by the homologous murine NK1 (NKR- P1C)+ T cell population. In this report, CD161 was shown to act as a specific costimulatory molecule for TCR-mediated proliferation and cytokine secretion by Mα24(invt) T cells. However, in contrast to results in the mouse, ligation of CD161 in the absence of TCR ...
Methods: The measles antigen was incorporated into the biodegradable, crosslinked-albumin matrix and spray dried using Buchi mini spray dryer B-290 to formulate the vaccine loaded microparticles. The microparticles were characterized for size, charge, and polydispersity index (PDI). The surface morphology of microparticles was visualized by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The induction of an immune response by the microparticulate vaccine was confirmed via spectroscopic Griesss assay. The expression of antigen-presenting molecules, MHC I and MHC II, and their co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD40 was assessed on the surface of dendritic cells using BD Accuri C6 plus flow cytometer. The equivalent amount of blank microparticles (without antigen and adjuvant) was used as control. The cytotoxicity of microparticles was assessed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. The uptake of microparticles by APCs was studied as a function of time. The in vivo efficacy of ...
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Figure 1: Representative experimental data showing EBV-specific cells (A*0201/GLCTLVAML or A*0201/CLGGLLTMV) stained with Pro5® MHC Pentamer. These can then be labeled with magnetic beads and separated out for transfer to the recipient.. After only 36 hours, the frequency of Pentamer-positive antigen-specific T cells detected in the patient increased from 0.3% of total CD8+ cells to 4.4%, indicating that the donor cells had expanded rapidly in vivo. Furthermore, following the CTL transfusion, EBV titers decreased back to normal levels almost immediately. Prior to CTL infusion a CT scan showed considerable growth of lymphoma in the lungs, liver, adrenal gland and kidney. 189 days later, a comparative CT scan showed only remnant streaks in the thorax, no sign of lesions in the liver and only minor lesions in the kidney. Additionally the left adrenal gland returned to normal size. At 12 months post-transplant, after being admitted with EBV virus in the tonsils, blood and colon, the patient was ...
Construction of the T-cell receptor The antibody is not the only protein that recognizes the antigen. The antigen-specific receptor of T lymphocytes does the same. It is simply called the T-cell receptor and is abbreviated as the T-cell receptor TCR. We can define the antigen as a compound capable of eliciting the formation of a …. CELL IMMUNITY. T-CELL receptors (TCRs) and their epitopes Read More ». ...
NKT cells are a unique population of T cells that recognize lipid antigens presented by a nonclassical MHC-like molecule CD1d. There are two types of NKT cells, type I and type II. Our group previously showed that type I NKT cells enhance and type II NKT cells suppress anti-tumor responses, and that these two types of NKT cells cross-regulate each other. One of the defined antigens for type I NKT cells is alpha-galactosylceramide (aGC), and aGC-loaded CD1d tetramers are widely used to study them. Unlike conventional T cells, each subset of NKT cells recognizes distinct antigens. Sulfatide (3-o-sulfo-beta-D-galactosylceramide), an endogenous lipid, is the only lipid proven to be recognized by type II NKT cells in vivo. In addition, recently phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), also endogenous lipids, were reported to be recognized by type II NKT cell hybridomas. So far, type II NKT cells and their antigens are much less well characterized than type I due to lack of widely ...
CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells (NKT cells) possess a wide range of effector and regulatory activities that are related to their ability to secrete both T helper 1 (Th1) cell- and Th2 cell-type cytokines. We analyzed presentation of NKT cell activating α galactosylceramide (αGalCer) analogs that give predominantly Th2 cell-type cytokine responses to determine how ligand structure controls the outcome of NKT cell activation. Using a monoclonal antibody specific for αGalCer-CD1d complexes to visualize and quantitate glycolipid presentation, we found that Th2 cell-type cytokine-biasing ligands were characterized by rapid and direct loading of cell-surface CD1d proteins. Complexes formed by association of these Th2 cell-type cytokine-biasing αGalCer analogs with CD1d showed a distinctive exclusion from ganglioside-enriched, detergent-resistant plasma membrane microdomains of antigen-presenting cells. These findings help to explain how subtle alterations in glycolipid ligand structure can ...
Immunoglobulin (Ig) M production can be induced by the interaction of thymus-independent type-2 (TI-2) antigen (Ag) with B cell Ag receptors (BCRs) without the involvement of conventional T cells; for IgG production through the same process, however, a second signal is required. Previous studies have reported that invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells may be responsible for the second signal involved in IgG production. In the present study, we addressed whether human iNKT cells could participate in the production of Ig against TI-2 Ag in vitro. Two major distinct subsets of human iNKT cells, CD4+ CD8β- (CD4) and CD4- CD8β- [double negative (DN)] cells, were generated from peripheral blood monocytes from a healthy volunteer. BCR engagement, triggered by anti-IgM antibody stimulation, examined here as a model of BCR engagement triggered by TI-2 Ag, induced abundant IgM production by B cells. Both CD4 and DN iNKT cells reduced IgM production and conversely enhanced IgG production in a dose
Hereditary lupus of NZB/W mice is an Ab-mediated systemic autoimmune disease in which the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of tissue injury (57). Anti-IFN-γ mAb treatment has been reported to ameliorate the immune complex glomerulonephritis, the hallmark of the disease (21). In addition, introduction of a transgene encoding the Th2 cytokine IL-4 into lupus-prone (NZW × C57BL/6.Yaa) F1 mice prevented lupus development (58). We have recently reported that adoptive transfer of CD1d-reactive transgenic CD4 T cells with a Th1-like cytokine-secretion pattern induced lupus in BALB/c nu/nu recipients (8). CD1d-reactive T cells have also been suggested to play a role in augmenting IgG2a anti-dsDNA secretion and lupus development in lupus-prone NZB/W mice (20). It is not yet clear, however, whether activation of the CD1d-reactive T cells in NZB/W mice contributed to the IFN-γ secretion that shifted the autoantibody secretion toward the pathogenic IgG2a ...
BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder that predominantly involves the lungs, characterised by a T-helper 1 (Th1) biased CD4-positive T-cell response and granuloma formation, for which the explanation is unknown. A newly identified subset of T-cells with immunoregulatory functions, CD1d-restricted natural-killer T (NKT) cells, has been shown to protect against disorders with increased CD4-positive Th1 responses in animals. We explored whether abnormalities in these cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. METHODS: We generated fluorescence-labelled CD1d-tetrameric complexes and used them, with monoclonal antibodies to Valpha24 and Vbeta11 T-cell receptor, to assess the frequency of CD1d-restricted NKT cells in the peripheral blood of 60 patients with histologically proven sarcoidosis (16 with Lofgrens syndrome) and 60 healthy controls. Lung lymphocytes were also analysed in 16 of the patients with sarcoidosis. FINDINGS: CD1d-restricted NKT cells were absent or greatly reduced
NKT cells are CD1d-restricted T cells that recognize lipid antigens. They also have been shown to play critical roles in the regulation of immune responses. In the immune responses against tumors, two
Human Vα24− CD1d-restricted T cells use variation in their CDR1α loop to respond to lipid antigens presented by CD1d, altering their specificities from that of invariant natural killer T cells.
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells can prevent diabetes by inhibiting the differentiation of anti-islet T cells. We recently showed that neither iNKT cell protection against diabetes nor iNKT cell inhibition of T cell differentiation in vitro requires cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-beta. In contrast, cell-cell contacts were required for iNKT cell inhibition of T cell differentiation in vitro. The present study was designed to determine whether the CD1d molecule is involved in the inhibitory function of iNKT cells. Experiments were performed in vitro and in vivo, using cells lacking CD1d expression. The in vivo experiments used CD1d-deficient mice that were either reconstituted with iNKT cells or expressed a CD1d transgene exclusively in the thymus. Both mouse models had functional iNKT cells in the periphery, even though CD1d was not expressed in peripheral tissues. Surprisingly, both in vitro inhibition of T cell differentiation by iNKT cells and mouse protection against diabetes by iNKT cells
Group 1 Compact disc1 substances, Compact disc1a, CD1c and CD1b, present lipid antigens from (Mtb) to Capital t cells. acids, which make the bacterias much less vulnerable to antibiotics. These substances also help the bacterias to subvert and after that conceal from the immune system program. The frequency of the disease and the raising issue of antibiotic level of resistance possess sparked the search for an effective vaccine against tuberculosis. While many attempts possess concentrated on using proteins pieces in tuberculosis vaccines, some proof suggests that human being immune system cells can understand fatty substances such as mycolic acids and that these cells could help manage and control attacks. Nevertheless, it provides been tough to determine whether these resistant cells sincerely buy 1208315-24-5 play a defensive function against the disease because most vaccine analysis uses mouse versions and rodents perform not really have got an similar of these resistant cells. Today, Zhao ...
Background Compact disc1d is a nonpolymorphic MHC course I-like molecule which presents nonpeptide ligands e. design and amount of Compact disc1d appearance for hematopoieitic cells of both types. Notable can be the recognition of Compact disc1d proteins in mouse and rat Paneth cells aswell as the incredibly high Compact disc1d appearance in acinar exocrine cells from the rat pancreas as well as the appearance of Compact disc4 on rat marginal area B cells. Both mAbs blocked α-galactosylceramide recognition by major mouse and rat NKT cells. Oddly enough both mAbs differed within their effect on the activation of varied autoreactive T cell hybridomas like the XV19.2 hybridoma whose activation was improved with the WTH-1 mAb. Conclusions/Significance Both book monoclonal antibodies referred to in this research allowed the evaluation of Compact disc1d appearance and Compact disc1d-restricted T cell replies in the rat for the very first time. They provided new insights into mechanisms of ...
Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of mature T lymphocytes which have been shown to play a major role in controlling immune responses. Recently, it has become evident that the antigen receptor expressed by NKT cells recognize glycolipids presented by CD1d, a major-histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule expressed on dendritic cells, monocytes, and a subgroup of B cells. Via recognition of glycolipids by NKT cells, various cytokines are released which influence other cells of the immune system. A synthetic α-galactosylceramide, KRN 7000, was shown to possess anti-tumor and immunostimulatory activities. To further understand the significant biological activities of glycolipids, in this thesis we describe the synthesis of an OCH analogue, α-S-GalCer, and a series of carbohydrate modified analogues of KRN 7000. ^
The highly conserved CD1d-restricted NKT cells, identified as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses, exert potent immune regulatory functions by releasing a variety immunomodulatory cytokines. Up to now, the response of NKT cells has been studied extensively by multiple groups with α-GalCer that has been proven to be a unique type of adjuvant for vaccine development (7). New analogues of α-GalCer are being synthesized to search for new NKT cell agonists that may have superior properties for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. One of these, α-C-GalCer was found to be more potent in helping mice to defend against mouse malaria and B16 melanoma by inducing a more prolonged IL-12 and IFN-γ response (14). Moreover, α-C-GalCer was reported bind more stably to DCs than α-GalCer, and α-C-GalCer-loaded DCs induced higher levels and longer lasting IFN-γ-producing NKT cell responses and more effective adaptive protective T-cell-mediated immunity (21).. iGb3, the ...
In contrast to primary cells, the cells of the clone were uniform, survived detachment and could therefore be analyzed by cytofluorimetry. The cloned cells expressed many enzymes and markers that are typical of native Kupffer cells (non-specific esterase, peroxidase, MOMA-2, BM8, scavenger receptor A, CD14 and Toll-Like-Receptor 4 (TLR4), the antigen-presenting molecules CD40, CD80 and CD1d, and endocytosed Dextran-FITC. It lacked complement, Fc-receptors, F4/80 marker and the phagosomal coat protein TACO) (Figure 1). The clone exhibited CD14- and TLR4/MD2-independent, plasma-dependent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding, E. coli and S. pneumoniae phagocytosis and LPS- and IFN-gamma-induced NO production, but no TNF-alpha, IL-6 or IL-10 release. The clone differed from peritoneal macrophages by the presence of CD1d and the absence of TACO expression and by the fact that LPS-induced functions were independent of CD14 and TLR4. Conclusions and Relevance for 3R ...
Arrayit Dendritic & Antigen Presenting Cell Pathways™ Focused Human Genome Microarrays contain 89 genes selected for targeted studies of the human dendritic & antigen presenting cell pathway. Arrayit Pathways™ Microarrays gene content is derived from our H25K Whole Human Genome Microarray constructed using highly optimized and unique long-mer oligonucleotides designed to maximize detection of the greatest number of cellular transcripts in the human transcriptome with
At the functional level, rat splenocytes and IHLs have been shown to secrete IFN-γ and IL-4 in response to stimulation with α-GalCer [12, 13] in a CD1d-dependent fashion ([13] and this study). α-GalCer-loaded mouse or human CD1d tetramers bind very poorly to the rat iNKT-TCR [12] (Monzon-Casanova, Herrmann, unpublished data). This is in contrast to the mouse and the human, both of which show CD1d/iNKT-TCR cross-species reactivity. [1], but it explains why a discrete population was not observed among rat IHLs using mouse CD1d tetramers [12]. Furthermore, former attempts to identify rat iNKT cells using surrogate markers have also failed as no cell population has yet been found with the features predicted for iNKT cells based on their mouse counterparts. Instead, rat NKR-P1A/B-positive SP600125 price T cells are found in the spleen and the liver at similar frequencies, show no BV8S2 or BV8S4 bias, produce IFN-γ but not IL-4, and most of them express CD8β [9, 12, 14-16]. In the present study, ...
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Subtherapeutic doses of Cell Pathways CP461, a selective apoptotic antineoplastic drug (SAAND) compound, demonstrated the ability to significantly enhance the anti-tumor activity of Taxol (paclitaxel) without further toxic side-effects in a classic mouse model of human breast cancer.
DNA molecule models and "simple" organic molecule models is what you will find in this shop. They come in all shapes and sizes. From full color models in sandstone to jewelry in all kinds of metals. Please look around and see if there is anything you like :-).
Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology. (KITM) ...
The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. ... 2003). "Two novel CD1 E alleles identified in black African individuals". Tissue Antigens. 59 (5): 417-20. doi:10.1034/j.1399- ... Yu CY, Milstein C (1990). "A physical map linking the five CD1 human thymocyte differentiation antigen genes". EMBO J. 8 (12): ... "Entrez Gene: CD1E CD1e molecule". Brigl M, Brenner MB (2004). "CD1: antigen presentation and T cell function". Annu. Rev. ...
... is the only member of the group 2 CD1 molecules. CD1d-presented lipid antigens activate a special class of T cells, known ... Melián A, Beckman EM, Porcelli SA, Brenner MB (1996). "Antigen presentation by CD1 and MHC-encoded class I-like molecules". ... Yu CY, Milstein C (1990). "A physical map linking the five CD1 human thymocyte differentiation antigen genes". EMBO J. 8 (12): ... Brigl M, Brenner MB (2004). "CD1: antigen presentation and T cell function". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 22 (1): 817-890. doi:10.1146/ ...
The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. ... Melián A, Beckman EM, Porcelli SA, Brenner MB (1996). "Antigen presentation by CD1 and MHC-encoded class I-like molecules". ... Moody DB, Zajonc DM, Wilson IA (2005). "Anatomy of CD1-lipid antigen complexes". Nat. Rev. Immunol. 5 (5): 387-99. doi:10.1038/ ... Yu CY, Milstein C (1990). "A physical map linking the five CD1 human thymocyte differentiation antigen genes". EMBO J. 8 (12): ...
Barral DC, Brenner MB (December 2007). "CD1 antigen presentation: how it works". Nature Reviews. Immunology. 7 (12): 929-41. ... An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen bound by major histocompatibility complex ( ... Antigen: protease degradation on YouTube - PMAP animation Antigen-Presenting+Cells at the US National Library of Medicine ... Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T ...
Most of these antigens are bound to CD1b. Group 1 CD1-restricted T cells are activated after Mycobacterium infection and ... CD1 expression is downregulated in antigen presenting cells infected with live Mycobacteria, perhaps as a means of immune ... The TCR usually recognizes the hydrophilic part of the antigen which protrudes outwards from the CD1 protein after the lipid ... Brigl M, Brenner MB (2004-04-01). "CD1: antigen presentation and T cell function". Annual Review of Immunology. 22 (1): 817-890 ...
... s are part of the unconventional T cell family, they are stimulated by exposure to CD1+ antigen presenting ... Humans express four CD1 isoforms divided in 2 groups: group 1 CD1 (CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c) group 2 CD1 (CD1d). Group 1 CD1- ... In general, CD1-restricted T cells are divided according to their CD1 molecule. ... Many CD1-restricted T cells are rapidly stimulated to carry out helper and effector functions upon interaction with CD1- ...
... +Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... CD1a, CD1b and CD1c (group 1 CD1 molecules) are expressed on cells specialized for antigen presentation. CD1d (group 2 CD1) is ... to CD1-specific T cells. The natural antigens of group 2 CD1 are not well characterized, but a synthetic glycolipid, alpha- ... CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. This often remains true in neoplastic cells from ...
Compared to other CD1 molecules this unique arrangement of CD1b provides the possibility of binding a wide spectrum of antigens ... CD1 molecules are expressed on the surface of numerous different human antigen presenting cells (DCs, monocytes and some ... CD1b molecule has the largest antigen-binding cleft within the CD1 family. Whereas the microbial lipids tend to have longer ... The human CD1 locus is found on chromosome 1 and contains five nonpolymorphic genes (CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, CD1d and CD1e). CD1b ...
Porcelli, Steven A.; Modlin, Robert L. (April 1999). "THE CD1 SYSTEM: Antigen-Presenting Molecules for T Cell Recognition of ... Thus an antigen might bind specifically to a T or B cell receptor, but not induce an adaptive immune response. If the antigen ... Immunogenicity is the ability of a foreign substance, such as an antigen, to provoke an immune response in the body of a human ... Antigenicity is the capacity of a chemical structure (either an antigen or hapten) to bind specifically with a group of certain ...
Antigen processing and presentation of proteins and lipids seems efficient and can include cross presentation on MHC I and CD1 ... They reside in the peripheral organs and induce different forms of antigen-specific peripheral tolerance. Antigens from the ... DCs present antigens and initiate the afferent limb, while the other antigen-presenting cells (APCs) mediate the effectors to ... Most DCs in vivo in the steady state are immature, able to take up and present antigens, but areunable to adaptive T cell ...
CD1). There are 5 subtypes of CD1 molecules that range from a through e. The a through d subtypes are capable of binding to ... CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c subtypes present lipid antigens to T cells, while CD1d cells present lipids, glycolipids, and lipoproteins ... CD1 a through c cell subtypes initiate T helper type 1 and type 2 responses, and they facilitate sulfatide loading onto the ... Different types of cells that present antigens on their surfaces include: Macrophages Dendritic cells Hepatocytes B cells ...
The antigen presenting complex that NKT cells bind to involves CD1 proteins, so tetramers made of CD1 can be used to stain for ... MHC tetramers were developed to present HIV antigens and used to find the percentage of CTLs specific to those HIV antigens in ... MHC tetramer molecules developed in a lab can mimic the antigen presenting complex on cells and bind to T-cells that recognize ... James EA, LaFond R, Durinovic-Bello I, Kwok W (March 2009). "Visualizing antigen specific CD4+ T cells using MHC class II ...
... tuberculosis T-cell lipid antigens and the elucidation of the CD1 antigen presentation pathway. He is also exploring the ... where it is important to fine tune the hosts immune response through the CD1 pathway. Besra was elected a Fellow of the Royal ...
One case also reported the absence of CD1, a MHC-like glycoprotein involved in the presentation of lipid antigens to T cells, ...
His lab primary focuses on the molecular mechanisms of antigen processing particularly the functions of the major ... histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and CD1 molecules. He is most notable for discovering and identifying the MHC class ...
May 2016). "The intracellular pathway for the presentation of vitamin B-related antigens by the antigen-presenting molecule MR1 ... Another non-classical MHC class I CD1 is missing in certain species. There is 90% protein homology of the MR1 binding site ... This isoform binds antigen via α1 and α2 interaction. Some bacteria are able to target specific β2 microglobulin that enable ... Due to the antigen necessity for MR1 stabilization. MR1 binds the intermediates of riboflavine synthesis. Many human cells can ...
... is usually used for antigen binding. Like the CD1 series, EPCR has a lipid in the corresponding groove. The bound lipid in EPCR ... It belongs to the MHC class I/CD1 family of proteins, that is characterized by having a deep groove, that in other proteins in ... comparison with the structure of CD1/major histocompatibility complex alpha1 and alpha2 domains". Blood. 94 (2): 632-41. doi: ...
While most T cell subsets have TCRs that recognize peptide or lipid-based antigens in association with MHC or CD1, MAIT cells ... A chemically stable antigen that is functionally similar to 5-OP-RU has also been created. A 2017 study also found that some ... MAIT cell antigen precursor can cross the intestinal blood barrier and is needed for MAIT cell development. Moreover serum from ... MR1 also serves as the antigen-presenting molecule outside of the thymus that binds to TCR and activates MAIT cells. MAIT cells ...
Presentation of viral antigen controlled by a gene in the major histocompatibility complex. Nature 345:449-452. Moins- ... He characterised the structural and kinetic mechanisms by which lipids bind to CD1 molecules and are recognized by T cells and ... demonstrated that harnessing CD1 restricted Natural killer T cell (NKT) cells enhances antigen specific antibody and T cell ... NKT cells enhance CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to soluble antigen in vivo through direct interaction with dendritic cells. J ...
... lipid antigen presentation facilitation (by CD1) to natural killer T cell as well as modulation of inflammation and oxidation. ... October 2005). "Apolipoprotein-mediated pathways of lipid antigen presentation". Nature. 437 (7060): 906-10. Bibcode:2005Natur. ...
However, none of the known antigen-presenting molecules like MHC class I and II or CD1 are required for γδ T cell activation ... The antigens recognized by non-Vδ2 T cells expanded in the above infectious contexts have not been characterized, but the fact ... γδ T cells are believed to have a prominent role in recognition of lipid antigens. They are of an invariant nature and may be ... It is still not clear whether these non-peptidic antigens bind directly to the Vγ9/Vδ2 TCR or if a presenting element exists. ...
... antigens, cd1 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.102 - antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.103 - antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.050.301.264. ... antigens, cd1 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.090 - antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.095 - antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.050.301.264. ... antigens, cd1 MeSH D23. - antigens, cd2 MeSH D23. - antigens, cd3 MeSH D23. - ... antigens, cd1 MeSH D23.101.100.894.090 - antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.101.100.894.095 - antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.101.100.894.095.800 - ...
CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... The antigen has also been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases such as vitiligo and type I diabetes mellitus. T- ... CD4 is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (May 1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ...
... a member of the CD1 family of antigen-presenting molecules, rather than peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs). As ... iNKT cells recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d, a non-polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class I-like antigen ... The best known antigen of iNKT cells is alpha-galactosylceramide (αGalCer), which is a synthetic form of a chemical purified ... The highly conserved TCR is made of Va24-Ja18 paired with Vb11 in humans, which is specific for glycolipid antigens. ...
Antigen presentation: MHC molecules bind to both T cell receptor and CD4/CD8 co-receptors on T lymphocytes, and the antigen ... The evolutionary oldest nonclassical MHC class I lineage in human was deduced to be the lineage that includes the CD1 and PROCR ... MHC interacts with TCR and its co-receptors to optimize binding conditions for the TCR-antigen interaction, in terms of antigen ... Essentially, the MHC-peptide complex is a complex of auto-antigen/allo-antigen. Upon binding, T cells should in principle ...
... antigen (Cluster of Differentiation 48) also known as B-lymphocyte activation marker (BLAST-1) or signaling lymphocytic ... located in the CD1 region of human chromosome 1". J. Exp. Med. 173 (6): 1339-44. doi:10.1084/jem.173.6.1339. PMC 2190850. PMID ... Smith GM, Biggs J, Norris B, Anderson-Stewart P, Ward R (1998). "Detection of a soluble form of the leukocyte surface antigen ... Killeen N, Moessner R, Arvieux J, Willis A, Williams AF (October 1988). "The MRC OX-45 antigen of rat leukocytes and ...
Such examination also utilizes CD1 and CD207 (Langerin) staining. Electron microscopy examination of the sample is based on ... Human eosinophilic granuloma is characterized by abnormal proliferation of Langerhans cells (LCs). LCs are antigen-presenting ...
Antigen-naive T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... Still during the double negative stages, CD34 expression stops and CD1 is expressed. Expression of both CD4 and CD8 makes them ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help. Antigen ... These self-antigens are expressed by thymic cortical epithelial cells on MHC molecules, which reside on the surface of cortical ...
FO B cells express high levels of IgD, and CD23; lower levels of CD21 and IgM; and no CD1 or CD5, readily distinguishing this ... Antigen-specific memory B cell development. Annu Rev Immunol. 2005;23:487-513. (B cells, Human cells, Immune system, ... Two-photon imaging of lymphocyte motility and antigen response in intact lymph node. Science. 2002;296(5574):1869-1873. ...
The ability of T cells to recognize foreign antigens is mediated by the T cell receptor (TCR), which is a surface protein able ... Still during the double negative stage, CD34 expression stops and CD1 is expressed. Expression of both CD4 and CD8 makes them ... This allows single positive thymocytes to be exposed to a more complex set of self-antigens than is present in the cortex, and ... Cells which do not have a high affinity for self-antigens survive negative selection. At this stage, some cells are also ...
Wang Z, Cao Y, Albino AP, Zeff RA, Houghton A, Ferrone S (February 1993). "Lack of HLA class I antigen expression by melanoma ... but also with class I-like molecules such as CD1 (5 genes in humans), MR1, the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), and Qa-1 (a form of ... Krangel MS, Orr HT, Strominger JL (December 1979). "Assembly and maturation of HLA-A and HLA-B antigens in vivo". Cell. 18 (4 ... Saper MA, Bjorkman PJ, Wiley DC (May 1991). "Refined structure of the human histocompatibility antigen HLA-A2 at 2.6 A ...
Langerhans cells are dendritic cells found in the skin and function by internalizing antigens (foreign particles) and ... "Canine cutaneous histiocytoma is an epidermotropic Langerhans cell histiocytosis that expresses CD1 and specific beta 2- ... Malignant diseases of macrophages Histiocytic lymphoma A histiocytoma originates from epidermal Langerhans cells of antigen- ...
Drake, Wonder Puryear; Newman, Lee S (2006). "Mycobacterial antigens may be important in sarcoidosis pathogenesis". Current ... "Antiviral treatments reduce severity of diabetes in Ljungan virus-infected CD-1 mice and delay onset in diabetes-prone BB rats ...
Wilson, AJ; Maddox, PH; Jenkins, D (January 1991). "CD1a and S100 antigen expression in skin Langerhans cells in patients with ... Presence of Birbeck granules on electron microscopy and immuno-cytochemical features e. g. CD1 positivity are more specific. ...
Antigen presentation function of the mouse CD1 molecule. S Tangri, HR Holcombe, AR Castaño, JEW Miller, M Teitell, WD Huse, PA ... title = "Antigen presentation function of the mouse CD1 molecule",. author = "S Tangri and HR Holcombe and AR Casta{\~n}o and ... Antigen presentation function of the mouse CD1 molecule. In: Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1996 ; No. 1996. pp. 288-296. ... Antigen presentation function of the mouse CD1 molecule. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1996 Jan 1;(1996):288-296. ...
Favaloro EJ, Bradstock KF, Grimsley A, Henniker A, Kamath S. Further studies on the heterogeneity of antigens recognised by CD- ... Dive into the research topics of Further studies on the heterogeneity of antigens recognised by CD-1 monoclonal antibodies: ... The binding patterns of 28 monoclonal antibodies (MAB) recognizing antigens belonging to Cluster of Differentiation One (CD-1) ... Further studies on the heterogeneity of antigens recognised by CD-1 monoclonal antibodies: distribution of epitopes and ...
CD1 genes, CD1 pathway, Classification of CD1 proteins, Foreign lipid antigens presented, Group 1 CD1, Group 2 CD1-restricted T ... title = "Antigen Processing and Presentation by CD1 Family Proteins",. keywords = "Antigen presenting cells, Antigen processing ... Antigen Processing and Presentation by CD1 Family Proteins. In Antigen Presenting Cells: From Mechanisms to Drug Development. ... Antigen Processing and Presentation by CD1 Family Proteins. Antigen Presenting Cells: From Mechanisms to Drug Development. ...
CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.. Entry Term(s). CD1 Antigen CD1 Antigens Registry Number. ... use ANTIGENS, CD1 (NM) to search CD1 ANTIGENS 1988-95. History Note. 96; was CD1 ANTIGENS (NM) 1988-95. Date Established. 1996/ ... Antigens, Differentiation [D23.101.100] * Antigens, CD [D23.101.100.110] * Antigens, CD1 [D23.] * Antigens, CD1d ... CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.. Terms. Antigens, CD1 Preferred Term Term UI T056474. Date ...
cortical thymocyte antigen CD1A antibody. *differentiation antigen CD1 alpha 3 antibody. *epidermal dendritic cell marker CD1a ... Antigen-presenting protein that binds self and non-self lipid and glycolipid antigens and presents them to T-cell receptors on ...
Given that iNKT-based immunotherapies are dependent mainly on antigen-presenting cells (APC), a human tolerogenic molecule with ... such as Human Leucocyte Antigen G (HLA-G), could contribute to this discrepancy. HLA-G is a well-known immune checkpoint ... no murine homolog, such as Human Leucocyte Antigen G (HLA-G), could contribute to this discrepancy. HLA-G is a well-known ... dependent mainly on antigen-presenting cells (APC), a human tolerogenic molecule with no murine homologue, ...
CD1: antigen presentation and T cell function. Annu Rev Immunol 2004;22:817-90. [ Links ]. ... and that may recognize lipids presented by CD1 molecules (CD1a, -b, -c); antigen recognition, however, is not restricted to ... APC, antigen-presenting cell; NK, natural killer; LTi, lymphoid tissue inducer; IL, interleukin; IFN, interferon; IBD, ... Antigen Presentation Research Group. Imperial College London. Northwick Park & St Marks Campus, Level 7W, St. Marks Hospital ...
T cells follow specific selection rules and are poised to recognize self or evolutionarily conserved microbial antigens. We ... Ogg, G., Cerundolo, V. & McMichael, A. J. Capturing the antigen landscape: HLA-E, CD1 and MR1. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 59, 121-129 ... Cohen, N. R., Garg, S. & Brenner, M. B. Antigen presentation by CD1 lipids, T cells, and NKT cells in microbial immunity. Adv. ... T cell antigen receptor recognition of antigen-presenting molecules. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 33, 169-200 (2015). ...
T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1b, CD1B, CD1, CD1A, R1.. Introduction. CD1B belongs to CD1 family of transmembrane glycoproteins ... CD1B is an antigen-presenting protein which connects self and nonself lipid and glycolipid antigens and displays them to T-cell ...
A number of presentations were focused on the role of CD1 proteins, which present lipid antigens (e.g., from mycobacteria or ... The evidence that CD1-restricted T cells contribute to immunity against microbial infection includes the observation that CD1 ... Whole microbes, microbial subunits and extracts, and peptide and protein antigens have been the focus of much vaccine research ... While studies of peptide and protein antigens have been facilitated by the rapid advances in genomics and proteomics, studies ...
Virulent Mtbs have acquired the capability to dampen the activity of NF-Kb by some of their antigens [6,7], such as ESAT-6 and ... It has been demonstrated in vitro that CD8+ cells recognize bacterial peptides and lipids through the MHC-I CD-1 molecules, ... A third antigen- CFP-10 markedly reduces nitric oxide (NO) and reactive-oxygen species (ROS) production by the macrophages, ... So far, the 85A and 85B antigens, in various constructs, seem to be presently the most promising, at least in animal models and ...
The human leukocyte antigen class I allele HLA-B27 is a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen that is strongly ... To study the biology of CD1 and its role in human disease we developed novel techniques for generation of recombinant CD1/lipid ... CD1 molecules are beta(2)m-associated HLA class-I-like glycoproteins which have the unique ability to present glycolipid and ... The human MHC class I-like molecule CD1b is distinctive among CD1 alleles in that it is capable of presenting a set of ...
CD45 has been reported to be associated with several other cell surface antigens including CD1, CD2, CD3, and CD4. CD45 has ... Antigen Details Antigen References *Thomas ML. 1989. Annu Rev Immunol. 7:339-69. ...
Raftery, M. J.; Winau, F.; Kaufmann, S. H. E.; Schaible, U. E.; Schönrich, G.: CD1 antigen presentation by human dendritic ...
Rossjohn has pioneered molecular understanding of how T cells bind lipid-based antigens presented by the CD1 family and has ... We asked him about the nuts and bolts of engineering the best antigen. ...
Antigen description CD1a, together with CD1b and c, belongs to group 1 of CD1 glycoproteins. These proteins serve as antigen- ... Exbio - Research products - Antibodies - CD and related antigens - Anti-Hu CD1a FITC ... and CD1a antigen presentation is independent upon vesicular acidification. ... that responds to specific lipids and glycolipids found in the cell walls of bacterial pathogens or self-glycolipid antigens ...
METHODS: Brain and spinal cord from normal cat Felis domesticus and brain from CD-1 mice were reacted with aPL using indirect ... CONCLUSION: aPL, especially those reactive with phosphatidylserine dependent antigens, react directly with epitopes associated ... using 3 monoclonal IgM aPL that differentiate between cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine dependent antigens. ...
CD1, CD1A, CD1a molecule, FCB6, HTA1, hTa1 thymocyte antigen, R4, T6. Overview ...
Vertebrate cells did not support the replication of either chimeric virus although trace to modest amounts of viral antigen ... We then established a process for manufacturing UF6b and evaluated in outbred female CD1 mice the immunogenicity of the ... Furthermore, we showed the use of multiplex Plasmodium antigen and IgG detection in selecting samples of interest for ... antigens in samples from eight out of the nine U.S. geographic regions. ...
NKT cells recognize CD1, which binds to lipid-type antigens typical of bacterial cell walls. Bendalacs group found that they ... the microbe has an antigen that looks like self antigen; the self antigen is normally ignored, because the immune system needs ... The database of tumor antigens at Cancer Immunity lists some 750 of them, divided into various categories:. *Unique antigens ... One interesting thing about Bendelacs paper is that they link CD1 to the disease, through NKT cells. CD1 is an MHC class I ...
X-Gal staining (bright blue) of the eye tissues from WT or KO Balb/c, 129/CD1, and DBA1 mice. (A) Absence of X-Gal staining in ... In view of the data by Gieni et al. 29 that antigen-driven IL-12 is a mechanism by which the genetic background can affect the ... X-Gal staining (bright blue) of the eye tissues from WT or KO Balb/c, 129/CD1, and DBA1 mice. (A) Absence of X-Gal staining in ... X-Gal staining (bright blue) of the eye tissues from WT or KO Balb/c, 129/CD1, and DBA1 mice. (A) Absence of X-Gal staining in ...
Antigen, CD1. CD1 Antigen. CD1 Antigens. Tree number(s):. D23.050.301.264.035.100. D23.050.301.264.894.080. D23. ... Antigens, CD (1990-1995). Antigens, Differentiation (1988-1991). T-Lymphocytes (1988). Public MeSH Note:. 96; CD1 ANTIGENS was ... CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.. Annotation:. T-lymphocyte differentiation antigens; but ... Antigens, CD1 - Preferred Concept UI. M0028319. Scope note. Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some ...
... thymocyte antigen CD1E; CD1E antigen, e polypeptide; leukocyte differentiation antigen; differentiation antigen CD1-alpha-3; R2 ... CD1E; CD1e molecule; CD1e antigen , CD1E antigen, e polypeptide; T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, membrane-associated; R2G1; ... Antigen standard for CD1e molecule (CD1E), transcript variant 1 is a lysate prepared from HEK293T cells transiently transfected ... The antigen control carries a C-terminal Myc/DDK tag for detection.. ...
... region and binds to the alpha chain of MHC class I molecules and additionally to other class I-like molecules such as CD1 and ... β2 microglobulin plays a role in the presentation of peptide antigens to the immune system. It has no transmembrane ... Alternative names of antigen. Beta-2-microglobulin, B2M, β2M, CDABP0092, HDCMA22P. Distribution of antigen. leukocytes, ... Alternative names of antigen. Beta-2-microglobulin, B2M, β2M, CDABP0092, HDCMA22P. Distribution of antigen. leukocytes, ...
October 2021 for Presentation of Lipid Antigens by CD1 - Antigen Processing and Presentation ... February 2021 for Presentation of Lipid Antigens by CD1 - Antigen Processing and Presentation ... October 2020 for Presentation of Lipid Antigens by CD1 - Antigen Processing and Presentation ... The inciting antigen can be intrinsic or part of the host cell. Extrinsic antigens such as blood products or medications can ...
Lymphocyte antigen CD1 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD1 (substance). ...
In the experiment, seven days after subcutaneous (SC) injection of the antigen into normal C57BL/6 mice, the same antigen in 50 ... We prepared the Map antigen by ethanol extraction and developed a mouse model in a manner similar to that of the well-known ... Method: We evaluated the potency of Map antigen molecules in an effort to develop a novel colitis model using a more realistic ... However, no change was detected with each single Map-antigen injection. Conclusion: The present results provide a novel animal ...
CD1 genotyping of patients with Mycobacterium malmoense pulmonary disease. Tissue antigens 2001 Jul 58 (1): 19-23. Jones D C, ...
Antigens, CD1d.immunology. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes.immunology. Glycolipids.immunology. HEK293 Cells. Humans. Mice. Mice, ... Antibody responses to glycolipid-borne carbohydrates require CD4+ T cells but not CD1 or NKT cells.. ... These data provide new insight into glycolipid antigen recognition by the immune system and indicate the existence of a ... Using model carbohydrate systems (isogloboside 3 and B blood group antigen), we examined the anti-carbohydrate response on ...
  • Studies were also presented on novel molecules involved in the recognition of carbohydrate antigens such as specific intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-grabbing nonintegrins, which are C-type lectins that show substantial expression in many tissues, and toll-like receptors, which function as pattern recognition receptors for conserved pathogen structures and serve as key links between innate and adaptive immunity. (
  • These proteins serve as antigen-presenting molecules for a subset of T cells that responds to specific lipids and glycolipids found in the cell walls of bacterial pathogens or self-glycolipid antigens such as gangliosides, and they have also roles in antiviral immunity. (
  • It has no transmembrane region and binds to the alpha chain of MHC class I molecules and additionally to other class I-like molecules such as CD1 and Qa. (
  • Immunoassays are plate-based techniques that can detect and quantify many types of molecules through antibody-antigen reactions. (
  • Method: We evaluated the potency of Map antigen molecules in an effort to develop a novel colitis model using a more realistic source than TNBS. (
  • To elicit an anti-carbohydrate immune response, glycoproteins can be processed to glycopeptides and presented by the classical antigen-presenting molecules, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I and II. (
  • In contrast to MHC proteins, CD1 molecules present lipid antigens to T lymphocytes. (
  • We have a high level of expertise in studying molecular recognition of T cells, particularly unconventional T cells outside the canonical CD4+/CD8+ lineage and structure function of antigen-presenting molecules. (
  • More recently, Enzo helped define the structural and functional basis for the T cell recognition of lipids bound to CD1 molecules, with consequent enhancement of antibody and peptide-specific T cell responses. (
  • The effect of saposins on human immune response is mediated by their involvement in presenting mycobacterial antigens on CD1 molecules. (
  • 摘要: CD1, as the third family of antigen-presenting molecules, is previously only found in mammals and chickens, which suggests that the chicken and mammalian CD1 shared a common ancestral gene emerging at least 310 million years ago. (
  • The binding patterns of 28 monoclonal antibodies (MAB) recognizing antigens belonging to Cluster of Differentiation One (CD-1) were analyzed in order to investigate heterogeneity within this cluster. (
  • Porcelli, SA & Moody, DB 2006, Antigen Processing and Presentation by CD1 Family Proteins . (
  • CD1B belongs to CD1 family of transmembrane glycoproteins, which are structurally associated with the MHC proteins and form heterodimers with the beta-2-microglobulin. (
  • A number of presentations were focused on the role of CD1 proteins, which present lipid antigens (e.g., from mycobacteria or Francisella tularensis , a potential weapon of bioterrorism) to T cells. (
  • In contrast, much less is known about the mechanism(s) for anti-carbohydrate responses to glycolipids, although it is generally considered that the CD1 family of cell surface proteins presents glycolipids to T cells or natural killer T (NKT) cells. (
  • This gene encodes a member of the CD1 family of transmembrane glycoproteins, which are structurally related to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins and form heterodimers with beta-2-microglobulin. (
  • The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. (
  • Many of our projects focus on "unconventional" T cell recognition, involving ?d T cells, Natural Killer T cells and Muscosal-Associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells and antigen presentation by nonclassical or MHC-like proteins. (
  • OBJECTIVES/GOALS: CD1 is a group of glycoproteins on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that present lipid antigens to T cells. (
  • CD1a, together with CD1b and c, belongs to group 1 of CD1 glycoproteins. (
  • Unlike CD1b, CD1a is excluded from late endosomal compartments and instead traffics independently in the recycling pathway of the early endocytic system, and CD1a antigen presentation is independent upon vesicular acidification. (
  • In Antigen Presenting Cells: From Mechanisms to Drug Development (pp. 129-156). (
  • CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS . (
  • After activation by alpha-GalactosylCeramide (αGC), an exogenic glycolipid antigen, iNKT cells can rapidly release cytokines to enhance specific anti-tumor activity. (
  • Given that iNKT-based immunotherapies are dependent mainly on antigen-presenting cells (APC), a human tolerogenic molecule with no murine homolog, such as Human Leucocyte Antigen G (HLA-G), could contribute to this discrepancy. (
  • CD1d is a MHC-class-I-like molecule that mediates the presentation of lipid or glycolipid antigens to T cells. (
  • Unconventional T cells follow specific selection rules and are poised to recognize self or evolutionarily conserved microbial antigens. (
  • CD1B is an antigen-presenting protein which connects self and nonself lipid and glycolipid antigens and displays them to T-cell receptors on natural killer T-cells. (
  • While studies of peptide and protein antigens have been facilitated by the rapid advances in genomics and proteomics, studies of sugar chains, which are abundantly expressed on the outer surfaces of viral, bacterial, protozoan, and fungal pathogens and on the membranes of mammalian cells, have not kept pace with technologic advances. (
  • The evidence that CD1-restricted T cells contribute to immunity against microbial infection includes the observation that CD1 is expressed at higher levels in lesions of tuberculoid leprosy in comparison to lepromatous leprosy. (
  • CD1 antigen presentation by human dendritic cells as a target for herpes simplex virus immune evasion. (
  • Rossjohn has pioneered molecular understanding of how T cells bind lipid-based antigens presented by the CD1 family and has provided a structural basis of how vitamin B metabolites can be presented and recognized by the immune system, revealing a new class of antigen. (
  • Antigen standard for CD1e molecule (CD1E), transcript variant 1 is a lysate prepared from HEK293T cells transiently transfected with a TrueORF gene-carrying pCMV plasmid and then lysed in RIPA Buffer. (
  • Antibody responses to glycolipid-borne carbohydrates require CD4+ T cells but not CD1 or NKT cells. (
  • These data provide new insight into glycolipid antigen recognition by the immune system and indicate the existence of a previously unrecognised population of glycolipid antigen-specific, CD1-independent, CD4(+) T cells. (
  • Antigen-presenting protein that binds self and non-self lipid and glycolipid antigens and presents them to T-cell receptors on natural killer T-cells. (
  • In addition to their epigenetic landscape, we elucidate novel enzymatic pathways that generate the endogenous lipid antigens required for thymic selection and peripheral activation of NKT cells. (
  • Autologous dendritic cells (DCs) are genetically modified to express the iCD40 receptor and are pulsed with tumor antigen. (
  • AP1903 binds to and activates iCD40 receptors presented on DC cell surfaces, thus activating the DCs and stimulating a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against host tumor cells that express the tumor antigen. (
  • CD1d plays a role in non-peptide glycolipid antigen presentation to CD1d-restricted T cells. (
  • Natural killer T cells recognize diacylglycerol antigens from pathogenic bacteria. (
  • Our goal is to determine the frequency, phenotypes, and functionality of CD1 T cells against Mtb using the guinea pig model. (
  • His work focused on understanding mechanisms of processing and presentation of lipid and peptide antigens to T cells. (
  • But CD1d is the only CD1 molecule has been found in mouse. (
  • It has been shown that PKCδ is a critical regulator of CD1d-mediated antigen presentation. (
  • Although the reptilian CD1 protein structures are predicted to be similar to human CD1d and chicken CD1.1, CD1 isotypes are not found to be orthologous between mammals, birds, and reptiles according to phylogenetic analyses, suggesting an independent diversification of CD1 isotypes during the speciation of mammals, birds, and reptiles. (
  • His work focuses on many connections between Antibody and other disciplines, such as Cell adhesion molecule, that overlap with his field of interest in Mucin, Carcinoembryonic antigen, Function and Internal medicine. (
  • Whole microbes, microbial subunits and extracts, and peptide and protein antigens have been the focus of much vaccine research and development. (
  • The design of optimal vaccines against such pathogens should include lipid and peptide antigens. (
  • Severity of EAU was assessed in DBA1 and 129/CD1 wild-type (WT) or IL-18 knockout (KO) mice after immunization with the uveitogenic antigen: interphotoreceptor retinal binding protein (IRBP) peptide 161-180. (
  • EAU-resistant mice (129/CD1) with an IL-18 −/− phenotype remained resistant after immunization with IRBP peptide (P161-180). (
  • β2 microglobulin plays a role in the presentation of peptide antigens to the immune system. (
  • His primary areas of study are Immunology, Immune system, Antigen, Molecular biology and Immunoglobulin G. His research integrates issues of Intestinal mucosa and Inflammatory bowel disease in his study of Immunology. (
  • His primary scientific interests are in Immunology, Cell biology, Immune system, Molecular biology and Antigen. (
  • CD1, CD45 isoforms and L-selectin receptors act as cell maturation markers. (
  • Therefore, a close follow-up on research developments on new CD antigens and their corresponding monoclonal antibodies is important in veterinary laboratory diagnostics. (
  • Atopy, meaning "strange disease," was used by Coca to describe antigen-specific reactions with apparent immunological specificity for which no precipitating antibodies could be identified in plasma. (
  • Transgenic, knock-out, congenic and inbread strains are known for C57BL/6, A/J, BALB/c, SCID while the CD-1 is outbred as strain.Antibodies are affinity purified with an antigen coated column or protein A or G agarose or beads. (
  • for instance, the use of CD40 agonist antibody plus antigen showed remarkably rapid immune response and protection in a murine model of anthrax. (
  • Using model carbohydrate systems (isogloboside 3 and B blood group antigen), we examined the anti-carbohydrate response on glycolipids using both antibody neutralisation and knockout mouse-based experiments. (
  • A Rabbit polyclonal antibody against Mouse S Antigen (SAG). (
  • This is a monoclonal antibody which is greatly purified and with high binding affinity for the antigen that it is risen against. (
  • Unique antigens result from point mutations in genes that are expressed ubiquitously. (
  • IL-18 detection was performed by using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoyl-β-- d -galactopyranoside (X-Gal) staining on frozen sections of eyes from mice (129/CD1, DBA1, and Balb/c), either of normal phenotype (+/+) or of deficiency (±, −/−) in the IL-18 gene which had been replaced by introduced genes including LacZ under the control of an IL-18 promotor. (
  • The human genome contains five CD1 family genes organized in a cluster on chromosome 1. (
  • Here, we describe CD1 genes in the green anole lizard and Crocodylia, demonstrating that CD1 is ubiquitous in mammals, birds, and reptiles. (
  • In the green anole lizard, although the single CD1 locus and MHC I gene are located on the same chromosome, there is an approximately 10-Mb-long sequence in between, and interestingly, several genes flanking the CD1 locus belong to the MHC paralogous region on human chromosome 19. (
  • The CD1 genes in Crocodylia are located in two loci, respectively linked to the MHC region and MHC paralogous region (corresponding to the MHC paralogous region on chromosome 19). (
  • This is the first evidence that mycobacterium antigen induces necrotizing colitis. (
  • CD1 genotyping of patients with Mycobacterium malmoense pulmonary disease. (
  • His Immunoglobulin G research incorporates themes from Receptor, Histocompatibility Antigens Class I and Immunotherapy. (
  • An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN . (
  • There's been a lot of interest in finding tumor antigens that cytotoxic T lymphocytes will recognize, and in fact hundreds have been identified. (
  • Overall, shared tumor-specific antigens may be the ideal target. (
  • CD45 is the common leukocyte antigen, however, it is absent from ruminant WC1+ lymphocytes and monocytes. (
  • The meeting was organized into 7 sessions on such topics as genetic and cellular mechanisms of carbohydrate immunity, carbohydrate antigens for vaccines, and new tools for studying carbohydrates. (
  • The goals of this workshop were to examine the mechanisms involved in generating an appropriate immune response to selected carbohydrate antigens, highlight recent and novel advances, and discuss how this information could be used in the development of effective vaccines. (
  • Understanding the mechanistic aspects of the genetic control and the cellular pathways of the immune response to bacterial carbohydrate antigens should provide insights into ways to enhance the immune response and thus facilitate vaccine development. (
  • CD45 has been reported to be associated with several other cell surface antigens including CD1, CD2, CD3, and CD4. (
  • His Molecular biology research is multidisciplinary, incorporating perspectives in T cell, CD1, Antigen-presenting cell and CD8. (
  • In the experiment, seven days after subcutaneous (SC) injection of the antigen into normal C57BL/6 mice, the same antigen in 50% ethanol was injected into the colon by the transanal route with a fine cannula. (
  • Antigens are peptides or recombinant or native dependent on the production method. (
  • The human CD antigens do not always correspond to surface markers found on animal lymphocytes. (
  • The CD1 family members are thought to differ in their cellular localization and specificity for particular lipid ligands. (
  • It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. (
  • His Antigen study combines topics in areas such as Biochemistry, Antigen presentation and Pathogenesis. (
  • Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) is an organ-specific, T helper (Th)1 cell- mediated disease that targets the photoreceptor-associated antigens of the eye. (
  • γδ-TCR, consisting of a γ chain and δ chain and forming a complex with CD3 subunits, mediates signal transduction into the cell by recognizing a variety of ligands and antigens. (
  • Using mass spectrometry and T-cell responses to scan through the major classes of phospholipids, we identified phosphatidylglycerol (PG) as the immunodominant lipid antigen. (
  • We prepared the Map antigen by ethanol extraction and developed a mouse model in a manner similar to that of the well-known TNBS-induced colitis in mice. (
  • Tissue antigens 2001 Jul 58 (1): 19-23. (