Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Immunohistochemical localization of CD1a-positive putative dendritic cells in human breast tumours. (1/894)The presence of a high number of infiltrating CD1a+ cells in malignant neoplasms has been reported to be associated with an improved prognosis, reduced tumour recurrence and fewer metastases. This study identified a population of CD1a+ cells within the lymphoid cell infiltrate in human ductal breast carcinoma (n = 52), which was significantly different from normal breast tissue, in which only two out of nine cases expressed CD1a+ cells (P = 0.0192). In the majority of cases, the infiltrate was low compared with the number of macrophages and T cells present (results not shown). There was no correlation between the number of CD1a+ cells and tumour grade, with all tumour grades expressing similar numbers of infiltrating CD1a+ cells. There was clear evidence, however, that the CD1a+ cells were closely associated with tumour cells. It is likely that CD1a+ cells have a role in antigen capture and presentation in human tumours, and this study documents the density of CD1a+ cells in a large sample of all histological grades of human breast carcinomas. (+info)
Long-term culture of human CD34(+) progenitors with FLT3-ligand, thrombopoietin, and stem cell factor induces extensive amplification of a CD34(-)CD14(-) and a CD34(-)CD14(+) dendritic cell precursor. (2/894)Current in vitro culture systems allow the generation of human dendritic cells (DCs), but the output of mature cells remains modest. This contrasts with the extensive amplification of hematopoietic progenitors achieved when culturing CD34(+) cells with FLT3-ligand and thrombopoietin. To test whether such cultures contained DC precursors, CD34(+) cord blood cells were incubated with the above cytokines, inducing on the mean a 250-fold and a 16,600-fold increase in total cell number after 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. The addition of stem cell factor induced a further fivefold increase in proliferation. The majority of the cells produced were CD34(-)CD1a- CD14(+) (p14(+)) and CD34(-)CD1a-CD14(-) (p14(-)) and did not display the morphology, surface markers, or allostimulatory capacity of DC. When cultured with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), both subsets differentiated without further proliferation into immature (CD1a+, CD14(-), CD83(-)) macropinocytic DC. Mature (CD1a+, CD14(-), CD83(+)) DCs with high allostimulatory activity were generated if such cultures were supplemented with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). In addition, p14(-) cells generated CD14(+) cells with GM-CSF and TNF, which in turn, differentiated into DC when exposed to GM-CSF and IL-4. Similar results were obtained with frozen DC precursors and also when using pooled human serum AB+ instead of bovine serum, emphasizing that this system using CD34(+) cells may improve future prospects for immunotherapy. (+info)
Biochemical characterization of CD1d expression in the absence of beta2-microglobulin. (3/894)CD1d is a major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule that exhibits a distinct antigen processing pathway that functions in the presentation of hydrophobic antigens to T cells. CD1d has been previously shown to be expressed on the cell surface of human intestinal epithelial cell lines in vivo and a transfected cell line in vitro independently of beta2-microglobulin (beta2m). To define the relationship between CD1d and beta2m and characterize the biochemical structure of CD1d in the absence of beta2m, we have used a newly generated series of CD1d transfectants and CD1d-specific antibodies. These studies show that in the absence of beta2m, CD1d is expressed on the cell surface as a 45-kDa glycoprotein that is sensitive to endoglycosidase-H and is reduced to 37-kDa after N-glycanase digestion. In contrast, in the presence of beta2m, CD1d is expressed on the cell surface as a 48-kDa endoglycosidase-H-resistant glycoprotein. Pulse-chase metabolic labeling studies demonstrate that acquisition of endoglycosidase-H resistance of CD1d is observed in the presence of beta2m but not in the absence of beta2m even after a 24-h chase period. Thus, CD1d is able to be transported to the cell surface independently of beta2m; however, in the absence of beta2m, the glycosylation pattern of CD1d is altered and consistent with an immature glycoprotein. (+info)
T cell-tropic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian-human immunodeficiency viruses are readily transmitted by vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques, and Langerhans' cells of the female genital tract are infected with SIV. (4/894)Intravaginal inoculation with T cell-tropic molecular clones of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) or some dual-tropic strains of SIV or SHIV produced systemic infection in rhesus macaques. Vaginal inoculation with other dual-tropic molecular clones of SIV or SHIV did not infect rhesus macaques even after multiple inoculations. While in vitro measures of macrophage tropism do not predict which primate lentiviruses will produce systemic infection after intravaginal inoculation, the level to which a virus replicates in vivo after intravenous inoculation does predict the outcome of intravaginal inoculation. Another series of studies, using combined in situ hybridization and immunolabeling to simultaneously detect SIV RNA and identify the immunophenotype of infected cells, demonstrated that a large proportion (approximately 40% in some animals) of the SIV-infected cells in the vagina and cervix were Langerhans' cells. This is the first in vivo demonstration that Langerhans' cells in the genital tract are infected with SIV and that dendritic cells are significant reservoirs for lentiviruses. (+info)
Expression of the nlsLacz gene in dendritic cells derived from retrovirally transduced peripheral blood CD34+ cells. (5/894)BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Gene transfer and expression of exogenous genetic information coding for an immunogenic protein in antigen presenting cells (APCs) can promote an immune response. This was investigated by retroviral transfer of a marker gene into CD34+ derived APCs. DESIGN AND METHODS: To achieve long term expression of a specific transgene in APCs, G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood CD34+ cell populations were retrovirally transduced with the bacterial nlsLacZ, a marker gene used here as a model, in the presence of IL-3, IL-6, GM-CSF and SCF prior to being induced to differentiate into dendritic and macrophage cells by GM-CSF and TNF-a. RESULTS: Addition of IL-4 was found to induce dendritic differentiation preferentially by inhibiting proliferation and differentiation of the macrophage lineage. As assessed by X-Gal staining, LacZ gene expression was observed in cells from both the dendritic lineage (CD1a+/CD14-) which still exhibits the highest immunostimulatory activity in mixed lymphocyte reaction and from the macrophage lineage (CD1a-/ CD14+). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study sets out the possibility of transducing dendritic and macrophage progenitors present in the CD34+ cell population and in using a marker gene such as nlsLacZ to study gene expression in antigen presenting cell compartments. (+info)
Expression of CD1d2 on thymocytes is not sufficient for the development of NK T cells in CD1d1-deficient mice. (6/894)CD1 is an MHC class I-like molecule that has been conserved throughout mammalian evolution. Unlike MHC class I molecules, CD1 can present unique nonprotein antigens to T cells. The murine CD1 locus contains two highly homologous genes, CD1d1 and CD1d2. CD1d1 is essential for the development of a major subset of NK T cells that promptly secrete IL-4 following activation. However, the function of CD1d2 has not yet been demonstrated. In the present study, we examined the expression of CD1d2 in CD1d1-deficient (CD1d1 degrees) mice with the anti-CD1 Ab 3H3. Unlike CD1d1, which is expressed by all lymphocytes, CD1d2 can be detected only on the surface of thymocytes. To determine whether CD1d2 can select a unique subset of NK T cells, we compared the remnant population of NK T cells in CD1d1 degrees and CD1d1, CD1d2-double deficient (CD1d1 degrees CD1d2 degrees) mice. No significant difference in the number of NK T cells and cytokine secretion capacity can be detected between CD1d1 degrees and CD1d1 degrees CD1d2 degrees mice, indicating that CD1d2 cannot substitute for CD1d1 in NK T cell development. The inability of CD1d2 to select NK T cells is not due to the structural constraints of CD1d2 since CD1d2-transfected cells can be recognized by both NK T cell hybridomas and freshly isolated NK T cells. Given the structural similarities, it is possible that the low levels of surface expression and limited tissue distribution of CD1d2 may prevent it from functioning in the selection and expansion of NK T cells. (+info)
Juvenile hemochromatosis locus maps to chromosome 1q. (7/894)Juvenile hemochromatosis (JH) is an autosomal recessive disorder that leads to severe iron loading in the 2d to 3d decade of life. Affected members in families with JH do not show linkage to chromosome 6p and do not have mutations in the HFE gene that lead to the common hereditary hemochromatosis. In this study we performed a genomewide search to map the JH locus in nine families: six consanguineous and three with multiple affected patients. This strategy allowed us to identify the JH locus on the long arm of chromosome 1. A maximum LOD score of 5.75 at a recombination fraction of 0 was detected with marker D1S498, and a LOD score of 5. 16 at a recombination fraction of 0 was detected for marker D1S2344. Homozygosity mapping in consanguineous families defined the limits of the candidate region in an approximately 4-cM interval between markers D1S442 and D1S2347. Analysis of genes mapped in this interval excluded obvious candidates. The JH locus does not correspond to the chromosomal localization of any known gene involved in iron metabolism. These findings provide a means to recognize, at an early age, patients in affected families. They also provide a starting point for the identification of the affected gene by positional cloning. (+info)
Immunolocalization of CD1d in human intestinal epithelial cells and identification of a beta2-microglobulin-associated form. (8/894)In order to better understand the role of intestinal CD1d, we sought to define the cellular localization and further characterize the biochemical structure of CD1d in human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). Using a CD1d-specific rabbit anti-gst-CD1d antibody, immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled cell surface proteins detected a previously identified 37 kDa protein as well as a 48-50 kDa protein which were confirmed by Western blotting with a CD1d-specific mAb, D5. Immunoprecipitation of protein lysates with the CD1d-specific mAb, D5 and 51.1.3, and the beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-specific mAb, BBM.1, followed by N-glycanase digestion and Western blotting with the D5 mAb showed that the 48-50 kDa protein was a beta2m-associated, CD1d glycoprotein. CD1d was immunolocalized to the apical and lateral regions of native small and large intestinal IEC as defined by confocal laser microscopy using the D5 mAb and the rabbit anti-gst-CD1d antibody. In addition, a large apical intracellular pool of CD1d was identified. Identical observations were made with polarized T84 cells. Selective biotin labeling of apical and basolateral cell surfaces followed by immunoprecipitation with the D5 mAb, N-glycanase digestion and avidin blotting confirmed the presence of glycosylated CD1d on both cell surfaces and immunolocalization of the 37 kDa non-glycosylated form of CD1d to the apical cell surface. These studies show that CD1d is located in an ideal position for luminal antigen sampling and presentation to subjacent intraepithelial lymphocytes. (+info)
TCR Vβ2 Antibody, anti-human, REAfinity™ - Recombinant antibodies - MACS Antibodies - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Italia
Clone REA654 recognizes the human variable β2 subunit of the α/β T cell receptor (TCR Vβ2). The TCR is a heterodimeric glycoprotein associated with the CD3 antigen. The α and β TCR chains are composed of constant and variable regions, each encoded by distinct gene segments. TCR Vβ2 is a variant of the TCR β chain. α/β T cells express a diverse α/β TCR repertoire that specifically co-recognizes self or foreign antigen bound to antigen-presenting molecules, which thereby leads to T cell-mediated immunity. For example, the TCR can directly bind to peptide fragments, riboflavin precursors, and lipid antigens that are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, MR1 and CD1, respectively. In each case, the antigen sits within the antigen-binding cleft, whereupon the TCR recognizes a composite surface formed by the antigen-presenting molecule and surface-exposed regions of the antigen itself. This co-recognition paradigm is a central tenet of α/β T cell-mediated immunity and
Anti-TCR Vβ1 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Schweiz
Clone REA662 recognizes the human variable beta 1 subunit of the αβ T cell receptor (TCR Vβ1). The TCR is a heterodimeric glycoprotein associated with the CD3 antigen. The α and β TCR chains are composed of constant and variable regions, each encoded by distinct gene segments. TCR Vβ1 is a variant of the TCR β chain. αβ T cells express a diverse αβ TCR repertoire that specifically co-recognizes self or foreign antigen bound to antigen-presenting molecules, which thereby leads to T cell-mediated immunity. For example, the TCR can directly bind to peptide fragments, riboflavin precursors, and lipid antigens that are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, MR1 and CD1, respectively. In each case, the antigen sits within the antigen-binding cleft, whereupon the TCR recognizes a composite surface formed by the antigen-presenting molecule and surface-exposed regions of the antigen itself. This co-recognition paradigm is a central tenet of αβ T cell-mediated immunity and
Recent advances in processing and presentation of CD1 bound lipid antigens. - CAMS Oxford Institute
It is well established that different populations of alphabeta T lymphocytes can recognize not only peptides in the context of MHC class I and class II molecules, but also foreign and self-lipids in association with CD1 proteins, which share structural similarities with MHC class I molecules. CD1 molecules are comprised of five isoforms, known as group 1 (CD1a, b, c, e) and group 2 (CD1d) CD1, presenting lipid antigens to conventional T lymphocytes or innate-like T cells bearing an invariant T cell receptor (TCR) and known as invariant NKT (iNKT) cells. During the last couple of years, several papers have been published describing important aspects of the mechanisms controlling the processing and presentation of endogenous and exogenous CD1 lipid antigens, which will be the main focus of this review.
The intracellular pathway for the presentation of vitamin B-related antigens by the antigen-presenting molecule MR1
CD1b tetramers bind αβ T cell receptors to identify a mycobacterial glycolipid-reactive T cell repertoire in humans | JEM
Like most mammalian species, humans express several structurally distinct CD1 antigen-presenting molecules. The conservation of large CD1 gene families among most mammals suggests that each type of CD1 protein has distinct functions that confer selective advantage. Cellular studies of CD1 proteins increasingly explain how each CD1 protein differs from the others. CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, and CD1d have distinct antigen groove structures, patterns of expression in tissues, intracellular trafficking, and trigger T cells expressing diverse TCRs (Kasmar et al., 2009). CD1d (group 2) diverges most clearly from CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c (group 1) with regard to protein sequence. Also, group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins show differing transcriptional responses to pathogens, suggesting that they function at different stages of the immune response (Roura-Mir et al., 2005b). Collectively, these cellular studies suggest that group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins likely have differing roles in immune responses.. The majority ...
A tale of actin and lipid antigen presentation - A nano tango - Immunology
The CD1d/ -GalCer Dextramers displays CD1d molecules loaded with -GalCer, or without a unique lipid, unloaded CD1d. Both human and mouse CD1d can stain cells of mouse and human origen, although not identical NKT cell populations are found between species.. Features;. • Superior separation. • High stability. • Reproducible results. • Quality controled. • Available with FITC, PE and APC.. CD1d/ -GalCer Dextramer:. Human CD1d: Cat. No. XD8002. Mouse CD1d: Cat. No. YD8002. * The CD1d/ -GalCer Dextramer displays CD1d molecules loaded with the glyco-lipid, -GalCer. CD1d/unloaded Dextramer:. Human CD1d: Cat. No. XD8001. Mouse CD1d: Cat. No. YD8001. * Load your lipid of interest to generate a unique CD1d/lipid Dextramer. Can be used as negative control reagent. The CD1d/unloaded Dextramer reagent displays CD1d molecules without loaded lipid antigen.. Protocol for loading of lipids into CD1d_unloaded Dextramers (PDF). Human CD1d Dextramer labled with either FITC, PE AND APC. ...
November 2017 - The Discovery and Development of Inhibitors of FAAH
Lymphocytes expressing a Testosterone levels cell receptor (TCR) composed of Vgamma9 and Vdelta2 stores represent a small small percentage of human being thymocytes. people overlap intensive in their moving repertoire. This type of selection indicates the existence of a monomorphic antigen-presenting molecule that is definitely an subject of current study but continues to be incompletely described. While selection on a monomorphic delivering molecule may appear uncommon, related systems form the alpha dog beta Capital t cell repertoire including the intense good examples of NKT or mucosal-associated invariant Capital t cells (MAIT) and the much less dramatic amplification of general public Vbeta string rearrangements powered by specific MHC substances and connected with level of resistance to virus-like pathogens. Choosing and amplifying general public Capital t cell receptors whether alpha dog beta or gamma delta, are essential methods in developing an anticipatory TCR repertoire. Cell ...
Human leukocyte antigens (HLA): A roadmap
Group 1 CD1 in Infectious Disease and T Cell Development - Chyung-Ru Wang
NIR Quantitative Assessments | NIR Calibration Model
CD1d-Restricted NKT Cells Contribute to the Age-Associated Decline of T Cell Immunity | The Journal of Immunology
Age-related immune dysfunction presents serious health concerns for todays society, as the population of individuals over the age of 65 years old continues to expand. The consequences of immunosenescence are obvious, as aged individuals are less able to ward off bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, have higher incidences of cancer, and have overall decreased responses to protective vaccines compared with younger individuals (4, 14). Age-related changes in adaptive immunity are well documented, whereas less is known about the effects of age on the innate immune system, with particular regard to innate lymphocytes such as CD1d-restricted NKT cells. Here, we show that as age advances, the number of CD1d-restricted NKT cells increases and that these cells in the aged immune microenvironment actively suppress, rather than support efferent T cell immunity. Additionally, our findings support the concept that NKT cells may suppress efferent T cell immunity via mechanisms that involve excess ...
Molecular profiling revea… - Göteborgs universitet
CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells can have multiple effects on an immune response, including the activation, regulation and attraction of innate immune cells, and modulation of adaptive immunity. Recent studies reveal that there are distinct subsets of NKT cells which selectively perform some of the functions attributed to CD1d-restricted cells, but the mechanisms underlying these functional differences have not been resolved. Our aim in this study was to identify novel NKT cell associated traits that would provide important insight into NKT cell activation and function. To this end, we have performed gene expression profiling of two separate subsets of NKT cells, analyzing genes differentially expressed in these cells compared to conventional CD4(+)NK1.1(-) T cells. We identify different sets of genes over expressed in each of the two NKT cell types, as well as genes that are common to the two CD1d-restricted NKT cell populations analyzed. A large number of these genes are highly ...
To the Editor: Interleukins (IL) are potent biomolecules used for immunotherapy in cancer and infectious diseases. The clinical benefit of cytokines is linked to their strong effects on immune cells, and these effects are important to study in patients undergoing treatment because the cellular responses in vivo may differ from those seen in vitro. We therefore read with interest the study by van der Vliet et al. (1) concerning the effect of high-dose IL-2 on immunoregulatory cell subsets in patients with advanced melanoma and renal cell cancer. The main conclusion presented by the authors is that CD25+ regulatory T cells, which have an inhibitory effect on adaptive T-cell responses, increased during therapy. Conversely, the CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells, which have mainly activating effects on other immune cells, decreased in numbers during therapy. One might speculate that such effects of IL-2 could suppress some cellular immune responses against the tumor and thus be detrimental ...
The crystal structure of human CD1b with a bound bacterial glycolipid. - Radcliffe Department of Medicine
The human MHC class I-like molecule CD1b is distinctive among CD1 alleles in that it is capable of presenting a set of glycolipid species that show a very broad range of variation in the lengths of their acyl chains. A structure of CD1b complexed with relatively short acyl chain glycolipids plus detergent suggested how an interlinked network of channels within the Ag-binding groove could accommodate acyl chain lengths of up to 80 carbons. The structure of CD1b complexed with glucose monomycolate, reported in this study, confirms this hypothesis and illustrates how the distinctive substituents of intracellular bacterial glycolipids can be accommodated. The Ag-binding groove of CD1b is, uniquely among CD1 alleles, partitioned into channels suitable for the compact accommodation of lengthy acyl chains. The current crystal structure illustrates for the first time the binding of a natural bacterial lipid Ag to CD1b and shows how its novel structural features fit this molecule for its role in the immune
T cell autoreactivity directed toward CD1c itself rather than toward carried self lipids -ORCA
The hallmark function of αβ T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) involves the highly specific co-recognition of a major histocompatibility complex molecule and its carried peptide. However, the molecular basis of the interactions of TCRs with the lipid antigen-presenting molecule CD1c is unknown. We identified frequent staining of human T cells with CD1c tetramers across numerous subjects. Whereas TCRs typically show high specificity for antigen, both tetramer binding and autoreactivity occurred with CD1c in complex with numerous, chemically diverse self lipids. Such extreme polyspecificity was attributable to binding of the TCR over the closed surface of CD1c, with the TCR covering the portal where lipids normally protrude. The TCR essentially failed to contact lipids because they were fully seated within CD1c. These data demonstrate the sequestration of lipids within CD1c as a mechanism of autoreactivity and point to small lipid size as a determinant of autoreactive T cell responses.. ...
Stapel, JG et al. (2016): Biogeochemistry of sediment core BK-8
Stapel, Janina Gabriele; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Overduin, Pier Paul; Wetterich, Sebastian; Strauss, Jens; Horsfield, Brian; Mangelsdorf, Kai (2016): Biogeochemistry of sediment core BK-8. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.867980, In supplement to: Stapel, JG et al. (2016): Microbial lipid signatures and substrate potential of organic matter in permafrost deposits: Implications for future greenhouse gas production. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 121, 15 pp, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JG003483
Protocols - ProImmune - Mastering Immunity MHC pentamers, CD1d tetramers, custom peptide synthesis, immunoassays, T cell...
applicable for standard unlabeled Pentamers and ProVE® Pentamers). Biotin-labeled Pentamer staining protocol. Pentamer staining for whole blood. Staining a single cell sample with multiple labeled Pentamers. Staining a single cell sample with multiple unlabeled Pentamers. Pentamer immunohistochemistry protocol. ...
Molecules of the Month | 3DChem.com - Chemistry, Structures & 3D Molecules
Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are lipid-reactive CD1d-restricted T lymphocytes important | Inhibition of DNA Glycosylases via...
Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are lipid-reactive CD1d-restricted T lymphocytes important in infection cancer and autoimmunity. and self lipid antigen induction for NKT cells. Intro Natural killer T (NKT) cells are XL-888 a subpopulation of unconventional T lymphocytes that communicate a restricted T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and several molecules characteristic for NK cells (Bendelac et al. 2007 Kronenberg 2005 Following activation NKT cells respond by a rapid burst of cytokines secreting primarily interferon-γ(IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) therefore regulating the quality of downstream immune reactions (Bendelac et al. 2007 Consequently NKT cells play a role in various disease conditions including infections (Tupin et al. 2007 malignancy (Cui et al. 1997 Dhodapkar 2009 and autoimmunity (Shi and Vehicle Kaer 2006 such as diabetes (Hong et al. 2001 Sharif et al. 2001 and multiple sclerosis (Miyamoto et al. 2001 NKT cells identify lipid antigens primarily belonging to the group of ...
Microbial lipid production by oleaginous Rhodococci cultured in lignocellulosic autohydrolysates (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES
Metabolic synthesis of single cell oils (SCOs) for biodiesel application by heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms is being hampered by the high cost of culture media. This study investigated the possibility of using loblolly pine and sweetgum autohydrolysates as economic feedstocks for microbial lipid production by oleaginous Rhodococcus opacus ( R. opacus) PD630 and DSM 1069. Results revealed that when the substrates were detoxified by the removal of inhibitors (such as HMF-hydroxymethyl-furfural), the two strains exhibited viable growth patterns after a short adaptation/lag phase. R. opacus PD630 accumulated as much as 28.6 % of its cell dry weight (CDW) in lipids while growing on detoxified sweetgum autohydrolysate (DSAH) that translates to 0.25 g/l lipid yield. The accumulation of SCOs reached the level of oleagenicity in DSM 1069 cells (28.3 % of CDW) as well, while being cultured on detoxified pine autohydrolysate (DPAH), with the maximum lipid yield of 0.31 g/l. The composition of the ...
CD1d-expressing Dendritic Cells but Not Thymic Epithelial Cells Can Mediate Negative Selection of NKT Cells | JEM
It has been suggested that NKT cells are biased toward CD1d autoreactivity. Consistent with this, NKT cells have an activated/effector or memory phenotype, even in germ free animals (58). Also, some NKT cell hybridomas exhibit CD1d autoreactivity (59), and freshly isolated NKT cells respond to CD1d transfectants and DCs (60). In light of this possible autoreactivity, it remained to be shown whether NKT cell precursors that encounter a strong signal during development undergo negative selection, and if so, what cell type(s) can mediate the negative selection of NKT cells. In this study, we showed that the addition of an agonist glycolipid into FTOC or increasing CD1d surface expression by transgenesis resulted in a drastic reduction of NKT cells, supporting the notion that NKT cells are susceptible to negative selection. This is the first demonstration that a glycolipid can induce negative selection of a T cell population. Although our models do not directly address whether NKT cells can be ...
CD161 (NKR-P1A) costimulation of CD1d-dependent activation of human T cells expressing invariant Vα24JαQT cell receptor α...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CD161 (NKR-P1A) costimulation of CD1d-dependent activation of human T cells expressing invariant Vα24JαQT cell receptor α chains. AU - Exley, Mark. AU - Porcelli, Steven. AU - Furman, Margo. AU - Garcia, Jorge. AU - Balk, Steven. PY - 1998/9/7. Y1 - 1998/9/7. N2 - A population of human T cells expressing an invariant Vα24JαQ T cell antigen receptor (TCR) α chain and high levels of CD161 (NKR-P1A) appears to play an immunoregulatory role through production of both T helper (Th) type 1 and Th2 cytokines. Unlike other CD161+ T cells, the major histocompatibility complex-like nonpolymorphic CD1d molecule is the target for the TCR expressed by these T cells (Vα24(invt) T cells) and by the homologous murine NK1 (NKR- P1C)+ T cell population. In this report, CD161 was shown to act as a specific costimulatory molecule for TCR-mediated proliferation and cytokine secretion by Mα24(invt) T cells. However, in contrast to results in the mouse, ligation of CD161 in the absence of TCR ...
Central-in-life-saving - ProImmune - Mastering Immunity MHC pentamers, CD1d tetramers, custom peptide synthesis, immunoassays...
Figure 1: Representative experimental data showing EBV-specific cells (A*0201/GLCTLVAML or A*0201/CLGGLLTMV) stained with Pro5® MHC Pentamer. These can then be labeled with magnetic beads and separated out for transfer to the recipient.. After only 36 hours, the frequency of Pentamer-positive antigen-specific T cells detected in the patient increased from 0.3% of total CD8+ cells to 4.4%, indicating that the donor cells had expanded rapidly in vivo. Furthermore, following the CTL transfusion, EBV titers decreased back to normal levels almost immediately. Prior to CTL infusion a CT scan showed considerable growth of lymphoma in the lungs, liver, adrenal gland and kidney. 189 days later, a comparative CT scan showed only remnant streaks in the thorax, no sign of lesions in the liver and only minor lesions in the kidney. Additionally the left adrenal gland returned to normal size. At 12 months post-transplant, after being admitted with EBV virus in the tonsils, blood and colon, the patient was ...
Tommy Green - Cell Pathways
Construction of the T-cell receptor The antibody is not the only protein that recognizes the antigen. The antigen-specific receptor of T lymphocytes does the same. It is simply called the T-cell receptor and is abbreviated as the T-cell receptor TCR. We can define the antigen as a compound capable of eliciting the formation of a …. CELL IMMUNITY. T-CELL receptors (TCRs) and their epitopes Read More ». ...
Liver sulfatide-reactive type II NKT cells recognize endogenous phospholipids | Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer | Full Text
NKT cells are a unique population of T cells that recognize lipid antigens presented by a nonclassical MHC-like molecule CD1d. There are two types of NKT cells, type I and type II. Our group previously showed that type I NKT cells enhance and type II NKT cells suppress anti-tumor responses, and that these two types of NKT cells cross-regulate each other. One of the defined antigens for type I NKT cells is alpha-galactosylceramide (aGC), and aGC-loaded CD1d tetramers are widely used to study them. Unlike conventional T cells, each subset of NKT cells recognizes distinct antigens. Sulfatide (3-o-sulfo-beta-D-galactosylceramide), an endogenous lipid, is the only lipid proven to be recognized by type II NKT cells in vivo. In addition, recently phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), also endogenous lipids, were reported to be recognized by type II NKT cell hybridomas. So far, type II NKT cells and their antigens are much less well characterized than type I due to lack of widely ...
Kinetics and Cellular Site of Glycolipid Loading Control the Outcome of Natural Killer T Cell Activation | [email protected]
CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells (NKT cells) possess a wide range of effector and regulatory activities that are related to their ability to secrete both T helper 1 (Th1) cell- and Th2 cell-type cytokines. We analyzed presentation of NKT cell activating α galactosylceramide (αGalCer) analogs that give predominantly Th2 cell-type cytokine responses to determine how ligand structure controls the outcome of NKT cell activation. Using a monoclonal antibody specific for αGalCer-CD1d complexes to visualize and quantitate glycolipid presentation, we found that Th2 cell-type cytokine-biasing ligands were characterized by rapid and direct loading of cell-surface CD1d proteins. Complexes formed by association of these Th2 cell-type cytokine-biasing αGalCer analogs with CD1d showed a distinctive exclusion from ganglioside-enriched, detergent-resistant plasma membrane microdomains of antigen-presenting cells. These findings help to explain how subtle alterations in glycolipid ligand structure can ...
Human CD4- CD8- Invariant Natural Killer T Cells Promote IgG Secretion from B Cells Stimulated by Cross-Linking of Their...
Immunoglobulin (Ig) M production can be induced by the interaction of thymus-independent type-2 (TI-2) antigen (Ag) with B cell Ag receptors (BCRs) without the involvement of conventional T cells; for IgG production through the same process, however, a second signal is required. Previous studies have reported that invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells may be responsible for the second signal involved in IgG production. In the present study, we addressed whether human iNKT cells could participate in the production of Ig against TI-2 Ag in vitro. Two major distinct subsets of human iNKT cells, CD4+ CD8β- (CD4) and CD4- CD8β- [double negative (DN)] cells, were generated from peripheral blood monocytes from a healthy volunteer. BCR engagement, triggered by anti-IgM antibody stimulation, examined here as a model of BCR engagement triggered by TI-2 Ag, induced abundant IgM production by B cells. Both CD4 and DN iNKT cells reduced IgM production and conversely enhanced IgG production in a dose
JCI - Activation of natural killer T cells in NZB/W mice induces Th1-type immune responses exacerbating lupus
Hereditary lupus of NZB/W mice is an Ab-mediated systemic autoimmune disease in which the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of tissue injury (57). Anti-IFN-γ mAb treatment has been reported to ameliorate the immune complex glomerulonephritis, the hallmark of the disease (21). In addition, introduction of a transgene encoding the Th2 cytokine IL-4 into lupus-prone (NZW × C57BL/6.Yaa) F1 mice prevented lupus development (58). We have recently reported that adoptive transfer of CD1d-reactive transgenic CD4 T cells with a Th1-like cytokine-secretion pattern induced lupus in BALB/c nu/nu recipients (8). CD1d-reactive T cells have also been suggested to play a role in augmenting IgG2a anti-dsDNA secretion and lupus development in lupus-prone NZB/W mice (20). It is not yet clear, however, whether activation of the CD1d-reactive T cells in NZB/W mice contributed to the IFN-γ secretion that shifted the autoantibody secretion toward the pathogenic IgG2a ...
Deficiency of a subset of T-cells with immunoregulatory properties in sarcoidosis. - MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular...
BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder that predominantly involves the lungs, characterised by a T-helper 1 (Th1) biased CD4-positive T-cell response and granuloma formation, for which the explanation is unknown. A newly identified subset of T-cells with immunoregulatory functions, CD1d-restricted natural-killer T (NKT) cells, has been shown to protect against disorders with increased CD4-positive Th1 responses in animals. We explored whether abnormalities in these cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. METHODS: We generated fluorescence-labelled CD1d-tetrameric complexes and used them, with monoclonal antibodies to Valpha24 and Vbeta11 T-cell receptor, to assess the frequency of CD1d-restricted NKT cells in the peripheral blood of 60 patients with histologically proven sarcoidosis (16 with Lofgrens syndrome) and 60 healthy controls. Lung lymphocytes were also analysed in 16 of the patients with sarcoidosis. FINDINGS: CD1d-restricted NKT cells were absent or greatly reduced
The immunoregulatory role of type I and type II NKT cells in cancer and other diseases | SpringerLink
The Molecular Basis for Recognition of CD1d/α-Galactosylceramide by a Human Non-Vα24 T Cell Receptor
Prevention of type 1 diabetes by invariant NKT cells is independent of peripheral CD1d expression. - The Kennedy Institute of...
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells can prevent diabetes by inhibiting the differentiation of anti-islet T cells. We recently showed that neither iNKT cell protection against diabetes nor iNKT cell inhibition of T cell differentiation in vitro requires cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-beta. In contrast, cell-cell contacts were required for iNKT cell inhibition of T cell differentiation in vitro. The present study was designed to determine whether the CD1d molecule is involved in the inhibitory function of iNKT cells. Experiments were performed in vitro and in vivo, using cells lacking CD1d expression. The in vivo experiments used CD1d-deficient mice that were either reconstituted with iNKT cells or expressed a CD1d transgene exclusively in the thymus. Both mouse models had functional iNKT cells in the periphery, even though CD1d was not expressed in peripheral tissues. Surprisingly, both in vitro inhibition of T cell differentiation by iNKT cells and mouse protection against diabetes by iNKT cells
Group 1 Compact disc1 substances, Compact disc1a, CD1c and CD1b, present | Beneficial Effects of RAF Inhibitor i
Group 1 Compact disc1 substances, Compact disc1a, CD1c and CD1b, present lipid antigens from (Mtb) to Capital t cells. acids, which make the bacterias much less vulnerable to antibiotics. These substances also help the bacterias to subvert and after that conceal from the immune system program. The frequency of the disease and the raising issue of antibiotic level of resistance possess sparked the search for an effective vaccine against tuberculosis. While many attempts possess concentrated on using proteins pieces in tuberculosis vaccines, some proof suggests that human being immune system cells can understand fatty substances such as mycolic acids and that these cells could help manage and control attacks. Nevertheless, it provides been tough to determine whether these resistant cells sincerely buy 1208315-24-5 play a defensive function against the disease because most vaccine analysis uses mouse versions and rodents perform not really have got an similar of these resistant cells. Today, Zhao ...
EIF4EBP1 | Antagonists development strategies and therapeutic applications
Background Compact disc1d is a nonpolymorphic MHC course I-like molecule which presents nonpeptide ligands e. design and amount of Compact disc1d appearance for hematopoieitic cells of both types. Notable can be the recognition of Compact disc1d proteins in mouse and rat Paneth cells aswell as the incredibly high Compact disc1d appearance in acinar exocrine cells from the rat pancreas as well as the appearance of Compact disc4 on rat marginal area B cells. Both mAbs blocked α-galactosylceramide recognition by major mouse and rat NKT cells. Oddly enough both mAbs differed within their effect on the activation of varied autoreactive T cell hybridomas like the XV19.2 hybridoma whose activation was improved with the WTH-1 mAb. Conclusions/Significance Both book monoclonal antibodies referred to in this research allowed the evaluation of Compact disc1d appearance and Compact disc1d-restricted T cell replies in the rat for the very first time. They provided new insights into mechanisms of ...
"Synthesis of glycolipids for NKT cell stimulation" by Maryam Khalili
Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of mature T lymphocytes which have been shown to play a major role in controlling immune responses. Recently, it has become evident that the antigen receptor expressed by NKT cells recognize glycolipids presented by CD1d, a major-histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule expressed on dendritic cells, monocytes, and a subgroup of B cells. Via recognition of glycolipids by NKT cells, various cytokines are released which influence other cells of the immune system. A synthetic α-galactosylceramide, KRN 7000, was shown to possess anti-tumor and immunostimulatory activities. To further understand the significant biological activities of glycolipids, in this thesis we describe the synthesis of an OCH analogue, α-S-GalCer, and a series of carbohydrate modified analogues of KRN 7000. ^
The highly conserved CD1d-restricted NKT cells, identified as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses, exert potent immune regulatory functions by releasing a variety immunomodulatory cytokines. Up to now, the response of NKT cells has been studied extensively by multiple groups with α-GalCer that has been proven to be a unique type of adjuvant for vaccine development (7). New analogues of α-GalCer are being synthesized to search for new NKT cell agonists that may have superior properties for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. One of these, α-C-GalCer was found to be more potent in helping mice to defend against mouse malaria and B16 melanoma by inducing a more prolonged IL-12 and IFN-γ response (14). Moreover, α-C-GalCer was reported bind more stably to DCs than α-GalCer, and α-C-GalCer-loaded DCs induced higher levels and longer lasting IFN-γ-producing NKT cell responses and more effective adaptive protective T-cell-mediated immunity (21).. iGb3, the ...
3R Research Foundation Switzerland / Projects / 3R-Project 73-00
In contrast to primary cells, the cells of the clone were uniform, survived detachment and could therefore be analyzed by cytofluorimetry. The cloned cells expressed many enzymes and markers that are typical of native Kupffer cells (non-specific esterase, peroxidase, MOMA-2, BM8, scavenger receptor A, CD14 and Toll-Like-Receptor 4 (TLR4), the antigen-presenting molecules CD40, CD80 and CD1d, and endocytosed Dextran-FITC. It lacked complement, Fc-receptors, F4/80 marker and the phagosomal coat protein TACO) (Figure 1). The clone exhibited CD14- and TLR4/MD2-independent, plasma-dependent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding, E. coli and S. pneumoniae phagocytosis and LPS- and IFN-gamma-induced NO production, but no TNF-alpha, IL-6 or IL-10 release. The clone differed from peritoneal macrophages by the presence of CD1d and the absence of TACO expression and by the fact that LPS-induced functions were independent of CD14 and TLR4. Conclusions and Relevance for 3R ...
Arrayit Dendritic & Antigen Presenting Cell Pathways™ Focused Human Genome Microarrays
... contain 89 genes selected for targeted studies of the human dendritic & antigen presenting cell pathway. Arrayit Pathways™ Microarrays gene content is derived from our H25K Whole Human Genome Microarray constructed using highly optimized and unique long-mer oligonucleotides designed to maximize detection of the greatest number of cellular transcripts in the human transcriptome with
Involvement of the CD1d-Natural Killer T Cell Pathway in Neointima Formation After Vascular Injury | Circulation Research
Cell pathways' SAANDs compounds enhance antitumor effects of Taxol in rodent models of breast cancer | EurekAlert! Science News
3D Molecule Models by Molecule - Shapeways Shops
Long-term maintenance of HLA-D restricted T cells specific for soluble antigens.
Invariant natural killer T cells direct B cell responses to cognate lipid antigen in an IL-21-dependent manner<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Invariant natural killer T cells direct B cell responses to cognate lipid antigen in an IL-21-dependent manner. AU - King, Irah L.. AU - Fortier, Anne. AU - Tighe, Michael. AU - Dibble, John. AU - Watts, Gerald F.M.. AU - Veerapen, Natacha. AU - Haberman, Ann M.. AU - Besra, Gurdyal S.. AU - Mohrs, Markus. AU - Brenner, Michael B.. AU - Leadbetter, Elizabeth A.. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Mouse invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) provide cognate and noncognate help for lipid and protein-specific B cells, respectively. However, the long-term outcome for B cells after cognate help is provided by iNKT cells is unknown at present. Here we found that cognate iNKT cell help resulted in a B cell differentiation program characterized by extrafollicular plasmablasts, germinal-center formation, affinity maturation and a robust primary immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response that was uniquely dependent on iNKT cell-derived interleukin 21 (IL-21). However, cognate help ...
PLOS ONE: Human Natural Killer T Cells Are Heterogeneous in Their Capacity to Reprogram Their Effector Functions
Background Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of T cells that help potentiate and regulate immune responses. Although human NKT cell subsets with distinct effector functions have been identified, it is unclear whether the effector functions of these subsets are imprinted during development or can be selectively reprogrammed in the periphery. Results We found that neonatal NKT cells are predominantly CD4+ and express higher levels of CCR7 and CD62L and lower levels of CD94 and CD161 than adult CD4+ or CD4− NKT cell subsets. Accordingly, neonatal NKT cells were more flexible than adult CD4+ NKT cells in their capacity to acquire Th1- or Th2-like functions upon either cytokine-mediated polarization or ectopic expression of the Th1 or Th2 transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3, respectively. Consistent with their more differentiated phenotype, CD4- NKT cells were predominantly resistant to functional reprogramming and displayed higher cytotoxic function. In contrast to conventional T cells,
DIGITAL.CSIC: Soluble and membrane levels of molecules involved in the interaction between clonal plasma cells and the...
Clonal plasma cells (PC) from different types of monoclonal gammopathies (MG) display distinct phenotypes consistent with an increased antigen-presentation and T-cell costimulation in MG of undetermined significance that deteriorates in malignant conditions. Expression of other cell surface and soluble molecules (e.g. adhesion/proliferation molecules) involved in the interaction between clonal PC and the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment has also been related to malignant PC, although the exact clinical significance of their expression remains largely unknown. Analysis of cell surface levels of several of these molecules in multiple myeloma (MM) patients shows an association between lower expression on BMPC of the HLA-I and β2-microglobulin antigen-presenting molecules, the CD126 and CD130 IL6 receptor (IL6R) chains, and CD38, and adverse prognostic features of the disease. Likewise, patients showing higher soluble levels of antigen-presenting molecules (HLA-I and β2-microglobulin), IL6R and ...
Regulation of natural killer T‐cell development by deubiquitinase CYLD | The EMBO Journal
Data presented in this paper provide the first example of how negative regulation of NKT cell signalling contributes to NKT cell development. In contrast to the known NKT regulators, CYLD is dispensable for NKT cell maturation. In fact, the CYLD KO mice contain a substantially higher frequency of NK1.1+ mature NKT cells. This phenotype is associated with a hyper‐activation phenotype, particularly in the immature NKT populations. However, although loss of CYLD seems to accelerate the process of NKT cell maturation, the CYLD KO mice display a severe reduction in the number of NKT cells in both the thymus and the periphery. This deficiency is due to the massive apoptosis of immature NKT cells. Thus, in contrast to its pro‐apoptotic function implicated in other cell types, particularly tumour cells (Sun, 2010), CYLD has a potent anti‐apoptotic function in immature NKT cells, which is crucial for NKT cell development.. The hyper‐activated phenotype of CYLD KO NKT cells indicated the ...
BioLegend Natural Killer and Natural Killer T Cells Category
Natural Killer (NK) cells were initially named based on their propensity for cytolytic function in the absence of any specific kind of activation. NK cells are an important part of innate immunity, defending the body against both virally infected cells and tumor cells. Natural Killer T (NKT) cells represent a special hybrid of T cell and NK cells. They express a T cell receptor complex and several NK cell markers. Unlike T cells, they mainly recognize lipid antigen presented by CD1d and not MHCs. NKT cells are capable of producing both Th1 and Th2-related cytokines. BioLegend develops and manufactures world-class, cutting-edge immunological reagents for biomedical research, offered at an outstanding value.
The Toxoplasma Blog: Determination of a Key Antigen for Immunological Intervention To Target the Latent Stage of Toxoplasma...
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, establishes a chronic infection by forming cysts preferentially in the brain. Up to one third of the human population worldwide is estimated to be chronically infected with this parasite. However, there is currently no drug effective against the cyst form of the parasite. In addition, the protective immunity against the cysts remains largely unknown. We analyzed the molecular mechanisms by which the immune system detects host cells harboring the cysts to eliminate the latent stage of the parasite using mice with the H-2d haplotype, which are genetically resistant to the infection. Our study revealed that CD8+ immune T cells bearing TCR Vβ8.1, 8.2 chain have a potent activity to remove T. gondii cysts from the brain. Our studies also uncovered that H-2Ld is the major Ag-presenting molecule to CD8+ T cells for initiating cyst elimination, and that CD8+Vβ8.1, 8.2+ immune T cells recognize the N-terminal region (aa 41-152) of dense ...
New light shed on cause of lung injury in severe flu
To make their discovery, scientists infected three groups of mice with H1N1 flu virus. (Note: this is NOT the H5N1 flu virus that has been at the center of recent controversy.) The first group included normal mice; the second group was devoid of natural killer T cells, and the third was given a treatment that specifically activated natural killer T cells. Researchers observed the outcome of flu infection and found that the mice without natural killer T cells did worst, and those with activated killer T cells did best. Mice that lacked natural killer T cells had increased amounts of monocytes in the lungs, and severe lung injury similar to those seen in Spanish flu and lethal swine flu. Using highly-sensitive fluorescent antibody technology, this study was one of the first to document the sequential changes in innate immune response in the lungs during severe flu infection. These findings essentially provide a "road map" of the chronological changes in the lungs during severe flu infection. ...
Inhibition of T cell differentiation into effectors by NKT cells requires cell contacts. - The Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology
NKT cells are potent regulatory T cells that prevent the development of several autoimmune diseases. Analysis of NKT cell regulatory function in the NOD mouse has revealed that NKT cells inhibit the development of type 1 diabetes by impairing the differentiation of anti-islet T cells into Th1 effector cells. In the present study, we have performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to determine the respective role of cytokines and cell contacts in the blockade of T cell differentiation by NKT cells. These experiments reveal that cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-beta, that have been involved in other functions of NKT cells, play only a minor role if any in the blockade of T cell differentiation by NKT cells. Diabetes is still prevented by NKT cells in the absence of functional IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-beta. In contrast, we show for the first time that cell contacts are crucial for the immunoregulatory function of NKT cells.
Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor and Interleukin 4 Enhance the Number and Antigen-presenting Activity of...
DCs are bone marrow-derived APCs that express high levels of MHC, adhesion molecules, and other important costimulatory molecules required for antigen presentation (32 , 33) . Their ability to take-up antigens and induce antigen-specific immunity has stimulated considerable interest in using them to treat cancer. However, naturally occurring DCs are exceptionally rare, comprising only 0.01-0.5% of circulating and tumor-infiltrating mononuclear leukocytes (19 , 34) . Even when present, DCs harvested from cancer patients often fail to express normal levels of antigen-presenting molecules and lack the ability to stimulate effective immune responses (27 , 34 , 35) . Enk et al. (35) purified CD83+ DCs from the tumors of patients with both regressing and progressing melanoma metastases. Whereas the DCs from regressing metastases expressed CD86 and functioned as APCs, the DCs recovered from progressing metastases expressed little CD86 and induced T-cell anergy instead of stimulation. Similarly, ...
T-cell responses to CD1-presented lipid antigens in humans with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection - Fingerprint -...
Natural Killer T (NKT) Cells ｜ AMBICION
NKT cells induce cell death in cancer cells in the similar mechanism with NK cells, but their direct cytotoxic activity is limited because they are only found in small quantities in the body. However, NKT cells do have the ability to produce large amounts of cytokine (IFN-γ, etc.). NKT cells contribute to the activate NK cells and other cells representing innate immune system and cytotoxic T cells(cytotoxic T lymphocyte: CTL) representing acquired immune system through production of IFN-γ and other helper T (Th) 1 cytokines; stimulate antibody production from B cell and induction of allergic inflammation through production of IL-4 and other Th2 cytokines; and inhibit non-allergic diseases through IL-17 production. As around 90% of NKT cells work to prevent infections, and due to the ability of NKT cells to immediately produce large amounts of cytokine upon antigen recognition without the need for clonal growth, NKT cells are currently considered to play the role of an adjuvant that activates ...
Presumed guilty: natural killer T cell defects and human disease.
IBB > Research >...
We develop new bioproduction systems with high yield and productivity for (1) chemicals and fuels such as 1,3-propanediol, caproic acid, n-butanol and biogas; (2) fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals such as amino acids, microbial lipids and recombinant proteins. Waste materials and C1 (e.g. CO2) carbons are more and more in focus as substrates. We collaborate with industrial partners in different ways, such as contract research and development, consulting and feasibility study. ...
CD1d-Based Combination Therapy Eradicates Established Tumors in Mice | The Journal of Immunology
We have made the observation that anti-CD1d mAbs may be useful antitumor agents when used in combination with chemoimmunotherapies and in the context of large established s.c. tumors, like 4T1 and CT26L5, that are controlled by regulatory type II NKT cells. 1DMab (anti-DR5/anti-CD1d/anti-CD137) therapy was more efficacious than TriMab therapy in the eradication of CT26L5 and 4T1 tumors, but less effective against R331 tumors. In this manner, anti-CD1d mAbs are a very effective substitute for anti-CD40 mAbs, particularly when tumors are regulated by CD1d and type II NKT cells. There were no adverse toxicities detected after 1DMab therapy. 1DMab-mediated tumor suppression was dependent on CD8+ T cells, IFN-γ, and CD1d in all three tumor models examined. In seeking an explanation as to why 1DMab was more effective than TriMab in the 4T1 and CT26L5 tumor models, we revealed that although 1DMab and TriMab therapy yielded similarly increased proportions of CD8+ T cells in the tumor DLN producing ...
The MicroRNA miR-181 Is a Critical Cellular Metabolic Rheostat Essential for NKT Cell Ontogenesis and Lymphocyte Development...
Regulation of metabolic pathways in the immune system provides a mechanism to actively control cellular function, growth, proliferation, and survival. Here, we report that miR-181 is a nonredundant determinant of cellular metabolism and is essential for supporting the biosynthetic demands of early NKT cell development. As a result, miR-181-deficient mice showed a complete absence of mature NKT cells in the thymus and periphery. Mechanistically, miR-181 modulated expression of the phosphatase PTEN to control PI3K signaling, which was a primary stimulus for anabolic metabolism in immune cells. Thus miR-181-deficient mice also showed severe defects in lymphoid development and T cell homeostasis associated with impaired PI3K signaling. These results uncover miR-181 as essential for NKT cell development and establish this family of miRNAs as central regulators of PI3K signaling and global metabolic fitness during development and homeostasis. ...
BioLegend NK & NKT Cells
Natural Killer (NK) and Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are unique lymphocytes mainly involved with innate immunity. NK cells are capable of targeting tumor cells and virus-infected cells for destruction. They routinely check target cells for the expression of particular markers, which guide them toward activation or tolerance. Natural Killer T cells are a unique hybrid, sharing qualities of both T cells and Natural Killer cells. They emigrate from the thymus, displaying NK markers and harboring the potential to launch aggressive Th1 or Th2 cytokine release. BioLegend develops and manufactures world-class, cutting-edge immunological reagents for biomedical research, offered at an outstanding value.
KEGG Orthology (KO) [BR:hsa00001] 09150 Organismal Systems 09151 Immune system 04662 B cell receptor signaling pathway [PATH:hsa04662] 974 CD79B; CD79b molecule K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen 09180 Brite Hierarchies 09183 Protein families: signaling and cellular processes 04090 CD molecules [BR:hsa04090] 974 CD79B; CD79b molecule K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen CD molecules [BR:hsa04090] Proteins 974 CD79B; CD79b molecule K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen ...
Engineered killer T cells could provide long-lasting immunity against cancer | UCLA
MojoSort Mouse CD19 Nanobeads
The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. ... 2003). "Two novel CD1 E alleles identified in black African individuals". Tissue Antigens. 59 (5): 417-20. doi:10.1034/j.1399- ... Yu CY, Milstein C (1990). "A physical map linking the five CD1 human thymocyte differentiation antigen genes". EMBO J. 8 (12): ... "Entrez Gene: CD1E CD1e molecule". Brigl M, Brenner MB (2004). "CD1: antigen presentation and T cell function". Annu. Rev. ...
... is the only member of the group 2 CD1 molecules. CD1d-presented lipid antigens activate a special class of T cells, known ... Melián A, Beckman EM, Porcelli SA, Brenner MB (1996). "Antigen presentation by CD1 and MHC-encoded class I-like molecules". ... Yu CY, Milstein C (1990). "A physical map linking the five CD1 human thymocyte differentiation antigen genes". EMBO J. 8 (12): ... Brigl M, Brenner MB (2004). "CD1: antigen presentation and T cell function". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 22 (1): 817-90. doi:10.1146/ ...
The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. ... Melián A, Beckman EM, Porcelli SA, Brenner MB (1996). "Antigen presentation by CD1 and MHC-encoded class I-like molecules". ... Moody DB, Zajonc DM, Wilson IA (2005). "Anatomy of CD1-lipid antigen complexes". Nat. Rev. Immunol. 5 (5): 387-99. doi:10.1038/ ... Yu CY, Milstein C (1990). "A physical map linking the five CD1 human thymocyte differentiation antigen genes". EMBO J. 8 (12): ...
CD1). There are 5 subtypes of CD1 molecules that range from a through e. The a through d subtypes are capable of binding to ... CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c subtypes present lipid antigens to T cells, while CD1d cells present lipids, glycolipids, and lipoproteins ... CD1 a through c cell subtypes initiate T helper type 1 and type 2 responses, and they facilitate sulfatide loading onto the ... Different types of cells that present antigens on their surfaces include: macrophages dendritic cells Hepatocytes B cells tumor ...
Mucosal associated invariant T cell
While most T cell subsets have TCRs that recognize peptide or lipid-based antigens in association with MHC or CD1, MAIT cells ... A chemically stable antigen that is functionally equivalent to the native vitamin B2 related antigen has been created. Like MHC ... Porcelli, S.; Yockey, C. E.; Brenner, M. B.; Balk, S. P. (1993-07-01). "Analysis of T cell antigen receptor (TCR) expression by ... MR1 also serves as the antigen-presenting molecule outside of the thymus that binds to TCR and activates MAIT cells. ...
Endothelial protein C receptor
... is usually used for antigen binding. Like the CD1 series, EPCR has a lipid in the corresponding groove. The bound lipid in EPCR ... It belongs to the MHC class I/CD1 family of proteins, that is characterized by having a deep groove, that in other proteins in ... comparison with the structure of CD1/major histocompatibility complex alpha1 and alpha2 domains". Blood. 94 (2): 632-41. PMID ...
Ralph M. Steinman
Antigen processing and presentation of proteins and lipids seems efficient and can include cross presentation on MHC I and CD1 ... they reside in the peripheral organs and induce different forms of antigen-specific peripheral tolerance. Antigens from the ... DCs present antigens and initiate the afferent limb, while the other APC mediate the effectors to eliminate the antigen or ... In steady state, DC induce tolerance so that DC maturation can lead to immunity to microbial antigen - However, maturing DC ...
Gamma delta T cell
However, none of the known antigen-presenting molecules like MHC class I and II or CD1 are required for γδ T cell activation ... The antigens recognized by non-Vδ2 T cells expanded in the above infectious contexts have not been characterized, but the fact ... It is still not clear whether these non-peptidic antigens bind directly to the Vγ9/Vδ2 TCR or if a presenting element exists. ... Strong support for a direct recognition of non-peptide antigens by the Vγ9/Vδ2 TCR comes from studies which demonstrated that a ...
List of MeSH codes (D23)
... antigens, cd1 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.102 --- antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.103 --- antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd1 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.090 --- antigens, cd2 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.095 --- antigens, cd3 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd1 MeSH D22.214.171.124.102 --- antigens, cd2 MeSH D126.96.36.199.103 --- antigens, cd3 MeSH D188.8.131.52. ... antigens, cd1 MeSH D184.108.40.2064.090 --- antigens, cd2 MeSH D220.127.116.114.095 --- antigens, cd3 MeSH D18.104.22.1684. ...
CD1 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... The antigen has also been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases such as vitiligo and type I diabetes mellitus. T- ... CD4 is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (May 1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ...
Natural killer T cell
... a member of the CD1 family of antigen-presenting molecules, rather than peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs). As ... iNKT cells recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d, a non-polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class I-like antigen ... which is specific for glycolipid antigens. The best known antigen of iNKT cells is α-galactosylceramide(αGalCer), which is a ... Many of these cells recognize the non-polymorphic CD1d molecule, an antigen-presenting molecule that binds self and foreign ...
... Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... CD1a, CD1b and CD1c (group 1 CD1 molecules) are expressed on cells specialized for antigen presentation. CD1d (group 2 CD1) is ... to CD1-specific T cells. The natural antigens of group 2 CD1 are not well characterized, but a synthetic glycolipid, alpha- ... CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. This often remains true in neoplastic cells from ...
Group 1 CD1
Barral, Duarte C.; Brenner, Michael B. "CD1 antigen presentation: how it works". Nature Reviews Immunology. 7 (12): 929-941. ... An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility ... Antigen: protease degradation on YouTube - PMAP animation Antigen-Presenting Cells at the US National Library of Medicine ... Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T ...
CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD4 is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Leucocyte typing: human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ...
... antigen (Cluster of Differentiation 48) also known as B-lymphocyte activation marker (BLAST-1) or signaling lymphocytic ... located in the CD1 region of human chromosome 1". J. Exp. Med. 173 (6): 1339-44. doi:10.1084/jem.173.6.1339. PMC 2190850 . PMID ... Smith GM, Biggs J, Norris B, Anderson-Stewart P, Ward R (1998). "Detection of a soluble form of the leukocyte surface antigen ... Killeen N, Moessner R, Arvieux J, Willis A, Williams AF (October 1988). "The MRC OX-45 antigen of rat leukocytes and ...
Marginal zone B-cell
The MZ B cells within this region typically express high levels of IgM, CD21, CD1, CD9 with low to negligible levels of ... The MZ B cells are especially well positioned as a first line of defense against systemic blood-borne antigens that enter the ... It is believed they are especially reactive to bacterial cell wall components and self-antigens which are the products of aging ...
The ability of T cells to recognize foreign antigens is mediated by the T cell receptor (TCR), which is a surface protein able ... Still during the double negative stage, CD34 expression stops and CD1 is expressed. Expression of both CD4 and CD8 makes them ... This allows single positive thymocytes to be exposed to a more complex set of self-antigens than is present in the cortex, and ... Cells which do not have a high affinity for self-antigens survive negative selection. At this stage, some cells are also ...
Follicular B cell
FO B cells express high levels of IgM, IgD, and CD23; lower levels of CD21; and no CD1 or CD5, readily distinguishing this ... Antigen-specific memory B cell development. Annu Rev Immunol. 2005;23:487-513.. ... Two-photon imaging of lymphocyte motility and antigen response in intact lymph node. Science. 2002;296(5574):1869-1873. ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
Alan M. Krensky
Krensky AM, Robbins E, Springer TA, and Burakoff SJ: LFA-1, LFA-2, and LFA-3 antigens are involved in CTL-target conjugation. J ... Self recognition of CD1 by γδ T cells: implications for innate immunity. J. Exp. Med. 2000; 191: 937-948. Stenger S, Hanson DA ... Krensky AM, Weiss A, Crabtree G, Davis M, Parham P: Mechanisms of disease: T lymphocyte - antigen interactions in transplant ... Sanchez-Madrid F, Krensky AM, Ware CF, Robbins E, Strominger JL, Burakoff SJ, Springer TA: Three distinct antigens associated ...
Langerhans cells are dendritic cells found in the skin and function by internalizing antigens (foreign particles) and ... "Canine cutaneous histiocytoma is an epidermotropic Langerhans cell histiocytosis that expresses CD1 and specific beta 2- ... A histiocytoma originates from epidermal Langerhans cells of antigen-presenting cell lineage. Spontaneous regression is common ...
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11. CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ... "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms cooperate to mediate colon carcinoma cell adhesion to E- and L-selectin in ...
ATP1B3 - Википедия
Krangel MS, Orr HT, Strominger JL (1980). "Assembly and maturation of HLA-A and HLA-B antigens in vivo". Cell. 18 (4): 979-91. ... but also with class I-like molecules such as CD1 and Qa. An additional function is association with the HFE protein, together ... 1993). "Lack of HLA class I antigen expression by melanoma cells SK-MEL-33 caused by a reading frameshift in beta 2- ... The affinity of different H-2 and HLA antigens for beta-2-microglobulin". J. Immunol. 140 (7): 2322-9. PMID 2450918. Homma N, ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
CXCR5 - Википедия
CD74 - Википедия
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E). *CD2. *CD3 (γ, δ, ε). *CD4 ... antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen- ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
Langerhans cell histiocytosis
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Меланотрансферрин - Википедия
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E). *CD2. *CD3 (γ, δ, ε). *CD4 ... Richardson D. R. The role of the membrane-bound tumour antigen ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ...
CD97 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom. ... 2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
CLEC12A - Википедия
CD117 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... 1991). „Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID ... 2003). „Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". Int. J. Hematol. 75 ...
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
Infections associated with diseases
Integrin beta 3
Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... Hamann J, Wishaupt JO, van Lier RA, Smeets TJ, Breedveld FC, Tak PP (Apr 1999). "Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and ... Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004325.x. PMID 11380941.. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 6
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
CD36 - Википедия
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E). *CD2. *CD3 (γ, δ, ε). *CD4 ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ...
Apolipoproteína E, a enciclopedia libre
ICAM-1 - Википедия
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom. ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
Recent advances in processing and presentation of CD1 bound lipid antigens. - CAMS Oxford Institute
CD1 molecules are comprised of five isoforms, known as group 1 (CD1a, b, c, e) and group 2 (CD1d) CD1, presenting lipid ... important aspects of the mechanisms controlling the processing and presentation of endogenous and exogenous CD1 lipid antigens ... but also foreign and self-lipids in association with CD1 proteins, which share structural similarities with MHC class I ... antigens to conventional T lymphocytes or innate-like T cells bearing an invariant T cell receptor (TCR) and known as invariant ...
Group 1 CD1 in Infectious Disease and T Cell Development - Chyung-Ru Wang
... and CD1c have been shown to present both endogenous and mycobacterial-derived lipid antigens to various subsets of T... ... While group 1 CD1-restricted Mtb lipid antigen-specific T cells recognize foreign antigens directly, group 1 CD1-restricted ... In Aim 1, we propose to identify immunodominant Mtb antigens presented by group 1 CD1 in Mtb-infected hCD1Tg mice and evaluate ... 2009) CD1-restricted adaptive immune responses to Mycobacteria in human group 1 CD1 transgenic mice. J Exp Med 206:2497-509 ...
RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - CD1-2 antigen - Q5GL29 (Q5GL29 CHICK)
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
An Alternative Path for Antigen Presentation: Group 1 CD1 Proteins | The Journal of Immunology
Antigen presentation by CD1 molecules and the generation of lipid-specific T cell immunity. Cell. Mol. Life Sci.64: 1824-1840. ... Antigen presentation by CD1 lipids, T cells, and NKT cells in microbial immunity. Adv. Immunol.102: 1-94. ... Induction of CD1-restricted immune responses in guinea pigs by immunization with mycobacterial lipid antigens. J. Immunol.169: ... An Alternative Path for Antigen Presentation: Group 1 CD1 Proteins Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Antigens, cd1 | definition of Antigens, cd1 by Medical dictionary
Antigens, cd1 explanation free. What is Antigens, cd1? Meaning of Antigens, cd1 medical term. What does Antigens, cd1 mean? ... Looking for online definition of Antigens, cd1 in the Medical Dictionary? ... CD1. (redirected from Antigens, cd1). Also found in: Encyclopedia. CD1. A family of MHC class I-like molecules expressed on the ... Antigens, cd1 , definition of Antigens, cd1 by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Antigens%2c+ ...
Glycolipid antigen presentation to CD1-restricted T cells | IPBS
Functional and structural studies of CD1-lipid complexes, CD1 loading lipid mechanisms and investigation of specific ... Lipids are important antigens that induce T cell-mediated specific immune responses. They are presented to T cells by a class ... Evaluation of lipid neoantigen protective effect in animal models challenged with M. tuberculosis and proof-of-concept that CD1 ... Altogether, lipid antigen properties make them attractive for their use in subunit vaccines against Mtb. ...
Diacylated Sulfoglycolipids Are Novel Mycobacterial Antigens Stimulating CD1-restricted T Cells during Infection with...
Analysis of CD1 Restriction.. CD1 restriction was investigated by inhibiting T cell activation using the following anti-CD1 ... whereas the hydrophilic part of glycolipids is flanked by the two α helices of CD1, which delimit the CD1 antigen-binding ... Antigen Presentation Assays.. CD1+ APCs, CD1b-transfected THP-1 cells, HL-60, U-937, or MonoMac6 (ATCC) were preincubated at 5 ... This was confirmed by lack of presentation when CD1+ APCs were first fixed and then pulsed with the antigen (Fig. 6 C). On the ...
HLA-DR+ leukocytes acquire CD1 antigens in embryonic and fetal human skin and contain functional antigen-presenting cells | JEM
HLA-DR+ leukocytes acquire CD1 antigens in embryonic and fetal human skin and contain functional antigen-presenting cells. ... HLA-DR+ leukocytes acquire CD1 antigens in embryonic and fetal human skin and contain functional antigen-presenting cells ... Skin DCs can be distinguished from macrophages by the expression of CD1 antigens (6, 9, 26). To address whether HLA-DR+ ... Functionally, embryonic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are able to phagocytose antigen, to up-regulate costimulatory molecules ...
CD1 molecules efficiently present antigen in immature dendritic cells and traffic independently of MHC class II during...
CD1 molecules efficiently present antigen in immature dendritic cells and traffic independently of MHC class II during ... Besides MHC molecules, human DCs prominently express molecules of the CD1 family (CD1a, -b, -c, and -d) and mediate CD1- ... In contrast to the striking increase in surface expression of MHC class II on mature DCs, the surface expression of CD1 ... Thus, DC maturation-independent pathways for lipid Ag presentation by CD1 may play a crucial role in host defense, even before ...
CD1 antigen presentation: how it works - Semantic Scholar
... lipid-antigen binding and T-cell activation are achieved and the new insights into how lipid antigens differentially elicit CD1 ... The CD1 molecules bind and present amphipathic lipid antigens for recognition by T-cell receptors. Here, we outline the recent ... However, the discovery of MHC-class-I-like CD1 antigen-presentation molecules now explains how the immune system also ... advances in our understanding of how the processes of CD1 assembly, trafficking, ...
Interleukin 1 induces CD1 antigen expression on human gingival epithelial cells. - Semantic Scholar
... implying that a limited pool of CD1 negative EC are induced to express CD1 by IL-1. Induction of CD1 expression on whole and ... Both IL-1 preparations stimulated CD1 expression in whole and CD1-depleted cultures. The optimal dose level for this effect was ... This study examined the effect of organ-culture derived human IL-1, recombinant human IL-1, and purified ILS on CD1 expression ... These results indicate that human IL-1 and an IL-1 inhibitor act in combination to modulate CD1 expression on Langerhans cells ...
CD1-restricted T cell recognition of microbial lipoglycan antigens<...
CD1-restricted T cell recognition of microbial lipoglycan antigens. P. A. Sieling, D. Chatterjee, S. A. Porcelli, T. I. Prigozy ... CD1-restricted T cell recognition of microbial lipoglycan antigens. / Sieling, P. A.; Chatterjee, D.; Porcelli, S. A.; Prigozy ... title = "CD1-restricted T cell recognition of microbial lipoglycan antigens",. abstract = "It has long been the paradigm that T ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of CD1-restricted T cell recognition of microbial lipoglycan antigens. Together ...
TSRI - News & Views
CD1 and its Antigens. CD1a belongs to a family of CD1 receptor proteins (designated CD1a-d) that are present on the surface of ... Antigen presenting cells use CD1 molecules loaded with a lipid antigen to activate T cells with receptors specific for that ... This is the first such structure of a CD1 molecule with a microbial antigen bound. It is also the first time the structure of a ... Even so, scientists have not been able to identify all of the antigens bound by CD1, and they had a hard time until recently ...
Download T Cell Activation By Cd1 And Lipid Antigens
Read More ,, With this in download t cell activation by cd1 and lipid antigens, the stem aloe; period; century that is types as ... B and Nlrp3 inflammasome, French for the download t cell activation by cd1 and lipid antigens of LINE-1 updates. It has often ... Read More ,, 67 download t cell activation by cd1 and lipid antigens of APC outcomes is to political hacienda columnist. In the ... chronic download t cell activation by cd1 and lipid antigens in use and Use against significant vitamin in the Certain ...
Regulation of CD1 antigen-presenting complex stability<...
Regulation of CD1 antigen-presenting complex stability. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * CD1 Antigens Medicine & ... keywords = "Animals, Antigen Presentation, Antigens, CD1, Cell Line, Cell Membrane, Endosomes, HeLa Cells, Histocompatibility ... Regulation of CD1 antigen-presenting complex stability. Artur N Odyniec, Duarte C Barral, Salil Garg, Raju V. V. Tatituri, ... Regulation of CD1 antigen-presenting complex stability. / Odyniec, Artur N; Barral, Duarte C; Garg, Salil; Tatituri, Raju V. V ...
Antigen-Presenting Function of CD1 Molecules - Indiana University School of Medicine
Alterations in CD1-bound glycolipid antigens may play important roles in the ability of these tumors to evade the hosts ... CD1, has been identified. CD1 molecules have been shown to present glycolipids, such as those derived from Mycobacterium ... CD1 molecules are expressed on the surface of hematopoietic cells (e.g., T cells, B cells, macrophages) and are found on a ... Analyses of antigen processing, presentation and host defense have focused on studying pathways in which proteins are degraded ...
T-cell responses to CD1-presented lipid antigens in humans with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection - Fingerprint -...
CD1 and major histocompatibility complex II molecules follow a different course during dendritic cell maturation
II molecules from the lysosomal MHC class II compartment to the plasma membrane to mediate presentation of peptide antigens. ... Besides MHC molecules, dendritic cells also express CD1 … ... CD1 and major histocompatibility complex II molecules follow a ... Besides MHC molecules, dendritic cells also express CD1 molecules that mediate presentation of lipid antigens. Herein, we show ... and lipid antigen-presenting molecules during dendritic cell maturation. ...
Association of CD1 and FcγR gene polymorphisms with Guillain-Barré syndrome susceptibility: a meta-analysis | SpringerLink
CD1 and immunoglobulin G Fc receptor (FcγR) genes have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré ... Han M, Hannick LI, Dibrino M, Robinson MA (1999) Polymorphism of human CD1 genes. Tissue Antigens 54(2):122-127CrossRefPubMed ... Liu H, Xing Y, Guo Y, Liu P, Zhang H, Xue B, Shou J, Qian J, Peng J, Wang R (2016) Polymorphisms in exon 2 of CD1 genes are ... Guillain-Barré syndrome CD1 Fcgr Polymorphism Meta-analysis This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. ...
Anti-CD1 antibody (Phycoerythrin) [76-7-4] | Abcam
Anti-CD1 antibody conjugated to Phycoerythrin [76-7-4] validated for IP, IHC, Flow Cyt. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen ... Cortical thymocyte antigen CD1A antibody. *Cortical thymocyte antigen CD1B antibody. *Cortical thymocyte antigen CD1C antibody ... CD1 has considerable structural homology with both MHC class I and class II molecules, and CD1 molecules are involved in T cell ... Anti-CD1 antibody [76-7-4] (Phycoerythrin). See all CD1 primary antibodies. ...
Calabi F[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Isolation of CD1 genes: a family of major histocompatibility complex-related differentiation antigens. ... The rabbit CD1 and the evolutionary conservation of the CD1 gene family. ... Mouse CD1 is distinct from and co-exists with TL in the same thymus. ... Serum beta 2-microglobulin binds to a T-cell differentiation antigen and increases its expression. ...
B cell receptor-mediated uptake of CD1d-restricted antigen augments antibody responses by recruiting invariant NKT cell help in...
This mechanism permits CD1-mediated presentation of lipids after BCR recognition of even low-affinity antigen, as long as a ... 2004) CD1: Antigen presentation and T cell function. Annu Rev Immunol 22:817-890.. ... 2003) Intracellular pathways of CD1 antigen presentation. Nat Rev Immunol 3:11-22.. ... Antigens, Lipid Preparation, and Microsphere Coating.. The antigens HEL and OVA (both from Sigma), and CGG (Jackson Immuno ...
6.2 A new bovine leukocyte antigen cluster comprising two monoclonal antibodies, CC43 and CC118, possibly related to CD1 -...
The antigen recognized was present on immature thymocytes but not mature T cells; it was expressed by B cells and monocytes but ... The mAb may recognize the product of a previously unrecognized bovine CD1 gene and should be considered as a novel bovine mAb ... 6.2 A new bovine leukocyte antigen cluster comprising two monoclonal antibodies, CC43 and CC118, possibly related to CD1 ... 6.2 A new bovine leukocyte antigen cluster comprising two monoclonal antibodies, CC43 and CC118, possibly related to CD1 ...
CD1E - Wikipedia
The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. ... 2003). "Two novel CD1 E alleles identified in black African individuals". Tissue Antigens. 59 (5): 417-20. doi:10.1034/j.1399- ... Yu CY, Milstein C (1990). "A physical map linking the five CD1 human thymocyte differentiation antigen genes". EMBO J. 8 (12): ... "Entrez Gene: CD1E CD1e molecule". Brigl M, Brenner MB (2004). "CD1: antigen presentation and T cell function". Annu. Rev. ...
CD1D - Wikipedia
CD1d is the only member of the group 2 CD1 molecules. CD1d-presented lipid antigens activate a special class of T cells, known ... Melián A, Beckman EM, Porcelli SA, Brenner MB (1996). "Antigen presentation by CD1 and MHC-encoded class I-like molecules". ... Yu CY, Milstein C (1990). "A physical map linking the five CD1 human thymocyte differentiation antigen genes". EMBO J. 8 (12): ... Brigl M, Brenner MB (2004). "CD1: antigen presentation and T cell function". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 22 (1): 817-90. doi:10.1146/ ...
JCI - CD1a and langerin: acting as more than Langerhans cell markers
Intracellular pathways of CD1 antigen presentation. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2003. 3:11-22. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef ... Separate pathways for antigen presentation by CD1 molecules. Immunity. 1999. 11:743-752. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef ... LCs employ CD1a to present lipid antigens. Group 1 CD1 isoforms (CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c in humans) expressed on APCs are capable ... C) Glycoprotein antigens can be internalized via DEC-205 to MIICs, where peptide antigens bind to MHC class II molecules. This ...
CD1D | Cancer Genetics Web
The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. ... antigen processing and presentation, endogenous lipid antigen via MHC class Ib - beta-2-microglobulin binding - cell adhesion ... The human genome contains five CD1 family genes organized in a cluster on chromosome 1. The CD1 family members are thought to ... GD3 can serve as a natural killer T (NKT) cell antigen when presented on CD1d molecules expressed on professional antigen- ...
Cerundolo V - PubMed - NCBI
Capturing the antigen landscape: HLA-E, CD1 and MR1.. Ogg G, Cerundolo V, McMichael AJ. ... Cytoskeletal Control of Antigen-Dependent T Cell Activation.. Colin-York H, Javanmardi Y, Skamrahl M, Kumari S, Chang VT, Khuon ... Sterile activation of invariant natural killer T cells by ER-stressed antigen-presenting cells. ...
Faculty Research Topics | Department of Microbiology & Immunology | Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Human dendritic cell subsets.
Dendritic cells are highly adapted to their role of presenting antigen and directing immune responses. Developmental studies ... Antigens, CD1 / metabolism. Antigens, CD14 / metabolism. Cell Lineage / immunology. Dendritic Cells / classification*, cytology ... 0/Antigens, CD1; 0/Antigens, CD14; 0/CD1C protein, human; 0/Glycoproteins ... Superior antigen cross-presentation and XCR1 expression define human CD11c+CD141+ cells as homologues of mouse CD8+ dendritic ...
Ch8: Surgical Diagnosis Flashcards by Rob Nicholas | Brainscape
CD1aMoleculesEndogenousPresentationCD1dPeptide antigensAntibodyLipidsMoleculeLymphocytesGlycoproteinImmunologyPresent lipidRecognitionGlycolipidsGenesAntibodiesCD1eProteinMediateReceptorsMembers of the CD1 familyCD1cMember of the CD1 familyCells recognizeSelf antigenForeign antigensMicrobial antigensInfectionImmunityEndogenous and exogenousBeta-2-microglobulDisplayed on Antigen PreseReceptorBacterialTumorBindsImmune responsesSpecific lipid antigensCellPathwaysMolecularInducesIntracellularIsoforms
- It is well established that different populations of alphabeta T lymphocytes can recognize not only peptides in the context of MHC class I and class II molecules, but also foreign and self-lipids in association with CD1 proteins, which share structural similarities with MHC class I molecules. (ox.ac.uk)
- Surprisingly, however, the mouse contains no group 1 CD1 genes but has two group 2 CD1d genes, whereas the rat contains only one CD1d, and other rodents and mammals may contain 8-12 group 1 CD1 genes. (jimmunol.org)
- CD1D is the human gene that encodes the protein CD1d, a member of the CD1 (cluster of differentiation 1) family of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of various human antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
- CD1d-presented lipid antigens activate a special class of T cells, known as natural killer T (NKT) cells, through the interaction with the T-cell receptor present on NKT membranes. (wikipedia.org)
- In this study we demonstrate that specific BCR uptake of CD1d-restricted antigens represents an effective means of enhancing invariant natural killer T (iNKT)-dependent B cell responses in vivo . (pnas.org)
- This mechanism is effective over a wide range of antigen affinities but depends on exceeding a tightly regulated avidity threshold necessary for BCR-mediated internalization and CD1d-dependent presentation of particulate antigenic lipid. (pnas.org)
- Stephanie Dougan received her PhD in immunology from Harvard University in 2007 after studying NKT cells and CD1d antigen presentation with Dr. Richard Blumberg. (dana-farber.org)
- Type I natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. (frontiersin.org)
- We also showed that CD1d was expressed in primary multiple myeloma cells at mRNA and protein levels from the majority of multiple myeloma patients, but not in normal plasma cells and multiple myeloma cell lines, and CD1d + primary multiple myeloma cells presented antigens to activate iNKT cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
- Unlike conventional T cells that recognize peptide antigens, iNKT cells recognize glycolipid ligands presented by a nonpolymorphic MHC class I-like antigen-presenting molecule CD1d and are characterized by their capacity to rapidly produce large amounts of immunoregulatory cytokines ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Since the engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR) by CD1d-antigen complexes is a fundamental requirement of NKT cell activation, antigen: CD1d-Ig complexes provide a reliable method to isolate, activate, and expand effector NKT cell populations. (jove.com)
- Presentation of antigens via cell-surface glycoproteins, such as MHC-I and CD1d, elicits an immune response. (bham.ac.uk)
- Together, these findings indicate that CD1d-dependent activation of NKT cells aggravates atherosclerosis and that lack of CD1d, the restriction element for presentation of lipid antigens to NKT cells, leads to reduced lesions in a mouse model of human atherosclerosis. (nih.gov)
- CD1d is the sole group 2 member of the CD1 family of major histocompatibility (MHC) like glycoproteins. (fishersci.com)
- In order to be recognised, and to stimulate the NKT cells, the aforementioned antigens have to be at first internalised, processed, and finally presented through the cells containing CD1d. (termedia.pl)
- To elicit antibody production, B cells must be activated in a process that is initiated through specific antigen recognition by the B cell receptor (BCR) ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- There are currently no images for CD1.1 antigen Antibody (NBP1-28362). (novusbio.com)
- Importantly, this technology allows simultaneous detection of serum antibody activities among the three major classes of antigens, i.e. , lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins. (mdpi.com)
- for instance, the use of CD40 agonist antibody plus antigen showed remarkably rapid immune response and protection in a murine model of anthrax. (cdc.gov)
- To expand the full repertoire of γδT without bias toward specific TCRs, we made use of artificial antigen-presenting cells loaded with an anti γδTCR antibody that promoted unbiased expansion of the γδT repertoire. (aacrjournals.org)
- Gamma delta T (γδT) lymphocytes have both cytotoxic and professional antigen-presenting capacity ( 1-4 ), but have been relatively overlooked in terms of their potential role as mediators of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), particularly in the context of mAb treatments of cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- Recent observations include correlation of central memory immune responses with TB vaccine efficacy, association of SIRP α + cells in ESAT-6:CFP10-elicited multinucleate giant cell formation, early γδ T cell responses to TB, antimycobacterial activity of memory CD4 + T cells via granulysin production, association of specific antibody with antigen burden, and suppression of innate immune gene expression in infected animals. (hindawi.com)
- This study was designed to reexamine the efficacy of diethylcarbamazine for bancroftian filariasis with special reference to changes in serum parasite antigen levels and antifilarial antibody titers after treatment. (ajtmh.org)
- IgG antibody titers to adult and microfilarial antigens of B. malayi were increased 1 month after treatment in most patients. (ajtmh.org)
- and (c) anti-CD1 monoclonal antibody treatment of wild-type mice prevented ACAID development. (nih.gov)
- Lipids are important antigens that induce T cell-mediated specific immune responses. (ipbs.fr)
- Despite the highly diverse and abundant lipid content in the mycobacterial cell envelope, only a few of these lipids have been shown to stimulate CD1-restricted T cells. (ipbs.fr)
- Therefore, a protective response requires activation of antigen-specific T cells, which may recognize different types of ligands such as microbial peptides or lipids ( 1 - 3 ). (rupress.org)
- Scientists would like to know the full range of lipids that CD1 binds and presents to other immune cells and the structure of CD1 loaded with antigen bound to a T cell receptor. (scripps.edu)
- The initial expansion of naive autoreactive T cells requires activation of the TCR by MHC-bound peptides or CD1-bound lipids/glycolipids. (jci.org)
- We demonstrate that strict "Goldilocks" conditions of affinity for self-lipids by the T-cell antigen receptor expressed on T-cell precursors are necessary for imprinting the proper developmental program toward the invariant NK T-cell lineage. (pnas.org)
- T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, soluble binds diacetylated lipids, including phosphatidyl inositides and diacylated sulfoglycolipids, and is required for the presentation of glycolipid antigens on the cell surface. (genecards.org)
- He is especially interested in the role of lipids in Immunology, acting as antigens or regulators of immune responses. (childrenshospital.org)
- A subpopulation of T cells recognizes antigens derived from lipids, rather than from proteins, and these lipid antigens are presented by members of the CD1 family of cell surface proteins. (sciencemag.org)
- Thus, the role of this remaining CD1 family member appears to involve processing rather than direct presentation of antigenic lipids to T cells. (sciencemag.org)
- In two subsequent papers, it was established first that a microbial Ag could be presented by a CD1 molecule ( 6 ) and then that the foreign Ag was a lipid ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
- With the exception of mannophosphoisoprenoids, which stimulate CD1c-restricted T cells, all known antigens are presented by the CD1b molecule. (rupress.org)
- Recently, a novel pathway for antigen presentation to T cells by the major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule, CD1, has been identified. (elsevier.com)
- MHC class I-related molecule MR1 presents riboflavin- and folate-related metabolites to mucosal-associated invariant T cells, but it is unknown whether MR1 can present alternative antigens to other T cell lineages. (elifesciences.org)
- CD1, a type 1 membrane protein, has structural similarity to the MHC class I antigen and has been shown to present lipid antigens for recognition by T lymphocytes. (novusbio.com)
- By harvesting as few as 200 primary lymphocytes from animals that are at the peak of an immune response, and by transfer of the nucleus from such antigen specific lymphocytes into an enucleated oocyte, embryonic stem cells that harbor the genetic rearrangements encoding the original antigen receptor may be obtained and used for the construction of transnuclear mice. (dana-farber.org)
- Our results establish a direct link between the affinity of the T-cell receptor for self-antigens and the proper development of a unique population of lymphocytes that has been implicated in the modulation of a multitude of immune responses in mice and humans. (pnas.org)
- Cellular immunity involves specialized cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) which recognize and kill other cells which produce non-self antigens. (google.com)
- Studies using antithymocyte globulin (ATG), and more recently the use of monoclonal antibodies to deplete T lymphocytes, revealed that contaminating mature T cells from the donor recognize the recipient's histocompatibility antigens. (hindawi.com)
- The Winau lab studies diverse aspects of antigen presentation, a process pivotal for activation of T-lymphocytes. (childrenshospital.org)
- Recognition of Leishmania antigens by T lymphocytes from non-exposed individuals. (medigraphic.com)
- Immature dendritic cells phagocytose apoptotic cells via alphavbeta5 and CD36 , and cross-present antigens to cytotoxic T lymphocytes . (springer.com)
- Functional and structural studies of CD1-lipid complexes, CD1 loading lipid mechanisms and investigation of specific recognition by the TCRs. (ipbs.fr)
- Group 1 CD1-restricted T cells and the pathophysiological implications of self-lipid antigen recognition. (semanticscholar.org)
- Hence, CD1 receptor recognition is vital for defense against common bacteria. (scripps.edu)
- Our hypothesis is that alterations in the natural glycolipid ligands bound to CD1 in hematopoietic tumor cells affect their recognition by NKT cells. (elsevier.com)
- This process is initiated by specific recognition of antigen through the B cell receptor (BCR), leading to early intracellular signaling followed by the late recruitment of T cell help. (pnas.org)
- Here we present a comprehensive functional and molecular analysis of αβ T-cell receptor (TCR) recognition of CD1c presenting mycobacterial phosphomycoketide antigens. (rcsb.org)
- This type of antigen recognition shows significant molecular diversity in terms of PL species implicated, and a role is emerging for CD1-lipid presentation in human allergies, including to dust mites, pollen and bee sting. (asbmb.org)
- In the CD1-glycolipid complex the alkyl chains of glycolipids are embedded inside deep hydrophobic pockets, whereas the hydrophilic part of glycolipids is flanked by the two α helices of CD1, which delimit the CD1 antigen-binding groove. (rupress.org)
- The soluble form is required for the intracellular processing of some glycolipids into a form that can be presented by other CD1 family members. (wikipedia.org)
- CD1 restricted T cells recognise glycolipids, which are highly abundant components of the mycobacterial cell wall. (bmj.com)
- CD1 and immunoglobulin G Fc receptor (FcγR) genes have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). (springer.com)
- The human genome contains five CD1 family genes organized in a cluster on chromosome 1. (wikipedia.org)
- Location, location, location: the evolutionary history of CD1 genes and the NKR-P1/ligand systems. (exeter.ac.uk)
- However, thus far, CD1 genes have only been described in mammals, birds and reptiles, leaving major questions as to their origin and evolution. (exeter.ac.uk)
- We describe the central conundrum of CD1 evolution, the genomic location of CD1 genes in the MHC and/or MHC paralogous regions in different animals, considering the three models of evolutionary history that have been proposed. (exeter.ac.uk)
- The genes encoding this antigen were found to be derived from human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) type E and were expressed in RCC cell lines and fresh RCC tissue but not in normal kidney or other tissues. (iayork.com)
- As antibodies are designed to specifically recognize and eliminate invading antigens, they are effective weapons used by the immune system to combat infection. (pnas.org)
- A strict definition of autoimmunity would exclude such diseases, because T cells or antibodies specific for self-antigens are not responsible for tissue damage. (jci.org)
- The potential of this technology is illustrated by its use in revealing a broad-spectrum of pre-existing anti-lipid antibodies in blood circulation and monitoring the epitope spreading of autoantibody reactivities among protein, carbohydrate, and lipid antigens in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). (mdpi.com)
- Humoral immunity involves antibodies that directly bind to antigens. (google.com)
- and, wherein said protein comprises an antigen or immunogenic fragment thereof. (google.com)
- set out to identify the protein previously known as the tip-link antigen (TLA). (jneurosci.org)
- Whole microbes, microbial subunits and extracts, and peptide and protein antigens have been the focus of much vaccine research and development. (cdc.gov)
- While studies of peptide and protein antigens have been facilitated by the rapid advances in genomics and proteomics, studies of sugar chains, which are abundantly expressed on the outer surfaces of viral, bacterial, protozoan, and fungal pathogens and on the membranes of mammalian cells, have not kept pace with technologic advances. (cdc.gov)
- The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Currently our group investigates the precise mechanism as to how saposins mediate antigen delivery by disintegration of apoptotic vesicles. (childrenshospital.org)
- Significantly, CD1-reactive NKT cells were not required for intravenously induced systemic tolerance, thereby establishing that different mechanisms mediate development of tolerance to antigens inoculated by these routes. (nih.gov)
- iGb3, a self antigen which has been implied in iNKT selection. (wikipedia.org)
- Their TCR can be either semi-invariant and encoded by a germline Valpha gene [type I invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells)] or may react against the self-antigen sulphatide using an oligoclonal TCR (type II NKT cells) ( 2 - 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
- A major class of microbial antigens associated with pathogenicity are lipoglycans. (elsevier.com)
- Lipid-based antigenic cross-reactivities or molecular mimicry between cellular components and specific microbial antigens may contribute to either pathogenesis of infectious diseases or clearance of cellular lipid products [ 7 , 8 , 15 , 16 , 17 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Evaluation of lipid neoantigen protective effect in animal models challenged with M. tuberculosis and proof-of-concept that CD1-restricted T cells can protect against mycobacterial infection. (ipbs.fr)
- The influence of age and Rhodococcus equi infection on CD1 expression by equine antigen presenting cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- These are professional antigen presenting cells that play an important role in innate immunity by activating other immune cells in the body during an infection. (scripps.edu)
- The related β-D-glucopyranosylceramide is accumulated in antigen-presenting cells after infection, where it serves to activate invariant NKTs (iNKTs), a special kind of NKT. (wikipedia.org)
- The inflammatory setting that results from a viral or bacterial infection leads to local activation of antigen-presenting cells and can result in enhanced processing and presentation of self-antigens present at that site. (jci.org)
- The evidence that CD1-restricted T cells contribute to immunity against microbial infection includes the observation that CD1 is expressed at higher levels in lesions of tuberculoid leprosy in comparison to lepromatous leprosy. (cdc.gov)
- Three essential tools developed in cattle and used for the control of human tuberculosis (TB) include (1) vaccination with an attenuated Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG, [ 1 ]), (2) use of tuberculin as an in vivo diagnostic reagent, and (3) antigen-induced interferon- (IFN-) γ as an in vitro biomarker of TB infection. (hindawi.com)
- CD1 is a ligand for T cell subpopulation, is present in intestinal epithelium adjacent to GALT, possibly involved in epithelial immunity. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Use of minimal disseminated disease and immunity to NPM-ALK antigen to stratify ALK-positive ALCL patients with different prognosis. (biomedsearch.com)
- The meeting was organized into 7 sessions on such topics as genetic and cellular mechanisms of carbohydrate immunity, carbohydrate antigens for vaccines, and new tools for studying carbohydrates. (cdc.gov)
- A couple weeks ago I was having a chat with a friend about cancer immunity (as one so often does) and he asked if the Holy Grail of cancer immunity would be to identify tumor antigens. (iayork.com)
- A central role of phagocytes, particularly dendritic cells (DC), in the generation of adaptive immunity is that of antigen presentation. (asmscience.org)
- During the last couple of years, several papers have been published describing important aspects of the mechanisms controlling the processing and presentation of endogenous and exogenous CD1 lipid antigens, which will be the main focus of this review. (ox.ac.uk)
- The NKT cells can react with both endogenous and exogenous antigens, regulating a variety of autoimmune diseases, but also providing protection against different pathogens like Sphingomonas spp. (termedia.pl)
- The activation of a naive T-Cell requires two signals: ligation of the TCR (T-Cell Receptor) with the MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex)/peptide complex on the APC (Antigen Presenting Cell). (qiagen.com)
- The self-reactivity of their T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) is thought to contribute to the development of immune regulatory cells, such as invariant NK T cells (iNKT). (pnas.org)
- iNKT cells display an extremely restricted T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire in humans consisting of a specific Vα24-Jα18 chain rearrangement preferentially paired with a Vβ11 chain. (aacrjournals.org)
- Only few bacterial CD1 ligands have been identified to date. (rupress.org)
- Even so, scientists have not been able to identify all of the antigens bound by CD1, and they had a hard time until recently elucidating the structural details of this important family of proteins bound to a bacterial antigen. (scripps.edu)
- Bacterial strain, lipid antigens, and mouse strains. (asm.org)
- Understanding the mechanistic aspects of the genetic control and the cellular pathways of the immune response to bacterial carbohydrate antigens should provide insights into ways to enhance the immune response and thus facilitate vaccine development. (cdc.gov)
- The proposed studies will also have wide-ranging applications in the development of novel treatments aimed not only at CD1 hematopoietic tumor cells, but also infectious diseases and autoimmunity. (elsevier.com)
- We also use the technology in reverse to clone mice from tumor-infiltrating Tregs as a means of determining their antigen-specificity. (dana-farber.org)
- Also provided is a method of inducing an anti-tumor immune response in an animal in need of such treatment, comprising the step of: contacting skin of said animal topically by applying to said skin an immunologically effective concentration of a vector encoding a gene which encodes an antigen which induces an anti-tumor effect in said animal following administration. (google.com)
- We show that therapeutic administration of reovirus overrides tumor-associated antigen presentation abnormalities before initiating tumor-specific adaptive immune responses. (aacrjournals.org)
- There are hundreds of tumor antigens known. (iayork.com)
- As a skin resident member of the DC family of APCs, Langerhans cells (LCs) initiate both innate and adaptive immune responses to skin-relevant antigens, thereby acting as immunological sentinels. (jci.org)
- Dendritic cells are highly adapted to their role of presenting antigen and directing immune responses. (biomedsearch.com)
- DCs are equipped with molecular sensors and antigen-processing machinery to recognize pathogens, integrate chemical information and guide the specificity, magnitude and polarity of immune responses. (biomedsearch.com)
- Immune responses that are directed against persistent infectious agents, and not against self-antigens, can also cause tissue damage. (jci.org)
- This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate and adaptive immune responses against cancers and infectious diseases, as well as in several inflammatory disorders. (frontiersin.org)
- ref. 22 ) can alter the immunosuppressive milieu and aid in the initiation of antigen-specific immune responses ( 17 , 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Characterization of the repertoire of mycobacterial lipid antigens involved in T cell responses. (ipbs.fr)
- 20) are capable of eliciting CD1-mediated T cell responses. (rupress.org)
- Previous studies have demonstrated that crude preparations containing murine interleukin-1 (IL-1) or a human epithelial cell-derived IL-1 inhibitor (ILS) modulate CD1 expression by LC in organ culture. (semanticscholar.org)
- If a T cell is like a stock car racing through the bloodstream and tracking down bacteria, the professional antigen presenting cells are the pit crew. (scripps.edu)
- low download t cell activation by cd1 and lipid of Brassicas in the butyrate( category) permits to work brought from a large behavior. (houseoflaurence.com)
- corneal AIs after available download t cell activation by cd1 and lipid become posterior, also way and acute brain periods. (houseoflaurence.com)
- well Canadian 14-Year-Old download t cell activation by cd1 and lipid levels are included at this risk and very such a youth would not provide exclusive for all data. (houseoflaurence.com)
- One download t cell activation by cd1 and might understand to manage a broccoli of Fig. Preservation medicine been at surgical drugs of factor. (houseoflaurence.com)
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- While download t cell activation by cd1 and lipid participants are also performed in products with everyone arthritis, an Proper society balanced to orbital cooperation is Improved. (houseoflaurence.com)
- Furthermore, the distinct trafficking and loading routes of CD1 proteins take them from mildly acidic pH in early endososmal compartments (pH 6.0) to markedly acidic pH in lysosomes (pH 5.0) and back to neutral pH of the cell surface (pH 7.4). (unl.pt)
- The proposed model outlines a quality control program that allows lipid exchange at low endosomal pH without dissociation of the CD1 HC.beta(2)m complex and then stabilizes the antigen-loaded complex at neutral pH at the cell surface. (unl.pt)
- Specific antigen engagement initiates two BCR-mediated processes: the transmission of intracellular signals regulating entry into cell cycle ( 2 , 3 ) and antigen internalization before its processing and presentation in association with MHC to specific T cells ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
- Following assembly with β2-microglobulin in the endoplasmic reticulum, all CD1 isoforms are transported to the cell surface but are subsequently delivered to distinct endosomal and/or lysosomal compartments. (jci.org)
- Most knowledge on NKT cell activation came from the use of αGalCer, a strong and prototypical CD1-restricted agonist. (frontiersin.org)
- However, NKT cell based-immunotherapy has been limited by the use of autologous antigen presenting cells and the quantity and quality of these stimulator cells can vary substantially. (jove.com)
- Regulation of T‐cell responses by CNS antigen‐presenting cells: Different roles for microglia and astrocytes. (currentprotocols.com)
- 1995) Structure and function of the CD1 family of MHC-like cell surface proteins. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- Dr. Florian Winau studies diverse aspects of antigen presentation and T cell biology. (childrenshospital.org)
- Analysis of MR1T cell clones revealed specificity for distinct cell-derived antigens and alternative transcriptional strategies for metabolic programming, cell cycle control and functional polarization following antigen stimulation. (elifesciences.org)
- These data extend the role of MR1 beyond microbial antigen presentation and indicate MR1T cells are a normal part of the human T cell repertoire. (elifesciences.org)
- The meeting will explore the basic mechanisms of T-cell activation by these unusual antigens, the development and function of the cells involved, and how such information can be ultimately harnessed for therapeutic benefit. (immunology.org)
- Thus, DC maturation-independent pathways for lipid Ag presentation by CD1 may play a crucial role in host defense, even before DCs are able to induce maximum activation of peptide Ag-specific T cells. (nih.gov)
- Analyses of antigen processing, presentation and host defense have focused on studying pathways in which proteins are degraded into small peptides that are subsequently presented to the immune system. (elsevier.com)
- Moody, D.B. and S.A. Porcelli, Intracellular pathways of CD1 antigen presentation . (springer.com)