Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (1/19664)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. (2/19664)

We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen.  (+info)

Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis by gene delivery of soluble p75 tumour necrosis factor receptor. (3/19664)

Collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice can be passively transferred to SCID mice with spleen B- and T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we show that infection ex vivo of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a retroviral vector, containing cDNA for the soluble form of human p75 receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-R) before transfer, prevents the development of arthritis, bone erosion and joint inflammation in the SCID recipients. Assessment of IgG subclass levels and studies of synovial histology suggest that down-regulating the effector functions of T helper-type 1 (Th1) cells may, at least in part, explain the inhibition of arthritis in the SCID recipients. In contrast, the transfer of splenocytes infected with mouse TNF-alpha gene construct resulted in exacerbated arthritis and enhancement of IgG2a antibody levels. Intriguingly, infection of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a construct for mouse IL-10 had no modulating effect on the transfer of arthritis. The data suggest that manipulation of the immune system with cytokines, or cytokine inhibitors using gene transfer protocols can be an effective approach to ameliorate arthritis.  (+info)

Structure of CD94 reveals a novel C-type lectin fold: implications for the NK cell-associated CD94/NKG2 receptors. (4/19664)

The crystal structure of the extracellular domain of CD94, a component of the CD94/NKG2 NK cell receptor, has been determined to 2.6 A resolution, revealing a unique variation of the C-type lectin fold. In this variation, the second alpha helix, corresponding to residues 102-112, is replaced by a loop, the putative carbohydrate-binding site is significantly altered, and the Ca2+-binding site appears nonfunctional. This structure may serve as a prototype for other NK cell receptors such as Ly-49, NKR-P1, and CD69. The CD94 dimer observed in the crystal has an extensive hydrophobic interface that stabilizes the loop conformation of residues 102-112. The formation of this dimer reveals a putative ligand-binding region for HLA-E and suggests how NKG2 interacts with CD94.  (+info)

Exposure of human vascular endothelial cells to sustained hydrostatic pressure stimulates proliferation. Involvement of the alphaV integrins. (5/19664)

The present study investigated the effects of sustained hydrostatic pressure (SHP; up to 4 cm H2O) on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, focal adhesion plaque (FAP) organization, and integrin expression. Exposure of HUVECs to SHP stimulated cell proliferation and a selective increase in the expression of integrin subunit alphaV. The increase in alphaV was observed as early as 4 hours after exposure to pressure and preceded detectable increases in the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index. Laser confocal microscopy studies demonstrated colocalization of the alphaV integrin to FAPs. The individual FAPs in pressure-treated cells demonstrated a reduced area and increased aspect ratio and were localized to both peripheral and more central regions of the cells, in contrast to the predilection for the cell periphery in cells maintained under control pressure conditions. The pressure-induced changes in alphaV distribution had functional consequences on the cells: adhesivity of the cells to vitronectin was increased, and alphaV antagonists blocked the pressure-induced proliferative response. Thus, the present study suggests a role for alphaV integrins in the mechanotransduction of pressure by endothelial cells.  (+info)

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent and Ehrlichia chaffeensis reside in different cytoplasmic compartments in HL-60 cells. (6/19664)

The human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent resides and multiplies exclusively in cytoplasmic vacuoles of granulocytes. Double immunofluorescence labeling was used to characterize the nature of the HGE agent replicative inclusions and to compare them with inclusions containing the human monocytic ehrlichia, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, in HL-60 cells. Although both Ehrlichia spp. can coinfect HL-60 cells, they resided in separate inclusions. Inclusions of both Ehrlichia spp. were not labeled with either anti-lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 or anti-CD63. Accumulation of myeloperoxidase-positive granules were seen around HGE agent inclusions but not around E. chaffeensis inclusions. 3-(2, 4-Dinitroanilino)-3'-amino-N-methyldipropylamine and acridine orange were not localized to either inclusion type. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase was not colocalized with HGE agent inclusions but was weakly colocalized with E. chaffeensis inclusions. E. chaffeensis inclusions were labeled with the transferrin receptor, early endosomal antigen 1, and rab5, but HGE agent inclusions were not. Some HGE agent and E. chaffeensis inclusions colocalized with major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigens. These two inclusions were not labeled for annexins I, II, IV, and VI; alpha-adaptin; clathrin heavy chain; or beta-coatomer protein. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 colocalized to both inclusions. The cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor was not colocalized with either inclusion type. Endogenously synthesized sphingomyelin, from C6-NBD-ceramide, was not incorporated into either inclusion type. Brefeldin A did not affect the growth of either Ehrlichia sp. in HL-60 cells. These results suggest that the HGE agent resides in inclusions which are neither early nor late endosomes and does not fuse with lysosomes or Golgi-derived vesicles, while E. chaffeensis resides in an early endosomal compartment which accumulates the transferrin receptor.  (+info)

Cell surface sialic acid and the regulation of immune cell interactions: the neuraminidase effect reconsidered. (7/19664)

It has been known for over a decade that sialidase (neuraminidase) treatment could substantially enhance the capacity of resting B cells to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic and antigen specific, syngeneic T cells. Thus, cell-surface sialic acid was implicated as a potential modulator of immune cell interaction. However, little progress has been made in either identifying explicit roles for sialic acid in this system or in hypothesizing mechanisms to explain the "neuraminidase effect." Here we show for the first time that cell surface sialic acid on medium incubated B cells blocks access to costimulatory molecules on the B cell surface, and that this is the most likely explanation for the neuraminidase effect. Further, we show that it is likely to be upregulation of ICAM-1 and its subsequent engagement of LFA-1 rather than loss of cell surface sialic acid that in part regulates access to CD86 and other costimulatory molecules. However, we cannot exclude a role for CD86-bound sialic acid on the B cell in modulating binding to T cell CD28. Because sialidase treatment of resting B cells but not resting T cells enables T cell activation, we suggest that sialidase treatment may still be an analogue for an authentic step in B cell activation, and show that for highly activated B cells (activated with polyclonal anti-IgM plus INF-gamma) there is specific loss 2, 6-linked sialic acid. Potential roles for sialic acid in modulating B cell/T cell collaboration are discussed.  (+info)

Altered trafficking of lysosomal proteins in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome due to mutations in the beta 3A subunit of the AP-3 adaptor. (8/19664)

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a genetic disorder characterized by defective lysosome-related organelles. Here, we report the identification of two HPS patients with mutations in the beta 3A subunit of the heterotetrameric AP-3 complex. The patients' fibroblasts exhibit drastically reduced levels of AP-3 due to enhanced degradation of mutant beta 3A. The AP-3 deficiency results in increased surface expression of the lysosomal membrane proteins CD63, lamp-1, and lamp-2, but not of nonlysosomal proteins. These differential effects are consistent with the preferential interaction of the AP-3 mu 3A subunit with tyrosine-based signals involved in lysosomal targeting. Our results suggest that AP-3 functions in protein sorting to lysosomes and provide an example of a human disease in which altered trafficking of integral membrane proteins is due to mutations in a component of the sorting machinery.  (+info)

*Monoclonal antibody therapy

Tumor cells, however are highly abnormal, and many display unusual antigens. Some such tumor antigens are inappropriate for the ... Hooks MA, Wade CS, Millikan WJ (1991). "Muromonab CD-3: a review of its pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical use in ... Humanised antibodies bind antigen much more weakly than the parent murine monoclonal antibody, with reported decreases in ... Increases in antibody-antigen binding strength have been achieved by introducing mutations into the complementarity determining ...

*CD16

CD antigens". Immunobiology (5 ed.). New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8153-3642-X. Yeap, Wei Hseun; Wong, Kok Loon; Shimasaki, Noriko ... CD16 Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...

*LAG3

"CD antigens 2001". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 70 (5): 685-90. PMID 11698486. Syn, Nicholas L; Teng, Michele W L; Mok, Tony S ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... An initial characterization of the LAG-3 protein was reported in 1992 showing that it was a ligand for MHC class II antigens ...

*Cluster of differentiation

Table of CD Antigens CD list Protein Reviews On The Web Yet another list of CD molecules, at PathologyOutlines.com Wall charts ... "CD Antigens" (PDF). abcam. 2009. Retrieved 2014-11-22. Passlick B, Flieger D, Ziegler-Heitbrock HW (1989). "Identification and ... CD for humans is numbered up to 371 (as of 21 April 2016[update]). The CD nomenclature was proposed and established in the 1st ... Since 1982 there have been nine Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen Workshops culminating in a conference The CD system is ...

*Sema domain

CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. CD antigens nomenclature is updated at Protein Reviews On The Web (http ...

*Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein

CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. CD antigens nomenclature is updated at Protein Reviews On The Web (http ...

*CD59 antigen

CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. CD antigens nomenclature is updated at Protein Reviews On The Web (http ... CD59 antigen (also called 1F-5Ag, H19, HRF20, MACIF, MIRL, P-18 or protectin) inhibits formation of membrane attack complex ( ...

*CD36 antigen

CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. CD antigens nomenclature is updated at Protein Reviews On The Web (http ... CD36 antigen is a transmembrane, highly glycosylated, glycoprotein expressed by monocytes, macrophages, platelets, ...

*Langerin

Additionally it is known by the name C-type lectin domain family 4 member K (CD antigen CD207). It is also expressed in several ... by this protein leads to internalization of antigen into Birbeck granules and providing access to a nonclassical antigen- ... "Langerhans cells utilize CD1a and langerin to efficiently present nonpeptide antigens to T cells". Journal of Clinical ...

*PTPRC

... is also known as CD45 antigen (CD stands for cluster of differentiation), which was originally called leukocyte common ... This PTP has been shown to be an essential regulator of T- and B-cell antigen receptor signaling. It functions through either ... Brown VK, Ogle EW, Burkhardt AL, Rowley RB, Bolen JB, Justement LB (June 1994). "Multiple components of the B cell antigen ... A unique secreted adenovirus E3 protein binds to the leukocyte common antigen CD45 and modulates leukocyte functions. Proc Natl ...

*B3GAT1

In immunology, the CD57 antigen (CD stands for cluster of differentiation) is also known as HNK1 (human natural killer-1) or ... Although the antigen is particularly common in carcinoid tumours, it is found in such a wide range of other conditions that it ... CD57 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human B3GAT1 genome location and B3GAT1 ... Assouti M, Vynios DH, Anagnostides ST, Papadopoulos G, Georgakopoulos CD, Gartaganis SP (Jan 2006). "Collagen type IX and HNK-1 ...

*CD28

Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart Human CD28 genome location and CD28 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Association of the TCR of a naive T cell with MHC:antigen complex without CD28:B7 interaction results in a T cell that is ... Schneider H, Cai YC, Prasad KV, Shoelson SE, Rudd CE (Apr 1995). "T cell antigen CD28 binds to the GRB-2/SOS complex, ... Li L, Li HS, Pauza CD, Bukrinsky M, Zhao RY (2006). "Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen ...

*CD1

... Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. This often remains true in neoplastic cells from ... They are related to the class I MHC molecules, and are involved in the presentation of lipid antigens to T cells. However their ... The natural antigens of group 2 CD1 are not well characterized, but a synthetic glycolipid, alpha-galactosylceramide, ...

*CD3 (immunology)

Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart. ... The antigen is found bound to the membranes of all mature T- ... The antigen remains present in almost all T-cell lymphomas and leukaemias, and can therefore be used to distinguish them from ... ISBN 1-4377-1528-1. CD3 Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... and it is at this latter stage that CD3 antigen begins to migrate to the cell membrane. ...

*CD19

Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart Human CD19 genome location and CD19 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser ... yet sensitive manner to the various antigens is achieved with the use of low-affinity antigen receptors. The CD19 gene encodes ... B-lymphocyte antigen CD19, also known as CD19 (Cluster of Differentiation 19), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... As on T cells, several surface molecules form the antigen receptor and form a complex on B lymphocytes. The (almost) B cell- ...

*Magnetic-activated cell sorting

... is a method for separation of various cell populations depending on their surface antigens (CD molecules) invented by Miltenyi ... In negative selection the antibody used is against surface antigen(s) which are known to be present on cells that are not of ... Magnetic nanoparticles conjugated to an antibody against an antigen of interest are not always available, but there is a way to ... In this step, the cells attached to the nanoparticles (expressing the antigen) stay on the column, while other cells (not ...

*CD31

Human CD Antigen Chart (eBioscience) Mouse CD Antigen Chart (eBioscience) Human PECAM1 genome location and PECAM1 gene details ... Malignant endothelial cells also commonly retain the antigen, so that CD31 immunohistochemistry can also be used to demonstrate ... a putative intercellular adhesion molecule closely related to carcinoembryonic antigen". J. Exp. Med. 171 (6): 2147-52. doi: ...

*CD69

1995). "CD 69 antigen of human lymphocytes is a calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding protein". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ... Hamann J, Fiebig H, Strauss M (1993). "Expression cloning of the early activation antigen CD69, a type II integral membrane ... 1994). "Structure of the gene coding for the human early lymphocyte activation antigen CD69: a C-type lectin receptor ... 1993). "Molecular characterization of the early activation antigen CD69: a type II membrane glycoprotein related to a family of ...

*IL2RA

Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells gradually accumulate in gliomas during tumor growth ...

*CD8

T-cell Group - Cardiff University Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart CD8 alpha - Marker for cytotoxic T lymphocytes ... In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...

*Integrin alpha M

Integrin alphaM at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... also known as macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) or complement receptor 3 (CR3). ITGAM is also known as CR3A, and cluster of ...

*Antibody microarray

... such as CD antigens and HLA allotypic antigens, particulate antigens, such as viruses and bacteria, and soluble antigens. The ... Chang, Tse W. U.S. Patent 4,591,570 "Matrix of antibody-coated spots for determination of antigens", Priority date February 2, ... Initial uses of antibody-based array systems included detecting IgGs and specific subclasses, analyzing antigens, screening ... subjected to targeted antigens and then characterised by a microscope through counting fluorescing wells. A cost-effective ...

*Vorsetuzumab

Chemical names are: Immunoglobulin G1, anti-(CD antigen CD70) (human-mouse monoclonal h1F6 heavy chain), disulfide with human- ... mouse monoclonal h1F6 light chain, dimer Immunoglobulin G1, anti-(human CD70 antigen (CD27 ligand, Tumor necrosis Vorsetuzumab ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd MeSH D23.101.100.110.030 --- activated-leukocyte cell adhesion molecule MeSH D23.101.100.110.101 --- antigens, cd1 ... antigens, differentiation MeSH D23.050.301.264.035 --- antigens, cd MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.030 --- activated-leukocyte cell ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...

*CD34

Antigens, CD34 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... Hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34 also known as CD34 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD34 gene. ... A hematopoietic progenitor cell surface antigen defined by a monoclonal antibody raised against KG-1a cells". Journal of ... Loken M. Shah V. Civin CI.. (1987). "Characterization of myeloid antigens on human bone marrow using multicolour ...

*Death-associated protein 6

Lewis PW, Elsaesser SJ, Noh KM, Stadler SC, Allis CD (2010). "Daxx is an H3.3-specific histone chaperone and cooperates with ... It interacts with a wide variety of proteins, such as apoptosis antigen Fas, centromere protein C, and transcription factor ...

*CD4

CD1 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... The antigen has also been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases such as vitiligo and type I diabetes mellitus. T- ... CD4 is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Li L, Li HS, Pauza CD, Bukrinsky M, Zhao RY (2006). "Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen ...
Synonyms for CD antigen in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for CD antigen. 15 words related to antigen: substance, immunizing agent, immunogen, immunology, agglutinogen, fetoprotein, foetoprotein, anatoxin, toxoid.... What are synonyms for CD antigen?
The cluster of differentiation antigens that were originally marker antigens found on different classes of lymphocytes using monoclonal antibodies. The CD nomenclature was introduced as a means of bringing consistency because the same CD antigen can be recognized by different monoclonal antibodies; international workshops are run to cross-compare antibodies against standard antigens. The CD antigens are no longer restricted to the immune system and the list covers a wide range of cell surface antigens, some of which are transiently expressed at particular stages of differentiation or following stimulation of cells by particular agents. In mid-2009 the list extended to CD350.. http://www.copewithcytokines.de/cope.cgi?key=CD%20antigens%20MiniCOPE%20Dictionary. Details of all CD antigens in Prof. Dr H Ibelgauftss COPE encyclopedia.. http://www.abcam.com/ps/pdf/immunology/CD_antigen_table.pdf A free updated table of these is produced by Abcam. ...
Lymphoma is one of the most prevalent cancers in dogs [1]. Diagnostic testing and prognosis is based on clinical signs and degree of spread, morphological features of the lymph node and lymphocytes, and other cytopathologic features such as mitotic rate, and clonality of antigen-receptor rearrangement or of cluster of differentiation (CD) antigens.. Immunophenotyping CD antigens has contributed significantly to both diagnosis and prognosis of lymphoid neoplasia. This approach measures the binding of labelled, monoclonal antibodies to specific intracellular or surface CD antigens. It is well-established and has long been used in cell analysis, particularly in the fields of haematology and immunology [2-4]. For lymphoma, it can be accomplished using either immunohistochemistry of tissue-biopsy sections [5] or by immunocytochemistry of fine needle aspirates. Cytologic analysis can be done manually on smears using microscopy [6] or on cell suspensions using automated, flow ...
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Modulatory signalling in immune cells: SLAM family receptors and SAP-related adaptors André Veillette 414A November 2004. Fc g RIII (NK cells). TCR (T-cells). Fc e RI (mast cells). a. gg. gg. ge. de. b. zz. Immunoreceptors. NCRs NKG2D (NK cells). BCR (B-cells). DAP-12. Slideshow 3346189 by dara
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Research proven mouse monoclonal CD34 antibody. Excellent marker for hematopoietic progenitors and stem cells. CD34 protein is involved in differentiating HPCs into certain types of neurons. Also useful for studying endothelial cells, angigogensis and tumorigenesis. Designed for immunohistochemisitry and related applications. IHC image available.
Research proven mouse monoclonal CD34 antibody. Excellent marker for hematopoietic progenitors and stem cells. CD34 protein is involved in differentiating HPCs into certain types of neurons. Also useful for studying endothelial cells, angigogensis and tumorigenesis. Designed for immunohistochemisitry and related applications. IHC image available.
Recombinant cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, soluble receptors and CD antigens which are highly purified, stable and biologically active.
Clone REA980 recognizes the mouse CD357 antigen, also known as glucocorticoid-induced TNF-receptor (GITR) or TNFRSF18. CD357 is a member of the TNF receptor superfamily. It is expressed at low levels on resting T lymphocytes and at high levels on CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Activation of T cells upregulates CD357 expression. Interaction of CD357 (GTITR) with its ligand (GITRL) has been demonstrated to augment T cell activation, proliferation, cytokine production, as well as MAPKs and NF-κB activation. CD357 plays an important role in the function of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs. Additional information: Clone REA980 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - USA
Shop SLAM family ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and SLAM family Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
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CD147 Antigens: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
Role of γ/δ T cell surface molecules and soluble mediators in DC maturation. (A) CD40 ligand cell surface expression by JR.2. γ/δ T cells. CD40 ligand expre
... , Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market is estimated to be valued US$ XX.X million in 2019. The report on T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market provides qualitative as well as quantitative analysis in terms of market dynamics, competition scenarios, opportunity analysis, market growth, etc. for the forecast year up to 2029. The global t lymphocyte activation antigen cd80 market ...
Sheep Polyclonal Anti-Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1/CD157 Antibody. Validated: WB. Tested Reactivity: Mouse. 100% Guaranteed.
Uridine diphosphatase (UDPase) that promotes protein N-glycosylation and ATP level regulation. UDP hydrolysis promotes protein N-glycosylation and folding in the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as elevated ATP consumption in the cytosol via an ATP hydrolysis cycle. Together with CMPK1 and AK1, constitutes an ATP hydrolysis cycle that converts ATP to AMP and results in a compensatory increase in aerobic glycolysis. The nucleotide hydrolyzing preference is GDP > IDP > UDP, but not any other nucleoside di-, mono- or triphosphates, nor thiamine pyrophosphate. Plays a key role in the AKT1-PTEN signaling pathway by promoting glycolysis in proliferating cells in response to phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling.
Reactivity: Chicken, Cow, Human and more. Compare 7 different ENTPD5 ELISA Kits & buy the right one directly at antibodies-online.com!
Might support glycosylation reactions in the Golgi apparatus and, when released from cells, might catalyze the hydrolysis of extracellular nucleotides. Hydrolyzes preferentially nucleoside 5-diphosphates, nucleoside 5-triphosphates are hydrolyzed only to a minor extent, there is no hydrolysis of nucleoside 5-monophosphates. The order of activity with different substrates is GDP , IDP ,, UDP = CDP ,, ADP (By similarity ...
Uridine diphosphatase (UDPase) that promotes protein N-glycosylation and ATP level regulation. UDP hydrolysis promotes protein N-glycosylation and folding in the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as elevated ATP consumption in the cytosol via an ATP hydrolysis cycle. Together with CMPK1 and AK1, constitutes an ATP hydrolysis cycle that converts ATP to AMP and results in a compensatory increase in aerobic glycolysis. The nucleotide hydrolyzing preference is GDP , IDP , UDP, but not any other nucleoside di-, mono- or triphosphates, nor thiamine pyrophosphate. Plays a key role in the AKT1-PTEN signaling pathway by promoting glycolysis in proliferating cells in response to phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling ...
References for Abcams Anti-Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 antibody (ab74301). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
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CD248 (endosialin) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is dynamically expressed on pericytes and fibroblasts during tissue development, tumour neovascularization and inflammation. Its role in tissue remodelling is associated with increased stromal cell proliferation and migration. We show that CD248 is also uniquely expressed by human, but not mouse (C57BL/6), CD8(+) naive T cells. CD248 is found only on CD8(+) CCR7(+) CD11a(low) naive T cells and on CD8 single-positive T cells in the thymus. Transfection of the CD248 negative T-cell line MOLT-4 with CD248 cDNA surprisingly reduced cell proliferation. Knock-down of CD248 on naive CD8 T cells increased cell proliferation. These data demonstrate opposing functions for CD248 on haematopoietic (CD8(+)) versus stromal cells and suggests that CD248 helps to maintain naive CD8(+) human T cells in a quiescent state.
Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-linked protein (SAP) plays an essential role in the immune Ezatiostat system mediating the function of several members of the SLAM family (SLAMF) of receptors whose expression is essential for T NK and B-cell Rabbit Polyclonal to GABRD. responses. in mouse. However it is definitely less obvious whether other users of this family may also participate in the development of these innate T cells. Here we display that and strain suggesting that Slamf5 may function as a negative regulator of innate CD8+ T cell development. Accordingly B6 mice showed an exclusive growth of innate CD8+ T cells but not NKT cells. Interestingly the SAP-independent strain showed an growth of both splenic innate CD8+ T cells and thymic NKT cells. On the other hand and similar to what was recently demonstrated in BALB/c mice the proportions of thymic promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZFhi) NKT cells and innate CD8+ T cells significantly improved in the SAP-independent ...
This modification could also explain the Z-DEVD-FMK mouse increased resistance to Az in F. tularensis LVS. In addition, there are methylases that can confer increased resistance by targeted. modification (methylation) of a specific adenine residue of the 23S rRNA. There are some methylases that have been identified as critical virulence factors for Francisella that might carry out this modification [39]. Some methylases that are present in the genome of F. novicida are either absent or are pseudogenes/nonfunctional genes (such as FTT0010, FTT0770, FTT1430, FTT1719, and FTT1735c) in F. tularensis Temsirolimus order Schu S4, potentially contributing to the different sensitivities to Az between the strains [34]. Any potential role of these molecules in Az sensitivity or resistance in Francisella has not yet been determined. It has been suggested that Az attaches to the acidic LPS on the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, allowing the drug to penetrate through the outer membrane and enter the ...
CD80 is a highly glycosylated surface protein of 45-60 kDa found on activated B cells, T cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells. Based upon the CD80 cDNA sequence, the molecular weight of the protein core is 30 kDa. The remaining 15-30 kDa of the molecular weight is N-linked carbohydrate attached at eight possible sites in the extracellular region. CD80, and its structural and functional homolog CD86, both bind to the T cell molecules CD28 and CTLA-4. CD28 is found on resting and activated T cells, and is a major costimulatory molecule in the immune response. Ligation of CD28 increases both cytokine gene transcription and mRNA stability, and up-regulates cytokine receptor expression. CTLA-4 is expressed on T cells and B cells only after activation. Its role in T cell immunity is less clear than that of CD28. Initially, antibodies to CTLA-4 were shown to enhance CD3-and CD28-mediated T cell proliferation, but it has become clear recently that CTLA-4 is a major negative regulatory protein, limiting ...
The immunophenotypic profiles of low-grade B cell NHL are complex and still under investigation. Especially the T cell antigen CD5 is used to subclassify this group of B cell lymphomas. The MALT lymphomas express pan-B-cell antigens but typically lack CD5 expression [2]. CD5 is a T-cell antigen that is expressed on normal B-cells and occasionally on B-cell neoplasm [8]. The T cell antigen CD5 has been reported in B cell NHL between 3% and 40% [9].. Whether CD5 expression is relevant to the prognosis of patients with MALT lymphoma is controversial [5]. In the conjunctival region, we reviewed the cases of three patients with CD5-positive MALT lymphoma (Table 1). The cases of one patients formally reported by Wenzel et al. were presented as a more aggressive disease than typical MALT lymphoma [6]. Local recurrence was noted in this case, and patient had rapid generalization to the contralateral conjunctiva, mediastinal lymph nodes and the esophagogastric. The investigators suggested that CD5 ...
A CD Antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form Macrophage-1 Antigen ...
Complete information for BST2 gene (Protein Coding), Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Antigen 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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CD26 and CD31 surface antigen expression on human colostral T cells.: The expression levels of CD26 and CD31 surface antigens, two adhesion/activation molecules
Clone REA150 recognizes CD319, which is a single-pass type I transmembrane protein. CD319 belongs to the SLAM-related receptors (SRRs) family, a subgroup of the CD2 family of Ig-like receptors. Expression of CD319 is found on activated B lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, CD8+ T lymphocytes, and mature dendritic cells. The cytoplasmic domain of CD319 contains immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), which provide the docking sites for recruitment of small SH2-containing adapter proteins, such as SH2D1A/SLAM-associated protein (SAP) and EWS activated transcript 2 (EAT-2). CD319 displays homophilic interaction and is involved in mediating NK cell cytotoxicity, in the absence of an inhibitory receptor engagement. Additional information: Clone REA150 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Italia
Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein that is known to complex with integrins. It contributes to the transduction of CD2-generated signals in T cells and natural killer cells and has been suggested to play a role in growth regulation. Familial deficiency of this gene has been linked to an immunodeficiency associated with recurrent infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi and viruses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. Cluster of differentiation Tetraspanin GRCh38: Ensembl ...
The CD152 antigen, also called CTLA4, is an integral membrane protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, which is expressed either as a 30 kDa monomer or as a disulfide-linked homodimer. It has homology with the T cell antigen CD28, and like CD28, is a ligand for CD80 and CD86. CTLA-4 is transiently expressed by activated T cells and is not detectable in resting T cells. CD152 and CD28 are involved in the costimulation required for T cell activation ...
Project:The suppressive role of sCD83 in a mouse model of diabetes; phenotype and mechanism of action studies. The hypothesis being addressed in this proposal is that a soluble form of the cell surface molecule CD83 will prevent or treat ongoing type 1 diabetes (T1D) in NOD mice based upon preliminary findings as well as previous The role of GRAIL in the induction of anergic and regulatory CD4+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment. GRAIL (RNF128) is a type 1 transmembrane RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that localizes to the transferrin-recycling endocytic pathway. While very little expression in resting CD4+ T cells is observed, GRAIL mRNA and protein becomes upregulated in T cells exposed to antigen in the absence of appropriate costimulation or following peptide administration in a tolerazing fashion in vivo. CD4+ T cells infiltrating tumor masses seem to become tolerant to the tumor and in certain cases may differentiate into Tregs, which may block the anti-tumor immune response. In most cases the ...
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[54 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 5 (Carcinoembryonic Antigen or CEA or Meconium Antigen 100 or CD66e or CEACAM5) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 report by Global Markets Direct. Global Markets Directs, Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule...
Looking for online definition of bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 in the Medical Dictionary? bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 explanation free. What is bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1? Meaning of bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 medical term. What does bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 mean?
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 8 (CEACAM8) also known as CD66b (Cluster of Differentiation 66b), is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family. Its main function is cell adhesion, cell migration, and pathogen binding. CEACAM8 is expressed exclusively on granulocytes and used as granulocyte marker. Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000124469 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: CEACAM8 carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 8". Khan WN, Frängsmyr L, Teglund S, et al. (1992). "Identification of three new genes and estimation of the size of the carcinoembryonic antigen family". Genomics. 14 (2): 384-90. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(05)80230-7. PMID 1427854. Oikawa S, Inuzuka C, Kuroki M, et al. (1991). "A specific heterotypic cell adhesion activity between members of carcinoembryonic antigen family, W272 and NCA, is mediated by N-domains". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (13): 7995-8001. PMID 2022629. Berling ...
l-SACC1 transgenic mice with liver inactivation of CEACAM1 demonstrated that CEACAM1 promotes insulin action by coordinated regulation of insulin and lipid metabolism (8,10,24). The purpose of this study was to use the null Cc1−/− mouse to reevaluate the role of CEACAM1 in insulin action in the absence of the potential confounding effect of the dominant-negative transgene. We herein report that homozygosity for a null Cc1 allele phenocopies transgenic inactivation of CEACAM1 in liver and causes visceral obesity together with impairment of insulin clearance and hyperinsulinemia, followed by insulin resistance, with an earlier onset when propagated on a mixed C57BL/6x129sv relative to pure C57BL/6 background (as with null mutation of the insulin receptor substrate 2 gene [25,26]). Despite abundant expression in β-cells, null mutation of Ceacam1 does not reduce β-cell secretory function or β-cell area in response to glucose. This supports a key role for CEACAM1 in promoting hepatic insulin ...
We describe a high-throughput screening system to detect interactions between leucocyte surface proteins, taking into account that these interactions are usually of very low affinity. The method involves producing the extracellular regions of leucocyte proteins with tags so that they can be bound to nanoparticles to provide an avid reagent to screen over an array of 36 similar proteins immobilized using the Proteon XPR36 with detection by surface plasmon resonance. The system was tested using established interactions that could be detected without spurious binding. The ability to detect new interactions was shown by identifying a new interaction between carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 and carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 8.
Background: Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), an immunoglobulin (Ig)-related glycoprotein, serves as cellular receptor for a variety of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens associated with the human mucosa. In particular, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae possess well-characterized CEACAM1-binding adhesins. CEACAM1 is typically involved in cell-cell attachment, epithelial differentiation, neovascularisation and regulation of T-cell proliferation, and is one of the few CEACAM family members with homologues in different mammalian lineages. However, it is unknown whether bacterial adhesins of human pathogens can recognize CEACAM1 orthologues from other mammals.,br /,Results: Sequence comparisons of the amino-terminal Ig-variable-like domain of CEACAM1 reveal that the highest sequence divergence between human, murine, canine and bovine orthologues is found in the β-strands comprising the bacteria-binding ...
Our previous in vitro data suggested that CEACAM1 is involved in angiogenesis. This is supported by a recent proteomic screen for cell membrane components expressed in newly formed tumor vessels and the fact that CEACAM1 expression is upregulated in synergy with other angiogenic factors in cardiac hypoxia (17, 19). To date, however, evidence for a causal implication of CEACAM1 in angiogenesis in vivo was lacking. In the present study, we report on 2 different genetic mouse models in which the angiogenic action of CEACAM1 has been investigated: in CEACAM1endo+ mice, the expression of CEACAM1-L was targeted to endothelia via the Tie2 promoter, and in Ceacam1-/- mice, the Ceacam1 gene was inactivated by targeted disruption (29). In addition, endothelial cells were transfected with cDNAs coding for WT CEACAM1-L and for CEACAM1-L mutants harboring amino acid substitutions in the cytoplasmic domain. In these experimental systems, we provide conclusive evidence that CEACAM1 is involved in angiogenesis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measles virus selectively blind to signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM; CD150) is attenuated and induces strong adaptive immune responses in rhesus monkeys. AU - Leonard, Vincent H J. AU - Hodge, Gregory. AU - Reyes-Del Valle, Jorge. AU - McChesney, Michael B.. AU - Cattaneo, Roberto. PY - 2010/4. Y1 - 2010/4. N2 - The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM; CD150) is the immune cell receptor for measles virus (MV). To assess the importance of the SLAM-MV interactions for virus spread and pathogenesis, we generated a wild-type IC-B MV selectively unable to recognize human SLAM (SLAM-blind). This virus differs from the fully virulent wild-type IC-B strain by a single arginine-to-alanine substitution at amino acid 533 of the attachment protein hemagglutinin and infects cells through SLAM about 40 times less efficiently than the isogenic wild-type strain. Ex vivo, this virus infects primary lymphocytes at low levels regardless of SLAM expression. When a group of ...
Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, ...
ANGELI, J.K. et al. Gadolinium increases the vascular reactivity of rat aortic rings. Braz J Med Biol Res [online]. 2011, vol.44, n.5, pp.445-452. Epub Apr 01, 2011 ISSN 1414-431X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2011007500044.. Gadolinium (Gd) blocks intra- and extracellular ATP hydrolysis. We determined whether Gd affects vascular reactivity to contractile responses to phenylephrine (PHE) by blocking aortic ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase). Wistar rats of both sexes (260-300 g, 23 females, 7 males) were used. Experiments were performed before and after incubation of aortic rings with 3 µM Gd. Concentration-response curves to PHE (0.1 nM to 0.1 mM) were obtained in the presence and absence of endothelium, after incubation with 100 µM L-NAME, 10 µM losartan, or 10 µM enalaprilat. Gd significantly increased the maximum response (control: 72.3 ± 3.5; Gd: 101.3 ± 6.4%) and sensitivity (control: 6.6 ± 0.1; Gd: 10.5 ± 2.8%) to PHE. To investigate the blockade of ...
The great majority of mammalian genes yield multiple transcripts arising from differential mRNA processing, but in very few instances have alternative forms been assigned distinct functional properties. We have cloned and characterized a new isoform of the accessory molecule CD6 that lacks the CD166 binding domain and is expressed in rat and human primary cells. The novel isoform, CD6Deltad3, results from exon 5 skipping and consequently lacks the third scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain of CD6. Differential expression of the SRCR domain 3 resulted in a remarkable functional difference: whereas full-length CD6 targeted to the immunological synapse, CD6Deltad3 was unable to localize at the T cell:APC interface during Ag presentation. Analysis of expression of CD6 variants showed that, while being more frequent in coexpression with full-length CD6, the CD6Deltad3 isoform constituted the sole species in a small percentage of T cells. In the rat thymus, CD6Deltad3 is less represented in double
The T cell surface molecule CD28 can provide costimulatory signals that permit the full activation of T cells. Here we demonstrate that stimulation of CD28, either by B7, its natural ligand, or by the anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody 9.3, induces an association between CD28 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) in Jurkat T cells, raising the possibility that an interaction with PI3-K contributes to CD28-mediated signaling. To examine the mechanism of the association, we synthesized tyrosine-phosphorylated oligopeptides corresponding to each of the four tyrosines in the CD28 cytoplasmic domain. When added to lysates of B7-stimulated Jurkat cells, the oligopeptide corresponding to Tyr 173 inhibits the coimmunoprecipitation of PI3-K with CD28; the other oligopeptides have no effect. Tyr 173 is contained within the sequence YMNM, a motif that is also found in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor and that, when phosphorylated, forms a high affinity binding site for the p85 subunit of PI3-K. ...
T-cell infiltration of solid tumors is associated with improved prognosis and favorable responses to immunotherapy. Mechanisms that enable tumor infiltration of CD8+ T cells have not been defined, nor have drugs that assist this process been discovered. Here we address these issues with a focus on VE-cadherin, a major endothelial cell-specific junctional protein that controls vascular integrity. A decrease in VE-cadherin expression is associated with tumor pathology. We developed an oligonucleotide-based inhibitor (CD5-2), which disrupted the interaction of VE-cadherin with its regulator miR-27a, resulting in increased VE-cadherin expression. Administration of CD5-2 in tumor-bearing mice enhanced expression of VE-cadherin in tumor endothelium, activating TIE-2 and tight junction pathways and normalizing vessel structure and function. CD5-2 administration also enhanced tumor-specific T-cell infiltration and spatially redistributed CD8+ T cells within the tumor parenchyma. Finally, CD5-2 treatment ...
The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors for solid tumor treatments represents a major oncological advance. Since the approval of ipilimumab, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) antibody, for the treatment of metastatic melanoma, many drugs, especially those targeting PD1/PD-L1, have demonstrated promising antitumor effects in many types of cancer. By reactivating the immune system (IS), these immunotherapies have led to the development of new toxicity profiles, also called immune-related adverse events (irAEs). IrAEs can involve many organ systems, and their management is radically different from that of cytotoxic drugs; irAEs require immunosuppressive treatments, such as corticoids or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) antibody. Additionally, the occurrence of irAEs has raised significant questions. Here, we summarize progress that has been made toward answering these questions, focusing on 1) the impact of immunotherapy dose on irAE occurrence, 2) the correlation ...
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4, CD152) is an inhibitory T cell receptor predominately expressed on activated T cells. The duck CTLA-4 (DuCTLA-4) cDNA and a transcript lacking the predicted transmembrane encoding region (DuCTLA-4DeltaTM) were isolated from splenocytes using RT-PCR. The predicted DuCTLA-4 protein showed an identity of 92%, 49% and 47 ...
T Cell Specific Surface Glycoprotein CD28 (TP44 or CD28) - Pipeline Review, H1 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-06-13 Available for US$ 3500 at Researchmoz.us
LifeLabs is excited to introduce an expansion of our flow cytometry testing. Starting on April 10th, 2017 we will offer flow cytometric immunophenotyping for hematopoietic and lymphoid malignancies in addition to our existing flow cytometry testing for T-cell subset analysis.. Flow cytometry is widely used for analyzing the expression of surface and intracellular molecules in order to differentiate and characterize different cell populations. It continues to be a necessary diagnostic tool for the classification, staging, and monitoring of hematolymphoid neoplasms.. LifeLabs is pleased to offer a variety of panels to facilitate the diagnosis and/or prognosis of the following:. ...
LILRB3 - LILRB3 (untagged)-Human leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor, subfamily B (with TM and ITIM domains), member 3 (LILRB3), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Abstract Download Blockade of various immune targets such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 and Programmed cell death leads to immune-mediated tumor regression and immune-related adverse events, predominantly gastrointestinal events including diarrhea and colitis. The current review is done to understand the […]. ...
One reason for the poor immunogenicity of many tumors may be that they cannot provide signals for CD28-mediated costimulation necessary to fully activate T cells. It has recently become apparent that CTLA-4, a second counterreceptor for the B7 family of costimulatory molecules, is a negative regulator of T cell activation. Here, in vivo administration of antibodies to CTLA-4 resulted in the rejection of tumors, including preestablished tumors. Furthermore, this rejection resulted in immunity to a secondary exposure to tumor cells. These results suggest that blockade of the inhibitory effects of CTLA-4 can allow for, and potentiate, effective immune responses against tumor cells.. ...
anti-Mouse CD229/SLAMF3/Lymphocyte Antigen 9, Clone: HLy9.1.25, Novus Biologicals 0.1mg; Unlabeled Life Sciences:Antibodies:Primary Antibodies:Flow Cytometry (Flow)
LILRA4 antibody [N2C2], Internal (leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor, subfamily A (with TM domain), member 4) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-LILRA4 pAb (GTX119457) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Endosialin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD248 gene.[1][2][3] Endosialin is a member of the "Group XIV", a novel family of C-type lectin transmembrane receptors which play a role not only in cell-cell adhesion processes but also in host defence. This family comprise two other members, CD93 and Thrombomodulin which are better characterized. The function of endosialin remains elusive, but its expression has been associated with angiogenesis in the embryo and uterus and in tumor development and growth.[4] ...
ENTPD3 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 465 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 52kDa.
Prominin 2兔多克隆抗体(ab74997)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, ICC/IF实验严格验证并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
CEACAM6小鼠单克隆抗体[9A6](ab78029)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用并得到2个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Background T cell exhaustion has recently been proposed as an alternative mechanism to prevent memory development and tissue damage arising during ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in murine orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), with carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) identified as a key ligand for TIM-3-mediated negative immune regulation in the liver. In our cohort of human OLT patients, IRI+ recipients had a 12-fold higher ratio of TIM-1+:TIM-3+ CD4+ T cells at 3 months post-transplant than IRI-. Aim We sought to investigate donor and recipient contributions to CEACAM1 expression in human OLT-IRI. Methods We compared the cellular expression of CEACAM1 biopsies obtained from the donor organ pre- and post-reperfusion with the recipient's portal blood. Additionally, we evaluated CEACAM1 expression of 3rd party healthy donor monocytes co-cultured for 4 days with recipient portal blood obtained both pre- and post-reperfusion through the donor organ. Results ...
Our findings support the hypothesis that T cell activation is a critical and proximal event in the complex chronic inflammatory cascade that culminates in the generation of psoriatic plaques. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the accumulation of mature DCs in a human autoimmune target organ, the skin. Additionally, the resolution of activated phenotypes on lesional keratinocytes, DCs, and vascular endothelium after T cell costimulatory blockade has not previously been reported. Thus, these data expand upon our prior observations (15) and provide possible mechanisms for the observed durable reduction in intralesional T cells after administration of CTLA4Ig. We have demonstrated that a reduced capacity for lesional T cell clonal expansion (due to reversion of the lesional skin APC population to a less mature/immunocompetent state) and decreased vascular recruitment may both have been contributory factors. These observations suggest that clinical activity in this chronic ...
This study reports three main findings that provide insights into the molecular mechanism of leukocyte transmigration. First, endothelial ADAM10 promotes transmigration of T lymphocytes, but not B lymphocytes or neutrophils, in an in vitro flow assay. Second, this function of ADAM10 is mediated via its substrate VE-cadherin, but not CX3CL1 and CXCL16. Third, Tspan5 and Tspan17 regulate VE-cadherin expression and promote lymphocyte transmigration, but the other four ADAM10-interacting TspanC8 tetraspanins do not.. The previously proposed role for endothelial ADAM10 in leukocyte transmigration is based on in vitro transwell assays in the absence of flow (6, 10, 11). One of these studies showed a positive role for endothelial ADAM10 using unstimulated HUVECs at passage two to four, following ADAM10 knockdown or inhibition, and cultured human T cell blasts (6). A second study reported a positive role for endothelial ADAM10 using HUVECs up to passage four, stimulated with IFN-γ and TNF-α and ...
Table 1 Continued. Other name (s). Main reactivity of mAbs. Short characteristic of the CD molecule. Molecular weight reduced (kDa). CD44 Pgp-1; gp80-95; In (Unrelated p80, Hermes antigen, ECMR-III and HUTCH-I CD44R CD44 variant; CD44v9. CD45 T200; leukocyte common antigen (LCA); EC3.1.3.4. CD45R0 Restricted T200; gp180. T, B, G, M Receptor for hyaluronate and Involved in lymphocyte homing. T act, carcinoma cells Leukocytes. CD45RA Restricted T200; gp220;. isoform of leukocyte common antigen CD45RB Restricted T200; isoform of leukocyte common antigen CD45RC Restricted T200; isoform of leukocyte common antigen. CD46 Membrane cofactor protein (MCP); gp45-70. Leukocytes broad. CD47 Integrin associated protein;. OA3; 1D8 CD48 gp41; BLAST-1. CD49a VLA-1 a chain. CD49b VLA-2 a chain platelet glycoprotein GPIa. CD49c VLA-3 a chain. CD49d VLA-4 a chain. CD49e VLA-5 a chain. CD49f VLA-6 a chain. CD50 Intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3). CD44R (CD44v9) may be a marker for cell transformation ...
Rabbit Anti-IL-4Rα Polyclonal Antibody,IL4R; IL4RA; 582J2.1; Interleukin-4 receptor subunit alpha; IL-4 receptor subunit alpha; IL-4R subunit alpha; IL-4R-alpha; IL-4RA; CD antigen CD124,IL4R encodes the alpha chain of the interleukin-4 receptor, a type I transmembrane protein that can bind interleukin 4 and interleukin 13 to regulate IgE production. The encoded protein also can bind interleukin 4 to promote differentiation of Th2 cells. A soluble form of the encoded protein can be produced by proteolysis of the membrane-bound protein, and this soluble form can inhibit IL4-mediated cell proliferation and IL5 upregulation by T-cells. Allelic variations in this gene have been associated with atopy, a condition that can manifest itself as allergic rhinitis, sinusitus, asthma, or eczema. Polymorphisms in this gene are also associated with resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical potential of SLAMF7 antibodies - focus on elotuzumab in multiple myeloma. AU - Friend,Reed. AU - Bhutani,Manisha. AU - Voorhees,Peter M.. AU - Usmani,Saad Z.. PY - 2017/3/20. Y1 - 2017/3/20. N2 - Elotuzumab is one of the first monoclonal antibodies to be approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma. It is a humanized immunoglobulin G kappa (IgGκ) antibody that targets signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 7 (SLAMF7), a surface marker that is highly expressed on normal and malignant plasma cells. This review summarizes the preclinical and clinical data that led to the approval of elotuzumab, along with a discussion on the ongoing and future clinical investigations.. AB - Elotuzumab is one of the first monoclonal antibodies to be approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma. It is a humanized immunoglobulin G kappa (IgGκ) antibody that targets signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 7 (SLAMF7), a surface marker that is highly ...
The blockade of immune checkpoints, such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), is a promising novel approach in cancer treatment. As these pathways are non-redundant, dual targeting may have additive or synergistic antitumour activity. Durvalumab (MEDI4736) is a selective, high affinity human IgG1 mAb that blocks programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) binding to PD-1 (IC50 0.1 nM) and CD80 (IC50 0.04 nM), and tremelimumab is a selective human IgG2 mAb inhibitor of CTLA-4. In a Phase 1b study (NCT02000947), durvalumab + tremelimumab has shown encouraging clinical activity (objective response rate [ORR] 33% [95% CI 17-54%] across tremelimumab 1 mg/kg cohorts [n = 27]) and manageable tolerability in patients (pts) with both PD-L1-positive and -negative NSCLC. NEPTUNE is a Phase 3 study to determine the efficacy and safety of durvalumab + tremelimumab combination therapy versus standard of care (SoC) platinum-based doublets in the first-line ...
The pathological significance of the mechanisms of tumour immune-evasion and/or immunosuppression, such as loss of T cell signalling and increase in regulatory T cells (Tregs), has not been well established in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) microenvironment. To evaluate the Treg immunophenotypes in tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), we performed a double-enzymatic immunostaining for detection of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) and other markers including CD4, CD8, and CD25 on 64 NPC and 36 non-malignant nasopharyngeal (NP) paraffin-embedded tissues. Expression of CD3ζ and CD3ε was also determined. The prevalence of CD4+FoxP3+ cells in CD4+ T cells and the ratio of FoxP3+/CD8+ were increased significantly in NPC compared with those in NP tissues (P , 0·001 and P = 0·025 respectively). Moreover, the ratio of FoxP3+/CD25+FoxP3− in NPC was significantly lower than that in NP tissues (P = 0·005), suggesting an imbalance favouring activated phenotype of T cells in NPC. A significant negative ...
Purified CD3-4- thymocytes were obtained by depletion of CD3+ and CD4+ cells from fresh thymocyte suspensions. 5-15% of these cells were found to express CD16 antigen, while other natural killer (NK) cell markers were virtually absent. Double fluorescence analysis revealed that 20-40% of thymic CD16+ cells coexpressed CD1, while approximately half were cyCD3+. When cultured in the presence of peripheral blood lymphocytes and H9 leukemia cell line as a source of irradiated feeder cells and interleukin 2 (IL-2), CD3-4- thymocytes underwent extensive proliferation. In addition, after 1-2 wk of culture, 30-50% of these cells were found to express CD16 surface antigen. Cloning under limiting dilution conditions of either CD3-4- or CD3-4-16- thymocytes in the presence of irradiated H9 cells resulted in large proportions (approximately 50%) of CD16+ clones. On the basis of the expression of surface CD16 and/or cyCD3 antigen, clones could be grouped in the following subsets: CD16+ cyCD3+; CD16+ cyCD3-; ...
Human T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain (CD3E) ELISA Kit can measure Human T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain in serum, blood, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other related supernatants and tissues.
Within the paradigm of the two-signal model of lymphocyte activation, the interest in costimulation has witnessed a remarkable emergence in the past few years with the discovery of a large array of molecules that can serve this role, including some with an inhibitory function. Interest has been further enhanced by the realization of these molecules potential as targets to modulate clinical immune responses. Although the therapeutic translation of mechanistic knowledge in costimulatory molecules has been relatively straightforward, the capacity to target their inhibitory counterparts has remained limited. This limited capacity is particularly apparent in the case of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), a major negative regulator of T cell responses. Because there have been several previous comprehensive reviews on the function of this molecule, we focus here on the physiological implications of its structural features. Such an exercise may ultimately help us to design
T and B-lymphocytes play an important role in an adaptive immune response. Communication between these two cells may result in either a humoral immune response or tolerance. Communication between T and B-lymphocytes involves a number of inducible cell surface molecules on both T and B-lymphocytes. It was the aim of this project to gain a greater understanding of the role of CD40 in the dynamic communication that occurs between naïve T-lymphocytes and resting B-lymphocytes during cognate communication. Because in vivo antigen specific T-lymphocytes are at low frequency, it is difficult to examine antigen-specific naïve T-lymphocytes. Thus, an in vitro system employing naïve antigen-specific T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic T cells and small resting B-lymphocytes that did not express CD40 was devised to examine the role of CD40 in cognate communication between naïve T-lymphocytes and resting B-lymphocytes. Upon recognition of antigen on resting B-lymphocytes that expressed CD40, T-lymphocytes
Results Exogenously added IL-7 did not activate B cells directly, in line with the absence of surface IL-7R. However, in the presence of T cells, IL-7 activated both T and B cells (Ki67+ CD4 cells from 1.1±0.2% to 14.4±3.7%, p,0.01 and Ki67+ B cells from 1.9±0.3% to 4.1±0.9%, p,0.05). TLR7A induced B cell activation, as measured by increased proliferation (%Ki67 from 1.2±0.2% to 9.3±1.4%) and up regulation of activation markers on B cells, which was facilitated in the presence of monocytes. TLR7-induced B cell activation in T/B or T/B/monocyte co-cultures was not associated with T cell activation. IL-7 added to TLR7A synergistically increased both B cell (TLR7A vs. IL-7/TLR7A; 9.3±1.4% vs. 33.4±7.3%) and T cell proliferation (IL-7 vs. IL-7/TLR7A; 0.8±0.1% vs. 29.2±5.2%), which for B cells again was further increased by monocytes (TLR7A vs. IL-7/TLR7A; 30.2±8.9% vs. 63.0±8.0%). Similar results were observed for activation marker expression on B cells (CD19, HLA-DR CD25) and on T cells ...
CD2 interacts with lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-3) to mediate adhesion between T-cells and other cell types. CD2 is implicated in the triggering of T-cells, the cytoplasmic domain is implicated in the signaling function.
Myeloid cells with potent immune suppressive activity are present in most patients and mice with malignant tumors and have stimulated considerable interest as potential targets for therapy. In mice they are commonly characterized by expression of the cell surface markers CD11b and Gr1, which are characteristic of monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes, respectively. These so-called "MDSCs" (53) have also been associated with other cell surface markers such as IL-4Rα (35, 54), F4/80 (35, 37, 55), CD80 (56), Ly6C, and Ly6G (37). However, none of these markers is definitive since their expression varies based on the inducing tumor. In addition to cell surface markers, MDSC have been characterized by their content of suppressive molecules including arginase (10, 57, 58), iNOS (59), and other reactive oxygen species (58, 60), and have been classified as "neutrophil-like" or "monocyte-like" based on their nuclear morphology (38). Since MDSC are induced by multiple tumor and/or host cell-secreted ...
Results-At 24 hours after SAH, animals treated with SCH79797 demonstrated a reduction in brain water content, Evans blue content, and neurobehavioral deficits. SCH79797 also attenuated PAR-1 expression and maintained the level of vascular endothelial-cadherin, an important component of adherens junctions. Downstream to PAR-1, c-Src-dependent activation of p21-activated kinase-1 led to an increased serine/threonine phosphorylation of vascular endothelial-cadherin; immunoprecipitation results revealed an enhanced binding of phosphorylated vascular endothelial-cadherin with endocytosis orchestrator β-arrestin-2. These pathological states were suppressed after SCH79797 treatment.. ...
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A high mutational load and the presence of a T-cell-"inflamed" environment may independently predict for treatment response to pembrolizumab (Keytruda) and progression-free survival, according to a study presented by Tanguy Seiwert, MD, of the University of Chicago, at the 2017 ASCO-SITC Clinical Immuno-Oncology Symposium.1. "Nonsynonymous mutational load and neoantigen load as well as an 18-gene immune-related gene-expression profiling were significantly associated with overall response and progression-free survival to pembrolizumab across multiple indications," Dr. Seiwert revealed. "This suggests that tumor antigenicity and T-cell infiltration may provide complementary information for expected pembrolizumab activity" and may be useful in characterizing responses to immunotherapies, he said.. Tumor mutational load has been shown to correlate with benefit from drugs blocking cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) in multiple tumor types. ...
Growing evidence points to a deregulated response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the CNS of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) as a possible cause of disease. In this study, we have investigated the response of a subpopulation of effector CD8+ T cells to EBV in 36 healthy donors and in 35 pwMS in active and inactive disease. We have measured the expression of markers of degranulation, the release of cytokines, cytotoxicity and the regulation of effector functions by inhibitory receptors, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1) and human inhibitor receptor Ig-like transcript 2 (ILT2). We demonstrate that polyfunctional cytotoxic CD8+CD57+ T cells are able to kill EBV-infected cells in healthy donors. In contrast, an anergic exhaustion-like phenotype of CD8+CD57+ T cells with high expression of PD-1 was observed in inactive pwMS compared with active pwMS or healthy donors. Detection of CD8+CD57+ T cells in meningeal inflammatory infiltrates from post-mortem MS tissue confirmed the association of ...
Purpose: The identification and vetting of cell surface tumor restricted epitopes for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) redirected T cell immunotherapy is the subject of intensive investigation. We have focused on CD171 (L1-CAM), an abundant cell surface molecule on neuroblastomas and, specifically, on the glycosylation dependent tumor-specific epitope recognized by the CE7 monoclonal antibody. Experimental Design: CD171 expression was assessed by IHC using CE7 mAb in tumor microarrays of primary, metastatic, and recurrent neuroblastoma, as well as human and rhesus macaque tissue arrays. The safety of targeting the CE7 epitope of CD171 with CE7-CAR T cells was evaluated in a pre-clinical rhesus macaque trial on the basis of CD171 homology and CE7 cross reactivity. The feasibility of generating bioactive CAR T cells from heavily pretreated pediatric patients with recurrent/refractory disease was assessed. Results: CD171 is uniformly and abundantly expressed by neuroblastoma tumor specimens obtained ...
The NKG2D costimulatory receptor is currently a focus of anti-tumor, anti-viral, and auto-immunity studies. NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on NK cells, all human CD8+ T cells, activated murine CD8+ T cells, γδ T cells, and some CD4+ T cells [5,6]. In T cells, NKG2D associates with an adaptor protein, DAP10, and provides a costimulation signal by activating intracellular signaling pathways [7-9]. The cytoplasmic domain of DAP10 has one known signaling motif, a YINM-sequence, that is also found in the CD28 costimulatory receptor [8,9]. After receptor stimulation, the tyrosine is phosphorylated and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and a Grb2-Vav1 complex are subsequently activated, leading to downstream Akt activation and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) respectively [9]. Akt activation by either of these two receptors initiates a plethora of downstream signaling pathways including NF-κB, mTORc1, NFAT, GSK-3β, and many others depending on what other proteins are being ...
T cells carrying the surface molecule CD4 are responsible for directing the behaviour of other immune cells. The Th1 and Th2 cells within this class activate the immune response. Inhibitory influences on the immune response come from the regulatory T cells, also known as Treg cells. These carry CD4. It has been recognized that a…
IPILIMUMAB, 1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE YERVOY is a human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4)-blocking antibody indicated for: •Treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma in adults and pediatric patients
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a membrane glycoprotein that is a member of the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family. This family forms a subset of the larger CD2 cell-surface receptor Ig superfamily. The encoded protein is a homophilic adhesion molecule that is expressed in numerous immune cells types and is involved in regulating receptor-mediated signaling in those cells. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011 ...
BioLegend's LEGENDScreen™ products are lyophilized, fluorophore-conjugated antibodies provided in 96-well plates for the purpose of screening cell surface molecules on your cells of interest. Kits are provided with lyophilized antibodies in 96-well plates at optimal concentrations, cell staining buffer, fixation buffer, and plate sealers. BioLegend develops and manufactures world-class, cutting-edge immunological reagents for biomedical research, offered at an outstanding value.
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B7-DC costimulates PD1−/− CD4+ T cells. (a) Purified CD4+ T cells from wt (open bars) or PD-1 KO mice (filled bars) were stimulated with 30 ng/well of preco
Discrimination of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) from chronic pancreatitis (CP) or peritumoral inflammation is challenging, both at preoperative imaging and during surgery, but it is crucial for proper therapy selection. Tumor-specific molecular imaging aims to enhance this discrimination and to help select and stratify patients for resection. We evaluated various biomarkers for the specific identification of PDAC and associated lymph node metastases. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), expression levels and patterns were investigated of integrin αvβ6, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5), Cathepsin E (Cath E), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET), thymocyte differentiation antigen 1 (Thy1), and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR ...
Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 1A (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 or Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Type I or p55 or p60 or CD120a - Market research report and industry analysis - 12355963
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human peripheral blood dendritic cells and monocyte subsets display similar chemokine receptor expression profiles with differential migratory responses. AU - Cravens, P. D.. AU - Hayashida, K.. AU - Davis, L. S.. AU - Nanki, T.. AU - Lipsky, P. E.. PY - 2007/6. Y1 - 2007/6. N2 - Human antigen presenting cells (APC) found in peripheral blood are considered to be precursors that have been released from the bone marrow and are in transit to the peripheral tissues. These APC populations include myeloid dendritic cells (mDC), plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and monocytes (Mo). To assign specialized functional roles and stages of development for APCs, CD33 expressing APC subsets were examined for their capacity to respond to chemokines. Three major CD33+ subsets including CD33brightCD14 bright Mo, CD33brightCD14- CD11c+ mDC and CD33dimCD14- pDC were present. Dendritic cells subsets and Mo expressed low levels of CC and CXC receptors, but distinctive chemokine receptor expression profiles were ...
Endoglin is a 180-kDa glycoprotein receptor primarily expressed by the vascular endothelium and involved in cardiovascular disease and cancer. Heterozygous mutations in the endoglin gene (ENG) cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1, a vascular dise Endoglin is a 180-kDa glycoprotein receptor primarily expressed by the vascular endothelium and involved in cardiovascular disease and cancer. Heterozygous mutations in the endoglin gene (ENG) cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1, a vascular disease that presents with nasal and gastrointestinal bleeding, skin and mucosa telangiectases, and arteriovenous malformations in internal organs. A circulating form of endoglin (alias soluble endoglin, sEng), proteolytically released from the membrane-bound protein, has been observed in several inflammation-related pathological conditions and appears to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and cancer development through unknown mechanisms. Membrane-bound endoglin is an auxiliary ...
MarketResearchReports.biz has recently announced the addition of a market study " Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016 ", is a comparative analysis of the global market.. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016. Summary. Global Markets Directs, Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides in depth analysis on Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) targeted pipeline therapeutics.. The report provides comprehensive information on the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or ...
T cells are the driving force that mediates graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after transplantation. Thus, T cell suppression is key for GVHD treatment. Optimal T cell activation requires interaction between CD28, expressed on T cells, and CD80/CD86, expressed on antigen-presenting cells. Furthermore, activation of the metabolic regulator, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, is critical for T cell function. Currently, there are FDA-approved medicines that inhibit CD80/CD86 (abatacept and belatacept) and mTOR (sirolimus). However, belatacept treatment unexpectedly led to increased acute organ rejection in a renal transplantation clinical trial, possibly by disrupting the checkpoint receptor cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4, which also binds CD80/CD86. Whether blocking CD28 receptor specifically is a viable option for GVHD is not clear.. Watkins and colleagues evaluated the efficacy of a CD28-blocking antibody fragment (FR104) in a rhesus macaque GVHD model with hematopoietic stem cell ...

HLA-DR expression on monocytes and systemic inflammation in patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms | Critical Care |...HLA-DR expression on monocytes and systemic inflammation in patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms | Critical Care |...

Monoclonal antibodies against CD-14 antigen (anti-CD-14-PE, Immuno Quality Products, Groningen, the Netherlands) were used to ... The fraction of CD-14 positive monocytes expressing HLA-DR was measured by flow-cytometry. IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured ... Caille V, Chiche JD, Nciri N, Berton C, Gibot S, Boval B, Payen D, Mira JP, Mebazaa A: Histocompatibility leukocyte antigen-D ... Yu WK, Li WQ, Li N, Li JS: Mononuclear histocompatibility leukocyte antigen-DR expression in the early phase of acute ...
more infohttps://ccforum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/cc5017

CD Antigens Information Finder on the App StoreCD Antigens Information Finder on the App Store

... and learn more about CD Antigens Information Finder. Download CD Antigens Information Finder and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad ... The CD Antigen Information Finder was adapted from Current Protocols in Immunology (Beare, et al., 2008. Monoclonal Antibodies ... CD molecules are cell-surface antigens identifiable by their reactions with specific monoclonal antibodies, which represent an ... The database is searchable by the official CD designation of the antigen as well as by synonyms and other keywords including ...
more infohttps://itunes.apple.com/us/app/cd-antigens-information-finder/id408368311?mt=8

Other CD Antigens | ProSpecOther CD Antigens | ProSpec

ProSpecs CD Antigens include: CD4, CD40, CD10, CD11B, CD14, CD146, CD147, CD1A, CD2, CD21, CD23, CD25, CD29, CD31, CD34, CD38 ...
more infohttps://www.prospecbio.com/other_cd_antigens

Cluster of differentiation (CD) antigen definition | Drugs.comCluster of differentiation (CD) antigen definition | Drugs.com

CD) antigen. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions. ... Definition: an antigen (marker) on the surface of a cell, usually a lymphocyte. ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/cluster-of-differentiation-cd-antigen.html

Aptamers for CD Antigens: From Cell Profiling to Activity Modulation. | Physicians Weekly for Medical News, Journals & ArticlesAptamers for CD Antigens: From Cell Profiling to Activity Modulation. | Physician's Weekly for Medical News, Journals & Articles

Cluster of differentiation (CD) proteins are among the most popular antigens for aptamers on the cell surface. These anti-CD ... Aptamers for CD Antigens: From Cell Profiling to Activity Modulation. by Physicians Weekly , Mar 27, 2017 , 0 comments ... The unique feature of aptamers is that they can act simultaneously as an agonist and antagonist of CD receptors depending on a ... In this review, we summarize nucleic acid sequences of anti-CD aptamers and their use, which have been validated in multiple ...
more infohttps://www.physiciansweekly.com/aptamers-for-cd-antigens-from-cell-profiling-to-activity-modulation/

Anti-CD antigen antibodyAnti-CD antigen antibody

Sino biological offers a comprehensive set of tools for CD antigens including antibody. ... CD antigens actually are subpopulations and functional types of leukocytes. Recombinant protein is a manipulated form of ... CD antigens. • CD antigens reagent products. - CD antigen recombinant protein. - Anti-CD antigen antibody. - CD antigen cDNA ... CD antigen ELISA kits. • Non-CD cellular antigens. • Clusters of differentiation. • human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen ...
more infohttp://www.sinobiological.com/anti-cd-antigen-antibody.html

CD antigen cDNA clonesCD antigen cDNA clones

Sino biological offers a comprehensive set of tools for CD antigens including cDNA clones. ... CD antigens actually are subpopulations and functional types of leukocytes. Recombinant protein is a manipulated form of ... CD antigens. • CD antigens reagent products. - CD antigen recombinant protein. - Anti-CD antigen antibody. - CD antigen cDNA ... CD antigen ELISA kits. • Non-CD cellular antigens. • Clusters of differentiation. • human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen ...
more infohttp://www.sinobiological.com/cd-antigen-cdna-clones.html

Spine  | cd antigensSpine | cd antigens

cd antigens. Cell surface antigens of leukocytes are called CD antigens. Search. Main menu. Skip to primary content ... Clin J Pain 22:212-221CrossRef Mallen CD, Peat G, Thomas E, Dunn KM, Croft PR (2007) Prognostic factors for musculoskeletal ...
more infohttps://cdantigens.com/spine

May | 2018 | cd antigensMay | 2018 | cd antigens

cd antigens. Cell surface antigens of leukocytes are called CD antigens. Search. Main menu. Skip to primary content ... Electrophoretic analysis of lipopolysaccharide showed that the mutant lacked the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide bands. ...
more infohttps://cdantigens.com/2018/05

CD antigens 2001. - The Kennedy Institute of RheumatologyCD antigens 2001. - The Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology

CD antigens 2001. Mason D., André P., Bensussan A., Buckley C., Civin C., Clark E., de Haas M., Goyert S., Hadam M., Hart D., ...
more infohttps://www.kennedy.ox.ac.uk/publications/242068

Human CD Antigens | XpressBioHuman CD Antigens | XpressBio

Biocompare product reviews can cover any kit, reagent, antibody, or piece of equipment you use in your lab and are a great forum for researchers seeking to determine if a particular product will work for them.. All you need is a unique image, protocol information, and some helpful notes or tips on how to best use the product or service.. Not only are reviews a valuable resource for researchers looking to save time and money but all reviews that are accepted for publication earns you an Amazon Gift Card!*. Click Here to Write Your Review for XpressBio. ...
more infohttp://xpressbio.com/catalog/29

CD antigens / Cluster of DifferentiationCD antigens / Cluster of Differentiation

CD antigens found in various immune cell populations like B cells, T cells, Dendritic cells and NK cells.CD antigens can act in ... CD antigens is usually initiated, altering the behavior of the cell. Some CD proteins do not play a role in cell signaling, but ... CD antibodies are used widely for research, immunotherary, tumor and drug target. ... What are CD antigens or clusters of differentiation ? ... B Cell CD antigens. T Cell CD antigens. NK Cell CD antigens. ...
more infohttps://kr.sinobiological.com/cd-antigens-cluster-of-differentiation.html

Stem Cells CD Antigens AntibodiesStem Cells CD Antigens Antibodies

At Immuquest we have all the Stem Cells CD Antigens antibodies information that you need. ... Buy Stem Cells CD Antigens antibodies for research purposes online today. ... Stem Cells CD Antigens RSS. Stem Cells CD Antigens. Sort by. Sort by. Title A-Z. Title Z-A. Price Low-High. Price High-Low. ...
more infohttp://www.immuquest.com/stem-cells-c38/cd-antigens-c182

CD Antigens, Recombinant Proteins  | ProMabCD Antigens, Recombinant Proteins | ProMab

Click here to view all the antigens we offer you and your research. ... Give your research the best chance of success by using ProMabs CD antigens. ...
more infohttps://www.promab.com/products/full-length-proteins/recombinant-protein-full/cd-antigens

CD antigens 1993 | Blood | American Society of HematologyCD antigens 1993 | Blood | American Society of Hematology

SF Schlossman, L Boumsell, W Gilks, JM Harlan, T Kishimoto, C Morimoto, J Ritz, S Shaw, RL Silverstein, TA Springer; CD ... antigens 1993. Blood 1994; 83 (4): 879-880. doi: https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.V83.4.879.bloodjournal834879 ...
more infohttps://ashpublications.org/blood/article/83/4/879/48970/CD-antigens-1993

CD antigens related to G Protein-coupled Recptors SignalingCD antigens related to G Protein-coupled Recptors Signaling

This page about the CD antigens that related to G Protein-coupled Recptors Signaling. ... Sino biological offers a comprehensive set of tools for CD antigens related to cell signaling research, including recombinant ... CD antigens related to G Protein-coupled Recptors Signaling CD antigens are cells surface proteins as receptors. The CD ... When such CD antigen activate its receptor, the signal is carried into the cell usually by means of a second messenger.. Sino ...
more infohttps://kr.sinobiological.com/cd-antigens-related-to-g-protein-coupled-recptors-signaling.html

Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market Growth Factors - Herald Writer 24Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market Growth Factors - Herald Writer 24

Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market 2019 Leading Manufacturers - AryoGen Biopharma, Biocad, Biogen Idec, Celltrion, ... The report titled Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market 2019 by Company, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2024 ...
more infohttp://heraldwriter24.com/tag/global-cd-antigen-cancer-therapy-market-growth-factors/

Antigen Peptide CD antigen HLA-A*0201 (RLLQETELV) - JPT Peptide TechnologiesAntigen Peptide CD antigen HLA-A*0201 (RLLQETELV) - JPT Peptide Technologies

Antigen Peptide for stimulation of antigen-specific T cells in T cell assays such as ELISPOT, ICS, cytotoxity or proliferation ... Antigen Peptide CD antigen HLA-A*0201 (RLLQETELV). Antigen Peptide CD antigen HLA-A*0201 (RLLQETELV). ... Home Catalog Antigen Peptides Antigen Peptide CD antigen HLA-A*0201 (RLLQETELV) ... Antigen Peptide CD antigen HLA-A*0201 (RLLQETELV) for stimulation of antigen-specific T cells in T cell assays such as ELISPOT ...
more infohttps://shop.jpt.com/84-Antigen-Peptides/1001139-Antigen-Peptide-CD-antigen-HLA-A0201-RLLQETELV.html

CD Antigens (Clusters of Differentiation Antigens)  < Differentiation Antigens  << Surface Antigens  <<< Antigens (Antibody...CD Antigens (Clusters of Differentiation Antigens) < Differentiation Antigens << Surface Antigens <<< Antigens (Antibody...

Cluster of Differentiation Antigens) are a group of monoclonal antibodies, that show similar reactivity with certain ... subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage ... CD Antigens (Clusters of Differentiation Antigens). "CD Antigens (Clusters of Differentiation Antigens)" CD Antigens. In our ... Antigens (Antibody Generators). ⌊Surface Antigens. ⌊Differentiation Antigens. ⌊CD Antigens (Clusters of Differentiation ...
more infohttp://wellnessadvocate.com/?dgl=66700

Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market 2018: AryoGen Biopharma, Biocad, Biogen Idec, Celltrion, Genentech, Genmab - Positive...Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market 2018: AryoGen Biopharma, Biocad, Biogen Idec, Celltrion, Genentech, Genmab - Positive...

Tagged as CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market, CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market 2018, Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market ... Major drivers for Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market?. Prominent distributors/suppliers in Global CD Antigen Cancer ... Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market 2018. What is the expected industry size of Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market in ... CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market. An up-to-date research has been disclosed by QY Research Group highlighting the Global CD ...
more infohttp://positivenewspaper.com/global-cd-antigen-cancer-therapy-market-2018-aryogen-biopharma-biocad-biogen-idec-celltrion-genentech-genmab/

Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market 2018: AryoGen Biopharma, Biocad, Biogen Idec, Celltrion, Genentech, Genmab - The Tri...Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market 2018: AryoGen Biopharma, Biocad, Biogen Idec, Celltrion, Genentech, Genmab - The Tri...

Tags : Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market market 2018 , Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market market price and demand , ... This report studies the global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy market status and forecast, categorizes the global CD Antigen Cancer ... Five Forces Analysis and CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market SWOT analysis are utilized to analyze the data of the CD Antigen ... Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market 2018: AryoGen Biopharma, Biocad, Biogen Idec, Celltrion, Genentech, Genmab. Business , ...
more infohttp://thetricountypress.com/global-cd-antigen-cancer-therapy-market-2018-aryogen-biopharma-biocad-biogen-idec-celltrion-genentech-genmab/99092

Flow-cytometric monitoring of disease-associated expression of 9-O-acetylated sialoglycoproteins in combination with known CD...Flow-cytometric monitoring of disease-associated expression of 9-O-acetylated sialoglycoproteins in combination with known CD...

Our aim was to select a suitable template by using the differential expression of OAcSGP along with other known CD antigens to ... has been demonstrated as a disease-associated antigen on the lymphoblasts of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). ... Our aim was to select a suitable template by using the differential expression of OAcSGP along with other known CD antigens to ... To get to the bottom of this problem, an unambiguous template for the identification of a specific combination of CD antigens ...
more infohttps://0-bmccancer-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-8-40

Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market (Size,Volume and Value) and Growth to 2025 Shared in Latest Anlysis - News PublicistGlobal CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market (Size,Volume and Value) and Growth to 2025 Shared in Latest Anlysis - News Publicist

Along with CD Antigen Cancer Therapy market research study buyer also gets valuable information about CD Antigen Cancer Therapy ... CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market Price Forecast 2018-2025. Major Topics Covered in CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market Research ... CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market Forecast 2018-2025, CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market Capacity, Production, Revenue Forecast ... CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market Production Forecast by Type 2018-2025, CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market Consumption Forecast ...
more infohttps://newspublicist.com/global-cd-antigen-cancer-therapy-market-sizevolume-and-value-and-growth-to-2025-shared-in-latest-anlysis/
  • We offer the corresponding MHC multimer for each antigen peptide. (jpt.com)
  • We offer a large variety of positive and negative control peptide pools for antigen specific T cell stimulation as well as kit to produce TCR-engineered reference samples for performance control. (jpt.com)
  • The database is searchable by the official CD designation of the antigen as well as by synonyms and other keywords including associated diseases and tissue/organ names. (apple.com)
  • Reactions to antigens by T and B cells are part of the specific immune response. (tabers.com)
  • Our aim was to select a suitable template by using the differential expression of O AcSGP along with other known CD antigens to monitor MRD in peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) of Indian patients with B- or T-ALL during treatment and correlate it with the disease status. (beds.ac.uk)
  • You can search for function as well and it gives you the corresponding CDs. (apple.com)
  • Over expression of 9- O- acetylated sialoglycoproteins (Neu5,9Ac 2 -GPs, abbreviated as O AcSGP) has been demonstrated as a disease-associated antigen on the lymphoblasts of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). (beds.ac.uk)
  • To get to the bottom of this problem, an unambiguous template for the identification of a specific combination of CD antigens on the lymphoblasts was essential, which is easily evident and stably expressed at the onset of ALL and whose altered expression could be an index for consistent monitoring of the disease status, during and post-chemotherapy. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These anti-CD aptamers could be used in cell biology and biomedicine, from simple cell phenotyping by flow cytometry or fluorescent microscopy to diagnosis and treatment of HIV/AIDS to cancer and immune therapies. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • In this review, we summarize nucleic acid sequences of anti-CD aptamers and their use, which have been validated in multiple studies. (physiciansweekly.com)