Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (1/19664)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. (2/19664)

We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen.  (+info)

Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis by gene delivery of soluble p75 tumour necrosis factor receptor. (3/19664)

Collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice can be passively transferred to SCID mice with spleen B- and T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we show that infection ex vivo of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a retroviral vector, containing cDNA for the soluble form of human p75 receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-R) before transfer, prevents the development of arthritis, bone erosion and joint inflammation in the SCID recipients. Assessment of IgG subclass levels and studies of synovial histology suggest that down-regulating the effector functions of T helper-type 1 (Th1) cells may, at least in part, explain the inhibition of arthritis in the SCID recipients. In contrast, the transfer of splenocytes infected with mouse TNF-alpha gene construct resulted in exacerbated arthritis and enhancement of IgG2a antibody levels. Intriguingly, infection of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a construct for mouse IL-10 had no modulating effect on the transfer of arthritis. The data suggest that manipulation of the immune system with cytokines, or cytokine inhibitors using gene transfer protocols can be an effective approach to ameliorate arthritis.  (+info)

Structure of CD94 reveals a novel C-type lectin fold: implications for the NK cell-associated CD94/NKG2 receptors. (4/19664)

The crystal structure of the extracellular domain of CD94, a component of the CD94/NKG2 NK cell receptor, has been determined to 2.6 A resolution, revealing a unique variation of the C-type lectin fold. In this variation, the second alpha helix, corresponding to residues 102-112, is replaced by a loop, the putative carbohydrate-binding site is significantly altered, and the Ca2+-binding site appears nonfunctional. This structure may serve as a prototype for other NK cell receptors such as Ly-49, NKR-P1, and CD69. The CD94 dimer observed in the crystal has an extensive hydrophobic interface that stabilizes the loop conformation of residues 102-112. The formation of this dimer reveals a putative ligand-binding region for HLA-E and suggests how NKG2 interacts with CD94.  (+info)

Exposure of human vascular endothelial cells to sustained hydrostatic pressure stimulates proliferation. Involvement of the alphaV integrins. (5/19664)

The present study investigated the effects of sustained hydrostatic pressure (SHP; up to 4 cm H2O) on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, focal adhesion plaque (FAP) organization, and integrin expression. Exposure of HUVECs to SHP stimulated cell proliferation and a selective increase in the expression of integrin subunit alphaV. The increase in alphaV was observed as early as 4 hours after exposure to pressure and preceded detectable increases in the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index. Laser confocal microscopy studies demonstrated colocalization of the alphaV integrin to FAPs. The individual FAPs in pressure-treated cells demonstrated a reduced area and increased aspect ratio and were localized to both peripheral and more central regions of the cells, in contrast to the predilection for the cell periphery in cells maintained under control pressure conditions. The pressure-induced changes in alphaV distribution had functional consequences on the cells: adhesivity of the cells to vitronectin was increased, and alphaV antagonists blocked the pressure-induced proliferative response. Thus, the present study suggests a role for alphaV integrins in the mechanotransduction of pressure by endothelial cells.  (+info)

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent and Ehrlichia chaffeensis reside in different cytoplasmic compartments in HL-60 cells. (6/19664)

The human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent resides and multiplies exclusively in cytoplasmic vacuoles of granulocytes. Double immunofluorescence labeling was used to characterize the nature of the HGE agent replicative inclusions and to compare them with inclusions containing the human monocytic ehrlichia, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, in HL-60 cells. Although both Ehrlichia spp. can coinfect HL-60 cells, they resided in separate inclusions. Inclusions of both Ehrlichia spp. were not labeled with either anti-lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 or anti-CD63. Accumulation of myeloperoxidase-positive granules were seen around HGE agent inclusions but not around E. chaffeensis inclusions. 3-(2, 4-Dinitroanilino)-3'-amino-N-methyldipropylamine and acridine orange were not localized to either inclusion type. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase was not colocalized with HGE agent inclusions but was weakly colocalized with E. chaffeensis inclusions. E. chaffeensis inclusions were labeled with the transferrin receptor, early endosomal antigen 1, and rab5, but HGE agent inclusions were not. Some HGE agent and E. chaffeensis inclusions colocalized with major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigens. These two inclusions were not labeled for annexins I, II, IV, and VI; alpha-adaptin; clathrin heavy chain; or beta-coatomer protein. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 colocalized to both inclusions. The cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor was not colocalized with either inclusion type. Endogenously synthesized sphingomyelin, from C6-NBD-ceramide, was not incorporated into either inclusion type. Brefeldin A did not affect the growth of either Ehrlichia sp. in HL-60 cells. These results suggest that the HGE agent resides in inclusions which are neither early nor late endosomes and does not fuse with lysosomes or Golgi-derived vesicles, while E. chaffeensis resides in an early endosomal compartment which accumulates the transferrin receptor.  (+info)

Cell surface sialic acid and the regulation of immune cell interactions: the neuraminidase effect reconsidered. (7/19664)

It has been known for over a decade that sialidase (neuraminidase) treatment could substantially enhance the capacity of resting B cells to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic and antigen specific, syngeneic T cells. Thus, cell-surface sialic acid was implicated as a potential modulator of immune cell interaction. However, little progress has been made in either identifying explicit roles for sialic acid in this system or in hypothesizing mechanisms to explain the "neuraminidase effect." Here we show for the first time that cell surface sialic acid on medium incubated B cells blocks access to costimulatory molecules on the B cell surface, and that this is the most likely explanation for the neuraminidase effect. Further, we show that it is likely to be upregulation of ICAM-1 and its subsequent engagement of LFA-1 rather than loss of cell surface sialic acid that in part regulates access to CD86 and other costimulatory molecules. However, we cannot exclude a role for CD86-bound sialic acid on the B cell in modulating binding to T cell CD28. Because sialidase treatment of resting B cells but not resting T cells enables T cell activation, we suggest that sialidase treatment may still be an analogue for an authentic step in B cell activation, and show that for highly activated B cells (activated with polyclonal anti-IgM plus INF-gamma) there is specific loss 2, 6-linked sialic acid. Potential roles for sialic acid in modulating B cell/T cell collaboration are discussed.  (+info)

Altered trafficking of lysosomal proteins in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome due to mutations in the beta 3A subunit of the AP-3 adaptor. (8/19664)

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a genetic disorder characterized by defective lysosome-related organelles. Here, we report the identification of two HPS patients with mutations in the beta 3A subunit of the heterotetrameric AP-3 complex. The patients' fibroblasts exhibit drastically reduced levels of AP-3 due to enhanced degradation of mutant beta 3A. The AP-3 deficiency results in increased surface expression of the lysosomal membrane proteins CD63, lamp-1, and lamp-2, but not of nonlysosomal proteins. These differential effects are consistent with the preferential interaction of the AP-3 mu 3A subunit with tyrosine-based signals involved in lysosomal targeting. Our results suggest that AP-3 functions in protein sorting to lysosomes and provide an example of a human disease in which altered trafficking of integral membrane proteins is due to mutations in a component of the sorting machinery.  (+info)

Sino biological offers a comprehensive set of tools for CD antigens related to cell activation research, including recombinant proteins, antibodies,and others. This page about the CD antigens that expressed on T cells.
Sino biological offers a comprehensive set of tools for CD antigens related to cell migration research, including recombinant proteins, antibodies,and others. This page about the CD antigens that expressed on Macrophages.
Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) is an MHC class II ligand structurally and genetically related to CD4. Although its expression is restricted to activated
We show in this study that Tregs functionally inhibit DC activation in an Ag-dependent manner involving the interaction of LAG-3 and its ligand, MHC II. This LAG-3/MHC II molecular interaction provides a novel tolerogenic pathway that may endow Tregs the capacity to enforce tolerance by inhibiting DC function. The ability of Ag-specific Tregs to modulate DC function would potentially allow limited numbers of Ag-specific Tregs to inhibit many potential responding T effectors.. Expression in T cells of LAG-3 lacking its cytoplasmic tail was sufficient to confer regulatory activity, consistent with the notion that reverse signaling through MHC II in DCs, rather than LAG-3 signaling in T cells, was responsible for inhibition of DCs. Furthermore, inhibition of DC maturation required cell contact and bystander DCs were only modestly affected, indicating that release of inhibitory cytokines by regulatory cells were not primarily responsible. Prior studies have shown that LAG-3 engagement inhibits T ...
Plans are well advanced for the 8th Workshop (see, to be organized in Adelaide, Australia, in 2004 under the aegis of Prof. H. Zola (Child Health Research Institute, Adelaide, Australia). It is sometimes assumed that the catalog of surface molecules associated with human hemopoietic cells is now essentially complete, but there is abundant evidence in the literature for novel surface molecules that would merit study at the next Workshop, and that could provide the basis for new CD designations. Table III⇓ comprises a list of potential new molecules reported following the production of monoclonal antibodies, and also a more extensive list of surface molecules identified via gene cloning. In most instances, no antibodies are available against the putative new leukocyte/endothelial markers in this latter group. Specific and well characterized reagents, whether monoclonal or polyclonal, are needed not only for detecting these new virtual molecules but also for defining functional ...
The following Mouse CD list has been adapted from ThermoFisher Scientific. Please visit ThermoFisher website if you like to see the clonal information of the available antibodies against these antigens ...
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Research proven mouse monoclonal CD34 antibody. Excellent marker for hematopoietic progenitors and stem cells. CD34 protein is involved in differentiating HPCs into certain types of neurons. Also useful for studying endothelial cells, angigogensis and tumorigenesis. Designed for immunohistochemisitry and related applications. IHC image available.
Recombinant cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, soluble receptors and CD antigens which are highly purified, stable and biologically active.
Two papers describing mice deficient in signaling lymphocyte activation molecule and 2B4 represent the first accounts of immune phenotypes in animals lacking me
Clone REA980 recognizes the mouse CD357 antigen, also known as glucocorticoid-induced TNF-receptor (GITR) or TNFRSF18. CD357 is a member of the TNF receptor superfamily. It is expressed at low levels on resting T lymphocytes and at high levels on CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Activation of T cells upregulates CD357 expression. Interaction of CD357 (GTITR) with its ligand (GITRL) has been demonstrated to augment T cell activation, proliferation, cytokine production, as well as MAPKs and NF-κB activation. CD357 plays an important role in the function of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs. Additional information: Clone REA980 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - USA
Clone REA980 recognizes the mouse CD357 antigen, also known as glucocorticoid-induced TNF-receptor (GITR) or TNFRSF18. CD357 is a member of the TNF receptor superfamily. It is expressed at low levels on resting T lymphocytes and at high levels on CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Activation of T cells upregulates CD357 expression. Interaction of CD357 (GTITR) with its ligand (GITRL) has been demonstrated to augment T cell activation, proliferation, cytokine production, as well as MAPKs and NF-κB activation. CD357 plays an important role in the function of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs. Additional information: Clone REA980 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Lëtzebuerg
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CD147 Antigens: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
Role of γ/δ T cell surface molecules and soluble mediators in DC maturation. (A) CD40 ligand cell surface expression by JR.2. γ/δ T cells. CD40 ligand expre
Endosialin/CD248/TEM1 Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Endosialin/CD248/TEM1 Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
ENTPD3 (ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market is estimated to be valued US$ XX.X million in 2019. The report on T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market provides qualitative as well as quantitative analysis in terms of market dynamics, competition scenarios, opportunity analysis, market growth, etc. for the forecast year up to 2029. The global t lymphocyte activation antigen cd80 market ...
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T cells are major effector cells of the adaptive immune response from influencing antibody production to maintaining tolerance. The defining marker of the T cell is the T-cell receptor (TCR), and 2 distinct T-cell subsets have been characterized based on the structure of the TCR: TCRα/β and TCRγδ. The specificity of the TCRα/β T-cell repertoire is established during fetal development of the thymus, which develops at week 6 of gestation. Immature thymic cells develop from fetal liver cells and, after birth, from hematopoetic stem cells (HSCS) in the bone marrow. T cells develop from common lymphoid progenitor cells derived from HSCs within the thymus and undergo stages of differentiation, expressing 1 or both of the cytodifferentiation (CD) antigens CD4 and CD8. T cells expressing the α/β TCR are divided into various subsets based on surface CD antigens and function. CD4+ T cells, or helper T cells (TH), make up approximately 70% of T cells in the peripheral blood. TH cells recognize ...
CD248 (endosialin) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is dynamically expressed on pericytes and fibroblasts during tissue development, tumour neovascularization and inflammation. Its role in tissue remodelling is associated with increased stromal cell proliferation and migration. We show that CD248 is also uniquely expressed by human, but not mouse (C57BL/6), CD8(+) naive T cells. CD248 is found only on CD8(+) CCR7(+) CD11a(low) naive T cells and on CD8 single-positive T cells in the thymus. Transfection of the CD248 negative T-cell line MOLT-4 with CD248 cDNA surprisingly reduced cell proliferation. Knock-down of CD248 on naive CD8 T cells increased cell proliferation. These data demonstrate opposing functions for CD248 on haematopoietic (CD8(+)) versus stromal cells and suggests that CD248 helps to maintain naive CD8(+) human T cells in a quiescent state.
The report on the Global T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Epsilon Chain market offers complete data on the T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Epsilon Chain market. Components, for example, main players, analysis, size, situation of the business, SWOT analysis, and best patterns in the market are included in the report. In addition to this, the report sports numbers, tables, and charts that offer a clear viewpoint of the T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Epsilon Chain market. The top contenders Amgen Inc, Celgene Corp, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, GlaxoSmithKline Plc, MacroGenics Inc, Meridigen Biotech Co Ltd, Numab Innovation AG, SYNIMMUNE GmbH, Tiziana Life Sciences Plc of the global T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Epsilon Chain market are further covered in the report .. Access to the sample pages of the report at: The report also segments the global T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Epsilon Chain market based on product mode and ...
Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-linked protein (SAP) plays an essential role in the immune Ezatiostat system mediating the function of several members of the SLAM family (SLAMF) of receptors whose expression is essential for T NK and B-cell Rabbit Polyclonal to GABRD. responses. in mouse. However it is definitely less obvious whether other users of this family may also participate in the development of these innate T cells. Here we display that and strain suggesting that Slamf5 may function as a negative regulator of innate CD8+ T cell development. Accordingly B6 mice showed an exclusive growth of innate CD8+ T cells but not NKT cells. Interestingly the SAP-independent strain showed an growth of both splenic innate CD8+ T cells and thymic NKT cells. On the other hand and similar to what was recently demonstrated in BALB/c mice the proportions of thymic promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZFhi) NKT cells and innate CD8+ T cells significantly improved in the SAP-independent ...
This modification could also explain the Z-DEVD-FMK mouse increased resistance to Az in F. tularensis LVS. In addition, there are methylases that can confer increased resistance by targeted. modification (methylation) of a specific adenine residue of the 23S rRNA. There are some methylases that have been identified as critical virulence factors for Francisella that might carry out this modification [39]. Some methylases that are present in the genome of F. novicida are either absent or are pseudogenes/nonfunctional genes (such as FTT0010, FTT0770, FTT1430, FTT1719, and FTT1735c) in F. tularensis Temsirolimus order Schu S4, potentially contributing to the different sensitivities to Az between the strains [34]. Any potential role of these molecules in Az sensitivity or resistance in Francisella has not yet been determined. It has been suggested that Az attaches to the acidic LPS on the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, allowing the drug to penetrate through the outer membrane and enter the ...
1). The same pattern existed among strains producing the other Vsa isotypes. Strains producing short Vsa proteins attached to MLE-12 cells in statistically significant higher numbers than did those strains that produced long proteins. These findings were true for strains producing a short or long VsaA protein, a short or long VsaI protein, and VsaH. There is no long form of the VsaH because this protein lacks tandem repeats (Simmons et al., 1996, 2004). There were no statistical differences observed between the Vsa isotypes examined. The only significant differences. were between strains producing short and long Vsa proteins. The mutants that lack EPS-I that APO866 manufacturer are available all produce a long VsaG protein. The EPS-I mutants CTG1291 and CTG1701 exhibited statistically significant reduced attachment to MLE-12 cells as compared to all strains CT99021 of mycoplasma that produced the polysaccharide (Fig. 2). The complemented mutant that had restored EPS-I production, strain ...
Objectives: Although CD8+ T cells play a critical role in the control of HIV-1 infection, their antiviral efficacy can be limited by antigenic variation and immune exhaustion. The latter phenomenon is characterized by the upregulation of multiple inhibitory receptors, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1), CD244 and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), which modulate the functional capabilities of CD8+ T cells. Design and methods: Here, we used an array of different human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*15 : 03 and HLA-B*42 : 01 tetramers to characterize inhibitory receptor expression as a function of differentiation on HIV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell populations (n=128) spanning 11 different epitope targets. Results: Expression levels of PD-1, but not CD244 or LAG-3, varied substantially across epitope specificities both within and between individuals. Differential expression of PD-1 on T-cell receptor (TCR) clonotypes within individual HIV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell populations was also apparent, independent of clonal
Objectives: Although CD8+T cells play a critical role in the control of HIV-1 infection, their antiviral efficacy can be limited by antigenic variation and immune exhaustion. The latter phenomenon is characterized by the upregulation of multiple inhibitory receptors, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1), CD244 and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), which modulate the functional capabilities of CD8+T cells. Design and methods: Here, we used an array of different human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*15 : 03 and HLA-B*42 : 01 tetramers to characterize inhibitory receptor expression as a function of differentiation on HIV-1-specific CD8+T-cell populations (n=128) spanning 11 different epitope targets. Results: Expression levels of PD-1, but not CD244 or LAG-3, varied substantially across epitope specificities both within and between individuals. Differential expression of PD-1 on T-cell receptor (TCR) clonotypes within individual HIV-1-specific CD8+T-cell populations was also apparent, independent of clonal
Four pre-designed shRNA constructs targeting ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 4 (ENTPD4), transcript variant 1 and one scrambled control. Each shRNA construct is driven by the U6 promoter and contains a GFP reporter.
The immunophenotypic profiles of low-grade B cell NHL are complex and still under investigation. Especially the T cell antigen CD5 is used to subclassify this group of B cell lymphomas. The MALT lymphomas express pan-B-cell antigens but typically lack CD5 expression [2]. CD5 is a T-cell antigen that is expressed on normal B-cells and occasionally on B-cell neoplasm [8]. The T cell antigen CD5 has been reported in B cell NHL between 3% and 40% [9].. Whether CD5 expression is relevant to the prognosis of patients with MALT lymphoma is controversial [5]. In the conjunctival region, we reviewed the cases of three patients with CD5-positive MALT lymphoma (Table 1). The cases of one patients formally reported by Wenzel et al. were presented as a more aggressive disease than typical MALT lymphoma [6]. Local recurrence was noted in this case, and patient had rapid generalization to the contralateral conjunctiva, mediastinal lymph nodes and the esophagogastric. The investigators suggested that CD5 ...
A CD Antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form Macrophage-1 Antigen ...
Immunophenotyping is the analysis of heterogeneous populations of cells for the purpose of identifying the presence and proportions of the various populations of interest. Clusters of Differentiation (CD) antigens are widely used for immunophenotyping.
Complete information for BST2 gene (Protein Coding), Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Antigen 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
CD26 and CD31 surface antigen expression on human colostral T cells.: The expression levels of CD26 and CD31 surface antigens, two adhesion/activation molecules
Our study addresses the important clinical issue of resistance to CART-19 and establishes a novel combinatorial mechanism by which its cognate epitope could be removed from the cell surface without discarding the target protein entirely. This mechanism involves the clustering of nonsense and missense mutations in exon 2 of CD19. Distributed frameshift mutations would have prevented CD19 protein expression but also left the leukemic cells without the important activator of PI3K and SFTK signaling. In contrast, frameshift mutations clustered in the nonconstitutive exon 2 eliminate full-length CD19, but allow expression of the Δex2 isoform. Not only is this isoform mostly cytosolic and thus hidden from T cells, but expression of its membrane fraction does not trigger killing by CART-19, at least not at physiologic levels. At the same time, it was found to be even more stable than full-length CD19, which could be due to either the presence of a degron within exon 2-encoded amino acid sequence or ...
Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein that is known to complex with integrins. It contributes to the transduction of CD2-generated signals in T cells and natural killer cells and has been suggested to play a role in growth regulation. Familial deficiency of this gene has been linked to an immunodeficiency associated with recurrent infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi and viruses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. Cluster of differentiation Tetraspanin GRCh38: Ensembl ...
Vivian was a vocalist in a Grind Core band and had also played saxophone in a Noise group. Risa was a vocalist in an Avant-garde project, and Mika sang in a rock band. By March 2003, Gallhammer had already recorded a demo tape which was limited to just 30 copies and was given away for free at their first gig at Koiwa Death Fest Vol.2. At early gigs their set also included covers of Hellhammer and Amebix tracks, the main influences of the band. Only a few months later in July, the demo CD Gallhammer was recorded and released Vivian\s vision of Gallhammer had been realised in that it should sound like Dark, Morbid and raw sensibility with the emphasis on raw feelings. Gallhammer is the essence of mental violence, with lyrical themes covering topics such as despair and hopelessness, emptiness, obsession with life, hatred, observations of negative feelings.. By April the following year a new demo CD ENDLESS NAUSEOUS DAYS was released and the band started to plan their debut full-length CD, which ...
人 2B4 / SLAMF / CD244 蛋白 (Fc 標籤), expressed in Human Cells. Produced and quality controlled in house. High quality guaranteed. Save up to 60%. Bulk in stock.
Along withÂ- 65 x 69 x 97 in. chamber and 4-8 cell (8-16 panel) capacity, ModVIA™ provides technology to treat PCBs for desmear and etchback as well as provide surface activation. Integrated system accommodates diverse PCB panel technologies in various shapes and sizes, including rigid, flexible, through-hole, and blind via, and works with range of process gases: such as Ar,... Read More » ...
Along withÂ- 65 x 69 x 97 in. chamber and 4-8 cell (8-16 panel) capacity, ModVIA™ provides technology to treat PCBs for desmear and etchback as well as provide surface activation. Integrated system accommodates diverse PCB panel technologies in various shapes and sizes, including rigid, flexible, through-hole, and blind via, and works with range of process gases: such as Ar,... Read More » ...
SCHEDULE 12 Breach or Amendment of Suspended Sentence Order, and Effect of Further Conviction - Part 2 Breach of Community Requirement or Conviction of Further Offence has been covered in this comprehensive and up to date legislation document.
[54 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 5 (Carcinoembryonic Antigen or CEA or Meconium Antigen 100 or CD66e or CEACAM5) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 report by Global Markets Direct. Global Markets Directs, Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule...
Buy CEACAM18 elisa kit, Canine Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 18 (CEACAM18) ELISA Kit-NP_082512.1 (MBS7211769) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
Ceacam12 (untagged) - Mouse carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 12 (Ceacam12), transcript variant 1, (10ug), 10 µg.
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 8 (CEACAM8) also known as CD66b (Cluster of Differentiation 66b), is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family. Its main function is cell adhesion, cell migration, and pathogen binding. CEACAM8 is expressed exclusively on granulocytes and used as granulocyte marker. Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000124469 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Entrez Gene: CEACAM8 carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 8. Khan WN, Frängsmyr L, Teglund S, et al. (1992). Identification of three new genes and estimation of the size of the carcinoembryonic antigen family. Genomics. 14 (2): 384-90. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(05)80230-7. PMID 1427854. Oikawa S, Inuzuka C, Kuroki M, et al. (1991). A specific heterotypic cell adhesion activity between members of carcinoembryonic antigen family, W272 and NCA, is mediated by N-domains. J. Biol. Chem. 266 (13): 7995-8001. PMID 2022629. Berling ...
Creative Biomart offer ceacam2 proteins for life sciences research. All the products are rigorously tested to meet the most demanding research needs. At the same time, lowest prices in the industry are always guaranteed.
We describe a high-throughput screening system to detect interactions between leucocyte surface proteins, taking into account that these interactions are usually of very low affinity. The method involves producing the extracellular regions of leucocyte proteins with tags so that they can be bound to nanoparticles to provide an avid reagent to screen over an array of 36 similar proteins immobilized using the Proteon XPR36 with detection by surface plasmon resonance. The system was tested using established interactions that could be detected without spurious binding. The ability to detect new interactions was shown by identifying a new interaction between carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 and carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 8.
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
Rat Compact disc39 a membrane-bound ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase that hydrolyzes extracellular nucleoside tri- and diphosphates is anchored towards the membrane by two transmembrane domains at both ends of the molecule. transmembrane domain name indicates that there is contact between particular faces of the transmembrane domains. strains DH5α (strain YMR4 ([24]. Standard rich (YPD) and complete minimal uracil drop-out (DO-U) media were used for yeast [25]. The composition of the DO-U medium with 0.3 mM ATP was 0.9 g of DO-U powder 5 g of IKBKB antibody (NH4)2SO4 1.02 g of MgSO4-7H2O 0.1675 g of CaCl2 0.1 g of NaCl 0.55 g of KCl 12.1 g of Tris base and 0.165 g of ATP disodium salt (Sigma Aldrich) per liter of water; the pH was titrated to 7.2 with HCl. Glucose (2%) vitamins and trace elements (DIFCO SB-262470 manual) were added after sterilization. Creation of an acid phosphatase-negative strain of and genes respectively to create an acid phosphatase-negative (APN) YMR4 yeast ...
|span style=font-family:Times,serif;font-size:9pt;>The CC1 monoclonal antibody specifically recognizes carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1a (CEACAM1a or CEACAM1[a]), an allotypic form of CEACAM1 which is also known as CD66a, Murine hepatitis virus receptor (MHV-R), or Biliary glycoprotein 1 (BGP-1). Four known isoforms of mouse CD66a arise from alternative splicing of RNA transcripts encoded by |/span>|span style=font-style:italic;font-family:Times,serif;font-size:9pt;>Ceacam1|/span>|span style=font-family:Times,serif;font-size:9pt;>, a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family and Ig gene superfamily. These isoforms are type I transmembrane proteins that include a heavily glycosylated extracellular region with an N-terminal IgV-like domain and up to three IgC2-like domains followed by a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic tail of relatively short (10 amino acids) or long (73 amino acids) length. The cytoplasmic tails enable interactions with other intracellular
Background: Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), an immunoglobulin (Ig)-related glycoprotein, serves as cellular receptor for a variety of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens associated with the human mucosa. In particular, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae possess well-characterized CEACAM1-binding adhesins. CEACAM1 is typically involved in cell-cell attachment, epithelial differentiation, neovascularisation and regulation of T-cell proliferation, and is one of the few CEACAM family members with homologues in different mammalian lineages. However, it is unknown whether bacterial adhesins of human pathogens can recognize CEACAM1 orthologues from other mammals.,br /,Results: Sequence comparisons of the amino-terminal Ig-variable-like domain of CEACAM1 reveal that the highest sequence divergence between human, murine, canine and bovine orthologues is found in the β-strands comprising the bacteria-binding ...
Our previous in vitro data suggested that CEACAM1 is involved in angiogenesis. This is supported by a recent proteomic screen for cell membrane components expressed in newly formed tumor vessels and the fact that CEACAM1 expression is upregulated in synergy with other angiogenic factors in cardiac hypoxia (17, 19). To date, however, evidence for a causal implication of CEACAM1 in angiogenesis in vivo was lacking. In the present study, we report on 2 different genetic mouse models in which the angiogenic action of CEACAM1 has been investigated: in CEACAM1endo+ mice, the expression of CEACAM1-L was targeted to endothelia via the Tie2 promoter, and in Ceacam1-/- mice, the Ceacam1 gene was inactivated by targeted disruption (29). In addition, endothelial cells were transfected with cDNAs coding for WT CEACAM1-L and for CEACAM1-L mutants harboring amino acid substitutions in the cytoplasmic domain. In these experimental systems, we provide conclusive evidence that CEACAM1 is involved in angiogenesis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measles virus selectively blind to signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM; CD150) is attenuated and induces strong adaptive immune responses in rhesus monkeys. AU - Leonard, Vincent H J. AU - Hodge, Gregory. AU - Reyes-Del Valle, Jorge. AU - McChesney, Michael B.. AU - Cattaneo, Roberto. PY - 2010/4. Y1 - 2010/4. N2 - The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM; CD150) is the immune cell receptor for measles virus (MV). To assess the importance of the SLAM-MV interactions for virus spread and pathogenesis, we generated a wild-type IC-B MV selectively unable to recognize human SLAM (SLAM-blind). This virus differs from the fully virulent wild-type IC-B strain by a single arginine-to-alanine substitution at amino acid 533 of the attachment protein hemagglutinin and infects cells through SLAM about 40 times less efficiently than the isogenic wild-type strain. Ex vivo, this virus infects primary lymphocytes at low levels regardless of SLAM expression. When a group of ...
ORF of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 20 (CEACAM20), transcript variant 4L in pENTER vector with CMV promoter and C-terminal FLAG and His tags.
Although dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) analog with profound effects on energy metabolism, immune system, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, is widely used therapeutically, its impact on the brain is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of repeated low-dose DEX administration on the activity and expression of the ectonucleotidase enzymes which hydrolyze and therefore control extracellular ATP and adenosine concentrations in the synaptic cleft. Ectonucleotidases tested were ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1-3 (NTPDase1-3) and ecto-5-nucleotidase (eN), whereas the effects were evaluated in two brain areas that show different sensitivity to glucocorticoid action, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex. In the hippocampus, but not in cerebral cortex, modest level of neurodegenerative changes as well as increase in ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolysis and upregulation of NTPDase1 and eN mRNA expression ensued under t...he ...
ANGELI, J.K. et al. Gadolinium increases the vascular reactivity of rat aortic rings. Braz J Med Biol Res [online]. 2011, vol.44, n.5, pp.445-452. Epub Apr 01, 2011 ISSN 1414-431X. Gadolinium (Gd) blocks intra- and extracellular ATP hydrolysis. We determined whether Gd affects vascular reactivity to contractile responses to phenylephrine (PHE) by blocking aortic ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase). Wistar rats of both sexes (260-300 g, 23 females, 7 males) were used. Experiments were performed before and after incubation of aortic rings with 3 µM Gd. Concentration-response curves to PHE (0.1 nM to 0.1 mM) were obtained in the presence and absence of endothelium, after incubation with 100 µM L-NAME, 10 µM losartan, or 10 µM enalaprilat. Gd significantly increased the maximum response (control: 72.3 ± 3.5; Gd: 101.3 ± 6.4%) and sensitivity (control: 6.6 ± 0.1; Gd: 10.5 ± 2.8%) to PHE. To investigate the blockade of ...
The remarkable functional plasticity of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) allows the adaptive immune system to respond specifically to an incredibly diverse array of potential pathogenic insults; nonetheless, the specific molecular effectors and mechanisms that underpin this plasticity re …
The great majority of mammalian genes yield multiple transcripts arising from differential mRNA processing, but in very few instances have alternative forms been assigned distinct functional properties. We have cloned and characterized a new isoform of the accessory molecule CD6 that lacks the CD166 binding domain and is expressed in rat and human primary cells. The novel isoform, CD6Deltad3, results from exon 5 skipping and consequently lacks the third scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain of CD6. Differential expression of the SRCR domain 3 resulted in a remarkable functional difference: whereas full-length CD6 targeted to the immunological synapse, CD6Deltad3 was unable to localize at the T cell:APC interface during Ag presentation. Analysis of expression of CD6 variants showed that, while being more frequent in coexpression with full-length CD6, the CD6Deltad3 isoform constituted the sole species in a small percentage of T cells. In the rat thymus, CD6Deltad3 is less represented in double
Background T-cell depletion therapy is associated with diminished interleukin (IL)-7/IL-15-dependent homeostatic proliferation resulting in incomplete T-cell repopulation. Furthermore, it is associated with impaired T-cell functions. We hypothesized that this is the result of impaired cytokine responsiveness of T cells, through affected signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5 phosphorylation and upregulation of coinhibitory molecules. Materials and Methods Patients were treated with T cell-depleting rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) (6 mg/kg, n = 17) or nondepleting, anti-CD25 antibody (basiliximab, 2 × 40 mg, n = 25) induction therapy, in combination with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. Before and the first year after transplantation, IL-7 and IL-2 induced STAT5 phosphorylation, and the expression of the coinhibitory molecules programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (TIM-3), lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), cytotoxic ...
Recombinant Human LILRB1 is produced by our Mammalian expression system and the target gene encoding Gly24-His458 is expressed with a 6His tag at the C-terminus. Bon Opus Cat.# C484 (BP161)
The T cell surface molecule CD28 can provide costimulatory signals that permit the full activation of T cells. Here we demonstrate that stimulation of CD28, either by B7, its natural ligand, or by the anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody 9.3, induces an association between CD28 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) in Jurkat T cells, raising the possibility that an interaction with PI3-K contributes to CD28-mediated signaling. To examine the mechanism of the association, we synthesized tyrosine-phosphorylated oligopeptides corresponding to each of the four tyrosines in the CD28 cytoplasmic domain. When added to lysates of B7-stimulated Jurkat cells, the oligopeptide corresponding to Tyr 173 inhibits the coimmunoprecipitation of PI3-K with CD28; the other oligopeptides have no effect. Tyr 173 is contained within the sequence YMNM, a motif that is also found in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor and that, when phosphorylated, forms a high affinity binding site for the p85 subunit of PI3-K. ...
T-cell infiltration of solid tumors is associated with improved prognosis and favorable responses to immunotherapy. Mechanisms that enable tumor infiltration of CD8+ T cells have not been defined, nor have drugs that assist this process been discovered. Here we address these issues with a focus on VE-cadherin, a major endothelial cell-specific junctional protein that controls vascular integrity. A decrease in VE-cadherin expression is associated with tumor pathology. We developed an oligonucleotide-based inhibitor (CD5-2), which disrupted the interaction of VE-cadherin with its regulator miR-27a, resulting in increased VE-cadherin expression. Administration of CD5-2 in tumor-bearing mice enhanced expression of VE-cadherin in tumor endothelium, activating TIE-2 and tight junction pathways and normalizing vessel structure and function. CD5-2 administration also enhanced tumor-specific T-cell infiltration and spatially redistributed CD8+ T cells within the tumor parenchyma. Finally, CD5-2 treatment ...
The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors for solid tumor treatments represents a major oncological advance. Since the approval of ipilimumab, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) antibody, for the treatment of metastatic melanoma, many drugs, especially those targeting PD1/PD-L1, have demonstrated promising antitumor effects in many types of cancer. By reactivating the immune system (IS), these immunotherapies have led to the development of new toxicity profiles, also called immune-related adverse events (irAEs). IrAEs can involve many organ systems, and their management is radically different from that of cytotoxic drugs; irAEs require immunosuppressive treatments, such as corticoids or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) antibody. Additionally, the occurrence of irAEs has raised significant questions. Here, we summarize progress that has been made toward answering these questions, focusing on 1) the impact of immunotherapy dose on irAE occurrence, 2) the correlation ...
The ASL-32 mAb reacts with an antigen epitope shared by CD66a, c and e. CD66a/c/e are members of the CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) family of the Ig superfamily. CD66 plays a role in hemophilic and heterophilic adhesion. CD66a, also known as CEACAM1 and BGP (biliary glycoprotein), is mainly expresse
We could not confirm the inhibitory effect of Th3 cells on immune responses at inflammatory sites, as TGF-β1 mRNA expression did not correlate with the frequency of sensitization or dose in this antigen induced inflammation model. CD4+CD25+T cells. express cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) with membrane-associated TGF-β on the cell surface, which suppresses multiplication of positive effector T cells by direct cytoadherence [33, 34]. Foxp3, a master regulatory gene is constitutively expressed in CD4+CD25+T cells [35], and both Tr1 and Th3 cells see more are negative for Foxp3 [36, 37]. It was assumed that intrapulmonary Foxp3 mRNA expression is not increased as drastically in comparison with IL-10, as frequent and large quantity sensitization with M. pneumoniae antigens induced CD4+CD25+T cell translocation from thymus to the. lung. Additionally, we performed an in vitro analysis aimed to evaluate the specificity of immuno-inducibility and Th17-differentiation enhancability of M. ...
The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)/CD150 family includes a family of chromosome 1-encoded cell surface molecules with costimulatory functions
ACROBiosystems provides a unique set of CD47-relevant products, including mutilple avi tag pre-biotinylated proteins, for rapid high throughput screening.
T cells (thymus cells) and B cells (bone cells) are the main cells of the adaptive immune response. They tackle infections, and they cause the immune system to remember the event. The function of T cells and B cells is to recognize foreign antigens. Antigens are surface molecules on a cell. Once they have identified an invader, the cells respond to remove pathogens or pathogen-infected cells. B cells respond to pathogens by producing large numbers of antibodies which then destroy foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. Some T cells, called T helper cells, produce cytokines that direct the immune response. Cytokines signal to other immune cells that there is a foreign antigen present. Other T cells, called cytotoxic T cells, produce toxic granules which cause the death of infected cells. Once they are made active, B cells and T cells produce memory cells. Throughout the lifetime of an animal, these cells will remember each specific pathogen encountered, and are able to make a strong ...
T Cell Specific Surface Glycoprotein CD28 (TP44 or CD28) - Pipeline Review, H1 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-06-13 Available for US$ 3500 at
|p|CD81 is a 26 kD non-glycosylated member of the tetraspanin superfamily (TM4SF), also known as TAPA-1 (target of an antiproliferative antibody). CD81 is expressed on T and B cells, NK cells, monocytes, dendritic cells, thymocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. It also has low levels of expre
LifeLabs is excited to introduce an expansion of our flow cytometry testing. Starting on April 10th, 2017 we will offer flow cytometric immunophenotyping for hematopoietic and lymphoid malignancies in addition to our existing flow cytometry testing for T-cell subset analysis.. Flow cytometry is widely used for analyzing the expression of surface and intracellular molecules in order to differentiate and characterize different cell populations. It continues to be a necessary diagnostic tool for the classification, staging, and monitoring of hematolymphoid neoplasms.. LifeLabs is pleased to offer a variety of panels to facilitate the diagnosis and/or prognosis of the following:. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Structure of CD84 provides insight into SLAM family function. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Abstract Download Blockade of various immune targets such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 and Programmed cell death leads to immune-mediated tumor regression and immune-related adverse events, predominantly gastrointestinal events including diarrhea and colitis. The current review is done to understand the […]. ...
One reason for the poor immunogenicity of many tumors may be that they cannot provide signals for CD28-mediated costimulation necessary to fully activate T cells. It has recently become apparent that CTLA-4, a second counterreceptor for the B7 family of costimulatory molecules, is a negative regulator of T cell activation. Here, in vivo administration of antibodies to CTLA-4 resulted in the rejection of tumors, including preestablished tumors. Furthermore, this rejection resulted in immunity to a secondary exposure to tumor cells. These results suggest that blockade of the inhibitory effects of CTLA-4 can allow for, and potentiate, effective immune responses against tumor cells.. ...
anti-Mouse CD229/SLAMF3/Lymphocyte Antigen 9, Clone: HLy9.1.25, Novus Biologicals 0.1mg; Unlabeled Life Sciences:Antibodies:Primary Antibodies:Flow Cytometry (Flow)
LILRA4 antibody [N2C2], Internal (leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor, subfamily A (with TM domain), member 4) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-LILRA4 pAb (GTX119457) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
CD105 (Endoglin), clone: MJ7/18, eBioscience™ 50μg; Unconjugated CD105 (Endoglin), clone: MJ7/18, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD101 to CD150
Compare Integrin, alpha 3 (antigen CD49C, alpha 3 subunit of VLA-3 receptor) ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
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CD229, a 100-120 kDa single-pass type I membrane glycoprotein in the SLAM family, is expressed on T cells, B cells, NK cells, and thymocytes. It is thought to play a role in adhesive interactions between T and B cells.
The carcinoembryonic-antigen-related cell-adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family of proteins has been implicated in various intercellular-adhesion and intracellular-signalling-mediated effects that govern the growth and differentiation of normal and cancerous cells. Recent studies show that there is an i …
Endosialin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD248 gene.[1][2][3] Endosialin is a member of the Group XIV, a novel family of C-type lectin transmembrane receptors which play a role not only in cell-cell adhesion processes but also in host defence. This family comprise two other members, CD93 and Thrombomodulin which are better characterized. The function of endosialin remains elusive, but its expression has been associated with angiogenesis in the embryo and uterus and in tumor development and growth.[4] ...
ENTPD3 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 465 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 52kDa.
Prominin 2兔多克隆抗体(ab74997)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, ICC/IF实验严格验证并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Endoglin is a coreceptor for transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) that acts as a suppressor of malignancy during mouse skin… Expand ...
CEACAM6小鼠单克隆抗体[9A6](ab78029)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用并得到2个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
"CD antigens 2001". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 70 (5): 685-90. PMID 11698486.. ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ...
CD antigens". Immunobiology (5 ed.). New York: Garland. ISBN 978-0-8153-3642-6. Vivier E, Morin P, O'Brien C, Druker B, ... Several other CD molecules, such as CD11b and CD33, are traditionally used as markers for human myeloid-derived suppressor ... CD16+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Elghetany MT (March 2002). "Surface antigen changes during normal neutrophilic development: a critical review". Blood Cells, ...
The CMRF35 antigen, which was identified by reactivity with a monoclonal antibody, is present on monocytes, neutrophils, and ... Clark GJ, Fitzpatrick S, Kuo B, Modra C, Jamriska L, Hart DN (2002). "CMRF-35A, CMRF-35H: potential new CD". J. Biol. Regul. ... CMRF35-like molecule 6 (CLM-6) also known as CD300 antigen-like family member C (CD300c) is a protein that in humans is encoded ... Tissue Antigens. 55 (2): 101-9. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2000.550201.x. PMID 10746781. "Entrez Gene: CD300C CD300c molecule". ...
Table of CD Antigens CD list Protein Reviews On The Web Yet another list of CD molecules, at Wall charts ... "CD Antigens" (PDF). abcam. 2009. Retrieved 2014-11-22. Passlick B, Flieger D, Ziegler-Heitbrock HW (1989). "Identification and ... CD for humans is numbered up to 371 (as of 21 April 2016[update]). The CD nomenclature was proposed and established in the 1st ... Since 1982 there have been nine Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen Workshops culminating in a conference. The CD system is ...
A1-B8 serotype was associated with a number of diseases as "HL-A"' antigens were first being described. Among these were ... Oehling A, Baena-Cagnani CE, Sanz ML, Crisci CD (1979). "HLA and pollinosis". Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 7 (6): 423-6. PMID ... Ambrus M, Hernádi E, Bajtai G (May 1977). "Prevalence of HLA-A1 and HLA-B8 antigens in selective IgA deficiency". Clin. Immunol ... Lada G, Gyódi E, Gláz E (1977). "HLA antigens in patients with adrenocortical hyperfunction". Acta Med Acad Sci Hung. 34 (4): ...
"Nucleotide sequence of a new Fc gamma receptor IIIB allele that codes for a neutrophil antigen". Tissue Antigens. 56 (3): 272-5 ... Breij EC, van der Pol WL, van Winsen L, Jansen MD, Dijkstra CD, van de Winkel JG, Uitdehaag BM (Jul 2003). "No association of ... Pusey CD, Cook HT (Feb 2006). "Copy number polymorphism in Fcgr3 predisposes to glomerulonephritis in rats and humans". Nature ... Tissue Antigens. 61 (5): 374-83. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00047.x. PMID 12753656. ...
Common antigens targeted are clusters of differentiation (CDs). These are specific to a certain type of cell. If you can ... "Human CD & Other Cellular Antigens - US". Retrieved 2018-12-11. "MACS" (website). Miltenyi Biotech. ... Shields CW, Reyes CD, López GP (March 2015). "Microfluidic cell sorting: a review of the advances in the separation of cells ... When a CD73+ antigen expressed itself with RCVRN+ cells (calcium-binding proteins in the eye), it showed researchers that this ...
Myers, CD (1991). "Role of B cell antigen processing and presentation in the humoral immune response" (PDF). The FASEB Journal ... Steps in production of antibodies by B cells: 1. Antigen is recognized and engulfed by B cell 2. Antigen is processed 3. ... Antigen presentation[edit]. Main articles: antigen presentation and major histocompatibility complex. After the processed ... Antigens can be large and complex substances, and any single antibody can only bind to a small, specific area on the antigen. ...
CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. CD antigens nomenclature is updated at Protein Reviews On The Web (https ...
"MACROPHAGE ANTIGEN CD68; CD68". Retrieved 16 September 2017. Leong, Anthony S-Y; Cooper, Kumarason; Leong, F Joel W-M ... Dijkstra CD, Döpp EA, Joling P, Kraal G (March 1985). "The heterogeneity of mononuclear phagocytes in lymphoid organs: distinct ... Other names or aliases for this gene in humans and other animals include: CD68 Molecule, CD68 Antigen, GP110, Macrosialin, ... Damoiseaux JG, Döpp EA, Calame W, Chao D, MacPherson GG, Dijkstra CD (September 1994). "Rat macrophage lysosomal membrane ...
Mills CD (5 May 2015). "Anatomy of a discovery: m1 and m2 macrophages". Frontiers in Immunology. 6: 212. doi:10.3389/fimmu. ... Peptides from the bacteria are trafficked to the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). The peptide antigens are presented to ... Savina A, Amigorena S (October 2007). "Phagocytosis and antigen presentation in dendritic cells". Immunological Reviews. 219 (1 ... as DCs are mainly involved in antigen presentation rather than pathogen degradation. They need to retain protein fragments of a ...
CD 96 has approximately 20% homology with CD226 and competed for binding to CD155 with CD226. The protein encoded by this gene ... It may also function in antigen presentation[citation needed]. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript ... It may also function in antigen presentation. Alternative splicing generates multiple transcript variants encoding distinct ... "Enhanced ADCC activity of affinity maturated and Fc-engineered mini-antibodies directed against the AML stem cell antigen CD96 ...
Nomenclature for clusters of differentiation (CD) of antigens defined on human leukocyte populations. IUIS-WHO Nomenclature ... antygeny różnicowania komórkowego (CD). Przypisy[edytuj , edytuj kod]. *↑ EL. Reinherz, PC. Kung, G. Goldstein, SF. Schlossman ... The CD4 and CD8 T cell surface antigens are associated with the internal membrane tyrosine-protein kinase p56lck.. „Cell". 55 ( ... Constitutively active Lck kinase in T cells drives antigen receptor signal transduction.. „Immunity". 32 (6), s. 766-77, Jun ...
DC-like antigen-presenting cells obtained from human induced pluripotent stem cells can serve as a source for vaccination ... doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-12-0548. PMC 3667586. PMID 23550147. Themeli, M.; Kloss, C. C.; Ciriello, G.; Fedorov, V. D.; Perna, F ... Thus, the ability to generate platelet products ex vivo and platelet products lacking HLA antigens in serum-free media would ... A potentially efficient approach for generating antigen-specific CTLs is to revert mature immune T cells into iPSCs, which ...
Additionally tumors can escape antigen-directed therapies by loss or down-regulation of the associated antigens, as well ... doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-0756. ISSN 2159-8274. PMID 33334730. Shah, Nirav N.; Johnson, Bryon D.; Schneider, Dina; Zhu, Fenlu ... Different antigens are able to escape through a variety of mechanisms. For example, the African trypanosome parasites are able ... Some antigens may even target pathways different than those the vaccine had originally intended to target. Recent research on ...
Fecci PE, Champion CD, Hoj J, McKernan C, Goodwin CR, Kirkpatrick JP, Anders CK, Pendergast A, Sampson JH. The evolving modern ... Rescuing imperfect antigens for immune-oncology. Nat Biotech. Epub ahead of print. Aug 2019. "Peter Edward Fecci". "Leadership ...
Smith E, McGettrick HM, Stone MA, Shaw JS, Middleton J, Nash GB, Buckley CD, Ed Rainger G (July 2008). "Duffy antigen receptor ... This antigen along with other blood group antigens was used to identify the Basque people as a genetically separate group.[49] ... Because the Duffy antigen is uncommon in those of Black African descent, the presence of this antigen has been used to detect ... The Fy4 antigen, originally described on Fy (a-b-) RBCs, is now thought to be a distinct, unrelated antigen and is no longer ...
Dibner JJ, Knight CD, Kitchell ML, Atwell CA, Downs AC, Ivey EJ (1998). "Early feeding and development of the immune system in ... The antigen recognition by T cells is a remarkable process dependent on the T cell receptor (TCR). The TCR is randomly ... Using monoclonal antibodies that are specific for chicken T cell surface antigens, the development of T cells in birds is ... Viertlboeck B, Göbel TWF (2008). "Avian T cells: antigen recognition and lineages." Avian Immunol. 6:91-105. Kaiser P, Rothwell ...
Bezouska K, Nepovím A, Horváth O, Pospísil M, Hamann J, Feizi T (March 1995). "CD 69 antigen of human lymphocytes is a calcium- ... Hamann J, Fiebig H, Strauss M (June 1993). "Expression cloning of the early activation antigen CD69, a type II integral ... Ziegler SF, Ramsdell F, Alderson MR (September 1994). "The activation antigen CD69". Stem Cells. 12 (5): 456-65. doi:10.1002/ ... and chromosomal localization of the human earliest lymphocyte activation antigen AIM/CD69, a new member of the C-type animal ...
Seligman PA, Butler CD, Massey EJ, et al. (1986). "The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... "Entrez Gene: MFI2 antigen p97 (melanoma associated) identified by monoclonal antibodies 133.2 and 96.5". Suryo Rahmanto Y, Dunn ... Garratt RC, Jhotí H (1992). "A molecular model for the tumour-associated antigen, p97, suggests a Zn-binding function". FEBS ... Richardson DR (2000). "The role of the membrane-bound tumour antigen, melanotransferrin (p97), in iron uptake by the human ...
CD markers on plasma cells from patients with pPCL differ from those taken form multiple myeloma or sPCL patients. For example ... 17%); pPCL plasma cells often lack CD56 antigen which is present on the majority of plasma cells taken form multiple myeloma ... Examination of plasma cell immunophenotype by measuring certain of their cell surface antigens, particularly Cluster of ... pPCL plasma cells more often express CD20 antigen, which is considered important in anchoring plasma cells to the bone marrow ...
November 2015). "CD Nomenclature 2015: Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen Workshops as a Driving Force in Immunology". ... and sialyl Tn antigens in colorectal cancer patients: multivariate analysis of predictive factors for serum antigen levels". ... which is a glycoprotein that serves as a ligand for macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) and lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 ( ... which is a glycoprotein that serves as a ligand for macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) and lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 ( ...
First coined TL (for "thymus-leukemia" antigen in mice) then later as the Ly series (originally named Ly-A and Ly-B and later ... to the wide use of cell surface markers to distinguish and classify normal and malignant cells and the development of CD ... Old discovered the LY-B antigen, later renamed CD8 in humans. CD8 cells, often referred to as "killer" T cells, are one of the ... Discovery and naming of several members of the CT (cancer/testis) family of human tumor antigens, including New York-ESO-1 (NY- ...
Oral tolerance is the process by which the immune system is prevented from responding to antigen derived from food products, as ... Histology image:11303loa from Vaughan, Deborah (2002). A Learning System in Histology: CD-ROM and Guide. Oxford University ... 2012). "Goblet cells deliver luminal antigen to CD103+ dendritic cells in the small intestine". Nature. 483 (7389): 345-349. ... and this paper suggests that the goblet cells act to preferentially deliver antigen to these CD103+ dendritic cells. The ...
... antigen (Cluster of Differentiation 48) also known as B-lymphocyte activation marker (BLAST-1) or signaling lymphocytic ... characterization with two CD-48 monoclonal antibodies". Dis. Markers. 8 (4): 179-90. PMID 2088634. Malissen B (1999). "Dancing ... Smith GM, Biggs J, Norris B, Anderson-Stewart P, Ward R (1998). "Detection of a soluble form of the leukocyte surface antigen ... Killeen N, Moessner R, Arvieux J, Willis A, Williams AF (October 1988). "The MRC OX-45 antigen of rat leukocytes and ...
Cell surface antigens (Cluster of differentiation (CD) markers). *Cell viability. *Characterising multidrug resistance (MDR) in ... Various combinations (DNA/surface antigens, etc.). Applications[edit]. The technology has applications in a number of fields, ... co-expression of cell surface and intracellular antigens can also be analyzed.[37] In marine biology, the autofluorescent ... "Demonstration that antigen-binding cells are precursors of antibody-producing cells after purification with a fluorescence- ...
Matched antibody pairs Anti-idiotypic Antibodies HBV Core Antigen Antibody Isotyping Kits Protein Antigen Expression Service ... Creative Diagnostics has maintained a strategic commercial partner agreement with CD Genomics, Inc. since 2010. The two ... "Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Antigen 1, BST1 ELISA Kit" (PDF). funakoshi. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-10. ... Later, various kinds of antibodies, viral antigens, reagents, medical kits, and biological services were launched to broaden ...
doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-16-0040. PMC 5448406. PMID 27076371. Hay KA, Hanafi LA, Li D, Gust J, Liles WC, Wurfel MM, et al. ( ... 2016). "Interleukin 6 Is Not Made By Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells and Does Not Impact Their Function". Blood. 128 (22): ... doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-17-1319. PMC 6385599. PMID 29880584. Sterner RM, Sakemura R, Cox MJ, Yang N, Khadka RH, Forsman CL, et ... December 2016). "Mechanisms of Acute Toxicity in NKG2D Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell-Treated Mice". Journal of Immunology. ...
... is a cancer/testis antigen that plays a key role in meiotic progression. It has shown to regulate 3 different functions ... doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-14-1092. PMC 4490184. PMID 25770156. Gao Y, Kardos J, Yang Y, Tamir TY, Mutter-Rottmayer E, Weissman B ... HORMA domain-containing protein 1 (HORMAD1) also known as cancer/testis antigen 46 (CT46) is a protein that in humans is ... July 2005). "Identification of CT46/HORMAD1, an immunogenic cancer/testis antigen encoding a putative meiosis-related protein ...
OspA antigens, shed by live Borrelia bacteria into urine, are a promising technique being studied.[117] The use of nanotrap ... Tibbles CD, Edlow JA (20 June 2007). "Does This Patient Have Erithema Migrans?". JAMA. 297 (23): 2617-27. doi:10.1001/jama. ... The CDC does not recommend urine antigen tests, PCR tests on urine, immunofluorescent staining for cell-wall-deficient forms of ... burgdorferi sensu stricto antigens in people have been identified in Colombia,[237] and Bolivia.[citation needed] ...
Roschke V, Sosnovtseva S, Ward CD, Hong JS, Smith R, Albert V, Stohl W, Baker KP, Ullrich S, Nardelli B, Hilbert DM, Migone TS ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
van der Maarel-Wierink, CD; Vanobbergen, JN; Bronkhorst, EM; Schols, JM; de Baat, C (6 March 2012). "Oral health care and ... gayundin ang pagsusuri sa ihi para sa mga antigen (substansiyang lumilikha ng pangontra sa sakit) para sa Legionella at ... Ang mga impeksiyong sanhi ng birus ay maaaring kumpirmahin sa pamamagitan ng pagtuklas ng alinman sa birus o mga antigen ( ...
MeshName - CD2+Antigen [1]. *Mapa de antíxenos CD de rato. *Mapa de antíxenos CD humanos ... 1992). "The antigen-specific induction of normal human lymphocytes in vitro is down-regulated by a conserved HIV p24 epitope ... 1986). "The sheep erythrocyte receptor and both alpha and beta chains of the human T-lymphocyte antigen receptor bind the ... "Molecular cloning of the human T-lymphocyte surface CD2 (T11) antigen.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 (22): 8718-22. PMC ...
A map of the genome of JC virus, indicating the position of the tumor antigen genes (red), the three capsid protein genes ( ... Ferenczy, MW; Marshall, LJ; Nelson, CD; Atwood, WJ; Nath, A; Khalili, K; Major, EO (July 2012). "Molecular biology, ... Further research is needed to determine the exact etiological role of T-antigen, but there seems to be a connection to the ... T-antigen, also plays a key role in viral proliferation,[11] directing the initiation of DNA replication for the virus as well ...
... is to conjugate the antigens. Conjugation is the attachment to the antigen of another substance which also generates an immune ... A more contemporary approach for "boosting" the immune response to simpler immunogenic molecules (known as antigens) ... In the future it might be possible to artificially design antibodies to fit specific antigens, then produce them in large ... response, thus amplifying the overall response and causing a more robust immune memory to the antigen. For example, a toxoid ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Gorczyca W, Tsang P, Liu Z, Wu CD, Dong HY, Goldstein M, Cohen P, Gangi M, Weisberger J (Feb 2003). "CD30-positive T-cell ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Choi CW, Choi IK, Seo JH, Kim BS, Kim JS, Kim CD, Um SH, Kim JS, Kim YH (August 2000). "Effects of 5-fluorouracil and ... Serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19-9 are often elevated, but are not sensitive or specific enough to be ... Nagorney DM, Donohue JH, Farnell MB, Schleck CD, Ilstrup DM (August 1993). "Outcomes after curative resections of ... Studies of the performance of serum markers for cholangiocarcinoma (such as carcinoembryonic antigen and CA19-9) in patients ...
Human CD Antigen Chart. *CD8 alpha - Marker for cytotoxic T lymphocytes [1] ...
Drugbox , type = mab , image = , source = ,!-- organism from which derived --, , target = ,!-- antigen --, , CAS_number = , ATC ... CD, or Class A, B, C --, , legal_US = ,!-- OTC / Rx-only / Schedule I, II, III, IV, V --, , legal_status = , routes_of_ ... CD, or Class A, B, C --, , legal_US = ,!-- OTC / Rx-only / Schedule I, II, III, IV, V --, , legal_status = , routes_of_ ... CD, or Class A, B, C --, , legal_US = ,!-- OTC / Rx-only / Schedule I, II, III, IV, V --, , legal_status = , routes_of_ ...
Viral antigen was detected in a muscle biopsy of a person suffering a recurrent episode of disease three months after initial ... Partidos CD, Weger J, Brewoo J, Seymour R, Borland EM, Ledermann JP, et al. (April 2011). "Probing the attenuation and ... Plante K, Wang E, Partidos CD, Weger J, Gorchakov R, Tsetsarkin K, et al. (July 2011). "Novel chikungunya vaccine candidate ... an antibody that is a response to the initial exposure to an antigen, appears in the blood, viremia begins to diminish. However ...
Kuslich CD, Kobori JA, Mohapatra G, et al. (1999). "Prader-Willi syndrome is caused by disruption of the SNRPN gene". Am. J. ... 1989). "Isolation of cDNA clones encoding the human Sm B/B' auto-immune antigen and specifically reacting with human anti-Sm ...
Zagrovic B, Snow CD, Shirts MR, Pande VS (November 2002). "Simulation of folding of a small alpha-helical protein in atomistic ... Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ... Ribbon diagram of a mouse antibody against cholera that binds a carbohydrate antigen ...
Second, adjuvants may provide physical protection to antigens which grants the antigen a prolonged delivery. This means that ... or enhance antigen-specific immune responses when used in combination with specific vaccine antigens."[2] ... In immunology, an adjuvant is a substance that potentiates and/or modulates the immune responses to an antigen to improve them. ... Spurred into action, the DC picks up the antigen and speeds to a lymph node, where it sticks tightly to a helper T cell and ...
Rotavirus antigens for parenteral delivery, such as the P2-VP8 candidate, can be expressed as virus-like particles prepared in ... TA-CD. *TA-NIC. *combination *DTaP-IPV/Hib. *DTaP-IPV-HepB. *Hexavalent vaccine ... baculovirus, expressed antigens, DNA vaccines, and killed virus. These novel approaches are being pursued using animal models ...
Serological CD markers (IgA tissue transglutaminase [tTGA], IgA endomysial [EmA] and IgG deamidated gliadin peptide [DGP] ... There is evidence that not only gliadin (main cytotoxic antigen of gluten), but also other proteins present in gluten and ... This fact can diminish the CD serological markers titers and may attenuate the inflammatory changes found in the duodenal ... or CD/CD3 ratio) in immunohistochemical assessment of biopsies, or the presence of IgA anti-TG2 and/or anti-endomysial ...
Human Antibodies Against Cell Surface Tumor Antigens Selected From Repertoires Displayed on T Cell Chimeric Antigen Receptors" ... Clarke RT, Van den Bruel A, Bankhead C, Mitchell CD, Phillips B, Thompson MJ (October 2016). "Clinical presentation of ... TdT is a protein expressed early in the development of pre-T and pre-B cells, whereas CALLA is an antigen found in 80% of ALL ... Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been developed as a promising immunotherapy for ALL. This technology uses a single chain ...
Boyd CD, Smith TJ, El-Kirat-Chatel S, Newell PD, Dufrêne YF, O'Toole GA (August 2014). "Structural features of the Pseudomonas ... One such mechanism to detect low calcium concentration has been illustrated by the lcrV (Low Calcium Response) antigen utilized ...
The antibody will be targeted at a preferentially expressed protein in the tumour cells (known as a tumor antigen) or on cells ... Sanders JE, Hawley J, Levy W, Gooley T, Buckner CD, Deeg HJ, Doney K, Storb R, Sullivan K, Witherspoon R, Appelbaum FR (Apr ... They bind to the tumor antigen and are internalised, where the linker releases the drug into the cell. These specially targeted ...
Antigen detection using an immunoassay for circulating filarial antigens constitutes a useful diagnostic approach, because ... Kamgno J, Boussinesq M, Labrousse F, Nkegoum B, Thylefors BI, Mackenzie CD (April 2008). "Encephalopathy after ivermectin ... In the past, health care providers use a provocative injection of Dirofilaria immitis as a skin test antigen for filariasis ...
HLA-DQ is part of the MHC class II antigen-presenting receptor (also called the human leukocyte antigen) system and ... Presentation of CD with malabsorptive symptoms or malnutrition is now the exception rather than the rule.. ... The eating of gluten early in a baby's life does not appear to increase the risk of CD but later introduction after 6 months ... Hadithi M, von Blomberg BM, Crusius JB, Bloemena E, Kostense PJ, Meijer JW, Mulder CJ, Stehouwer CD, Peña AS (2007). "Accuracy ...
... antibodies or antigens) allowed to investigate completely new strategies for functionalizing surfaces in the life sciences, ... "Synthesis of CdS superlattices using self-assembled bacterial S-layers". Nature. 389 (6651): 585-587. doi:10.1038/39287 ...
Roth SY, Denu JM, Allis CD (2001). "Histone acetyltransferases". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 70: 81-120. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem. ... hepatitis delta virus small delta antigen).[19] p300/CBP have also been observed to acetylate β-catenin, RIP140, PCNA, the DNA ...
doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000043246.74879.CD. PMID 12473544.. *^ Murphy JM, Fink DJ, Hunziker EB, Barry FP (December 2003). "Stem ... The specificity of the immune cells is what allows recognition of foreign antigens, causing further challenges in the treatment ... Karanes C, Nelson GO, Chitphakdithai P, Agura E, Ballen KK, Bolan CD, Porter DL, Uberti JP, King RJ, Confer DL (2008). "Twenty ... specificity of the human immune-cell repertoire is what allows the human body to defend itself from rapidly adapting antigens. ...
... se lahko opazi pri imunohistokemičnem barvanju s poliklonalnimi protitelesi za karcinoembrionalni antigen ali protitelesa za CD ... Navadno je negativen na keratine 19 in 20 in epitelijski mebranski antigen.[1] ... Retikulinsko barvanje ali imunohistokemija na CD 34 pomagata prepoznati trabekularni vzorec.[1] ... vključno z imunohistokemično pozitivnimi CD 34, s faktorjem VII povezanim antigenom, subendotelijskim lamininom in kolagenom ...
... antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... 1998). "Phenotypic characterization of human skin mast cells by combined staining with toluidine blue and CD antibodies". J. ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
CD-dRedigeeri. CD-rakkude pinnatunnuste klassifitseerimissüsteem pinnatunnuste retseptorid (markerid): *CD3 (diferentseerumise ... Autoreactive thymic B cells are efficient antigen-presenting cells of cognate self-antigens for T cell negative selection., 110 ... Ana C. Anderson ja Vijay K. Kuchroo, Expression of Self-antigen in the Thymus A Little Goes a Long Way, 1. detsember 2003 // ... Christian Koble ja Bruno Kyewski, The thymic medulla: a unique microenvironment for intercellular self-antigen transfer, J. Exp ...
Schreibelt G, van Horssen J, van Rossum S, Dijkstra CD, Drukarch B, de Vries HE (2007). "Therapeutic potential and biological ... veoma kasan antigen -4). Rezultati faze IIa su objavljeni. ...
... and learn more about CD Antigens Information Finder. Download CD Antigens Information Finder and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad ... The CD Antigen Information Finder was adapted from Current Protocols in Immunology (Beare, et al., 2008. Monoclonal Antibodies ... CD molecules are cell-surface antigens identifiable by their reactions with specific monoclonal antibodies, which represent an ... The database is searchable by the official CD designation of the antigen as well as by synonyms and other keywords including ...
Reference: CD Antigens 2002. David Mason, Pascale André, Armand Bensussan, Chris Buckley, Curt Civin, Edward Clark, Masja de ... Reference: CD Antigens 2002. David Mason, Pascale André, Armand Bensussan, Chris Buckley, Curt Civin, Edward Clark, Masja de ... Reference: CD Antigens 2002. David Mason, Pascale André, Armand Bensussan, Chris Buckley, Curt Civin, Edward Clark, Masja de ... The yield of new CD specificities in the 7th HLDA Workshop. This more active approach to the identification of new CD ...
CD) antigen. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and definitions. ... Definition: an antigen (marker) on the surface of a cell, usually a lymphocyte. ...
These proteins or antigen markers are called Clusters of Differentiation. ... Cell surface antigens of leukocytes are called CD antigens, and important for immune reactions of organisms. As lymphocytes ... About CD antigens:. Cell surface antigens of leukocytes are called CD antigens, and important for immune reactions of organisms ... CD antigens are found on practically all known cell types. In some cases CD antigens are expressed only at certain stages of ...
Raquel Sánchez-Díaz, Rafael Blanco-Dominguez, Sandra Lasarte, Katerina Tsilingiri, Enrique Martín-Gayo, Beatriz Linillos-Pradillo, Hortensia de la Fuente, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid, Rinako Nakagawa, María L. Toribio, Pilar Martín ...
ProSpecs CD Antigens include: CD4, CD40, CD10, CD11B, CD14, CD146, CD147, CD1A, CD2, CD21, CD23, CD25, CD29, CD31, CD34, CD38 ...
Microtissue density prognostic factor evaluation based on antigens CD34 and CD 105 in ovarian cancer patients ... The subject of this publication is to find the answer to a question whether the practical usage of the CD34 and CD 105 as a ... Significance of CD 105 expression for tumor angiogenesis and prognosis in endometrial carcinomas. APMIS 2003; 111: 1011-1018. ... Density of the microvessels was being evaluated basing on the expression of the antigen CD34 and CD105. Evaluation of the ...
Cluster of differentiation (CD) proteins are among the most popular antigens for aptamers on the cell surface. These anti-CD ... Aptamers for CD Antigens: From Cell Profiling to Activity Modulation. by Physicians Weekly , Mar 27, 2017 , 0 comments ... The unique feature of aptamers is that they can act simultaneously as an agonist and antagonist of CD receptors depending on a ... In this review, we summarize nucleic acid sequences of anti-CD aptamers and their use, which have been validated in multiple ...
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CD antigens found in various immune cell populations like B cells, T cells, Dendritic cells and NK cells.CD antigens can act in ... CD antigens is usually initiated, altering the behavior of the cell. Some CD proteins do not play a role in cell signaling, but ... CD antibodies are used widely for research, immunotherary, tumor and drug target. ... What are CD antigens or clusters of differentiation ? ... B Cell CD antigens. T Cell CD antigens. NK Cell CD antigens. ...
CD antigens 2001: Aims and results of HLDA workshops. David Mason, Pascale André, Armand Bensussan, Chris Buckley, Curt Civin, ... CD antigens 2001 : Aims and results of HLDA workshops. In: Stem Cells. 2001 ; Vol. 19, No. 6. pp. 556-562. ... title = "CD antigens 2001: Aims and results of HLDA workshops",. author = "David Mason and Pascale Andr{\e} and Armand ... CD antigens 2001 : Aims and results of HLDA workshops. / Mason, David; André, Pascale; Bensussan, Armand; Buckley, Chris; Civin ...
CD antigens 2001. Mason D., André P., Bensussan A., Buckley C., Civin C., Clark E., de Haas M., Goyert S., Hadam M., Hart D., ...
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cd antigens. Cell surface antigens of leukocytes are called CD antigens. Search. Main menu. Skip to primary content ...
CD159 antigen-like family member C, NK cell receptor C, NKG2C, CD159c. ...
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Here, we generate a bispecific 4-1BB-agonistic trimerbody targeting the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) that is highly expressed ... Here, we generate a bispecific 4-1BB-agonistic trimerbody targeting the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) that is highly expressed ... Circular Dichroism (CD). Circular dichroism measurements were performed with a Jasco J-810 spectropolarimeter (JASCO). The ... CEA is a non-internalizing antigen (17), which may be advantageous compared to other antigens that are rapidly internalized ...
Sino biological offers a comprehensive set of tools for CD antigens related to cell adhesion research, including recombinant ... CD antigens related to cell adhesion expressed on B cells. *- CD antigens related to cell adhesion expressed on Dendritic cells ... CD antigens related to signal transduction expressed on T cells. *- CD antigens related to signal transduction expressed on B ... CD antigens related to cell migration expressed on T cells. *- CD antigens related to cell migration expressed on Granulocytes ...
When immunologists began to study different kinds of lymphocytes, they began to classify them by the CD antigens that were on ... CD antigens related to cell adhesion expressed on B cells. *- CD antigens related to cell adhesion expressed on Dendritic cells ... CD antigens related to signal transduction expressed on T cells. *- CD antigens related to signal transduction expressed on B ... CD antigens related to cell migration expressed on T cells. *- CD antigens related to cell migration expressed on Granulocytes ...
CD antigen cellular pathways Echo virus Echo virus pcr kit enterovirus Genetic Control of Reproductive Traits in Tomatoes Under ... Construction of the T-cell receptor The antibody is not the only protein that recognizes the antigen. The antigen-specific ... We can define the antigen as a compound capable of eliciting the formation of a … ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of CD antigens 2001. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * CD Antigens ... title = "CD antigens 2001",. abstract = "This paper reviews the Seventh Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigen (HLDA7) ... CD antigens 2001. David Mason, Pascale André, Armand Bensussan, Chris Buckley, Curt Civin, Edward Clark, Masja De Haas, Sanna ... CD antigens 2001. / Mason, David; André, Pascale; Bensussan, Armand; Buckley, Chris; Civin, Curt; Clark, Edward; De Haas, Masja ...
SF Schlossman, L Boumsell, W Gilks, JM Harlan, T Kishimoto, C Morimoto, J Ritz, S Shaw, RL Silverstein, TA Springer; CD ... antigens 1993. Blood 1994; 83 (4): 879-880. doi: ...
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What is cluster-of-differentiation antigen? Meaning of cluster-of-differentiation antigen as a finance term. What does cluster- ... Definition of cluster-of-differentiation antigen in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and ... Certificate of deposit (CD).. CDs are time deposits. When you purchase a CD from a bank, up to $100,000 is insured by the ... CD. (redirected from cluster-of-differentiation antigen). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia. ...
Cd antigens 2001 Mason DY., André P., Bensussan A., Buckley C., Civin C., Clark E., De Haas M., Goyert S., Hadam M., Hart D., ...
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  • CD antigens participate in immune reaction as receptors for cell communication (e.g. adherence molecules, antigen recognizing receptors). (
  • CD antigens have been shown to be identical with receptors of cytokines such as CD25 (TAC antigen). (
  • The CD Antigen's designation isn't related to the biological function, thus CD antigens include receptors, glycans, adhesion molecules, membrane-bound enzymes, etc. (
  • The unique feature of aptamers is that they can act simultaneously as an agonist and antagonist of CD receptors depending on a degree of aptamer oligomerization. (
  • CD antigens for cluster of differentiation, which indicates a defined subset of cellular surface receptors (epitopes) that identify cell type and stage of differentiation, and which are recognized by antibodies. (
  • Non peptide antigen presentation to T-cell receptors on NKT cells. (
  • The antagonistic mAbs used in immune checkpoint blockade are able to block T cell-inhibitory signaling from receptors such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), and have been successfully used in the treatment of several types of cancers ( 1 ). (
  • The engagement of 4-1BB by its ligand or agonistic mAbs provides substantial boosts to the T cell response ( 4 ), which prompted the incorporation of 4-1BB intracellular signaling domain into TCR-like chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) and ultimately greatly improved their functionality ( 5 ). (
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether a similar tumor-induced inhibition occurred with genetically modified cytotoxic T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) targeting tumor-associated antigens. (
  • Adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) using T cells genetically modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) against tumor-associated antigens (TAA) has shown great promise in the treatment of blood-borne malignant disease, but may be limited by the strong immunosuppressive environment within solid tumors. (
  • Adoptive cellular therapy with T cells genetically modified using viral-basedvectors to express chimeric antigen receptors targeting the CD19 molecule have demonstrated dramatic clinical responses in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). (
  • It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. (
  • This report studies the global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy market status and forecast, categorizes the global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy market size (value & volume) by key players, type, application, and region. (
  • The global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy market is valued at million US$ in 2017 and will reach million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of during 2018-2025. (
  • The report titled Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market 2019 by Company, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2024 revealed by MRInsights. (
  • "CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market Outlook and Clinical Trials Insight 2023" report gives comprehensive insight into multiple clinical and non-clinical issues related to emergence and development of global CD Antigen cancer therapy market. (
  • an exponential growth can be experienced by Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market after the approval of anti-CD antigenic cancer drugs for treating solid tumors. (
  • What is the expected industry size of Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market in 2022? (
  • Major drivers for Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market? (
  • Prominent distributors/suppliers in Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market? (
  • Upcoming challenges for Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market? (
  • CD molecules are cell-surface antigens identifiable by their reactions with specific monoclonal antibodies, which represent an important system for identifying and differentiating human cells. (
  • 2008. Monoclonal Antibodies to Human Cell Surface Antigens. (
  • A substantial number of monoclonal antibodies reactive with leucocyte-associated molecules exist that do not meet the traditional criterion for establishing a new CD specificity (i.e., the existence of at least two independent antibodies of the same specificity). (
  • Although it has been recognized for many years that monoclonal antibodies reactive with human leukocytes can be specific for carbohydrate epitopes (e.g., the carbohydrate CD category CD15 was identified at the first Workshop), they had not received specific attention in any Workshop. (
  • This compares favorably with previous Workshops (an average of less than 30 CD specificities per Workshop), and it also largely avoided the laborious screening in multiple laboratories of antibodies that prove to be directed against known CD molecules. (
  • These surface antigens were identified initially by monoclonal antibodies and the designations of the antibodies were used often as synonyms for the cell surface proteins they detected, giving rise to a plethora of different names. (
  • CD antigen nomenclature describes different monoclonal antibodies from different sources that recognize identical antigens. (
  • In Hematology the morphological criteria is for the description of specific developmental stages of lymphocytes unlike in CD antigens which the use of monoclonal antibodies allows the objective and precise analysis and standardized typing of mature and immature normal and malignant cells of all hematopoietic cell lineages. (
  • In the last decade the wide palette of monoclonal antibodies has been prepared which recognise of CD antigens on human cells. (
  • The second group constitutes the antibodies that agglomerate with the antigens characteristic for proliferous endoepithelial cells. (
  • Sino biological offers a comprehensive set of tools for CD antigens related to cell adhesion research, including recombinant proteins, antibodies (mouse mAbs, rabbit mAbs, and rabbit pAbs), ELISA kits, and ORF cDNA clones. (
  • B Cells are the major cells involved in the creation of antibodies that circulate in blood plasma and lymph, where they bind specifically to the foreign antigens. (
  • Cell-mediated immunity does not involve antibodies but rather involves the activation of macrophages, natural killer cells (NK), antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. (
  • Due to the limitations of "blind" antibody screening, which had been evident at the previous meeting in 1996, participants at HLDA7 adopted a more selective approach to the choice of antibodies by identifying new CD specificities. (
  • CD antigens have been present in disguise since the efforts began to develop therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in 1970s. (
  • CD antigens are the basis on which monoclonal antibodies were discovered. (
  • CD antigens have been used as targets in a wide variety of cancer therapeutics including monoclonal antibodies, antibody-drug-conjugates, tri-functional and bi-specific T-cell engager antibodies, radio immunoconjugates and CAR T-cell therapies. (
  • Cell surface antigens can stimulate the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes and cytotoxic responses by white blood cells, e.g., granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes. (
  • In our body, CD Antigens refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies, residing on leukocytes, that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. (
  • However, laboratory-based methods of developing therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (e.g., immunized mice, hybridomas, and phage display) are time-consuming and are often unable to target a specific antigen epitope or reach (sub)nanomolar levels of affinity. (
  • Krombovitis, E. (1986) Detection of antibodies to Mycobacterium tuberculosis plasma membrane antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. (
  • Lodam, A.N., Reddy, M.V.R. and Harinath, B.C. (1998) Immunodiagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by concomitant detection of antigen and antibodies of excretory-secretory protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H 37 Ra. (
  • Here, we generate a bispecific 4-1BB-agonistic trimerbody targeting the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) that is highly expressed in cancers of diverse origins. (
  • It is well known that many tumor-specific surface antigens, including CA125, Her-2/neu, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and others, are actively shed from cancer cells ( 8 ). (
  • carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) an oncofetal glycoprotein antigen originally thought to be specific for adenocarcinoma of the colon, but now known to be found in many other cancers and some nonmalignant conditions. (
  • Our protocol was used for immunoanalysis and aptamer-based bioanalysis of several proteins, giving limits of detection of 4.5 fg·mL −1 for human immunoglobulin G, 3.0 fg·mL −1 for human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), 4.9 fg·mL −1 for human α -fetoprotein (AFP), and 0.9 fM for thrombin, which are better than many reported results. (
  • The next Workshop, planned for 2004, will continue this process, and a number of candidate CD molecules in the literature, identified by antibody production or gene cloning, are listed in this update. (
  • In consequence, it is now considered appropriate to establish a CD designation for a molecule if its gene has been cloned and at least one specific monoclonal antibody has been studied in the Workshop. (
  • Construction of the T-cell receptor The antibody is not the only protein that recognizes the antigen. (
  • Global CD antigen based cancer therapy market has evolved since the approval of first CD antigen targeting monoclonal antibody. (
  • Peptide microarrays that display overlapping peptide scans through antigens from infectious organisms or tumor associated antigens for antibody or serum profiling. (
  • An antigen having the ability to react with more than one specific antibody. (
  • The resulting dataset included median antibody binding capacities (ABCs) and percentage of positivity for all markers on all subsets and was developed into an interactive CD Maps web resource. (
  • The CD Maps resource will serve as a benchmark of antibody reactivities ensuring improved reproducibility of flow cytometry-based research. (
  • To this end, we developed Optimal Method for Antibody Variable region Engineering (OptMAVEn) for de novo design of humanized monoclonal antibody variable regions targeting a specific antigen epitope. (
  • antigen-antibody reaction the reversible binding of antigen to homologous antibody by the formation of weak bonds between antigenic determinants on antigen molecules and antigen binding sites on immunoglobulin molecules. (
  • 1. one that combines with antibody produced in response to a different but related antigen, owing to similarity of antigenic determinants. (
  • 2. identical antigens in two bacterial strains, so that antibody produced against one strain will react with the other. (
  • Thus use of ESAS-7 antigen for antibody detection has good diagnostic potential with improved specificity in pulmonary tuberculosis. (
  • CD antigens appear to carry out cytokine receptor-like functions such as CD27, CD30 and CD40. (
  • Killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily C member 2, NKG2-C type II integral membrane protein, NKG2-C-activating NK receptor, CD159 antigen-like family member C, NK cell receptor C, NKG2C, CD159c. (
  • The antigen-specific receptor of T lymphocytes does the same. (
  • We demonstrate that strict "Goldilocks" conditions of affinity for self-lipids by the T-cell antigen receptor expressed on T-cell precursors are necessary for imprinting the proper developmental program toward the invariant NK T-cell lineage. (
  • Our results establish a direct link between the affinity of the T-cell receptor for self-antigens and the proper development of a unique population of lymphocytes that has been implicated in the modulation of a multitude of immune responses in mice and humans. (
  • The self-reactivity of their T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) is thought to contribute to the development of immune regulatory cells, such as invariant NK T cells (iNKT). (
  • This effect requires receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase-2 (RIPK-2), autophagy-related protein-5 (ATG5), ATG7 and ATG16L1 but not NLR family, pyrin domain containing-3 (NALP3).We show that NOD2-mediated autophagy is required for both bacterial handling and generation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell responses in DCs. (
  • The dominant antigens identified were flagellins, molecules known to activate innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), and critical targets of the acquired immune system in host defense. (
  • On and in our body's cells, CD40 Antigen is a surface glycoprotein expressed on all mature B lymphocytes, and a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 ligand , that plays an important role in B-cell development, growth, and differentiation. (
  • In our body's cells, the CD40 gene (p50 gene) encoding the TNF receptor superfamily member 5 (TNFRSF5 receptor) , found on the chromosomal locus of chromosome 20 at the 20q13.2 position is one of our human genes and a member of both the CD molecules gene family and the tumor necrosis factor receptor gene family . (
  • Ncoplasias Involving Antigen Receptor Genes. (
  • To see if giving anti-CD22 Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) cells to young people with certain cancers is safe and effective. (
  • When antigen presenting cells (APCs) activate T-cell receptor (TCR), TCR-mediated signals are transmitted across the cell membrane by the CD3 chains CD3D, CD3E, CD3G and CD3Z. (
  • The term CD means a cluster of differentiation OR a cluster of determinants which indicates the lineage or maturational stage of lymphocytes. (
  • During the course of development from precursor cells into functionally mature forms, lymphocytes display a complex pattern of surface antigens, some of which are acquired at certain stages while others are lost. (
  • When immunologists began to study different kinds of lymphocytes, they began to classify them by the CD antigens that were on their surface, as know as CD4+ T cells are helper T cells, and CD8+ T cells are cytotoxic T cells. (
  • In our body, CD30 Ligand (CD153 Antigen) is a glycoprotein membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member, found primarily on activated T-lymphocytes that binds specifically to CD30 antigen, that may play a role in inflammation and immune regulation, encoded by the TNFSF8 gene . (
  • class II a's major histocompatibility antigens found only on immunocompetent cells, primarily B lymphocytes and macrophages. (
  • The most commonly know CD antigens are CD4 and CD8 which are markers for T-helper and T-suppressor cells, respectively. (
  • Aptamers can also deliver small interfering RNA to silence vital genes in CD-positive cells. (
  • The CD antigens are protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells. (
  • It is only expressed and present on T cells for a short interval occurring after TCR engagement, and has a single identified ligand, 4-1BBL, found on antigen presenting cells ( 4 ). (
  • NOD2 stimulation induces autophagy in dendritic cells influencing bacterial handling and antigen presentation. (
  • Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing-2 (NOD2) acts as a bacterial sensor in dendritic cells (DCs), but it is not clear how bacterial recognition links with antigen presentation after NOD2 stimulation. (
  • Dissecting the tumor myeloid compartment reveals rare activating antigen-presenting cells critical for T cell immunity. (
  • It is well understood that antigen-presenting cells (APCs) within tumors typically do not maintain cytotoxic T cell (CTL) function, despite engaging them. (
  • Antigen peptides represent specific epitopes for stimulation of T cells in T cell assays such as ELISPOT. (
  • MHC Multimers for reproducible detection, enumeration and isolation of antigen-specific T cells with disease specific peptides. (
  • Antigens on the body's own cells are called autoantigens. (
  • Antigens on all other cells are called foreign antigens. (
  • Reactions to antigens by T and B cells are part of the specific immune response. (
  • The frequency of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients expressing myeloid antigens on their ALL cells varies between 5 and 36% in several different studies. (
  • In our body, the Cluster of Differentiation (Cluster of Designation or CD) is a protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules present on our cells, providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells, encode by a large family of genes ( CD gene family . (
  • In our body's cells, the human gene DPP4 gene (CD26 gene) molecule encodes for the dipeptidyl-peptidase IV enzyme , found on the chromosomal locus of Chromosome 2 at the 2q24.2 position, which acts as the CD26 antigen , belonging to the CD molecules gene family , and the DASH gene family . (
  • On and in our body's cells, CD26 Antigen (Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4) , as a T-lymphocyte differentiation antigen member. (
  • Cross-reactivity of mAbs to human CD antigens with cells from cattle. (
  • CD molecules are surface molecules expressed on cells of the immune system that play key roles in immune cell-cell communication and sensing the microenvironment. (
  • They bind to the specific target antigen on the surface of cancer cells and then are internalized and processed to release the cytotoxic component within the target cell. (
  • Recently, we demonstrated that major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted cross-presentation of exogenous self-antigens can induce peripheral T cell tolerance by deletion of autoreactive CD8 + T cells. (
  • Exogenous antigens derived from nonlymphoid tissues can be presented by professional APCs to naive CD8 + T cells by a mechanism termed cross-presentation. (
  • In this study, we investigated the role of CD95 and TNFR2 in the deletion of CD8 + T cells induced by cross-presentation of self-antigens. (
  • The present invention also provides a method of immunizing a mammal against an antigen using the vaccine, and a method of inducing antigen -presenting mammalian cells to present specific antigens via the MHC class I processing pathway. (
  • To make sure that foreign antigens are identified, some B cells serve as antigen -presenting cells (or APCs), scooping up these fragments all over the body, and sailing around offering them on stick-like projections to the cells they pass. (
  • Immunohistochemical assays for orthopoxviruses demonstrated abundant viral antigens in surface epithelial cells of lesions in conjunctivae and tongue, with lower amounts in adjacent macrophages, fibroblasts, and connective tissues. (
  • The human immunodeficiency virus binds to this antigen and infects and kills T cells bearing this antigen, thus gradually destroying the body's ability to resist infection. (
  • a ) therapeutic function, ( b ) immunogenicity, ( c ) role of the antigen in oncogenicity, ( d ) specificity, ( e ) expression level and percent of antigen-positive cells, ( f ) stem cell expression, ( g ) number of patients with antigen-positive cancers, ( h ) number of antigenic epitopes, and ( i ) cellular location of antigen expression. (
  • Moreover, gluten presentation by HLA-DQ2 homozygous antigen-presenting cells was superior to presentation by HLA-DQ2/non-DQ2 heterozygous antigen-presenting cells in terms of T cell proliferation and cytokine secretion. (
  • Gluten presentation by HLA-DQ2.5/2.2 heterozygous antigen-presenting cells induced intermediate T cell stimulation. (
  • These results correlated with peptide binding to the antigen-presenting cells. (
  • HLA-DQ molecules bind and present peptides to antigen-specific T cells. (
  • This approach, termed antigen-specific immunosuppression, involves vaccinating with β-cell proteins so that β-cell-specific T cells do not subsequently respond to and attack them ( 6 ). (
  • The cells do not express B-cell lineage restricted antigens or kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chains or T-cell lineage-restricted antigens. (
  • The cells do express activation antigens. (
  • Several other CD molecules, such as CD11b and CD33, are traditionally used as markers for human myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). (
  • This initial meeting listed only fifteen agreed molecular entities, but it created an internationally agreed basis for the nomenclature of leukocyte molecules (the CD scheme), and also provided a forum for reporting studies on their function and practical relevance. (
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules present a variety of posttranslationally modified epitopes at the cell surface, although the consequences of such presentation remain largely unclear. (
  • Human leukocyte differentiation antigen (HLDA) workshops have led to the characterization and formal designation of more than 400 surface molecules ( 7 , 8 ), known as CD molecules ( ). (
  • CD nomenclature provides a unified designation system for mAbs, as well as for the cell surface molecules that they recognize. (
  • CD antigens have been characterized as both transmembrane proteins and cell surface proteins anchored to the plasma membrane via covalent attachment to fatty acid-containing glycolipids such as glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). (
  • Cluster of differentiation (CD) proteins are among the most popular antigens for aptamers on the cell surface. (
  • Some CD proteins do not play a role in cell signaling, but have other functions, such as cell adhesion. (
  • These complex cellular structures involve many proteins, such as CD antigens . (
  • Cellular antigens are proteins or oligosaccharides that mark and identify the cell surface as self or nonself . (
  • These proteins are called antigens. (
  • In this study, we show that the Egr2-driven cell surface proteins LAG-3 and 4-1BB can identify dysfunctional tumor antigen-specific CD8 + TIL. (
  • The Proceedings of the 7th Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen (HLDA) Workshop are about to be published, detailing more than 80 new CD specificities. (
  • The CD antigens / Cluster of differentiation nomenclature was established in the 1st International Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA), which was held in Paris in 1982. (
  • A panel of 377 commercially available mAbs were submitted to the animal homologue section of the 8th International Workshop on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA8, Adelaide, Australia) for cross-reactivity studies on different animal species. (
  • The following customization options are available for the report: Regional and country-level analysis of the CD Antigen Cancer Therapy market, by end-use. (
  • The current scenario clearly indicates that CD Antigens have acquired a major share in the modern cancer therapy market. (
  • The future CD antigen based cancer therapy market is going to be highly competitive as the pharmaceutical companies have to ensure that they are producing unique and more advanced products. (
  • com/research/g4msr8/cancer_cd) has announced the addition of the "Cancer CD Antigens Inhibitors Therapy Market & Pipeline Insight 2015" report to their offering. (
  • This study highlights current dynamics and developments in the CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market. (
  • The report incorporates in-depth analysis of the Market growth drivers as well as the inhibiting factors in the CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market. (
  • The scope of the report covers an extensive evaluation pertaining to the winning imperatives and stakeholder strategies through a presentation of the segmentation of CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market in the report. (
  • Along with the regional analysis, the current trends in the CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market , coupled with the reasons behind the development of some unique segments, have additionally been described in this CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market report. (
  • The report highlights the competitive landscape by elaborating on the current mergers and acquisitions (M&A), product developments, and venture funding that took place in the CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market in the recent past. (
  • Some of the factors are technological, political, social, and economic CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market factors. (
  • The data has been presented via charts, tables, and graphics in CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market research report. (
  • The newly made known CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market report provides production process is analysed with respect to various aspects like, manufacturing, capacity, production, R&D status, raw material source and technology source. (
  • CD Antigen Cancer Therapy market report starts with the basic industry overview and then goes into each and every detail. (
  • The CD Antigen Cancer Therapy market report provides analysis which covers significant data which makes the research document a convenient source for managers, analysts, industry experts and other key people get ready-to-access and self-analyzed report along with tables to help understand market trends. (
  • Along with CD Antigen Cancer Therapy market research study buyer also gets valuable information about CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Production and its market share, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin, Supply, Consumption, Export, import volume and values.To provide information on competitive landscape, this report includes detailed profiles of CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market key players. (
  • This CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Market industry report study provides analysis based on Geographical Regions, Manufacturers, Applications, Types, Opportunities, and Challenges which enhances the understanding, scope and application of this report. (
  • Thus, the CD Antigen Cancer Therapy industry research report provides comprehensive analysis covering all the major regions, competitors, and dynamic aspects of the CD Antigen Cancer Therapy market. (
  • Key neutralization epitopes of prefusion and postfusion RSV F have been identified, and a number of current vaccine development efforts are focused on generating easily produced subunit antigens that retain these epitopes. (
  • Although current global CD antigen based cancer therapeutic market is dominated for treating hematological malignancies but strong clinical pipeline having over 100 CD antigen directing cancer drugs consists of various drugs which will be used for treating solid tumors like breast cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer etc. (
  • Cancer antigens are used in clinical medicine to screen body fluids for tumors or to follow the response of tumors to treatment. (
  • We found that antigen shedding is a favorable biologic process for targeted therapy of solid tumors. (
  • However, no theoretical study has been reported on the effect of antigen shedding on the delivery of these agents in solid tumors. (
  • an antigen (marker) on the surface of a cell, usually a lymphocyte. (
  • Cell surface antigens of leukocytes are called CD antigens, and important for immune reactions of organisms. (
  • Australian antigen A term formerly used for hepatitis B surface antigen. (
  • The original term for the Australian antigen, now called hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). (
  • Mesothelin, like many other target antigens, is shed from the cell surface. (
  • It seemed possible that the shed free mesothelin could act as a decoy in the ECS of the solid tumor, thereby reducing the free RIT concentration available for binding to the cell surface antigen. (
  • CD antigen any of a number of cell-surface markers expressed by leukocytes and used to distinguish cell lineages, developmental stages, and functional subsets. (
  • The database is searchable by the official CD designation of the antigen as well as by synonyms and other keywords including associated diseases and tissue/organ names. (
  • It indicates that the CD designation is tentative. (
  • Today, the HLDA Workshop meeting has been held 10 times and has over 371 CD antigens molecule have been identified. (
  • The CD Antigen Information Finder was adapted from Current Protocols in Immunology (Beare, et al. (
  • A 180,000 MW molecule has been identified on porcine leucocytes that is the homologue of the 215,000/300,000 MW WC1 (T19) leucocyte antigen previously considered to be restricted to ruminants. (
  • Wills-Karp, M. Immunologic basis of antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. (
  • These anti-CD aptamers could be used in cell biology and biomedicine, from simple cell phenotyping by flow cytometry or fluorescent microscopy to diagnosis and treatment of HIV/AIDS to cancer and immune therapies. (
  • The protein marker in the Rh group of antigens that stimulates the greatest immune response. (
  • Here, we present the results of the first phase of the CD Maps study, mapping the expression of CD1-CD100 ( n = 110) on 47 immune cell subsets from blood, thymus, and tonsil using an eight-color standardized EuroFlow approach and quantification of expression. (
  • The company focuses on developing proprietary technology in immune enhancers, carriers and antigens - new therapeutic agents aimed at enabling physicians to modulate the body's immune system by providing protection and treatment against an array of diseases. (
  • But with continuous efforts in research more CD antigens were found to play significant roles in cancer progression which were then used as cancer therapeutic targets including CD19, CD22, CD38, CD33 and CD3. (
  • We began to explore therapeutic vaccine development to antigens associated with these signaling pathways. (
  • This invention relates to the microencapsulation of antigens for use as therapeutic or prophylactic vaccines. (
  • Approval of CD antigen directed CAR-T cell therapy has further encouraged public and private sectors to increase investments in research studies related to genomics and technological advancements for feasible gene sequencing and selection of target gene expressing CD antigens. (
  • p.E384K) in the TIA1 (T-cell intracellular antigen 1) gene, which encodes an RNA-binding protein basically required for the posttranscriptional regulation of RNAs. (
  • p.E384K) in T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1) (2p13) ( 5 - 8 ), which encodes an RNA-binding protein that regulates/modulates many regulatory aspects of gene expression ( 9 - 11 ). (
  • DTH hypersensitivity to skin test antigens, lymphocyte proliferation to mitogens, soluble antigens, recall antigens, and neoantigens are compared between the 2 populations. (
  • CD4 can be administered in a soluble form to increase the amount of it in the circulation and interfere with the ability of HIV to affect CD4 antigens on the cell. (
  • 7. The composition of claim 1 further comprising a soluble antigen. (
  • As a result of the increasing switch from live-attenuated and killed whole-cell vaccines to subunit antigens , there is a need for novel antigen delivery technologies to improve vaccine efficacy and safety. (
  • Vaccines and related immunotherapeutic methods utilizing antigens stabilized by the fixative of the present invention are also provided. (
  • Methods and compositions are provided for the encapsulation of antigens in PLGA microspheres for use as vaccines. (
  • The purpose of the National Cancer Institute pilot project to prioritize cancer antigens was to develop a well-vetted, priority-ranked list of cancer vaccine target antigens based on predefined and preweighted objective criteria. (
  • We report on the development of a prioritized list of cancer vaccine target antigens using well-vetted criteria generated by expert panels. (
  • Testing on 54 additional antigens revealed that computational resource requirements of OptMAVEn-2.0 scale only sub-linearly with respect to antigen size. (
  • CD antigens are involved in modulating the biological activities of cytokines such as CD4, CD28 and CD40. (
  • In addition, each antigen fragment is fused to the ubiquitin protein to increase antigen expression and target these antigens to the proteasome to enhance cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. (
  • Focuses on the key CD Antigen Cancer Therapy manufacturers, to study the sales, value, market share and development plans in future. (
  • In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of CD Antigen Cancer Therapy are as follows: History Year: 2013-2017 Base Year: 2017 Estimated Year: 2018 Forecast Year 2018 to 2025 For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2017 is considered as the base year. (
  • Key Stakeholders CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Manufacturers CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Distributors/Traders/Wholesalers CD Antigen Cancer Therapy Subcomponent Manufacturers Industry Association Downstream Vendors Available Customizations With the given market data, QYResearch offers customizations according to the company's specific needs. (
  • CD Antigens have emerged as new growth frontier for the organizations involved in the research, development, licensing and commercialization of targeted cancer therapies. (
  • Current market is fledged with a variety of CD antigen targeting cancer therapies. (
  • The market has successfully produced unique CD antigen based cancer therapies. (
  • Furthermore, CD antigens based cancer therapies has the potential to become popular amongst the patients and physicians as they provide better survival and have justified their high prices in case of some therapies by providing better clinical results than other conventional cancer therapies. (
  • cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) a glycoprotein antigen found in normal adult tissues such as the epithelium of the fallopian tubes, the endometrium, the endocervix, the pleura, and the peritoneum. (
  • An up-to-date research has been disclosed by QY Research Group highlighting the Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy segment. (
  • The report deep dives into the dynamics of Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy providing useful and unique insights. (
  • The document includes present industry magnitude of Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy and the movement since past 5-10 years. (
  • The necessary details for the companies in Global CD Antigen Cancer Therapy , such as revenue, % share, supplier information, images of products are provided as well. (
  • Antigen prioritization involved developing a list of "ideal" cancer antigen criteria/characteristics, assigning relative weights to those criteria using pairwise comparisons, selecting 75 representative antigens for comparison and ranking, assembling information on the predefined criteria for the selected antigens, and ranking the antigens based on the predefined, preweighted criteria. (
  • None of the 75 antigens had all of the characteristics of the ideal cancer antigen. (
  • The elucidation and weighting of criteria to assess cancer antigens will assist investigators in the immunotherapy field in determining the characteristics and the experimental data required to select the most promising antigens for further development and testing in clinical trials. (
  • Nevertheless, there is consensus that optimally designed cancer vaccine trials combining the best antigens with the most effective immunotherapy agents might yield positive clinical results. (
  • Many of the ranked immunotherapeutic agents are effective as components of cancer vaccine regimens in preclinical models, but this abundance of promising opportunities raises immediate questions as to which antigen or sets of antigens are most appropriate for codevelopment. (
  • Our current effort to prioritize cancer antigens represents the logical next step in attempting to focus translational efforts on cancer vaccine regimens with the highest potential for success. (
  • The task of ranking cancer antigens is immense, and the number of potential cancer antigens is almost limitless. (
  • Antigens, CD14" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD14" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Antigens, CD14" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD14" by people in Profiles. (
  • Antigens, CD22" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD22" by people in Profiles. (
  • The expression of CD antigens is influenced by cytokines, such as binding of ligands to CD antigens which has shown to modulate the expression of cytokines. (
  • CD antigens can act in lot of ways, like as recepters or ligands in terms of physiology. (
  • Inflammation occurs when neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages encounter an antigen from any source during bodily injury. (
  • They used a murine model of T1D to demonstrate that antigen-specific immunotherapy delivered to the fetus is a very effective approach to preventing T1D. (
  • Analysis of Pneumocystis carinii organism burden, viability and antigens in bronchoalveolar lavage f. (
  • In addition, the phosphoamino acid stabilized the HLA peptide complex in an epitope-specific manner and was observed to exhibit discrete flexibility within the antigen-binding cleft. (
  • We offer the corresponding MHC multimer for each antigen peptide. (
  • We offer a large variety of positive and negative control peptide pools for antigen specific T cell stimulation as well as kit to produce TCR-engineered reference samples for performance control. (
  • abstract = "This paper reviews the Seventh Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigen (HLDA7) workshop. (