Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Mice, Inbred C57BLSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Mice, Inbred CBAHLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.HemocyaninCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.HLA-B44 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Experimental production of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: comparison of serological and immunological responses using pili fractions of Moraxella bovis. (1/13242)The effect of vaccinating cattle and mice on the development of keratoconjunctivitis was studied. Cattle were vaccinated with whole cells, disrupted cells and pili fractions of three strains of Moraxella bovis. Mice were vaccinated with pili fractions of three strains. The resistance of all vaccinated animals was challenged with virulent cultures of M. bovis. In an attempt to correlate the response seen after vaccination and challenge with a pili fraction of M. bovis, vaccinated cattle and mice were grouped on the basis of signs of disease manifested and compared on the basis of serological responses. Serum samples were tested for antibodies by a gel diffusion precipitin test. A greater number of the sera of resistant cattle had antibodies to the homologous pili antigen than those of vaccinated nonresistant cattle. Cattle vaccinated with disrupted cells were not resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to challenge exposure by homologous than heterologous cultures. A greater number of the sera of resistant mice had antibodies to pili antigens than nonresistant mice. (+info)
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: experimental production in calves with antigens of Micropolyspora faeni. (2/13242)Pneumonitis was induced in calves by exposure to aerosols of Micropolyspora faeni with or without prior sensitization of the animals by subcutaneous injection of antigen. The pneumonitis primarily involved centrolobular areas and was characterized by alveolar septal thickening and loss of air space by cellular infiltration. Vasculitis and focal haemorrhage occurred in certain individuals and haemoproteinaceous exudate appeared within septa and alveolar lumina. The pneumonitis was compared with human farmer's lung, pneumonitis of housed cattle and other experimental hypersensitivity pneumonitides. (+info)
The significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. (3/13242)AIMS: To assess the significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in relation to inflammation and density of bacterial colonisation in vivo within a dyspeptic UK population. METHODS: Dyspeptic patients who were Helicobacter pylori positive had antral samples taken for histology and culture. Gastroduodenal pathology was noted. The grade of bacterial density and inflammation was assessed using the Sydney system. Bacterial DNA was extracted and the vacA alleles and the cagA/gene typed using PCR. RESULTS: 120 patients were studied. There was high rate of cagA positive strains in this population. Bacterial density did not correlate with the presence of peptic ulceration. There was a significant association between cagA positive strains and increased inflammation and bacterial density. The vacA s1 type independently correlated with extensive chronic inflammation but there was no association with bacterial density. The vacA m type did not correlate with extent of inflammation or bacterial density. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cagA is important in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. These findings are in keeping with the hypothesis that cagA acts as a marker for a cag pathogenicity island which encodes several genes involved in inflammation. The vacA s1 allele correlates with inflammation independently of cagA, possibly through its enhanced ability to produce the vacuolating cytotoxin. (+info)
Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis. (4/13242)AIM: To investigate the association between the quantity of gastric chemokine mRNA expression, severity of gastritis, and cagA positivity in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. METHODS: In 83 dyspeptic patients, antral and corpus biopsies were taken for semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and histological grading of gastritis. Gastritis was evaluated by visual analogue scales. Quantities of chemokine (IL-8, GRO alpha, ENA-78, RANTES, MCP-1) RT-PCR products were compared with G3PDH products. Each sample was also evaluated for the presence of cagA and ureA mRNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS: mRNA expression of all five chemokines was significantly greater in H pylori positive than in H pylori negative mucosa. In H pylori positive patients, in the antrum C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive patients than in cagA negative patients, but there were no significant differences in C-C chemokine mRNA expression. In H pylori positive patients, chemokine mRNA expression in the corpus was less than in the antrum. In contrast to the antrum, only GRO alpha mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive infection. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltration was correlated with C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. Significant correlations were also found between bacterial density and C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: In H pylori infection, C-X-C chemokines may play a primary role in active gastritis. Infection with cagA positive H pylori induces greater gastric chemokine mRNA expression in the antral mucosa, which may be relevant to the increased mucosal damage associated with cagA positive H pylori infection. (+info)
Generation of CD8(+) T-cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterial antigen in experimental bovine tuberculosis. (5/13242)Protective immunity against tuberculosis is considered to be essentially cell mediated, and an important role for CD8(+) T lymphocytes has been suggested by several studies of murine and human infections. The present work, using an experimental model of infection with Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, showed that live M. bovis elicits the activation of CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, a sonic extract prepared from M. bovis (MBSE) and protein purified derivative (PPDb) also induced a considerable degree of activation of the CD8(+) T cells. Analysis of proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, purified CD8(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T-cell clones to M. bovis and to soluble antigenic preparations (MBSE, PPDb) showed that the responses of all three types of cells were always superior for live mycobacteria but that strong responses were also obtained with complex soluble preparations. Furthermore, while cytotoxic capabilities were not investigated, the CD8(+) T cells were found to produce and release gamma interferon in response to antigen (live and soluble), which indicated one possible protective mechanism for these cells in bovine tuberculosis. Finally, it was demonstrated by metabolic inhibition with brefeldin A and cytochalasin D at the clonal level that an endogenous pathway of antigen processing is required for presentation to bovine CD8(+) cells and that presentation is also dependent on phagocytosis of the antigen. (+info)
Pathogenicity island 2 mutants of Salmonella typhimurium are efficient carriers for heterologous antigens and enable modulation of immune responses. (6/13242)The potential use as vaccine delivery system of Salmonella typhimurium strains harboring defined mutations in the sseC (HH104) and sseD (MvP101) genes, which encode putative effector proteins of the type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2, was evaluated and compared with that of the well-characterized aroA mutant strain SL7207 by using beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) as a model antigen. When orally administered to immune-competent or gamma interferon-deficient (IFN-gamma-/-) BALB/c mice, both mutants were found to be highly attenuated (50% lethal dose, >10(9) bacteria). Both strains were also able to efficiently colonize and persist in Peyer's patches. Immunization with HH104 and MvP101 triggered beta-Gal-specific serum and mucosal antibody responses equivalent to or stronger than those observed in SL7207-immunized mice. Although immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) serum antibodies were dominant in all groups, IgG1 was also significantly increased in mice vaccinated with MvP101 and SL7207. Comparable beta-Gal-specific IgA and IgG antibodies were detected in intestinal lavages from mice immunized with the different strains. Antigen-specific CD4(+) T-helper cells were generated after vaccination with all vaccine prototypes; however, responses were significantly more efficient when HH104 and MvP101 were used (P < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma were produced by restimulated spleen cells from mice immunized with HH104 than from those vaccinated with the MvP101 or SL7207 derivatives (P +info)
Transcutaneous immunization with bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins as antigens and adjuvants. (7/13242)Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a new technique that uses the application of vaccine antigens in a solution on the skin to induce potent antibody responses without systemic or local toxicity. We have previously shown that cholera toxin (CT), a potent adjuvant for oral and nasal immunization, can induce both serum and mucosal immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA and protect against toxin-mediated mucosal disease when administered by the transcutaneous route. Additionally, CT acts as an adjuvant for coadministered antigens such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids when applied to the skin. CT, a member of the bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxin (bARE) family, is most potent as an adjuvant when the A-B subunits are present and functional. We now show that TCI induces secondary antibody responses to coadministered antigens as well as to CT in response to boosting immunizations. IgG antibodies to coadministered antigens were also found in the stools and lung washes of immunized mice, suggesting that TCI may target mucosal pathogens. Mice immunized by the transcutaneous route with tetanus fragment C and CT developed anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies and were protected against systemic tetanus toxin challenge. We also show that bAREs, similarly organized as A-B subunits, as well as the B subunit of CT alone, induced antibody responses to themselves when given via TCI. Thus, TCI appears to induce potent, protective immune responses to both systemic and mucosal challenge and offers significant potential practical advantages for vaccine delivery. (+info)
A 55-kilodalton immunodominant antigen of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 has arisen via horizontal gene transfer. (8/13242)A 55-kDa outer membrane protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 is a significant target of the serum immunoglobulin G antibody response of periodontal disease patients and hence may play an important role in host-bacterium interactions in periodontal disease. The gene encoding the 55-kDa antigen (ragB, for receptor antigen B) was isolated on a 9.5-kb partial Sau3AI fragment of P. gingivalis W50 chromosomal DNA in pUC18 by immunoscreening with a monoclonal antibody to this antigen. The 1.6-kb open reading frame (ORF) encoding RagB was located via subcloning and nested-deletion analysis. Sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of an upstream 3.1-kb ORF (ragA) which is cotranscribed with ragB. A number of genetic characteristics suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by a horizontal gene transfer event. These include a significantly reduced G+C content relative to that of the P. gingivalis chromosome (42 versus 48%) and the presence of mobility elements flanking this locus in P. gingivalis W50. Furthermore, Southern blotting and PCR analyses showed a restricted distribution of this locus in laboratory and clinical isolates of this bacterium. The association of ragAB+ P. gingivalis with clinical status was examined by PCR analysis of subgingival samples. ragAB+ was not detected in P. gingivalis-positive shallow pockets from periodontal disease patients but was present in 36% of the P. gingivalis-positive samples from deep pockets. These data suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by certain P. gingivalis strains via horizontal gene transfer and that the acquisition of this locus may facilitate the survival of these strains at sites of periodontal destruction. (+info)
Identification of circulating bacterial antigens by in vivo microbial antigen discovery. | Sigma-Aldrich
Streptococcal Antigen Test for Pneumonia Detection: A review of Clinical- and Cost-Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca
Streptococcal antigen testing was found to be both sensitive and highly specific under most conditions, though evidence was found that demonstrated high variability depending on the serotype that was encountered. The cost savings as a result of its use are heterogeneous in nature and more powerful investigation is required to form reliable conclusions. Evidence-based guidelines indicate that it is not appropriate for use in children due to high false-positives, and they further stated that its use in adults should be limited to admitted patients with moderate to high disease severity.. ...
HCV NS3 Polypeptide | Bioprocess
Both react strongly with HCV positive sera; the choice of antigen may be a function of the particular assay format chosen, however, more commonly, it appears that the fusion protein was the antigen of choice. The protein is soluble in aqueous buffer and may be admixed with the HCV capsid antigen prior to coating on to microplate wells. The protein comes as a 500 ug/ml (again setting 1 mg/ml equivalent to an OD (280nm) in Tris buffer, of 1.0). Individual Elisa protocols can be developed, such as Capsid antigen alone (Example 1); NS3 antigen alone (Example 2); or, A combination of antigens (Example 3). Using a Capsid: NS3 ratio of 4:1 in the coating mixture appears to provide the most favorable signal-to-noise ratios in the subsequent assay: Access to the individual antigen component thus enables the determination of precise parameters for an optimized assay.. To view an SDS PAAGE image of this antigen, please click HERE. To review the seroconversion data (using a standard seroconversion panel ...
STUDIES ON THE NONSPECIFIC DEPRESSION OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE | JEM
Calf serum has been shown to suppress the primary immune response to erythrocytes and some bacterial antigens in mice if administered prior to and not after immunization. The importance of the route of iniection of antigens and immunosuppressant is indicated. It is suggested that immunosuppression is achieved by phagocytosis and enyzmatic destruction of the injected antigen by peritoneal macrophages. A similar mechanism is probably involved in the type of immunosuppression induced by PHA.. ...
"Purification of Anthrax Toxin Protective Antigen Component and Charact" by Daniel Dalton Martin
Protective antigen component of B. anthracis toxin was produced and purified to the |99% level. Toxin was purified from culture supernatant utilizing concentration and liquid chromatography techniques. Purity was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified protective antigen retained biological and antigenic activity as evidenced respectively by lethality in Fischer 344 rats when injected in combination with lethal factor, and by positive results on the Ouchterlony double diffussion assay. Radioiodinated protective antigen was used both in the in vivo and the in vitro experiments. In vivo distribution of labelled protective antigen was determined in Fischer 344 rats. Assay of organ tissues for labelled protective antigen aided in the decision to use Maden-Darby bovine kidney cells for the cell cultures in the protective antigen binding studies. Protective antigen binding studies, all performed at 37°C, evaluated criteria for receptor existence. Labelled
Cellular immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigen culture filtrate protein-10 in south India |...
Serotec - Antibodies, Antigens, and Antioxidants
There are many outside agents that could become antigens. Among the agents that are potentially antigenic are egg whites, pollen, transplanted tissue proteins and plenty of other agents that could cause a reaction of the immune system in order to take care of the invasion.. These outside antigens are also known as non-microbal or non-self antigens. One outside source of imunogenic antigens are vaccines. They are often given to people in order to prepare themselves for a potential illness.. Outside antigens are known as exogenous antigens. The common way that these antigens enter the body is through inhalation, injection, or ingestion. Often times, the immune system reacts to the antigens in a less than clinical fashion.. The process of the antibodies taking on the antigens are either endocytosis or phagocytosis. These antigens are brought to the cells that present antigens. The antigens are then broken down into pieces so that they can be processed.. The pieces are taken to the T helper cells so ...
Antigen Discovery - Calixar
CALIXARs approach allows to preserve the original structure and function of membrane proteins (GPCRs, Ion Channels, Transporters, Receptors, Anchors and Viral Proteins) providing solutions for pharmaceutical industries, biotechnology companies and academic teams to develop conformational antibodies, formulate new vaccines, carry out Structure Based Drug Discovery and/or HTS assays. ...
News - The Native Antigen Company
The Native Antigen Company was formed as a spin out from PsiOxus (formerly Hybrid BioSystems). Headquartered in Birmingham, with research offices in Oxford, The Native Antigen Company has expertise in the isolation and purification of both viral and bacterial native antigens. These antigens serve as key components for infectious disease testing kits - their function being to accurately detect pathogenic infection by capturing antibodies in patient samples. The company also offers adenovirus purification and production capabilities and a screening service for anticancer and antiviral drug compounds. The company has achieved ISO 9001:2008 accreditation for the development, manufacture, and sale of native antigens as of November 2010. The company will specialise in manufacturing of native antigens but also offers a range of products and purities, from cell lysates to gradient purified pathogens, for a range of organisms. These include adenovirus types 3, 5, 11, 12, and type 5 hexon protein along ...
Immunogenes or Antigens - بسم اللة الرحمن الرحيم Immunogens Or Antigens Immunogens Or Antigens Immunogens or Antigens
E. coli genomic expression library in a plasmid??
'Shapely' Germs Shape Up The Immune System |...
In experiments measuring the length of time an antigen stays stuck, DM makes sure an infected cell holds onto a microbe long enough to catch the attention of immune cells in the first place, Sadegh-Nasseri says.. To uncover DMs expanded job, Sadegh-Nasseri isolated a protein antigen from the flu virus as a test case and found that cells with DM normally hold on for about six days, long enough for symptoms like sniffles and fever, as signs of immune battle, to develop. When they removed DM from normal cells, the cells did not bind the flu antigen at all. Later, when they mutated the antigen-binding part of the cell, the flu antigen "fell off" after only 10 minutes.. When the scientists studied the 3-D shape of the part of the cell that tries on the antigen, they discovered that the antigen fell off after 10 minutes whether DM was there or not, but only when one specific chemical bond was disrupted.. "DM somehow alters this chemical bond to make antigens fall off a thousand times faster than ...
Antigen processing is a process that
Antigen Testing May Be the Game Changer That Economies Need
Antigen tests are faster, cheaper and more scalable than the familiar molecular test for COVID-19. A new multibillion market could open up if the health care industry manages to establish a threshold for test accuracy. Broader acceptance of antigen tests should also bring significant revenue growth for the handful of public companies that have such products in the market today.
P24 antigen test hiv - Doctor answers on HealthcareMagic
COVID-19 Antigen Test | Private Testing | Bodyvie Richmond
antigens | Hygeia Analytics
All About Me..and my interests: February 2010
We have two kinds of cells in our body which are used to fight diseases: B cells and T cells. Whenever an antigen attacks our body for the first time, these cells create a code to fight those antigens. Once the code is created, next time the antigen attacks, these cells are able to fight the antigen very fast as they already have the code created for that specific antigen ...
Antigens for Covid-19 Diagnostics - ACROBiosystems
What is the difference between antigen and pathogen?
A Complete Toolkit for SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Tests
Active Motif » Nuclear Extract Kit (Nuclear, Cytoplasmic or Whole-cell lysates)
how do b cells react to antigens | | getremedyonline.com
Planning is not sufficient for success but implementing it in the right proportion is crucial to reach the mile stone of success. Brillmindz Technologies started with the cycle of innovation in 2011, and then onwards serving across the world with countless prominent apps relevant to diverse business domains.. Sitemap. ...
ChIP-Atlas - Antigen List
WASHINGTON STATE REGISTER
Disposable earnings" means the amount of earnings remaining after the deduction of amounts required by law to be withheld.. "Earnings" means compensation paid or payable for personal service. Earnings include:. (1) Wages or salary;. (2) Commissions and bonuses;. (3) Periodic payments under pension plans, retirement programs, and insurance policies of any type;. (4) Disability payments under Title 51 RCW;. (5) Unemployment compensation under RCW 50.40.020, 50.40.050 and Title 74 RCW;. (6) Gains from capital, labor, or a combination of the two; and. (7) The fair value of nonmonetary compensation received in exchange for personal services.. "Employee" means a person to whom an employer is paying, owes, or anticipates paying earnings in exchange for services performed for the employer.. "Employer" means any person or organization having an employment relationship with any person. This includes:. (1) Partnerships and associations;. (2) Trusts and estates;. (3) Joint stock companies and insurance ...
Patent US4497899 - Immunoassay for Chlamydia trachomatis antigens - Google Patents
Mitochondrial proteins Bnip3 and Bnip3L are involved in anthrax lethal toxin-induced macrophage cell death<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mitochondrial proteins Bnip3 and Bnip3L are involved in anthrax lethal toxin-induced macrophage cell death. AU - Ha, Soon-Duck. AU - Ng, Dennis. AU - Lamothe, Julie. AU - Valvano, Miguel A. AU - Han, Jiahuai. AU - Kim, Sung Ouk. PY - 2007/9/7. Y1 - 2007/9/7. N2 - Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) induces rapid cell death of RAW246.7 macrophages. We recently found that a small population of these macrophages is spontaneously and temporally refractory to LeTx-induced cytotoxicity. Analysis of genome-wide transcripts of a resistant clone before and after regaining LeTx sensitivity revealed that a reduction of two closely related mitochondrial proteins, Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3 (Bnip3) and Bnip3-like (Bnip3L), correlates with LeTx resistance. Down-regulation of Bnip3 and Bnip3L was also found in "toxin-induced resistance" whereby sublethal doses of LeTx induce resistance to subsequent exposure to cytolytic toxin doses. The role of Bnip3 and Bnip3L in LeTx-induced ...
Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in first-void urin...
Effect of enterobacterial common antigen on mouse virulence of Salmonella typhimurium. | Infection and Immunity
A series of nearly isogenic O4-12, and O-6,7 Salmonella typhimurium strains differing in regard to the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) were constructed by conjugation. When tested in intraperitoneal infection of mice, the O-4,12 strains containing ECA were more virulent than their O-4,12 sister recombinants without ECA (P = less than 0.001). The same difference could be shown with ECA-positive and ECA-negative S. typhimurium derivatives, whose O antigens were of the group C type (O-6,7). The ECA-positive and ECA-negative O-4,12 strains did not differ in their growth rates in broth or clearance rates in vivo. ...
H. pylori virulence factor CagA increases intestinal cell proliferation by Wnt pathway activation in a transgenic zebrafish...
Infection with Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for the development of gastric cancer, and infection with strains carrying the virulence factor CagA significantly increases this risk. To investigate the mechanisms by which CagA promotes carcinogenesis, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing CagA ubiquitously or in the anterior intestine. Transgenic zebrafish expressing either the wild type or a phosphorylation-resistant form of CagA exhibited significantly increased rates of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and showed significant upregulation of the Wnt target genes cyclinD1, axin2 and the zebrafish c-myc ortholog myca. Coexpression of CagA with a loss-of-function allele encoding the β-catenin destruction complex protein Axin1 resulted in a further increase in intestinal proliferation. Coexpression of CagA with a null allele of the key β-catenin transcriptional cofactor Tcf4 restored intestinal proliferation to wild-type levels. These results provide in vivo evidence of ...
Gentaur Molecular :AIC \ Helicobacter pylori CagA protein, antibody \ 5-HpA
Gentaur Molecular :AIC \ Helicobacter pylori CagA protein, antibody \ 5-HpA
Identification of Chlamydia trachomatis Antigens Recognized by T Cells From Highly Exposed Women Who Limit or Resist Genital...
A higher median frequency of CD8(+) T-cell responses was detected in women with lower genital tract chlamydial infection, compared with those with upper genital tract chlamydial infection (13.8% vs 9.5%; P =04), but the CD4(+) T-cell response frequencies were not different. Women who remained uninfected displayed a greater frequency of positive CD4(+) T-cell responses (29% vs 18%; P < .0001), compared with women who had incident infection, while the frequencies of CD8(+) T-cell responses did not differ. A subset of proteins involved in central metabolism, type III secretion, and protein synthesis were associated with protection. CONCLUSIONS ...
Extracellular Antigens from Salmonella enteritidis Induce Effective Immune Response in Mice after Oral Vaccination | Infection...
FIG. 3. Western blot analysis on sera from day 35 and fecal samples from day 28 against extracellular antigens from serovar Enteritidis. (A) The sera were diluted 1:50,000. Sera were obtained from mice immunized with antigen-conjugated microparticles orally (lane 2), free antigen orally (lane 3), microparticles plus free antigen orally (lane 4), antigen-conjugated microparticles intramuscularly (lane 5), or free antigen intramuscularly (lane 6). Lane 1 shows molecular mass markers. (B) The fecal extracts were diluted 1:5. The samples were obtained from mice immunized with antigen-conjugated microparticles orally (lane 1), antigen-conjugated microparticles intramuscularly (lane 2), or free antigen orally (lane 3). ...
Significant Growth See in Native Bacterial Antigens Market 2020-2027 | Microbix Biosystems, SERION Immunologics, Enzo Life...
Antigen test | definition of Antigen test by Medical dictionary
Individual antigens of cattle. Bovine CD8 (BoCD8). - MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine
Common antigen | Article about common antigen by The Free Dictionary
Anti-Interleukin 10 Receptor Monoclonal Antibody Is an Adjuvant for T Helper Cell Type 1 Responses to Soluble Antigen Only in...
Several factors may determine whether encounter of antigen in a primary response will lead to the clonal expansion of specific antigen receptor-expressing lymphocytes and their differentiation into specific memory effector cells (for review see references (1) and (2)). Soluble foreign antigen usually leads to a transient clonal expansion of antigen-specific T cells, followed by the deletion and/or functional inactivation of the cells (for review see references 1 and 2). In some cases, soluble antigen can lead to subsequent unresponsiveness to an immunizing regimen of antigen in adjuvant (for review see references 1 and 2). It has been suggested that the dose and form of antigen, the route of administration of antigen, the delivery of appropriate costimulatory signals, and the genetic background of the host may determine whether an antigen primes for an appropriate memory effector response (for review see references 1-3).. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the abortive immune ...
Identification of mycobacterial antigens activating and suppressing T-lymphocyte responses<...
TY - GEN. T1 - Identification of mycobacterial antigens activating and suppressing T-lymphocyte responses. AU - Ellner, J. J.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024836075&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024836075&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Conference contribution. AN - SCOPUS:0024836075. SN - 0444813497. SP - 3. EP - 21. BT - Basic mechanisms of granulomatous inflammation: proceedings of the International Symposium on basic mechanisms of granulomatous inflammation. ICS851. A2 - Yoshida, T.. A2 - Torisu, M.. A2 - Yoshida, T.. A2 - Torisu, M.. PB - Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.. T2 - The International Symposium on basic mechanisms of granulomatous inflammation. Y2 - 28 November 1988 through 29 November 1988. ER - ...
Extensive Inventory of Vaccine Development Products at Creative Biolabs - Solan Headlines
Antigens stimulate the immune system of the host which thereby generates antibodies. Creative Biolabs provides antigens of various categories, including viral antigens, parasitic antigens, bacterial antigens, tumor antigens, and so on, for the development of vaccine candidates and serological diagnostic tests. The products of high quality are in full stock and ready for shipment on a global basis. Considering that other antigens may be required in addition to what is mentioned above, the protein expression service can help, which relies on the exclusive expression system of E. coli, yeast, baculovirus-insect, mammalian cells, and plant expression systems to express proteins case by case.. Adjuvant for Vaccine. * Viral Antigens: Adenovirus, Hepatitis C virus, Coronavirus, EBV antigens, etc ...
Educational Portal: Antigen presentation; T cell mediated immunity
Protein antigens are no able to induce an immune response without being previously processed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Following their processing that comprises their splitting to smaller fragments - peptides, APs subsequently present them to T cells; moreover, they activate them and polarise to a specific biological functions. Depending of antigen origin, there are two presentation pathways, exogenous and endogenous. Antigens originated from outside of APC, e.g. bacterial toxins, enzymes, etc., are presented by exogenous pathway and presented molecules are class II HLA molecules. T cell, that recognise presented peptides belong to helper subset of T cells. Antigens originated in the cytosol, such as antigens that appear in the cytoplasm of virus infected cells, are presented by endogenous pathway and presented molecules belong to class I HL-A molecules. T cells, that recognise presented peptides, represent cytotoxic T cells.
Treatment of Complicated Colds with Acellular Bacterial Antigen Complex | JAMA Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery | The JAMA...
ReP USP - Detalhe do registro: Placental transfer of igg and igg subclasses anti-escherichia coli purified lps antigens
Detection of bacterial antigens in milk | Veterinary Record
Patent US4446232 - Enzyme immunoassay with two-zoned device having bound antigens - Google Patents
A device for determining the presence of antigens which comprises a first zone containing antigens and enzyme-linked antibodies which are capable of immunologically reacting with said antigens, said antibodies being positioned in said first zone such that they will be removed from said first zone when reacted with antigens passing through said first zone but not removed from said first zone in the absence of such antigens, and a second zone containing material capable of reacting with said enzyme-linked antibodies to produce a color forming reaction which indicates the presence of said antibodies.
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal | Detection of Mycobacterial antigen and antibody in
Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine) conjugate - ANTIGEN AG014 | PolyNeuroS
Recognition of cross-reactive antigens by human CD4+ T cells - Jun Huang
LGC acquires The Native Antigen Company
Novus Biologicals Apc5 Recombinant Protein Antigen Quantity: 100µL:Life | Fisher Scientific
Novus Biologicals TAF5L Recombinant Protein Antigen Quantity: 100µL:Life | Fisher Scientific
Australský antigen | Medicína, nemoci, studium na 1. LF UK
Rapid antigen assays could prove key to addressing SARS-CoV-2 testing limitations
United States Diagnostic Reagents Market Report 2017 : ReportsnReports
ANTIGEN, ANTIBODI DAN Ab-monoklonal - ppt download
Immense Immunology Insight: Question: Antigen presenting cells display processed antigens to T cells through which MHC molecule?
MHC Ib Qa-2 antigen Summary Report | CureHunter
Antigens, CD81 | Profiles RNS
Antigens, CD57 | Profiles RNS
The Development of a Radioimmuno-Assay for Carcino-Embryonic Antigen with some Applications. Clinical Evaluation of Cercino...
Oxoid Diagnostic Reagents - Streptccal Enzym Extrct 50pk;3293760pk
antigen - ukcheapessays.com | ukcheapessays.com
During the adaptive response, the MHC molecules are responsible for presenting an antigen to T cells. The two types of MHC (MHCI and MHCII) have specific roles during the response. Which of the following most accurately describes the characteristics of MHCII molecules in mounting the antibody response?. Select the best answer ...
Antigens | Products | Cape Bio Pharms
The Ca2+ ionophore 4-Br A23187 is effective in increasi | Open-i
TCR Activating Antigen Stock Solution
Antigen presented by MHCII on MHCII APC Cells to specifically activate TCR on LAG-3 Effector Cells. For use with the LAG-3/MHCII Blockade Bioassay, a biologically relevant MOA-based assay that can be used to measure the potency and stability of antibodies and other biologics designed to block the LAG-3/MHCII interaction.
How many words made out of Enterobacterial | Anagram Finder
Nixdorff KK, Schlecht S, Rüde E, Westphal O (1975). "Immunological responses to Salmonella R antigens. The bacterial cell and ... as well as toxins or antigens as they enter the body). Edestin can also be broken down to edestan. Commercial hemp seeds (for ... "Immunological tolerance to the thymus-independent antigen dextran can be abrogated by thymus-dependent dextran conjugates: ...
Bacterial culture may need to be performed in cases of a negative rapid streptococcal test. True infection with GABHS, rather ... Older antigen tests detect the surface Lancefield group A carbohydrate. Newer tests identify GABHS serotypes using nucleic acid ... Tonsillitis is most commonly caused by a viral infection, with about 5% to 40% of cases caused by a bacterial infection. When ... The second most common cause is bacterial infection of which the predominant is Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS), ...
Different antigens are able to escape through a variety of mechanisms. For example, the African trypanosome parasites are able ... In order to fix this problem, vaccines must be able to cover the wide variety of strains within a bacterial population. In ... Some antigens may even target pathways different than those the vaccine had originally intended to target. Recent research on ... However, variation of this coat can lead to antibodies being unable to recognize and clear the antigen. In addition to this, ...
The recombinant vector that is genomically modified will express the antigen. The antigen (one or more subunits of protein) is ... Bacterial Pathogenesis, A Molecular Approach, Third Edition. ASM Press, American Society for Microbiology, 1752 N St. NW, ... in which a polysaccharide antigen has been covalently attached to a carrier protein for T-cell-dependent antigen processing ( ... Just like the highly successful subunit vaccines, the recombinant-vector-produced antigen will be of little to no risk to the ...
Tissue Antigens. 64 (3): 215-25. doi:10.1111/j.0001-2815.2004.00290.x. PMID 15304001. Tedla N, An H, Borges L, Vollmer-Conna U ... "Modulation of Toll-like receptor activity by leukocyte Ig-like receptors and their effects during bacterial infection". ... Tissue Antigens. 77 (4): 305-16. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2011.01633.x. PMID 21388353. Pilsbury LE, Allen RL, Vordermeier M ( ...
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody
The c-ANCA antigen is specifically proteinase 3 (PR3). p-ANCA antigens include myeloperoxidase (MPO) and bacterial permeability ... GS-ANA are antibodies directed to granulocyte specific nuclear antigens. Atypical ANCA are thought to be antigens similar to ... The most common antigens used on an ELISA microtitre plate are MPO and PR3, which are usually tested for after a positive IF ... Other less common antigens include HMG1 (p-ANCA pattern), HMG2 (p-ANCA pattern), alpha enolase (p and c-ANCA pattern), catalase ...
During a streptococcal infection, mature antigen-presenting cells such as B cells present the bacterial antigen to CD4+T cells ... Normally, T cell activation is triggered by the presentation of bacterial antigens. In RHD, molecular mimicry results in ... Self-antigen-specific antibodies generated via molecular mimicry between human proteins and streptococcal antigens up-regulate ... Molecular mimicry occurs when epitopes are shared between host antigens and Streptococcus antigens. This causes an autoimmune ...
The pentameric structure of IgM antibodies makes them efficient at binding antigens with repetitive epitopes (e.g. bacterial ... The IgG responses to bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigens are mediated primarily via IgG2 subclass, and deficiencies in ... unresponsiveness against bacterial polysaccharide antigens". Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). Jonsdottir, I., Vidarsson, G. (1998 ... they are rarely highly mutated and have broad antigen reactivity thus providing an early response to a wide range of antigens ...
Autoimmune heart disease
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor
A MAF can also alter the ability of macrophages to present MHC I antigen, participate in Th responses, and/or affect other ... Examples include heat shock proteins released during apoptosis, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Interferon-gamma Interleukin ... Pathogenic antigens can bind to toll-like receptors that stimulate macrophage activation and response. ... which can inhibit cytotoxic responses of other lymphocytes to cancer cell antigens. The stromal reaction surrounding a tumor, ...
George Siber bibliography
"Correlation between Serum IgG-2 Concentrations and the Antibody Response to Bacterial Polysaccharide Antigens". New England ... "Recurrent sinopulmonary infection and impaired antibody response to bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigen in children with ... Rehmus J, Johnson C, Marchant C, Carlin S, Super D, Van Hare G, Siber G, Jones P and Shurin P. Bacterial Polysaccharide Immune ... Bacterial Vaccines. New York: Praeger, 1987. Siber GR. Special Lecture: importance of IgG subclasses and genetic factors in ...
Bacterial strains of both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes and of El Tor and Classical biotypes are included in the vaccine. Dukoral ... is taken orally with bicarbonate buffer, which protects the antigens from the gastric acid. The vaccine acts by inducing ... antibodies against both the bacterial components and CTB. The antibacterial intestinal antibodies prevent the bacteria from ...
Undecaprenyl-phosphate galactose phosphotransferase
Enzymatic formation of the first intermediate in biosynthesis of the O-antigen of Salmonella typhimurium". J. Biol. Chem. 243 ( ... Osborn MJ, Tze-Yuen RY (1968). "Biosynthesis of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. VII. ... Wright A, Dankert M, Fennessey P, Robbins PW (1967). "Characterization of a polyisoprenoid compound functional in O-antigen ...
It is capable of preventing the antigen-antibody interaction due to its high binding affinity to any antibody. The Scripps ... Hofer, Ursula (2014). "Bacterial physiology: Mycoplasmal protein binds antibodies". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 12 (4): 234- ... "A Unique Mycoplasma Protein Generically Binds All Types of Antibodies and Blocks Antigen Binding". biotechdaily. Globetech ... "A structurally distinct human mycoplasma protein that generically blocks antigen-antibody union". Science. 343 (6171): 656-661 ...
These polyspecific immunoglobulins often have a preference for other immunoglobulins, self antigens and common bacterial ... making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen presenting cells. Notably, most B1 cells do not develop into memory B ... Hence, there appears to be a role for self or foreign antigen in shaping the repertoire of the B-1 B cell compartment. B1 B ... These studies indicate preexisting subset differences in B cell receptor (BCR) specificity and antigen-driven B cell fate that ...
Edward Thomas Ryan
Direct Conjugation of Bacterial O-SP-Core Antigens to Proteins: Development of Cholera Conjugate Vaccines". Bioconjugate ... "Identification of in vivo-induced bacterial protein antigens during human infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi". ... including bacterial gene expression in infected humans, and human immune responses to bacterial infection. This collaborative ... Ryan is the Director of Global Infectious Diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital, and in 2006 isolated a new bacterial ...
SP-D increases bacterial antigen presentation by dendritic cells whereas SP-A blocs differentation of the immature dendritic ... "Surfactant protein D enhances bacterial antigen presentation by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells". American Journal of ... SP-A and SP-D can increase permeability of Gram-negative bacterial cell membrane. SP-A and SP-D can damp induction of ...
Bowel-associated dermatosis-arthritis syndrome
These antigen-antibody complexes are thought to be caused by excessive exposure to bacterial antigens (especially ... Ely PH (June 1980). "The bowel bypass syndrome: a response to bacterial peptidoglycans". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 2 (6): 473-87. ... peptidoglycans). Bacterial overgrowth appears to be a frequent underlying condition. These antibodies possibly stimulate ...
It forms a 1:1 heterodimeric complex with ESAT-6. Both genes are expressed from the RD1 region of the bacterial genome and play ... CFP-10 also known as ESAT-6-like protein esxB or secreted antigenic protein MTSA-10 or 10 kDa culture filtrate antigen CFP-10 ... 4]. The 10-kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP-10) and 6kDaA early secreted antigen target (ESAT-6) complex is a 100 amino-acid ... CFP-10 forms a tight 1:1 heterodimeric complex with 6kDaA early secreted antigen target (ESAT-6). In the mycobacterial cell, ...
Historically it was one of the first bacterial markers used for diagnosis and follow up of rheumatic fever or scarlet fever. ... These antibodies produced against the bacteria cross-react with human antigens (mainly collagen) and hence attack the cellular ... When the body is infected with streptococci, it produces antibodies against the various antigens that the streptococci produce ...
Classical complement pathway
The classical complement pathway can be initiated by the binding of antigen-antibody complexes to the C1q protein. The globular ... These globular regions of C1q can also bind to bacterial and viral surface proteins, apoptotic cells, and acute phase proteins ... The classical complement pathway is initiated by antigen-antibody complexes with the antibody isotypes IgG and IgM. Following ...
The most common antigens include HLA-B27, HLA-A29 (in birdshot chorioretinopathy) and HLA-B51 (in Behçet disease). Radiology X- ... Bacterial infection is another significant contributing factor in developing uveitis. Diagnosis includes dilated fundus ... These are often not deleted centrally whether due to ocular antigen not being presented in the thymus (therefore not negatively ... December 2003). "An immunologically privileged retinal antigen elicits tolerance: major role for central selection mechanisms ...
Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis
This stimulate antibody production against the bacterial pilli to prevent their attachment and invasion of the conjuntiva. The ... The vaccine contains three strains of Morexella bovis (SAH38, FLA 64, EPP 63) pilli antigen. ... and oversized or incorrectly placed ear tags may cause mechanical damage to the eye and facilitate bacterial colonization. The ...
This protein is involved in the pathway LPS O-antigen biosynthesis, which is part of Bacterial outer membrane biogenesis. ... This terminal modification is essential for export of the O-antigen across the inner membrane. WbdD is also required for ... a Bifunctional Kinase and Methyltransferase that Regulates the Chain Length of the O Antigen in Escherichia Coli O9A". Mol. ... WbdD EC 22.214.171.1244 and EC 126.96.36.199 WbdD is a bifunctional enzyme that regulates the length of the LPS O-antigen polysaccharide ...
Phagocyte - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bacterial avoidance of phagocytosis. Trends Microbiol. 10 (5): 232-37.  *↑ Todar, Kenneth. Mechanisms of bacterial ... antigen presentation': this is when the phagocyte moves parts of the killed bacteria back to its surface. These parts are then ... Phagocytosis of bacteria and bacterial pathogenicity. New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 10, 186. ISBN 0-521-84569-6 ... Some phagocytes then move to the body's lymph nodes and show the bacterial parts to white blood cells called lymphocytes. This ...
... may be caused by a bacterial antigen; the occurrence of this syndrome is strongly linked to HLA-B27 genotype, but the ... Bacillary dysentery should not be confused with diarrhea caused by other bacterial infections. One characteristic of bacillary ... including an amoebicidal drug to kill the parasite and an antibiotic to treat any associated bacterial infection. Anyone with ...
Microbial symbiosis and immunity
B. thetaiotaomicron, a bacterial species in the ileum and colon, stimulates the gene encoding fucose, Fut2, in intestinal ... It can be found as a monomer, dimer, or tetramer, which means that it can bind multiple antigens simultaneously. In a process ... The stimulus may be a microbe, a carcinogenic cell, a same species cell with different antigens, or cells from a different ... Nisin A inhibits methicillin-resistant S. aureus by binding to the precursor to bacterial cell wall synthesis, lipid II. This ...
... muramyl dipeptide in the peptidoglycan of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall, and CpG bacterial DNA. These PAMPs are ... Upon detection of microbial antigens, the host systemic immune system is activated. Immune cells not only recognize PAMP, but ... Infections leading to sepsis usually are bacterial, but may be fungal or viral. Gram positive bacteria was the cause of sepsis ... In common clinical usage, neonatal sepsis refers to a bacterial blood stream infection in the first month of life, such as ...
OmpA-like transmembrane domain
OmpA is the predominant cell surface antigen in enterobacteria found in about 100,000 copies per cell. The expression of OmpA ... Numerous OmpA-like membrane-spanning domains contribute to bacterial virulence by a variety of mechanisms such as binding to ... TheYersinia pestis protein Ail binds to laminin and heparin, therefore allowing bacterial attachment to host cells. The ... OmpA-like transmembrane domain is an evolutionarily conserved domain of bacterial outer membrane proteins. This domain consists ...
In protein engineering, flow cytometry is used in conjunction with yeast display and bacterial display to identify cell surface ... In neuroscience, co-expression of cell surface and intracellular antigens can also be analyzed. In marine biology, the ... Julius MH, Masuda T, Herzenberg LA (1972). "Demonstration that antigen-binding cells are precursors of antibody-producing cells ... DNA/surface antigens, etc.) The technology has applications in a number of fields, including molecular biology, pathology, ...
Agglutination is commonly used as a method of identifying specific bacterial antigens, and in turn, the identity of such ... The word agglutination comes from the Latin agglutinare (glueing to). Agglutination is the process that occurs if an antigen is ... versus the elimination of single microbial antigens. When people are given blood transfusions of the wrong blood group, the ...
... is a globular protein that arranges itself in a hollow cylinder to form the filament in a bacterial flagellum. It has ... which occur frequently to flagellar antigens. Flagellin has also been shown to directly interact with TLR5 on T cells. Some ... While the termini of the protein are quite similar among all bacterial flagellins, the middle portion is wildly variable. ... Flagellin is the principal component of bacterial flagellum, and is present in large amounts on nearly all flagellated bacteria ...
O antigen is exposed on the very outer surface of the bacterial cell, and, as a consequence, is a target for recognition by ... the bacterial cell and released only after destruction of the bacterial cell wall. Subsequent work showed that release of LPS ... The O antigen is attached to the core oligosaccharide, and comprises the outermost domain of the LPS molecule. The composition ... When bacterial cells are lysed by the immune system, fragments of membrane containing lipid A are released into the circulation ...
Strep throat, a bacterial infection, is the cause in about 25% of children and 10% of adults. Uncommon causes include other ... Otherwise a rapid antigen detection test (RAPD) or throat swab is recommended. Other conditions that can produce similar ... It is hard to differentiate a viral and a bacterial cause of a sore throat based on symptoms alone. Thus often a throat swab is ... In the United States they are used in 25% of people before a bacterial infection has been detected. Oral analgesic solutions, ...
Antigens are molecules found on bacterial cell walls, chemical substances secreted from bacteria, or sometimes even molecules ... B cells acquire antigen directly from the afferent lymph. If a B cell binds its cognate antigen it will be activated. Some B ... These antigen presenting cells enter the lymph system and then lymph nodes. They present the antigen to T cells and, if there ... Other B cells will internalize the antigen and present it to Follicular helper T cells on the B and T cell zone interface. If a ...
... specifically contains HPV-16-E7 antigen specific for cervical carcinoma. Women with cervical cancer are thought to be ... Note: Lovaxin C has been renamed ADXS11-001 The bacterial genus Listeria includes intracellular pathogenes able to induce a ... The vaccine is derived from bioengineered Listeria monocytogenes that have been attenuated and produce a tumor antigen. ... "A recombinant Listeria monocytogenes vaccine expressing a model tumour antigen protects mice against lethal tumour cell ...
... bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas, and necrotizing fasciitis (the 'flesh-eating' bacterial infections). However, ... They possess no Lancefield antigens. Beta hemolysis (β-hemolysis), sometimes called complete hemolysis, is a complete lysis of ... On blood agar, this appears as wide areas clear of blood cells surrounding bacterial colonies. Gamma-hemolytic species cause no ... "Bacterial Infection (Streptococcus) in Dogs". petmd.com. Retrieved 12 December 2014. "Bacteria-Firmicutes-Bacilli- ...
Marginal zone B-cell
... cross-reactivity with bacterial antigen. Arthritis & Rheumatism 52:2403-2410 (2005). Peeva, E., Venkatesh, J., and Diamond B. ... XBP1 governs late events in plasma cell differentiation and is not required for antigen-specific memory B cell development J ... 109:1625-1633 (2002). Newman, J., Rice, JS., Wang, C., Harris, SL., and Diamond, B. Identification of an antigen-specific B ... 111:275-283 (2003). Wang, C., Khalil, M., Ravetch, J., and Diamond, B. The naïve B cell repertoire predisposes to antigen- ...
Type III hypersensitivity
It involves soluble antigens that are not bound to cell surfaces (as opposed to those in type II hypersensitivity). When these ... Some clinical examples: Other examples are: Subacute bacterial endocarditis Symptoms of malaria Type I hypersensitivity Type II ... Play media Type III hypersensitivity occurs when there is an excess of antigen, leading to small immune complexes being formed ... This typifies the response to injection of foreign antigen sufficient to lead to the condition of serum sickness. ...
Antibodies are added to a bacterial solution, providing an antigen for the binding of fluorescent anti-antibody adherence. Mass ... By observing the ring formed around the disk formed due to the lack of bacterial growth, the zone of inhibition can be found, ... "Detection of antigens or antibodies by ELISA". www.virology.ws. Retrieved 2017-04-03. Grandien, M. (1996-05-01). "Viral ... "Bacterial Growth Media". EXPTEC. Rolfe, Matthew D.; Rice, Christopher J.; Lucchini, Sacha; Pin, Carmen; Thompson, Arthur; ...
In immunology, MHC tetramers can be used in tetramer assays, to quantify numbers of antigen-specific T cells (especially CD8+ T ... cells). MHC tetramers are based on recombinant class I molecules that, through the action of bacterial BirA, have been ... Antigen specific responses can be measured as CD8+, tetramer+ T cells as a fraction of all CD8+ lymphocytes. ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3 (CEACAM3) also known as CD66d (Cluster of Differentiation 66d), is a ... The encoded transmembrane protein directs phagocytosis of several bacterial species that is dependent on the small GTPase Rac. ... 1989). "Analysis of the size of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family: isolation and sequencing of N-terminal domain ... 1992). "Identification of three new genes and estimation of the size of the carcinoembryonic antigen family". Genomics. 14 (2 ...
A skin test uses an antigen generated from laboratory grown S. schenckii to challenge the patient's immune system. The antigen ... schenckii in clinical samples with minimal interference from host or bacterial sequences. Serum antibody reactivity to S. ... The specific antigen used in skin testing is not standardized with multiple studies being conducted with widely varying ... In addition, the term "sporotrichin" does not indicate a specific molecule but only any antigen derived from S. schenckii. ...
People with Crohn's often also have issues with small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome, which has similar symptoms. In the ... A novel multi-antigen virally vectored vaccine against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis". PLoS ONE. 2 (11): ... MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Small bowel bacterial overgrowth Zadik Y, Drucker S, Pallmon S (2011). "Migratory stomatitis (ectopic ... where the bacterial load is high. Another theory is that the inflammation of Crohn's was caused by an overactive Th1 and Th17 ...
If the ligand is a bacterial factor, the pathogen might be phagocytosed and digested, and its antigens presented to CD4+ T ... bacterial and viral TLR 8: single-stranded RNA, bacterial and viral, phagocytized bacterial RNA. TLR 9: CpG DNA TLR 10: unknown ... bacterial peptidoglycans TLR 3: double-stranded RNA TLR 4: lipopolysaccharides TLR 5: bacterial flagella TLR 6: bacterial ... Different TLRs can recognize different antigens as listed below. TLR 1: bacterial lipoprotein and peptidoglycans TLR 2: ...
If opportunistic bacterial infection occurs, antibiotics may be required. Id reactions left untreated may become infected with ... Potential explanations include 1. Atypical immune recognition of autologous skin antigens 2. Stimulation of normal T cells by ... Most commonly, athletes foot can lead to localised vesicles on hands, bacterial infections to erythema nodosum and herpes ... changing skin constituents 3. Lower threshold for skin irritation 4. Spreading of infectious antigens causing a secondary ...
... are attractive vaccine candidates because they constitute the most highly conserved and most exposed bacterial-surface antigens ... TI-2 antigens generally are incapable of stimulating an immune response in neonatal humans under 18 months of age. This has ... Mond JJ, Lees A, Snapper CM (1995). "T cell-independent antigens type 2". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 13: 655-92. doi:10.1146/annurev. ... Protective immunity to encapsulated bacterial pathogens such as N. meningitidis is principally mediated by the reaction between ...
Decoy receptor 3
Targeting of identified bacterial proteins that are involved in complement inhibition would neutralize the key bacterial ... Dendritic cell vaccines combine dendritic cells with antigens in order to present the antigens to the body's white blood cells ... This presents the antigen in such a way as to produce a greater action than the simple aqueous tetanus toxoid. People who have ... After the antigen is generated, it is isolated from the cells used to generate it. A virus may need to be inactivated, possibly ...
... hypersensitivity reaction to one or more antigens. The triggering antigen is usually a bacterial protein (particularly from ... Active bacterial infections may be treated with a topical antibiotic or a combination antibiotic-steroid eye drop, such as ... The causative agent (i.e. the source of the antigen that triggered the hypersensitive immune response) should also be ...
"Bacterial ClpB heat-shock protein, an antigen-mimetic of the anorexigenic peptide α-MSH, at the origin of eating disorders". ... ClpB protein was identified as a conformational antigen-mimetic of alpha-MSH. In patients with eating disorders plasma levels ... bacterial infection such as Lyme disease or parasitic infection such as Toxoplasma gondii as well as hormonal influences. While ...
The antigen O is tested with a bacterial suspension from an agar plate whereas the antigen H is tested with a bacterial ... The "O" antigen is determined by the outermost portion of the Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the "H" antigen is based on the ... The agglutination between the antigen and the antibody is made with a specific antisera, which reacts with the antigen to ... Vibrio cholerae, the species of bacteria that causes cholera, has over 200 serotypes, based on cell antigens. Only two of them ...
Bovine viral diarrhea
Antigen ELISA and rtPCR are currently the most frequently performed tests to detect virus or viral antigen. Individual testing ... In addition, bacterial infection of the damaged epithelium results in secondary septicaemia. Death occurs in the ensuing days ... Infection after approximately day 120 can result in the birth of a normal fetus which is BVD antigen-negative and BVD antibody- ... so antigen testing of the newborn is vital to rule this out. A negative antibody result, at the discretion of the responsible ...
Superantigens, bacterial adhesions, and the actions of Yops (which are bacterial proteins once thought to be "Yersinia outer ... Since FAK phosphorylation is involved in uptake of yersiniae as well as T cell and B cell responses to antigen-binding, YopH ... Numerous bacterial small non-coding RNAs have been identified to play regulatory functions. Some can regulate the virulence ... Lindler LE, Tall BD (1993). "Yersinia pestis pH 6 antigen forms fimbriae and is induced by intracellular association with ...
specifically identified bacterial DNA as the underlying component of the lysate that elicited the response. Then, in 1995 Krieg ... "Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides containing the CpG motif are effective as immune adjuvants in tumor antigen ... Bauer, S; Wagner, H (2002). "Bacterial CpG-DNA licenses TLR9". Current topics in microbiology and immunology. Current Topics in ... Since 1893, it has been recognized that Coley's toxin, a mixture of bacterial cell lysate, has immunostimulatory properties ...
... antigens and quinones. While these schemes allowed the identification and classification of bacterial strains, it was unclear ... There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. ... PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center for bacterial pathogens, funded by NIAID Bacterial Chemotaxis Interactive Simulator-A ... Bacterial cells are about one-tenth the size of eukaryotic cells and are typically 0.5-5.0 micrometres in length. However, a ...
... have cellular processes that extend into dentinal tubules and are the first to encounter the caries bacterial antigens. They ... Bacterial products may reach the pulp much earlier and begin the inflammatory response. The inflammation may be acute or ... Antigens are recognized individually and lines of lymphocytes are developed to produce specific antibodies which attach to the ... The cells are capable of sensing microbes as well as antigen capture and processing capabilities. A rapid accumulation of ...
... -antigen interactions. The antibody's paratope interacts with the antigen's epitope. An antigen usually contains ... Neutralisation, in which neutralizing antibodies block parts of the surface of a bacterial cell or virion to render its attack ... Functions mainly as an antigen receptor on B cells that have not been exposed to antigens. It has been shown to activate ... Rh factor, also known as Rh D antigen, is an antigen found on red blood cells; individuals that are Rh-positive (Rh+) have this ...
This is also mediated by the presence of few bacterial adhesion sites in the bladder and urethra. Women with these receptors ... The biosynthesis of the carbohydrate antigen sialyl Lewis X (sLe(x)) is dependent on the activity of an galactoside 3- ... Robust fucosyltransferase activity discourages bacterial adherence in the urethra of women. ... Some of the proteins in this group are responsible for the molecular basis of the blood group antigens, surface markers on the ...
2001). "Antigen-specific modulation of an immune response by in vivo administration of soluble MHC class I tetramers". J. ... which are typically produced recombinantly in eukaryotic or bacterial cells. These monomers then bind to a backbone, such as ... MHC pentamers have been used in the detection of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in flow cytometry, and are cited in over 750 ... MHC multimers allow for ex vivo selection and proliferation of T-cells specific to viral or tumor-related antigens, which can ...
5 Bacterial capsular polysaccharides. *6 Chemical identification tests for polysaccharides *6.1 Periodic acid-Schiff stain (PAS ... The enzymes that make the A-band (homopolymeric) and B-band (heteropolymeric) O-antigens have been identified and the metabolic ... Bacterial capsular polysaccharides. Pathogenic bacteria commonly produce a thick, mucous-like, layer of polysaccharide. ... Cell-surface polysaccharides play diverse roles in bacterial ecology and physiology. They serve as a barrier between the cell ...
The diversity of the structure of the flanking region is illustrated by the discovery of EF-hand-like domains in bacterial ... the entering helix is missing in protective antigen (Bacillus anthracis, 1acc) or dockerin (Clostridium thermocellum, 1daq). ... "Prediction of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins and analysis of bacterial EF-hand proteins". Proteins. 65 (3): 643-55. doi: ...
... exhibit some suppression of bacterial DNA replication by inhibiting bacterial DNA clamp. The sliding clamp in eukaryotes is ... Proliferating cell nuclear antigen from Pyrococcus furiosus". Protein Sci. 10 (1): 17-23. doi:10.1110/ps.36401. PMC 2249843 . ... The beta chain of bacterial DNA polymerase III is composed of three topologically equivalent domains (N-terminal, central, and ... called gp45 that is a trimer similar in structure to PCNA but lacks sequence homology to either PCNA or the bacterial beta ...
One mechanism by which this is done is through inducing anergy of the T-cells to antigens and SAgs. Lussow and ... SEB, a typical bacterial superantigen (PDB:3SEB). The β-grasp domain is shown in red, the β-barrel in green, the "disulfide ... This occurs because a cognate antigen activates a T cell not because of its structure per se, but because its affinity allows ... SAg stimulation of antigen presenting cells and T-cells elicits a response that is mainly inflammatory, focused on the action ...
Instead, one could cleave in a section between the bead and the antigen to elute. Since the pIII is intact it does not matter ... Phage eluted in the final step can be used to infect a suitable bacterial host, from which the phagemids can be collected and ... Those that remain can be eluted, used to produce more phage (by bacterial infection with helper phage) and so produce a phage ... Following further bacterial-based amplification, the DNA within in the interacting phage is sequenced to identify the ...
... that Löfkvist and Sjöquist corrected the error and confirmed that Antigen A was in fact a surface protein on the bacterial wall ... In addition to protein A, other immunoglobulin-binding bacterial proteins such as Protein G, Protein A/G and Protein L are all ... Protein A has been shown to promote the formation of biofilms both when the protein is covalently linked to the bacterial cell ... The Bergen group from Norway named the protein "Protein A" after the antigen fraction isolated by Jensen. It has been shown via ...
CD antigens". Immunobiology (5 ed.). New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8153-3642-X. Yeap, Wei Hseun; Wong, Kok Loon; Shimasaki, Noriko ... as could be caused by a left shift due to neutrophilic leukocytosis induced by tissue necrosis or bacterial infection. ... CD16 Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
... is a bacterial genus belonging to the family Chlamydiaceae, order Chlamydiales, class/phylum Chlamydiae. ... Supporting criteria such as antigen detection, glycogen staining, host association, and EM morphology are also employed, ... The systematic taxonomy established for Chlamydiae in 1999 uses up-to-date, prevailing criteria for bacterial classification, ...
Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1
Alternatively, apoptotic cells may secrete antigens, including eEF1A and other elongation factors, to induce an autoimmune ... combined with altered levels of eEF1A-derived bacterial peptides in neoplastic disease, may lead to autoimmunity in breast ... though that of the eEF1A2 gene contains an additional 81 bp SV40 small antigen sequence at the 5′-end. The EEF1A1 5' UTR also ...
Hepatitis B vaccine
... and placing it in a bacterial plasmid. The bacteria then infect a plant, which will produce the surface antigens. When a human ... Blumberg had identified Australia antigen, an important first step. But all of the other steps-the ones critical to making a ... Blumberg B, Alter H (1965). "A "new" antigen in leukemia sera". JAMA. 191: 101-106. doi:10.1001/jama.1965.03080070025007. PMID ... hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). It is now produced by yeast cells, into which the genetic code for HBsAg has been inserted ...
It also displays a potent ability to suppress the antigen-presentation capacity of antigen presenting cells; however, it is ... These data suggest that while IL-10 can exert immunosuppressive effects in context of bacterial product stimulated myeloid ... and viral IL-10 strongly reduce antigen-specific human T cell proliferation by diminishing the antigen-presenting capacity of ... It downregulates the expression of Th1 cytokines, MHC class II antigens, and co-stimulatory molecules on macrophages. It also ...
Lyme disease microbiology
While each individual bacterial cell contains just one copy of the ospC gene, the gene sequence of ospC among different strains ... B. burgdorferi sensu stricto antigens in patients have been identified in Colombia and in Bolivia. In Northern Africa, B. ... The bacterial membranes in at least the B31, NL303 and N40 strains of B. burgdorferi do not contain lipopolysaccharide, which ... It is a two-strain, multiantigen vaccine which induces an antibody response to bacterial proteins OspA and OspC. Samuels DS, ...
Laura L. Kiessling
Found that the bacterial chemoreceptors work together like a nose to sense and respond to compounds in their environment. ... Courtney, H.; Puffer, E. B.; Pontrello, J. K.; Wang, Z.-Q.; Kiessling, L. L. (2009). "Sialylated Multivalent Antigens Engage ... Gestwicki, J. E.; Kiessling, L. L. (2002). "Inter-Receptor Communication through Arrays of Bacterial Chemoreceptors". Nature. ...
T7 grows on rough strains of E. coli (i.e. those without full-length O-antigen polysaccharide on their surface) and some other ... Bacteriophage T7 (or the T7 phage) is a bacteriophage, a virus that infects susceptible bacterial cells, that is composed of ... In some strains of T7 the tail fibers are replaced with tailspikes with enzymatic activity that degrades the O- or K-antigens ... The adsorbtion and penetration process use such lysozymes to create an opening within the peptidoglycan layer of the bacterial ...
The bacterial proteins are denatured in low pH and become more accessible to the proteases, which are unaffected by the acidic ... Peptides from the bacteria are trafficked to the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). The peptide antigens are presented to ... They need to retain protein fragments of a suitable size for specific bacterial recognition, so the peptides are only partially ... Savina, Ariel; Amigorena, Sebastian (October 2007). "Phagocytosis and antigen presentation in dendritic cells". Immunological ...
... different V domains bind different antigens, i.e., binding of antigen by immunoglobulin is antigen specific. Inasmuch as the V ... Immunoglobulins are produced by vertebrate animals as part of the normal immune response to microbial, e.g., bacterial or viral ... For example, the IgM antibodies that bind to the red blood cell A and B antigens might be formed in early life as a result of ... IgM is the largest antibody, and it is the first antibody to appear in the response to initial exposure to an antigen. In the ...
B. mallei has bacterial protein-dependent, actin-based motility once inside the cell. It is also able to initiate host cell ... The early cellular response to B. mallei infection involves Gr-1+ (antigen) cells, and implies their importance to immunity ... "The Early Stage of Bacterial Genome-Reductive Evolution in the Host". PLoS Pathogens. 6 (5): e1000922. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat ... The German biological sabotage eventually spread to Argentina, where agents would rely on bacterial cultures from Spain to ...
Antigen presentationEdit. Immature dendritic cells (DCs) can phagocytose, but mature DCs cannot due to changes in Rho GTPases ... Bacterial evasion and manipulationEdit. Many bacteria have evolved to evade the bactericidal properties of phagosomes or even ... The bacterial proteins are denatured in low pH and become more accessible to the proteases, which are unaffected by the acidic ... They need to retain protein fragments of a suitable size for specific bacterial recognition, so the peptides are only partially ...
... is used with seven antigens of bacterial or fungal origin (tetanus toxoid, tuberculin, diphtheria, streptococcus, candida, ... Thus when an antigen is properly presented to the T lymphocytes by an antigen presenting cell (APC), which displays the antigen ... However, when T cells interacts with an antigen not presented by the APCs, that is very probably not the antigen that an immune ... usually a self-antigen. Lymphocytes are said to be anergic when they fail to respond to their specific antigen. Anergy is one ...
Skerman, V.B.D.M.; Sneath, P.H.A. (1980). "Approved list of bacterial names". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 30: 225-420. doi:10.1099/ ... Lancefield group C and G carbohydrate antigens are predominantly expressed, but group A and L have been documented. However, ... In 1980, they were even removed from the List of Approved Bacterial species. Three years later, though, DNA hybridization ... S. dysgalactiae has been particularly linked to mastitis occurring during the summer time ("Summer mastitis"), and bacterial ...
T细胞 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. Proceedings of the National ... Mucosal-associated invariant T-cells: new players in anti-bacterial immunity. Frontiers in Immunology. 2014-10-08, 5: 450. PMC ... An induced rebinding model of antigen discrimination. Trends Immunol. 2014, 35 (4): 153-8. PMC 3989030. PMID 24636916. doi: ... Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ...
"First Antigen Rapid Test for Ebola through Emergency Assessment and Eligible for Procurement". World Health Organization (WHO ... balance as well as treating any bacterial infections that may develop. Dialysis may be needed for kidney failure, and ... a rapid antigen test which gives results in 15 minutes was approved for use by WHO. It is able to confirm Ebola in 92% of ...
Evolution of biological complexity
Pays, E. (2005). "Regulation of antigen gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei". Trends Parasitol. 21 (11): 517-20. doi:10.1016/ ... "Being Pathogenic, Plastic, and Sexual while Living with a Nearly Minimal Bacterial Genome". PLoS Genet. 3 (5): e75. doi ... has evolved so many copies of its major surface antigen that about 10% of its genome is devoted to different versions of this ...
Artificial induction of immunity
Some diseases, such as tetanus, cause disease not by bacterial growth but by bacterial production of a toxin. Tetanus toxin is ... is to conjugate the antigens. Conjugation is the attachment to the antigen of another substance which also generates an immune ... A more contemporary approach for "boosting" the immune response to simpler immunogenic molecules (known as antigens) ... In the future it might be possible to artificially design antibodies to fit specific antigens, then produce them in large ...
White blood cell
These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing the dilation of ... They defend against bacterial or fungal infection. They are usually first responders to microbial infection; their activity and ...
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
ஏபிஓ குருதி குழு முறைமை - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
Dean L (2005). "Chapter 5: The ABO blood group.". Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. பார்த்த நாள் 2007-03-24. ... "Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells". Nat Biotechnol 25 (4): 454-64. doi:10.1038/nbt1298 ... "Portuguese Blood Institute" (Portuguese). (assuming Rh and AB antigens are independent) *↑ "Frequency of ABO blood groups in ... Laura Dean, MD (2005). Blood Groups an Red Cell Antigens. National Center for Biotechnology Information, United States ...
Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... Some prokaryotes, including many archaea and the bacterial order Actinomycetales, also share homologs of the 20S proteasome, ... Zhang M, Coffino P (March 2004). "Repeat sequence of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 protein interrupts proteasome ... helping the virus propagate by preventing antigen presentation on the major histocompatibility complex. ...
Innate immune system
Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... When host cells die, either by programmed cell death (also called apoptosis) or by cell injury due to a bacterial or viral ... Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ... Gómez-Gómez L, Boller T (June 2000). "FLS2: an LRR receptor-like kinase involved in the perception of the bacterial elicitor ...
... or because of viral or intracellular bacterial infection. The fragments are then presented on the cell surface in the complex ... Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... Tumor antigens. Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen (usually a protein or ... In 1995 a team at The Institute for Genomic Research sequenced the first bacterial genome; Haemophilus influenzae. A few ... For bacterial identification, the use of metabolic or enzymatic characteristics are common due to their ability to ferment ... Bacterial infections are treated with antibacterials (often called antibiotics) whereas fungal and viral infections are treated ...
Bleeding from the ears and petechial hemorrhages in the skin also occurred." The majority of deaths were from bacterial ... The resulting rapid change in viral genetics produces antigenic shifts, which are sudden changes from one antigen to another. ... Occasionally, influenza can cause severe illness including primary viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia. ... If a human influenza virus is produced that has entirely new antigens, everybody will be susceptible, and the novel influenza ...
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
Type IV hypersensitivity
Schwann cell antigen. Neuritis, paralysis. Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroglobulin antigen. Hypothyroidism, hard goiter, ... Target antigen. Effects. Allergic contact dermatitis. Environmental chemicals, like urushiol (from poison ivy and poison oak ... Myelin antigens (e.g., myelin basic protein). Myelin destruction, inflammation. Rheumatoid arthritis. Possibly collagen and/ ... CD4+ Th1 helper T cells recognize antigen in a complex with the MHC class II major histocompatibility complex on the surface of ...
Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... but may be also effective in bacterial infections. Epidemiological research shows that IgE level is increased when infected by ... FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used ...
Similar systems exist in other bacterial genera.. Medicine. Epigenetics has many and varied potential medical ... has a 10-40-fold preference for hemimethylated DNA and interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). ... sRNATarBase 2.0 A comprehensive database of bacterial SRNA targets verified by experiments ... "Epigenetic gene regulation in the bacterial world". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 70 (3): 830-56. PMC 1594586 . PMID 16959970 ...
Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ... "Green fluorescent protein as a reporter for macromolecular localization in bacterial cells". Methods. 20 (1): 62-72. doi ... Ribbon diagram of a mouse antibody against cholera that binds a carbohydrate antigen ...
... molecular cages for antigen, components of bacterial cell walls, and endocytosed nucleic acids such as double-stranded RNA ( ... Second, adjuvants may provide physical protection to antigens which grants the antigen a prolonged delivery. This means that ... or enhance antigen-specific immune responses when used in combination with specific vaccine antigens." ... In immunology, an adjuvant is a substance that potentiates and/or modulates the immune responses to an antigen to improve them. ...
Consequently, alternative approaches to detect antigen-antibody reactions are being explored, such as immuno-PCR. A rapid ... and negative bacterial cultures. Presence of a significantly decreased glucose on CSF analysis is an indicator of severe ... Chye SM, Lin SR, Chen YL, Chung LY, Yen CM (January 2004). "Immuno-PCR for detection of antigen to Angiostrongylus cantonensis ... Current methods of detecting specific antigens associated with A. cantonensis are also unreliable. ...
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity
... bacterial) proteins, lysozyme to break down bacterial cell walls, and myeloperoxidase (used to generate toxic bacteria-killing ... they are professional antigen-presenting cells, they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g., CD4+ T cell, dendritic cell, B ... Ernst J. D. and Stendahl O., (editors), Phagocytosis of Bacteria and Bacterial Pathogenicity, Cambridge University Press, 2006 ... "Neutrophil primary granule proteins HBP and HNP1-3 boost bacterial phagocytosis by human and murine macrophages". Journal of ...
Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and ... such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen- ... Using these ligands is possible routing antigen-presenting cells (APC) to lymph nodes during the adaptive immune response. ... The association of chemokine production with antigen-induced proliferative responses, more favorable clinical status in HIV ...
... any antibody produced against this antigen (which mimics the self-antigens) can also, in theory, bind to the host antigens, and ... Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) patients also present with eczema, autoimmune manifestations, recurrent bacterial infections and ... Molecular Mimicry - An exogenous antigen may share structural similarities with certain host antigens; thus, ... T-Cell-B-Cell discordance - A normal immune response is assumed to involve B and T cell responses to the same antigen, even if ...
ಅಲರ್ಜಿ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
... of a bacterial cell to its exterior. Secretion is a very important mechanism in bacterial functioning and operation in their ... One such mechanism to detect low calcium concentration has been illustrated by the lcrV (Low Calcium Response) antigen utilized ... 2009). Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms and Role in Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-42 ... Salyers, A. A. & Whitt, D. D. (2002). Bacterial Pathogenesis: A Molecular Approach, 2nd ed., Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. ISBN ...
Secondary bacterial infection of the skin is a relatively uncommon complication of smallpox. When this occurs, the fever ... which measured Variola virus-specific immunoglobulin and antigen were also developed to assist in the diagnosis of infection.[ ... Respiratory complications tend to develop on about the eighth day of the illness and can be either viral or bacterial in origin ...
The antibody will be targeted at a preferentially expressed protein in the tumour cells (known as a tumor antigen) or on cells ... "Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients following chemotherapy". The Cochrane ... They bind to the tumor antigen and are internalised, where the linker releases the drug into the cell. These specially targeted ...
Loa loa filariasis
Antigen detection using an immunoassay for circulating filarial antigens constitutes a useful diagnostic approach, because ... Drawbacks to using Doxycycline include bacterial resistance and patient compliance because of a longer treatment regimen and ... In the past, health care providers use a provocative injection of Dirofilaria immitis as a skin test antigen for filariasis ...
Historically it was one of the first bacterial markers used for diagnosis and follow up of rheumatic fever or scarlet fever. ... When the body is infected with streptococci, it produces antibodies against the various antigens that the streptococci produce ... These antibodies produced against the bacteria cross-react with human antigens (mainly collagen) and hence attack the cellular ...
ಟೆಂಪ್ಲೇಟು:Central nervous system navs - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
Bacterial or viral. As bacterial and viral infections can both cause the same kinds of symptoms, it can be difficult to ... These tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen, usually a protein or ... Comparison of viral and bacterial infection Characteristic Viral infection Bacterial infection Typical symptoms In general, ... Bacterial throat pain is often characterized by more pain on one side of the throat. An ear infection is more likely to be ...
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, a enciclopedia libre
"En Ladant, Daniel; Alouf, Joseph E.; Popoff, Michel R. The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins. Academic Press ... Lindler LE, Tall BD (1993). "Yersinia pestis pH 6 antigen forms fimbriae and is induced by intracellular association with ... "Identification of murine T cells reactive with the bacterial superantigen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen (YPM) and ... "Bacterial resistance to complement killing mediated by the Ail protein of Yersinia enterocolitica". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S ...
HLA-DQ is part of the MHC class II antigen-presenting receptor (also called the human leukocyte antigen) system and ... It is suspected that some of them may have been beneficial by providing protection against bacterial infections. ... Modern anti-tTG assays rely on a human recombinant protein as an antigen. tTG testing should be done first as it is an ... Tissue Antigens. 47 (2): 127-33. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1996.tb02525.x. PMID 8851726.. ...
Antigen mixtures. Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans hsp60, as peptide transporter and adjuvant for antigen presentation. ... detection of diacyl bacterial lipopeptide. • regulation of cytokine secretion. • cellular response to diacyl bacterial ... cellular response to triacyl bacterial lipopeptide. • detection of triacyl bacterial lipopeptide. • positive regulation of Wnt ... response to bacterial lipoprotein. • negative regulation of cell proliferation. • response to toxic substance. • response to ...
Pavkov-Keller T, Howorka S, Keller W (2011). The structure of bacterial S-layer proteins. Prog. Molec. Biol. Transl. Sci. ... antibodies or antigens) allowed to investigate completely new strategies for functionalizing surfaces in the life sciences, ... Sleytr UB, Messner P, Pum D, Sára M (1988). Crystalline Bacterial Cell Surface Layers. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-19082-0 ... Sleytr U, Messner P, Pum D, Sára M (1993). "Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers". Mol. Microbiol. 10 (5): 911-6. doi: ...
... which classifies it as a universal surface component of a bacterial cell, found just outside the bacterial cell wall. A ... since that would enable passage of some macromolecules or other harmful antigens. ... Bacterial Glycocalyx in Nature and Disease. Annual Reviews Microbiology, 1981. Vol. 35: p. 299-324 ...
Escherichia coli O157:H7
antigen processing and presentation. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP- ... If the immune system recognizes the peptides as foreign (such as viral or bacterial peptides), it responds by destroying the ... antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • regulation of dendritic cell differentiation. • ... antigen processing and presentation of endogenous peptide antigen via MHC class Ib. • innate immune response. • defense ...
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common sources of infectious enteritis, and the most common bacterial pathogen found in ... due to the constant exposure which people have with the antigen in the environment, leading to early development of antibodies. ... Studies have shown the efficacy of antibiotics in reducing the duration of the symptoms of infectious enteritis of bacterial ...
ATP-binding cassette transporter
In bacterial efflux systems, certain substances that need to be extruded from the cell include surface components of the ... Gaudet R, Wiley DC (Sep 2001). "Structure of the ABC ATPase domain of human TAP1, the transporter associated with antigen ... Bacterial drug resistance has become an increasingly major health problem. One of the mechanisms for drug resistance is ... Bacterial ABC transporters are essential in cell viability, virulence, and pathogenicity. Iron ABC uptake systems, for example ...
In addition to some of these AB5 toxins being used to create vaccines to prevent bacterial infection, they are also being ... and Th17 Responses to Vaccine Antigens". Infection and Immunity. 80 (7): 2426-2435. doi:10.1128/IAI.00181-12. PMC 3416479 . ... Bacterial AB5 Toxins Held, Paul. "An Introduction to Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Technology and its ... This can further help us understand the signaling cascade that follows a cellular loss of K+ when exposed to bacterial ...
Limfocyty T regulatorowe, wolna encyklopedia
Antigen-specific peripheral shaping of the natural regulatory T cell population. „J Exp Med". 205 (13), s. 3105-3117, grudzień ... Adoptive transfer of in vitro-stimulated CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells increases bacterial clearance and improves survival in ... De novo production of antigen-specific suppressor cells in vivo. „Nat Protoc". 1 (2), s. 653-661, 2006. PMID: 17802642. ... Regulation of the immune response to tumor antigens. X. Activation of third-order suppressor T cells that abrogate anti-tumor ...
F-ATPases (F1FO-ATPases) in mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacterial plasma membranes are the prime producers of ATP, using the ... Tjian R (1981). "Regulation of viral transcription and DNA replication by the SV40 large T antigen". Current Topics in ... ATPases (EC 188.8.131.52, adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphatase, SV40 T-antigen, adenosine 5'-triphosphatase, ...
Tumor antigens have been divided into two categories: shared tumor antigens; and unique tumor antigens. Shared antigens are ... Other cancers are to some extent caused by bacterial infections (e.g. stomach cancer and Helicobacter pylori). Traditional ... Escape loss variants (that target a single tumor antigen are likely to be less effective. Tumors are heterogeneous and antigen ... as sometimes an immune response to a single antigen can lead to immunity against other antigens on the same tumor. ...
Health effects of tobacco
Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Team". The New England Journal of Medicine. 342 (10): 681-9. doi:10.1056/NEJM200003093421002 ... Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a marker found in several forms of cancer. Levels in exclusive hookah smokers were lower ... "Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers". Harm Reduction Journal. 5 ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... Research Center showed in rhesus macaques that Mycobacterium tuberculosis could work through LAG3 to modulate an anti-bacterial ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ...
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Erythrocyte antigen status. Types (classified by serology). Types of HDN are classified by the type of antigens involved ... Antibodies to the other Kell antigens are rare.. Prevention. In cases of Rho(D) incompatibility, Rho(D) ... Antibodies are produced when the body is exposed to an antigen foreign to the make-up of the body. If a mother is exposed to a ... HDFN can also be caused by antibodies to a variety of other blood group system antigens, but Kell and Rh are the most ...
Bacterial plasmids are typically short sequences, consisting of 1 kilobase (kb) to a few hundred kb segments, and contain an ... Plasmid DNA vaccines are genetically engineered to contain a gene which encodes for an antigen or a protein produced by a ... Circular bacterial plasmids are classified according to the special functions that the genes encoded on the plasmid provide. ... Bacterial plasmids can also function in pigment production, nitrogen fixation and the resistance to heavy metals in those ...
Unlike virtually all other mammals, humans and other primates do not make αGal, and in fact recognize it as an antigen. ... An animal's exposure to the antigens of a different member of the same or similar species is allostimulation, and the tissue is ... In the living donor, such presentation of self antigens helped maintain self tolerance.) Thereupon, the T cell receptors (TCRs ... Developed through an earlier primary exposure that primed specific immunity to the nonself antigen, a transplant recipient can ...
Systemic lupus erythematosus
In close proximity to TBM, follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are localised in GC, which attach antigen material to their surface ... Antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing and anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA) form the mainstay of serologic testing for ... That leads to maturation of DCs and also to the presentation of intracellular antigens of late apoptotic or secondary necrotic ... When apoptotic material is not removed correctly by phagocytes, they are captured instead by antigen-presenting cells, which ...
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
ORF73 - LANA, latency-associated nuclear antigen- tethers genome to chromosome during latency, also regulates host gene ... Bacterial. *Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi). *Chlamydia/Lymphogranuloma venereum (Chlamydia trachomatis). *Donovanosis or ... state expressing the viral latency-associated nuclear antigen, LANA. Crucial for the Entry of the KSHV  is the EPH receptor ...
Human leukocyte antigen
The image off to the side shows a piece of a poisonous bacterial protein (SEI peptide) bound within the binding cleft portion ... HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (DP, DM, DOA, DOB, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell to T-lymphocytes. ... List of human leukocyte antigen alleles associated with cutaneous conditions. References. *^ Galbraith W, Wagner MC, Chao ... which in turn stimulate antibody-producing B-cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. Self-antigens are suppressed ...
"Bacterial protein mimics DNA to sabotage cells' defenses: Study reveals details of Salmonella infections".. ... The serotype or serovar, is a classification of Salmonella into subspecies based on antigens that the organism presents. It is ... Serotyping is done by mixing cells with antibodies for a particular antigen. It can give some idea about risk. A 2014 study ... The T3SS-1 enables the injection of bacterial effectors within the host cytosol. These T3SS-1 effectors stimulate the formation ...
... have cellular processes that extend into dentinal tubules and are the first to encounter the caries bacterial antigens. They ... Bacterial products may reach the pulp much earlier and begin the inflammatory response. The inflammation may be acute or ... Antigens are recognized individually and lines of lymphocytes are developed to produce specific antibodies which attach to the ... Inflammation is commonly associated with a bacterial infection but can also be due to other insults such as repetitive trauma ...
Natural killer cell
Infusions of T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor that recognizes an antigen molecule on leukemia cells ... They bind viral ligands such as hemagglutinins and hemagglutinin neuraminidases, some bacterial ligands and cellular ligands ... which subsequently enables antigen-specific T and B cell responses. Instead of acting via antigen-specific receptors, lysis of ... In contrast to NKT cells, NK cells do not express T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) or pan T marker CD3 or surface immunoglobulins ...
... either by an autoimmune response involving cross-reactivity of bacterial antigens with joint tissues or by bacterial antigens ... See also: List of human leukocyte antigen alleles associated with cutaneous conditions ... "Analysis of bacterial DNA in synovial tissue of Tunisian patients with reactive and undifferentiated arthritis by broad-range ...
Streptococcus pyogenes bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
"Group A Streptococcus produce pilus-like structures containing protective antigens and Lancefield T antigens". Proc Natl Acad ... "Effect of a bacterial pheromone peptide on host chemokine degradation in group A streptococcal necrotising soft-tissue ... Streptococcus pyogenes menampakkan antigen grup A di dinding selnya dan beta-hemolisis saat dikultur di plat agar darah. ... 4 dari 20 antigen T telah diketahui bersifat pilus, yang digunakan bakteri untuk berikatan dengan sel inangnya. Sekarang, ...
For example, proteins on the surface of certain bacterial cells aid in their gliding motion. Many gram-negative bacteria ... As such, a large variety of protein receptors and identification proteins, such as antigens, are present on the surface of the ... Alexander, C.; Rietschel, E. T. (2001). "Bacterial lipopolysaccharides and innate immunity". Journal of Endotoxin Research. 7 ( ... Bacterial cells provide numerous examples of the diverse ways in which prokaryotic cell membranes are adapted with structures ...
Gram-negative bacterial infection
... and certain gram-positive bacteria share a similar protein antigen". J. Bacteriol. 173 (7): 2398-400. PMC 207793 . PMID 2007558 ... Gram-negative bacterial infection refers to a disease caused by gram-negative bacteria. One example is E. coli. It is important ... "Introduction: Bacterial Infections: Merck Manual Home Edition". Mycoplasma at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Cook RL, Reid G, Pond DG, Schmitt CA, Sobel JD (September 1989). "Clue cells in bacterial vaginosis: immunofluorescent ...
"Bacterial Infection (Streptococcus) in Dogs". petmd.com. Retrieved 12 December 2014.. *^ "Bacteria-Firmicutes-Bacilli- ... They possess no Lancefield antigens.. Beta-hemolyticEdit. Beta hemolysis (β-hemolysis), sometimes called complete hemolysis ... bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas, and necrotizing fasciitis (the 'flesh-eating' bacterial infections). However, ... S. pneumoniae (sometimes called pneumococcus), is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia and occasional etiology of otitis ...
Sistem imun bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
... oleh pengenal antigen. Respons imun adaptif bersifat spesifik terhadap antigen tertentu dan membutuhkan pengenalan antigen ... Finlay B, McFadden G (2006). "Anti-immunology: evasion of the host immune system by bacterial and viral pathogens". Cell. 124 ( ... Oleh sistem imun, antigen tersebut dianggap sebagai antigen asing dan keberadaannya mendorong sel imun untuk menyerang sel ... Sel T pembantu mengekspresikan reseptor sel T yang mengenali antigen terikat pada molekul MHC kelas II. MHC:antigen juga ...
Diabetes mellitus type 1
... which is when mutations accumulate in the portion of the viral genome that encodes for the virus's surface antigen, typically a ... "The Spread of Bacterial Infection. The Problem of Herd-Immunity". The Journal of Hygiene (London). 21 (3): 243-249. doi ... which have more surface antigens, or proteins present in multiple serotypes. ...
O. volvulus can be detected by the immune system through the release of soluble antigens and antigens found on the surface of ... "Onchocerciasis: the Role of Wolbachia Bacterial Endosymbionts in Parasite Biology, Disease Pathogenesis, and Treatment" ... The antigens of O. volvulus are highly complex and show cross-reactivity with several other filarial worms. Little evidence ... These antigens allow the immune system to detect the presence of a foreign organism in the body and trigger an immune response ...
Antibody-antigen reactionEdit. Now these antibodies will encounter antigens and bind with them. This will either interfere with ... Bacterial agglutinins and precipitins. Serum substances that agglutinate bacteria. and precipitate bacterial toxins. von Gruber ... When a B cell encounters an antigen, it is bound to the receptor and taken inside by endocytosis. The antigen is processed and ... Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target. By binding their specific antigens, antibodies can cause ...
T helper cell
For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a ... All of these complications result in an increased susceptibility to aggressive bacterial infections, especially in areas of the ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ... but unprocessed antigens do not interact with T cells and are not involved in their activation. The antigens that bind to MHC ...
Antigens are molecules found on bacterial cell walls, chemical substances secreted from bacteria, or sometimes even molecules ... B cells acquire antigen directly from the afferent lymph. If a B cell binds its cognate antigen it will be activated. Some B ... These are taken up by cells throughout the body called antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells. These antigen ... They present the antigen to T cells and, if there is a T cell with the appropriate T cell receptor, it will be activated. ...
មូស - វិគីភីឌា
Tularemia, a bacterial disease caused by Francisella tularensis, is variously transmitted, including by biting flies. Culex and ... Visible, irritating bites are due to an immune response from the binding of IgG and IgE antibodies to antigens in the ... "Mast cell-dependent down-regulation of antigen-specific immune responses by mosquito bites"។ Journal of Immunology 176 (7): ... Mosquito saliva also contains enzymes that aid in sugar feeding and antimicrobial agents to control bacterial growth in the ...
ന്യുമോണിയ - വിക്കിപീഡിയ
Viral · Bacterial (Pneumococcal, Klebsiella) / Atypical bacterial (Mycoplasma, Legionnaires' disease, Chlamydiae) · Fungal ( ... വൈറസുകളുടെ കോശസ്തരത്തിൽ നിന്ന് പൊഴിയുന്ന പ്രതിജനകങ്ങളെ (antigen) രോഗിയുടെ രക്തത്തിൽ അളന്നെടുക്കുന്നതാണ് മറ്റൊരു രീതി. വൈറസുകൾ ... Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Team. N Engl J Med. 2000 Mar 9;342(10):681-9. Comment In: N Engl J Med. 2000 Mar 9;342(10): ... 33.0 33.1 33.2 Kamangar N, Rager C.Pneumonia, Bacterial.Emedicine Review Article.Web MD. Updated: Nov 1, 2010 ...
Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... "Mucosal-associated invariant T-cells: new players in anti-bacterial immunity". Frontiers in Immunology. 5: 450. doi:10.3389/ ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help. Antigen ... Antigen discriminationEdit. A unique feature of T cells is their ability to discriminate between healthy and abnormal (e.g. ...
குருதி வகை - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
Stayboldt C, Rearden A, Lane T (1987). "B antigen acquired by normal A1 red cells exposed to a patient's serum". Transfusion 27 ... "Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells". Nat Biotechnol 25 (4): 454. doi:10.1038/nbt1298. ... Laura Dean, MD (2005). Blood Groups an Red Cell Antigens. National Center for Biotechnology Information, United States ... "there are more than 600 known antigens besides A and B that characterize the proteins found on a person's red cells" ...
... antigens. There are five (HNA 1-5) sets of neutrophil antigens recognized. The three HNA-1 antigens (a-c) ... During the beginning (acute) phase of inflammation, particularly as a result of bacterial infection, environmental exposure, ... The HNA-3 antigen system has two antigens (3a and 3b) which are located on the seventh exon of the CLT2 gene (SLC44A2). The HNA ... and HNA-5 antigen systems each have two known antigens (a and b) and are located in the β2 integrin. HNA-4 is located on the αM ...
Identification of circulating bacterial antigens by in vivo microbial antigen discovery. | Sigma-Aldrich
Bacterial antigens that are reactive with the InMAD immune serum are precisely the antigens to target in an antigen immunoassay ... Identification of circulating bacterial antigens by in vivo microbial antigen discovery.. [Dana E Nuti, Reva B Crump, Farida ... The InMAD immune serum is then used to probe blots of bacterial lysates or bacterial proteome arrays. ... that we used to identify circulating bacterial antigens. This technique starts with "InMAD serum," which is filtered serum that ...
Antigens, Bacterial | Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Comparison of Bacterial Antigen Test and Gram Stain for Detecting Classic Meningitis Bacteria in Cerebrospinal Fluid Tess Karre ... Multiplex Urinary Antigen Detection for 13 Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes Improves Diagnosis of Pneumococcal Pneumonia in ... for Detection of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 Antigen in Urine Paul Badoux, Sjoerd M. Euser, Jacob P. Bruin, Patrick P. G ...
BACTERIAL ANTIGEN DETECTION
Home : For health professionals : Refer a patient : Laboratory Services : Test Table : BACTERIAL ANTIGEN DETECTION ... Haemophilus influenzae type B Antigen Detection, LA; Neisseria meningitidis Antigen Detection (Groups A/Y and C/W 135), LA; ... Neisseria meningitidis Detection (Group B/E. coli K1), LA; Streptococcus, Group B, Antigen Detection, LA; Streptococcus ...
JCI - Bacterial flagellin is a dominant antigen in Crohn disease
Using an unbiased molecular screen to search for bacterial antigens relevant to IBD, the dominant antigens identified were a ... the 38-kDa antigen of M. tuberculosis (p38 antigen; 38 kDa: filled triangles); lysate of E. coli antigens (E. coli; open ... Bacterial flagellin is a dominant antigen in Crohn disease. Michael J. Lodes,1 Yingzi Cong,2 Charles O. Elson,2 Raodoh Mohamath ... Enteric bacterial antigen-reactive CD4+ T cells are able to induce colitis when adoptively transferred into immunodeficient ...
JCI - Bacterial flagellin is a dominant antigen in Crohn disease
The dominant antigens identified were flagellins, molecules known to activate innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), ... Here we used serological expression cloning to identify commensal bacterial proteins that could contribute to the pathogenesis ... These results identify flagellins as a class of immunodominant antigens that stimulate pathogenic intestinal immune reactions ... in genetically diverse hosts and suggest new avenues for the diagnosis and antigen-directed therapy of patients with IBD. ...
Mucosal delivery of antigens using adsorption to bacterial spores
... The broad spectrum of immune responses elicited coupled with ... Of these, the use of genetically engineered bacterial spores has been shown to offer promise as both a mucosal as well as a ... The spore appears to present a bound antigen in its native conformation promoting a cellular (T(h)1-biased) response coupled ... by enhancing responses against soluble antigens. The broad spectrum of immune responses elicited coupled with the attendant ...
Pathogenesis of spondylarthropathies. Persistent bacterial antigen, autoimmunity, or both?
Persistent bacterial antigen, autoimmunity, or both? Arthritis Rheum. 1995 Nov;38(11):1547-54. doi: 10.1002/art.1780381105. ... Although a T cell response driven by persisting bacterial antigen is still an attractive hypothesis, it does not explain all ... The possibility of autoimmunity triggered by bacterial infection needs also to be considered, especially the new idea of HLA- ...
Duodenal bacterial proteolytic activity determines sensitivity to dietary antigen through protease-activated receptor-2 |...
Duodenal bacterial proteolytic activity determines sensitivity to dietary antigen through protease-activated receptor-2. * ... Image-Pro 6.3 software was used to score bacterial encroachment in the epithelium by counting bacterial signal in contact with ... aeruginosa bacterial load in the small intestine of clean SPF C57BL/6 colonized with P. aeruginosa PA14 WT or lasB mutant with ... Small intestinal bacterial load was similar in P. aeruginosa PA14 WT and lasB mutant colonized mice, with an increase of P. ...
Meningococcal Vaccine Antigens expressed by 91 Percent of Tested Bacterial Strains
... a common type of invasive serogroup B meningococcal disease in children and young adults express at least one of the antigens ... Meningococcal Vaccine Antigens Expressed by 91 Percent of Tested Bacterial Strains. Nov. 22, 2017. Wednesday, Nov. 22, 2017 ... The MATS test showed that 91 percent of these US bacterial strains express antigens similar to those contained in the MenB-4C ... We are confident the MATS technique will be very useful at detecting any changes in bacterial expression of these antigens." ...
NOD2 stimulation induces autophagy in dendritic cells influencing bacterial handling and antigen presentation. - PubMed - NCBI
NOD2 stimulation induces autophagy in dendritic cells influencing bacterial handling and antigen presentation.. Cooney R1, ... bacterial trafficking and antigen presentation. Our findings link two Crohns disease-associated susceptibility genes in a ... but it is not clear how bacterial recognition links with antigen presentation after NOD2 stimulation. NOD2 variants are ... Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing-2 (NOD2) acts as a bacterial sensor in dendritic cells (DCs), ...
The antigen 43 structure reveals a molecular Velcro-like mechanism of autotransporter-mediated bacterial clumping | PNAS
The antigen 43 structure reveals a molecular Velcro-like mechanism of autotransporter-mediated bacterial clumping. Begoña Heras ... The antigen 43 structure reveals a molecular Velcro-like mechanism of autotransporter-mediated bacterial clumping ... Autotransporter-mediated bacterial clumping. Begoña Heras, Makrina Totsika, Kate M. Peters, Jason J. Paxman, Christine L. Gee, ... Autotransporter-mediated bacterial clumping. Begoña Heras, Makrina Totsika, Kate M. Peters, Jason J. Paxman, Christine L. Gee, ...
BACTERIAL ANTIGEN-CODING REGION IMMUNIZES MICE; HIV UP NEXT | BioWorld
BioWorld Online is the news service of record for the biotechnology industry and is updated every business morning. BioWorld Online will keep you up to date on all of the industrys business, science and regulatory news -- mergers and collaborations, FDA hearings and results, breakthroughs in research and much more.
Bacterial antigens in synovial biopsy specimens in yersinia triggered reactive arthritis. | Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Non-viable structures of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 were shown at the site of inflammation within mononuclear cells in the synovial membrane of eight out of 10 patients with yersinia triggered reactive arthritis. An avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method, with a rabbit antiserum specific for Y enterocolitica O:3, was used to visualise yersinia structures. All 13 control samples were negative except for one with non-specific mast cell staining. The findings emphasise the significance of foreign material in the initiation of synovitis in reactive arthritis. ...
Detection of bacterial antigens in milk | Veterinary Record
COVID-19 Industry Impact: Bacterial Antigens Market Analyzed for Forecast Year - Express Press Release Distribution
Bacterial Antigens Market: Key Players. The global bacterial antigens market is highly fragmented owing to the presence of ... Bacterial Antigens Market: Segmentation. Tentatively, the global bacterial antigens market can be segmented on the basis of ... Bacterial Antigens Market: Regional Outlook. Geographically, the global bacterial antigens market is segmented into North ... What Other insights does the Bacterial Antigens Market market report offers?. *Global Bacterial Antigens Market market ...
Nonviable bacterial antigens administered with IL-12 generate antigen-specific T cell responses and protective immunity against...
Nonviable bacterial antigens administered with IL-12 generate antigen-specific T cell responses and protective immunity against ... Nonviable bacterial antigens administered with IL-12 generate antigen-specific T cell responses and protective immunity against ... Nonviable bacterial antigens administered with IL-12 generate antigen-specific T cell responses and protective immunity against ... Nonviable bacterial antigens administered with IL-12 generate antigen-specific T cell responses and protective immunity against ...
Potential for Detecting Ocular Bacterial Antigen Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Potential for Detecting Ocular Bacterial Antigen Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy L. Woodward; S. Maswadi; R. D. Glickman; A. ... Purpose:: We are investigating the feasibility of detecting ocular bacterial antigen using a minimally invasive optical method ... L. Woodward, S. Maswadi, R. D. Glickman, A. Oraevsky, N. Barsalou, G. Zhong; Potential for Detecting Ocular Bacterial Antigen ... Potential for Detecting Ocular Bacterial Antigen Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy You will receive an email whenever this ...
Utility of leucocyte antigens in distinguishing between bacterial and viral infection in children
Utility of leucocyte antigens in distinguishing between bacterial and viral infection in children. Anna Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, ... Utility of leucocyte antigens in distinguishing between bacterial and viral infection in children. Central European Journal of ... Utility of leucocyte antigens in distinguishing between bacterial and viral infection in children. Central European Journal of ... "Utility of leucocyte antigens in distinguishing between bacterial and viral infection in children". Central European Journal of ...
Antigens & Bacterial Toxins
Antigens may be found in the body, and are foreign substances which introduce a pathogen to the immunologic system in order to ... Buy Antigen. start with: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... Employing antigens for antibody generation are key applications. Antigens are referred to as immunogenic antigens or simply ... An antigen is typically defined as a substance that triggers an immunogenic response. The immune system sees the antigen as a ...
Responses of synovial fluid and peripheral blood mononuclear cells to bacterial antigens and autologous antigen presenting...
Responses of synovial fluid and peripheral blood mononuclear cells to bacterial antigens and autologous antigen presenting ... Responses of synovial fluid and peripheral blood mononuclear cells to bacterial antigens and autologous antigen presenting ... Bacterial antigens are suspect in the aetiology of rheumatic diseases. The responsiveness of the mononuclear cell fraction of ... No significant difference in response was found to all these bacterial antigens in the synovial fluid of patients with RA ...
Radioimmunoassay for Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigens: influence of antigen solubility. | Infection and...
Radioimmunoassay for Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigens: influence of antigen solubility.. R S Munford, C L ... Radioimmunoassay for Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigens: influence of antigen solubility. ... Radioimmunoassay for Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigens: influence of antigen solubility. ... Radioimmunoassay for Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigens: influence of antigen solubility. ...
DIGITAL.CSIC: Control of tick infestations in cattle vaccinated with bacterial membranes containing surface-exposed tick...
Control of tick infestations in cattle vaccinated with bacterial membranes containing surface-exposed tick protective antigens ... Tick subolesin (SUB), elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and ubiquitin (UBQ) are new candidate protective antigens for the control of ... This system provides a novel, simple and cost-effective approach for the production of tick protective antigens by surface ... Vaccines containing the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 antigens protect cattle against tick infestations. ...
Analysis of protective antigen peptide binding motifs using bacterial display technology | (2015) | Sarkes | Publications |...
Analysis of protective antigen peptide binding motifs using bacterial display technology Author(s): Deborah A. Sarkes; Brandi L ... Combined with magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), bacterial display technology makes it possible to isolate selective, high ... Peptide affinity reagents for protective antigen (PA) of the biothreat Bacillus anthracis were previously discovered using ... bacterial display. Bioinformatics analysis resulted in the consensus sequence WXCFTC. Additionally, we have discovered PA ...
Colitis Induced by Enteric Bacterial Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells Requires CD40-CD40 Ligand Interactions for a Sustained...
CD4+ T cells reactive to enteric bacterial antigens in spontaneously colitic C3H/HeJBir mice: increased T helper cell type 1 ... Colitis Induced by Enteric Bacterial Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells Requires CD40-CD40 Ligand Interactions for a Sustained ... Colitis Induced by Enteric Bacterial Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells Requires CD40-CD40 Ligand Interactions for a Sustained ... Colitis Induced by Enteric Bacterial Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells Requires CD40-CD40 Ligand Interactions for a Sustained ...
Bacterial antigen detection in body fluids: methods for rapid antigen concentration and reduction of nonspecific reactions. |...
Bacterial antigen detection in body fluids: methods for rapid antigen concentration and reduction of nonspecific reactions.. S ... Bacterial antigen detection in body fluids: methods for rapid antigen concentration and reduction of nonspecific reactions. ... Bacterial antigen detection in body fluids: methods for rapid antigen concentration and reduction of nonspecific reactions. ... Bacterial antigen detection in body fluids: methods for rapid antigen concentration and reduction of nonspecific reactions. ...
Magiran | Expression of HA1 antigen of H5N1 influenza virus as a potent candidate for vaccine in bacterial system
In this study, bacterial system has been developed for expression and purification of properly folded HA1 antigen as a rapid ... Since most antigenic sites are in the HA1 domain of HA, using this domain of influenza virus as antigen is of great importance ... Our findings suggest that HA1-based vaccines can be produced efficiently in bacterial systems and can be easily upscaled in ... The ability of the antibody stimulation against HA1 expressed in bacterial cells is also examined using enzyme-linked ...
Bacterial Antigen Latex ID Tests Products ...
Bacterial and plant-produced scFv proteins have similar antigen-binding properties Anne-Marie Bruyns, Geert De Jaeger, Myriam ... Bacterial and plant-produced scFv proteins have similar antigen-binding properties. ISSN:. 0014-5793. Author:. Bruyns, Anne- ... "Bacterial and Plant-produced scFv Proteins Have Similar Antigen-binding Properties." FEBS LETTERS 386.1 (1996): 5-10. Print. ... "Bacterial and Plant-produced scFv Proteins Have Similar Antigen-binding Properties." Febs Letters 386 (1): 5-10. ...
WO1998050531 NUCLEIC ACID MOLECULES SPECIFIC FOR BACTERIAL ANTIGENS AND USES THEREOF
The invention also relates to methods of testing samples for the presence of one or more bacterial polysaccharide antigens, ... the gene being involved in the synthesis of a particular bacterial polysaccharide antigen, wherein the sequence of the nucleic ... acid molecule is specific to the particular bacterial polysaccharide antigen. Polysaccharides to which the invention relates ... EN) NUCLEIC ACID MOLECULES SPECIFIC FOR BACTERIAL ANTIGENS AND USES THEREOF. (FR) MOLECULES DACIDE NUCLEIQUE SPECIFIQUES POUR ...
Bacterial ClpB heat-shock protein, an antigen-mimetic of the anorexigenic peptide α-MSH, at the origin of eating disorders
Microbial antigensProteinsImmuneInfectionMiceAntibodiesProteinLipopolysaccharideResponsesVaccineSurface AntigensPathogensStrainsMycobacteriumBacteriaDetectionGlobal bacterial antigens marketDendritic cellsDiagnosisProtectiveCapsular polysaccharideMicrobialSolubleAntigenicVivoInfectionsIntestinalPathogenPathogenesisStreptococcusApproach for antigenReactivity to enteric bacterialImmunizationMoleculeImmunogenic antigensImmunityImmunoassaysReactiveSerumEpitopeKnown antigensNovel antigensGlycoprotein antigenDiseasesPresentationNeisseriaSpecificityEtiologyEnteric bacterial floraPeptideELISAIntracellularNative Bacterial
- Detection of microbial antigens in clinical samples can lead to rapid diagnosis of an infection and administration of appropriate therapeutics. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The resulting "InMAD immune serum" contains antibodies specific for the soluble microbial antigens present in sera from the infected mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- This report describes a strategy that can be used for identification of microbial antigens that are shed into serum during infection by the biothreats Burkholderia pseudomallei and Francisella tularensis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- A major barrier in diagnostics development is determining which of the potentially hundreds or thousands of antigens produced by a microbe are actually present in patient samples in detectable amounts against a background of innumerable host proteins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Potential diagnostic targets identified by the InMAD approach included bacterial proteins, capsular polysaccharide, and lipopolysaccharide. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- By employing InMAD, we identified multiple circulating antigens that are secreted or shed during infection using Burkholderia pseudomallei and Francisella tularensis as model organisms. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- One means for rapid diagnosis is immunoassay for antigens that are shed into body fluids during infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The resulting "InMAD immune serum" contains antibodies specific for the soluble microbial antigens present in sera from the infected mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The production of antibodies by B-cells, specialized cells of the immune system, is the most well-known immunogenic response triggered by antigens. (mybiosource.com)
- Researchers also use immunogenic antigens to produce their own antibodies. (mybiosource.com)
- Many factors affect the probability of coaxing an immune system to generate antibodies specifically targeted against an immunogenic antigen. (mybiosource.com)
- The antibodies of subjects allergic to a bacterial antigen included IgE and IgG4 (particularly for males) compared with the almost exclusive IgG1 response of non-allergic subjects. (bmj.com)
- To study immune responses to an antigen presented at the respiratory mucosa, the IgE and IgG subclass antibodies induced by a conserved outer membrane protein of Haemophilus influenzae has been examined. (bmj.com)
- 13 The possibility that immune responses to bacteria may be different in people with aeroallergies has been indicated by studies examining IgE antibodies or allergic responses to bacterial extracts. (bmj.com)
- Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported an accurate, sensitive, specific, reproducible, and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in human serum (C. P. Quinn, V. A. Semenova, C. M. Elie et al. (cdc.gov)
- In this study, using SLRP we succeeded to prepare STGs with correct surface antigens could interact with their specific antibodies. (hindawi.com)
- In addition, the antibodies produced by the STGs should react with the evaluable antigens (O and H) and the immunized animals should be survived after treatment with live cells. (hindawi.com)
- To aid the clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever in India, where most hospitals and primary health centres have no facilities for culture, we report on the development of a novel and rapid immunodiagnostic kit for the direct detection of Salmonella Typhi-specific IgG antibodies against S . Typhi flagellar H antigen. (hindawi.com)
- Since the immunodiagnostic kit, uses the flagellar H antigen from bacteria present in our country, the antibodies present in the serum of patients of our country will have maximum binding affinity, enhancing the sensitivity of our test kit. (hindawi.com)
- Although, S . Typhi is a relatively invariant pathogen to antigenic variation, many of the surface antigens, therefore, may be conserved across the genera and induce antibodies that are cross reactive. (hindawi.com)
- Essentially all serological tests for typhoid are based on the detection of antibodies to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens (O9 and O12) [ 1 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
- A test apparatus for the determination of immunoassays of antigens and their antibodies which comprises a receptacle tray having a plurality of wells for receiving and samples, a holder for receiving and holding balls, coated with an immunologic composition and for depositing the balls into the wells. (google.com)
- This invention relates to diagnostic apparatus for use in radioimmunoassay for antigens and their antibodies. (google.com)
- More particularly, this invention relates to a diagnostic apparatus for a direct radioimmunoassay for determining hapatitis associated antigen or its antibodies or antigens and antibodies. (google.com)
- Viral hepatitis, including so called serum hepatitis, which is a relatively common disease, has not been heretofore easily detected by a sensitive test which is both specific and reproducible for quickly determining whether or not the serum from a patient or a donor contains hepatitis associated antigens or antibodies. (google.com)
- Antibodies specific for S. aureus and E. coli antigens were tested for reactivity to nitrocellulose-blotted extract from purified HDM bodies and the IgE-reactive antigens were detected by IgE-immunoblot inhibition experiments. (blogspot.com)
- IgE antibodies directed to bacterial antigens in HDM were quantified by IgE ImmunoCAP ™ inhibition experiments. (blogspot.com)
- Antigens are the chemical substances that can induce an immune response in the body, which results in the production antibodies that helps in resisting bacterial or viral infections. (icrowdnewswire.com)
- Although various in vitro immunization methods to generate antigen-specific antibodies have been described, a highly effective method that can generate high-affinity immunoglobulins has not yet been reported. (nii.ac.jp)
- We identified a combination of T cell-dependent stimuli (IL-4, IL-5, anti-CD38 and anti-CD4O antibodies) plus lipopolysaccharides (LPS) that stimulates antigen-exposed splenocytes in vitro, followed by induction of the cells phenotypically equivalent to germinal center B cells. (nii.ac.jp)
- A novel approach for the identification of protein antigens from bacterial pathogens was previously developed in our laboratory that combines the advantages of full genome coverage and serological antigen identification. (nih.gov)
- In this work we have discovered that the negatively charged and hydrophobic surface layer of spores provides a suitable platform for adsorption of protein antigens. (ei-resource.org)
- Thus, correction of bacterial proteolytic imbalance in the small intestine may constitute a new therapeutic target to prevent or ameliorate food sensitivities triggered by specific protein antigens. (nature.com)
- This effect requires receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase-2 (RIPK-2), autophagy-related protein-5 (ATG5), ATG7 and ATG16L1 but not NLR family, pyrin domain containing-3 (NALP3).We show that NOD2-mediated autophagy is required for both bacterial handling and generation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell responses in DCs. (nih.gov)
- Here we report the structure-function relationships of Antigen 43 (Ag43a), a prototypic self-associating AT protein from uropathogenic Escherichia coli . (pnas.org)
- An antigen may be a recombinant or native protein, partial protein, synthetic or natural peptide, chemical, toxin, viral or bacterial component, standard or reagent for ELISA assays, as well as an environmental agent. (mybiosource.com)
- For example, made to order recombinant protein antigens may start off from the cloning stage. (mybiosource.com)
- Optional services, upon request, for made to order protein antigens includes low endotoxin, aseptic manufacture, and tag removal. (mybiosource.com)
- A hapten, often referred as an incomplete or partial antigen, is a molecule or non-protein substance that in of itself is not immunogenic. (mybiosource.com)
- Please click here to submit your antigen, protein, or antibody requests. (mybiosource.com)
- The responsiveness of the mononuclear cell fraction of peripheral blood and synovial fluid of patients with RA and of patients with rheumatic diseases other than RA to bacterial antigens such as cell wall fragments of the anaerobic intestinal flora, cell wall fragments of Streptococcus pyogenes, intestinal flora derived peptidoglycan polysaccharide complexes, the 65 kilodalton protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and muramyldipeptide was investigated. (bmj.com)
- This system provides a novel, simple and cost-effective approach for the production of tick protective antigens by surface display of antigenic protein chimera on the E. coli membrane and demonstrates the possibility of using recombinant bacterial membrane fractions in vaccine preparations to protect cattle against tick infestations. (csic.es)
- In this instance the stimulatory material in the enteric bacterial preparations was found to be conventional protein Ags of the commensal flora ( 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
- We sought procedures which would allow a rapid concentration in high yield of bacterial antigens from tissue fluids of patients and which could be applied also to protein-rich fluids like serum. (asm.org)
- Heat-stable antigens could be concentrated from protein-rich fluids (like serum) after the sample had been deproteinized by boiling. (asm.org)
- Here, using proteomics, we identified ClpB heat-shock disaggregation chaperone protein of commensal gut bacteria Escherichia coli as a conformational antigen mimetic of α-MSH. (nih.gov)
- In conclusion, this work shows that the bacterial ClpB protein, which is present in several commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, can be responsible for the production of auto-Abs crossreactive with α-MSH, associated with altered feeding and emotion in humans with ED. Our data suggest that ClpB-expressing gut microorganisms might be involved in the etiology of EDs. (nih.gov)
- 14 The studies here have used assays with defined polypeptide antigens to provide quantitative assays and to differentiate the anti-protein antigen responses from the lipopolysaccharides. (bmj.com)
- The surface omp C protein of S. typhi was responsible for this agglutination, This agglutination maybe promote bacterial entry into epithelial cells. (nii.ac.jp)
- TR6 mRNA and protein were detectable in selected antigen-presenting cells. (asm.org)
- Monocytes and myeloid-derived dendritic cells (MDC) released the protein exclusively following stimulation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 by gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial antigens. (asm.org)
- Plasmacytoid dendritic cells, activated by bacterial antigens via TLR9 or by viral infection, did not produce the protein. (asm.org)
- In this study, we have successfully designed and constructed recombinant spores displaying an antigen/adjuvant chimeric protein. (springer.com)
- We have used a fragment of Clostridium difficile flagellar cap FliD protein as antigen and VQGEESNDK peptide, a fragment of human IL-1β, as adjuvant. (springer.com)
- Obtained results show that recombinant spores presenting an antigen/adjuvant chimeric protein exhibit both properties in mucosal immunization of mice. (springer.com)
- Nonpathogenic status of B. subtilis , simplicity of construction of recombinant spores presenting heterologous protein, as well as efficient surface adsorption, combined with easiness of spores' production and administration make them especially interesting carriers of antigens in mucosal vaccines. (springer.com)
- Here, we validate a recombinant glycoprotein antigen, an N-formylperosamine O-polysaccharide protein conjugate (OAg-AcrA), for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis. (conicet.gov.ar)
- The BBA05 protein is a previously identified putative lipoprotein (P55 or S1 antigen) that elicits antibody responses in mammals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- These results indicate that, despite being a highly conserved and regulated antigen, the BBA05 protein has a nonessential role in the transmission cycle of B. burgdorferi , at least in the animal model. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Therefore, we planned to develop an indigenous immunodiagnostic kit using most dominant antigen epitope of flagellin protein of S. Typhi of North Indian origin and to test its specificity in different clinical specimens. (hindawi.com)
- Early secreted antigenic target protein 6 (ESAT-6) is one of the most prominent antigens expressed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ), but not by BCG , . (prolekare.cz)
- Although it is an integral part of the T-antigen complex, the fibronectin-binding protein PrtF2 is not covalently linked to the FctA- and Cpa-containing heteropolymer derived from cell extracts. (asm.org)
- METHODS: We compared the efficacies of the most commonly used vaccine constructs--adjuvanted protein, plasmid DNA, and live bacterial vectors--bearing the immunodominant secreted antigens early secreted antigen target-6 and antigen 85B, either alone or as a fusion protein. (mendeley.com)
- To overcome the limitations of alignment-dependent methods, we propose a new alignment-free approach for antigen prediction, which is based on auto cross covariance (ACC) transformation of protein sequences into uniform vectors of principal amino acid properties. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bacterial, viral and tumour protein datasets were used to derive models for prediction of whole protein antigenicity. (biomedcentral.com)
- The present invention provides methods for the production of Y. pestis protein antigens in plants, as well as methods for their use in the treatment and/or prevention of Y. pestis infection. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 2. The isolated antigen of claim 1, wherein the Yersinia pestis protein comprises an amino acid sequence as set forth in any of the sequences selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 3. The isolated antigen of claim 1, wherein the Yersinia pestis protein comprises an amino acid sequence comprising at least two sequences selected from the group consisting of any one of SEQ ID NOs. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 4. The isolated antigen of claim 3, wherein the Yersinia pestis protein comprises full-length F1 protein and full-length LcrV protein. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 5. The isolated antigen of claim 3, wherein the Yersinia pestis protein comprises a plurality of variants of F1 protein. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 7. The isolated antigen of claim 1, wherein the thermostable protein comprises a modified lichenase protein. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 8. The isolated antigen of claim 7, wherein the coding sequence for lichenase has been optimized for protein expression in plants. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 9. The isolated antigen of claim 7, wherein the lichenase protein comprises the N-terminal domain, the C-terminal domain, and the surface loop domain of lichenase LicB. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 10. The isolated antigen of claim 1, wherein the Yersinia pestis protein fused to lichenase is one or more of an N-terminal fusion, a C-terminal fusion, or a surface loop insertion fusion protein. (freepatentsonline.com)
- They may include an amphiphilic protein antigen and provide immunoadjuvant effect during experimental vaccination. (msk.ru)
- Under conditions of experimental immunization of mice by a weak immunogen - (subunit membrane pore protein from Y. pseudotuberculosis), TI-complexes with antigen provided stronger humoral immune response to antigen than the complexes of porin with classical ISCOM, liposomes and Freund`s adjuvant. (msk.ru)
- Methods: Human serum was collected from adults and children followed from birth to 7 years of age, and the serum IgG response to a panel of intestinal microbiota antigens was assessed by using a novel protein microarray. (diva-portal.org)
- Radioimmunoassay for Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigens: influence of antigen solubility. (asm.org)
- Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component on the surface of Gram-negative bacteria, is composed of a lipid A-core and the O-antigen polysaccharide. (diva-portal.org)
- The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and O-antigen polysaccharide capsule structures of Francisella tularensis play significant roles in helping these highly virulent bacteria avoid detection within a host. (frontiersin.org)
- Coreceptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide. (uniprot.org)
- In concert with LBP, binds to monomeric lipopolysaccharide and delivers it to the LY96/TLR4 complex, thereby mediating the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (uniprot.org)
- GII.6 NoVLP was not rejected with the MF membrane in the presence of E. coli O86:K61:B7, but the removal of EPS of E. coli O86:K61:B7 increased the removal efficiency due to the interaction of NoVLPs with the exposed B-antigen in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of E. coli O86:K61:B7. (elsevier.com)
- The O-antigen is the distal part of the lipopolysaccharide, which is a key component of outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and confers serological specificity. (biomedcentral.com)
- Spores then, should be considered as mucosal adjuvants, most similar to particulate adjuvants, by enhancing responses against soluble antigens. (ei-resource.org)
- These results demonstrate that proteases expressed by opportunistic pathogens impact host immune responses that are relevant to the development of food sensitivities, independently of the trigger antigen. (nature.com)
- Nonviable bacterial antigens administered with IL-12 generate antigen-specific T cell responses and protective immunity against Listeria monocytogenes. (jimmunol.org)
- Responses of synovial fluid and peripheral blood mononuclear cells to bacterial antigens and autologous antigen presenting cells. (bmj.com)
- No significant difference in response was found to all these bacterial antigens in the synovial fluid of patients with RA compared with the responses in patients with other rheumatic diseases. (bmj.com)
- Higher responses to several bacterial antigens in the synovial fluid of patients with RA were found compared with peripheral blood from the same patient group. (bmj.com)
- Transfer of bone marrow cells from STAT-4-deficient mice, in which T cells do not respond to IL-12, into Tg ε 26 mice induced milder disease compared with transfer of bone marrow cells from normal mice ( 18 ), but the precise mechanisms that regulate the production of IL-12 in enteric bacterial Ag-driven responses, and thus drive disease development, are not yet known. (jimmunol.org)
- An effect on responses to other antigens could also be expected. (bmj.com)
- 10 - 12 The responses to mucosal antigens where co-presentation could occur with allergens would therefore be of interest. (bmj.com)
- Intramuscular and intranasal immunization of mice with these chimeric antigens elicited systemic and local long-lasting humoral responses. (nature.com)
- Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi impairs CD4 T cell responses by reducing antigen availability. (ucdenver.edu)
- Although data from both experimental models and clinical studies suggest that antigen specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are required for optimal control of genital tract chlamydial infections, the current lack of information regarding the specific C. trachomatis antigens eliciting protective immune responses in humans hinders vaccine development. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Mice were vaccinated with these constructs, and the effects of different delivery systems on protective efficacy (as assessed by survival studies and by monitoring bacterial load) and antigen-specific responses (including the contribution of CD4 and CD8 T cells to these responses) were assayed by various methods. (mendeley.com)
- This review discusses the O-acetylation status of CPSs and its role in the immunological responses of these antigens. (mdpi.com)
- Antibody responses to all recombinant antigens positively increased depending on shedding levels. (bvsalud.org)
- Functional differences were observed in innate and adaptive immune responses of parental and congenic stocks after bacterial ligand exposure in vitro (cytokine release from bone marrow-derived macrophage and dendritic cells) and in vivo (serum cytokines and primed CD4 + T cell proliferation). (utmb.edu)
- Functional assays showed that C3H/HeJBir showed reduced innate responsiveness both in vivo and in vitro to bacterial ligands but showed increased CD4 T-cell responses compared with C57BL/6J. (utmb.edu)
- Background: Although immune responses directed against antigens from the intestinal microbiota are observed in certain diseases, the normal human adaptive immune response to intestinal microbiota is poorly defined. (diva-portal.org)
- Low IgG responses to certain clusters of microbiota antigens during infancy were associated with allergy development during childhood. (diva-portal.org)
- Antigenome technology: a novel approach for the selection of bacterial vaccine candidate antigens. (nih.gov)
- Of these, the use of genetically engineered bacterial spores has been shown to offer promise as both a mucosal as well as a heat-stable vaccine delivery system. (ei-resource.org)
- Washington, DC - November 22, 2017 - Up to 91 percent of bacterial strains causing a common type of invasive serogroup B meningococcal disease in children and young adults express at least one of the antigens contained in a four-component vaccine called MenB-4C (Bexsero), according to laboratory studies conducted by investigators at the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and at GlaxoSmithKline, manufacturers of the vaccine. (asm.org)
- Researchers used a laboratory test called the Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) to study the coverage potential of the MenB-4C vaccine, which was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in January 2015 for use in individuals ages 10-25 years. (asm.org)
- The MATS test showed that 91 percent of these US bacterial strains express antigens similar to those contained in the MenB-4C vaccine, with an estimated coverage ranging from 88 percent to 97 percent each year. (asm.org)
- More than half of the covered strains could be targeted by two or more antigens in the vaccine, the investigators found. (asm.org)
- Since most antigenic sites are in the HA1 domain of HA, using this domain of influenza virus as antigen is of great importance in vaccine development. (magiran.com)
- A wide range of native state bacterial antigens are in high demand, particularly for vaccine research and in-vitro diagnostics. (factmr.com)
- Six in vivo -induced (IVI) antigens-RnhB, GalU, GalT, Apl_1061, Apl_1166, and HflX were selected for a vaccine trial in a mouse model. (frontiersin.org)
- Moreover, a number of recombinant antigens of APP were demonstrated to be putative vaccine candidates. (frontiersin.org)
- While a great number of antigens have been examined as vaccine candidates against various Leishmania species, few have advanced to human or canine clinical trials. (asm.org)
- With emphasis on antigen expression, in this minireview we discuss some of the vaccine platforms that are currently being explored for the development of Leishmania vaccines. (asm.org)
- It is clear that the vaccine platform of choice can have a significant impact upon the level of protection induced by particular antigens, and we provide and highlight some examples for which the vaccine system used has impacted the protective efficacy imparted. (asm.org)
- Vaccine development has been identified as essential for control of C. trachomatis infections, and current evidence suggests that an effective vaccine will likely be based on several C. trachomatis antigens. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Traditional immunization protocols typically require multiple exposures of the patient to the antigen, usually by injections of a vaccine formulation at intervals of weeks or months. (google.com)
- Comparative analysis of different vaccine constructs expressing defined antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (mendeley.com)
- Vaccine development in the post-genomic era often begins with the in silico screening of genome information, with the most probable protective antigens being predicted rather than requiring causative microorganisms to be grown. (biomedcentral.com)
- We have applied this technology to several bacterial pathogens of the genera Staphylococcus and Streptococcus and have, as a result, defined the "antigenome" of these pathogens. (nih.gov)
- Using this technology, novel protective antigens were discovered from several important human pathogens. (nih.gov)
- Termed InMAD (in vivo microbial antigen discovery), the strategy has the potential for application to a broad spectrum of microbial pathogens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Researches focused on expression of these antigens on phagocytes, which are involved in the first defence mechanisms, including: antigen presentation, recognition and phagocytosis of IgG and complement opsonised pathogens, and complement activity. (termedia.pl)
- Is the Subject Area "Bacterial pathogens" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
- Study on sugar modified antigens and intracellular bacterial pathogens. (nii.ac.jp)
- Bacterial antigens in bacterial antigens market are majorly found in distinct formats, such as purified, inactivated pathogens, ascites and antigen carrier conjugates. (factmr.com)
- Among the pathogen type segment, inactivated bacterial pathogen will register higher demand from end users as compared to purified pathogens. (factmr.com)
- The Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch (EDEB), Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, is responsible for surveillance of bacterial enteric pathogens. (cdc.gov)
- The incidence of infectious diseases caused by several bacterial pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae , and Neisseria meningitidis , has been dramatically reduced over the last 25 years through the use of glycoconjugate vaccines. (mdpi.com)
- However, we need to continue our analysis to assess the coverage of currently circulating strains in the U.S. We are confident the MATS technique will be very useful at detecting any changes in bacterial expression of these antigens. (asm.org)
- In this study, bacterial system has been developed for expression and purification of properly folded HA1 antigen as a rapid response to emerging pandemic strains. (magiran.com)
- Strains displaying polymeric LacNAc were generated by introducing a combination of glycosyltransferases that act on modified lipid A-cores, resulting in efficient expression of the carbohydrate epitope on bacterial cell surfaces. (diva-portal.org)
- These bacterial strains can thus serve as tools to analyse the role of defined carbohydrate structures in different biological processes. (diva-portal.org)
- We previously created pools of F. tularensis mutants that we screened to identify strains that were not reactive to a monoclonal antibody to the O-antigen capsule. (frontiersin.org)
- Common use of antibiotics in the developed world has resulted in the emergence of bacterial strains, which are highly resistant to virtually all available antimicrobial agents. (zeiss.com)
- Three genotypes (GII.3, GII.4, and GII.6) of norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs) were mixed with three bacterial strains (Enterobacter sp. (elsevier.com)
- There were major differences in the degree of recognition of different bacterial strains, marked by remarkably few Abs to Ags of the major anaerobes of the bacterial flora. (utmb.edu)
- 2. identical antigens in two bacterial strains, so that antibody produced against one strain will react with the other. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The three Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85 isoforms have unique substrates and activities determined by non-active site regions. (ucdenver.edu)
- Using this approach we characterized a novel lipid antigen belonging to the group of diacylated sulfoglycolipids purified from Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (rupress.org)
- Comparative antibody response of five recombinant antigens in related to bacterial shedding levels and development of serological diagnosis based on 35 kDa antigen for Mycobacterium avium subsp. (bvsalud.org)
- These mice have been previously shown to have increased Ab reactivity to commensal bacteria in the gut as well as increased CD4 + Th1 reactivity to enteric bacterial Ags ( 21 , 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
- The immune response to bacterial antigens on mucosal surfaces may be modified in individuals allergic to aeroallergens due to a maturational or genetic difference or from the interaction between inhaled allergens and bacteria at the mucosa. (bmj.com)
- This suggests that recognition of LPS receptor play a major role to recognize bacterial entry and processing of ingested bacteria. (nii.ac.jp)
- IgE-reactivity to antigens from gram-positive and negative bacteria is common in patients suffering from respiratory and skin manifestations of allergy, but the routes and mechanisms of sensitisation are not fully understood. (blogspot.com)
- HDM may serve as carriers of bacteria responsible for the induction of IgE sensitisation to microbial antigens. (blogspot.com)
- We demonstrated the genotype-dependent removal of human norovirus particles with a microfiltration (MF) membrane in the presence of bacteria bearing histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). (elsevier.com)
- Recently, the O-antigen gene cluster of Gram-negative bacteria has been intensively studied. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although work is ongoing to optimize the reaction conditions, and to determine the specificity of this method by challenging the binding of contrast agent with non-specific Ab, the present observations indicate that PAS with specific contrast enhancement is a promising method for in vivo applications, such as detection of bacterial antigens. (arvojournals.org)
- Bacterial antigen detection in body fluids: methods for rapid antigen concentration and reduction of nonspecific reactions. (asm.org)
- Antigen detection to diagnose bacterial infections / editor, Richard B. Kohler. (who.int)
- Detection of Bacterial Antigens and Alzheimer's Disease-like Pathology" by C. Scott Little PhD, Timothy A. Joyce et al. (pcom.edu)
- As per the recent research report published by Fact.MR, the global Bacterial Antigens Market is on course to achieve a highly eye-catching growth. (express-press-release.net)
- The Fact.MR research provides detailed information about the key segments, driving and restraining factors, geographical outlook, and the present situation of the vendor landscape of the global Bacterial Antigens Market. (express-press-release.net)
- Geographically, the global bacterial antigens market is segmented into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia-Pacific excluding Japan (APEJ), Japan and the Middle East and Africa (MEA). (express-press-release.net)
- North America is expected to be the leading market in the global bacterial antigens market owing to the rise in number of research applications of bacterial antigens coupled with increased set up of advanced diagnostic laboratories in the region as compared to other regions. (express-press-release.net)
- Europe is expected to register second largest share in the global bacterial antigens market throughout the forecast period owing to increased presence of bacterial antigen distributors and suppliers across the region. (express-press-release.net)
- The global bacterial antigens market is highly fragmented owing to the presence of large number of domestic manufacturers. (express-press-release.net)
- Examples of some of the key players operating in the global bacterial antigens market are Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., Creative Diagnostics, Enzo Life Sciences, Inc., The Native Antigen Company Ltd., Jena Bioscience GmbH, QED Bioscience Inc., Ross Southern Laboratories and others. (express-press-release.net)
- Tentatively, the global bacterial antigens market can be segmented on the basis of product type, pathogen type, application, end user and geography. (express-press-release.net)
- The global Bacterial Antigens Market report offers detailed assessments and quantitative evaluations that shed light on numerous key aspects that have shaped its evolution over the historical period. (express-press-release.net)
- Under product type segment defined for the bacterial antigens market, Chlamydia trachomatis, followed by Clostridium difficile Toxoid A, accounts for a significant revenue share in global bacterial antigens market. (factmr.com)
- Also, rapid discovery of novel antigens that can trigger a cross-protective immune response in a bacterial pathogen, growing incidences of cancer and infectious diseases and increase in diagnosis of various diseases are some of the factors further expected to drive the revenue growth in global bacterial antigens market. (factmr.com)
- Approval and launch of new bacterial antigens is the other important factor contributing to the growth of the global bacterial antigens market. (factmr.com)
- Among the bacterial antigens type indicated for various diagnostic applications, the Clostridium difficile Toxoid A product segment is expected to lead the global bacterial antigens market over the forecast period. (factmr.com)
- NOD2 stimulation induces autophagy in dendritic cells influencing bacterial handling and antigen presentation. (nih.gov)
- Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing-2 (NOD2) acts as a bacterial sensor in dendritic cells (DCs), but it is not clear how bacterial recognition links with antigen presentation after NOD2 stimulation. (nih.gov)
- Lewis X (Gal beta 1-4(Fuc alpha 1-3)GlcNAc) antigens of Helicobacter pylori or of the helminth Schistosoma mansoni modulate the immune response by interacting with receptors on human dendritic cells. (diva-portal.org)
- Also, Hsps possess significant roles in antigen presentation, the maturation of dendritic cells and the activation of lymphocytes. (ac.ir)
- These results identify flagellins as a class of immunodominant antigens that stimulate pathogenic intestinal immune reactions in genetically diverse hosts and suggest new avenues for the diagnosis and antigen-directed therapy of patients with IBD. (jci.org)
- A major impediment to immunoassay for diagnosis of infectious disease is identification of appropriate antigen targets. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Positive c-ANCA with PR3 specificity confounded the diagnosis of subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE). (jrheum.org)
- The recombinant glycoprotein OAg-AcrA can be produced in large homogeneous batches in a standardized way, making it an ideal candidate for further validation as a universal antigen for diagnosis of "smooth" brucellosis in animals and humans. (conicet.gov.ar)
- In this mini-review, we will briefly describe the important roles of HSPs in diagnosis and immunity in bacterial and viral infections. (ac.ir)
- Tick subolesin (SUB), elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and ubiquitin (UBQ) are new candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. (csic.es)
- Peptide affinity reagents for protective antigen (PA) of the biothreat Bacillus anthracis were previously discovered using bacterial display. (spie.org)
- however, the selection of antigens that may provide a broadly and protective immune response among their diverse adhesion and colonization mechanisms is a pivotal point to consider 13 . (nature.com)
- The growing demand for bacterial antigens capable of eliciting a protective immune response against various cancers and infectious diseases is expected to be the major factor driving the growth of the bacterial antigens market over the forecast period. (factmr.com)
- Therefore, a protective response requires activation of antigen-specific T cells, which may recognize different types of ligands such as microbial peptides or lipids ( 1 - 3 ). (rupress.org)
- VaxiJen is the first server for alignment-independent prediction of protective antigens. (biomedcentral.com)
- An antigen is said to be protective if it is able to induce protection from subsequent challenge by a disease-causing infective agent in an appropriate animal model following immunization. (biomedcentral.com)
- Identification of circulating bacterial antigens by in vivo microbial antigen discovery. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In this report, we describe a strategy, termed in vivo microbial antigen discovery (InMAD), that we used to identify circulating bacterial antigens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Thus, we provide evidence of molecular mimicry between microbial antigens and an islet autoantigen and a novel mechanism by which the diabetogenicity of CD8 + T cells can be regulated by innate immunity and the gut microbiota. (rupress.org)
- The epitope or antigenic determinant portion of a bacterial antigen is recognized by antigen specific receptors located on T and B cells. (factmr.com)
- The gene encoding the T6 antigen, which is an antigenic target of a major serological typing scheme, maps to the FCT regions of some isolates, where it forms part of the pilus structure ( 5 , 28 , 34 ). (asm.org)
- antigen-antibody reaction the reversible binding of antigen to homologous antibody by the formation of weak bonds between antigenic determinants on antigen molecules and antigen binding sites on immunoglobulin molecules. (thefreedictionary.com)
- 1. one that combines with antibody produced in response to a different but related antigen, owing to similarity of antigenic determinants. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The data provide direct evidence that streptococcal T antigens function as virulence factors in vivo, but they also reveal that a pilus-like structure is not essential for the most common form of streptococcal skin disease. (asm.org)
- As they undergo modifications that may occur in vivo, the antigen has a very close similarity if isolated to the complex 3-dimensional structure. (icrowdnewswire.com)
- Many persistent and chronic bacterial infections are associated with the formation of large cell aggregates and biofilms that are difficult to treat. (pnas.org)
- Nevertheless bacterial and viral infections are a big diagnostic difficulty also for laboratories. (termedia.pl)
- The latter possibility has been demonstrated by experiments with viral and bacterial infections of sensitised mice. (bmj.com)
- other'35ィイD1thィエD1U.S.-Japan cholera and bacterial enteric infections joint panel meeting. (nii.ac.jp)
- In agreement with the in vitro data, TR6 levels in serum were significantly elevated in patients with bacterial infections. (asm.org)
- Since 1980 the specific bacteriophages have been used in our Laboratory for the treatment of over 1500 patients with suppurative bacterial infections, in which a routine antibiotic therapy failed. (zeiss.com)
- We sought to determine the prevalence of serious bacterial infections (SBIs) among children with influenza A, a viral syndrome that can be established definitively by specific tests. (aappublications.org)
- 8 - 12 Verboon-Maciolek et al, 13 using enteroviral polymerase chain reaction, suggested limiting hospital admission for neonatal enteroviral infections because none of the enterovirus-positive patients experienced concomitant bacterial infections. (aappublications.org)
- Such unnecessary antibiotic treatment can cause severe side effects like toxicity, allergic reactions, suppression of immune system, intestinal bacterial flora disruption or even, according to the latest studies, obesity. (termedia.pl)
- Conclusions: The colitogenic Cdcs1 allele impairs innate immunity to bacterial products and in turn skews the adaptive immune response toward compensatory hyperresponsiveness and chronic intestinal inflammation. (utmb.edu)
- Healthy infants expressed the highest level of IgG seroreactivity to intestinal microbiota antigens. (diva-portal.org)
- Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) was demonstrated to have greater prevalence in rosacea patients and treating it with locally acting antibiotics led to rosacea lesion improvement in two studies. (wikipedia.org)
- This technique starts with "InMAD serum," which is filtered serum that has been harvested from BALB/c mice infected with a bacterial pathogen. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Bacterial carbohydrate structures play a central role in mediating a variety of host-pathogen interactions. (diva-portal.org)
- To target and appropriately skew the anti- Leishmania response, vaccines require both pathogen-specific antigens and immune-stimulating molecules to be rendered effective. (asm.org)
- Moreover, while intramuscular immunization with the combination of the chimeric antigens conferred protection against colonization by STEC O157:H7, the intranasal conferred protection against renal damage caused by STEC O91:H21. (nature.com)
- Portnyagina O.Y., Shnyrov V.L., Elaboration of new adjuvant lipid-saponin complex and its use at experimental immunization by bacterial antigen, Biomeditsinskaya khimiya, 2007, vol: 53(3), 297-306. (msk.ru)
- the gene being involved in the synthesis of a particular bacterial polysaccharide antigen, wherein the sequence of the nucleic acid molecule is specific to the particular bacterial polysaccharide antigen. (wipo.int)
- With the exception of mannophosphoisoprenoids, which stimulate CD1c-restricted T cells, all known antigens are presented by the CD1b molecule. (rupress.org)
- Mouse CD1d ( 24 ) and human CD1a ( 25 ) have glycolipid-binding capacities different from CD1b and it has been proposed that each CD1 molecule has evolved the capacity to present unique types of lipid antigens ( 18 ). (rupress.org)
- Likewise, the relative immunodominance of individual antigens in the fusion molecule is altered by the choice of delivery system. (mendeley.com)
- The bacterial antigens market in Asia Pacific excluding Japan is expected to grow at a significant CAGR due to the high presence of domestic players manufacturing bacterial antigens to be used to perform immunoassays and agglutination tests along with increased production of variant bacterial antigens by these key domestic players. (express-press-release.net)
- Bacterial antigens that are reactive with the InMAD immune serum are precisely the antigens to target in an antigen immunoassay. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Bacterial antigens in synovial biopsy specimens in yersinia triggered reactive arthritis. (bmj.com)
- In this study, multiple long-term C3H/HeJBir CD4 + T cell (Bir) lines reactive to commensal enteric bacterial Ags have been generated. (jimmunol.org)
- Tn5 strain did have a single O-antigen reactive band that was detected by the FB11 monoclonal antibody. (frontiersin.org)
- S. aureus and E. coli antigens were detected in immune-blotted HDM extract and the presence of IgE-reactive antigens in HDM was demonstrated by qualitative and quantitative IgE inhibition experiments. (blogspot.com)
- The InMAD serum, which is free of whole bacterial cells, is used to immunize syngeneic BALB/c mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The InMAD immune serum is then used to probe blots of bacterial lysates or bacterial proteome arrays. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Such heating (100 degrees C, 3 min) also liberated bacterial polysaccharides from antibody complexes and elminated the nonspecific interference of serum in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (asm.org)
- We then re-tested these serum samples with our ELISA test using the 35-kDa antigens . (bvsalud.org)
- Results: Nearly every subject tested, regardless of health status, had serum IgG that recognized a common set of antigens. (diva-portal.org)
- cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) a glycoprotein antigen found in normal adult tissues such as the epithelium of the fallopian tubes, the endometrium, the endocervix, the pleura, and the peritoneum. (thefreedictionary.com)
- carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) an oncofetal glycoprotein antigen originally thought to be specific for adenocarcinoma of the colon, but now known to be found in many other cancers and some nonmalignant conditions. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Bacterial antigens are suspect in the aetiology of rheumatic diseases. (bmj.com)
- The antigen presenting cell population of the synovial fluid in patients with RA and the patients with other rheumatic diseases was found to be stimulatory for autologous peripheral blood T cells even in the absence of antigen. (bmj.com)
- This suggests an important role for the synovial antigen presenting cell in the aetiology of inflammatory joint diseases. (bmj.com)
- Native Chlamydia trachomatis and Helicobacter pylori are commonly recommended bacterial antigens in the bacterial antigens market used to fight various diseases, such as gastritis. (factmr.com)
- The Bacterial Foodborne and Diarrheal Disease National Case Surveillance is published by the Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in Atlanta, Georgia. (cdc.gov)
- Sources and Contacts for Bacterial Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases. (cdc.gov)
- The native bacterial antigens market is driving due to the rise in health care expenditure, rising prevalence of infectious diseases, and development in the biotechnological industry. (icrowdnewswire.com)
- DCs from individuals with Crohn's disease expressing Crohn's disease-associated NOD2 or ATG16L1 risk variants are defective in autophagy induction, bacterial trafficking and antigen presentation. (nih.gov)
- Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
- Bacillus subtilis endospores have been shown to help solving these obstacles while serving as a platform for presentation of both, antigens and adjuvants. (springer.com)
- Standard properties recommended for apt bacterial antigens include higher specificity and sensitivity, reproducible scale-up for bulk quantities, minimal lot-to-lot variation and extended shelf-life. (factmr.com)
- At the cut-off point recommended by the ROC curve analysis , the sensitivity and specificity of 35 kDa ELISA were higher than those of other antigens with 93.3% and 86.4%, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
- The ability of the antibody stimulation against HA1 expressed in bacterial cells is also examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. (magiran.com)
- Cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antigen (c-ANCA) was positive on immunofluorescence and proteinase 3 (PR3) positive by ELISA. (jrheum.org)
- These bacterial antigens find applications in various diagnostic techniques, including ELISA, immunoassay, SDS-PAGE, hemagglutination and agglutination test. (factmr.com)
- A report by The Insight Partner's on the Native Bacterial Antigens Market discusses the growth of the market in great detail. (icrowdnewswire.com)
- However, strict regulatory controls over secure approval procedures for new bacterial antigens are expected to hamper the growth of the global native bacterial antigens market. (icrowdnewswire.com)
- The COVID-19 outbreak is currently going the world over, the Native Bacterial Antigens Market report covers the impact of the corona-virus on top company's growth. (icrowdnewswire.com)
- This research report categorizes as the key players in the Native Bacterial Antigens market and also gives a comprehensive study of Covid-19 impact analysis of the market by regions like (Americas, Europe APAC, and EMEA). (icrowdnewswire.com)
- The report offers key drivers that propel the growth in the global Native Bacterial Antigens market. (icrowdnewswire.com)
- This report focuses on the global Native Bacterial Antigens market with the future forecast, growth opportunity, key market, and key players. (icrowdnewswire.com)