Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

Experimental production of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: comparison of serological and immunological responses using pili fractions of Moraxella bovis. (1/13242)

The effect of vaccinating cattle and mice on the development of keratoconjunctivitis was studied. Cattle were vaccinated with whole cells, disrupted cells and pili fractions of three strains of Moraxella bovis. Mice were vaccinated with pili fractions of three strains. The resistance of all vaccinated animals was challenged with virulent cultures of M. bovis. In an attempt to correlate the response seen after vaccination and challenge with a pili fraction of M. bovis, vaccinated cattle and mice were grouped on the basis of signs of disease manifested and compared on the basis of serological responses. Serum samples were tested for antibodies by a gel diffusion precipitin test. A greater number of the sera of resistant cattle had antibodies to the homologous pili antigen than those of vaccinated nonresistant cattle. Cattle vaccinated with disrupted cells were not resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to challenge exposure by homologous than heterologous cultures. A greater number of the sera of resistant mice had antibodies to pili antigens than nonresistant mice.  (+info)

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: experimental production in calves with antigens of Micropolyspora faeni. (2/13242)

Pneumonitis was induced in calves by exposure to aerosols of Micropolyspora faeni with or without prior sensitization of the animals by subcutaneous injection of antigen. The pneumonitis primarily involved centrolobular areas and was characterized by alveolar septal thickening and loss of air space by cellular infiltration. Vasculitis and focal haemorrhage occurred in certain individuals and haemoproteinaceous exudate appeared within septa and alveolar lumina. The pneumonitis was compared with human farmer's lung, pneumonitis of housed cattle and other experimental hypersensitivity pneumonitides.  (+info)

The significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. (3/13242)

AIMS: To assess the significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in relation to inflammation and density of bacterial colonisation in vivo within a dyspeptic UK population. METHODS: Dyspeptic patients who were Helicobacter pylori positive had antral samples taken for histology and culture. Gastroduodenal pathology was noted. The grade of bacterial density and inflammation was assessed using the Sydney system. Bacterial DNA was extracted and the vacA alleles and the cagA/gene typed using PCR. RESULTS: 120 patients were studied. There was high rate of cagA positive strains in this population. Bacterial density did not correlate with the presence of peptic ulceration. There was a significant association between cagA positive strains and increased inflammation and bacterial density. The vacA s1 type independently correlated with extensive chronic inflammation but there was no association with bacterial density. The vacA m type did not correlate with extent of inflammation or bacterial density. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cagA is important in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. These findings are in keeping with the hypothesis that cagA acts as a marker for a cag pathogenicity island which encodes several genes involved in inflammation. The vacA s1 allele correlates with inflammation independently of cagA, possibly through its enhanced ability to produce the vacuolating cytotoxin.  (+info)

Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis. (4/13242)

AIM: To investigate the association between the quantity of gastric chemokine mRNA expression, severity of gastritis, and cagA positivity in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. METHODS: In 83 dyspeptic patients, antral and corpus biopsies were taken for semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and histological grading of gastritis. Gastritis was evaluated by visual analogue scales. Quantities of chemokine (IL-8, GRO alpha, ENA-78, RANTES, MCP-1) RT-PCR products were compared with G3PDH products. Each sample was also evaluated for the presence of cagA and ureA mRNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS: mRNA expression of all five chemokines was significantly greater in H pylori positive than in H pylori negative mucosa. In H pylori positive patients, in the antrum C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive patients than in cagA negative patients, but there were no significant differences in C-C chemokine mRNA expression. In H pylori positive patients, chemokine mRNA expression in the corpus was less than in the antrum. In contrast to the antrum, only GRO alpha mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive infection. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltration was correlated with C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. Significant correlations were also found between bacterial density and C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: In H pylori infection, C-X-C chemokines may play a primary role in active gastritis. Infection with cagA positive H pylori induces greater gastric chemokine mRNA expression in the antral mucosa, which may be relevant to the increased mucosal damage associated with cagA positive H pylori infection.  (+info)

Generation of CD8(+) T-cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterial antigen in experimental bovine tuberculosis. (5/13242)

Protective immunity against tuberculosis is considered to be essentially cell mediated, and an important role for CD8(+) T lymphocytes has been suggested by several studies of murine and human infections. The present work, using an experimental model of infection with Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, showed that live M. bovis elicits the activation of CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, a sonic extract prepared from M. bovis (MBSE) and protein purified derivative (PPDb) also induced a considerable degree of activation of the CD8(+) T cells. Analysis of proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, purified CD8(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T-cell clones to M. bovis and to soluble antigenic preparations (MBSE, PPDb) showed that the responses of all three types of cells were always superior for live mycobacteria but that strong responses were also obtained with complex soluble preparations. Furthermore, while cytotoxic capabilities were not investigated, the CD8(+) T cells were found to produce and release gamma interferon in response to antigen (live and soluble), which indicated one possible protective mechanism for these cells in bovine tuberculosis. Finally, it was demonstrated by metabolic inhibition with brefeldin A and cytochalasin D at the clonal level that an endogenous pathway of antigen processing is required for presentation to bovine CD8(+) cells and that presentation is also dependent on phagocytosis of the antigen.  (+info)

Pathogenicity island 2 mutants of Salmonella typhimurium are efficient carriers for heterologous antigens and enable modulation of immune responses. (6/13242)

The potential use as vaccine delivery system of Salmonella typhimurium strains harboring defined mutations in the sseC (HH104) and sseD (MvP101) genes, which encode putative effector proteins of the type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2, was evaluated and compared with that of the well-characterized aroA mutant strain SL7207 by using beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) as a model antigen. When orally administered to immune-competent or gamma interferon-deficient (IFN-gamma-/-) BALB/c mice, both mutants were found to be highly attenuated (50% lethal dose, >10(9) bacteria). Both strains were also able to efficiently colonize and persist in Peyer's patches. Immunization with HH104 and MvP101 triggered beta-Gal-specific serum and mucosal antibody responses equivalent to or stronger than those observed in SL7207-immunized mice. Although immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) serum antibodies were dominant in all groups, IgG1 was also significantly increased in mice vaccinated with MvP101 and SL7207. Comparable beta-Gal-specific IgA and IgG antibodies were detected in intestinal lavages from mice immunized with the different strains. Antigen-specific CD4(+) T-helper cells were generated after vaccination with all vaccine prototypes; however, responses were significantly more efficient when HH104 and MvP101 were used (P < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma were produced by restimulated spleen cells from mice immunized with HH104 than from those vaccinated with the MvP101 or SL7207 derivatives (P +info)

Transcutaneous immunization with bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins as antigens and adjuvants. (7/13242)

Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a new technique that uses the application of vaccine antigens in a solution on the skin to induce potent antibody responses without systemic or local toxicity. We have previously shown that cholera toxin (CT), a potent adjuvant for oral and nasal immunization, can induce both serum and mucosal immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA and protect against toxin-mediated mucosal disease when administered by the transcutaneous route. Additionally, CT acts as an adjuvant for coadministered antigens such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids when applied to the skin. CT, a member of the bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxin (bARE) family, is most potent as an adjuvant when the A-B subunits are present and functional. We now show that TCI induces secondary antibody responses to coadministered antigens as well as to CT in response to boosting immunizations. IgG antibodies to coadministered antigens were also found in the stools and lung washes of immunized mice, suggesting that TCI may target mucosal pathogens. Mice immunized by the transcutaneous route with tetanus fragment C and CT developed anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies and were protected against systemic tetanus toxin challenge. We also show that bAREs, similarly organized as A-B subunits, as well as the B subunit of CT alone, induced antibody responses to themselves when given via TCI. Thus, TCI appears to induce potent, protective immune responses to both systemic and mucosal challenge and offers significant potential practical advantages for vaccine delivery.  (+info)

A 55-kilodalton immunodominant antigen of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 has arisen via horizontal gene transfer. (8/13242)

A 55-kDa outer membrane protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 is a significant target of the serum immunoglobulin G antibody response of periodontal disease patients and hence may play an important role in host-bacterium interactions in periodontal disease. The gene encoding the 55-kDa antigen (ragB, for receptor antigen B) was isolated on a 9.5-kb partial Sau3AI fragment of P. gingivalis W50 chromosomal DNA in pUC18 by immunoscreening with a monoclonal antibody to this antigen. The 1.6-kb open reading frame (ORF) encoding RagB was located via subcloning and nested-deletion analysis. Sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of an upstream 3.1-kb ORF (ragA) which is cotranscribed with ragB. A number of genetic characteristics suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by a horizontal gene transfer event. These include a significantly reduced G+C content relative to that of the P. gingivalis chromosome (42 versus 48%) and the presence of mobility elements flanking this locus in P. gingivalis W50. Furthermore, Southern blotting and PCR analyses showed a restricted distribution of this locus in laboratory and clinical isolates of this bacterium. The association of ragAB+ P. gingivalis with clinical status was examined by PCR analysis of subgingival samples. ragAB+ was not detected in P. gingivalis-positive shallow pockets from periodontal disease patients but was present in 36% of the P. gingivalis-positive samples from deep pockets. These data suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by certain P. gingivalis strains via horizontal gene transfer and that the acquisition of this locus may facilitate the survival of these strains at sites of periodontal destruction.  (+info)

Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Dana E Nuti, Reva B Crump, Farida Dwi Handayani, Narisara Chantratita, Sharon J Peacock, Richard Bowen, Philip L Felgner, D Huw Davies, Terry Wu, C Rick Lyons, Paul J Brett, Mary N Burtnick, Thomas R Kozel, David P AuCoin].
Streptococcal antigen testing was found to be both sensitive and highly specific under most conditions, though evidence was found that demonstrated high variability depending on the serotype that was encountered. The cost savings as a result of its use are heterogeneous in nature and more powerful investigation is required to form reliable conclusions. Evidence-based guidelines indicate that it is not appropriate for use in children due to high false-positives, and they further stated that its use in adults should be limited to admitted patients with moderate to high disease severity.. ...
Both react strongly with HCV positive sera; the choice of antigen may be a function of the particular assay format chosen, however, more commonly, it appears that the fusion protein was the antigen of choice. The protein is soluble in aqueous buffer and may be admixed with the HCV capsid antigen prior to coating on to microplate wells. The protein comes as a 500 ug/ml (again setting 1 mg/ml equivalent to an OD (280nm) in Tris buffer, of 1.0). Individual Elisa protocols can be developed, such as Capsid antigen alone (Example 1); NS3 antigen alone (Example 2); or, A combination of antigens (Example 3). Using a Capsid: NS3 ratio of 4:1 in the coating mixture appears to provide the most favorable signal-to-noise ratios in the subsequent assay: Access to the individual antigen component thus enables the determination of precise parameters for an optimized assay.. To view an SDS PAAGE image of this antigen, please click HERE. To review the seroconversion data (using a standard seroconversion panel ...
T cells that recognize self-lipids presented by CD1c are frequent in the peripheral blood of healthy individuals and kill transformed hematopoietic cells, but little is known about their antigen specificity and potential antileukemia effects. We report that CD1c self-reactive T cells recognize a nov …
Calf serum has been shown to suppress the primary immune response to erythrocytes and some bacterial antigens in mice if administered prior to and not after immunization. The importance of the route of iniection of antigens and immunosuppressant is indicated. It is suggested that immunosuppression is achieved by phagocytosis and enyzmatic destruction of the injected antigen by peritoneal macrophages. A similar mechanism is probably involved in the type of immunosuppression induced by PHA.. ...
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Please be aware that Royal Caribbean requires a negative PBR Antigen test to be conducted a few days before our cruise. As of today, its good for only...
Protective antigen component of B. anthracis toxin was produced and purified to the |99% level. Toxin was purified from culture supernatant utilizing concentration and liquid chromatography techniques. Purity was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified protective antigen retained biological and antigenic activity as evidenced respectively by lethality in Fischer 344 rats when injected in combination with lethal factor, and by positive results on the Ouchterlony double diffussion assay. Radioiodinated protective antigen was used both in the in vivo and the in vitro experiments. In vivo distribution of labelled protective antigen was determined in Fischer 344 rats. Assay of organ tissues for labelled protective antigen aided in the decision to use Maden-Darby bovine kidney cells for the cell cultures in the protective antigen binding studies. Protective antigen binding studies, all performed at 37°C, evaluated criteria for receptor existence. Labelled
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis)-specific culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10) is highly recognized by M. tuberculosis infected subjects. In the present study, the proliferative respon
Lethal factor1,2-ETHANEDIOLGLYCEROLN~2~-[(4-fluoro-3-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]-N-hydroxy-N~2~-(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)-D-alaninamideZINC ION
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There are many outside agents that could become antigens. Among the agents that are potentially antigenic are egg whites, pollen, transplanted tissue proteins and plenty of other agents that could cause a reaction of the immune system in order to take care of the invasion.. These outside antigens are also known as non-microbal or non-self antigens. One outside source of imunogenic antigens are vaccines. They are often given to people in order to prepare themselves for a potential illness.. Outside antigens are known as exogenous antigens. The common way that these antigens enter the body is through inhalation, injection, or ingestion. Often times, the immune system reacts to the antigens in a less than clinical fashion.. The process of the antibodies taking on the antigens are either endocytosis or phagocytosis. These antigens are brought to the cells that present antigens. The antigens are then broken down into pieces so that they can be processed.. The pieces are taken to the T helper cells so ...
CALIXARs approach allows to preserve the original structure and function of membrane proteins (GPCRs, Ion Channels, Transporters, Receptors, Anchors and Viral Proteins) providing solutions for pharmaceutical industries, biotechnology companies and academic teams to develop conformational antibodies, formulate new vaccines, carry out Structure Based Drug Discovery and/or HTS assays. ...
The Native Antigen Company was formed as a spin out from PsiOxus (formerly Hybrid BioSystems). Headquartered in Birmingham, with research offices in Oxford, The Native Antigen Company has expertise in the isolation and purification of both viral and bacterial native antigens. These antigens serve as key components for infectious disease testing kits - their function being to accurately detect pathogenic infection by capturing antibodies in patient samples. The company also offers adenovirus purification and production capabilities and a screening service for anticancer and antiviral drug compounds. The company has achieved ISO 9001:2008 accreditation for the development, manufacture, and sale of native antigens as of November 2010. The company will specialise in manufacturing of native antigens but also offers a range of products and purities, from cell lysates to gradient purified pathogens, for a range of organisms. These include adenovirus types 3, 5, 11, 12, and type 5 hexon protein along ...
View Notes - Immunogenes or Antigens from STEP 1 at Montgomery College. ‫بسم اللة الرحمن‬ ‫الرحيم‬ Immunogens Or Antigens Immunogens Or Antigens Immunogens or
Hello all, Does anyone know of a company/lab/collection center from where I can get a genomic DNA expression library of E. coli CONSTRUCTED IN A PLASMID VECTOR?? I prefer a insert size of 3 Kb or less but others are also welcome. Please suggest. Thanks, S.V. Dole ...
Alliance DNA is proud to offer the next generation of COVID-19 antigen testing: CareSmart by AccessBio.This test is effective, inexpensive, and available, providing a quick 10-minute turn-around process at your point of care facility. Antigen testing is recognized as a significant means of slowing the spread of COVID-19 because it is quick, accurate, and less expensive than most PCR testing.Antigen testing is also a diagnostic test, meaning it identifies the current presence of a virus.. What is an antigen test? ...
Absynth Biologics are pioneering the discovery and development of innovative vaccines to prevent and treat life threatening bacterial infections such as S. aureus and C. difficile for which there are currently no marketed vaccines. Their highly differentiated approach, using antigen targets which harness the immune system in a multimodal fashion, will create differentiated vaccines. Absynth team comprise world leading microbiology and infection expertise.. BioCity invested in Absynth because of the courageous and unique approach they have taken in developing a much-needed solution to target colonisation. ...
In experiments measuring the length of time an antigen stays stuck, DM makes sure an infected cell holds onto a microbe long enough to catch the attention of immune cells in the first place, Sadegh-Nasseri says.. To uncover DMs expanded job, Sadegh-Nasseri isolated a protein antigen from the flu virus as a test case and found that cells with DM normally hold on for about six days, long enough for symptoms like sniffles and fever, as signs of immune battle, to develop. When they removed DM from normal cells, the cells did not bind the flu antigen at all. Later, when they mutated the antigen-binding part of the cell, the flu antigen fell off after only 10 minutes.. When the scientists studied the 3-D shape of the part of the cell that tries on the antigen, they discovered that the antigen fell off after 10 minutes whether DM was there or not, but only when one specific chemical bond was disrupted.. DM somehow alters this chemical bond to make antigens fall off a thousand times faster than ...
Antigen processing is a process that.... Antigen processing is a biological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes.
Swab Antigen Mitra Keluarga Kelapa Gading adalah seorang Swab Antigen di Mitra Keluarga Kelapa Gading. Lihat profil lengkap, lihat biaya dan buat janji untuk Swab Antigen Mitra Keluarga Kelapa Gading
Swab Antigen Biomedilab Karawang adalah seorang Swab Antigen di Biomedilab Karawang. Lihat profil lengkap, lihat biaya dan buat janji untuk Swab Antigen Biomedilab Karawang
Antigen tests are faster, cheaper and more scalable than the familiar molecular test for COVID-19. A new multibillion market could open up if the health care industry manages to establish a threshold for test accuracy. Broader acceptance of antigen tests should also bring significant revenue growth for the handful of public companies that have such products in the market today.
Sir , After a very low risk exposure like giving hand job, I have done a pcr hiv 1 viral load test after 16 days? It comes negetive? Today Is the 16 th day . Should I do P 24 antigen test ? Or I can take ...
We offer Covid-19 PCR antigen test, which detects specific viral proteins to show if a person actively has the virus. It gives a yes/no result.
Antigen - a substance that when introduced into the body stimulates the production of an antibody. Antigens include toxins, bacteria, foreign blood cells, and the cells of transplanted organs.. ...
We have two kinds of cells in our body which are used to fight diseases: B cells and T cells. Whenever an antigen attacks our body for the first time, these cells create a code to fight those antigens. Once the code is created, next time the antigen attacks, these cells are able to fight the antigen very fast as they already have the code created for that specific antigen ...
Antigens for COVID-19 diagnostics are a potential avenue for rapid tests used at the point of care and in general screening. Read on to learn more.
Learn the difference between antigen and pathogen . Explore how these two vary from each other and discover if they have any similarities only on BYJUS Biology.
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The Nuclear Extract Kit isolates high-quality nuclear, cytoplasmic or whole-cell extract from mammalian cell or tissue samples with a detailed protocol to ensure your extract is not contaminated with proteins from other cellular compartments. Phosphatase
Beautiful 33 Sample How Do I Add A Chart Title In Excel 2019 add or remove a secondary axis in a chart in excel add or remove a secondary axis in a chart in office 2010 when the values in a 2 d chart vary widely from data series to data series or when… Read More ». ...
Planning is not sufficient for success but implementing it in the right proportion is crucial to reach the mile stone of success. Brillmindz Technologies started with the cycle of innovation in 2011, and then onwards serving across the world with countless prominent apps relevant to diverse business domains.. Sitemap. ...
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Disposable earnings means the amount of earnings remaining after the deduction of amounts required by law to be withheld.. Earnings means compensation paid or payable for personal service. Earnings include:. (1) Wages or salary;. (2) Commissions and bonuses;. (3) Periodic payments under pension plans, retirement programs, and insurance policies of any type;. (4) Disability payments under Title 51 RCW;. (5) Unemployment compensation under RCW 50.40.020, 50.40.050 and Title 74 RCW;. (6) Gains from capital, labor, or a combination of the two; and. (7) The fair value of nonmonetary compensation received in exchange for personal services.. Employee means a person to whom an employer is paying, owes, or anticipates paying earnings in exchange for services performed for the employer.. Employer means any person or organization having an employment relationship with any person. This includes:. (1) Partnerships and associations;. (2) Trusts and estates;. (3) Joint stock companies and insurance ...
The present disclosure relates to a solid phase immunoassay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in a clinical specimen, wherein the Chlamydia trachomatis antigens to be determined are coated or adsorbed on the solid phase.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mitochondrial proteins Bnip3 and Bnip3L are involved in anthrax lethal toxin-induced macrophage cell death. AU - Ha, Soon-Duck. AU - Ng, Dennis. AU - Lamothe, Julie. AU - Valvano, Miguel A. AU - Han, Jiahuai. AU - Kim, Sung Ouk. PY - 2007/9/7. Y1 - 2007/9/7. N2 - Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) induces rapid cell death of RAW246.7 macrophages. We recently found that a small population of these macrophages is spontaneously and temporally refractory to LeTx-induced cytotoxicity. Analysis of genome-wide transcripts of a resistant clone before and after regaining LeTx sensitivity revealed that a reduction of two closely related mitochondrial proteins, Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3 (Bnip3) and Bnip3-like (Bnip3L), correlates with LeTx resistance. Down-regulation of Bnip3 and Bnip3L was also found in toxin-induced resistance whereby sublethal doses of LeTx induce resistance to subsequent exposure to cytolytic toxin doses. The role of Bnip3 and Bnip3L in LeTx-induced ...
Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in first-void urine to identify asymptomatic male carriers.: Early morning first-void urine collected from 279 sexua
A series of nearly isogenic O4-12, and O-6,7 Salmonella typhimurium strains differing in regard to the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) were constructed by conjugation. When tested in intraperitoneal infection of mice, the O-4,12 strains containing ECA were more virulent than their O-4,12 sister recombinants without ECA (P = less than 0.001). The same difference could be shown with ECA-positive and ECA-negative S. typhimurium derivatives, whose O antigens were of the group C type (O-6,7). The ECA-positive and ECA-negative O-4,12 strains did not differ in their growth rates in broth or clearance rates in vivo. ...
Mouse serum raised against killed antigen preparations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis failed to recognize most of the recombinant antigens of M. tuberculosis that were originally identified by reactivity to tuberculosis (TB) patient sera. Similar results were obtained with serum from guinea pigs immunized with live and killed mycobacteria. Antibodies raised against seven random TB patient serum-reactive antigens detected each of these antigens in the sonicate preparation. The nucleotide sequences of the genes for these seven antigens revealed that all represented hitherto unreported genes of M. tuberculosis. Our results suggest differential presentation to the host immune system of the same antigens derived from live and killed mycobacteria.. ...
Infection with Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for the development of gastric cancer, and infection with strains carrying the virulence factor CagA significantly increases this risk. To investigate the mechanisms by which CagA promotes carcinogenesis, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing CagA ubiquitously or in the anterior intestine. Transgenic zebrafish expressing either the wild type or a phosphorylation-resistant form of CagA exhibited significantly increased rates of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and showed significant upregulation of the Wnt target genes cyclinD1, axin2 and the zebrafish c-myc ortholog myca. Coexpression of CagA with a loss-of-function allele encoding the β-catenin destruction complex protein Axin1 resulted in a further increase in intestinal proliferation. Coexpression of CagA with a null allele of the key β-catenin transcriptional cofactor Tcf4 restored intestinal proliferation to wild-type levels. These results provide in vivo evidence of ...
H. pylori-infected children with CagA antibodies seem to have a more severe inflammation in the gastric antrum than CagA-negative children as shown by an increase in the density of antral mononuclear cells. A finding of higher serum antibody titers to H. pylori in CagA-positive children may be relat …
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A higher median frequency of CD8(+) T-cell responses was detected in women with lower genital tract chlamydial infection, compared with those with upper genital tract chlamydial infection (13.8% vs 9.5%; P =04), but the CD4(+) T-cell response frequencies were not different. Women who remained uninfected displayed a greater frequency of positive CD4(+) T-cell responses (29% vs 18%; P < .0001), compared with women who had incident infection, while the frequencies of CD8(+) T-cell responses did not differ. A subset of proteins involved in central metabolism, type III secretion, and protein synthesis were associated with protection. CONCLUSIONS ...
FIG. 3. Western blot analysis on sera from day 35 and fecal samples from day 28 against extracellular antigens from serovar Enteritidis. (A) The sera were diluted 1:50,000. Sera were obtained from mice immunized with antigen-conjugated microparticles orally (lane 2), free antigen orally (lane 3), microparticles plus free antigen orally (lane 4), antigen-conjugated microparticles intramuscularly (lane 5), or free antigen intramuscularly (lane 6). Lane 1 shows molecular mass markers. (B) The fecal extracts were diluted 1:5. The samples were obtained from mice immunized with antigen-conjugated microparticles orally (lane 1), antigen-conjugated microparticles intramuscularly (lane 2), or free antigen orally (lane 3). ...
Searching for Significant Growth See in Native Bacterial Antigens Market 2020-2027 | Microbix Biosystems, SERION Immunologics, Enzo Life Sciences, QED Bioscience . We got you covered at iCrowdNewswire
Looking for online definition of Antigen test in the Medical Dictionary? Antigen test explanation free. What is Antigen test? Meaning of Antigen test medical term. What does Antigen test mean?
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Looking for common antigen? Find out information about common antigen. see immunity immunity, ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have... Explanation of common antigen
Several factors may determine whether encounter of antigen in a primary response will lead to the clonal expansion of specific antigen receptor-expressing lymphocytes and their differentiation into specific memory effector cells (for review see references (1) and (2)). Soluble foreign antigen usually leads to a transient clonal expansion of antigen-specific T cells, followed by the deletion and/or functional inactivation of the cells (for review see references 1 and 2). In some cases, soluble antigen can lead to subsequent unresponsiveness to an immunizing regimen of antigen in adjuvant (for review see references 1 and 2). It has been suggested that the dose and form of antigen, the route of administration of antigen, the delivery of appropriate costimulatory signals, and the genetic background of the host may determine whether an antigen primes for an appropriate memory effector response (for review see references 1-3).. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the abortive immune ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Identification of mycobacterial antigens activating and suppressing T-lymphocyte responses. AU - Ellner, J. J.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024836075&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024836075&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Conference contribution. AN - SCOPUS:0024836075. SN - 0444813497. SP - 3. EP - 21. BT - Basic mechanisms of granulomatous inflammation: proceedings of the International Symposium on basic mechanisms of granulomatous inflammation. ICS851. A2 - Yoshida, T.. A2 - Torisu, M.. A2 - Yoshida, T.. A2 - Torisu, M.. PB - Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.. T2 - The International Symposium on basic mechanisms of granulomatous inflammation. Y2 - 28 November 1988 through 29 November 1988. ER - ...
Antigens stimulate the immune system of the host which thereby generates antibodies. Creative Biolabs provides antigens of various categories, including viral antigens, parasitic antigens, bacterial antigens, tumor antigens, and so on, for the development of vaccine candidates and serological diagnostic tests. The products of high quality are in full stock and ready for shipment on a global basis. Considering that other antigens may be required in addition to what is mentioned above, the protein expression service can help, which relies on the exclusive expression system of E. coli, yeast, baculovirus-insect, mammalian cells, and plant expression systems to express proteins case by case.. Adjuvant for Vaccine. * Viral Antigens: Adenovirus, Hepatitis C virus, Coronavirus, EBV antigens, etc ...
Antigens stimulate the immune system of the host which thereby generates antibodies. Creative Biolabs provides antigens of various categories, including viral antigens, parasitic antigens, bacterial antigens, tumor antigens, and so on, for the development of vaccine candidates and serological diagnostic tests. The products of high quality are in full stock and ready for shipment on a global basis. Considering that other antigens may be required in addition to what is mentioned above, the protein expression service can help, which relies on the exclusive expression system of E. coli, yeast, baculovirus-insect, mammalian cells, and plant expression systems to express proteins case by case.. Adjuvant for Vaccine. * Viral Antigens: Adenovirus, Hepatitis C virus, Coronavirus, EBV antigens, etc ...
Protein antigens are no able to induce an immune response without being previously processed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Following their processing that comprises their splitting to smaller fragments - peptides, APs subsequently present them to T cells; moreover, they activate them and polarise to a specific biological functions. Depending of antigen origin, there are two presentation pathways, exogenous and endogenous. Antigens originated from outside of APC, e.g. bacterial toxins, enzymes, etc., are presented by exogenous pathway and presented molecules are class II HLA molecules. T cell, that recognise presented peptides belong to helper subset of T cells. Antigens originated in the cytosol, such as antigens that appear in the cytoplasm of virus infected cells, are presented by endogenous pathway and presented molecules belong to class I HL-A molecules. T cells, that recognise presented peptides, represent cytotoxic T cells.
The common cold1,2 is our greatest single cause of illness. Although the common cold has a specific viral etiology, its most frequent complications are bacteria
Martinez, C. C., Nagao, A. T., Takano, O. A., Vieira, V. S., & Carneiro-Sampaio, M. M. S. (1996). Placental transfer of igg and igg subclasses anti-escherichia coli purified lps antigens. In Resumos. Sao Paulo: Icb-Usp ...
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A device for determining the presence of antigens which comprises a first zone containing antigens and enzyme-linked antibodies which are capable of immunologically reacting with said antigens, said antibodies being positioned in said first zone such that they will be removed from said first zone when reacted with antigens passing through said first zone but not removed from said first zone in the absence of such antigens, and a second zone containing material capable of reacting with said enzyme-linked antibodies to produce a color forming reaction which indicates the presence of said antibodies.
Costa-Carvalho BT, Solé D, Naspitz CK, Barros-Nunes P, Nagao AT, Nudelman V, Sorensen RU, Carneiro-Sampaio MMS. Response to polysaccharide antigen: a case of failure to sustain a primary and any booster response. FASEB Journal. 1998 ; 12( 5): A891-res.5161 ...
Background: Little is known about changes in total antibodies occurring during the progression of tuberculosis or its treatment. Using passive and reverse p ...
Lyophilized antigen is stable at least 6 months. For reconstitution, use Ultra High Purified water. This solution is stable at +4°C for 1 month and at -20°C for several months. Stored in the dark.. ...
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I am a bioengineer fascinated by T cell immunology, and I have expertise in single-molecule mechanical analysis, single-molecule imaging, quantum dot nanotechno...
LGC announced the acquisition of The Native Antigen Company (NAC), supplier of high quality infectious disease antigens and antibodies. NAC is a developer, manufacturer and supplier of critical r ...
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Australský antigen je označení pro antigen viru hepatitidy B, který se nachází na povrchu virových částic. Označuje se též jako „surface antigen (HBsAg). Diagnostika přítomnosti antigenu v krvi je důležitá pro diagnostiku hepatitidy B ...
Protein-based antigen testing has received relatively less attention, but their rapid turnaround time, ease of use, and amenability to large scale production, could prove valuable for addressing the outbreak.
[119 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Diagnostic Reagents Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the United States Diagnostic Reagents market is...
Antigen An atigen is any substance that cause your immune system to produce antibodies against it. The antigen may be a foreign substance from the environment Such as chemicals bacteria viruses, or pollen) or formed within the body
I guess what confuses some is that they think T cells are all the same, they fail to realize that every cell is unique & different. There are different types of T cells & different ways to present antigens. ...
Microbix Biosystems is a life science company and leading manufacturer of viral and bacterial antigens and reagents for the global diagnostics industry. Our expertise in cell biology has led to the development of new products: LumiSort, an animal reproductive product for use in livestock...
MHC Ib Qa-2 antigen: a nonclassical MHC Ib antigen implicated in innate & adaptive immune responses as well as in embryonic development
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Antigens, CD81 by people in this website by year, and whether Antigens, CD81 was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
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The Development of a Radioimmuno-Assay for Carcino-Embryonic Antigen with some Applications. Clinical Evaluation of Cercino-Ernbryonic Antigen, ...
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Oxoid Diagnostic Reagents - Streptccal Enzym Extrct 50pk;3293760PK : Pack of 50 Recommended Storage: Store at 2° to 8°C and bring to room
During the adaptive response, the MHC molecules are responsible for presenting an antigen to T cells. The two types of MHC (MHCI and MHCII) have specific roles during the response. Which of the following most accurately describes the characteristics of MHCII molecules in mounting the antibody response?. Select the best answer ...
El-Manzalawy, Y., Dobbs, D., and Honavar, V. (2012). Predicting protective bacterial antigens using random forest classifiers ...
"Immunological responses to Salmonella R antigens. The bacterial cell and the protein edestin as carriers for R oligosaccharide ... as well as toxins or antigens as they enter the body). Edestin can also be broken down to edestan. Commercial hemp seeds (for ... "Immunological tolerance to the thymus-independent antigen dextran can be abrogated by thymus-dependent dextran conjugates: ...
J. Foley (2015). "Mini-review: Strategies for Variation and Evolution of Bacterial Antigens". Comput Struct Biotechnol J. 13: ... Indeed, Hershberg and Petrov suggest that mutation in most bacterial genomes is biased toward AT, even when the genome is not ... Similarly, although it may be the case that bacterial genome composition strongly reflects GC and AT biases, the proposed ...
Lacey N, Delaney S, Kavanagh K, Powell FC (2007). "Mite-related bacterial antigens stimulate inflammatory cells in rosacea" ( ... Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) was demonstrated to have greater prevalence in rosacea patients and treating it ...
1980). "Effect of cimetidine on gastric bacterial flora". Lancet. i (8170): 672-674. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(80)92826-3.. ... 2005). "Anti-ulcer drugs promote IgE formation toward dietary antigens in adult patients". FASEB J. 19 (6): 656-658. doi: ...
This might be a mechanism used to avoid bacterial immune evasion during bacterial infections. The MR1 protein is capable of ... May 2016). "The intracellular pathway for the presentation of vitamin B-related antigens by the antigen-presenting molecule MR1 ... This isoform binds antigen via α1 and α2 interaction. Some bacteria are able to target specific β2 microglobulin that enable ... Due to the antigen necessity for MR1 stabilization. MR1 binds the intermediates of riboflavine synthesis. Human body can´t ...
DNA vaccines induce antigen production in the host. It is a plasmid that contains a viral, bacterial or parasite gene. The ... inactivated vaccines consist of bacterians of one or more bacterial species, or killed viral strains. The inactivation occurs ... analysis of pathogens and furthered understanding of the mechanisms of pathogens has resulted in the discovery of antigens and ...
Her work on ABC transporters includes investigating their role in resistance to chemotherapy drugs; antigen presentation in ... adaptive immunity and viral infection; cystic fibrosis; and bacterial nutrition. In 2019, she was elected to the National ...
Additionally tumors can escape antigen-directed therapies by loss or down-regulation of the associated antigens, as well ... In order to fix this problem, vaccines must be able to cover the wide variety of strains within a bacterial population. In ... Different antigens are able to escape through a variety of mechanisms. For example, the African trypanosome parasites are able ... Some antigens may even target pathways different than those the vaccine had originally intended to target. Recent research on ...
During a streptococcal infection, mature antigen-presenting cells such as B cells present the bacterial antigen to CD4+T cells ... Normally, T cell activation is triggered by the presentation of bacterial antigens. In RHD, molecular mimicry results in ... Self-antigen-specific antibodies generated via molecular mimicry between human proteins and streptococcal antigens up-regulate ... Molecular mimicry occurs when epitopes are shared between host antigens and Streptococcus antigens. This causes an autoimmune ...
The pentameric structure of IgM antibodies makes them efficient at binding antigens with repetitive epitopes (e.g. bacterial ... The IgG responses to bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigens are mediated primarily via IgG2 subclass, and deficiencies in ... unresponsiveness against bacterial polysaccharide antigens". Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 20: 28-34. PMID 1509985. Jonsdottir ... they are rarely highly mutated and have broad antigen reactivity thus providing an early response to a wide range of antigens ...
The c-ANCA antigen is specifically proteinase 3 (PR3). p-ANCA antigens include myeloperoxidase (MPO) and bacterial permeability ... GS-ANA are antibodies directed to granulocyte specific nuclear antigens. Atypical ANCA are thought to be antigens similar to ... The most common antigens used on an ELISA microtitre plate are MPO and PR3, which are usually tested for after a positive IF ... Other less common antigens include HMG1 (p-ANCA pattern), HMG2 (p-ANCA pattern), alpha enolase (p and c-ANCA pattern), catalase ...
The procoagulant response to lipopolysaccaride (bacterial endotoxin) is reduced in Duffy antigen negative Africans compared ... This antigen along with other blood group antigens was used to identify the Basque people as a genetically separate group.[49] ... Because the Duffy antigen is uncommon in those of Black African descent, the presence of this antigen has been used to detect ... The Fy4 antigen, originally described on Fy (a-b-) RBCs, is now thought to be a distinct, unrelated antigen and is no longer ...
Tissue Antigens. 64 (3): 215-25. doi:10.1111/j.0001-2815.2004.00290.x. PMID 15304001. Tedla N, An H, Borges L, Vollmer-Conna U ... "Modulation of Toll-like receptor activity by leukocyte Ig-like receptors and their effects during bacterial infection". ... Tissue Antigens. 77 (4): 305-16. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2011.01633.x. PMID 21388353. Pilsbury LE, Allen RL, Vordermeier M ( ...
December 2014). "IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impair IgM responses against T-independent bacterial antigens". Blood. 124 (24 ... Although fever is a common reaction to bacterial infections, many people with IRAK-4 deficiency do not at first develop a high ... August 2008). "Pyogenic bacterial infections in humans with MyD88 deficiency". Science. 321 (5889): 691-6. doi:10.1126/science. ... These signaling defects result in a failure of cytokines to be produced in response to bacterial infection. Disorders of this ...
Here, the anti-bacterial antibodies cross react with the heart antigens causing inflammation.[citation needed] Inflammatory ... Autoimmune heart diseases are the effects of the body's own immune defense system mistaking cardiac antigens as foreign and ...
Bacterial antigens stimulate white blood cells to release MIF into the blood stream. The circulating MIF binds to CD74 on other ...
Phage typing of bacterial culture or antibodies for F-antigen. Treatment for gastroenteritis due to Y. enterocolitica is not ...
Additionally, Cfv has long LPS side chains (O-antigens) that may resist complement-mediated bacterial killing. Aside from ... Agglutination can detect the binding of antibodies and antigens, resulting in clumped bacterial cells. Since antibodies to the ... Rather than the bacterial colonization itself, the ensuing inflammatory response in the uterus and oviducts is often the cause ... The S-layer prevents complement-mediated bacterial killing by impairing the binding of C3b to the surface of the bacteria. The ...
A MAF can also alter the ability of macrophages to present MHC I antigen, participate in Th responses, and/or affect other ... Examples include heat shock proteins released during apoptosis, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Interferon-gamma Interleukin ... Pathogenic antigens can bind to toll-like receptors that stimulate macrophage activation and response. ... which can inhibit cytotoxic responses of other lymphocytes to cancer cell antigens. The stromal reaction surrounding a tumor, ...
They are usually considered to be safer than vaccines from bacterial cultures. Creating vaccines synthetically has the ability ... A synthetic vaccine is a vaccine consisting mainly of synthetic peptides, carbohydrates, or antigens. ...
They could therefore be used to vaccinate against viral, bacterial, protozoan, and tumor antigens. Initially, the Togaviridae ...
Bacterial strains of both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes and of El Tor and Classical biotypes are included in the vaccine. Dukoral ... is taken orally with bicarbonate buffer, which protects the antigens from the gastric acid. The vaccine acts by inducing ... antibodies against both the bacterial components and CTB. The antibacterial intestinal antibodies prevent the bacteria from ...
Globulins - increased due to shunting of bacterial antigens away from the liver to lymphoid tissue. Serum sodium - hyponatremia ... People with ascites due to cirrhosis are at risk of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Portal hypertensive gastropathy refers ... "Increased sTREM-1 levels identify cirrhotic patients with bacterial infection and predict their 90-day mortality". Clinics and ... pitfalls of biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of bacterial infection in cirrhosis". World Journal of Gastroenterology. ...
Enzymatic formation of the first intermediate in biosynthesis of the O-antigen of Salmonella typhimurium". J. Biol. Chem. 243 ( ... Osborn MJ, Tze-Yuen RY (1968). "Biosynthesis of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. VII. ... Wright A, Dankert M, Fennessey P, Robbins PW (1967). "Characterization of a polyisoprenoid compound functional in O-antigen ...
Mechanism of incorporation of abequose into the O-antigen of Salmonella typhimurium". J. Biol. Chem. 243 (10): 2631-9. PMID ... Osborn MJ, Weiner IM (1968). "Biosynthesis of a bacterial lipopolysaccharide. VI. ...
... of antigens introduced to the host body are crucial to building immunity through small exposure to viral and bacterial proteins ... Usually, a target cell line expressing a certain surface-exposed antigen is incubated with antibody specific for that antigen. ... is typically more useful for viral infections than bacterial infections due to IgG antibodies binding to virus-related antigens ... Frey, Joachim (2019/12). "RTX Toxins of Animal Pathogens and Their Role as Antigens in Vaccines and Diagnostics". Toxins. 11 ( ...
Bacterial avoidance of phagocytosis. Trends Microbiol. 10 (5): 232-37. [1] *↑ Todar, Kenneth. Mechanisms of bacterial ... antigen presentation': this is when the phagocyte moves parts of the killed bacteria back to its surface. These parts are then ... Phagocytosis of bacteria and bacterial pathogenicity. New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 10, 186. ISBN 0-521-84569-6 ... Some phagocytes then move to the body's lymph nodes and show the bacterial parts to white blood cells called lymphocytes. This ...
Sialyl lewis x is important in ABO blood antigen determination. SLex is also important to proper immune response. P-selectin ... One such factor is the response of the endothelial cell to certain bacterial molecules, such as peptidoglycan. P-selectin binds ...
These polyspecific immunoglobulins often have a preference for other immunoglobulins, self antigens and common bacterial ... B1b cells seem to recognize more types of antigens including intracellular antigens. Previously, B1b cell antigen recognition ... making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen-presenting cells. These B1 cells are commonly found in peripheral ... Hence, there appears to be a role for self or foreign antigen in shaping the repertoire of the B-1 B cell compartment. B1 B ...
MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. Proceedings of the National ... Mucosal-associated invariant T-cells: new players in anti-bacterial immunity. Frontiers in Immunology. 2014-10-08, 5: 450. PMC ... An induced rebinding model of antigen discrimination. Trends Immunol. 2014, 35 (4): 153-8. PMC 3989030. PMID 24636916. doi: ... Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ...
"First Antigen Rapid Test for Ebola through Emergency Assessment and Eligible for Procurement". World Health Organization (WHO ... balance as well as treating any bacterial infections that may develop.[33] Dialysis may be needed for kidney failure, and ... a rapid antigen test which gives results in 15 minutes was approved for use by WHO.[101] It is able to confirm Ebola in 92% of ...
"Medically important bacterial-fungal interactions." Nature Reviews Microbiology 8.5 (2010): 340-349. Kourkoumpetis, ... in persons with blood group O and in non-secretors of blood group antigens in saliva. Increased rates of Candida carriage are ...
Pays, E. (2005). "Regulation of antigen gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei". Trends Parasitol. 21 (11): 517-20. doi:10.1016/ ... "Being Pathogenic, Plastic, and Sexual while Living with a Nearly Minimal Bacterial Genome". PLoS Genet. 3 (5): e75. doi ... has evolved so many copies of its major surface antigen that about 10% of its genome is devoted to different versions of this ...
OspA antigens, shed by live Borrelia bacteria into urine, are a promising technique being studied.[117] The use of nanotrap ... In the US, the National Institutes of Health has supported research into bacterial persistence.[282] ... The CDC does not recommend urine antigen tests, PCR tests on urine, immunofluorescent staining for cell-wall-deficient forms of ... Dotters-Katz, S; Kuller, J; Heine, P (September 2013). "Arthropod-Borne Bacterial Diseases in Pregnancy". Obstetrical & ...
The tonsils have on their surface specialized antigen capture cells called M cells that allow for the uptake of antigens ... or if bacterial in origin, antibiotics, e.g. amoxicillin and azithromycin. Surgical removal (tonsillectomy) may be advised if ...
Anevlavis S; Bouros D (2010). "Community acquired bacterial pneumonia". Expert Opin Pharmacother. 11 (3): 361-74. doi:10.1517/ ... gayundin ang pagsusuri sa ihi para sa mga antigen (substansiyang lumilikha ng pangontra sa sakit) para sa Legionella at ... Ang mga impeksiyong sanhi ng birus ay maaaring kumpirmahin sa pamamagitan ng pagtuklas ng alinman sa birus o mga antigen ( ... "A systematic review on the diagnosis of pediatric bacterial pneumonia: when gold is bronze". PLoS ONE. 5 (8): e11989. doi ...
... family members are homologous to the bacterial RecA, Archaeal RadA and yeast Rad51.[5][6] The protein is highly conserved ...
Some diseases, such as tetanus, cause disease not by bacterial growth but by bacterial production of a toxin. Tetanus toxin is ... is to conjugate the antigens. Conjugation is the attachment to the antigen of another substance which also generates an immune ... A more contemporary approach for "boosting" the immune response to simpler immunogenic molecules (known as antigens) ... In the future it might be possible to artificially design antibodies to fit specific antigens, then produce them in large ...
These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing the dilation of ... They defend against bacterial or fungal infection. They are usually first responders to microbial infection; their activity and ...
Bacterial colonization with Staphylococcus aureus has been hypothesized as an initiating factor of the autoimmunity seen in ... people with GPA.[8] Several genes involved in the immune system including PTPN22, CTLA4, and human leukocyte antigen genes may ...
rid the body of neutralized antigen-antibody complexes.. Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian ... The binding of bacterial molecules to receptors on the surface of a macrophage triggers it to engulf and destroy the bacteria. ... Activates the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation. ... Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ...
An example of TI-1 antigen is lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial DNA.[2] ... TI-1 antigen[edit]. TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and ... TI-2 antigen[edit]. Second group of TI antigens consists mainly of highly repetitive surface structures (epitopes) of ... TI-1 antigen, which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen, which has highly repetitive structure ...
Dean L (2005). "Chapter 5: The ABO blood group.". Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. பார்த்த நாள் 2007-03-24. ... "Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells". Nat Biotechnol 25 (4): 454-64. doi:10.1038/nbt1298 ... "Portuguese Blood Institute" (Portuguese). (assuming Rh and AB antigens are independent) *↑ "Frequency of ABO blood groups in ... Laura Dean, MD (2005). Blood Groups an Red Cell Antigens. National Center for Biotechnology Information, United States ...
Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... Some prokaryotes, including many archaea and the bacterial order Actinomycetales, also share homologs of the 20S proteasome, ... Zhang M, Coffino P (March 2004). "Repeat sequence of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 protein interrupts proteasome ... helping the virus propagate by preventing antigen presentation on the major histocompatibility complex.[63] ...
Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... When host cells die, either by programmed cell death (also called apoptosis) or by cell injury due to a bacterial or viral ... Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ... Gómez-Gómez L, Boller T (June 2000). "FLS2: an LRR receptor-like kinase involved in the perception of the bacterial elicitor ...
A type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.. apoptosis. A highly regulated form ... of the immune system in response to specific antigens invading the body. The theory has become the widely accepted model for ... A lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.. flavin adenine dinucleotide ... A membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal, and bacterial cells.. ...
... or because of viral or intracellular bacterial infection. The fragments are then presented on the cell surface in the complex ... Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens[edit]. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... Tumor antigens[edit]. Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the ...
... other bacterial products, and Interleukin-1 (IL-1). In the skin, mast cells appear to be the predominant source of pre-formed ... "Cytotoxicity mediated by soluble antigen and lymphocytes in delayed hypersensitivity. 3. Analysis of mechanism". J. Exp. Med ...
The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen (usually a protein or ... In 1995 a team at The Institute for Genomic Research sequenced the first bacterial genome; Haemophilus influenzae.[6] A few ... For bacterial identification, the use of metabolic or enzymatic characteristics are common due to their ability to ferment ... Bacterial infections are treated with antibacterials (often called antibiotics) whereas fungal and viral infections are treated ...
Bleeding from the ears and petechial hemorrhages in the skin also occurred."[193] The majority of deaths were from bacterial ... The resulting rapid change in viral genetics produces antigenic shifts, which are sudden changes from one antigen to another. ... Occasionally, influenza can cause severe illness including primary viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia.[31][32] ... If a human influenza virus is produced that has entirely new antigens, everybody will be susceptible, and the novel influenza ...
1 - antigen. 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - ... Other widely promoted tests such as the antigen leukocyte cellular antibody test and the food allergy profile are considered ...
Schwann cell antigen. Neuritis, paralysis. Hashimoto's thyroiditis[1]. Thyroglobulin antigen. Hypothyroidism, hard goiter, ... Target antigen. Effects. Allergic contact dermatitis[1]. Environmental chemicals, like urushiol (from poison ivy and poison oak ... Myelin antigens (e.g., myelin basic protein). Myelin destruction, inflammation. Rheumatoid arthritis[1]. Possibly collagen and/ ... CD4+ Th1 helper T cells recognize antigen in a complex with the MHC class II major histocompatibility complex on the surface of ...
Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... but may be also effective in bacterial infections. Epidemiological research shows that IgE level is increased when infected by ... FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used ...
Similar systems exist in other bacterial genera.[117]. Medicine[edit]. Epigenetics has many and varied potential medical ... has a 10-40-fold preference for hemimethylated DNA and interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).[51] ... sRNATarBase 2.0 A comprehensive database of bacterial SRNA targets verified by experiments ... "Epigenetic gene regulation in the bacterial world". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 70 (3): 830-56. PMC 1594586 . PMID 16959970 ...
Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ... "Green fluorescent protein as a reporter for macromolecular localization in bacterial cells". Methods. 20 (1): 62-72. doi ... Ribbon diagram of a mouse antibody against cholera that binds a carbohydrate antigen ...
QMCF cell lines express Large-T antigen and EBNA-1 proteins which bind the viral sequences on the QMCF plasmid and hence ... bacterial ColE1 origin of replication, and cassette for expression of protein of interest. ...
Skerman, V.B.D.M.; Sneath, P.H.A. (1980). "Approved list of bacterial names". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 30: 225-420. doi:10.1099/ ... Lancefield group C and G carbohydrate antigens are predominantly expressed, but group A and L have been documented. However, ... In 1980, they were even removed from the List of Approved Bacterial species. Three years later, though, DNA hybridization ... S. dysgalactiae has been particularly linked to mastitis occurring during the summer time ("Summer mastitis"), and bacterial ...
... molecular cages for antigen, components of bacterial cell walls, and endocytosed nucleic acids such as double-stranded RNA ( ... Second, adjuvants may provide physical protection to antigens which grants the antigen a prolonged delivery. This means that ... or enhance antigen-specific immune responses when used in combination with specific vaccine antigens."[2] ... In immunology, an adjuvant is a substance that potentiates and/or modulates the immune responses to an antigen to improve them. ...
Comparison of Bacterial Antigen Test and Gram Stain for Detecting Classic Meningitis Bacteria in Cerebrospinal Fluid Tess Karre ... Multiplex Urinary Antigen Detection for 13 Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes Improves Diagnosis of Pneumococcal Pneumonia in ... for Detection of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 Antigen in Urine Paul Badoux, Sjoerd M. Euser, Jacob P. Bruin, Patrick P. G ...
Home : For health professionals : Refer a patient : Laboratory Services : Test Table : BACTERIAL ANTIGEN DETECTION ... Haemophilus influenzae type B Antigen Detection, LA; Neisseria meningitidis Antigen Detection (Groups A/Y and C/W 135), LA; ... Neisseria meningitidis Detection (Group B/E. coli K1), LA; Streptococcus, Group B, Antigen Detection, LA; Streptococcus ...
Using an unbiased molecular screen to search for bacterial antigens relevant to IBD, the dominant antigens identified were a ... the 38-kDa antigen of M. tuberculosis (p38 antigen; 38 kDa: filled triangles); lysate of E. coli antigens (E. coli; open ... Bacterial flagellin is a dominant antigen in Crohn disease. Michael J. Lodes,1 Yingzi Cong,2 Charles O. Elson,2 Raodoh Mohamath ... Enteric bacterial antigen-reactive CD4+ T cells are able to induce colitis when adoptively transferred into immunodeficient ...
The dominant antigens identified were flagellins, molecules known to activate innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), ... Here we used serological expression cloning to identify commensal bacterial proteins that could contribute to the pathogenesis ... These results identify flagellins as a class of immunodominant antigens that stimulate pathogenic intestinal immune reactions ... in genetically diverse hosts and suggest new avenues for the diagnosis and antigen-directed therapy of patients with IBD. ...
... The broad spectrum of immune responses elicited coupled with ... Of these, the use of genetically engineered bacterial spores has been shown to offer promise as both a mucosal as well as a ... The spore appears to present a bound antigen in its native conformation promoting a cellular (T(h)1-biased) response coupled ... by enhancing responses against soluble antigens. The broad spectrum of immune responses elicited coupled with the attendant ...
Persistent bacterial antigen, autoimmunity, or both? Arthritis Rheum. 1995 Nov;38(11):1547-54. doi: 10.1002/art.1780381105. ... Although a T cell response driven by persisting bacterial antigen is still an attractive hypothesis, it does not explain all ... The possibility of autoimmunity triggered by bacterial infection needs also to be considered, especially the new idea of HLA- ...
PRNewswire/ -- The Native Bacterial and Viral Antigens Market Forecast to 2027 - COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis by ... Native Bacterial and Viral Antigens Market Analysis - By End User. 11. Native Bacterial and Viral Antigens Market Analysis and ... 4. Global Native Bacterial and Viral Antigens Market - Market Landscape. 5. Native Bacterial and Viral Antigens Market- Key ... 6. Native Bacterial and Viral Antigens Market - Global Analysis. 7. Native Bacterial and Viral Antigens Market Analysis - By ...
Duodenal bacterial proteolytic activity determines sensitivity to dietary antigen through protease-activated receptor-2. * ... Image-Pro 6.3 software was used to score bacterial encroachment in the epithelium by counting bacterial signal in contact with ... aeruginosa bacterial load in the small intestine of clean SPF C57BL/6 colonized with P. aeruginosa PA14 WT or lasB mutant with ... Small intestinal bacterial load was similar in P. aeruginosa PA14 WT and lasB mutant colonized mice, with an increase of P. ...
Bacterial antigens that are reactive with the InMAD immune serum are precisely the antigens to target in an antigen immunoassay ... Identification of circulating bacterial antigens by in vivo microbial antigen discovery.. [Dana E Nuti, Reva B Crump, Farida ... The InMAD immune serum is then used to probe blots of bacterial lysates or bacterial proteome arrays. ... that we used to identify circulating bacterial antigens. This technique starts with "InMAD serum," which is filtered serum that ...
... a common type of invasive serogroup B meningococcal disease in children and young adults express at least one of the antigens ... Meningococcal Vaccine Antigens Expressed by 91 Percent of Tested Bacterial Strains. Nov. 22, 2017. Wednesday, Nov. 22, 2017 ... The MATS test showed that 91 percent of these US bacterial strains express antigens similar to those contained in the MenB-4C ... We are confident the MATS technique will be very useful at detecting any changes in bacterial expression of these antigens." ...
NOD2 stimulation induces autophagy in dendritic cells influencing bacterial handling and antigen presentation.. Cooney R1, ... bacterial trafficking and antigen presentation. Our findings link two Crohns disease-associated susceptibility genes in a ... but it is not clear how bacterial recognition links with antigen presentation after NOD2 stimulation. NOD2 variants are ... Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing-2 (NOD2) acts as a bacterial sensor in dendritic cells (DCs), ...
The antigen 43 structure reveals a molecular Velcro-like mechanism of autotransporter-mediated bacterial clumping. Begoña Heras ... The antigen 43 structure reveals a molecular Velcro-like mechanism of autotransporter-mediated bacterial clumping ... Autotransporter-mediated bacterial clumping. Begoña Heras, Makrina Totsika, Kate M. Peters, Jason J. Paxman, Christine L. Gee, ... Autotransporter-mediated bacterial clumping. Begoña Heras, Makrina Totsika, Kate M. Peters, Jason J. Paxman, Christine L. Gee, ...
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Non-viable structures of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 were shown at the site of inflammation within mononuclear cells in the synovial membrane of eight out of 10 patients with yersinia triggered reactive arthritis. An avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method, with a rabbit antiserum specific for Y enterocolitica O:3, was used to visualise yersinia structures. All 13 control samples were negative except for one with non-specific mast cell staining. The findings emphasise the significance of foreign material in the initiation of synovitis in reactive arthritis. ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Biosynthesis of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. V. Lipid-linked intermediates in the biosynthesis of the O-antigen groups of ... Biosynthesis of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. V. Lipid-linked intermediates in the biosynthesis of the O-antigen groups of ... Biosynthesis of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. V. Lipid-linked intermediates in the biosynthesis of the O-antigen groups of ... Biosynthesis of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. V. Lipid-linked intermediates in the biosynthesis of the O-antigen groups of ...
Potentiation of histamine release against inhalant allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) with bacterial antigens in ... Potentiation of histamine release against inhalant allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) with bacterial antigens in ... In the etiopathogenesis of bronchial asthma, the important role of bacterial infection is more evident every day, favoring ... These findings support the important role of the bacterial infection in the etiopathogenesis of bronchial asthma and the ...
Bacterial Antigens Market: Key Players. The global bacterial antigens market is highly fragmented owing to the presence of ... Bacterial Antigens Market: Segmentation. Tentatively, the global bacterial antigens market can be segmented on the basis of ... Bacterial Antigens Market: Regional Outlook. Geographically, the global bacterial antigens market is segmented into North ... What Other insights does the Bacterial Antigens Market market report offers?. *Global Bacterial Antigens Market market ...
Nonviable bacterial antigens administered with IL-12 generate antigen-specific T cell responses and protective immunity against ... Nonviable bacterial antigens administered with IL-12 generate antigen-specific T cell responses and protective immunity against ... Nonviable bacterial antigens administered with IL-12 generate antigen-specific T cell responses and protective immunity against ... Nonviable bacterial antigens administered with IL-12 generate antigen-specific T cell responses and protective immunity against ...
Bacterial lipoproteins may substitute for cytokines in the humoral immune response to T cell-independent type II antigens.. C M ... Bacterial lipoproteins may substitute for cytokines in the humoral immune response to T cell-independent type II antigens. ... Bacterial lipoproteins may substitute for cytokines in the humoral immune response to T cell-independent type II antigens. ... Bacterial lipoproteins may substitute for cytokines in the humoral immune response to T cell-independent type II antigens. ...
Potential for Detecting Ocular Bacterial Antigen Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy L. Woodward; S. Maswadi; R. D. Glickman; A. ... Purpose:: We are investigating the feasibility of detecting ocular bacterial antigen using a minimally invasive optical method ... L. Woodward, S. Maswadi, R. D. Glickman, A. Oraevsky, N. Barsalou, G. Zhong; Potential for Detecting Ocular Bacterial Antigen ... Potential for Detecting Ocular Bacterial Antigen Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy You will receive an email whenever this ...
Utility of leucocyte antigens in distinguishing between bacterial and viral infection in children. Anna Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, ... Utility of leucocyte antigens in distinguishing between bacterial and viral infection in children. Central European Journal of ... Utility of leucocyte antigens in distinguishing between bacterial and viral infection in children. Central European Journal of ... "Utility of leucocyte antigens in distinguishing between bacterial and viral infection in children". Central European Journal of ...
Antigens may be found in the body, and are foreign substances which introduce a pathogen to the immunologic system in order to ... Buy Antigen. start with: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... Employing antigens for antibody generation are key applications. Antigens are referred to as immunogenic antigens or simply ... An antigen is typically defined as a substance that triggers an immunogenic response. The immune system sees the antigen as a ...
Responses of synovial fluid and peripheral blood mononuclear cells to bacterial antigens and autologous antigen presenting ... Responses of synovial fluid and peripheral blood mononuclear cells to bacterial antigens and autologous antigen presenting ... Bacterial antigens are suspect in the aetiology of rheumatic diseases. The responsiveness of the mononuclear cell fraction of ... No significant difference in response was found to all these bacterial antigens in the synovial fluid of patients with RA ...
Radioimmunoassay for Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigens: influence of antigen solubility.. R S Munford, C L ... Radioimmunoassay for Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigens: influence of antigen solubility. ... Radioimmunoassay for Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigens: influence of antigen solubility. ... Radioimmunoassay for Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigens: influence of antigen solubility. ...
Control of tick infestations in cattle vaccinated with bacterial membranes containing surface-exposed tick protective antigens ... Tick subolesin (SUB), elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and ubiquitin (UBQ) are new candidate protective antigens for the control of ... This system provides a novel, simple and cost-effective approach for the production of tick protective antigens by surface ... Vaccines containing the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 antigens protect cattle against tick infestations. ...
Analysis of protective antigen peptide binding motifs using bacterial display technology Author(s): Deborah A. Sarkes; Brandi L ... Combined with magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), bacterial display technology makes it possible to isolate selective, high ... Peptide affinity reagents for protective antigen (PA) of the biothreat Bacillus anthracis were previously discovered using ... bacterial display. Bioinformatics analysis resulted in the consensus sequence WXCFTC. Additionally, we have discovered PA ...
Bacterial antigen detection in body fluids: methods for rapid antigen concentration and reduction of nonspecific reactions.. S ... Bacterial antigen detection in body fluids: methods for rapid antigen concentration and reduction of nonspecific reactions. ... Bacterial antigen detection in body fluids: methods for rapid antigen concentration and reduction of nonspecific reactions. ... Bacterial antigen detection in body fluids: methods for rapid antigen concentration and reduction of nonspecific reactions. ...
... are the attractive candidates for this bacterial biocontrol. PP35 has a very specific host range due to the presence of tail ... Dickeya solani is a recently emerged virulent bacterial potato pathogen that poses a major threat to world agriculture. Because ... a recently emerged virulent bacterial potato pathogen, is a major threat to world agriculture. Because of the growing ... Host Specificity of the Dickeya Bacteriophage PP35 Is Directed by a Tail Spike Interaction With Bacterial O-Antigen, Enabling ...
In this study, bacterial system has been developed for expression and purification of properly folded HA1 antigen as a rapid ... Since most antigenic sites are in the HA1 domain of HA, using this domain of influenza virus as antigen is of great importance ... Our findings suggest that HA1-based vaccines can be produced efficiently in bacterial systems and can be easily upscaled in ... The ability of the antibody stimulation against HA1 expressed in bacterial cells is also examined using enzyme-linked ...
  • The possibility of autoimmunity triggered by bacterial infection needs also to be considered, especially the new idea of HLA-B27-derived peptides presented by class II MHC molecules. (nih.gov)
  • Detection of microbial antigens in clinical samples can lead to rapid diagnosis of an infection and administration of appropriate therapeutics. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • By employing InMAD, we identified multiple circulating antigens that are secreted or shed during infection using Burkholderia pseudomallei and Francisella tularensis as model organisms. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • One means for rapid diagnosis is immunoassay for antigens that are shed into body fluids during infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This report describes a strategy that can be used for identification of microbial antigens that are shed into serum during infection by the biothreats Burkholderia pseudomallei and Francisella tularensis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These antigens are found on the bacteria, and vaccination with them helps protect an individual from infection by the bacteria that carry the antigens, contingent on their immune response to the vaccine. (asm.org)
  • This work provides insight into the structure-function mechanisms that facilitate bacterial interactions during infection. (pnas.org)
  • In the etiopathogenesis of bronchial asthma, the important role of bacterial infection is more evident every day, favoring inflammation and obstruction, that is, triggering an asthmatic response. (cun.es)
  • These findings support the important role of the bacterial infection in the etiopathogenesis of bronchial asthma and the importance of a treatment against this infection. (cun.es)
  • Differential diagnosis of bacterial and viral infection is often a big challenge. (termedia.pl)
  • On the other hand, tests which are known as a gold standard for confirmation of bacterial or viral etiology of infection (microbiological culture or polymerase chain reaction - PCR, respectively) are laborious and, what is more important, time-consuming. (termedia.pl)
  • Plasmacytoid dendritic cells, activated by bacterial antigens via TLR9 or by viral infection, did not produce the protein. (asm.org)
  • These findings confirm that IVI antigens used as vaccine candidates provide partial protection against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in a mouse model, which could be used as potential vaccine candidates in piglets. (frontiersin.org)
  • can also result from subacute bacterial endocarditis, a chronic infection of damaged heart valves. (britannica.com)
  • is the increased risk of bacterial endocarditis (inflammation of the heart lining as a result of bacterial infection). (britannica.com)
  • Antigens are substances capable of triggering an immune response in a host, by activating lymphocytes or initiating antibody production against the infection. (factmr.com)
  • However, increasing risk of bacterial infection in host might restrain the revenue growth in global bacterial antigens market. (factmr.com)
  • From experimental models and the analyses of patients, it is well documented that antigen-specific T cells are critical for protection against Leishmania infection. (asm.org)
  • Protection from, and clearance of, Leishmania infection is strongly associated with the generation of antigen-specific Th1 responses, knowledge that provides a clear goal for immunization. (asm.org)
  • This proposal details an exploratory identification of the antigen-specific cell mediated immune responses associated with antecedent C. trachomatis infection in women. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This is an exploratory investigation in which we will develop the methodology needed to identify the antigen-specific cell mediated immune responses most strongly associated with protection against incident C. trachomatis infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The molecular relationships between FCT region surface proteins, pilus-like structures, and T antigens were characterized in depth, and the contributions of three FCT region-encoded surface proteins to virulence were evaluated in an animal model for superficial infection at the skin. (asm.org)
  • Although infection with the laboratory strain of Cpn promotes deposition of amyloid beta, this appears to resolve following reduction of the Cpn antigen burden over time. (pcom.edu)
  • In other cases, the antigen expressed during in vivo infection is not expressed during in vitro cultivation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, antibody testing against Ct antigens could be an alternative, as the antibody response to Ct persists even after infection resolves. (ntdsupport.org)
  • 0.996), which indicated that this 35 kDa is more accurate indicator of MPT infection than other antigens . (bvsalud.org)
  • The resulting "InMAD immune serum" contains antibodies specific for the soluble microbial antigens present in sera from the infected mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The production of antibodies by B-cells, specialized cells of the immune system, is the most well-known immunogenic response triggered by antigens. (mybiosource.com)
  • Researchers also use immunogenic antigens to produce their own antibodies. (mybiosource.com)
  • Many factors affect the probability of coaxing an immune system to generate antibodies specifically targeted against an immunogenic antigen. (mybiosource.com)
  • The antibodies of subjects allergic to a bacterial antigen included IgE and IgG4 (particularly for males) compared with the almost exclusive IgG1 response of non-allergic subjects. (bmj.com)
  • To study immune responses to an antigen presented at the respiratory mucosa, the IgE and IgG subclass antibodies induced by a conserved outer membrane protein of Haemophilus influenzae has been examined. (bmj.com)
  • 13 The possibility that immune responses to bacteria may be different in people with aeroallergies has been indicated by studies examining IgE antibodies or allergic responses to bacterial extracts. (bmj.com)
  • Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported an accurate, sensitive, specific, reproducible, and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in human serum (C. P. Quinn, V. A. Semenova, C. M. Elie et al. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study, using SLRP we succeeded to prepare STGs with correct surface antigens could interact with their specific antibodies. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, the antibodies produced by the STGs should react with the evaluable antigens (O and H) and the immunized animals should be survived after treatment with live cells. (hindawi.com)
  • To aid the clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever in India, where most hospitals and primary health centres have no facilities for culture, we report on the development of a novel and rapid immunodiagnostic kit for the direct detection of Salmonella Typhi-specific IgG antibodies against S . Typhi flagellar H antigen. (hindawi.com)
  • Since the immunodiagnostic kit, uses the flagellar H antigen from bacteria present in our country, the antibodies present in the serum of patients of our country will have maximum binding affinity, enhancing the sensitivity of our test kit. (hindawi.com)
  • Although, S . Typhi is a relatively invariant pathogen to antigenic variation, many of the surface antigens, therefore, may be conserved across the genera and induce antibodies that are cross reactive. (hindawi.com)
  • Essentially all serological tests for typhoid are based on the detection of antibodies to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens (O9 and O12) [ 1 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A test apparatus for the determination of immunoassays of antigens and their antibodies which comprises a receptacle tray having a plurality of wells for receiving and samples, a holder for receiving and holding balls, coated with an immunologic composition and for depositing the balls into the wells. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to diagnostic apparatus for use in radioimmunoassay for antigens and their antibodies. (google.com)
  • More particularly, this invention relates to a diagnostic apparatus for a direct radioimmunoassay for determining hapatitis associated antigen or its antibodies or antigens and antibodies. (google.com)
  • Viral hepatitis, including so called serum hepatitis, which is a relatively common disease, has not been heretofore easily detected by a sensitive test which is both specific and reproducible for quickly determining whether or not the serum from a patient or a donor contains hepatitis associated antigens or antibodies. (google.com)
  • Antibodies specific for S. aureus and E. coli antigens were tested for reactivity to nitrocellulose-blotted extract from purified HDM bodies and the IgE-reactive antigens were detected by IgE-immunoblot inhibition experiments. (blogspot.com)
  • IgE antibodies directed to bacterial antigens in HDM were quantified by IgE ImmunoCAP ™ inhibition experiments. (blogspot.com)
  • It has been shown that anti-DNA antibodies cross-react with bacterial polysaccharide and, thus, might be elicited by microbial exposure. (elsevier.com)
  • Antibodies were then analyzed for binding to bacterial polysaccharide and to renal antigens. (elsevier.com)
  • This study suggests that both DNA-binding and non-DNA-binding antibodies in SLE may be elicited by the same bacterial antigens. (elsevier.com)
  • Antigens are the chemical substances that can induce an immune response in the body, which results in the production antibodies that helps in resisting bacterial or viral infections. (icrowdnewswire.com)
  • A novel approach for the identification of protein antigens from bacterial pathogens was previously developed in our laboratory that combines the advantages of full genome coverage and serological antigen identification. (nih.gov)
  • We have applied this technology to several bacterial pathogens of the genera Staphylococcus and Streptococcus and have, as a result, defined the "antigenome" of these pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • Using this technology, novel protective antigens were discovered from several important human pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • These results demonstrate that proteases expressed by opportunistic pathogens impact host immune responses that are relevant to the development of food sensitivities, independently of the trigger antigen. (nature.com)
  • Termed InMAD (in vivo microbial antigen discovery), the strategy has the potential for application to a broad spectrum of microbial pathogens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Researches focused on expression of these antigens on phagocytes, which are involved in the first defence mechanisms, including: antigen presentation, recognition and phagocytosis of IgG and complement opsonised pathogens, and complement activity. (termedia.pl)
  • Is the Subject Area "Bacterial pathogens" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Study on sugar modified antigens and intracellular bacterial pathogens. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch (EDEB), Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, is responsible for surveillance of bacterial enteric pathogens. (cdc.gov)
  • Bacterial antigens in bacterial antigens market are majorly found in distinct formats, such as purified, inactivated pathogens, ascites and antigen carrier conjugates. (factmr.com)
  • Among the pathogen type segment, inactivated bacterial pathogen will register higher demand from end users as compared to purified pathogens. (factmr.com)
  • The incidence of infectious diseases caused by several bacterial pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae , and Neisseria meningitidis , has been dramatically reduced over the last 25 years through the use of glycoconjugate vaccines. (mdpi.com)
  • In this work we have discovered that the negatively charged and hydrophobic surface layer of spores provides a suitable platform for adsorption of protein antigens. (ei-resource.org)
  • Thus, correction of bacterial proteolytic imbalance in the small intestine may constitute a new therapeutic target to prevent or ameliorate food sensitivities triggered by specific protein antigens. (nature.com)
  • For example, made to order recombinant protein antigens may start off from the cloning stage. (mybiosource.com)
  • Optional services, upon request, for made to order protein antigens includes low endotoxin, aseptic manufacture, and tag removal. (mybiosource.com)
  • Antigenome technology: a novel approach for the selection of bacterial vaccine candidate antigens. (nih.gov)
  • Of these, the use of genetically engineered bacterial spores has been shown to offer promise as both a mucosal as well as a heat-stable vaccine delivery system. (ei-resource.org)
  • Washington, DC - November 22, 2017 - Up to 91 percent of bacterial strains causing a common type of invasive serogroup B meningococcal disease in children and young adults express at least one of the antigens contained in a four-component vaccine called MenB-4C (Bexsero), according to laboratory studies conducted by investigators at the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and at GlaxoSmithKline, manufacturers of the vaccine. (asm.org)
  • Researchers used a laboratory test called the Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) to study the coverage potential of the MenB-4C vaccine, which was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in January 2015 for use in individuals ages 10-25 years. (asm.org)
  • The MATS test showed that 91 percent of these US bacterial strains express antigens similar to those contained in the MenB-4C vaccine, with an estimated coverage ranging from 88 percent to 97 percent each year. (asm.org)
  • More than half of the covered strains could be targeted by two or more antigens in the vaccine, the investigators found. (asm.org)
  • This system provides a novel, simple and cost-effective approach for the production of tick protective antigens by surface display of antigenic protein chimera on the E. coli membrane and demonstrates the possibility of using recombinant bacterial membrane fractions in vaccine preparations to protect cattle against tick infestations. (csic.es)
  • Since most antigenic sites are in the HA1 domain of HA, using this domain of influenza virus as antigen is of great importance in vaccine development. (magiran.com)
  • Here, we develop a vaccine formulation based on two chimeric antigens containing epitopes of OmpT, Cah and Hes proteins against STEC strains. (nature.com)
  • Six in vivo -induced (IVI) antigens-RnhB, GalU, GalT, Apl_1061, Apl_1166, and HflX were selected for a vaccine trial in a mouse model. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, a number of recombinant antigens of APP were demonstrated to be putative vaccine candidates. (frontiersin.org)
  • A wide range of native state bacterial antigens are in high demand, particularly for vaccine research and in-vitro diagnostics. (factmr.com)
  • While a great number of antigens have been examined as vaccine candidates against various Leishmania species, few have advanced to human or canine clinical trials. (asm.org)
  • With emphasis on antigen expression, in this minireview we discuss some of the vaccine platforms that are currently being explored for the development of Leishmania vaccines. (asm.org)
  • It is clear that the vaccine platform of choice can have a significant impact upon the level of protection induced by particular antigens, and we provide and highlight some examples for which the vaccine system used has impacted the protective efficacy imparted. (asm.org)
  • Vaccine development has been identified as essential for control of C. trachomatis infections, and current evidence suggests that an effective vaccine will likely be based on several C. trachomatis antigens. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Although data from both experimental models and clinical studies suggest that antigen specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are required for optimal control of genital tract chlamydial infections, the current lack of information regarding the specific C. trachomatis antigens eliciting protective immune responses in humans hinders vaccine development. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Comparative analysis of different vaccine constructs expressing defined antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (mendeley.com)
  • METHODS: We compared the efficacies of the most commonly used vaccine constructs--adjuvanted protein, plasmid DNA, and live bacterial vectors--bearing the immunodominant secreted antigens early secreted antigen target-6 and antigen 85B, either alone or as a fusion protein. (mendeley.com)
  • Traditional immunization protocols typically require multiple exposures of the patient to the antigen, usually by injections of a vaccine formulation at intervals of weeks or months. (google.com)
  • Vaccine development in the post-genomic era often begins with the in silico screening of genome information, with the most probable protective antigens being predicted rather than requiring causative microorganisms to be grown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Potential diagnostic targets identified by the InMAD approach included bacterial proteins, capsular polysaccharide, and lipopolysaccharide. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Biosynthesis of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. (pnas.org)
  • Radioimmunoassay for Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigens: influence of antigen solubility. (asm.org)
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component on the surface of Gram-negative bacteria, is composed of a lipid A-core and the O-antigen polysaccharide. (diva-portal.org)
  • GII.6 NoVLP was not rejected with the MF membrane in the presence of E. coli O86:K61:B7, but the removal of EPS of E. coli O86:K61:B7 increased the removal efficiency due to the interaction of NoVLPs with the exposed B-antigen in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of E. coli O86:K61:B7. (elsevier.com)
  • Coreceptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide. (uniprot.org)
  • In concert with LBP, binds to monomeric lipopolysaccharide and delivers it to the LY96/TLR4 complex, thereby mediating the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (uniprot.org)
  • Here we used serological expression cloning to identify commensal bacterial proteins that could contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD. (jci.org)
  • A major barrier in diagnostics development is determining which of the potentially hundreds or thousands of antigens produced by a microbe are actually present in patient samples in detectable amounts against a background of innumerable host proteins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • One mechanism used by bacteria to aggregate and form biofilms involves the expression of self-associating surface-located autotransporter proteins such as Antigen 43 (Ag43). (pnas.org)
  • Despite their abundance and role in bacterial pathogenesis, most AT proteins have not been structurally characterized, and there is a paucity of detailed information with regard to their mode of action. (pnas.org)
  • Antigens are frequently conjugated to carrier proteins to amplify their immunogenicity in vivo. (mybiosource.com)
  • Bruyns A-M, De Jaeger G, De Neve M, De Wilde C, Van Montagu M, Depicker A. Bacterial and plant-produced scFv proteins have similar antigen-binding properties. (ugent.be)
  • The s. typhi suppresses surface Vi antigen and produces flagellin and secreted proteins, these factors promote the bacterial invasion from the surface of M cells of Peyer's patches. (nii.ac.jp)
  • One of the most interesting applications of spores presenting heterologous proteins is the use as carriers of antigens in mucosal vaccines. (springer.com)
  • pdf Immunobiology of Proteins and Peptides-III: Viral and Bacterial Antigens & feminist fault - Should Euthanasia or charitable income acquire other? (austincathey.com)
  • What is current with this pdf Immunobiology of Proteins and Peptides-III: Viral and Bacterial? (austincathey.com)
  • Among these, self-antigens comprise mutated or overexpressed proteins. (factmr.com)
  • However, foreign antigens may include bacteria, parasites, viruses, chemicals and sometimes toxins and proteins found in food products. (factmr.com)
  • Further, antigenicity of flagellar (H) proteins is higher than somatic (O) polysaccharide antigens [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • FCT region genes of Streptococcus pyogenes encode surface proteins that include f ibronectin- and c ollagen-binding proteins and the serological markers known as T antigens, some of which give rise to pilus-like appendages. (asm.org)
  • The functional role of FCT region-encoded surface proteins in virulence and the role of T antigens in particular have not been well studied using in vivo models of streptococcal disease. (asm.org)
  • Thus, these proteins can be utilized to develop vaccines in bacterial and viral infections. (ac.ir)
  • It was developed to allow antigen classification solely based on the physicochemical properties of proteins without recourse to sequence alignment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Spores then, should be considered as mucosal adjuvants, most similar to particulate adjuvants, by enhancing responses against soluble antigens. (ei-resource.org)
  • This effect requires receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase-2 (RIPK-2), autophagy-related protein-5 (ATG5), ATG7 and ATG16L1 but not NLR family, pyrin domain containing-3 (NALP3).We show that NOD2-mediated autophagy is required for both bacterial handling and generation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell responses in DCs. (nih.gov)
  • Nonviable bacterial antigens administered with IL-12 generate antigen-specific T cell responses and protective immunity against Listeria monocytogenes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Responses of synovial fluid and peripheral blood mononuclear cells to bacterial antigens and autologous antigen presenting cells. (bmj.com)
  • No significant difference in response was found to all these bacterial antigens in the synovial fluid of patients with RA compared with the responses in patients with other rheumatic diseases. (bmj.com)
  • Higher responses to several bacterial antigens in the synovial fluid of patients with RA were found compared with peripheral blood from the same patient group. (bmj.com)
  • An effect on responses to other antigens could also be expected. (bmj.com)
  • 10 - 12 The responses to mucosal antigens where co-presentation could occur with allergens would therefore be of interest. (bmj.com)
  • 14 The studies here have used assays with defined polypeptide antigens to provide quantitative assays and to differentiate the anti-protein antigen responses from the lipopolysaccharides. (bmj.com)
  • Intramuscular and intranasal immunization of mice with these chimeric antigens elicited systemic and local long-lasting humoral responses. (nature.com)
  • Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi impairs CD4 T cell responses by reducing antigen availability. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The BBA05 protein is a previously identified putative lipoprotein (P55 or S1 antigen) that elicits antibody responses in mammals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mice were vaccinated with these constructs, and the effects of different delivery systems on protective efficacy (as assessed by survival studies and by monitoring bacterial load) and antigen-specific responses (including the contribution of CD4 and CD8 T cells to these responses) were assayed by various methods. (mendeley.com)
  • This review discusses the O-acetylation status of CPSs and its role in the immunological responses of these antigens. (mdpi.com)
  • Antibody responses to all recombinant antigens positively increased depending on shedding levels. (bvsalud.org)
  • Functional differences were observed in innate and adaptive immune responses of parental and congenic stocks after bacterial ligand exposure in vitro (cytokine release from bone marrow-derived macrophage and dendritic cells) and in vivo (serum cytokines and primed CD4 + T cell proliferation). (utmb.edu)
  • Functional assays showed that C3H/HeJBir showed reduced innate responsiveness both in vivo and in vitro to bacterial ligands but showed increased CD4 T-cell responses compared with C57BL/6J. (utmb.edu)
  • The responsiveness of the mononuclear cell fraction of peripheral blood and synovial fluid of patients with RA and of patients with rheumatic diseases other than RA to bacterial antigens such as cell wall fragments of the anaerobic intestinal flora, cell wall fragments of Streptococcus pyogenes, intestinal flora derived peptidoglycan polysaccharide complexes, the 65 kilodalton protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and muramyldipeptide was investigated. (bmj.com)
  • the gene being involved in the synthesis of a particular bacterial polysaccharide antigen, wherein the sequence of the nucleic acid molecule is specific to the particular bacterial polysaccharide antigen. (wipo.int)
  • Here, we validate a recombinant glycoprotein antigen, an N-formylperosamine O-polysaccharide protein conjugate (OAg-AcrA), for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • The structures of the bacterial capsular polysaccharide (CPS) antigens, extracted and purified from microbial cultures and obtained with very high purity, show that many of them are decorated by O-acetyl groups. (mdpi.com)
  • The three Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85 isoforms have unique substrates and activities determined by non-active site regions. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Using this approach we characterized a novel lipid antigen belonging to the group of diacylated sulfoglycolipids purified from Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (rupress.org)
  • Early secreted antigenic target protein 6 (ESAT-6) is one of the most prominent antigens expressed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ), but not by BCG [6] , [7] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Comparative antibody response of five recombinant antigens in related to bacterial shedding levels and development of serological diagnosis based on 35 kDa antigen for Mycobacterium avium subsp. (bvsalud.org)
  • The antigenome technology offers an integrated approach for antigen validation in order to select the most promising candidates for the development of subunit vaccines against the targeted bacterial diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Vaccines containing the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 antigens protect cattle against tick infestations. (csic.es)
  • Our findings suggest that HA1-based vaccines can be produced efficiently in bacterial systems and can be easily upscaled in response to a pandemic influenza virus threat. (magiran.com)
  • Nonpathogenic status of B. subtilis , simplicity of construction of recombinant spores presenting heterologous protein, as well as efficient surface adsorption, combined with easiness of spores' production and administration make them especially interesting carriers of antigens in mucosal vaccines. (springer.com)
  • To target and appropriately skew the anti- Leishmania response, vaccines require both pathogen-specific antigens and immune-stimulating molecules to be rendered effective. (asm.org)
  • BGs are a wonderful tool for preparing different kind of bacterial vaccines [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite the fact that these vaccines have used one or another of a very small number of immunodominant antigens, a direct comparison of the relative efficacy of the antigens and delivery systems has been difficult, because the studies have used different parameters for assessment. (mendeley.com)
  • RESULTS: The relative efficacy of different vaccines is dependent on the delivery system, the antigen, and the animal model. (mendeley.com)
  • Methods and compositions are provided for the encapsulation of antigens in PLGA microspheres for use as vaccines. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to the microencapsulation of antigens for use as therapeutic or prophylactic vaccines. (google.com)
  • Subunit vaccines contain one or more pure or semi-pure antigens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vaccines can not be developed using this approach for microorganisms which can not easily be cultured and only allows for the identification of those antigens which can be obtained in sufficient quantities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The global native bacterial and viral antigens market growth is mainly attributed to factors such as increasing use of native microbial antigens in diagnostics and therapeutics and rising prevalence of infectious diseases. (prnewswire.com)
  • Identification of circulating bacterial antigens by in vivo microbial antigen discovery. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this report, we describe a strategy, termed in vivo microbial antigen discovery (InMAD), that we used to identify circulating bacterial antigens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Therefore, a protective response requires activation of antigen-specific T cells, which may recognize different types of ligands such as microbial peptides or lipids ( 1 - 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • Thus, we provide evidence of molecular mimicry between microbial antigens and an islet autoantigen and a novel mechanism by which the diabetogenicity of CD8 + T cells can be regulated by innate immunity and the gut microbiota. (rupress.org)
  • HDM may serve as carriers of bacteria responsible for the induction of IgE sensitisation to microbial antigens. (blogspot.com)
  • These data suggest that bacteria may induce Ag-specific humoral immunity through the action of bacterial polysaccharides that mediate an Ag-specific multivalent mIg signal, in concert with bacterial lipoproteins that deliver ancillary signals, without a requirement for recruitment of non-B cell types. (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, using proteomics, we identified ClpB heat-shock disaggregation chaperone protein of commensal gut bacteria Escherichia coli as a conformational antigen mimetic of α-MSH. (nih.gov)
  • The immune response to bacterial antigens on mucosal surfaces may be modified in individuals allergic to aeroallergens due to a maturational or genetic difference or from the interaction between inhaled allergens and bacteria at the mucosa. (bmj.com)
  • This suggests that recognition of LPS receptor play a major role to recognize bacterial entry and processing of ingested bacteria. (nii.ac.jp)
  • IgE-reactivity to antigens from gram-positive and negative bacteria is common in patients suffering from respiratory and skin manifestations of allergy, but the routes and mechanisms of sensitisation are not fully understood. (blogspot.com)
  • We demonstrated the genotype-dependent removal of human norovirus particles with a microfiltration (MF) membrane in the presence of bacteria bearing histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). (elsevier.com)
  • Although work is ongoing to optimize the reaction conditions, and to determine the specificity of this method by challenging the binding of contrast agent with non-specific Ab, the present observations indicate that PAS with specific contrast enhancement is a promising method for in vivo applications, such as detection of bacterial antigens. (arvojournals.org)
  • Bacterial antigen detection in body fluids: methods for rapid antigen concentration and reduction of nonspecific reactions. (asm.org)
  • Antigen detection to diagnose bacterial infections / editor, Richard B. Kohler. (who.int)
  • Detection of Bacterial Antigens and Alzheimer's Disease-like Pathology" by C. Scott Little PhD, Timothy A. Joyce et al. (pcom.edu)
  • However, we need to continue our analysis to assess the coverage of currently circulating strains in the U.S. We are confident the MATS technique will be very useful at detecting any changes in bacterial expression of these antigens. (asm.org)
  • In this study, bacterial system has been developed for expression and purification of properly folded HA1 antigen as a rapid response to emerging pandemic strains. (magiran.com)
  • Strains displaying polymeric LacNAc were generated by introducing a combination of glycosyltransferases that act on modified lipid A-cores, resulting in efficient expression of the carbohydrate epitope on bacterial cell surfaces. (diva-portal.org)
  • These bacterial strains can thus serve as tools to analyse the role of defined carbohydrate structures in different biological processes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Common use of antibiotics in the developed world has resulted in the emergence of bacterial strains, which are highly resistant to virtually all available antimicrobial agents. (zeiss.com)
  • Three genotypes (GII.3, GII.4, and GII.6) of norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs) were mixed with three bacterial strains (Enterobacter sp. (elsevier.com)
  • There were major differences in the degree of recognition of different bacterial strains, marked by remarkably few Abs to Ags of the major anaerobes of the bacterial flora. (utmb.edu)
  • NOD2 stimulation induces autophagy in dendritic cells influencing bacterial handling and antigen presentation. (nih.gov)
  • Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing-2 (NOD2) acts as a bacterial sensor in dendritic cells (DCs), but it is not clear how bacterial recognition links with antigen presentation after NOD2 stimulation. (nih.gov)
  • Monocytes and myeloid-derived dendritic cells (MDC) released the protein exclusively following stimulation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 by gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial antigens. (asm.org)
  • Lewis X (Gal beta 1-4(Fuc alpha 1-3)GlcNAc) antigens of Helicobacter pylori or of the helminth Schistosoma mansoni modulate the immune response by interacting with receptors on human dendritic cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • Also, Hsps possess significant roles in antigen presentation, the maturation of dendritic cells and the activation of lymphocytes. (ac.ir)
  • In this study, we are adding a further step to the protocol, which is dealing with the cell wall surface antigens, where Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 was used for such purposes. (hindawi.com)
  • Tick subolesin (SUB), elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and ubiquitin (UBQ) are new candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. (csic.es)
  • Peptide affinity reagents for protective antigen (PA) of the biothreat Bacillus anthracis were previously discovered using bacterial display. (spie.org)
  • however, the selection of antigens that may provide a broadly and protective immune response among their diverse adhesion and colonization mechanisms is a pivotal point to consider 13 . (nature.com)
  • The growing demand for bacterial antigens capable of eliciting a protective immune response against various cancers and infectious diseases is expected to be the major factor driving the growth of the bacterial antigens market over the forecast period. (factmr.com)
  • Also, rapid discovery of novel antigens that can trigger a cross-protective immune response in a bacterial pathogen, growing incidences of cancer and infectious diseases and increase in diagnosis of various diseases are some of the factors further expected to drive the revenue growth in global bacterial antigens market. (factmr.com)
  • VaxiJen is the first server for alignment-independent prediction of protective antigens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An antigen is said to be protective if it is able to induce protection from subsequent challenge by a disease-causing infective agent in an appropriate animal model following immunization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This technique starts with "InMAD serum," which is filtered serum that has been harvested from BALB/c mice infected with a bacterial pathogen. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Tentatively, the global bacterial antigens market can be segmented on the basis of product type, pathogen type, application, end user and geography. (express-press-release.net)
  • Dickeya solani is a recently emerged virulent bacterial potato pathogen that poses a major threat to world agriculture. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bacterial carbohydrate structures play a central role in mediating a variety of host-pathogen interactions. (diva-portal.org)
  • These results identify flagellins as a class of immunodominant antigens that stimulate pathogenic intestinal immune reactions in genetically diverse hosts and suggest new avenues for the diagnosis and antigen-directed therapy of patients with IBD. (jci.org)
  • A major impediment to immunoassay for diagnosis of infectious disease is identification of appropriate antigen targets. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Positive c-ANCA with PR3 specificity confounded the diagnosis of subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE). (jrheum.org)
  • The recombinant glycoprotein OAg-AcrA can be produced in large homogeneous batches in a standardized way, making it an ideal candidate for further validation as a universal antigen for diagnosis of "smooth" brucellosis in animals and humans. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • In this mini-review, we will briefly describe the important roles of HSPs in diagnosis and immunity in bacterial and viral infections. (ac.ir)
  • Many persistent and chronic bacterial infections are associated with the formation of large cell aggregates and biofilms that are difficult to treat. (pnas.org)
  • Nevertheless bacterial and viral infections are a big diagnostic difficulty also for laboratories. (termedia.pl)
  • The latter possibility has been demonstrated by experiments with viral and bacterial infections of sensitised mice. (bmj.com)
  • other'35ィイD1thィエD1U.S.-Japan cholera and bacterial enteric infections joint panel meeting. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In agreement with the in vitro data, TR6 levels in serum were significantly elevated in patients with bacterial infections. (asm.org)
  • Since 1980 the specific bacteriophages have been used in our Laboratory for the treatment of over 1500 patients with suppurative bacterial infections, in which a routine antibiotic therapy failed. (zeiss.com)
  • The data provide direct evidence that streptococcal T antigens function as virulence factors in vivo, but they also reveal that a pilus-like structure is not essential for the most common form of streptococcal skin disease. (asm.org)
  • As they undergo modifications that may occur in vivo, the antigen has a very close similarity if isolated to the complex 3-dimensional structure. (icrowdnewswire.com)
  • The gene encoding the T6 antigen, which is an antigenic target of a major serological typing scheme, maps to the FCT regions of some isolates, where it forms part of the pilus structure ( 5 , 28 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • 7. The composition of claim 1 further comprising a soluble antigen. (google.com)
  • Publications] Miyake, M., L. Zhao, L. T. Ezaki, K. Hirose, A. Q. Khan, Y. Kawamura, R. Shima, M. Kamijo, T. Masuzawa and Y. Yanagihara: 'Vi-deficient and nonfimbriated mutants of Salmonella typhi agglutinate human blood type antigens and are hyperinvasive. (nii.ac.jp)
  • While specific antibody for Salmonella is available on the market under the commercial names (of some kits) such as Febrile Antigen Kit (N.S. BIO-TEC), we used the described Kit to investigate the validity of the SLRP. (hindawi.com)
  • The antigen-antibody interaction (agglutination) results of both the SLRP and the animal experiments prove that we have correct STGs able to immunize the rats against viable Salmonella . (hindawi.com)
  • To overcome the limitations of alignment-dependent methods, we propose a new alignment-free approach for antigen prediction, which is based on auto cross covariance (ACC) transformation of protein sequences into uniform vectors of principal amino acid properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A hapten, often referred as an incomplete or partial antigen, is a molecule or non-protein substance that in of itself is not immunogenic. (mybiosource.com)
  • With the exception of mannophosphoisoprenoids, which stimulate CD1c-restricted T cells, all known antigens are presented by the CD1b molecule. (rupress.org)
  • Mouse CD1d ( 24 ) and human CD1a ( 25 ) have glycolipid-binding capacities different from CD1b and it has been proposed that each CD1 molecule has evolved the capacity to present unique types of lipid antigens ( 18 ). (rupress.org)
  • Likewise, the relative immunodominance of individual antigens in the fusion molecule is altered by the choice of delivery system. (mendeley.com)
  • On the basis of product type, the native bacterial and viral antigens market is segmented into chlamydia antigens, adenovirus antigens, borrelia antigens, clostridium antigens, chikungunya virus antigens, and dengue virus antigens. (prnewswire.com)
  • We have used a fragment of Clostridium difficile flagellar cap FliD protein as antigen and VQGEESNDK peptide, a fragment of human IL-1β, as adjuvant. (springer.com)
  • Under product type segment defined for the bacterial antigens market, Chlamydia trachomatis, followed by Clostridium difficile Toxoid A, accounts for a significant revenue share in global bacterial antigens market. (factmr.com)
  • Among the bacterial antigens type indicated for various diagnostic applications, the Clostridium difficile Toxoid A product segment is expected to lead the global bacterial antigens market over the forecast period. (factmr.com)
  • Therefore, we planned to develop an indigenous immunodiagnostic kit using most dominant antigen epitope of flagellin protein of S. Typhi of North Indian origin and to test its specificity in different clinical specimens. (hindawi.com)
  • Antigens are referred to as immunogenic antigens or simply immunogens when they are specifically used to generate an immune response that is expected to result in antibody production. (mybiosource.com)
  • Standard properties recommended for apt bacterial antigens include higher specificity and sensitivity, reproducible scale-up for bulk quantities, minimal lot-to-lot variation and extended shelf-life. (factmr.com)
  • At the cut-off point recommended by the ROC curve analysis , the sensitivity and specificity of 35 kDa ELISA were higher than those of other antigens with 93.3% and 86.4%, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, limitations associated with native antigens such as high cost, low antigen production levels, and scale-up difficulties may hinder the market growth. (prnewswire.com)
  • Native antigens are extracted in its natural form from a suitable source. (icrowdnewswire.com)
  • The native antigens have a wide application in the various diagnostics test procedures. (icrowdnewswire.com)
  • Bacterial antigens are suspect in the aetiology of rheumatic diseases. (bmj.com)
  • The antigen presenting cell population of the synovial fluid in patients with RA and the patients with other rheumatic diseases was found to be stimulatory for autologous peripheral blood T cells even in the absence of antigen. (bmj.com)
  • This suggests an important role for the synovial antigen presenting cell in the aetiology of inflammatory joint diseases. (bmj.com)
  • The Bacterial Foodborne and Diarrheal Disease National Case Surveillance is published by the Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in Atlanta, Georgia. (cdc.gov)
  • Sources and Contacts for Bacterial Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Native Chlamydia trachomatis and Helicobacter pylori are commonly recommended bacterial antigens in the bacterial antigens market used to fight various diseases, such as gastritis. (factmr.com)
  • The native bacterial antigens market is driving due to the rise in health care expenditure, rising prevalence of infectious diseases, and development in the biotechnological industry. (icrowdnewswire.com)
  • BIO-RAD LABORATORIES INC., Microbix Biosystems, SERION Immunologics, Aalto Bio Reagents Ltd, Enzo Life Sciences Inc., Jena Bioscience GmbH, ROSS SOUTHERN LABORATORIES, The Native Antigen Company, Creative Diagnostics, and TRINA BIOREACTIVES AG is among the leading companies operating in the native bacterial and viral antigens market. (prnewswire.com)
  • Examples of some of the key players operating in the global bacterial antigens market are Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., Creative Diagnostics, Enzo Life Sciences, Inc., The Native Antigen Company Ltd., Jena Bioscience GmbH, QED Bioscience Inc., Ross Southern Laboratories and others. (express-press-release.net)
  • Different types of bacterial antigens are being introduced in the bacterial antigens market by leading players, such as Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. and Creative Diagnostics. (factmr.com)
  • The bacterial antigens market in Asia Pacific excluding Japan is expected to grow at a significant CAGR due to the high presence of domestic players manufacturing bacterial antigens to be used to perform immunoassays and agglutination tests along with increased production of variant bacterial antigens by these key domestic players. (express-press-release.net)
  • Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
  • Geographically, the global bacterial antigens market is segmented into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia-Pacific excluding Japan (APEJ), Japan and the Middle East and Africa (MEA). (express-press-release.net)
  • Although a T cell response driven by persisting bacterial antigen is still an attractive hypothesis, it does not explain all the known aspects of spondylarthropathy pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • The discovery of truly novel antigens will be frustrated by their lack of similarity to antigens of known provenance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to examine the immune reactivity of a spontaneously colitic mouse strain, C3H/HejBir, to epithelial, food, and enteric bacterial Ags. (utmb.edu)
  • Only a small, highly selected number of enteric bacterial Ags were recognized. (utmb.edu)
  • These data are consistent with an abnormal immune reactivity to enteric bacterial flora in C3H/HeJBir mice, a reactivity that is highly selective considering the abundant bacterial Ags present in the colon lumen. (utmb.edu)
  • Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. (asm.org)
  • However, strict regulatory controls over secure approval procedures for new bacterial antigens are expected to hamper the growth of the global native bacterial antigens market. (icrowdnewswire.com)
  • The report offers key drivers that propel the growth in the global Native Bacterial Antigens market. (icrowdnewswire.com)
  • This report focuses on the global Native Bacterial Antigens market with the future forecast, growth opportunity, key market, and key players. (icrowdnewswire.com)
  • The InMAD serum, which is free of whole bacterial cells, is used to immunize syngeneic BALB/c mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Obtained results show that recombinant spores presenting an antigen/adjuvant chimeric protein exhibit both properties in mucosal immunization of mice. (springer.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry for amyloid beta or Cpn antigens was performed on sections from brains of infected or mock-infected mice. (pcom.edu)
  • Under conditions of experimental immunization of mice by a weak immunogen - (subunit membrane pore protein from Y. pseudotuberculosis), TI-complexes with antigen provided stronger humoral immune response to antigen than the complexes of porin with classical ISCOM, liposomes and Freund`s adjuvant. (msk.ru)
  • However, the sera from C3H/HeJBir mice had a reproducible banding pattern on Western blot to bacterial Ags, whereas sera from C3H/HeJ mice did not. (utmb.edu)
  • Comparison of sera reactivity to histopathologic severity showed an inverse relationship: one third of young C3H/HeJBir mice during the peak of colitis produced Abs to bacterial Ags, while later in life, when the colitis had resolved, 96% produced Abs. (utmb.edu)
  • An antigen may be a recombinant or native protein, partial protein, synthetic or natural peptide, chemical, toxin, viral or bacterial component, standard or reagent for ELISA assays, as well as an environmental agent. (mybiosource.com)
  • Combined with magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), bacterial display technology makes it possible to isolate selective, high affinity peptide reagents in days to weeks. (spie.org)
  • The epitope or antigenic determinant portion of a bacterial antigen is recognized by antigen specific receptors located on T and B cells. (factmr.com)
  • The ability of the antibody stimulation against HA1 expressed in bacterial cells is also examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. (magiran.com)
  • Cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antigen (c-ANCA) was positive on immunofluorescence and proteinase 3 (PR3) positive by ELISA. (jrheum.org)
  • These bacterial antigens find applications in various diagnostic techniques, including ELISA, immunoassay, SDS-PAGE, hemagglutination and agglutination test. (factmr.com)
  • We then re-tested these serum samples with our ELISA test using the 35-kDa antigens . (bvsalud.org)
  • Bacterial lipoproteins may substitute for cytokines in the humoral immune response to T cell-independent type II antigens. (jimmunol.org)
  • The chlamydia antigens segment held the largest share of the market in 2019 and is anticipated to register the highest CAGR during the forecast period. (prnewswire.com)
  • With more than 90 million new cases annually, Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • C. trachomatis is an obligate, intracellular, gram-negative microorganism recognized as the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Moreover, while intramuscular immunization with the combination of the chimeric antigens conferred protection against colonization by STEC O157:H7, the intranasal conferred protection against renal damage caused by STEC O91:H21. (nature.com)
  • Portnyagina O.Y., Shnyrov V.L., Elaboration of new adjuvant lipid-saponin complex and its use at experimental immunization by bacterial antigen, Biomeditsinskaya khimiya, 2007, vol: 53(3), 297-306. (msk.ru)
  • Such unnecessary antibiotic treatment can cause severe side effects like toxicity, allergic reactions, suppression of immune system, intestinal bacterial flora disruption or even, according to the latest studies, obesity. (termedia.pl)
  • Conclusions: The colitogenic Cdcs1 allele impairs innate immunity to bacterial products and in turn skews the adaptive immune response toward compensatory hyperresponsiveness and chronic intestinal inflammation. (utmb.edu)
  • The InMAD immune serum is then used to probe blots of bacterial lysates or bacterial proteome arrays. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Bacterial antigens that are reactive with the InMAD immune serum are precisely the antigens to target in an antigen immunoassay. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We sought procedures which would allow a rapid concentration in high yield of bacterial antigens from tissue fluids of patients and which could be applied also to protein-rich fluids like serum. (asm.org)
  • Heat-stable antigens could be concentrated from protein-rich fluids (like serum) after the sample had been deproteinized by boiling. (asm.org)
  • Such heating (100 degrees C, 3 min) also liberated bacterial polysaccharides from antibody complexes and elminated the nonspecific interference of serum in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we have successfully designed and constructed recombinant spores displaying an antigen/adjuvant chimeric protein. (springer.com)
  • Streptococcus pyogenes , a group A streptococcus (GAS), is the main bacterial etiology responsible for 15%-36% of acute pharyngitis in children ( Abachi, Lee & Rupasinghe, 2016 ). (peerj.com)
  • Bacillus subtilis endospores have been shown to help solving these obstacles while serving as a platform for presentation of both, antigens and adjuvants. (springer.com)
  • To overcome the problem of cross reactivity specific epitope of the flagellar H antigen was immobilised on the testing kit strip eliminating chances of cross reactivity and false positive results thereby increasing the specificity of the test. (hindawi.com)