Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Mice, Inbred C57BLSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Mice, Inbred CBAHLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.HemocyaninCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.HLA-B44 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)

Experimental production of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: comparison of serological and immunological responses using pili fractions of Moraxella bovis. (1/13242)

The effect of vaccinating cattle and mice on the development of keratoconjunctivitis was studied. Cattle were vaccinated with whole cells, disrupted cells and pili fractions of three strains of Moraxella bovis. Mice were vaccinated with pili fractions of three strains. The resistance of all vaccinated animals was challenged with virulent cultures of M. bovis. In an attempt to correlate the response seen after vaccination and challenge with a pili fraction of M. bovis, vaccinated cattle and mice were grouped on the basis of signs of disease manifested and compared on the basis of serological responses. Serum samples were tested for antibodies by a gel diffusion precipitin test. A greater number of the sera of resistant cattle had antibodies to the homologous pili antigen than those of vaccinated nonresistant cattle. Cattle vaccinated with disrupted cells were not resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to challenge exposure by homologous than heterologous cultures. A greater number of the sera of resistant mice had antibodies to pili antigens than nonresistant mice.  (+info)

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: experimental production in calves with antigens of Micropolyspora faeni. (2/13242)

Pneumonitis was induced in calves by exposure to aerosols of Micropolyspora faeni with or without prior sensitization of the animals by subcutaneous injection of antigen. The pneumonitis primarily involved centrolobular areas and was characterized by alveolar septal thickening and loss of air space by cellular infiltration. Vasculitis and focal haemorrhage occurred in certain individuals and haemoproteinaceous exudate appeared within septa and alveolar lumina. The pneumonitis was compared with human farmer's lung, pneumonitis of housed cattle and other experimental hypersensitivity pneumonitides.  (+info)

The significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. (3/13242)

AIMS: To assess the significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in relation to inflammation and density of bacterial colonisation in vivo within a dyspeptic UK population. METHODS: Dyspeptic patients who were Helicobacter pylori positive had antral samples taken for histology and culture. Gastroduodenal pathology was noted. The grade of bacterial density and inflammation was assessed using the Sydney system. Bacterial DNA was extracted and the vacA alleles and the cagA/gene typed using PCR. RESULTS: 120 patients were studied. There was high rate of cagA positive strains in this population. Bacterial density did not correlate with the presence of peptic ulceration. There was a significant association between cagA positive strains and increased inflammation and bacterial density. The vacA s1 type independently correlated with extensive chronic inflammation but there was no association with bacterial density. The vacA m type did not correlate with extent of inflammation or bacterial density. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cagA is important in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. These findings are in keeping with the hypothesis that cagA acts as a marker for a cag pathogenicity island which encodes several genes involved in inflammation. The vacA s1 allele correlates with inflammation independently of cagA, possibly through its enhanced ability to produce the vacuolating cytotoxin.  (+info)

Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis. (4/13242)

AIM: To investigate the association between the quantity of gastric chemokine mRNA expression, severity of gastritis, and cagA positivity in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. METHODS: In 83 dyspeptic patients, antral and corpus biopsies were taken for semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and histological grading of gastritis. Gastritis was evaluated by visual analogue scales. Quantities of chemokine (IL-8, GRO alpha, ENA-78, RANTES, MCP-1) RT-PCR products were compared with G3PDH products. Each sample was also evaluated for the presence of cagA and ureA mRNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS: mRNA expression of all five chemokines was significantly greater in H pylori positive than in H pylori negative mucosa. In H pylori positive patients, in the antrum C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive patients than in cagA negative patients, but there were no significant differences in C-C chemokine mRNA expression. In H pylori positive patients, chemokine mRNA expression in the corpus was less than in the antrum. In contrast to the antrum, only GRO alpha mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive infection. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltration was correlated with C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. Significant correlations were also found between bacterial density and C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: In H pylori infection, C-X-C chemokines may play a primary role in active gastritis. Infection with cagA positive H pylori induces greater gastric chemokine mRNA expression in the antral mucosa, which may be relevant to the increased mucosal damage associated with cagA positive H pylori infection.  (+info)

Generation of CD8(+) T-cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterial antigen in experimental bovine tuberculosis. (5/13242)

Protective immunity against tuberculosis is considered to be essentially cell mediated, and an important role for CD8(+) T lymphocytes has been suggested by several studies of murine and human infections. The present work, using an experimental model of infection with Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, showed that live M. bovis elicits the activation of CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, a sonic extract prepared from M. bovis (MBSE) and protein purified derivative (PPDb) also induced a considerable degree of activation of the CD8(+) T cells. Analysis of proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, purified CD8(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T-cell clones to M. bovis and to soluble antigenic preparations (MBSE, PPDb) showed that the responses of all three types of cells were always superior for live mycobacteria but that strong responses were also obtained with complex soluble preparations. Furthermore, while cytotoxic capabilities were not investigated, the CD8(+) T cells were found to produce and release gamma interferon in response to antigen (live and soluble), which indicated one possible protective mechanism for these cells in bovine tuberculosis. Finally, it was demonstrated by metabolic inhibition with brefeldin A and cytochalasin D at the clonal level that an endogenous pathway of antigen processing is required for presentation to bovine CD8(+) cells and that presentation is also dependent on phagocytosis of the antigen.  (+info)

Pathogenicity island 2 mutants of Salmonella typhimurium are efficient carriers for heterologous antigens and enable modulation of immune responses. (6/13242)

The potential use as vaccine delivery system of Salmonella typhimurium strains harboring defined mutations in the sseC (HH104) and sseD (MvP101) genes, which encode putative effector proteins of the type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2, was evaluated and compared with that of the well-characterized aroA mutant strain SL7207 by using beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) as a model antigen. When orally administered to immune-competent or gamma interferon-deficient (IFN-gamma-/-) BALB/c mice, both mutants were found to be highly attenuated (50% lethal dose, >10(9) bacteria). Both strains were also able to efficiently colonize and persist in Peyer's patches. Immunization with HH104 and MvP101 triggered beta-Gal-specific serum and mucosal antibody responses equivalent to or stronger than those observed in SL7207-immunized mice. Although immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) serum antibodies were dominant in all groups, IgG1 was also significantly increased in mice vaccinated with MvP101 and SL7207. Comparable beta-Gal-specific IgA and IgG antibodies were detected in intestinal lavages from mice immunized with the different strains. Antigen-specific CD4(+) T-helper cells were generated after vaccination with all vaccine prototypes; however, responses were significantly more efficient when HH104 and MvP101 were used (P < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma were produced by restimulated spleen cells from mice immunized with HH104 than from those vaccinated with the MvP101 or SL7207 derivatives (P +info)

Transcutaneous immunization with bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins as antigens and adjuvants. (7/13242)

Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a new technique that uses the application of vaccine antigens in a solution on the skin to induce potent antibody responses without systemic or local toxicity. We have previously shown that cholera toxin (CT), a potent adjuvant for oral and nasal immunization, can induce both serum and mucosal immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA and protect against toxin-mediated mucosal disease when administered by the transcutaneous route. Additionally, CT acts as an adjuvant for coadministered antigens such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids when applied to the skin. CT, a member of the bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxin (bARE) family, is most potent as an adjuvant when the A-B subunits are present and functional. We now show that TCI induces secondary antibody responses to coadministered antigens as well as to CT in response to boosting immunizations. IgG antibodies to coadministered antigens were also found in the stools and lung washes of immunized mice, suggesting that TCI may target mucosal pathogens. Mice immunized by the transcutaneous route with tetanus fragment C and CT developed anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies and were protected against systemic tetanus toxin challenge. We also show that bAREs, similarly organized as A-B subunits, as well as the B subunit of CT alone, induced antibody responses to themselves when given via TCI. Thus, TCI appears to induce potent, protective immune responses to both systemic and mucosal challenge and offers significant potential practical advantages for vaccine delivery.  (+info)

A 55-kilodalton immunodominant antigen of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 has arisen via horizontal gene transfer. (8/13242)

A 55-kDa outer membrane protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 is a significant target of the serum immunoglobulin G antibody response of periodontal disease patients and hence may play an important role in host-bacterium interactions in periodontal disease. The gene encoding the 55-kDa antigen (ragB, for receptor antigen B) was isolated on a 9.5-kb partial Sau3AI fragment of P. gingivalis W50 chromosomal DNA in pUC18 by immunoscreening with a monoclonal antibody to this antigen. The 1.6-kb open reading frame (ORF) encoding RagB was located via subcloning and nested-deletion analysis. Sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of an upstream 3.1-kb ORF (ragA) which is cotranscribed with ragB. A number of genetic characteristics suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by a horizontal gene transfer event. These include a significantly reduced G+C content relative to that of the P. gingivalis chromosome (42 versus 48%) and the presence of mobility elements flanking this locus in P. gingivalis W50. Furthermore, Southern blotting and PCR analyses showed a restricted distribution of this locus in laboratory and clinical isolates of this bacterium. The association of ragAB+ P. gingivalis with clinical status was examined by PCR analysis of subgingival samples. ragAB+ was not detected in P. gingivalis-positive shallow pockets from periodontal disease patients but was present in 36% of the P. gingivalis-positive samples from deep pockets. These data suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by certain P. gingivalis strains via horizontal gene transfer and that the acquisition of this locus may facilitate the survival of these strains at sites of periodontal destruction.  (+info)

*Vasant Honavar

El-Manzalawy, Y., Dobbs, D., and Honavar, V. (2012). Predicting protective bacterial antigens using random forest classifiers ...

*Rosacea

Lacey N, Delaney S, Kavanagh K, Powell FC (2007). "Mite-related bacterial antigens stimulate inflammatory cells in rosacea". ... Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) was demonstrated to have greater prevalence in rosacea patients and treating it ...

*Rheumatic fever

During a streptococcal infection, mature antigen-presenting cells such as B cells present the bacterial antigen to CD4+T cells ... Normally, T cell activation is triggered by the presentation of bacterial antigens. In RHD, molecular mimicry results in ... Self-antigen-specific antibodies generated via molecular mimicry between human proteins and streptococcal antigens up-regulate ... Molecular mimicry occurs when epitopes are shared between host antigens and Streptococcus antigens. This causes an autoimmune ...

*Macrophage migration inhibitory factor

Bacterial antigens stimulate white blood cells to release MIF into the blood stream. The circulating MIF binds to CD74 on other ...

*Collectin

SP-D increases bacterial antigen presentation by dendritic cells whereas SP-A blocs differentation of the immature dendritic ... "Surfactant protein D enhances bacterial antigen presentation by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells". American Journal of ... SP-A and SP-D can increase permeability of Gram-negative bacterial cell membrane. SP-A and SP-D can damp induction of ...

*Cirrhosis

Globulins - increased due to shunting of bacterial antigens away from the liver to lymphoid tissue. Serum sodium - hyponatremia ... People with ascites due to cirrhosis are at risk of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. This refers to changes in the mucosa of ...

*Bowel-associated dermatosis-arthritis syndrome

These antigen-antibody complexes are thought to be caused by excessive exposure to bacterial antigens (especially ... Ely PH (June 1980). "The bowel bypass syndrome: a response to bacterial peptidoglycans". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 2 (6): 473-87. ... peptidoglycans). Bacterial overgrowth appears to be a frequent underlying condition. These antibodies possibly stimulate ...

*Cryptdin

In response to bacterial antigens, Paneth cells release their secretory granules into the lumen of intestinal crypts. There, ...

*Bacillary dysentery

... may be caused by a bacterial antigen; the occurrence of this syndrome is strongly linked to HLA-B27 genotype, but the ... Bacillary dysentery should not be confused with diarrhea caused by other bacterial infections. One characteristic of bacillary ... including an amoebicidal drug to kill the parasite and an antibiotic to treat any associated bacterial infection. Anyone with ...

*Betty Diamond

... cross-reactivity with bacterial antigen. Arthritis & Rheumatism 52:2403-2410 (2005). Peeva, E., Venkatesh, J., and Diamond B. ... XBP1 governs late events in plasma cell differentiation and is not required for antigen-specific memory B cell development J ... 109:1625-1633 (2002). Newman, J., Rice, JS., Wang, C., Harris, SL., and Diamond, B. Identification of an antigen-specific B ... 111:275-283 (2003). Wang, C., Khalil, M., Ravetch, J., and Diamond, B. The naïve B cell repertoire predisposes to antigen- ...

*Agglutination (biology)

Agglutination is commonly used as a method of identifying specific bacterial antigens, and in turn, the identity of such ... The word agglutination comes from the Latin agglutinare (glueing to). Agglutination is the process that occurs if an antigen is ... versus the elimination of single microbial antigens. When people are given blood transfusions of the wrong blood group, the ...

*Lancefield grouping

... coagulase-negative bacteria based on the carbohydrate composition of bacterial antigens found on their cell walls. The system, ... and two groups that lack the Lancefield carbohydrate antigen: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Viridans streptococci. Group A - ...

*Isotype (immunology)

The pentameric structure of IgM antibodies makes them efficient at binding antigens with repetitive epitopes (e.g. bacterial ... The IgG responses to bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigens are mediated primarily via IgG2 subclass, and deficiencies in ... unresponsiveness against bacterial polysaccharide antigens". Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). Jonsdottir, I., Vidarsson, G. (1998 ... they are rarely highly mutated and have broad antigen reactivity thus providing an early response to a wide range of antigens ...

*Decoy receptor 3

2004). "Selective Induction of Tumor Necrosis Receptor Factor 6/Decoy Receptor 3 Release by Bacterial Antigens in Human ...

*Pulpitis

... have cellular processes that extend into dentinal tubules and are the first to encounter the caries bacterial antigens. They ... Bacterial products may reach the pulp much earlier and begin the inflammatory response. The inflammation may be acute or ... Antigens are recognized individually and lines of lymphocytes are developed to produce specific antibodies which attach to the ... The cells are capable of sensing microbes as well as antigen capture and processing capabilities. A rapid accumulation of ...

*George Siber bibliography

"Correlation between Serum IgG-2 Concentrations and the Antibody Response to Bacterial Polysaccharide Antigens". New England ... "Recurrent sinopulmonary infection and impaired antibody response to bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigen in children with ... Rehmus J, Johnson C, Marchant C, Carlin S, Super D, Van Hare G, Siber G, Jones P and Shurin P. Bacterial Polysaccharide Immune ... Bacterial Vaccines. New York: Praeger, 1987. Siber GR. Special Lecture: importance of IgG subclasses and genetic factors in ...

*Edward Thomas Ryan

Direct Conjugation of Bacterial O-SP-Core Antigens to Proteins: Development of Cholera Conjugate Vaccines". Bioconjugate ... "Identification of in vivo-induced bacterial protein antigens during human infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi". ... including bacterial gene expression in infected humans, and human immune responses to bacterial infection. This collaborative ... Ryan is the Director of Global Infectious Diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital, and in 2006 isolated a new bacterial ...

*History and naming of human leukocyte antigens

From this perspective, the cause of rejections were found to be "antigens". In the same way bacterial antigens can cause ... The Hu-1 antigens were renamed the Human-lymphoid (HL) allo-antigens (HL-As). Allo-antigen comes from the observation that a ... Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) began as a list of antigens identified as a result of transplant rejection. The antigens were ... As a result, scientists were able to identify a few antigens. At first the first antigens were called the Hu-1 antigens and ...

*Isoantibodies

It is possible that food and environmental antigens (bacterial, viral or plant antigens) have epitopes similar enough to A and ... Therefore, it can be thought of as an antigen that is present in some members of the same species, but is not common to all ... In the case of the species Homo sapiens, for example, there are a significant number of antigens which are different in every ... When antigens from another individual are introduced into another's body, these isoantibodies immediately bind to and destroy ...

*Immune tolerance

Oral tolerance may depend on the same mechanisms of peripheral tolerance that limit inflammation to bacterial antigens in the ... tumor antigens, alloantigens, and self-antigens in inflamed tissue. Immune recognition of non-self-antigens typically ... Self-antigens are present due to endogenous expression, importation of antigen from peripheral sites via circulating blood, and ... Upon exposure to a foreign antigen, either the antigen is eliminated by the standard immune response (resistance), or the ...

*H antigen

... minor H antigens "present polymorphic self peptides to T cells". Includes, e.g. the H-Y antigen a bacterial flagellar antigen ... H antigen can refer to one of various types of antigens having diverse biological functions. H antigen is located on the 19th ... H antigen is a precursor to each of the ABO blood group antigens, apparently present in all people except those with the Bombay ... Blood phenotype (see Hh antigen system) Histocompatibility antigen, a major factor in graft rejection. Even when Major ...

*Paneth cell

When exposed to bacteria or bacterial antigens, Paneth cells secrete some of these compounds into the lumen of the intestinal ... Due to the higher concentration of negatively charged phospholipids in bacterial than vertebrate cell membranes, defensins ... or such bacterial products as lipopolysaccharide, muramyl dipeptide and lipid A. In addition to defensins, Paneth cells secrete ... preferentially bind to and disrupt bacterial cells, sparing the cells they are functioning to protect. Paneth cells are ...

*B-1 cell

These polyspecific immunoglobulins often have a preference for other immunoglobulins, self antigens and common bacterial ... making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen presenting cells. Notably, most B1 cells do not develop into memory B ... Hence, there appears to be a role for self or foreign antigen in shaping the repertoire of the B-1 B cell compartment. B1 B ... These studies indicate preexisting subset differences in B cell receptor (BCR) specificity and antigen-driven B cell fate that ...

*Rebecca Lancefield

... which is based on the carbohydrate composition of bacterial antigens found on their cell walls. She is also responsible for the ...

*Reactive arthritis

... either by an autoimmune response involving cross-reactivity of bacterial antigens with joint tissues or by bacterial antigens ... 2008). "Analysis of bacterial DNA in synovial tissue of Tunisian patients with reactive and undifferentiated arthritis by broad ...

*Phage display

Instead, one could cleave in a section between the bead and the antigen to elute. Since the pIII is intact it does not matter ... Phage eluted in the final step can be used to infect a suitable bacterial host, from which the phagemids can be collected and ... Those that remain can be eluted, used to produce more phage (by bacterial infection with helper phage) and so produce a phage ... Following further bacterial-based amplification, the DNA within in the interacting phage is sequenced to identify the ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Dana E Nuti, Reva B Crump, Farida Dwi Handayani, Narisara Chantratita, Sharon J Peacock, Richard Bowen, Philip L Felgner, D Huw Davies, Terry Wu, C Rick Lyons, Paul J Brett, Mary N Burtnick, Thomas R Kozel, David P AuCoin].
Streptococcal antigen testing was found to be both sensitive and highly specific under most conditions, though evidence was found that demonstrated high variability depending on the serotype that was encountered. The cost savings as a result of its use are heterogeneous in nature and more powerful investigation is required to form reliable conclusions. Evidence-based guidelines indicate that it is not appropriate for use in children due to high false-positives, and they further stated that its use in adults should be limited to admitted patients with moderate to high disease severity.. ...
Both react strongly with HCV positive sera; the choice of antigen may be a function of the particular assay format chosen, however, more commonly, it appears that the fusion protein was the antigen of choice. The protein is soluble in aqueous buffer and may be admixed with the HCV capsid antigen prior to coating on to microplate wells. The protein comes as a 500 ug/ml (again setting 1 mg/ml equivalent to an OD (280nm) in Tris buffer, of 1.0). Individual Elisa protocols can be developed, such as Capsid antigen alone (Example 1); NS3 antigen alone (Example 2); or, A combination of antigens (Example 3). Using a Capsid: NS3 ratio of 4:1 in the coating mixture appears to provide the most favorable signal-to-noise ratios in the subsequent assay: Access to the individual antigen component thus enables the determination of precise parameters for an optimized assay.. To view an SDS PAAGE image of this antigen, please click HERE. To review the seroconversion data (using a standard seroconversion panel ...
Calf serum has been shown to suppress the primary immune response to erythrocytes and some bacterial antigens in mice if administered prior to and not after immunization. The importance of the route of iniection of antigens and immunosuppressant is indicated. It is suggested that immunosuppression is achieved by phagocytosis and enyzmatic destruction of the injected antigen by peritoneal macrophages. A similar mechanism is probably involved in the type of immunosuppression induced by PHA.. ...
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Protective antigen component of B. anthracis toxin was produced and purified to the |99% level. Toxin was purified from culture supernatant utilizing concentration and liquid chromatography techniques. Purity was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified protective antigen retained biological and antigenic activity as evidenced respectively by lethality in Fischer 344 rats when injected in combination with lethal factor, and by positive results on the Ouchterlony double diffussion assay. Radioiodinated protective antigen was used both in the in vivo and the in vitro experiments. In vivo distribution of labelled protective antigen was determined in Fischer 344 rats. Assay of organ tissues for labelled protective antigen aided in the decision to use Maden-Darby bovine kidney cells for the cell cultures in the protective antigen binding studies. Protective antigen binding studies, all performed at 37°C, evaluated criteria for receptor existence. Labelled
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health threat with 9 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths per year. In order to develop a protective vaccine, we need to define the antigens expressed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which are relevant to protective immunity in high-endemic areas. Methods: We analysed responses to 23 Mtb antigens in a total of 1247 subjects with different HIV and TB status across 5 geographically diverse sites in Africa (South Africa, The Gambia, Ethiopia, Malawi and Uganda). We used a 7-day whole blood assay followed by IFN-γ ELISA on the supernatants. Antigens included PPD, ESAT-6 and Ag85B (dominant antigens) together with novel resuscitation-promoting factors (rpf), reactivation proteins, latency (Mtb DosR regulon-encoded) antigens, starvation-induced antigens and secreted antigens. Results: There was variation between sites in responses to the antigens, presumably due to underlying genetic and environmental differences. When results from all sites ...
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis)-specific culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10) is highly recognized by M. tuberculosis infected subjects. In the present study, the proliferative respon
Expression of interleukin (IL)-4 is increased in tuberculosis and thought to be detrimental. We show here that in healthy contacts there is increased expression of its naturally occurring antagonist, IL-4delta2 (IL-4d2). We identified contacts by showing that their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) released interferon (IFN)-? in response to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigen 6 kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6). Fresh unstimulated PBMC from these contacts contained higher levels of mRNA encoding IL-4d2 (P=0·002) than did cells from ESAT-6 negative donors (noncontacts). These data indicate that contact with M. tuberculosis induces unusual, previously unrecognized, immunological events. We tentatively hypothesize that progression to active disease might depend upon the underlying ratio of IL-4 to IL-4d2. ...
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There are many outside agents that could become antigens. Among the agents that are potentially antigenic are egg whites, pollen, transplanted tissue proteins and plenty of other agents that could cause a reaction of the immune system in order to take care of the invasion.. These outside antigens are also known as non-microbal or non-self antigens. One outside source of imunogenic antigens are vaccines. They are often given to people in order to prepare themselves for a potential illness.. Outside antigens are known as exogenous antigens. The common way that these antigens enter the body is through inhalation, injection, or ingestion. Often times, the immune system reacts to the antigens in a less than clinical fashion.. The process of the antibodies taking on the antigens are either endocytosis or phagocytosis. These antigens are brought to the cells that present antigens. The antigens are then broken down into pieces so that they can be processed.. The pieces are taken to the T helper cells so ...
View Notes - Immunogenes or Antigens from STEP 1 at Montgomery College. ‫بسم اللة الرحمن‬ ‫الرحيم‬ Immunogens Or Antigens Immunogens Or Antigens Immunogens or
Hello all, Does anyone know of a company/lab/collection center from where I can get a genomic DNA expression library of E. coli CONSTRUCTED IN A PLASMID VECTOR?? I prefer a insert size of 3 Kb or less but others are also welcome. Please suggest. Thanks, S.V. Dole ...
Reliable RepliTope Peptide Microarrays displaying overlapping peptides for many important antigens. ISO 9001:2015 certified; GCLP compliant.
In experiments measuring the length of time an antigen stays stuck, DM makes sure an infected cell holds onto a microbe long enough to catch the attention of immune cells in the first place, Sadegh-Nasseri says.. To uncover DMs expanded job, Sadegh-Nasseri isolated a protein antigen from the flu virus as a test case and found that cells with DM normally hold on for about six days, long enough for symptoms like sniffles and fever, as signs of immune battle, to develop. When they removed DM from normal cells, the cells did not bind the flu antigen at all. Later, when they mutated the antigen-binding part of the cell, the flu antigen "fell off" after only 10 minutes.. When the scientists studied the 3-D shape of the part of the cell that tries on the antigen, they discovered that the antigen fell off after 10 minutes whether DM was there or not, but only when one specific chemical bond was disrupted.. "DM somehow alters this chemical bond to make antigens fall off a thousand times faster than ...
... Antigen processing is a biological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes.
Study Flashcards On Other other antigens at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
We have two kinds of cells in our body which are used to fight diseases: B cells and T cells. Whenever an antigen attacks our body for the first time, these cells create a code to fight those antigens. Once the code is created, next time the antigen attacks, these cells are able to fight the antigen very fast as they already have the code created for that specific antigen ...
The Nuclear Extract Kit isolates high-quality nuclear, cytoplasmic or whole-cell extract from mammalian cell or tissue samples with a detailed protocol to ensure your extract is not contaminated with proteins from other cellular compartments. Phosphatase
Beautiful 33 Sample How Do I Add A Chart Title In Excel 2019 add or remove a secondary axis in a chart in excel add or remove a secondary axis in a chart in office 2010 when the values in a 2 d chart vary widely from data series to data series or when… Read More ». ...
Planning is not sufficient for success but implementing it in the right proportion is crucial to reach the mile stone of success. Brillmindz Technologies started with the cycle of innovation in 2011, and then onwards serving across the world with countless prominent apps relevant to diverse business domains.. Sitemap. ...
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The present disclosure relates to a solid phase immunoassay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in a clinical specimen, wherein the Chlamydia trachomatis antigens to be determined are coated or adsorbed on the solid phase.
Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in first-void urine to identify asymptomatic male carriers.: Early morning first-void urine collected from 279 sexua
A series of nearly isogenic O4-12, and O-6,7 Salmonella typhimurium strains differing in regard to the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) were constructed by conjugation. When tested in intraperitoneal infection of mice, the O-4,12 strains containing ECA were more virulent than their O-4,12 sister recombinants without ECA (P = less than 0.001). The same difference could be shown with ECA-positive and ECA-negative S. typhimurium derivatives, whose O antigens were of the group C type (O-6,7). The ECA-positive and ECA-negative O-4,12 strains did not differ in their growth rates in broth or clearance rates in vivo. ...
Infection with Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for the development of gastric cancer, and infection with strains carrying the virulence factor CagA significantly increases this risk. To investigate the mechanisms by which CagA promotes carcinogenesis, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing CagA ubiquitously or in the anterior intestine. Transgenic zebrafish expressing either the wild type or a phosphorylation-resistant form of CagA exhibited significantly increased rates of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and showed significant upregulation of the Wnt target genes cyclinD1, axin2 and the zebrafish c-myc ortholog myca. Coexpression of CagA with a loss-of-function allele encoding the β-catenin destruction complex protein Axin1 resulted in a further increase in intestinal proliferation. Coexpression of CagA with a null allele of the key β-catenin transcriptional cofactor Tcf4 restored intestinal proliferation to wild-type levels. These results provide in vivo evidence of ...
We read with interest the article by Castaño-Rodríguez et al,1 describing the role of Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter spp in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While H. pylori infection has been shown to be protective against IBD, there is some ambiguity about the biological underpinnings of this effect. There is a spectrum of H pylori exposure across Caucasian populations with lower rates identified in Australian and USA studies.2 Importantly, Australia and other new world regions such as the USA currently have some of the highest published incidence and prevalence rates for IBD.3-5. Multiple strains of H. pylori are observed, most notably, those with an active cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) and those without. The prevalence of the cagA gene in H. pylori is reported to be between 60% and 100% in western and eastern populations, respectively,6 potentially confounding any analysis on the … ...
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A higher median frequency of CD8(+) T-cell responses was detected in women with lower genital tract chlamydial infection, compared with those with upper genital tract chlamydial infection (13.8% vs 9.5%; P =04), but the CD4(+) T-cell response frequencies were not different. Women who remained uninfected displayed a greater frequency of positive CD4(+) T-cell responses (29% vs 18%; P < .0001), compared with women who had incident infection, while the frequencies of CD8(+) T-cell responses did not differ. A subset of proteins involved in central metabolism, type III secretion, and protein synthesis were associated with protection. CONCLUSIONS ...
Looking for online definition of Antigen test in the Medical Dictionary? Antigen test explanation free. What is Antigen test? Meaning of Antigen test medical term. What does Antigen test mean?
Provides a brief overview of this test including clinical use and background, methodology, test interpretation, and specimen requirements.
Looking for common antigen? Find out information about common antigen. see immunity immunity, ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have... Explanation of common antigen
Several factors may determine whether encounter of antigen in a primary response will lead to the clonal expansion of specific antigen receptor-expressing lymphocytes and their differentiation into specific memory effector cells (for review see references (1) and (2)). Soluble foreign antigen usually leads to a transient clonal expansion of antigen-specific T cells, followed by the deletion and/or functional inactivation of the cells (for review see references 1 and 2). In some cases, soluble antigen can lead to subsequent unresponsiveness to an immunizing regimen of antigen in adjuvant (for review see references 1 and 2). It has been suggested that the dose and form of antigen, the route of administration of antigen, the delivery of appropriate costimulatory signals, and the genetic background of the host may determine whether an antigen primes for an appropriate memory effector response (for review see references 1-3).. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the abortive immune ...
Multiple mycobacterial antigens are targets of the adaptive immune response in pulmonary sarcoidosis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The common cold1,2 is our greatest single cause of illness. Although the common cold has a specific viral etiology, its most frequent complications are bacteria
... New Strategy for Developing Rapid Diagnostics ...An international consortium of researchers has devised a novel strateg...Effective treatment of microbial infection is critically dependent on ...Using a technique they call In vivo Microbial Antigen Discovery (InMAD...,News,tips,from,the,journal,mBio®,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
A device for determining the presence of antigens which comprises a first zone containing antigens and enzyme-linked antibodies which are capable of immunologically reacting with said antigens, said antibodies being positioned in said first zone such that they will be removed from said first zone when reacted with antigens passing through said first zone but not removed from said first zone in the absence of such antigens, and a second zone containing material capable of reacting with said enzyme-linked antibodies to produce a color forming reaction which indicates the presence of said antibodies.
After you stop the AntigenService service, Antigen Scheduled Tasks remain on the server. This is particularly poignant on a cluster server. When Antigen Scheduled Tasks run on a passive node, they start up Antigen services, which try to connect to Exchange on the local node and access Antigen database files on the shared drive. The Antigen services are unable to achieve any of this and there is no immediate danger to the live nodes activities, but they will cause various errors in the Windows Application event log ...
Australský antigen je označení pro antigen viru hepatitidy B, který se nachází na povrchu virových částic. Označuje se též jako „surface antigen" (HBsAg). Diagnostika přítomnosti antigenu v krvi je důležitá pro diagnostiku hepatitidy B ...
BRADLEY, JE, ELSON, L, TREE, TIM, STEWART, G, GUDERIAN, R, CALVOPINA, M, PAREDES, W, ARAUJO, E and NUTMAN, TB (1995) RESISTANCE TO ONCHOCERCA-VOLVULUS - DIFFERENTIAL CELLULAR AND HUMORAL RESPONSES TO A RECOMBINANT ANTIGEN, OVMBP20/11 ...
A subgroup" antigens are inherited, as are other ABO antigens with A1 being dominant over A2. Individuals who are phenotypically A1 may be genotypically A1O, A1A1, or A1A2. A phenotypically A2 individual may be genotypically A2A3. These alleles are passed to offspring in the same manner as other ABO antigens ...
[119 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Diagnostic Reagents Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the United States Diagnostic Reagents market is...
Antigen An atigen is any substance that cause your immune system to produce antibodies against it. The antigen may be a foreign substance from the environment Such as chemicals bacteria viruses, or pollen) or formed within the body
I guess what confuses some is that they think T cells are all the same, they fail to realize that every cell is unique & different. There are different types of T cells & different ways to present antigens. ...
Microbix Biosystems is a life science company and leading manufacturer of viral and bacterial antigens and reagents for the global diagnostics industry. Our expertise in cell biology has led to the development of new products: LumiSort, an animal reproductive product for use in livestock...
MHC Ib Qa-2 antigen: a nonclassical MHC Ib antigen implicated in innate & adaptive immune responses as well as in embryonic development
Looking for the meaning of ca-19-9 antigen? Find out what is the meaning of ca-19-9 antigen on Phrases.net! The Webs largest and most authoritative phrases and idioms resource.
The Development of a Radioimmuno-Assay for Carcino-Embryonic Antigen with some Applications. Clinical Evaluation of Cercino-Ernbryonic Antigen, ...
I need some HLA-I ANTIGEN ,who can tell me where have the antigen= in commercially or who can give me some ,thanks. my E-mail: sdwcy at yesky.com =D6=C2 =C0=F1=A3=A1 sdwcy sdwcy at yesky.com ...
The Randox range of diagnostic reagents is constantly expanding to provide you with an increased choice of high quality cost effective reagents.
The Ca2+ ionophore 4-Br A23187 is effective in increasing [Ca2+]i and eliciting secretion when ICRAC is inhibited by SK&F 96365. Antigen (Ag) (1 μg/ml) sti
List of words make out of Enterobacterial. Anagrams of word Enterobacterial. Words made after scrabbling Enterobacterial. Word Creation helps in Anagrams and Puzzles.
Microbix produces one of the worlds largest range of infectious disease antigens. These viral, bacterial and parasitic products are used in applications like I
Learn how to reduce the risk of infection to other pets and family members through early, definitive detection with Fecal Dx antigen testing.
I am nearing my preparation for my next LDA (low dose antigen) therapy. I start the protocol in three days. I have mentioned this therapy in past posts and will attempt to explain it this weekend when I start.
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Immune-mediated inflammation, a major cause of vision loss, is not fully understood. This project is aimed at collecting new information concerning the mechanis...
Blood antigens have been grouped into more than 15 systems depending on their relationship with one another, but the ones we will look at are A-B-O and ...
LeukinFeron, 100000 U. |p class=db_paraghraph|Human LeukinFeron is a combines preparation of natural cytokines involved in cellular reactions elimination of pathogen (antigen).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a recombinant baculovirus-expressed Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA). T2 - Measurement of human anti-PA antibodies. AU - Iacono-Connors, L. C.. AU - Novak, J.. AU - Rossi, C.. AU - Mangiafico, J.. AU - Ksiazek, Thomas. PY - 1994/1. Y1 - 1994/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027975977&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027975977&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7496927. AN - SCOPUS:0027975977. VL - 1. SP - 78. EP - 82. JO - Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. JF - Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. SN - 1556-6811. IS - 1. ER - ...
BioAssay record AID 289164 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen 63 reconstituted in diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine lipid membranes assessed as inhibition of channel conductance at 5 uM.
Global Markets Directs, Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Ag85A - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides in depth analysis on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Ag85A targeted pipeline therapeutics.. The report provides comprehensive information on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Ag85A, targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. The report also covers the descriptive pharmacological action of the therapeutics, its complete research and development history and latest news and press releases. Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Ag85A targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects.. Access Full Report with TOC @ http://www.radiantinsights.com/research/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-protein-ag85a-pipeline-review-h2-2016. Global Markets Directs report features investigational ...
Whilst various remedial human monoclonal antibodies have been developed to treat the potentially life-threatening systemic complications associated with anthrax infection, an optimal and universally effective administration route has yet to be established. In the later stages of infection when antibody administration by injection is more likely to fail one possible route to improve outcome is via the use of an antibody-bound, adsorbent haemoperfusion device. We report here the development of an adsorbent macroporous polymer column containing immobilised B. anthracis exotoxin-specific antibodies, PANG (a non-glycosylated, version of a plant-produced human monoclonal antibody) and Valortim (a fully human monoclonal N-linked glycosylated antibody), for removal of anthrax protective antigen (PA) from freshly frozen human plasma and human whole blood. In addition, we have demonstrated that continuous extracorporeal blood recirculation through a Valortim-bound haemoperfusion column significantly ...
References for Abcams Anti-Bacillus anthracis protective antigen antibody [BAP0102] (HRP) (ab1990). Please let us know if you have used this product in your…
Inquiry (32569) for Abcams Anti-Bacillus anthracis protective antigen antibody. Our in-house scientific support team are here to help you with any technical questions or queries
Upon colonization of the human stomach, Helicobacter pylori establishes intimate interactions with the gastric epithelium, resulting in pathogenic host responses that can lead to gastric cancer. An important component of this interaction is translocation of the CagA effector protein into host cells, where it manipulates several conserved signaling pathways. Experiments in tissue culture cells have shown that CagA activates the phosphatase SHP-2, a component of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways whose overactivation is associated with cancer formation. CagA has been proposed to function as a prokaryotic mimic of the eukaryotic Gab adaptor protein, which normally activates SHP-2. We developed a transgenic Drosophila melanogaster model to investigate whether CagA can function in a Gab-dependent process: specification of photoreceptor cells in the eye. We demonstrate that CagA expression is sufficient to rescue photoreceptor development in the absence of the Gab homologue through a mechanism ...
Protective Antigen antibody LS-C505586 is an AP-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen (PA ). Validated for ELISA and WB.
Cellular adaptation to microbial stresses has been demonstrated in several cell types. Macrophages (MФ) are sentinel immune cells fending off invading microbes. Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) is a key virulence factor released by Bacillus anthracis that causes rapid cell death, pyroptosis. A small number of RAW246.7 macrophages (~4%) exposed to a non-lethal dose of LeTx become resistant to LeTx-induced pyroptosis for ~ 4 weeks, termed
The Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF) is one component of a tripartite exotoxin partly responsible for persistent anthrax cytotoxicity after initial bacterial infection. Inhibitors of the zinc metalloproteinase have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents, but LF is a challenging target because inhibitors lack sufficient selectivity or possess poor pharmaceutical properties. These structural studies reveal an alternate conformation of the enzyme, induced upon binding of specific inhibitors, that opens a previously unobserved deep pocket termed S1* which might afford new opportunities to design selective inhibitors that target this subsite. ...
Haemophilus influenzae type B Antigen Detection, LA; Neisseria meningitidis Antigen Detection (Groups A/Y and C/W 135), LA; Neisseria meningitidis Detection (Group B/E. coli K1), LA; Streptococcus, Group B, Antigen Detection, LA; Streptococcus pneumoniae Antigen Detection, LA ...
Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT) is the major virulence factor of anthrax and reproduces most of the laboratory manifestations of the disease in animals. We studied LT toxicity in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice. BALB/cJ mice became terminally ill earlier and with higher frequency than C57BL/6J mice. Timed histopathological analysis identified bone marrow, spleen, and liver as major affected organs in both mouse strains. LT induced extensive hypoxia. Crisis was due to extensive liver necrosis accompanied by pleural edema. There was no evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or renal dysfunction. Instead, analyses revealed hepatic dysfunction, hypoalbuminemia, and vascular/oxygenation insufficiency. Of 50 cytokines analyzed, BALB/cJ mice showed rapid but transitory increases in specific factors including KC, MCP-1/JE, IL-6, MIP-2, G-CSF, GM-CSF, eotaxin, FasL, and IL-1β. No changes in TNF-α occurred. The C57BL/6J mice did not mount a similar cytokine response. These factors were not ...
Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT) is the major virulence factor of anthrax and reproduces most of the laboratory manifestations of the disease in animals. We studied LT toxicity in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice. BALB/cJ mice became terminally ill earlier and with higher frequency than C57BL/6J mice. Timed histopathological analysis identified bone marrow, spleen, and liver as major affected organs in both mouse strains. LT induced extensive hypoxia. Crisis was due to extensive liver necrosis accompanied by pleural edema. There was no evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or renal dysfunction. Instead, analyses revealed hepatic dysfunction, hypoalbuminemia, and vascular/oxygenation insufficiency. Of 50 cytokines analyzed, BALB/cJ mice showed rapid but transitory increases in specific factors including KC, MCP-1/JE, IL-6, MIP-2, G-CSF, GM-CSF, eotaxin, FasL, and IL-1β. No changes in TNF-α occurred. The C57BL/6J mice did not mount a similar cytokine response. These factors were not ...
The pathological actions of anthrax toxin require the activities of its edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF) enzyme components, which gain intracellular access via its receptor-binding component, protective antigen (PA). LF is a metalloproteinase with specificity for selected mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs), but its activity is not directly lethal to many types of primary and transformed cells in vitro. Nevertheless, in vivo treatment of several animal species with the combination of LF and PA (termed lethal toxin or LT) leads to morbidity and mortality, suggesting that LT-dependent toxicity is mediated by cellular interactions between host cells. Decades of research have revealed that a central hallmark of this toxicity is the disruption of key cellular barriers required to maintain homeostasis. This review will focus on the current understanding of the effects of LT on barrier function, highlighting recent progress in establishing the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects.
The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanisms by which C4b and streptococcal M proteins interact with C4BP. Furthermore, we wanted to identify a key recognition area in the C4BP α-chain involved in the binding of these ligands. To address this question, we used nine C4BP mutants and compared the ability of these molecules to interact with C4b and with the M proteins Arp4 and Sir22. Effects of NaCl and mAbs were also tested, and the experimental results were then evaluated in conjunction with structural analysis of a recently reported 3D model structure of human (8) and mouse C4BP. Taken together, our data show that the key binding region for C4b overlaps with the surface interacting with Arp4/Sir22 and is located on CCP1 and CCP2. However, the recognition areas are not identical and the molecular mechanisms involved in these two processes differ.. Previously published data from our group (10) together with the present results show that Arg39, Lys63, Arg64, and His67 are crucial for ...
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In this study, events leading to LT-induced death of BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mouse strains were analyzed in detail. Despite harboring toxin-sensitive and resistant macrophages, both strains are susceptible to anthrax infection (17, 25) and, as reported here, to LT. BALB/cJ mice succumb more rapidly, but both strains experience a similar course of disease, with hypoxia-mediated necrosis of liver and metaphyseal bone marrow as hallmarks of crisis, accompanied by pleural effusions. Contrary to previous hypotheses (18), hallmarks of cytokine-induced shock such as inflammation, fibrin clots and associated thrombosis, DIC, neutrophil margination and associated endothelial cell damage, renal dysfunction, and TNF-α production are absent in LT-treated mice. Despite an early transitory production of other cytokines in BALB/cJ, no inflammatory cascade develops. C57BL/6J, which do not mount this response, display similar although delayed pathology and subsequent death. The data indicate that LT induces ...
Precipitin antigen was prepared from cultures infected with V-Z virus. Five separate antigens were identified. Reactions with radiolabeled antigen were detected by autoradiography. Partial purification of antigens could be accomplished in a discontinuous sucrose gradient, yet too little antigen was recovered from DEAE to make this a practicable purification method. Most of the antigenic activity was eluted from G-200 Sephadex. Antigens were identified by their degree of chemical stability. The α antigen was the only one which was stable at pH 3. The β antigen was destroyed by CsCl or DOC. DOC released the γ Δ, and ε antigens from the infectious viral particle.. ...
A doctor may request an H. pylori antigen stool test if your child has symptoms that indicate a peptic ulcer, such as indigestion, abdominal pain, a full or bloated feeling, nausea, frequent belching, or vomiting.
This assay detects interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secretion in response to stimulation with Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens. A positive test indicates presence of TB infection but cannot be used to distinguish active disease from latent infection. The negative predictive value of this test for TB infection is 98 %.. ...
Combining population genomic data with clinical information on the human IgG response to pneumococcal proteins provides a unique insight into the complex immunological interaction between host and pathogen. The continuous distribution of IgG binding values suggests that adaptive immunity responds to many antigens in both the core and the accessory genome. The most immunogenic proteins had physical properties expected to be associated with antibody binding: signal peptides, including those with a YSIRK motif, for secretion out of the bacterial cell; large size; and a lipoprotein processing motif, LPXTG sortase processing motif or CBD for surface attachment. The great majority of the ABTs either were variants of the diverse PspA, PspC, ZmpA, and ZmpB proteins or could be grouped into surface-exposed roles in host molecule adhesion or degradation, cell wall metabolism, or solute binding for transport. Despite the proteins on the microarray being expressed in vitro, detected ABTs included examples ...
If Immune sera is showing same reaction to antigen as for plate without antigen, - posted in Immunology: If Immune sera is showing same reaction to antigen as for plate without antigen, what could be problem? Thanks.
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Synonyms for CD antigen in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for CD antigen. 15 words related to antigen: substance, immunizing agent, immunogen, immunology, agglutinogen, fetoprotein, foetoprotein, anatoxin, toxoid.... What are synonyms for CD antigen?
METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR EBOLA VIRUS VACCINATION | TOXOID PREPARATION AND USES THEREOF | LIPIDATED STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE ANTIGEN COMPOSITIONS, METHODS OF PREPARATION AND USE | METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR REDUCING GROWTH, MIGRATION AND INVASIVENESS OF BRAIN CANCER STEM CELLS AND... | Combination Of Listeria-Based Vaccine With Anti-OX40 Or Anti-GITR Antibodies |
METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR EBOLA VIRUS VACCINATION | TOXOID PREPARATION AND USES THEREOF | LIPIDATED STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE ANTIGEN COMPOSITIONS, METHODS OF PREPARATION AND USE | METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR REDUCING GROWTH, MIGRATION AND INVASIVENESS OF BRAIN CANCER STEM CELLS AND... | Combination Of Listeria-Based Vaccine With Anti-OX40 Or Anti-GITR Antibodies |
Experimental work has shown that T cells of the immune system rapidly and specifically respond to antigenic molecules presented on the surface of antigen-presenting-cells and are able to discriminate between potential stimuli based on the kinetic parameters of the T cell receptor-antigen bond. These antigenic molecules are presented among thousands of chemically similar endogenous peptides, raising the question of how T cells can reliably make a decision to respond to certain antigens but not others within minutes of encountering an antigen presenting cell. In this theoretical study, we investigate the role of localized rebinding between a T cell receptor and an antigen. We show that by allowing the signaling state of individual receptors to persist during brief unbinding events, T cells are able to discriminate antigens based on both their unbinding and rebinding rates. We demonstrate that T cell receptor coreceptors, but not receptor clustering, are important in promoting localized rebinding, and show
biochemistry) In the testing of cell surface antigens, a serological specificity that is poor or broad relative to other specificities and can be defined as 2 or more split antigens.(Example: HLA-B51 and HLA-B52 are split antigens of the HLA-B5 broad antigen)[1] ...
TRCDSEMBLNEW:AE008705_6 gene: "yaeT"; product: "putative outer membrane antigen"; Salmonella typhimurium LT2, section 13 of 220 of the complete genome ...
A method of enhancing an immune response is disclosed. Th method involves an initial priming of the animal with an inducing agent, subsequently followed by administration of an inducing agent-antigen mixture. The antigen may be a tumour associated antigen, pathogenic organism antigen, autoimmune antigen, immunogenic fragment thereof, or a nucleic acid coding therefor.
An outbreak of legionnaires disease is occurring in Amsterdam, where 23 cases confirmed by urinary antigen test were reported between 6 and 13 July 2006, and one patient has died
Looking for CD4 antigen? Find out information about CD4 antigen. see immunity immunity, ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have... Explanation of CD4 antigen
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Highly specific and potent radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has previously been limited to targeting of cell surface proteins. I have successfully pioneered technology that enables targeting antigens secreted by luminal tissues opening a new class of cancer tissue-specific targets including widely used circulating biomarkers. This is a considerable advance over previous RIT efforts as disease specific secreted antigens are targeted, and radiotherapeutic doses are delivery intracellularly for maximum effect - as close to the nucleus as possible. This technology builds on recent advances in our understanding of neonatal Fc- receptor (FcRn) biology. This receptor selectively traffics IgG1/antigen complexes from the exterior of the cell to lysosome compartments, while unbound IgG1 are released back into the blood circulation. My antibody platform demonstrates exquisite affinity and specificity for androgen receptor (AR) governed enzymes hK2 and PSA, two ...
Multiple Antigen LOOCV ROC curves.The LOOCV ROC graphs show classifiers with increasing number of human serodiagnostic antigens. Overall, the sensitivity and sp
You are at: Home » Products » Bio-Technology Products » Rotavirus Group A Antigen Test Stick and Device In total 82043 number ofProductsinfo,Released today. 6855 number of ...
antigens from a few sources: (i) all ES, somatic, and cuticular antigens as a result of tissue penetration and subsequent degeneration of the larvae, more info resulting in exposure to the whole profile on the parasites antigens; (ii) ES antigens only, in instances exactly where You will find a expulsion on the parasite intact, perhaps following penetration of intestine tissue has transpired; and (iii) cuticular and somatic antigens from lifeless larvae contained in food, through which case ES antigens could well be current only in minimal quantities-this last position has also been advised by Jackson (127 ...
Myeloid specific antigen, 0.1 mg. BM-1 antigen is a 183 kD myeloid-specific-DNA-binding protein which is expressed in myeloid cells, including myeloid precursors and mature granulocytes.
Buy SERPINA1 antigen, ALPHA 1 ANTITRYPSIN Antigen-NP_000286.3 (MBS238024) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Antigens. Application: ELISA (EIA)
TURNBULL, P.C.B. et al. Naturally acquired antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in vultures of southern Africa. Onderstepoort j. vet. res. [online]. 2008, vol.75, n.2, pp.95-102. ISSN 2219-0635.. Sera from 19 wild caught vultures in northern Namibia and 15 (12 wild caught and three captive bred but with minimal histories) in North West Province, South Africa, were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to the Bacillus anthracis toxin protective antigen (PA). As assessed from the baseline established with a control group of ten captive reared vultures with well-documented histories, elevated titres were found in 12 of the 19 (63 %) wild caught Namibian birds as compared with none of the 15 South African ones. There was a highly significant difference between the Namibian group as a whole and the other groups (P , 0.001) and no significant difference between the South African and control groups (P , 0.05). Numbers in the Namibian group were too small ...
Bacillus anthracis is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that can cause cutaneous, gastrointestinal or respiratory disease in many vertebrates, including humans. Commercially available anthrax vaccines for immunization of humans are of limited duration and do not protect against the respiratory form of the disease. Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes chronic infection in animals and humans. As with other intracellular pathogens, cell mediated immune responses (CMI) are crucial in affording protection against brucellosis. B. abortus strain RB51 has been shown to be useful in eliciting protective cell mediated immunity and humoral responses against Brucella in cattle and other animal species. Since the protective antigen (PA) of B. anthracis is known to induce protective antibodies, it was decided that the objective of this research was to test whether the gene encoding PA could be expressed in Brucella producing a bivalent vaccine to protect against ...
ABSTRACT. Sera from 19 wild caught vultures in northern Namibia and 15 (12 wild caught and three captive bred but with minimal histories) in North West Province, South Africa, were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to the Bacillus anthracis toxin protective antigen (PA). As assessed from the baseline established with a control group of ten captive reared vultures with well-documented histories, elevated titres were found in 12 of the 19 (63 %) wild caught Namibian birds as compared with none of the 15 South African ones. There was a highly significant difference between the Namibian group as a whole and the other groups (P , 0.001) and no significant difference between the South African and control groups (P , 0.05). Numbers in the Namibian group were too small to determine any significances in species-, sex- or age-related differences within the raw data showing elevated titres in four out of six Cape Vultures, Gyps coprotheres, six out of ten White-backed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protective antigen antibody augments hemodynamic support in anthrax lethal toxin shock in canines. AU - Barochia, Amisha V.. AU - Cui, Xizhong. AU - Sun, Junfeng. AU - Li, Yan. AU - Solomon, Steven B.. AU - Migone, Thi Sau. AU - Subramanian, G. Mani. AU - Bolmer, Sally D.. AU - Eichacker, Peter Q.. PY - 2012/3/1. Y1 - 2012/3/1. N2 - Background. Anthrax-associated shock is closely linked to lethal toxin (LT) release and is highly lethal despite conventional hemodynamic support. We investigated whether protective antigen-directed monoclonal antibody (PA-mAb) treatment further augments titrated hemodynamic support.Methods and Results.Forty sedated, mechanically ventilated, instrumented canines challenged with anthrax LT were assigned to no treatment (controls), hemodynamic support alone (protocol-titrated fluids and norepinephrine), PA-mAb alone (administered at start of LT infusion [0 hours] or 9 or 12 hours later), or both, and observed for 96 hours. Although all 8 controls died, ...
Factor H Binding protein (fHbp) is an important meningococcal virulence factor, enabling the meningococcus to evade the complement system, and a main target for vaccination. Recently, the structure of fHBP complexed with factor H (fH) was published. Two fHbp glutamic acids, E(283) and E(304), form salt bridges with fH, influencing interaction between fHbp and fH. Fifteen amino acids were identified forming hydrogen bonds with fH. We sequenced fHbp of 254 meningococcal isolates from adults with meningococcal meningitis included in a prospective clinical cohort to study the effect of fHbp variants on meningococcal disease severity and outcome. All fHbp of subfamily A had E304 substituted with T304. Of the 15 amino acids in fHbp making hydrogen bonds to fH, 3 were conserved, 11 show a similar distribution between the two fHbp subfamilies as the polymorphism at position 304. The proportion of patients infected with meningococci with fHbp of subfamily A with unfavorable outcome was 2.5-fold lower than that
BACKGROUND/AIM: Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacteria, which is associated with development of gastroduodenal diseases. The prevalence of H. pylori and the virulence markers cytotoxin-associated gene A and E (cagA, cagE) and vacuolating-associated cytotoxin gene (vacA) alleles varies in different parts of the world. H. pylori virulence markers cagA, cagE, and vacA alleles in local and Afghan nationals with H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal diseases were studied. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and ten patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms and positive for H. pylori by the urease test and histology were included. One hundred and nineteen were local nationals and 91 were Afghans. The cagA, cagE, and vacA allelic status was determined by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) was common in the Afghan patients (P = 0.025). In Afghan H. pylori strains, cagA was positive in 14 (82%) with gastric carcinoma (GC) compared with 29 (45%) with NUD (P = 0.006),

Empiric antibiotics for an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level: A randomised, prospective, controlled multi...Empiric antibiotics for an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level: A randomised, prospective, controlled multi...

N2 - Objective To determine the impact of empiric antibiotics on men with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. ... AB - Objective To determine the impact of empiric antibiotics on men with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. ... Objective To determine the impact of empiric antibiotics on men with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. ... abstract = "Objective To determine the impact of empiric antibiotics on men with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ...
more infohttps://pennstate.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/empiric-antibiotics-for-an-elevated-prostate-specific-antigen-psa

Complete chemoenzymatic synthesis of the Forssman antigen using novel glycosyltransferases identified in Campylobacter jejuni...Complete chemoenzymatic synthesis of the Forssman antigen using novel glycosyltransferases identified in Campylobacter jejuni...

Complete chemoenzymatic synthesis of the Forssman antigen using novel glycosyltransferases identified in Campylobacter jejuni ... which is involved in the synthesis of an LOS-bound Forssman antigen mimic and represents the only known bacterial ... Strains that carry these genes may have the capability of synthesizing mimics of the P blood group antigens of the globoseries ... Campylobacter jejuni; Forssman antigen; glycosyltransferase; Pasteurella multocida. Abstract. We have identified an α1,4- ...
more infohttp://nparc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/view/object/?id=a9c45c83-8be0-46a4-9b57-297e7e95911e

BACTERIAL ANTIGEN DETECTIONBACTERIAL ANTIGEN DETECTION

Home : For health professionals : Refer a patient : Laboratory Services : Test Table : BACTERIAL ANTIGEN DETECTION ... Haemophilus influenzae type B Antigen Detection, LA; Neisseria meningitidis Antigen Detection (Groups A/Y and C/W 135), LA; ... Neisseria meningitidis Detection (Group B/E. coli K1), LA; Streptococcus, Group B, Antigen Detection, LA; Streptococcus ...
more infohttp://www.legacyhealth.org/for-health-professionals/refer-a-patient/laboratory-services/test-table/bacterial-antigen-detection.aspx

DailyMed - Search Results for Antigens, BacterialDailyMed - Search Results for Antigens, Bacterial

SEARCH RESULTS for: Antigens, Bacterial [Drug Class] (8 results) * Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. Bookmark & ...
more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/search.cfm?query=Antigens,%20Bacterial&searchdb=class

BACTERIAL ANTIGEN-CODING REGION IMMUNIZES MICE; HIV UP NEXT | BioWorldBACTERIAL ANTIGEN-CODING REGION IMMUNIZES MICE; HIV UP NEXT | BioWorld

BioWorld Online is the news service of record for the biotechnology industry and is updated every business morning. BioWorld Online will keep you up to date on all of the industrys business, science and regulatory news -- mergers and collaborations, FDA hearings and results, breakthroughs in research and much more.
more infohttp://www.bioworld.com/content/bacterial-antigen-coding-region-immunizes-mice-hiv-next

Antigens & Bacterial ToxinsAntigens & Bacterial Toxins

Antigens may be found in the body, and are foreign substances which introduce a pathogen to the immunologic system in order to ... Buy Antigen. start with: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... Employing antigens for antibody generation are key applications. Antigens are referred to as immunogenic antigens or simply ... An antigen is typically defined as a substance that triggers an immunogenic response. The immune system sees the antigen as a ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/product.php?name=antigen&fc=S

Identification of circulating bacterial antigens by in vivo microbial antigen discovery. | Sigma-AldrichIdentification of circulating bacterial antigens by in vivo microbial antigen discovery. | Sigma-Aldrich

Bacterial antigens that are reactive with the InMAD immune serum are precisely the antigens to target in an antigen immunoassay ... Identification of circulating bacterial antigens by in vivo microbial antigen discovery.. [Dana E Nuti, Reva B Crump, Farida ... The InMAD immune serum is then used to probe blots of bacterial lysates or bacterial proteome arrays. ... that we used to identify circulating bacterial antigens. This technique starts with "InMAD serum," which is filtered serum that ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/21846829

Detection of bacterial antigens in milk | Veterinary RecordDetection of bacterial antigens in milk | Veterinary Record

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
more infohttp://veterinaryrecord.bmj.com/content/132/13/332.2

Antigens & Bacterial ToxinsAntigens & Bacterial Toxins

Antigens may be found in the body, and are foreign substances which introduce a pathogen to the immunologic system in order to ... Buy Antigen. start with: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... Employing antigens for antibody generation are key applications. Antigens are referred to as immunogenic antigens or simply ... An antigen is typically defined as a substance that triggers an immunogenic response. The immune system sees the antigen as a ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/product.php?name=antigen&fc=Y

Potential for Detecting Ocular Bacterial Antigen Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy | IOVS | ARVO JournalsPotential for Detecting Ocular Bacterial Antigen Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy | IOVS | ARVO Journals

Potential for Detecting Ocular Bacterial Antigen Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy L. Woodward; S. Maswadi; R. D. Glickman; A. ... Purpose:: We are investigating the feasibility of detecting ocular bacterial antigen using a minimally invasive optical method ... L. Woodward, S. Maswadi, R. D. Glickman, A. Oraevsky, N. Barsalou, G. Zhong; Potential for Detecting Ocular Bacterial Antigen ... Potential for Detecting Ocular Bacterial Antigen Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy You will receive an email whenever this ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2386924

Bacterial antigens in synovial biopsy specimens in yersinia triggered reactive arthritis. | Annals of the Rheumatic DiseasesBacterial antigens in synovial biopsy specimens in yersinia triggered reactive arthritis. | Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

Non-viable structures of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 were shown at the site of inflammation within mononuclear cells in the synovial membrane of eight out of 10 patients with yersinia triggered reactive arthritis. An avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method, with a rabbit antiserum specific for Y enterocolitica O:3, was used to visualise yersinia structures. All 13 control samples were negative except for one with non-specific mast cell staining. The findings emphasise the significance of foreign material in the initiation of synovitis in reactive arthritis. ...
more infohttp://ard.bmj.com/content/50/2/87

WO1998050531 NUCLEIC ACID MOLECULES SPECIFIC FOR BACTERIAL ANTIGENS AND USES THEREOFWO1998050531 NUCLEIC ACID MOLECULES SPECIFIC FOR BACTERIAL ANTIGENS AND USES THEREOF

The invention also relates to methods of testing samples for the presence of one or more bacterial polysaccharide antigens, ... the gene being involved in the synthesis of a particular bacterial polysaccharide antigen, wherein the sequence of the nucleic ... acid molecule is specific to the particular bacterial polysaccharide antigen. Polysaccharides to which the invention relates ... EN) NUCLEIC ACID MOLECULES SPECIFIC FOR BACTERIAL ANTIGENS AND USES THEREOF. (FR) MOLECULES DACIDE NUCLEIQUE SPECIFIQUES POUR ...
more infohttps://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO1998050531

Bacterial Antigen Latex ID Tests 
            
                
                
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        ...Bacterial Antigen Latex ID Tests Products ...

Thermo Fisher Scientific is dedicated to improving the human condition through systems, consumables, and services for researchers.
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/search/browse/results?customGroup=Bacterial+Antigen+Latex+ID+Tests

Effective, Broad Spectrum Control of Virulent Bacterial Infections Using Cationic DNA Liposome Complexes Combined with...Effective, Broad Spectrum Control of Virulent Bacterial Infections Using Cationic DNA Liposome Complexes Combined with...

Thus, CLDC+MPF represents a novel antimicrobial for treatment of lethal, acute, bacterial infections. ... Author Summary Conventional treatment of bacterial infections typically includes administration of antibiotics. However, many ... Bacterial pathogens Is the Subject Area "Bacterial pathogens" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Bacterial diseases Is the Subject Area "Bacterial diseases" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1000921

Bacterial antigen detection in body fluids: methods for rapid antigen concentration and reduction of nonspecific reactions. |...Bacterial antigen detection in body fluids: methods for rapid antigen concentration and reduction of nonspecific reactions. |...

Bacterial antigen detection in body fluids: methods for rapid antigen concentration and reduction of nonspecific reactions.. S ... Bacterial antigen detection in body fluids: methods for rapid antigen concentration and reduction of nonspecific reactions. ... Bacterial antigen detection in body fluids: methods for rapid antigen concentration and reduction of nonspecific reactions. ... Bacterial antigen detection in body fluids: methods for rapid antigen concentration and reduction of nonspecific reactions. ...
more infohttps://jcm.asm.org/content/11/4/380

Phytochemical-rich medicinal plant extracts suppress bacterial antigens-induced inflammation in human tonsil epithelial cells ...Phytochemical-rich medicinal plant extracts suppress bacterial antigens-induced inflammation in human tonsil epithelial cells ...

Methods The HTonEpiC were induced by a mixture of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PGN) (10 µg/mL; bacterial antigens ... Bacterial antigen-stimulated HTonEpiC cell model was employed. HTonEpiC were incubated with a mixture of LTA and PGN (10 µg/mL ... The HTonEpiC were induced by a mixture of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PGN) (10 µg/mL; bacterial antigens) for 4 ... Phytochemical-rich medicinal plant extracts suppress bacterial antigens-induced inflammation in human tonsil epithelial cells. ...
more infohttps://peerj.com/articles/3469/

Antigens, Bacterial | Colorado PROFILESAntigens, Bacterial | Colorado PROFILES

Bacterial" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, Bacterial" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Antigens, Bacterial" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, Bacterial" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Antigens, Bacterial". ...
more infohttps://profiles.ucdenver.edu/display/222762

Bacterial antigens in urine | AglaeBacterial antigens in urine | Aglae

This External Quality Assessment (programme AGLAE 80A) address medical laboratories and hospital laboratories. Features of this EQA: Samples close to patient samples Results reported on-line
more infohttp://association-aglae.fr/en/essais/bacterial-antigens-urine

Bacterial Antigens Market Growth - The Tribune CityBacterial Antigens Market Growth - The Tribune City

Tag: Bacterial Antigens Market Growth. Bacterial Antigens Market - Latest Trends and Forecast Analysis up to 2018 to 2028. ... Bacterial Antigens Market Analysis by Regional Development Status, Market Size, Volume and Value 2018 to 2028. November 9, 2019 ... The study on the global Bacterial Antigens Market published by Fact.MR is a comprehensive analysis of the key factors that […] ... Bacterial Antigens Market - Latest Trends and Forecast Analysis up to 2018 to 2028. November 16, 2019 ...
more infohttps://thetribunecity.com/tag/bacterial-antigens-market-growth/

Mucosal delivery of antigens using adsorption to bacterial sporesMucosal delivery of antigens using adsorption to bacterial spores

... The broad spectrum of immune responses elicited coupled with ... Of these, the use of genetically engineered bacterial spores has been shown to offer promise as both a mucosal as well as a ... The spore appears to present a bound antigen in its native conformation promoting a cellular (T(h)1-biased) response coupled ... by enhancing responses against soluble antigens. The broad spectrum of immune responses elicited coupled with the attendant ...
more infohttp://www.ei-resource.org/research/candida-and-gut-dysbiosis-research/mucosal-delivery-of-antigens-using-adsorption-to-bacterial-spores/

Antigenome technology: a novel approach for the selection of bacterial vaccine candidate antigens.  - PubMed - NCBIAntigenome technology: a novel approach for the selection of bacterial vaccine candidate antigens. - PubMed - NCBI

Antigenome technology: a novel approach for the selection of bacterial vaccine candidate antigens.. Meinke A1, Henics T, Hanner ... A novel approach for the identification of protein antigens from bacterial pathogens was previously developed in our laboratory ... We have applied this technology to several bacterial pathogens of the genera Staphylococcus and Streptococcus and have, as a ... The antigenome technology offers an integrated approach for antigen validation in order to select the most promising candidates ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15755567?dopt=Abstract

Bacterial Antigens Market Forecast, Trend Analysis & Competition Tracking - Global Review 2018 to 2028Bacterial Antigens Market Forecast, Trend Analysis & Competition Tracking - Global Review 2018 to 2028

Bacterial Antigens Market research report covers detailed information on Global Bacterial Antigens Market Value, Growth, ... Bacterial Antigens Market: Key Players The global bacterial antigens market is highly fragmented owing to the presence of large ... Different types of bacterial antigens are being introduced in the bacterial antigens market by leading players, such as Bio-Rad ... Bacterial Antigens Market: Overview. The global market for bacterial antigens is expected to register moderate growth rate over ...
more infohttps://www.factmr.com/report/1301/bacterial-antigens-market

NOD2 stimulation induces autophagy in dendritic cells influencing bacterial handling and antigen presentation.  - PubMed - NCBINOD2 stimulation induces autophagy in dendritic cells influencing bacterial handling and antigen presentation. - PubMed - NCBI

NOD2 stimulation induces autophagy in dendritic cells influencing bacterial handling and antigen presentation.. Cooney R1, ... bacterial trafficking and antigen presentation. Our findings link two Crohns disease-associated susceptibility genes in a ... but it is not clear how bacterial recognition links with antigen presentation after NOD2 stimulation. NOD2 variants are ... Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing-2 (NOD2) acts as a bacterial sensor in dendritic cells (DCs), ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19966812?dopt=Abstract

Glycoengineering of host mimicking type-2 LacNAc polymersand Lewis X antigens on bacterial cell surfacesGlycoengineering of host mimicking type-2 LacNAc polymersand Lewis X antigens on bacterial cell surfaces

... Mally, Manuela ... These bacterial strains can thus serve as tools to analyse the role of defined carbohydrate structures in different biological ... Bacterial carbohydrate structures play a central role in mediating a variety of host-pathogen interactions. Glycans can either ... The poly-LacNAc scaffold was used as an acceptor for fucosylation leading to polymers of Lewis X antigens. We analysed the ...
more infohttp://su.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:611891

KAKEN - Research Projects | Study on sugar modified antigens and intracellular bacterial pathogens. (KAKENHI-PROJECT-10470068)KAKEN - Research Projects | Study on sugar modified antigens and intracellular bacterial pathogens. (KAKENHI-PROJECT-10470068)

The s. typhi suppresses surface Vi antigen and produces flagellin and secreted proteins, these factors promote the bacterial ... The Vi suppressed S. typhi agglutinate with human blood type antigen. The surface omp C protein of S. typhi was responsible for ... other35ィイD1thィエD1U.S.-Japan cholera and bacterial enteric infections joint panel meeting. Baltimore. MD. (1999). *. ... This suggests that recognition of LPS receptor play a major role to recognize bacterial entry and processing of ingested ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-10470068/
  • Antigens are referred to as immunogenic antigens or simply immunogens when they are specifically used to generate an immune response that is expected to result in antibody production. (mybiosource.com)
  • Although the term immunogen is often used interchangeably with the term antigen, strictly speaking, only an immunogen is immunogenic and can evoke an immune response. (mybiosource.com)
  • The InMAD immune serum is then used to probe blots of bacterial lysates or bacterial proteome arrays. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The growing demand for bacterial antigens capable of eliciting a protective immune response against various cancers and infectious diseases is expected to be the major factor driving the growth of the bacterial antigens market over the forecast period. (factmr.com)
  • Also, rapid discovery of novel antigens that can trigger a cross-protective immune response in a bacterial pathogen, growing incidences of cancer and infectious diseases and increase in diagnosis of various diseases are some of the factors further expected to drive the revenue growth in global bacterial antigens market. (factmr.com)
  • Our findings link two Crohn's disease-associated susceptibility genes in a single functional pathway and reveal defects in this pathway in Crohn's disease DCs that could lead to bacterial persistence via impaired lysosomal destruction and immune mediated clearance. (nih.gov)
  • Lewis X (Gal beta 1-4(Fuc alpha 1-3)GlcNAc) antigens of Helicobacter pylori or of the helminth Schistosoma mansoni modulate the immune response by interacting with receptors on human dendritic cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • The dominant antigens identified were flagellins, molecules known to activate innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), and critical targets of the acquired immune system in host defense. (jci.org)
  • These results identify flagellins as a class of immunodominant antigens that stimulate pathogenic intestinal immune reactions in genetically diverse hosts and suggest new avenues for the diagnosis and antigen-directed therapy of patients with IBD. (jci.org)
  • Such unnecessary antibiotic treatment can cause severe side effects like toxicity, allergic reactions, suppression of immune system, intestinal bacterial flora disruption or even, according to the latest studies, obesity. (termedia.pl)
  • S. aureus and E. coli antigens were detected in immune-blotted HDM extract and the presence of IgE-reactive antigens in HDM was demonstrated by qualitative and quantitative IgE inhibition experiments. (blogspot.com)
  • Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) was demonstrated to have greater prevalence in rosacea patients and treating it with locally acting antibiotics led to rosacea lesion improvement in two studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This suggests that recognition of LPS receptor play a major role to recognize bacterial entry and processing of ingested bacteria. (nii.ac.jp)
  • IgE-reactivity to antigens from gram-positive and negative bacteria is common in patients suffering from respiratory and skin manifestations of allergy, but the routes and mechanisms of sensitisation are not fully understood. (blogspot.com)
  • Therefore, our aim was to investigate if HDM are carriers of bacterial antigens leading to IgE sensitisation in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. (blogspot.com)
  • These results suggest that the skewing to the Th2-type T cell response in atopic patients is a response not only to allergens, but also to bacterial antigens, compared with non-atopic subjects. (core.ac.uk)
  • The epitope or antigenic determinant portion of a bacterial antigen is recognized by antigen specific receptors located on T and B cells. (factmr.com)
  • Strains displaying polymeric LacNAc were generated by introducing a combination of glycosyltransferases that act on modified lipid A-cores, resulting in efficient expression of the carbohydrate epitope on bacterial cell surfaces. (diva-portal.org)
  • The antigenome technology offers an integrated approach for antigen validation in order to select the most promising candidates for the development of subunit vaccines against the targeted bacterial diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, it`s shown the prospect of the use of TI-complexes as a new type of adjuvant carriers for antigens. (msk.ru)
  • The photoacoustic spectrum and the conventional optical absorption spectrum of the solution of C. trachomatis antigen bound to the Ab-conjugated nanorods were found to have absorption peaks at ~750nm, which is consistent with the presence of nanorod contrast agent bound on the cuvette walls. (arvojournals.org)
  • Nevertheless bacterial and viral infections are a big diagnostic difficulty also for laboratories. (termedia.pl)
  • The expression of the antigen is controlled by osmolarity and other environmental factors. (nii.ac.jp)
  • DCs from individuals with Crohn's disease expressing Crohn's disease-associated NOD2 or ATG16L1 risk variants are defective in autophagy induction, bacterial trafficking and antigen presentation. (nih.gov)
  • Major potential end users for bacterial antigens market include hospital associated diagnostic laboratories, diagnostic laboratories and centers and academic and research institutes. (factmr.com)
  • Depending upon whether they enter the human body from outside or originate within the body, these bacterial antigens are classified as foreign or self-antigens, respectively. (factmr.com)
  • IgE-reactivity to bacterial antigens was significantly more frequent in AD patients sensitised to HDM than in AD patients without HDM sensitisation. (blogspot.com)