Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

Experimental production of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: comparison of serological and immunological responses using pili fractions of Moraxella bovis. (1/13242)

The effect of vaccinating cattle and mice on the development of keratoconjunctivitis was studied. Cattle were vaccinated with whole cells, disrupted cells and pili fractions of three strains of Moraxella bovis. Mice were vaccinated with pili fractions of three strains. The resistance of all vaccinated animals was challenged with virulent cultures of M. bovis. In an attempt to correlate the response seen after vaccination and challenge with a pili fraction of M. bovis, vaccinated cattle and mice were grouped on the basis of signs of disease manifested and compared on the basis of serological responses. Serum samples were tested for antibodies by a gel diffusion precipitin test. A greater number of the sera of resistant cattle had antibodies to the homologous pili antigen than those of vaccinated nonresistant cattle. Cattle vaccinated with disrupted cells were not resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to challenge exposure by homologous than heterologous cultures. A greater number of the sera of resistant mice had antibodies to pili antigens than nonresistant mice.  (+info)

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: experimental production in calves with antigens of Micropolyspora faeni. (2/13242)

Pneumonitis was induced in calves by exposure to aerosols of Micropolyspora faeni with or without prior sensitization of the animals by subcutaneous injection of antigen. The pneumonitis primarily involved centrolobular areas and was characterized by alveolar septal thickening and loss of air space by cellular infiltration. Vasculitis and focal haemorrhage occurred in certain individuals and haemoproteinaceous exudate appeared within septa and alveolar lumina. The pneumonitis was compared with human farmer's lung, pneumonitis of housed cattle and other experimental hypersensitivity pneumonitides.  (+info)

The significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. (3/13242)

AIMS: To assess the significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in relation to inflammation and density of bacterial colonisation in vivo within a dyspeptic UK population. METHODS: Dyspeptic patients who were Helicobacter pylori positive had antral samples taken for histology and culture. Gastroduodenal pathology was noted. The grade of bacterial density and inflammation was assessed using the Sydney system. Bacterial DNA was extracted and the vacA alleles and the cagA/gene typed using PCR. RESULTS: 120 patients were studied. There was high rate of cagA positive strains in this population. Bacterial density did not correlate with the presence of peptic ulceration. There was a significant association between cagA positive strains and increased inflammation and bacterial density. The vacA s1 type independently correlated with extensive chronic inflammation but there was no association with bacterial density. The vacA m type did not correlate with extent of inflammation or bacterial density. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cagA is important in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. These findings are in keeping with the hypothesis that cagA acts as a marker for a cag pathogenicity island which encodes several genes involved in inflammation. The vacA s1 allele correlates with inflammation independently of cagA, possibly through its enhanced ability to produce the vacuolating cytotoxin.  (+info)

Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis. (4/13242)

AIM: To investigate the association between the quantity of gastric chemokine mRNA expression, severity of gastritis, and cagA positivity in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. METHODS: In 83 dyspeptic patients, antral and corpus biopsies were taken for semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and histological grading of gastritis. Gastritis was evaluated by visual analogue scales. Quantities of chemokine (IL-8, GRO alpha, ENA-78, RANTES, MCP-1) RT-PCR products were compared with G3PDH products. Each sample was also evaluated for the presence of cagA and ureA mRNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS: mRNA expression of all five chemokines was significantly greater in H pylori positive than in H pylori negative mucosa. In H pylori positive patients, in the antrum C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive patients than in cagA negative patients, but there were no significant differences in C-C chemokine mRNA expression. In H pylori positive patients, chemokine mRNA expression in the corpus was less than in the antrum. In contrast to the antrum, only GRO alpha mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive infection. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltration was correlated with C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. Significant correlations were also found between bacterial density and C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: In H pylori infection, C-X-C chemokines may play a primary role in active gastritis. Infection with cagA positive H pylori induces greater gastric chemokine mRNA expression in the antral mucosa, which may be relevant to the increased mucosal damage associated with cagA positive H pylori infection.  (+info)

Generation of CD8(+) T-cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterial antigen in experimental bovine tuberculosis. (5/13242)

Protective immunity against tuberculosis is considered to be essentially cell mediated, and an important role for CD8(+) T lymphocytes has been suggested by several studies of murine and human infections. The present work, using an experimental model of infection with Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, showed that live M. bovis elicits the activation of CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, a sonic extract prepared from M. bovis (MBSE) and protein purified derivative (PPDb) also induced a considerable degree of activation of the CD8(+) T cells. Analysis of proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, purified CD8(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T-cell clones to M. bovis and to soluble antigenic preparations (MBSE, PPDb) showed that the responses of all three types of cells were always superior for live mycobacteria but that strong responses were also obtained with complex soluble preparations. Furthermore, while cytotoxic capabilities were not investigated, the CD8(+) T cells were found to produce and release gamma interferon in response to antigen (live and soluble), which indicated one possible protective mechanism for these cells in bovine tuberculosis. Finally, it was demonstrated by metabolic inhibition with brefeldin A and cytochalasin D at the clonal level that an endogenous pathway of antigen processing is required for presentation to bovine CD8(+) cells and that presentation is also dependent on phagocytosis of the antigen.  (+info)

Pathogenicity island 2 mutants of Salmonella typhimurium are efficient carriers for heterologous antigens and enable modulation of immune responses. (6/13242)

The potential use as vaccine delivery system of Salmonella typhimurium strains harboring defined mutations in the sseC (HH104) and sseD (MvP101) genes, which encode putative effector proteins of the type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2, was evaluated and compared with that of the well-characterized aroA mutant strain SL7207 by using beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) as a model antigen. When orally administered to immune-competent or gamma interferon-deficient (IFN-gamma-/-) BALB/c mice, both mutants were found to be highly attenuated (50% lethal dose, >10(9) bacteria). Both strains were also able to efficiently colonize and persist in Peyer's patches. Immunization with HH104 and MvP101 triggered beta-Gal-specific serum and mucosal antibody responses equivalent to or stronger than those observed in SL7207-immunized mice. Although immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) serum antibodies were dominant in all groups, IgG1 was also significantly increased in mice vaccinated with MvP101 and SL7207. Comparable beta-Gal-specific IgA and IgG antibodies were detected in intestinal lavages from mice immunized with the different strains. Antigen-specific CD4(+) T-helper cells were generated after vaccination with all vaccine prototypes; however, responses were significantly more efficient when HH104 and MvP101 were used (P < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma were produced by restimulated spleen cells from mice immunized with HH104 than from those vaccinated with the MvP101 or SL7207 derivatives (P +info)

Transcutaneous immunization with bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins as antigens and adjuvants. (7/13242)

Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a new technique that uses the application of vaccine antigens in a solution on the skin to induce potent antibody responses without systemic or local toxicity. We have previously shown that cholera toxin (CT), a potent adjuvant for oral and nasal immunization, can induce both serum and mucosal immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA and protect against toxin-mediated mucosal disease when administered by the transcutaneous route. Additionally, CT acts as an adjuvant for coadministered antigens such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids when applied to the skin. CT, a member of the bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxin (bARE) family, is most potent as an adjuvant when the A-B subunits are present and functional. We now show that TCI induces secondary antibody responses to coadministered antigens as well as to CT in response to boosting immunizations. IgG antibodies to coadministered antigens were also found in the stools and lung washes of immunized mice, suggesting that TCI may target mucosal pathogens. Mice immunized by the transcutaneous route with tetanus fragment C and CT developed anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies and were protected against systemic tetanus toxin challenge. We also show that bAREs, similarly organized as A-B subunits, as well as the B subunit of CT alone, induced antibody responses to themselves when given via TCI. Thus, TCI appears to induce potent, protective immune responses to both systemic and mucosal challenge and offers significant potential practical advantages for vaccine delivery.  (+info)

A 55-kilodalton immunodominant antigen of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 has arisen via horizontal gene transfer. (8/13242)

A 55-kDa outer membrane protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 is a significant target of the serum immunoglobulin G antibody response of periodontal disease patients and hence may play an important role in host-bacterium interactions in periodontal disease. The gene encoding the 55-kDa antigen (ragB, for receptor antigen B) was isolated on a 9.5-kb partial Sau3AI fragment of P. gingivalis W50 chromosomal DNA in pUC18 by immunoscreening with a monoclonal antibody to this antigen. The 1.6-kb open reading frame (ORF) encoding RagB was located via subcloning and nested-deletion analysis. Sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of an upstream 3.1-kb ORF (ragA) which is cotranscribed with ragB. A number of genetic characteristics suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by a horizontal gene transfer event. These include a significantly reduced G+C content relative to that of the P. gingivalis chromosome (42 versus 48%) and the presence of mobility elements flanking this locus in P. gingivalis W50. Furthermore, Southern blotting and PCR analyses showed a restricted distribution of this locus in laboratory and clinical isolates of this bacterium. The association of ragAB+ P. gingivalis with clinical status was examined by PCR analysis of subgingival samples. ragAB+ was not detected in P. gingivalis-positive shallow pockets from periodontal disease patients but was present in 36% of the P. gingivalis-positive samples from deep pockets. These data suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by certain P. gingivalis strains via horizontal gene transfer and that the acquisition of this locus may facilitate the survival of these strains at sites of periodontal destruction.  (+info)

Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Dana E Nuti, Reva B Crump, Farida Dwi Handayani, Narisara Chantratita, Sharon J Peacock, Richard Bowen, Philip L Felgner, D Huw Davies, Terry Wu, C Rick Lyons, Paul J Brett, Mary N Burtnick, Thomas R Kozel, David P AuCoin].
Streptococcal antigen testing was found to be both sensitive and highly specific under most conditions, though evidence was found that demonstrated high variability depending on the serotype that was encountered. The cost savings as a result of its use are heterogeneous in nature and more powerful investigation is required to form reliable conclusions. Evidence-based guidelines indicate that it is not appropriate for use in children due to high false-positives, and they further stated that its use in adults should be limited to admitted patients with moderate to high disease severity.. ...
Both react strongly with HCV positive sera; the choice of antigen may be a function of the particular assay format chosen, however, more commonly, it appears that the fusion protein was the antigen of choice. The protein is soluble in aqueous buffer and may be admixed with the HCV capsid antigen prior to coating on to microplate wells. The protein comes as a 500 ug/ml (again setting 1 mg/ml equivalent to an OD (280nm) in Tris buffer, of 1.0). Individual Elisa protocols can be developed, such as Capsid antigen alone (Example 1); NS3 antigen alone (Example 2); or, A combination of antigens (Example 3). Using a Capsid: NS3 ratio of 4:1 in the coating mixture appears to provide the most favorable signal-to-noise ratios in the subsequent assay: Access to the individual antigen component thus enables the determination of precise parameters for an optimized assay.. To view an SDS PAAGE image of this antigen, please click HERE. To review the seroconversion data (using a standard seroconversion panel ...
T cells that recognize self-lipids presented by CD1c are frequent in the peripheral blood of healthy individuals and kill transformed hematopoietic cells, but little is known about their antigen specificity and potential antileukemia effects. We report that CD1c self-reactive T cells recognize a nov …
Calf serum has been shown to suppress the primary immune response to erythrocytes and some bacterial antigens in mice if administered prior to and not after immunization. The importance of the route of iniection of antigens and immunosuppressant is indicated. It is suggested that immunosuppression is achieved by phagocytosis and enyzmatic destruction of the injected antigen by peritoneal macrophages. A similar mechanism is probably involved in the type of immunosuppression induced by PHA.. ...
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Please be aware that Royal Caribbean requires a negative PBR Antigen test to be conducted a few days before our cruise. As of today, its good for only...
Protective antigen component of B. anthracis toxin was produced and purified to the |99% level. Toxin was purified from culture supernatant utilizing concentration and liquid chromatography techniques. Purity was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified protective antigen retained biological and antigenic activity as evidenced respectively by lethality in Fischer 344 rats when injected in combination with lethal factor, and by positive results on the Ouchterlony double diffussion assay. Radioiodinated protective antigen was used both in the in vivo and the in vitro experiments. In vivo distribution of labelled protective antigen was determined in Fischer 344 rats. Assay of organ tissues for labelled protective antigen aided in the decision to use Maden-Darby bovine kidney cells for the cell cultures in the protective antigen binding studies. Protective antigen binding studies, all performed at 37°C, evaluated criteria for receptor existence. Labelled
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis)-specific culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10) is highly recognized by M. tuberculosis infected subjects. In the present study, the proliferative respon
Lethal factor1,2-ETHANEDIOLGLYCEROLN~2~-[(4-fluoro-3-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]-N-hydroxy-N~2~-(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)-D-alaninamideZINC ION
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There are many outside agents that could become antigens. Among the agents that are potentially antigenic are egg whites, pollen, transplanted tissue proteins and plenty of other agents that could cause a reaction of the immune system in order to take care of the invasion.. These outside antigens are also known as non-microbal or non-self antigens. One outside source of imunogenic antigens are vaccines. They are often given to people in order to prepare themselves for a potential illness.. Outside antigens are known as exogenous antigens. The common way that these antigens enter the body is through inhalation, injection, or ingestion. Often times, the immune system reacts to the antigens in a less than clinical fashion.. The process of the antibodies taking on the antigens are either endocytosis or phagocytosis. These antigens are brought to the cells that present antigens. The antigens are then broken down into pieces so that they can be processed.. The pieces are taken to the T helper cells so ...
CALIXARs approach allows to preserve the original structure and function of membrane proteins (GPCRs, Ion Channels, Transporters, Receptors, Anchors and Viral Proteins) providing solutions for pharmaceutical industries, biotechnology companies and academic teams to develop conformational antibodies, formulate new vaccines, carry out Structure Based Drug Discovery and/or HTS assays. ...
The Native Antigen Company was formed as a spin out from PsiOxus (formerly Hybrid BioSystems). Headquartered in Birmingham, with research offices in Oxford, The Native Antigen Company has expertise in the isolation and purification of both viral and bacterial native antigens. These antigens serve as key components for infectious disease testing kits - their function being to accurately detect pathogenic infection by capturing antibodies in patient samples. The company also offers adenovirus purification and production capabilities and a screening service for anticancer and antiviral drug compounds. The company has achieved ISO 9001:2008 accreditation for the development, manufacture, and sale of native antigens as of November 2010. The company will specialise in manufacturing of native antigens but also offers a range of products and purities, from cell lysates to gradient purified pathogens, for a range of organisms. These include adenovirus types 3, 5, 11, 12, and type 5 hexon protein along ...
View Notes - Immunogenes or Antigens from STEP 1 at Montgomery College. ‫بسم اللة الرحمن‬ ‫الرحيم‬ Immunogens Or Antigens Immunogens Or Antigens Immunogens or
Hello all, Does anyone know of a company/lab/collection center from where I can get a genomic DNA expression library of E. coli CONSTRUCTED IN A PLASMID VECTOR?? I prefer a insert size of 3 Kb or less but others are also welcome. Please suggest. Thanks, S.V. Dole ...
Alliance DNA is proud to offer the next generation of COVID-19 antigen testing: CareSmart by AccessBio.This test is effective, inexpensive, and available, providing a quick 10-minute turn-around process at your point of care facility. Antigen testing is recognized as a significant means of slowing the spread of COVID-19 because it is quick, accurate, and less expensive than most PCR testing.Antigen testing is also a diagnostic test, meaning it identifies the current presence of a virus.. What is an antigen test? ...
Absynth Biologics are pioneering the discovery and development of innovative vaccines to prevent and treat life threatening bacterial infections such as S. aureus and C. difficile for which there are currently no marketed vaccines. Their highly differentiated approach, using antigen targets which harness the immune system in a multimodal fashion, will create differentiated vaccines. Absynth team comprise world leading microbiology and infection expertise.. BioCity invested in Absynth because of the courageous and unique approach they have taken in developing a much-needed solution to target colonisation. ...
In experiments measuring the length of time an antigen stays stuck, DM makes sure an infected cell holds onto a microbe long enough to catch the attention of immune cells in the first place, Sadegh-Nasseri says.. To uncover DMs expanded job, Sadegh-Nasseri isolated a protein antigen from the flu virus as a test case and found that cells with DM normally hold on for about six days, long enough for symptoms like sniffles and fever, as signs of immune battle, to develop. When they removed DM from normal cells, the cells did not bind the flu antigen at all. Later, when they mutated the antigen-binding part of the cell, the flu antigen fell off after only 10 minutes.. When the scientists studied the 3-D shape of the part of the cell that tries on the antigen, they discovered that the antigen fell off after 10 minutes whether DM was there or not, but only when one specific chemical bond was disrupted.. DM somehow alters this chemical bond to make antigens fall off a thousand times faster than ...
Antigen processing is a process that.... Antigen processing is a biological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes.
Swab Antigen Biomedilab Karawang adalah seorang Swab Antigen di Biomedilab Karawang. Lihat profil lengkap, lihat biaya dan buat janji untuk Swab Antigen Biomedilab Karawang
Swab Antigen Mitra Keluarga Kelapa Gading adalah seorang Swab Antigen di Mitra Keluarga Kelapa Gading. Lihat profil lengkap, lihat biaya dan buat janji untuk Swab Antigen Mitra Keluarga Kelapa Gading
Antigen tests are faster, cheaper and more scalable than the familiar molecular test for COVID-19. A new multibillion market could open up if the health care industry manages to establish a threshold for test accuracy. Broader acceptance of antigen tests should also bring significant revenue growth for the handful of public companies that have such products in the market today.
Sir , After a very low risk exposure like giving hand job, I have done a pcr hiv 1 viral load test after 16 days? It comes negetive? Today Is the 16 th day . Should I do P 24 antigen test ? Or I can take ...
We offer Covid-19 PCR antigen test, which detects specific viral proteins to show if a person actively has the virus. It gives a yes/no result.
Antigen - a substance that when introduced into the body stimulates the production of an antibody. Antigens include toxins, bacteria, foreign blood cells, and the cells of transplanted organs.. ...
We have two kinds of cells in our body which are used to fight diseases: B cells and T cells. Whenever an antigen attacks our body for the first time, these cells create a code to fight those antigens. Once the code is created, next time the antigen attacks, these cells are able to fight the antigen very fast as they already have the code created for that specific antigen ...
Antigens for COVID-19 diagnostics are a potential avenue for rapid tests used at the point of care and in general screening. Read on to learn more.
Learn the difference between antigen and pathogen . Explore how these two vary from each other and discover if they have any similarities only on BYJUS Biology.
Technology Networks is an internationally recognised publisher that provides access to the latest scientific news, products, research, videos and posters.
The Nuclear Extract Kit isolates high-quality nuclear, cytoplasmic or whole-cell extract from mammalian cell or tissue samples with a detailed protocol to ensure your extract is not contaminated with proteins from other cellular compartments. Phosphatase
Beautiful 33 Sample How Do I Add A Chart Title In Excel 2019 add or remove a secondary axis in a chart in excel add or remove a secondary axis in a chart in office 2010 when the values in a 2 d chart vary widely from data series to data series or when… Read More ». ...
Planning is not sufficient for success but implementing it in the right proportion is crucial to reach the mile stone of success. Brillmindz Technologies started with the cycle of innovation in 2011, and then onwards serving across the world with countless prominent apps relevant to diverse business domains.. Sitemap. ...
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Disposable earnings means the amount of earnings remaining after the deduction of amounts required by law to be withheld.. Earnings means compensation paid or payable for personal service. Earnings include:. (1) Wages or salary;. (2) Commissions and bonuses;. (3) Periodic payments under pension plans, retirement programs, and insurance policies of any type;. (4) Disability payments under Title 51 RCW;. (5) Unemployment compensation under RCW 50.40.020, 50.40.050 and Title 74 RCW;. (6) Gains from capital, labor, or a combination of the two; and. (7) The fair value of nonmonetary compensation received in exchange for personal services.. Employee means a person to whom an employer is paying, owes, or anticipates paying earnings in exchange for services performed for the employer.. Employer means any person or organization having an employment relationship with any person. This includes:. (1) Partnerships and associations;. (2) Trusts and estates;. (3) Joint stock companies and insurance ...
The present disclosure relates to a solid phase immunoassay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in a clinical specimen, wherein the Chlamydia trachomatis antigens to be determined are coated or adsorbed on the solid phase.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mitochondrial proteins Bnip3 and Bnip3L are involved in anthrax lethal toxin-induced macrophage cell death. AU - Ha, Soon-Duck. AU - Ng, Dennis. AU - Lamothe, Julie. AU - Valvano, Miguel A. AU - Han, Jiahuai. AU - Kim, Sung Ouk. PY - 2007/9/7. Y1 - 2007/9/7. N2 - Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) induces rapid cell death of RAW246.7 macrophages. We recently found that a small population of these macrophages is spontaneously and temporally refractory to LeTx-induced cytotoxicity. Analysis of genome-wide transcripts of a resistant clone before and after regaining LeTx sensitivity revealed that a reduction of two closely related mitochondrial proteins, Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3 (Bnip3) and Bnip3-like (Bnip3L), correlates with LeTx resistance. Down-regulation of Bnip3 and Bnip3L was also found in toxin-induced resistance whereby sublethal doses of LeTx induce resistance to subsequent exposure to cytolytic toxin doses. The role of Bnip3 and Bnip3L in LeTx-induced ...
Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in first-void urine to identify asymptomatic male carriers.: Early morning first-void urine collected from 279 sexua
A series of nearly isogenic O4-12, and O-6,7 Salmonella typhimurium strains differing in regard to the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) were constructed by conjugation. When tested in intraperitoneal infection of mice, the O-4,12 strains containing ECA were more virulent than their O-4,12 sister recombinants without ECA (P = less than 0.001). The same difference could be shown with ECA-positive and ECA-negative S. typhimurium derivatives, whose O antigens were of the group C type (O-6,7). The ECA-positive and ECA-negative O-4,12 strains did not differ in their growth rates in broth or clearance rates in vivo. ...
Mouse serum raised against killed antigen preparations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis failed to recognize most of the recombinant antigens of M. tuberculosis that were originally identified by reactivity to tuberculosis (TB) patient sera. Similar results were obtained with serum from guinea pigs immunized with live and killed mycobacteria. Antibodies raised against seven random TB patient serum-reactive antigens detected each of these antigens in the sonicate preparation. The nucleotide sequences of the genes for these seven antigens revealed that all represented hitherto unreported genes of M. tuberculosis. Our results suggest differential presentation to the host immune system of the same antigens derived from live and killed mycobacteria.. ...
Infection with Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for the development of gastric cancer, and infection with strains carrying the virulence factor CagA significantly increases this risk. To investigate the mechanisms by which CagA promotes carcinogenesis, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing CagA ubiquitously or in the anterior intestine. Transgenic zebrafish expressing either the wild type or a phosphorylation-resistant form of CagA exhibited significantly increased rates of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and showed significant upregulation of the Wnt target genes cyclinD1, axin2 and the zebrafish c-myc ortholog myca. Coexpression of CagA with a loss-of-function allele encoding the β-catenin destruction complex protein Axin1 resulted in a further increase in intestinal proliferation. Coexpression of CagA with a null allele of the key β-catenin transcriptional cofactor Tcf4 restored intestinal proliferation to wild-type levels. These results provide in vivo evidence of ...
H. pylori-infected children with CagA antibodies seem to have a more severe inflammation in the gastric antrum than CagA-negative children as shown by an increase in the density of antral mononuclear cells. A finding of higher serum antibody titers to H. pylori in CagA-positive children may be relat …
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , AIC \ Helicobacter pylori CagA_protein, antibody \ 5-HpA for more molecular products just contact us
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A higher median frequency of CD8(+) T-cell responses was detected in women with lower genital tract chlamydial infection, compared with those with upper genital tract chlamydial infection (13.8% vs 9.5%; P =04), but the CD4(+) T-cell response frequencies were not different. Women who remained uninfected displayed a greater frequency of positive CD4(+) T-cell responses (29% vs 18%; P < .0001), compared with women who had incident infection, while the frequencies of CD8(+) T-cell responses did not differ. A subset of proteins involved in central metabolism, type III secretion, and protein synthesis were associated with protection. CONCLUSIONS ...
FIG. 3. Western blot analysis on sera from day 35 and fecal samples from day 28 against extracellular antigens from serovar Enteritidis. (A) The sera were diluted 1:50,000. Sera were obtained from mice immunized with antigen-conjugated microparticles orally (lane 2), free antigen orally (lane 3), microparticles plus free antigen orally (lane 4), antigen-conjugated microparticles intramuscularly (lane 5), or free antigen intramuscularly (lane 6). Lane 1 shows molecular mass markers. (B) The fecal extracts were diluted 1:5. The samples were obtained from mice immunized with antigen-conjugated microparticles orally (lane 1), antigen-conjugated microparticles intramuscularly (lane 2), or free antigen orally (lane 3). ...
Searching for Significant Growth See in Native Bacterial Antigens Market 2020-2027 | Microbix Biosystems, SERION Immunologics, Enzo Life Sciences, QED Bioscience . We got you covered at iCrowdNewswire
Looking for online definition of Antigen test in the Medical Dictionary? Antigen test explanation free. What is Antigen test? Meaning of Antigen test medical term. What does Antigen test mean?
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Looking for common antigen? Find out information about common antigen. see immunity immunity, ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have... Explanation of common antigen
Several factors may determine whether encounter of antigen in a primary response will lead to the clonal expansion of specific antigen receptor-expressing lymphocytes and their differentiation into specific memory effector cells (for review see references (1) and (2)). Soluble foreign antigen usually leads to a transient clonal expansion of antigen-specific T cells, followed by the deletion and/or functional inactivation of the cells (for review see references 1 and 2). In some cases, soluble antigen can lead to subsequent unresponsiveness to an immunizing regimen of antigen in adjuvant (for review see references 1 and 2). It has been suggested that the dose and form of antigen, the route of administration of antigen, the delivery of appropriate costimulatory signals, and the genetic background of the host may determine whether an antigen primes for an appropriate memory effector response (for review see references 1-3).. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the abortive immune ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Identification of mycobacterial antigens activating and suppressing T-lymphocyte responses. AU - Ellner, J. J.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. UR - UR - M3 - Conference contribution. AN - SCOPUS:0024836075. SN - 0444813497. SP - 3. EP - 21. BT - Basic mechanisms of granulomatous inflammation: proceedings of the International Symposium on basic mechanisms of granulomatous inflammation. ICS851. A2 - Yoshida, T.. A2 - Torisu, M.. A2 - Yoshida, T.. A2 - Torisu, M.. PB - Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.. T2 - The International Symposium on basic mechanisms of granulomatous inflammation. Y2 - 28 November 1988 through 29 November 1988. ER - ...
Antigens stimulate the immune system of the host which thereby generates antibodies. Creative Biolabs provides antigens of various categories, including viral antigens, parasitic antigens, bacterial antigens, tumor antigens, and so on, for the development of vaccine candidates and serological diagnostic tests. The products of high quality are in full stock and ready for shipment on a global basis. Considering that other antigens may be required in addition to what is mentioned above, the protein expression service can help, which relies on the exclusive expression system of E. coli, yeast, baculovirus-insect, mammalian cells, and plant expression systems to express proteins case by case.. Adjuvant for Vaccine. * Viral Antigens: Adenovirus, Hepatitis C virus, Coronavirus, EBV antigens, etc ...
Antigens stimulate the immune system of the host which thereby generates antibodies. Creative Biolabs provides antigens of various categories, including viral antigens, parasitic antigens, bacterial antigens, tumor antigens, and so on, for the development of vaccine candidates and serological diagnostic tests. The products of high quality are in full stock and ready for shipment on a global basis. Considering that other antigens may be required in addition to what is mentioned above, the protein expression service can help, which relies on the exclusive expression system of E. coli, yeast, baculovirus-insect, mammalian cells, and plant expression systems to express proteins case by case.. Adjuvant for Vaccine. * Viral Antigens: Adenovirus, Hepatitis C virus, Coronavirus, EBV antigens, etc ...
Protein antigens are no able to induce an immune response without being previously processed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Following their processing that comprises their splitting to smaller fragments - peptides, APs subsequently present them to T cells; moreover, they activate them and polarise to a specific biological functions. Depending of antigen origin, there are two presentation pathways, exogenous and endogenous. Antigens originated from outside of APC, e.g. bacterial toxins, enzymes, etc., are presented by exogenous pathway and presented molecules are class II HLA molecules. T cell, that recognise presented peptides belong to helper subset of T cells. Antigens originated in the cytosol, such as antigens that appear in the cytoplasm of virus infected cells, are presented by endogenous pathway and presented molecules belong to class I HL-A molecules. T cells, that recognise presented peptides, represent cytotoxic T cells.
The common cold1,2 is our greatest single cause of illness. Although the common cold has a specific viral etiology, its most frequent complications are bacteria
Martinez, C. C., Nagao, A. T., Takano, O. A., Vieira, V. S., & Carneiro-Sampaio, M. M. S. (1996). Placental transfer of igg and igg subclasses anti-escherichia coli purified lps antigens. In Resumos. Sao Paulo: Icb-Usp ...
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A device for determining the presence of antigens which comprises a first zone containing antigens and enzyme-linked antibodies which are capable of immunologically reacting with said antigens, said antibodies being positioned in said first zone such that they will be removed from said first zone when reacted with antigens passing through said first zone but not removed from said first zone in the absence of such antigens, and a second zone containing material capable of reacting with said enzyme-linked antibodies to produce a color forming reaction which indicates the presence of said antibodies.
Costa-Carvalho BT, Solé D, Naspitz CK, Barros-Nunes P, Nagao AT, Nudelman V, Sorensen RU, Carneiro-Sampaio MMS. Response to polysaccharide antigen: a case of failure to sustain a primary and any booster response. FASEB Journal. 1998 ; 12( 5): A891-res.5161 ...
Background: Little is known about changes in total antibodies occurring during the progression of tuberculosis or its treatment. Using passive and reverse p ...
Lyophilized antigen is stable at least 6 months. For reconstitution, use Ultra High Purified water. This solution is stable at +4°C for 1 month and at -20°C for several months. Stored in the dark.. ...
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I am a bioengineer fascinated by T cell immunology, and I have expertise in single-molecule mechanical analysis, single-molecule imaging, quantum dot nanotechno...
LGC announced the acquisition of The Native Antigen Company (NAC), supplier of high quality infectious disease antigens and antibodies. NAC is a developer, manufacturer and supplier of critical r ...
Shop a large selection of Proteins A-Z products and learn more about Novus Biologicals Apc5 Recombinant Protein Antigen Quantity: 100µL:Life Quantity: 100µL.
Shop a large selection of Proteins A-Z products and learn more about Novus Biologicals FAM173B Recombinant Protein Antigen Quantity: 100µg:Life Quantity: 100µg.
Australský antigen je označení pro antigen viru hepatitidy B, který se nachází na povrchu virových částic. Označuje se též jako „surface antigen (HBsAg). Diagnostika přítomnosti antigenu v krvi je důležitá pro diagnostiku hepatitidy B ...
Protein-based antigen testing has received relatively less attention, but their rapid turnaround time, ease of use, and amenability to large scale production, could prove valuable for addressing the outbreak.
[119 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Diagnostic Reagents Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the United States Diagnostic Reagents market is...
Antigen An atigen is any substance that cause your immune system to produce antibodies against it. The antigen may be a foreign substance from the environment Such as chemicals bacteria viruses, or pollen) or formed within the body
I guess what confuses some is that they think T cells are all the same, they fail to realize that every cell is unique & different. There are different types of T cells & different ways to present antigens. ...
Microbix Biosystems is a life science company and leading manufacturer of viral and bacterial antigens and reagents for the global diagnostics industry. Our expertise in cell biology has led to the development of new products: LumiSort, an animal reproductive product for use in livestock...
MHC Ib Qa-2 antigen: a nonclassical MHC Ib antigen implicated in innate & adaptive immune responses as well as in embryonic development
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The Development of a Radioimmuno-Assay for Carcino-Embryonic Antigen with some Applications. Clinical Evaluation of Cercino-Ernbryonic Antigen, ...
The Randox range of diagnostic reagents is constantly expanding to provide you with an increased choice of high quality cost effective reagents.
Oxoid Diagnostic Reagents - Streptccal Enzym Extrct 50pk;3293760PK : Pack of 50 Recommended Storage: Store at 2° to 8°C and bring to room
During the adaptive response, the MHC molecules are responsible for presenting an antigen to T cells. The two types of MHC (MHCI and MHCII) have specific roles during the response. Which of the following most accurately describes the characteristics of MHCII molecules in mounting the antibody response?. Select the best answer ...

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